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Sample records for cerebral haemoglobin saturation

  1. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoften, Jacorina C. R.; Verhagen, Elise A.; Keating, Paul; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Bos, Arend F.

    Objective Preterm infants often need red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. The aim of this study was to determine whether haemoglobin levels before transfusion were associated with regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) and whether RBC

  2. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve.

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    Collins, Julie-Ann; Rudenski, Aram; Gibson, John; Howard, Luke; O'Driscoll, Ronan

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content), saturation (S O2 ) and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin-oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur-ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the S O2 in blood from patients with normal pH and S O2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (S pO2 ) is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (S aO2 ) as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable S pO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  3. [Monitorization of the effects of spinal anaesthesia on cerebral oxygen saturation in elder patients using near-infrared spectroscopy].

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    Kusku, Aysegul; Demir, Guray; Cukurova, Zafer; Eren, Gulay; Hergunsel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15mg bupivacaine 5%) intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP), maximum heart rate (MHR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2) were preoperatively monitored for 60min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, this downward change did not result in deterioration of cognitive functioning

  4. Monitorization of the effects of spinal anaesthesia on cerebral oxygen saturation in elder patients using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusku, Aysegul; Demir, Guray; Cukurova, Zafer; Eren, Gulay; Hergunsel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15mg bupivacaine 5%) intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP), maximum heart rate (MHR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2) were preoperatively monitored for 60min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, this downward change did not result in deterioration of cognitive functioning

  5. Detection of cerebral arterial gas embolism using regional cerebral oxygen saturation, quantitative electroencephalography, and brain oxygen tension in the swine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weenink, R. P.; Hollmann, M. W.; Stevens, M. F.; Kager, J.; van Gulik, T. M.; van Hulst, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral air emboli occur as a complication of invasive medical procedures. The sensitivity of cerebral monitoring methods for the detection of air emboli is not known. This study investigates the utility of electroencephalography and non-invasively measured cerebral oxygen saturation in the

  6. Effects of spinal immobilization at a 20° angle on cerebral oxygen saturations measured by INVOS™.

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    Aksel, Gökhan

    2018-01-01

    In this study, we aimed to investigate whether performing the immobilization at 20° instead of 0° changes cerebral oxygenation. 33 volunteers were put in a hard cervical collar and backboard at 0° and immobilized for 30min. The cerebral oxygen saturations of the volunteers were measured at 1, 5, and 30min after the start of the procedure (Group 1). The volunteers were asked to return the day after the Group 1 procedure but at the same time. Serial cerebral oxygen saturations were obtained at the same time intervals as in Group 1, but for Group 2, the backboard was set to 20°. When the cerebral oxygen saturations of the two groups were compared, there was a slight decrease when the backboard position was changed from 0° to 20°, but it was not statistically significant (P=0.220 and P=0.768, respectively). The results revealed that immobilizing the patients with a spinal backboard at 20° instead of 0° did not alter the cerebral oxygen saturations. Our study results revealed that spinal immobilization at 20°, which was a new suggestion for spinal immobilization following a report that this position reduced the decrease in pulmonary function secondary to spinal immobilization, did not alter the cerebral oxygenation, so this suggestion is safe at least from the standpoint of cerebral oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Higher cerebral oxygen saturation may provide higher urinary output during continuous regional cerebral perfusion

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    Tomoyasu Takahiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We examined the hypothesis that higher cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 during RCP is correlated with urinary output. Methods Between December 2002 and August 2006, 12 patients aged 3 to 61 days and weighing 2.6 to 3.4 kg underwent aortic arch repair with RCP. Urinary output and rSO2 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were assigned to either of 2 groups according to their corresponding rSO2: Group A (rSO2 ≦ 75% and Group B (rSO2 Results Seven and 5 patients were assigned to Group A and Group B, respectively. Group A was characterized by mean radial arterial pressure (37.9 ± 9.6 vs 45.8 ± 7.8 mmHg; P = 0.14 and femoral arterial pressure (6.7 ± 6.1 vs 20.8 ± 14.6 mmHg; P = 0.09 compared to Group B. However, higher urinary output during CPB (1.03 ± 1.18 vs 0.10 ± 0.15 ml·kg-1·h-1; P = 0.03. Furthermore our results indicate that a higher dose of Chlorpromazine was used in Group A (2.9 ± 1.4 vs 1.7 ± 1.0 mg/kg; P = 0.03. Conclusion Higher cerebral oxygenation may provide higher urinary output due to higher renal blood flow through collateral circulation.

  8. Computer Modeling of Acceleration Effects on Cerebral Oxygen Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-04-01

    a significant physiological threat to etrate the cranium and enter the cerebral cortex. Hongo high-performance aircraft pilots since the development...et al. and Hongo et al. (7,8). blackened out and all that could be seen was the target, The primary focus of this effort was to build a model i.e...O6GInduced.html. 87:402. 12. Tripp LD, Arnold A, Bagian J, et al. Psychophysiological effects 8. Hongo K, Kobayashi S, Okudera H, et al. Noninvasive cerebral of

  9. Cerebral oxygen saturation and cardiac output during anaesthesia in sitting position for neurosurgical procedures: a prospective observational study.

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    Schramm, P; Tzanova, I; Hagen, F; Berres, M; Closhen, D; Pestel, G; Engelhard, K

    2016-10-01

    Neurosurgical operations in the dorsal cranium often require the patient to be positioned in a sitting position. This can be associated with decreased cardiac output and cerebral hypoperfusion, and possibly, inadequate cerebral oxygenation. In the present study, cerebral oxygen saturation was measured during neurosurgery in the sitting position and correlated with cardiac output. Perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation was measured continuously with two different monitors, INVOS ® and FORE-SIGHT ® . Cardiac output was measured at eight predefined time points using transoesophageal echocardiography. Forty patients were enrolled, but only 35 (20 female) were eventually operated on in the sitting position. At the first time point, the regional cerebral oxygen saturation measured with INVOS ® was 70 (sd 9)%; thereafter, it increased by 0.0187% min -1 (P<0.01). The cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measured with FORE-SIGHT ® started at 68 (sd 13)% and increased by 0.0142% min -1 (P<0.01). The mean arterial blood pressure did not change. Cardiac output was between 6.3 (sd 1.3) and 7.2 (1.8) litre min -1 at the predefined time points. Cardiac output, but not mean arterial blood pressure, showed a positive and significant correlation with cerebral oxygen saturation. During neurosurgery in the sitting position, the cerebral oxygen saturation slowly increases and, therefore, this position seems to be safe with regard to cerebral oxygen saturation. Cerebral oxygen saturation is stable because of constant CO and MAP, while the influence of CO on cerebral oxygen saturation seems to be more relevant. NCT01275898. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Reduced deep regional cerebral venous oxygen saturation in hemodialysis patients using quantitative susceptibility mapping.

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    Chai, Chao; Liu, Saifeng; Fan, Linlin; Liu, Lei; Li, Jinping; Zuo, Chao; Qian, Tianyi; Haacke, E Mark; Shen, Wen; Xia, Shuang

    2018-02-01

    Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (SvO 2 ) is an important indicator of brain function. There was debate about lower cerebral oxygen metabolism in hemodialysis patients and there were no reports about the changes of deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in hemodialysis patients. In this study, we aim to explore the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 from straight sinus using quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) and the correlation with clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing . 52 hemodialysis patients and 54 age-and gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled. QSM reconstructed from original phase data of 3.0 T susceptibility-weighted imaging was used to measure the susceptibility of straight sinus. The susceptibility was used to calculate the deep regional cerebral SvO 2 and compare with healthy individuals. Correlation analysis was performed to investigate the correlation between deep regional cerebral SvO 2 , clinical risk factors and neuropsychiatric testing. The deep regional cerebral SvO 2 of hemodialysis patients (72.5 ± 3.7%) was significantly lower than healthy controls (76.0 ± 2.1%) (P deep regional cerebral SvO 2 in patients. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) scores of hemodialysis patients were significantly lower than healthy controls (P deep regional cerebral SvO 2 did not correlate with MMSE scores (P = 0.630). In summary, the decreased deep regional cerebral SvO 2 occurred in hemodialysis patients and dialysis duration, parathyroid hormone, hematocrit, hemoglobin and red blood cell may be clinical risk factors.

  11. [Regional cerebral oxygen saturation as a marker of hemodynamic state following cardiac surgery].

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    García-Hernández, J A; Aldemira-Liz, A; Martínez-López, A I; Cayuela, A; Charlo-Molina, M T; Cano-Franco, J; Loscertales-Abril, M

    2013-10-01

    Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO₂) is a measure of the general state of perfusion and oxygenation. We aim to analyze the relationship between this and various hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Forty-three patients, operated on between October 2011 and July 2012, were included in this prospective observational descriptive study. The following parameters were measured: mean arterial pressure, both arterial and central venous oxygen saturation and partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and lactate levels. From these parameters, the oxygenation index and the oxygen extraction ratio were calculated. These measurements were studied to evaluate whether rSO₂ correlated significantly with the other parameters. The average age and weight of the patients were 27.3 months and 9.2 kg, respectively. The rSO₂ correlated positively with both central venous oxygen saturation (r=0.73, P 0.4) between the rSO₂ and central venous oxygen saturation, and between the rSO₂ and oxygen extraction ratio. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation correlates well with hemodynamic parameters - mean arterial pressure, venous saturation, and the tissue oxygen extraction. However, it does not correlate with respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of Patent Blue dye on peripheral and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations.

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    Ishiyama, T; Kotoda, M; Asano, N; Ikemoto, K; Mitsui, K; Sato, H; Matsukawa, T; Sessler, D I

    2015-04-01

    We measured the effect of Patent Blue dye on oxyhaemoglobin saturations after injection into breast tissue: 40 women had anaesthesia for breast surgery maintained with sevoflurane or propofol (20 randomly allocated to each). Saturations were recorded with a digital pulse oximeter, in arterial blood samples and with a cerebral tissue oximeter before dye injection and 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 75, 90, 105 and 120 min afterwards. Patent Blue did not decrease arterial blood oxyhaemoglobin saturation, but it did reduce mean (SD) digital and cerebral oxyhaemoglobin saturations by 1.1 (1.1) % and 6.8 (7.0) %, p < 0.0001 for both. The falsely reduced oximeter readings persisted for at least 2 h. The mean (SD) intra-operative digital pulse oxyhaemoglobin readings were lower with sevoflurane than propofol, 97.8 (1.2) % and 98.8 (1.0) %, respectively, p < 0.0001. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  13. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing tot...

  14. Lung vital capacity and oxygen saturation in adults with cerebral palsy

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    Lampe R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Renée Lampe,1,2 Tobias Blumenstein,2 Varvara Turova,2 Ana Alves-Pinto2 1Markus Würth Stiftungsprofessur, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Research Unit for Cerebral Palsy and Children Neuroorthopaedics of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation, Orthopedic Department of the Clinic “rechts der Isar” of the Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Background: Individuals with infantile cerebral palsy have multiple disabilities. The most conspicuous syndrome being investigated from many aspects is motor movement disorder with a spastic gait pattern. The lung function of adults with spasticity attracts less attention in the literature. This is surprising because decreased thoracic mobility and longstanding scoliosis should have an impact on lung function. With increasing age and the level of disability, individuals become susceptible to lung infections and reflux illness, and these are accompanied by increased aspiration risk. This study examined, with different methods, to what extent adults with congenital cerebral palsy and acquired spastic paresis – following traumatic brain injury – showed restriction of lung function. It also assessed the contribution of disability level on this restriction.Methods: The oxygen saturation of 46 adults with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy was measured with an oximeter. Lung vital capacity was measured with a mobile spirometer and excursion of the thorax was clinically registered. The gross motor function levels and the presence or absence of scoliosis were determined.Results: A significantly positive correlation between lung vital capacity and chest expansion was established. Both the lung vital capacity and the thorax excursion decreased with increases in gross motor function level. Oxygen saturation remained within the normal range in all persons, in spite of reduced values of the measured lung parameters. No statistically significant dependency between lung vital capacity and oxygen

  15. Prognostic value of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation during neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

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    Marie-Philippine Clair

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is indicated in severe and refractory respiratory or circulatory failures. Neurological complications are typically represented by acute ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions, which induce higher morbidity and mortality. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StcO2 on mortality in neonates and young infants treated with ECMO. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association between StcO2 and the occurrence of cerebral lesions.This was a prospective study in infants < 3 months of age admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit and requiring ECMO support.The assessment of cerebral perfusion was made by continuous StcO2 monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS sensors placed on the two temporo-parietal regions. Neurological lesions were identified by MRI or transfontanellar echography.Thirty-four infants <3 months of age were included in the study over a period of 18 months. The ECMO duration was 10±7 days. The survival rate was 50% (17/34 patients, and the proportion of brain injuries was 20% (7/34 patients. The mean StcO2 during ECMO in the non-survivors was reduced in both hemispheres (p = 0.0008 right, p = 0.03 left compared to the survivors. StcO2 was also reduced in deceased or brain-injured patients compared to the survivors without brain injury (p = 0.002.StcO2 appears to be a strong prognostic factor of survival and of the presence of cerebral lesions in young infants during ECMO.

  16. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial : A Treatment Guideline for Targeted Near-Infrared-Derived Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation versus Standard Treatment in Extremely Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Hagmann, Cornelia; Hellstroem-Westas, Lena; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Lemmers, Petra; Naulaers, Gunnar; Pichler, Gerhard; Roll, Claudia; van Bel, Frank; van Oeveren, Wim; Skoog, Maria; Wolf, Martin; Austin, Topun

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rSto(2)) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rSto(2) can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the

  17. The effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Inkyung; Kim, Dong Yeon; Kim, Youn Jin

    2012-11-01

    Inflation and deflation of a pneumatic tourniquet used in total knee replacement surgery induces various changes in patient's hemodynamic and metabolic status, which may result in serious complications, especially in aged patients. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a monitoring device designed to estimate the regional cerebral oxygen saturation. We evaluated the effect of tourniquet deflation on hemodynamics and regional cerebral oxygen saturation in aged patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery, using NIRS. Twenty-eight American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II patients, over the age of sixty-five years undergoing total knee replacement surgery, were included. Under general anesthesia, the mean arterial pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), and regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) were recorded before induction of anesthesia and every 2 min after tourniquet deflation for 20 min. Arterial blood gas analysis was performed 5 min before, in addition to 0, and 10 min after tourniquet deflation. The decrease of rSO(2) was not significant during 20-min deflation period. MAP, CO and SV showed significant decrease during 2 to 12, 4 to 6 and 2 to 6-min period after tourniquet deflation, respectively (P deflation caused significant changes in hemodynamic and metabolic status, but not in regional cerebral oxygen saturation. It is recommended to monitor neurologic status, as well as hemodynamic and metabolic status to avoid serious complications, especially in aged patients.

  18. The relationship between cerebral oxygen saturation changes and post operative neurologic complications in patients undergoing cardiac surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Negargar, S.; Mahmoudpour, A.; Taheri, R.; Sarvin, S.

    2007-01-01

    To study the relationship between cerebral oxygen saturation changes and postoperative neurologic complications. Seventy two adult patients with ASA class II, III who were scheduled for elective cardiac surgery, were randomized into three groups: Group I: with CPB (on -pump) Group II: without CPB (off- pump) Group III: valve surgery. Neuropsychological outcome was assessed by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE). Cerebral oxygen saturation was also measured. There was no statistical difference in desaturation of more than 20% among three groups (P=0.113) but it was significant between group I and II (P=0.042). Changes of rSo/sub 2/ in different hours of surgery was significant in group I and group II (P=0.0001 in both) but it was not significant in group III ( P=0.075) . Although cerebral oximetry is a noninvasive and useful method of monitoring during cardiac surgery, it has low accuracy to determine postoperative neurologic complications. (author)

  19. Saturation measurement accuracy in clinical near-infrared cerebral oximeters with a 3D-printed channel array phantom

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    Afshari, Ali; Ghassemi, Pejhman; Halprin, Molly; Lin, Jonathan; Weininger, Sandy; Gandjbakhche, Amir H.; Wang, Jianting; Pfefer, Joshua

    2018-02-01

    Clinical cerebral oximeters based on near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are a commonly used, non-invasive tool for intraoperative monitoring of hemoglobin saturation. Research to verify performance of cerebral oximeters in human subject trials has shown differences between commercially available devices. Test methods based on tissue-simulating phantoms have been proposed to augment clinical findings. While prior studies have focused on liquid phantoms, this work is aimed at developing methods based on solid polymer phantoms that are stable. Specifically, we have designed and fabricated a neonatal/pediatric head mimicking layered phantoms based on a 3D-printed cerebral matrix incorporating an array of vessel-simulating linear channels. Superficial layers incorporating homogeneous molded polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) slabs were fabricated to represent CSF, scalp and skull regions. The cerebral matrix was filled with bovine blood desaturated with sodium dithionite to achieve oxygenation levels across the 40-90% range. Measurements were performed with a commercially available cerebral oximeter using two probes with different illumination-collection geometries, as designed for neonatal and pediatric patients. Reference measurements of samples were performed with a CO-oximeter before injection and after extraction. Results from applied cerebral oximeters indicate a strong sensitivity to the thickness of the superficial layer of the phantom. Better correlation with the reference CO-oximeter results were obtained in the superficial layer thickness of 0.8-2.5 mm range. Channel array phantoms with modular superficial layers represent a promising approach for performance testing of NIRS-based cerebral oximeters.

  20. The influence of systemic hemodynamics and oxygen transport on cerebral oxygen saturation in neonates after the Norwood procedure.

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    Li, Jia; Zhang, Gencheng; Holtby, Helen; Guerguerian, Anne-Marie; Cai, Sally; Humpl, Tilman; Caldarone, Christopher A; Redington, Andrew N; Van Arsdell, Glen S

    2008-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury is an important morbidity in neonates after the Norwood procedure. Its relationship to systemic hemodynamic oxygen transport is poorly understood. Sixteen neonates undergoing the Norwood procedure were studied. Continuous cerebral oxygen saturation was measured by near-infrared spectroscopy. Continuous oxygen consumption was measured by respiratory mass spectrometry. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow, systemic vascular resistance, oxygen delivery, and oxygen extraction ratio were derived with measurements of arterial, and superior vena cava and pulmonary venous gases and pressures at 2- to 4-hour intervals during the first 72 hours in the intensive care unit. Mean cerebral oxygen saturation was 66% +/- 12% before the operation, reduced to 51% +/- 13% on arrival in the intensive care unit, and remained low during the first 8 hours; it increased to 56% +/- 9% at 72 hours, still significantly lower than the preoperative level (P blood flow and oxygen delivery (P blood flow (P = .001) and hemoglobin (P = .02) and negatively correlated with systemic vascular resistance (P = .003). It was not correlated with oxygen consumption (P > .05). Cerebral oxygen saturation decreased significantly in neonates during the early postoperative period after the Norwood procedure and was significantly influenced by systemic hemodynamic and metabolic events. As such, hemodynamic interventions to modify systemic oxygen transport may provide further opportunities to reduce the risk of cerebral ischemia and improve neurodevelopmental outcomes.

  1. Effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting on North African children's heart rate and oxy-haemoglobin saturation at rest and during sub-maximal exercise.

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    Fenneni, Mohamed Amine; Latiri, Imed; Aloui, Asma; Rouatbi, Sonia; Chamari, Karim; Saad, Helmi Ben

    To examine the effects of Ramadan intermittent fasting (RIF) on the heart rate (HR) and oxyhaemoglobin saturation levels (oxy-sat) of boys at rest and during a six-minute walking test (6MWT). Eighteen boys (age: 11.9 ± 0.8 years, height: 153.00 ± 8.93 cm, body mass: 55.4 ± 18.2 kg), who fasted the entire month of Ramadan in 2012 for the first time in their lives, were included. The experimental protocol comprised four testing phases: two weeks before Ramadan (pre-R), the end of the second week of Ramadan (R-2), the end of the fourth week of Ramadan (R-4), and 10 to 12 days after the end of Ramadan (post-R). During each phase, participants performed the 6MWT at approximately 15:00. HR (expressed as percentage of maximal predicted HR) and oxy-sat (%) were determined at rest and in each minute of the 6MWT. R-4 HR values were lower than those of (1) pre-R (in the second minute), (2) R-2 (in the first and second minutes), and (3) post-R (in the first, second, fourth, fifth and sixth minutes). R-2 oxy-sat values were higher than those of pre-R (in the third minute) and those of post-R (in the fifth minute). Post-R oxy-sat values were lower than those of pre-R and R-4 in the fifth minute. These oxy-sat changes were not clinically significant since the difference was less than five points. In non-athletic children, their first RIF influenced their heart rate data but had a minimal effect on oxy-sat values.

  2. White Matter Damage Relates to Oxygen Saturation in Children With Sickle Cell Anemia Without Silent Cerebral Infarcts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawadler, Jamie M; Kirkham, Fenella J; Clayden, Jonathan D; Hollocks, Matthew J; Seymour, Emma L; Edey, Rosanna; Telfer, Paul; Robins, Andrew; Wilkey, Olu; Barker, Simon; Cox, Tim C S; Clark, Chris A

    2015-07-01

    Sickle cell anemia is associated with compromised oxygen-carrying capability of hemoglobin and a high incidence of overt and silent stroke. However, in children with no evidence of cerebral infarction, there are changes in brain morphometry relative to healthy controls, which may be related to chronic anemia and oxygen desaturation. A whole-brain tract-based spatial statistics analysis was carried out in 25 children with sickle cell anemia with no evidence of abnormality on T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (13 male, age range: 8-18 years) and 14 age- and race-matched controls (7 male, age range: 10-19 years) to determine the extent of white matter injury. The hypotheses that white matter damage is related to daytime peripheral oxygen saturation and steady-state hemoglobin were tested. Fractional anisotropy was found to be significantly lower in patients in the subcortical white matter (corticospinal tract and cerebellum), whereas mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity were higher in patients in widespread areas. There was a significant negative relationship between radial diffusivity and oxygen saturation (Plevel negative relationship between radial diffusivity and hemoglobin (Pcell anemia, and provides for the first time direct evidence of a relationship between brain microstructure and markers of disease severity (eg, peripheral oxygen saturation and steady-state hemoglobin). This study suggests that diffusion tensor imaging metrics may serve as a biomarker for future trials of reducing hypoxic exposure. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. Influence of the depth of sedation on regional cerebral oxygen saturation monitoring in neurosurgery of supratentorial gliomas

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    ZHANG Kai⁃ying

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the influence on regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2 of sedation depth during anesthesia induction and maintenance in supratentorial glioma resections. Methods Thirty patients with Ⅰ - Ⅱ supratentorial glioma (graded by American Society of Anesthesiologists underwent elective supratentorial glioma resection were included in this study. Rocuronium, sufentanil and propofol were used for anesthesia induction. After trachea cannula, total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA was maintained with plasma concentration of propofol 2.80-3.20 μg/ml and remifentanil 0.10-0.20 μg/(kg·min. Thirty groups of rScO2, bispectral index (BIS, mean arterial pressure (MAP and heart rate (HR were recorded continuously till the incision. Results During anesthesia induction, BIS decreased along with the infusion of anesthetics, and there was significant negative correlation between BIS and rScO2 (r = ⁃0.803, P = 0.001. During anesthesia maintenance, rScO2 and BIS were not significantly related (r = 0.147, P = 0.396. Conclusion The rScO2 monitoring can reflect the influence of sedation depth on cerebral oxygen delivery and consumption balance during supratentorial glioma resection under TIVA.

  4. Effects of beach-chair position and induced hypotension on cerebral oxygen saturation in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery.

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    Lee, Jae Hoon; Min, Kyeong Tae; Chun, Yong-Min; Kim, Eun Jung; Choi, Seung Ho

    2011-07-01

    We investigated the effects of the beach-chair position and induced hypotension on regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) in patients undergoing arthroscopic shoulder surgery by using near-infrared spectroscopy. Twenty-eight patients scheduled for arthroscopic shoulder surgery were enrolled prospectively. After induction of anesthesia, mechanical ventilation was controlled to maintain Paco(2) at 35 to 40 mm Hg. Anesthesia was maintained with sevoflurane and remifentanil. After radial artery cannulation, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was measured at the external auditory meatus level and maintained between 60 and 65 mm Hg. The rSO(2) was measured by use of near-infrared spectroscopy. MAP and rSO(2) were recorded at the following times: before induction (T(0)), immediately after induction (T(1) [baseline]), after beach-chair position (T(2)), immediately after induced hypotension (T(3)), 1 hour after induced hypotension (T(4)), and after supine position at the end of surgery (T(5)). Cerebral desaturation was defined as a reduction in rSO(2) to less than 80% of baseline value for 15 seconds or greater. A total of 27 patients were evaluated until the end of this study. The MAP at T(2) was significantly lower than that at T(1). The MAP values at T(3) and T(4) were significantly lower than those at T(1) and T(2). The rSO(2) at T(2) was significantly lower than that at T(1). Unlike the pattern of change in the MAP, there was no additional decrease in rSO(2) at T(3) and T(4). There were 2 patients who had an episode of cerebral desaturation. The beach-chair position combined with induced hypotension significantly decreases rSO(2) in patients undergoing shoulder arthroscopic surgery under general anesthesia. Level IV, study of nonconsecutive patients without consistently applied reference gold standard. Copyright © 2011 Arthroscopy Association of North America. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  6. The effects of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure and sevoflurane on capillary venous cerebral blood flow and oxygen saturation during craniotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Klaus Ulrich; Glaser, Martin; Reisch, Robert; Tresch, Achim; Werner, Christian; Engelhard, Kristin

    2009-07-01

    Intraoperative routine monitoring of cerebral blood flow and oxygenation remains a technological challenge. Using the physiological principle of carbon dioxide reactivity of cerebral vasculature, we investigated a recently developed neuromonitoring device (oxygen-to-see, O2C device) for simultaneous measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rvCBF), blood flow velocity (rvVelo), oxygen saturation (srvO2), and hemoglobin amount (rvHb) at the capillary venous level in patients subjected to craniotomy. Twenty-six neurosurgical patients were randomly assigned to anesthesia with 1.4% or 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration. After craniotomy, a fiberoptic probe was applied on a macroscopically healthy surface of cerebral tissue next to the site of surgery. Simultaneous measurements in 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth were performed in each patient during lower (35 mm Hg) and higher (45 mm Hg) levels (random order) of arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2). The principle of these measurements relies on the combination of laser-Doppler flowmetry (rvCBF, rvVelo) and photo-spectrometry (srvO2, rvHb). Linear models were fitted to test changes of end points (rvCBF, rvVelo, srvO2, rvHb) in response to lower and higher levels of PaCO2, 1.4% and 2.0% sevoflurane end-tidal concentration, and 2 and 8 mm cerebral depth. RvCBF and rvVelo were elevated by PaCO2 independent of sevoflurane concentration in 2 and 8 mm depth of cerebral tissue (P oxygen was decreased by elevated PaCO2. Unchanged levels of rvHb signify that there was no blood loss during measurements. Data suggest that the device allows detection of local changes in blood flow and oxygen saturation in response to different PaCO2 levels in predominant venous cerebral microvessels.

  7. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: Reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Rebecca, Re; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-01-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted ...

  8. Cerebral and Renal Oxygen Saturation Are Not Compromised in the Presence of Retrograde Blood Flow in either the Ascending or Descending Aorta in Term or Near-Term Infants with Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laan, Michelle E.; Mebius, Mirthe J.; Roofthooft, Marcus T. R.; Bos, Arend F.; Berger, Rolf M. F.; Kooi, Elisabeth M. W.

    2017-01-01

    Background: In infants with left-sided obstructive lesions (LSOL), the presence of retrograde blood flow in either the ascending or descending aorta may lead to diminished cerebral and renal blood flow, respectively. Objectives: Our aim was to compare cerebral and renal tissue oxygen saturation

  9. Improved cerebral time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography at 7 Tesla--feasibility study and preliminary results using optimized venous saturation pulses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten H Wrede

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Conventional saturation pulses cannot be used for 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA due to specific absorption rate (SAR limitations. We overcome these limitations by utilizing low flip angle, variable rate selective excitation (VERSE algorithm saturation pulses. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Twenty-five neurosurgical patients (male n = 8, female n = 17; average age 49.64 years; range 26-70 years with different intracranial vascular pathologies were enrolled in this trial. All patients were examined with a 7 Tesla (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens whole body scanner system utilizing a dedicated 32-channel head coil. For venous saturation pulses a 35° flip angle was applied. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the delineation of arterial vessels in the Circle of Willis, delineation of vascular pathologies, presence of artifacts, vessel-tissue contrast and overall image quality of TOF MRA scans in consensus on a five-point scale. Normalized signal intensities in the confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter were measured and vessel-tissue contrasts were calculated. RESULTS: Ratings for the majority of patients ranged between good and excellent for most of the evaluated features. Venous saturation was sufficient for all cases with minor artifacts in arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas. Quantitative signal intensity measurements showed high vessel-tissue contrast for confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter. CONCLUSION: The use of novel low flip angle VERSE algorithm pulses for saturation of venous vessels can overcome SAR limitations in 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution TOF MRA. Our protocol is suitable for clinical application with excellent image quality for delineation of various intracranial vascular pathologies.

  10. Improved Cerebral Time-of-Flight Magnetic Resonance Angiography at 7 Tesla – Feasibility Study and Preliminary Results Using Optimized Venous Saturation Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrede, Karsten H.; Johst, Sören; Dammann, Philipp; Özkan, Neriman; Mönninghoff, Christoph; Kraemer, Markus; Maderwald, Stefan; Ladd, Mark E.; Sure, Ulrich; Umutlu, Lale; Schlamann, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Conventional saturation pulses cannot be used for 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) due to specific absorption rate (SAR) limitations. We overcome these limitations by utilizing low flip angle, variable rate selective excitation (VERSE) algorithm saturation pulses. Material and Methods Twenty-five neurosurgical patients (male n = 8, female n = 17; average age 49.64 years; range 26–70 years) with different intracranial vascular pathologies were enrolled in this trial. All patients were examined with a 7 Tesla (Magnetom 7 T, Siemens) whole body scanner system utilizing a dedicated 32-channel head coil. For venous saturation pulses a 35° flip angle was applied. Two neuroradiologists evaluated the delineation of arterial vessels in the Circle of Willis, delineation of vascular pathologies, presence of artifacts, vessel-tissue contrast and overall image quality of TOF MRA scans in consensus on a five-point scale. Normalized signal intensities in the confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter were measured and vessel-tissue contrasts were calculated. Results Ratings for the majority of patients ranged between good and excellent for most of the evaluated features. Venous saturation was sufficient for all cases with minor artifacts in arteriovenous malformations and arteriovenous fistulas. Quantitative signal intensity measurements showed high vessel-tissue contrast for confluence of venous sinuses, M1 segment of left middle cerebral artery and adjacent gray matter. Conclusion The use of novel low flip angle VERSE algorithm pulses for saturation of venous vessels can overcome SAR limitations in 7 Tesla ultra-high-resolution TOF MRA. Our protocol is suitable for clinical application with excellent image quality for delineation of various intracranial vascular pathologies. PMID:25232868

  11. Cerebral time domain-NIRS: reproducibility analysis, optical properties, hemoglobin species and tissue oxygen saturation in a cohort of adult subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacalone, Giacomo; Zanoletti, Marta; Contini, Davide; Re, Rebecca; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Roveri, Luisa; Torricelli, Alessandro

    2017-11-01

    The reproducibility of cerebral time-domain near-infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) has not been investigated so far. Besides, reference intervals of cerebral optical properties, of absolute concentrations of deoxygenated-hemoglobin (HbR), oxygenated-hemoglobin (HbO), total hemoglobin (HbT) and tissue oxygen saturation (StO 2 ) and their variability have not been reported. We have addressed these issues on a sample of 88 adult healthy subjects. TD-NIRS measurements at 690, 785, 830 nm were fitted with the diffusion model for semi-infinite homogenous media. Reproducibility, performed on 3 measurements at 5 minutes intervals, ranges from 1.8 to 6.9% for each of the hemoglobin species. The mean ± SD global values of HbR, HbO, HbT, StO 2 are respectively 24 ± 7 μM, 33.3 ± 9.5 μM, 57.4 ± 15.8 μM, 58 ± 4.2%. StO 2 displays the narrowest range of variability across brain regions.

  12. Contrast Enhancement in TOF cerebral angiography at 7 T using Saturation and MT pulses under SAR constraints: impact of VERSE and sparse pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitter, Sebastian; Bock, Michael; Johst, Sören; Auerbach, Edward J.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral 3D time of flight (TOF) angiography significantly benefits from ultra high fields, mainly due to higher SNR and to longer T1 relaxation time of static brain tissues, however, SAR significantly increases with B0. Thus, additional RF pulses commonly used at lower field strengths to improve TOF contrast such as saturation of venous signal and improved background suppression by magnetization transfer typically cannot be used at higher fields. In this work we aimed at reducing SAR for each RF pulse category in a TOF sequence. We use the VERSE principle for the slab selective TOF excitation as well as the venous saturation RF pulses. Additionally, MT pulses are implemented by sparsely applying the pulses only during acquisition of the central k-space lines to limit their SAR contribution. Image quality, angiographic contrast and SAR reduction were investigated as a function of VERSE parameters and of the total number of MT pulses applied. Based on these results, a TOF protocol was generated that increases the angiographic contrast by more than 50% and reduces subcutaneous fat signal while keeping the resulting SAR within regulatory limits. PMID:22139829

  13. Relationship between intraoperative regional cerebral oxygen saturation trends and cognitive decline after total knee replacement: a post-hoc analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Fátima; Doñate, Marta; Boget, Teresa; Bogdanovich, Ana; Basora, Misericordia; Torres, Ferran; Gracia, Isabel; Fàbregas, Neus

    2014-01-01

    Bilateral regional brain oxygen saturation (rSO2) trends, reflecting intraoperative brain oxygen imbalance, could warn of brain dysfunction. Various types of cognitive impairment, such as memory decline, alterations in executive function or subjective complaints, have been described three months after surgery. Our aim was to explore the potential utility of rSO2 values as a warning sign for the development of different types of decline in postoperative psychological function. Observational post-hoc analysis of data for the patient sample (n = 125) of a previously conducted clinical trial in patients over the age of 65 years undergoing total knee replacement under spinal anesthesia. Demographic, hemodynamic and bilateral rSO2 intraoperative values were recorded. An absolute rSO2 value of 20% or >25% below baseline were chosen as relevant cutoffs. Composite function test scores were created from baseline to three months for each patient and adjusted for the mean (SD) score changes for a control group (n = 55). Tests were used to assess visual-motor coordination and executive function (VM-EF) (Wechsler Digit Symbol-Coding and Visual Reproduction, Trail Making Test) and memory (Auditory Verbal Learning, Wechsler Memory Scale); scales were used to assess psychological symptoms. We observed no differences in baseline rSO2 values; rSO2 decreased significantly in all patients during surgery (P Left and right rSO2 values were asymmetric in patients who had memory decline (mean [SD] left-right ratio of 95.03 [8.51] vs 101.29 [6.7] for patients with no changes, P = 0.0012). The mean right-left difference in rSO2 was also significant in these patients (-2.87% [4.73%], lower on the right, P = 0.0034). Detection of a trend to asymmetry in rSO2 values can warn of possible postoperative onset of memory decline. Psychological symptoms and memory decline were common three months after knee replacement in our patients over the age of 65 years.

  14. Neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sub-acute traumatic brain injury: not by immediately improving cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bao-Chun; Liu, Li-Jun; Liu, Bing

    2016-09-01

    Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can promote the recovery of neural function in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI), the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen treatment plays a neuroprotective role in TBI by increasing regional transcranial oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) and oxygen partial pressure (PaO 2 ). To test this idea, we compared two groups: a control group with 20 healthy people and a treatment group with 40 TBI patients. The 40 patients were given 100% oxygen of HBO for 90 minutes. Changes in rSO 2 were measured. The controls were also examined for rSO 2 and PaO 2 , but received no treatment. rSO 2 levels in the patients did not differ significantly after treatment, but levels before and after treatment were significantly lower than those in the control group. PaO 2 levels were significantly decreased after the 30-minute HBO treatment. Our findings suggest that there is a disorder of oxygen metabolism in patients with sub-acute TBI. HBO does not immediately affect cerebral oxygen metabolism, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied in depth.

  15. Recent Experiences with Severe and Cerebral Malaria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-06-29

    Jun 29, 1974 ... Malaria admissions. Cerebral malaria ... Cerebral signs. Haemoglobin below 10 g/100 ml (not all tested). Enlarged tender liver or jaundice, or both ... articl~ by H. Smitskamp and F. H. Wolthuis entitled 'New concepts in treatment of malaria with malignant tertian cerebral involvement' which appeared in the ...

  16. Structure of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Torvund-Jensen, Morten; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby

    2012-01-01

    to oxidative modification after exposure to haem-induced reactive oxygen species are buried in the haptoglobin-haemoglobin interface, thus showing a direct protective role of haptoglobin. The haptoglobin loop previously shown to be essential for binding of haptoglobin-haemoglobin to the macrophage scavenger...... that the rigid dimeric complex can bind two receptors. Such receptor cross-linkage may facilitate scavenging and explain the increased functional affinity of multimeric haptoglobin-haemoglobin for CD163 (ref. 4)....

  17. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  18. fasting blood glucose and glycosylated haemoglobin levels

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prince Acheampong

    (HbA1c) levels of diabetes mellitus patients as an index of glycaemic control. It was a prospective case- finding study using laboratory and general practice records. ... range of glycosylated haemoglobins, and the cut-off values for some clinical .... quality of glycaemic control by glycated haemoglobin in out-patient diabetic ...

  19. Anaemia prevalence and factors associated with haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information on social-clinical characteristics, cancer type and associated factors as well as haemoglobin level before and after radiation were obtained. The prevalence of anaemia was determined as a proportion and linear regression was used to determine factors associated with haemoglobin change. Results: A total of ...

  20. Misleading presentation of haemoglobin electrophoresis data | Adu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemoglobinopathies are common in sub-Saharan Africa. As such haemoglobin electrophoresis are required to inform clinical decision making. However, haemoglobin electrophoresis is an assay that detects protein at either alkaline or acidic pH. Such assays do not interrogate gene sequences but rather the product of a ...

  1. Cerebral and Renal Oxygen Saturation Are Not Compromised in the Presence of Retrograde Blood Flow in either the Ascending or Descending Aorta in Term or Near-Term Infants with Left-Sided Obstructive Lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Laan, Michelle E; Mebius, Mirthe J; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Bos, Arend F; Berger, Rolf M F; Kooi, Elisabeth M W

    2017-01-01

    In infants with left-sided obstructive lesions (LSOL), the presence of retrograde blood flow in either the ascending or descending aorta may lead to diminished cerebral and renal blood flow, respectively. Our aim was to compare cerebral and renal tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2) between infants with LSOL with antegrade and retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta and with and without diastolic backflow in the descending aorta. Based on 2 echocardiograms, the study group was categorized according to the direction of blood flow in the ascending and descending aorta. We measured cerebral and renal rSO2 using near-infrared spectroscopy and calculated fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE). Nineteen infants with LSOL, admitted to the NICU between 0 and 28 days after birth, were included. Infants with antegrade blood flow (n = 12) and infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta (n = 7) had similar cerebral rSO2 and FTOE during both echocardiograms. Only during the first echocardiogram, infants with retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta had lower renal FTOE (0.14 vs. 0.32, p = 0.04) and tended to have higher renal rSO2 (80 vs. 65%, p = 0.09). The presence of diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with cerebral or renal rSO2 and FTOE during the first (n = 8) as well as the second echocardiogram (n = 10). Retrograde blood flow in the ascending aorta was not associated with cerebral oxygenation, while diastolic backflow in the descending aorta was not associated with renal oxygenation in infants with LSOL. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Data on the effect of target temperature management at 32–34 °C in cardiac arrest patients considering assessment by regional cerebral oxygen saturation: A multicenter retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nakatani

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This data article contains raw data and supplementary analyzed data regarding to the article entitled “Effect of target temperature management at 32–34 °C in cardiac arrest patients considering assessment by regional cerebral oxygen saturation: A multicenter retrospective cohort study”. We examined the effectiveness of target temperature management (TTM at 32–34 °C considering degrees of patients’ cerebral injury and cerebral circulation assessed by regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2. The research is a secondary analysis of prospectively collected registry, in which comatose patients who were transferred to 15 hospitals in Japan after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA, and we included 431 study patients. Propensity score analysis revealed that TTM at 32–34 °C decreased all-cause mortality in patients with rSO2 41–60%, and increased favorable neurological outcomes in patients with rSO2 41–60% in the original research article. With regard to the balance of covariates of propensity-score matching (PSM and inverse-probability weighting (IPW analyses, some covariates were not well balanced after the analyses between groups. The overlap plots indicate the overlap of densities of the propensity scores are low in group rSO2 41–60% and group rSO2 ≥ 61%. When patients were limited to those who achieved return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC until/on hospitals arrival, TTM still tended to decrease all-cause mortality and increase favorable outcomes in group rSO2 41–60%.

  3. Relationship between glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Emmanuel Musenge

    2016-07-30

    Jul 30, 2016 ... Relationship between glycated haemoglobin and fasting plasma glucose ... major stakeholders in the management of diabetes mellitus to consider FPG as an ..... HbA1c among customers of health examination services.

  4. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Burn surgery is associated with significant peri-operative haemoglobin. (Hb) changes. ... operative factors predictive of an Hb <7 g/dL on the first day after surgery, which were ..... clinical judgement, taking into consideration the risk associated.

  5. Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, M; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Jacobsen, C

    2001-01-01

    Intravascular haemolysis is a physiological phenomenon as well as a severe pathological complication when accelerated in various autoimmune, infectious (such as malaria) and inherited (such as sickle cell disease) disorders. Haemoglobin released into plasma is captured by the acute phase protein...

  6. Changing reference intervals for haemoglobin in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryberg-Nørholt, Judith; Frederiksen, Henrik; Nybo, Mads

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Based on international experiences and altering demography the reference intervals (RI) for haemoglobin (Hb) concentrations in blood were changed in Denmark in 2013 from 113 - 161 g/L to 117 - 153 g/L for women and from 129 - 177 g/L to 134 - 170 g/L for men. The aim of this study w...

  7. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, Tina Kold; Bonde, Jens Peter

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...

  8. Predicting postoperative haemoglobin changes after burn surgery ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Burn surgery is associated with significant blood loss and fluid shifts that cause rapid haemoglobin (Hb) changes during and after surgery. Understanding the relationship between intraoperative and postoperative (day 1) Hb changes may assist in avoiding postoperative anaemia and unnecessary ...

  9. Haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to determine the haemoglobin variants among voluntary blood donors in Jos. METHOD: Records of the age, sex, Haemoglobin level, and the haemoglobin genotype of all voluntary blood donors who donated blood at the National Blood Transfusion Service Centre, Jos, Nigeria between January 2011 and ...

  10. Is glycosylated haemoglobin a marker of fertility?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjollund, N H; Jensen, T K; Bonde, J P

    1999-01-01

    We performed a follow-up study of time to pregnancy in a population of first-time pregnancy planners without previous reproductive experience. The objective of this paper is to report and discuss a finding of a strong relationship between glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1C) and fertility. A total...... concentration of inhibin A. No association was found between HbA1C and psychosocial distress. The reduced fertility among women with high HbA1C may be due to an association with subclinical polycystic ovaries as indicated by the hormonal profile....

  11. Two novel haemoglobin variants that affect haemoglobin A1c measurement by ion-exchange chromatography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bots, Michael; Stroobants, An K.; Delzenne, Barend; Soeters, Maarten R.; de Vries, Johan E.; Weykamp, Cas W.; Norg, Roelf J. C.; Veldthuis, Martijn; van Zwieten, Rob

    2015-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) variants are well-known factors interfering with accurate HbA1c testing. This report describes two novel Hb variants leading to inappropriate quantification of HbA1c by ion-exchange chromatography. Glycated forms of novel Hb variants were recognised in the blood of two patients with

  12. Haemoglobin A1c : Historical overview and current concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenters-Westra, Erna; Schindhelm, Roger K.; Bilo, Henk J.; Slingerland, Robbert J.

    Since the discovery of the relation between increased concentrations of fast haemoglobin fractions in patients with diabetes mellitus compared to concentrations in subjects without diabetes mellitus by Samuel Rahbar and co-workers in 1969, glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) has become a "gold

  13. Should haemoglobin A be used for the diagnosis of diabetes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-04-05

    Apr 5, 2011 ... Review Article: Should haemoglobin A1c be used for the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus in South Africa? 122 .... and this is the basis for the high-performance liquid .... the ionic charge of the haemoglobin molecule, and this.

  14. Field evaluation of a novel haemoglobin measuring device ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To evaluate the use of a robust, cheap method for haemoglobin estimation by non-laboratory-trained personnel in a rural setting. Design. Comparative study. Setting. Tintswalo Hospital. Acomhoek. Participants. 7 nursing sisters, 4 medical students, 2 lay persons. Outcome measures. Haemoglobin estimates ...

  15. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of mother-infant pairs at birth. Methods: One hundred and fifty three mother-infant pairs were enrolled in this study using the ...

  16. The effects of maternal haemoglobin as an indicator of maternal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Maternal measles antibodies (MMA) are actively transferred through the placenta from mother to foetus. A relationship could exist between MMA of mother-infant pairs and maternal nutritional indicator (haemoglobin). Objectives: This study reviewed the effects of maternal haemoglobin (Hb) on MMA of ...

  17. Haemoglobin polymorphism in wild and cultured African catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haemoglobin polymorphism, haemoglobin concentration, blood group and genotypes of wild and cultured Clarias gariepinus were investigated. Blood samples of Clarias gariepinus collected from Lake Alau (wild) and Dalori fish farm (cultured) were subjected to cellulose acetate electrophoresis to reveal the activities of ...

  18. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  19. Detection of haemoglobins with abnormal oxygen affinity by single blood gas analysis and 2,3-diphosphoglycerate measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, G; Morabito, A; Samaja, M

    2000-10-01

    The aim is to determine if a single measurement of blood 2,3-diphosphoglycerate combined with gas analysis (pH, PCO2, PO2 and saturation) can identify the cause of an altered blood-oxygen affinity: the presence of an abnormal haemoglobin or a red cell disorder. The population (n=94) was divided into healthy controls (A, n=14), carriers of red cell disorders (B, n=72) and carriers of high oxygen affinity haemoglobins (C, n=8). Those variables were measured both in samples equilibrated at selected PCO2 and PO2 and in venous blood. In the univariable approach applied to equilibrated samples, we correctly identified C subjects in 93.6% or 96.8% of the cases depending on the selected variable, the standard P50 (PO2 at which 50% of haemoglobin is oxygenated) or a composite variable calculated from the above measurements. After introducing the haemoglobin concentration as a further discriminating variable, the A and B subjects were correctly identified in 91.9% or 94.2% of the cases, respectively. These figures become 93.0% or 86.1%, and 93.7% or 94.9% of the cases when using direct readings from venous blood, thereby avoiding the blood equilibration step. This test is feasible also in blood samples stored at 4 degrees C for 48 h, or at room temperature for 8 h.

  20. Reference values of glycosylated haemoglobin and fructosamin in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olair Carlos Beltrame

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin and fructosamin levels are not commonly used to diagnosis Diabetes mellitus in dogs due to a lack of reference values. To estabilish the reference values and determination methods of glycated haemoglobin and frutosamine, both male and females, healthy dogs, 2-8 years old (n=100 were used. The methodologies used were the ionic resin and the kinetic method by the reduction of blue nitrotetrazolium, respectively. Medium values of glycated haemoglobin of 5.3-7.01% and 277.52-387. 30 for fructosamin established by Brazilian Diabetes Society methods can be adopted for dogs, both males and females.

  1. Characterization of haemoglobin from Actinorhizal plants – An in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2013-10-01

    Oct 1, 2013 ... Actinorhizal plant; haemoglobin (Hb); homology modelling; vesicle ..... specifies the overall quality of the models and determines the extent to which .... service for the recognition of errors in three-dimensional struc- tures of ...

  2. Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... 220 out of 733 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the health centres within the three communities.

  3. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma

    2017-01-01

    saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.49, p = 0.023), but no significant correlations could be demonstrated with frontal and whole brain cerebral blood flow. These results suggest that measuring oxygen saturation by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation is feasible, even in neonates. Strong...... sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (R(2 )= 0.64, p ..., and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p 

  4. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  5. Transmission of arterial oxygen partial pressure oscillations to the cerebral microcirculation in a porcine model of acute lung injury caused by cyclic recruitment and derecruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, K U; Boehme, S; Hartmann, E K; Szczyrba, M; Heylen, L; Liu, T; David, M; Werner, C; Markstaller, K; Engelhard, K

    2013-02-01

    Cyclic recruitment and derecruitment (R/D) play a key role in the pathomechanism of acute lung injury (ALI) leading to respiration-dependent oscillations of arterial partial pressure of oxygen (Pa(O(2))). These Pa(O(2)) oscillations could also be forwarded to the cerebral microcirculation. In 12 pigs, partial pressure of oxygen was measured in the thoracic aorta (Pa(O(2))) and subcortical cerebral tissue (Pbr(O(2))). Cerebral cortical haemoglobin oxygen saturation (Sbr(O(2))), cerebral blood flow (CBF), and peripheral haemoglobin saturation (Sp(O(2))) were assessed by spectroscopy and laser Doppler flowmetry. Measurements at different fractions of inspired oxygen (F(I(O(2)))) were performed at baseline and during cyclic R/D. frequency domain analysis, the Mann-Whitney test, linear models to test the influence of Pa(O(2)) and systolic arterial pressure (SAP) oscillations on cerebral measurements. Parameters [mean (SD)] remained stable during baseline. Pa(O(2)) oscillations [10.6 (8) kPa, phase(reference)], systemic arterial pressure (SAP) oscillations [20 (9) mm Hg, phase(Pa(O(2))-SAP) -33 (72)°], and Sp(O(2))oscillations [1.9 (1.7)%, phase(Pa(O(2))-Sp(O(2))) 264 (72)°] were detected during lung R/D at 1.0. Pa(O(2)) oscillations decreased [2.7 (3.5) kPa, P=0.0008] and Sp(O(2)) oscillations increased [6.8 (3.9)%, P=0.0014] at F(I(O(2))) 0.3. In the brain, synchronized Pbr(O(2)) oscillations [0.6 (0.4) kPa, phase(Pa(O(2))-Pbr(O(2))) 90 (39)°], Sbr(O(2)) oscillations [4.1 (1.5)%, phase(Pa(O(2))-Sbr(O(2))) 182 (54)°], and CBF oscillations [198 (176) AU, phase(Pa(O(2))-CBF) 201 (63)°] occurred that were dependent on Pa(O(2)) and SAP oscillations. Pa(O(2)) oscillations caused by cyclic R/D are transmitted to the cerebral microcirculation in a porcine model of ALI. These cyclic oxygen alterations could play a role in the crosstalk of acute lung and brain injury.

  6. Exercise and sports in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yazman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia causes lower oxygen transport to tissues, interfering with normal physical development and may interfere with exercise and sports in thalassemia and Sickle-Cell-Disease (SCD l. Moreover, in SCD, the abnormal haemoglobin alters the erythrocyte shape and leads to pulmonary parenchymal damage, impaired vascular function and micro vascular complications. However, we now accept that, with regular blood transfusions and efficient oral or parenteral chelation modalities, many patients lead a normal development and life with little or no change from the lifestyle of their unaffected friends, although there are cognitive and emotional factors leading behaviour for participation in the social life and exercise, as studied by many scientists in Italy, United Kingdom, Greece and India. 贫血导致组织供氧不足,妨碍身体的正常发育,并可能干扰地中海贫血和镰状细胞病(SCD)患者的体育运动。更严重的是,在镰状细胞病患者体内,异常血红蛋白能改变红细胞形态,造成肺薄壁组织损害、血管功能损伤,并引起微血管并发症。 然而,意大利、英国、希腊和印度的多位科学家的研究表明:尽管认知因子和情感因子是参加社会生活和运动的主导行为,但只要患者定期输血和采用高效的口服或非口服螯合疗法,很多人都可以正常发育和生活,与未受感染的人群并无大的区别。

  7. Vessel calibre and haemoglobin effects on pulse oximetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwen, M P; Reynolds, K J; Bull, G P

    2009-01-01

    Despite its success as a clinical monitoring tool, pulse oximetry may be improved with respect to the need for empirical calibration and the reports of biases in readings associated with peripheral vasoconstriction and haemoglobin concentration. To effect this improvement, this work aims to improve the understanding of the photoplethysmography signal—as used by pulse oximeters—and investigates the effect of vessel calibre and haemoglobin concentration on pulse oximetry. The digital temperature and the transmission of a wide spectrum of light through the fingers of 57 people with known haemoglobin concentrations were measured and simulations of the transmission of that spectrum of light through finger models were performed. Ratios of pulsatile attenuations of light as used in pulse oximetry were dependent upon peripheral temperature and on blood haemoglobin concentration. In addition, both the simulation and in vivo results showed that the pulsatile attenuation of light through fingers was approximately proportional to the absorption coefficients of blood, only when the absorption coefficients were small. These findings were explained in terms of discrete blood vessels acting as barriers to light transmission through tissue. Due to the influence of discrete blood vessels on light transmission, pulse oximeter outputs tend to be dependent upon haemoglobin concentration and on the calibre of pulsing blood vessels—which are affected by vasoconstriction/vasodilation. The effects of discrete blood vessels may account for part of the difference between the Beer–Lambert pulse oximetry model and empirical calibration

  8. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J G; Liu, H

    2007-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hb total ) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO 2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hb total ]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm -1 mM -1 ) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO 2 ], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hb total ]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hb total ] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO 2 ] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO 2 ], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hb total ] from in vivo tissue measurements

  9. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J. G.; Liu, H.

    2007-10-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hbtotal) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO2 and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hbtotal]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm-1 mM-1) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal]. We have also observed that the error of Δ[Hbtotal] is not always larger than those of Δ[HbO2] and Δ[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of Δ[HbO2], Δ[Hb] and Δ[Hbtotal] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  10. Variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients can cause errors in the determination of haemoglobin concentration measured by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J G; Liu, H [Joint Graduate Program in Biomedical Engineering, University of Texas at Arlington/University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2007-10-21

    Near-infrared spectroscopy or imaging has been extensively applied to various biomedical applications since it can detect the concentrations of oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}), deoxyhaemoglobin (Hb) and total haemoglobin (Hb{sub total}) from deep tissues. To quantify concentrations of these haemoglobin derivatives, the extinction coefficient values of HbO{sub 2} and Hb have to be employed. However, it was not well recognized among researchers that small differences in extinction coefficients could cause significant errors in quantifying the concentrations of haemoglobin derivatives. In this study, we derived equations to estimate errors of haemoglobin derivatives caused by the variation of haemoglobin extinction coefficients. To prove our error analysis, we performed experiments using liquid-tissue phantoms containing 1% Intralipid in a phosphate-buffered saline solution. The gas intervention of pure oxygen was given in the solution to examine the oxygenation changes in the phantom, and 3 mL of human blood was added twice to show the changes in [Hb{sub total}]. The error calculation has shown that even a small variation (0.01 cm{sup -1} mM{sup -1}) in extinction coefficients can produce appreciable relative errors in quantification of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}]. We have also observed that the error of {delta}[Hb{sub total}] is not always larger than those of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}] and {delta}[Hb]. This study concludes that we need to be aware of any variation in haemoglobin extinction coefficients, which could result from changes in temperature, and to utilize corresponding animal's haemoglobin extinction coefficients for the animal experiments, in order to obtain more accurate values of {delta}[HbO{sub 2}], {delta}[Hb] and {delta}[Hb{sub total}] from in vivo tissue measurements.

  11. Higher vs. lower haemoglobin threshold for transfusion in septic shock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rygård, S L; Holst, L B; Wetterslev, J

    2017-01-01

    . a lower haemoglobin threshold. METHODS: In post-hoc analyses of the full trial population of 998 patients from the Transfusion Requirements in Septic Shock (TRISS) trial, we investigated the intervention effect on 90-day mortality in patients with severe comorbidity (chronic lung disease, haematological......BACKGROUND: Using a restrictive transfusion strategy appears to be safe in sepsis, but there may be subgroups of patients who benefit from transfusion at a higher haemoglobin level. We explored if subgroups of patients with septic shock and anaemia had better outcome when transfused at a higher vs.......51), in those who had undergone surgery (P = 0.99) or in patients with septic shock by the new definition (P = 0.20). CONCLUSION: In exploratory analyses of a randomized trial in patients with septic shock and anaemia, we observed no survival benefit in any subgroups of transfusion at a haemoglobin threshold...

  12. Impact of corpulence parameters and haemoglobin A1c on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed the utility of body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC), and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) levels in metabolic control for type 2 diabetic patients. ... The apoB/apoA-I ratio was more correlated with postprandial TC/HDL and LDL-c/HDL-c ratios in men and with postprandial TG/HDL-c in women.

  13. Abnormal haemoglobin variants, ABO and Rh blood groups among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Abnormal haemoglobin variants ( HbSS,AS,AC,SC,etc) have been known to be common among blacks. Patients with sickle cell disease are often faced with the risk of alloimmunization from allogeneic blood transfusion. Objectives: The study was designed to sample students population of African descents for ...

  14. Relationship Between Glycated Haemoglobin and Body Mass Index ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure, Height, Weight were all measured and body mass index (BMI) calculated as weight (in kilograms) divided by height (in meters squared). Glycated haemoglobin was estimated using the ion exchange chromatography method. Result: A total of 100 healthy subjects, 50 males and 50 females, ages ranging ...

  15. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E.; Saraswathi, N. T.; Ruff, Marc; Bokut, Sergey B.; Moras, Dino

    2006-01-01

    Non enzymatic modification of haemoglobin by glucose plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis. Here the purification, characterization and crystallization of human glycosylated haemoglobin are reported. Human glycosylated haemoglobin A 1C is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA 1C were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 Å, α = 90.00, β = 125.40, γ = 90.00°. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V M ) of 9.70 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 49%

  16. Association of foetal haemoglobin with pancreatic enzymes in sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background/Aim: There are conflicting reports on the potential protective effects of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) in the elimination of symptoms of Sickle cell disease in the patients and reports which correlate the levels of HbF with pancreatic enzymes in SCD are scarce in the literature.This study correlates the levels of HbF on ...

  17. Non-invasive technology to determine the haemoglobin level of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Predonation haemoglobin (Hb) check has been done traditionally by the copper sulphate (CuSO4), or the haemocue haemoglobinometer methods. Both of these require a fingerprick of the donor to obtain capillary blood samples. It is thought that a non-invasive, but accurate method of Hb check will reduce ...

  18. Distribution of abo, rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary: The distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis among 200 undergraduate students of Niger Delta University, Bayelsa State, Nigeria randomly selected were studied. Blood samples were collected by venepuncture from the antecubital vein. The blood sample were transferred into ...

  19. Validation of the haemoglobin colour scale for screening blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    blood donors for anaemia, using the WHO Haemoglobin Colour. Scale (HCS) for ... simple alternative for assessing anaemia.3,4 It does not aim to compete with a .... staff to see if similar levels of sensitivity and specificity are obtained. A more ...

  20. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Saraswathi, N. T.; Ruff, Marc, E-mail: ruff@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Bokut, Sergey B. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Moras, Dino [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-02-01

    Non enzymatic modification of haemoglobin by glucose plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis. Here the purification, characterization and crystallization of human glycosylated haemoglobin are reported. Human glycosylated haemoglobin A{sub 1C} is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA{sub 1C} were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 Å, α = 90.00, β = 125.40, γ = 90.00°. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 9.70 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 49%.

  1. Prevalence of haemoglobin variants among the Ika ethnic nationality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    McRoy

    2014-07-26

    Jul 26, 2014 ... mandatory genetic counseling and screening of all intending couples in order to avert the sickling gene pool in our population. REFERENCES. 1. Esan A.J, Omisakin C.T and Okkhuakhua. O. Frequency Distribution of Haemoglobin. Variants, ABO and Rhesus Blood Groups among Children in Ido/Osi Local.

  2. Haemoglobin genotype of children with severe malaria seen at the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract: Introduction: Types of haemoglobin (Hb) genotype have been found to be crucial to the rate of red blood cell parasite invasion, multiplication, and destruction as well as outcome of malaria disease. In a bid to provide more information on the relationship between Hb genotype and level of protection conferred by ...

  3. Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in neonates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. The HemoCue is a point-of-care analytical system for haemoglobin concentration (Hb) measurement. Point-of-care testing has been validated in hospitals and outpatient departments to assist with urgent patient management by providing rapid laboratory test results. Method. In this prospective study we compared ...

  4. Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerebral palsy is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and to maintain balance ... do not get worse over time. People with cerebral palsy may have difficulty walking. They may also have ...

  5. E.s.r. radiation studies of erythrocyte membrane-haemoglobin interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koter, M.; Kowalska, M.A.; Leyko, W.; Waterman, M.

    1977-01-01

    The dependence of the yield of free radicals in gamma-irradiated, freeze-dried erythrocyte membranes on their haemoglobin content was studied. A non-monotonous relationship was found, different from that observed in mixtures of freeze-dried membranes and haemoglobin, which suggests the existence of radiation-energy transfer between the membranes and bound haemoglobin. (author)

  6. Malaria cerebral Cerebral malaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Hugo Zapata Zapata

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available La malaria Cerebral (MC es la complicación más frecuente de la malaria por P. falciparum; aproximadamente el 90% de las personas que la han padecido se recuperan completamente sin secuelas neurológicas. Aún no se conoce con claridad su patogénesis pero se han postulado cuatro hipótesis o mecanismos posibles: 1 citoadherencia y secuestro de glóbulos rojos parasitados en la microvasculatura cerebral; 2 formación de rosetas y aglutinación de glóbulos rojos parasitados; 3 producción de citoquinas y activación de segundos mensajeros y, 4 apertura de la barrera hematoencefálica. Sin embargo, queda un interrogante sin resolver aún: ¿qué proceso se lleva a cabo para que el parásito, desde el espacio microvascular, pueda interferir transitoriamente con la función cerebral? Recientemente se ha utilizado el precursor de la proteína b-Amiloide como un marcador de daño neuronal en MC; este precursor será de gran ayuda en futuras investigaciones realizadas en nuestro medio que aporten información para comprender la patogénesis de la MC. Is the most common complication of P. falciparum malaria; nearly 90% of people who have suffered CM can recover without neurological problems. Currently there are four hypotheses that explain pathogenesis of CM: cytoadherence and sequestering of parasitized red blood cells to cerebral capillaries; rosette formation and parasitized red blood cells agglutination; production of cytokines and activation of second messengers and opening of the blood-brain barrier. However the main question remains to be answered; how the host-parasite interaction in the vascular space interferes transiently with cerebral function? Recently, the beta amyloid precursor peptide has been employed as marker of neural injury in CM. It is expected that the beta amyloid precursor peptide will help to understand the pathogenesis of CM in complicated patients of endemic areas of Colombia.

  7. Cerebral microangiopathies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linn, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral microangiopathies are a very heterogenous group of diseases characterized by pathological changes of the small cerebral vessels. They account for 20 - 30 % of all ischemic strokes. Degenerative microangiopathy and sporadic cerebral amyloid angiography represent the typical acquired cerebral microangiopathies, which are found in over 90 % of cases. Besides, a wide variety of rare, hereditary microangiopathy exists, as e.g. CADASIL (Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy), Fabrys disease and MELAS syndrome (Mitochondrial myopathy, Encephalopathy, Lactic Acidosis, and Stroke-like episodes). (orig.)

  8. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009...... and November 2011, we offered haematology consultations to blood donors with repeated haemoglobin concentration (Hb) above the WHO limit for polycythaemia vera (PV) (10·2 and 11·5 mm/16·5 and 18·5 g/dl for women and men, respectively). Investigation of such donors included Hb, haematocrit, mean cell volume......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  10. Haemoglobins with multiple reactive sulfhydryl groups: reactions of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pH dependence profile of kapp for the slow phase resembles the titration curve of a monoprotic acid. Quantitative analysis indicates that the sulfhydryl group to which this phase may be attributed is linked to a single ionizable group with a pKa of 6.1 0.2. Examination of the structure of guinea pig haemoglobin near the ...

  11. SERUM MAGNESIUM, LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCATED HAEMOGLOBIN IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Vusikala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy is one of the important microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus of long duration. Alterations in trace metals like magnesium and lipid profile was observed in diabetic retinopathy with hyperglycaemic status. AIM The study was taken up to assess the role of magnesium, lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin in diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 80 subjects between 40-65 years were included in the study. Group 1 includes 20 age and sex matched healthy controls. Group 2 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus without retinopathy. Group 3 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus with retinopathy. RESULTS Magnesium was found to be significantly low in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Fasting and Postprandial plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels confirmed the glycaemic status of each of the groups. CONCLUSIONS Hypomagnesemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridemia was observed in diabetic retinopathy along with increased levels of glycated haemoglobin in our study.

  12. d-Ribose as a Contributor to Glycated Haemoglobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xixi Chen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c is the most important marker of hyperglycaemia in diabetes mellitus. We show that d-ribose reacts with haemoglobin, thus yielding HbA1c. Using mass spectrometry, we detected glycation of haemoglobin with d-ribose produces 10 carboxylmethyllysines (CMLs. The first-order rate constant of fructosamine formation for d-ribose was approximately 60 times higher than that for d-glucose at the initial stage. Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF rat, a common model for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, had high levels of d-ribose and HbA1c, accompanied by a decrease of transketolase (TK in the liver. The administration of benfotiamine, an activator of TK, significantly decreased d-ribose followed by a decline in HbA1c. In clinical investigation, T2DM patients with high HbA1c had a high level of urine d-ribose, though the level of their urine d-glucose was low. That is, d-ribose contributes to HbA1c, which prompts future studies to further explore whether d-ribose plays a role in the pathophysiological mechanism of T2DM.

  13. Cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenan, T.J.; Grossman, R.I.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews retrospectively MR, CT, and angiographic findings in patients with cerebral vasculitis in order to understand the strengths and weaknesses of the various imaging modalities, as well as the spectrum of imaging abnormalities in this disease entity. Studies were retrospectively reviewed in 12 patients with cerebral vasculitis proved by means of angiography and/or brain biopsy

  14. Low-grade inflammation is associated with lower haemoglobin levels in healthy individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kotzé, S R; Pedersen, O B; Petersen, M S

    2016-01-01

    status. Results: LGI was associated with lower haemoglobin (0·08 mm lower [0·12 g/dl], 95% confidence interval (CI): −0·11–0·05) and increased risk of low haemoglobin (OR = 1·22, 95% CI: 1·05–1·43) in non-smokers. Conversely, LGI was associated with higher haemoglobin in smokers (0·12 mm [0·19 g/dl], 95......% CI: 0·06–0·18). Conclusion: In this first study of LGI and haemoglobin in healthy individuals, there was a negative association between LGI and haemoglobin in non-smokers. The association was positive in smokers, probably because smoking leads to both increased inflammation and increased haemoglobin...

  15. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  16. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin

    OpenAIRE

    Jaimohan, S. M.; Naresh, M. D.; Arumugam, V.; Mandal, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin has been purified and crystallized under low salt buffered conditions. Preliminary analysis of the crystal that belonged to monoclinic system (C2) is reported.

  17. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, M.F.; Steffensen, J.F.

    2003-01-01

    .2+/-1.5 degrees C while HbI-1 cod preferred 15.4+/-1.1 degrees C, and this preference was significant. The effect of hypoxia (35% oxygen saturation) on the preferred temperature was also measured. Previous studies showed that the preferred temperature of fish decreases during hypoxia, and this was the case for Hb......I-1 cod, which preferred 9.8+/-1.8 degrees C during hypoxia, whereas HbI-2 cod did not show this effect. The results indicate that environmental temperature changes will lead to a distributional change in the different haemoglobin types of Atlantic cod, global warming providing an advantage for HbI-1...... cod. However, since HbI-1 cod prefer a low temperature under hypoxic conditions, a combination of increased water temperature and hypoxia could be unfavourable for Atlantic cod stocks....

  18. Gluon saturation in a saturated environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopeliovich, B. Z.; Potashnikova, I. K.; Schmidt, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    A bootstrap equation for self-quenched gluon shadowing leads to a reduced magnitude of broadening for partons propagating through a nucleus. Saturation of small-x gluons in a nucleus, which has the form of transverse momentum broadening of projectile gluons in pA collisions in the nuclear rest frame, leads to a modification of the parton distribution functions in the beam compared with pp collisions. In nucleus-nucleus collisions all participating nucleons acquire enhanced gluon density at small x, which boosts further the saturation scale. Solution of the reciprocity equations for central collisions of two heavy nuclei demonstrate a significant, up to several times, enhancement of Q sA 2 , in AA compared with pA collisions.

  19. IMPACT OF HAEMOGLOBIN LEVELS ON OUTCOMES IN ACUTE CORONARY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shrirang Kishor Bhurchandi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND It is observed that anaemia is a common problem in patients hospitalised for acute coronary syndromes. There have been reports in worldwide studies of an association between anaemia and poor prognosis in patients with Acute Coronary Syndromes (ACS. MATERIALS AND METHODS All consecutive patients having ST-elevation myocardial infarction, non-ST elevation myocardial infarction and unstable angina who were admitted in medicine ward, Medicine Intensive Care Unit (MICU, Cardiology Department (CRD, Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery (CVTS Department and incidentally found in other departments of Acharya Vinoba Bhave Rural Hospital admitted from 1st November 2014 to 31st December 2015 at AVBRH. Total 200 patients were included in the study. RESULTS Our study showed an association between haemoglobin levels and mean age (p=0.0001, gender (p=0.0001, risk factors like smoking (p=0.035, tobacco (p=0.001 and Killip’s class I (p=0.0001, III (p=0.0001 and IV (p=0.0001. On distribution of the MACE’s during hospital stay stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. On distribution of the MACE’s during follow up on 30th day and on 180th day stratified with Hb levels, the results of analysis by Chi-square test showed that there were statistically significant differences at various haemoglobin levels in MACE’s as post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart failure, VT/VF and death (p<0.05 for all. CONCLUSION To conclude our study results, it was found during the study that anaemia as an important risk factor was strongly associated with major adverse outcomes in patients with ACS. Our study suggested that there was a statistically significant correlation between the low Hb levels and MACE’s (post-infarction angina, re-infarction, heart

  20. Haemoglobin Rahere (beta Lys-Thr): A new high affinity haemoglobin associated with decreased 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding and relative polycythaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorkin, P A; Stephens, A D; Beard, M E; Wrigley, P F; Adams, L; Lehmann, H

    1975-01-01

    A new haemoglobin with increased oxygen affinity, beta82 (EF6) lysine leads to threonine (Hb Rahere), was found during the investigation of a patient who was found to have a raised haemoglobin concentration after a routine blood count. The substitution affects one of the 2, 3-diphosphoglycerate binding sites, resulting in an increased affinity for oxygen, but both the haem-haem interaction and the alkaline Bohr effect are normal in the haemolysate. This variant had the same mobility as haemoglobin A on electrophoresis at alkaline pH but was detected by measuring the whole blood oxygen affinity; it could be separated from haemoglobin A, however, by electrophoresis in agar at acid pH. The raised haemoglobin concentration was mainly due to a reduction in plasma volume (a relative polycythaemia) and was associated with a persistently raised white blood count. This case emphasises the need to measure the oxygen affinity of haemoglobin in all patients with absolute or relative polycythaemia when some obvious cause is not evident. PMID:124

  1. Automatic NAA. Saturation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westphal, G.P.; Grass, F.; Kuhnert, M.

    2008-01-01

    A system for Automatic NAA is based on a list of specific saturation activities determined for one irradiation position at a given neutron flux and a single detector geometry. Originally compiled from measurements of standard reference materials, the list may be extended also by the calculation of saturation activities from k 0 and Q 0 factors, and f and α values of the irradiation position. A systematic improvement of the SRM approach is currently being performed by pseudo-cyclic activation analysis, to reduce counting errors. From these measurements, the list of saturation activities is recalculated in an automatic procedure. (author)

  2. Ethylene, nitric oxide and haemoglobins in plant tolerance to flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Chakraborty, U

    2015-01-01

    -tolerant species Rumex palustris and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been extensively exploited to reveal some key molecular events. Our groups have recently demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) triggers the biosynthesis of ethylene during stress and that NO plays key roles in PCD and the hyponastic......As much as 12% of the world's soils may suffer excess water so that flooding is a major limiting factor on crop production in many areas. Plants attempt to deal with submergence by forming root aerenchyma to facilitate oxygen diffusion from the shoot to the root, initiating a hyponastic response....... This chapter will detail our understanding of the roles of ethylene, NO and haemoglobin in flooding stress....

  3. Non-symbiotic haemoglobins-What's happening beyond nitric oxide scavenging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Robert D

    2012-01-01

    Non-symbiotic haemoglobins have been an active research topic for over 30 years, during which time a considerable portfolio of knowledge has accumulated relative to their chemical and molecular properties, and their presence and mode of induction in plants. While progress has been made towards understanding their physiological role, there remain a number of unanswered questions with respect to their biological function. This review attempts to update recent progress in this area and to introduce a hypothesis as to how non-symbiotic haemoglobins might participate in regulating hormone signal transduction. Advances have been made towards understanding the structural nuances that explain some of the differences in ligand association characteristics of class 1 and class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobins. Non-symbiotic haemoglobins have been found to function in seed development and germination, flowering, root development and differentiation, abiotic stress responses, pathogen invasion and symbiotic bacterial associations. Microarray analyses under various stress conditions yield uneven results relative to non-symbiotic haemoglobin expression. Increasing evidence of the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hormone responses and the known involvement of non-symbiotic haemoglobins in scavenging NO provide opportunities for fruitful research, particularly at the cellular level. Circumstantial evidence suggests that non-symbiotic haemoglobins may have a critical function in the signal transduction pathways of auxin, ethylene, jasmonic acid, salicylic acid, cytokinin and abscisic acid. There is a strong need for research on haemoglobin gene expression at the cellular level relative to hormone signal transduction.

  4. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES  Two main blood storage procedures can be used for storing red blood cells: refrigeration and freezing. Nevertheless, the efficiency of these procedures measured as the increase in haemoglobin after reinfusion compared with baseline has never been examined. The main...... objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... of circulating haemoglobin by carbon monoxide rebreathing provided an opportunity to monitor recovery from anaemia, as well as the net increase in circulating haemoglobin after transfusion. RESULTS  The post-thaw yield of haemoglobin in the bags was 72% after refrigerated storage compared with only 52% after...

  5. The impact of prematurity on fetal haemoglobin and how it can bias measurement of glycated haemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Esberg, Gitte; Grytter, Carl

    Background: The extent to which fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentrations are increased in premature infants at the age of six to eight months is only sporadically described. The influence of HbF on measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been investigated in this population. Methods......: As part of a nutritional study on premature children, HbF and HbA1c were measured in 46 premature infants at the age of six to eight months. Results: Median HbF percentage was 10.3% (range 2.0 to 39.2%). In a multiple regression model only birth weight (P = 0.002) and post-conceptional age (P ... significantly from unadjusted values (4.4±0.4%), (P premature infants at six to eight months of age. The clinical implication of this work is a renewed attention on the prolonged Hb...

  6. [Cerebral protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattaneo, A D

    1993-09-01

    Cerebral protection means prevention of cerebral neuronal damage. Severe brain damage extinguishes the very "human" functions such as speech, consciousness, intellectual capacity, and emotional integrity. Many pathologic conditions may inflict injuries to the brain, therefore the protection and salvage of cerebral neuronal function must be the top priorities in the care of critically ill patients. Brain tissue has unusually high energy requirements, its stores of energy metabolites are small and, as a result, the brain is totally dependent on a continuous supply of substrates and oxygen, via the circulation. In complete global ischemia (cardiac arrest) reperfusion is characterized by an immediate reactive hyperemia followed within 20-30 min by a delayed hypoperfusion state. It has been postulated that the latter contributes to the ultimate neurologic outcome. In focal ischemia (stroke) the primary focus of necrosis is encircled by an area (ischemic penumbra) that is underperfused and contains neurotoxic substances such as free radicals, prostaglandins, calcium, and excitatory neurotransmitters. The variety of therapeutic effort that have addressed the question of protecting the brain reflects their limited success. 1) Barbiturates. After an initial enthusiastic endorsement by many clinicians and years of vigorous controversy, it can now be unequivocally stated that there is no place for barbiturate therapy following resuscitation from cardiac arrest. One presumed explanation for this negative statement is that cerebral metabolic suppression by barbiturates (and other anesthetics) is impossible in the absence of an active EEG. Conversely, in the event of incomplete ischemia EEG activity in usually present (albeit altered) and metabolic suppression and hence possibly protection can be induced with barbiturates. Indeed, most of the animal studies led to a number of recommendations for barbiturate therapy in man for incomplete ischemia. 2) Isoflurane. From a cerebral

  7. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (Columba livia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin at low pH (5.5) and high ionic concentration (1 M) using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method is reported. Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°

  8. Gluon Saturation and EIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sichtermann, Ernst

    2016-12-15

    The fundamental structure of nucleons and nuclear matter is described by the properties and dynamics of quarks and gluons in quantum chromodynamics. Electron-nucleon collisions are a powerful method to study this structure. As one increases the energy of the collisions, the interaction process probes regions of progressively higher gluon density. This density must eventually saturate. An high-energy polarized Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) has been proposed to observe and study the saturated gluon density regime. Selected measurements will be discussed, following a brief introduction.

  9. Differences in iron acquisition from human haemoglobin among strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashida, H.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    . actinomycetemcomitans strains examined harboured a single genomic sequence with homology to the hgpA gene encoding haemoglobin-binding protein A in Haemophilus influenzae. However, in all three strains belonging to the JP2 clone and in one serotype e strain hgpA was a pseudogene. Seven other strains possessed...... a functional hgpA gene which, according to insertion mutagenesis experiments, was responsible for the ability of these strains to utilize haemoglobin as a source of iron. Thus, the presence of an hgpA pseudogene and the inability to use human haemoglobin as an iron source discriminate the high-toxic JP2 clone...

  10. Seasonal changes in cell mediated immune responses to soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children with haemoglobin AA and haemoglobin AS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    of tuberculin (PPD). The lymphoproliferative responses to SPAg of the paired PBMC samples showed 2 distinct seasonal changes in relation to the haemoglobin phenotype. In HbAA children, the lymphoproliferative responses to SPAg were suppressed during the malaria season. In contrast, they were enhanced in Hb......AS children during the malaria season. No distinct seasonal change in the response to PPD was found in relation to the haemoglobin phenotype. The study points to the role of the sickle cell trait in modulating the cellular immune responses to falciparum malaria....

  11. Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in all age ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Point-of-care estimation of haemoglobin concentration in all age groups in clinical ... and the results were compared using standard scatter and difference plots. ... Hb measurements with a smaller sample volume, improved turnaround time, ...

  12. Haemoglobin concentrations appear to be lower in indigenous Greenlanders than in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G

    2001-01-01

    's correlation coefficient (rs). RESULTS: Greenlanders: Haemoglobin levels were not correlated with age or consumption of traditional foods, and were not significantly different in the three residential areas. Mean haemoglobin was higher in men, 146+/-9.6 (SD) g/L, than in women, 132+/-9.6 g/L (p... haemoglobin in iron-replete men with serum ferritin >32 microg/L (n=104) was 146+/-9.3 g/L, and in iron-replete women (n=68) 133+/-10.4 g/L (pwomen 118 g/L (7.3 mmol/L). The prevalence of iron deficiency anaemia...... (i.e. ferritin women) was 0% in men, 2.78% in women women >50 yr of age. Danes: Mean haemoglobin in men was 154+/-10.0 g/L and in women 138+/-10.4 g/L (p

  13. Low resolution solution structure of the Apo form of Escherichia coli haemoglobin protease Hbp.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    scott, D.J.; Grossman, J.G.; Tame, J.R.H.; Byron, O.; Wilson, K.S.; Otto, B.R.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the solution properties of the apo form of the haemoglobin protease or "haemoglobinase", Hbp, a principal component of an important iron acquisition system in pathogenic Escherichia coli. Experimental determination of secondary structure content from circular dichroism (CD)

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies on avian haemoglobin from pigeon (Columba livia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Neelagandan, K.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Haemoglobin is a physiologically significant metalloprotein that is involved in the exchange of gases for sustaining life. The respiratory system of birds is unique and complex compared with that of mammals. Many investigations of avian haemoglobins have revealed the presence of inositol pentaphosphate (IP5), a principal allosteric effector that is involved in regulation of their function. Structural investigations of avian haemoglobins are presently not adequate to explain their function. Efforts have been made in this direction in order to understand the oxygen-binding affinity involved in adapting to hypoxia in avian haemoglobins. Fresh whole blood was collected from pigeon (Columba livia) and purified using a DEAE cellulose anion-exchange chromatographic column. Crystallization of pigeon haemoglobin was accomplished using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as a precipitant in 50 mM sodium acetate buffer pH 5.5 with 1 M NaCl. Data collection was carried out using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals diffracted to 2 Å resolution. Pigeon haemoglobin crystallizes in a triclinic space group, with two whole biological molecules in the asymmetric unit and with unit-cell parameters a = 55.005, b = 65.528, c = 104.370 Å, α = 78.742, β = 89.819, γ = 65.320°. PMID:19194000

  15. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  16. United Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your local affiliate Find your local affiliate United Cerebral Palsy United Cerebral Palsy (UCP) is a trusted resource for individuals with Cerebral Palsy and other disabilities and their networks. Individuals with ...

  17. Employees with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Home | Accommodation and Compliance Series: Employees with Cerebral Palsy (CP) By Eddie Whidden, MA Preface Introduction Information ... SOAR) at http://AskJAN.org/soar. Information about Cerebral Palsy (CP) What is CP? Cerebral palsy is a ...

  18. Birth Defects: Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss > Birth defects & other health conditions > Cerebral palsy Cerebral palsy E-mail to a friend Please fill in ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Cerebral palsy (also called CP) is a group of conditions ...

  19. T2-prepared velocity selective labelling : A novel idea for full-brain mapping of oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra M A; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon J N L; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Petersen, Esben T

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIM: Disturbances in cerebral oxygenation saturation (SO2) have been linked to adverse outcome in adults, children, and neonates. In intensive care, the cerebral SO2 is increasingly being monitored by Near-InfraRed Spectroscopy (NIRS). Unfortunately NIRS has a limited penetration

  20. Cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truwit, C.L.; Barkovich, A.J.; Koch, T.; Ferreiro, D.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reviews cranial MR findings in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) to clarify and categorize this disorder. The MR images of 40 patients with clinical CP were retrospectively reviewed. All patients suffered either varying spastic plegias, hypotonicity, or choreoathetosis. Concomitantly, the patients suffered from static encephalopathy, developmental delay, and/or microcephaly. Twenty-four patients were born at or near term, 10 were premature, and incomplete birth histories were available in six. The MR images revealed mild to severe degrees of white matter damage in 24 patients (12 term, nine premature, three unknown)

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, S. S.; Ramesh, P.; Sivakumar, K.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2009-01-01

    Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of haemoglobin from ostrich (Struthio camelus) has been carried out under 293 K temperature conditions. The ostrich is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate in erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich heamoglobin. Haemoglobin is a tetrameric protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. The oxygen-binding properties of haemoglobin are regulated through the binding of allosteric effectors. The respiratory system of avian species is unique and complex in nature when compared with that of mammals. In avian species, inositol pentaphosphate (inositol-P 5 ) is present in the erythrocytes of the adult and is thought to be the major factor responsible for the relatively high oxygen affinity of the whole blood. The ostrich (Struthio camelus) is a large flightless bird which contains inositol tetrakisphosphate (inositol-P 4 ) in its erythrocytes and its whole blood oxygen affinity is higher. Efforts have been made to explore the structure–function relationship of ostrich haemoglobin. Ostrich haemoglobin was purified using ion-exchange chromatography. Haemoglobin crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant in 50 mM phosphate buffer pH 7.2. Data were collected using a MAR345 image-plate detector system. The crystals of ostrich haemoglobin diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. They belonged to the orthorhombic space group P2 1 2 1 2 1 with one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit; the unit-cell parameters were a = 80.93, b = 81.68, c = 102.05 Å

  2. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates.We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt.The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values.We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  3. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jodie L Rummer

    Full Text Available The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2 transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb. A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect and carrying capacity (Root effect. This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human. We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2 associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2, Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts.

  4. NMR imaging of cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takusagawa, Yoshihiko; Yamaoka, Naoki; Doi, Kazuaki; Okada, Keisei

    1987-01-01

    One hundred and five patients with cerebral infarction were studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) CT (resistive type of magnet with strength of 0.1 tesla) and X-ray CT. Pulse sequences used saturation recovery (Tr = 600 mSec), Inversion recovery (Tr = 500 mSec, Td = 300 mSec) and spin echo (Tr = 1500 mSec, Te = 40, 80, 120, 160 mSec). Fifteen cases were examined by NMR-CT within 24 hours from onset. Proton NMR imaging could not detect cerebral ischemia as early as 2 hours after onset, but except could detect the lesions in Se image the area of cerebral infarct 3 hours after onset. After 5 hours from onset image changes in SE were evident and corresponded to the area of cerebral infarct, but image changes in IR could not fully delineate the infarcted area. NMR images of 41 year-old woman with cerebral embolism by MCA trunck occlusion associated with mitral stenosis were presented, and NMR-CT was examined 10 hours, 9th and 43th days after episode of MCA occlusion. Sixty patents (64 times) with lacunar infarction were studied by NMR-CT and X-ray CT. The inversion recovery images were used mainly for detection of lesions and comparison with X-ray CT. In 160 lesions which were detected by NMR-CT or X-ray CT, could 156 lesions be detected by NMR-CT and 78 lesions by X-ray CT. Inversion recovery images were more useful for detection of lacunes than X-ray CT. Calculated T1 and T2 values prolonged with time course from onset. (author)

  5. Risk factors and consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels during pregnancy: a population-based prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillard, Romy; Eilers, Paul H C; Yassine, Siham; Hofman, Albert; Steegers, Eric A P; Jaddoe, Vincent W V

    2014-05-01

    To determine sociodemographic and life style-related risk factors and trimester specific maternal, placental, and fetal consequences of maternal anaemia and elevated haemoglobin levels in pregnancy. In a population-based prospective cohort study of 7317 mothers, we measured haemoglobin levels in early pregnancy [gestational age median 14.4 weeks (inter-quartile-range 12.5-17.5)]. Anaemia (haemoglobin ≤11 g/dl) and elevated haemoglobin levels (haemoglobin ≥13.2 g/dl) were defined according to the WHO criteria. Maternal blood pressure, placental function and fetal growth were measured in each trimester. Data on gestational hypertensive disorders and birth outcomes was collected from hospitals. Older maternal age, higher body mass index, primiparity and European descent were associated with higher haemoglobin levels (P pregnancy (mean differences 5.1 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.8, 6.5 and 4.1 mmHg, 95% CI 3.0, 5.2, respectively) and with a higher risk of third trimester uterine artery notching (RR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0, 1.7). As compared with maternal normal haemoglobin levels, not anaemia, but elevated haemoglobin levels were associated with fetal head circumference, length, and weight growth restriction from third trimester onwards (P pregnancy. Elevated haemoglobin levels are associated with increased risks of maternal, placental, and fetal complications. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Cerebral Palsy (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Cerebral Palsy KidsHealth / For Teens / Cerebral Palsy What's in this ... do just what everyone else does. What Is Cerebral Palsy? Cerebral palsy (CP) is a disorder of the ...

  7. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  8. Haemoglobin variants may cause significant differences in haemoglobin A1c as measured by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic methods in diabetic patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otabe, Shuichi; Nakayama, Hitomi; Ohki, Tsuyoshi; Soejima, Eri; Tajiri, Yuji; Yamada, Kentaro

    2017-07-01

    Background We aimed to determine whether the discrepancy between haemoglobin A1c values determined by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic haemoglobin A1c measurements in diabetic patients was clinically relevant. Methods We randomly recruited 1421 outpatients undergoing diabetic treatment and follow-up who underwent at least three haemoglobin A1c measurements between April 2014 and March 2015 at our clinic. In 6369 samples, haemoglobin A1c was simultaneously measured by HA-8160 and MetaboLead (enzymatic assay), and the values were compared. Results haemoglobin A1c measurements by high-performance liquid chromatography and enzymatic assay were strongly correlated (correlation coefficient: 0.9828, linear approximation curve y = 0.9986x - 0.2507). Mean haemoglobin A1c (6.8 ± 1.0%) measured by high-performance liquid chromatography was significantly higher than that measured by enzymatic assay (6.5 ± 1.0%, P liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay. Of these, three had Hb Toranomon [β112 (G14) Cys→Trp]. The fourth had Hb Ube-2 [α68 (E17) Asn→Asp]. One other subject presented consistently higher haemoglobin A1c values (>1%) by high-performance liquid chromatography than those from enzymatic assay and was diagnosed with a -77 (T > C) mutation in the δ-globin gene. These unrelated asymptomatic subjects had normal erythrocyte profiles, without anaemia. Conclusions We showed that haemoglobin A1c values measured by high-performance liquid chromatography were significantly higher than those measured by enzymatic assay in diabetic subjects. However, when an oversized deviation (>0.7%) between glycaemic control status and haemoglobin A1c is apparent, clinicians should check the methods used to measure haemoglobin A1c and consider the possible presence of a haemoglobin variant.

  9. How Noninvasive Haemoglobin Measurement with Pulse CO-Oximetry Can Change Your Practice: An Expert Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregor Lindner

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Trauma related haemorrhagic anaemia is rarely diagnosed by physical examination alone but typically includes measurement of blood haemoglobin, one of the most frequently ordered laboratory tests. Recently, noninvasive technologies have been developed that allow haemoglobin to be measured immediately without the need for intravenous access or having to take venous, arterial, or capillary blood. Moreover, with these technologies haemoglobin can be continuously measured in patients with active bleeding, to guide the start and stop of blood transfusions and to detect occult bleeding. Recent studies on the accuracy of the devices showed promising results in terms of accuracy of hemoglobin measurement compared to laboratory determination. The present review gives an overview on the technology itself and reviews the current literature on the subject.

  10. Hepcidin plasma levels are not associated with changes in haemoglobin in early rheumatoid arthritis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østgård, R D; Glerup, H; Jurik, A G

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A reduction in haemoglobin level is a frequent complication among rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Hepcidin has been linked to disturbed erythropoiesis. The objective of this study was to investigate the longitudinal changes in hepcidin in patients with early RA. Method: Hepcidin...... with disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs) and with additional adalimumab (ADA, n = 42) or placebo (PLA, n = 38) during 52 weeks, using a treat-to-target strategy, aiming for a 28-joint Disease Activity Score (DAS28) levels [median (interquartile range)] were 9...... = 0.48, p levels of haemoglobin and hepcidin at baseline or during the 52 week follow-up. No change in haemoglobin levels was seen as a function of hepcidin changes. In a mixed statistical model, no single factor was connected with the regulation...

  11. Crystallization and diffraction patterns of the oxy and cyano forms of the Lucina pectinata haemoglobins complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, Carlos R.; Nieves-Marrero, Carlos A.; Estremera-Andújar, Rafael A.; Gavira, José A.; González-Ramírez, Luis A.; López-Garriga, Juan; García-Ruiz, Juan M.

    2008-01-01

    The native oxygen-carrier haemoglobins complex (HbII–III) is composed of haemoglobin II (HbII) and haemoglobin III (HbIII), which are found in the ctenidia tissue of the bivalve mollusc Lucina pectinata. This protein complex was isolated and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion and capillary counter-diffusion methods. The native oxygen-carrier haemoglobins complex (HbII–III) is composed of haemoglobin II (HbII) and haemoglobin III (HbIII), which are found in the ctenidia tissue of the bivalve mollusc Lucina pectinata. This protein complex was isolated and purified from its natural source and crystallized using the vapour-diffusion and capillary counter-diffusion methods. Oxy and cyano derivatives of the complex crystallized using several conditions, but the best crystals in terms of quality and size were obtained from sodium formate pH 5 using the counter-diffusion method in a single capillary. Crystals of the oxy and cyano complexes, which showed a ruby-red colour and nonsingular prismatic shapes, scattered X-rays to resolution limits of 2.15 and 2.20 Å, respectively, using a 0.886 Å synchrotron-radiation source. The crystals belonged to the tetragonal system, space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 74.07, c = 152.07 and a = b = 73.83, c = 152.49 Å for the oxy and cyano complexes, respectively. The asymmetric unit of both crystals is composed of a single copy of the heterodimer, with Matthew coefficients (V M ) of 3.08 and 3.06 Å 3 Da −1 for the oxy and cyano complexes, respectively, which correspond to a solvent content of approximately 60.0% by volume

  12. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Vibeke Ramsgaard; Rasmussen, Martin Bo; Hahn, Gitte Holst

    2017-01-01

    measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA) capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA...... capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057). Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion. Conclusion......: Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by dopamine infusion. Thus, dopamine does not appear to impair CA in newborn piglets....

  13. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  14. Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Auger, Héloïse; Bherer, Louis; Boucher, Étienne; Hoge, Richard; Lesage, Frédéric; Dehaes, Mathieu

    2016-01-01

    Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation (SO2) in young adults...

  15. Cerebral Vasculitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fariborz Khorvash

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vasculitis is an inflammation systems may be involved of blood vessels due to various origins. Vessels of the peripheral and/or central nervous. Vasculitis of the CNS is rare and occurs in the context of systemic diseases or as primary angiitis of the CNS. Epidemiology: The overall incidence of primary vasculitis is about 40/1,000,000 persons [excluding giant cell (temporal arteritis, GCA]. Its incidence increases with age. The incidence of GCA is much higher (around 200/1,000,000 persons in the age group[50 years. Clinical Presentation: Clinical and pathological presentation in CNS vasculitis represents a wide spectrum. Among others, headache, cranial nerve affections, encephalopathy, seizures, psychosis, myelitis, stroke, intracranial haemorrhage and aseptic meningoencephalitis are described. Primary and secondary vasculitides leading more frequently to CNS manifestations are discussed. Primary and secondary Vasculitides: Including Giant Cell (Temporal Arteritis , Takayasu arteritis, Polyarteritis nodosa, Primary angiitis of the CNS, Wegener’s granulomatosis, and Connective tissue diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE, scleroderma, rheumatoid arthritis, mixed connective disease and Sjögren syndrome, are systemic immune-mediated diseases that lead to multiple organ affections. Cerebral Vasculitis: Imaging and Differential Diagnosis: Vasculitides represent a heterogeneous group of inflammatory diseases that affect blood vessel walls of varying calibers (inflammatory vasculopathy. Since the devastating symptoms of CNS vasculitis are at least partially reversible, early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are important. In order to establish a differential diagnosis clinical features, disease progression, age of onset, blood results, as well as CSF examinations have to be taken into consideration. Neuroimaging techniques, such as MRI and DSA, play a central role in the diagnosis and disease monitoring .The diagnostic

  16. nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Earl, S. R.; Valett, H. M.; Webster, J. R.

    2006-01-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer ((NO3)-N-15-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient ...

  17. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO2) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO2) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO2. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l-1 (±58 µM) and ±4

  18. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  19. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO 2 ) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO 2 and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO 2 . The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of ±3.8 g l -1 (±58

  20. Role of the duplicated CCAAT box region in γ-globin gene regulation and hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ronchi (Antonella); M. Berry (Meera); S. Raguz (Selina); A.M.A. Imam (Ali); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); S. Ottolenghi (Sergio); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); N.O. Dillon (Niall)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractHereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) is a clinically important condition in which a change in the developmental specificity of the gamma-globin genes results in varying levels of expression of fetal haemoglobin in the adult. The condition is benign and can significantly

  1. Reliability and validity of non-invasive determined haemoglobin mass and blood volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2018-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invas...

  2. Serum Iron and Haemoglobin Estimation in Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Iron Deficiency Anaemia: A Diagnostic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Divya; Dinkar, Ajit D; Satoskar, Sujata K; Desai, Sapna Raut

    2016-12-01

    Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF) is a premalignant condition with potential malignant behaviour characterized by juxta-epithelial fibrosis of the oral cavity. In the process of collagen synthesis, iron gets utilized, by the hydroxylation of proline and lysine, leading to decreased serum iron levels. The trace element like iron is receiving much attention in the detection of oral cancer and precancerous condition like OSMF as it was found to be significantly altered in these conditions. The aim of this study was to compare the haemoglobin and serum iron values of OSMF subjects with that of iron deficiency anaemia subjects. Total of 120 subjects were included, 40 subjects with the OSMF, 40 with the iron deficiency anemia without tobacco chewing habit, 40 healthy control subjects without OSMF and iron deficiency anaemia. A total of 5ml of venous blood was withdrawn from all the subjects and serum iron and haemoglobin levels were estimated for all the subjects. Estimation of iron was done using Ferrozine method and haemoglobin by Sahli's method. The statistical method applied were Kruskal Wallis, Mann Whitney and Pearson correlation coefficient test. There was a statistically significant difference in serum iron and haemoglobin level in all three groups (pauxillary test in assessment of prognosis of the disease.

  3. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowore, T.; Pisa, P.T.; Zyl, van Tertia; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Conradie, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis

  4. Racial variations in booking haemoglobin of primigravidae in Malaysia: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Albert Chao Chiet; Leong, Eugene Weng Kong; Chua, Ai Chen; Moy, Foong Ming

    2013-05-01

    Variations in racial haemoglobin had been previously described in multiple studies locally and abroad. This study was conducted to quantify the differences in haemoglobin of booking primigravidae amongst the three major races in Malaysia at the antenatal clinic of University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur. One year prospective study of booking full blood count sample of primigravidae taken in one centre was conducted. Multiple comparative analyses of the booking haemoglobin were performed using the One-way ANOVA comparative mean test in each trimester. 622 primigravidae without any known history of haematological disorders were recruited into the study. The mean haemoglobin for the Indian race was the lowest compared to the two other races in the second and the third trimesters, and it was found to be statistically significant lower (p- value 0.001) than the Malay race in the second trimester. It was also found that the Indian race had a significantly higher incidence of moderate to severe anaemia (p- value: 0.029). The prevalence of anaemia in our study population is also significantly higher in the Indian population (p- value: 0.01). The findings from this study have established that there is racial preponderance to anaemia in pregnancy. The Indian race is at a higher risk of having anaemia in pregnancy particularly in the second trimester.

  5. Haemoglobin modulates salicylate and jasmonate/ethylene-mediated resistance mechanisms against pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Sivakumaran, Anushen; Mandon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in defence against hemibiotrophic pathogens mediated by salicylate (SA) and also necrotrophic pathogens influenced by jasmonate/ethylene (JA/Et). This study examined how NO-oxidizing haemoglobins (Hb) encoded by GLB1, GLB2, and GLB3 in Arabidopsis could influence both...

  6. Inositol-P6 induced structural changes in duck major haemoglobin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bamiji Babalola

    2011-11-02

    Nov 2, 2011 ... of duck (Anas platyrhinchos) have been carried out in the presence of ... dependence profile of the apparent second-order rate constant of both oxy- and ... Key words: 5,5‟-Dithiobis (2-nitrobenzoate), duck, haemoglobin, inositol-P6, sulphydryl group. ... Saigo, 1999), thereby making it possible to detect the.

  7. Glycated haemoglobin may in future be reported as estimated mean blood glucose concentration--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Nerup, J.; Nathan, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) is widely used to determine levels of chronic glycaemia, to judge the adequacy of diabetes treatment and to adjust therapy. HbA 1c results are expressed as the percentage of HbA that is glycated. Day-to-day management is guided by self-monitoring of capillary glucose...

  8. Establishing traceability of photometric absorbance values for accurate measurements of the haemoglobin concentration in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witt, K.; Wolf, H. U.; Heuck, C.; Kammel, M.; Kummrow, A.; Neukammer, J.

    2013-10-01

    Haemoglobin concentration in blood is one of the most frequently measured analytes in laboratory medicine. Reference and routine methods for the determination of the haemoglobin concentration in blood are based on the conversion of haeme, haemoglobin and haemiglobin species into uniform end products. The total haemoglobin concentration in blood is measured using the absorbance of the reaction products. Traceable absorbance measurement values on the highest metrological level are a prerequisite for the calibration and evaluation of procedures with respect to their suitability for routine measurements and their potential as reference measurement procedures. For this purpose, we describe a procedure to establish traceability of spectral absorbance measurements for the haemiglobincyanide (HiCN) method and for the alkaline haematin detergent (AHD) method. The latter is characterized by a higher stability of the reaction product. In addition, the toxic hazard of cyanide, which binds to the iron ion of the haem group and thus inhibits the oxygen transport, is avoided. Traceability is established at different wavelengths by applying total least-squares analysis to derive the conventional quantity values for the absorbance from the measured values. Extrapolation and interpolation are applied to get access to the spectral regions required to characterize the Q-absorption bands of the HiCN and AHD methods, respectively. For absorbance values between 0.3 and 1.8, the contributions of absorbance measurements to the total expanded uncertainties (95% level of confidence) of absorbance measurements range from 1% to 0.4%.

  9. Saturation and linear transport equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutak, K.

    2009-03-01

    We show that the GBW saturation model provides an exact solution to the one dimensional linear transport equation. We also show that it is motivated by the BK equation considered in the saturated regime when the diffusion and the splitting term in the diffusive approximation are balanced by the nonlinear term. (orig.)

  10. Misconceptions in Reporting Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Toffaletti, John; Zijlstra, Willem G.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We describe some misconceptions that have become common practice in reporting blood gas and cooximetry results. In 1980, oxygen saturation was incorrectly redefined in a report of a new instrument for analysis of hemoglobin (Hb) derivatives. Oxygen saturation (sO(2)) was redefined as the

  11. [Cerebral aspergillosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattevin, P; Jauréguiberry, S; Gangneux, J-P

    2004-05-01

    The brain is almost always a localization of invasive aspergillosis, after hematogenous spread from pulmonary aspergillosis. Brain aspergilosis is not rare and is one of the worst prognosis factors of invasive aspergillosis. The incidence of this severe mycosis is currently on the rise due to the development of major immunosuppressive treatments. Brain aspergillosis is noteworthy for its vascular tropism, leading to infectious cerebral vasculitis, mainly involving thalamoperforating and lenticulostriate arteries, with a high frequency of thalamic or basal nuclei lesions. Extra-neurologic features that suggest this diagnosis are: i) risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (major or prolonged neutropenia, hematologic malignancies, prolonged corticosteroid treatment, bone marrow or solid organ transplant, AIDS); ii) persistent fever not responding to presumptive antibacterial treatment; iii) respiratory signs (brain aspergillosis is associated with pulmonary aspergillosis in 80 to 95 p. 100 of cases). Perspectives. Two recent major improvements in brain aspergillosis management must be outlined: i) for diagnostic purposes, the development of testing for Aspergillus antigenemia (a non-invasive procedure with good diagnostic value for invasive aspergillosis); ii) for therapeutic purposes, the demonstration that voriconazole is better than amphotericin B in terms of clinical response, tolerance and survival, for all types of invasive aspergillosis, the benefit being probably even greater in case of brain aspergillosis because of the good diffusion of voriconazole into the central nervous system. Brain aspergillosis is a severe emerging opportunistic infection for which diagnostic and therapeutic tools have recently improved. Thus, this diagnostic must be suspected early, especially in the immunocompromised patient, in the event of respiratory symptoms and when the brain lesions are localized in the central nuclei and the thalamus.

  12. Dynamic digitized cerebral parenchymography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theron, J.; Alachkar, F.; Nelson, M.; Mazia, D.

    1992-01-01

    Aortic arch injections centred on the head have been performed routinely in patients with cerebral ischaemia. Digital angiograms with modified windowing (low and narrow) have been used. This 'cerebral' arch injection allows much improved analysis of the cerebral parenchymal vascularization, giving better understanding of hemispheric ischaemia and making the decision about revascularization more rational. (orig.)

  13. Estimating skin blood saturation by selecting a subset of hyperspectral imaging data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Salerud, E. Göran; Strömberg, Tomas; Larsson, Marcus

    2015-03-01

    Skin blood haemoglobin saturation (?b) can be estimated with hyperspectral imaging using the wavelength (λ) range of 450-700 nm where haemoglobin absorption displays distinct spectral characteristics. Depending on the image size and photon transport algorithm, computations may be demanding. Therefore, this work aims to evaluate subsets with a reduced number of wavelengths for ?b estimation. White Monte Carlo simulations are performed using a two-layered tissue model with discrete values for epidermal thickness (?epi) and the reduced scattering coefficient (μ's ), mimicking an imaging setup. A detected intensity look-up table is calculated for a range of model parameter values relevant to human skin, adding absorption effects in the post-processing. Skin model parameters, including absorbers, are; μ's (λ), ?epi, haemoglobin saturation (?b), tissue fraction blood (?b) and tissue fraction melanin (?mel). The skin model paired with the look-up table allow spectra to be calculated swiftly. Three inverse models with varying number of free parameters are evaluated: A(?b, ?b), B(?b, ?b, ?mel) and C(all parameters free). Fourteen wavelength candidates are selected by analysing the maximal spectral sensitivity to ?b and minimizing the sensitivity to ?b. All possible combinations of these candidates with three, four and 14 wavelengths, as well as the full spectral range, are evaluated for estimating ?b for 1000 randomly generated evaluation spectra. The results show that the simplified models A and B estimated ?b accurately using four wavelengths (mean error 2.2% for model B). If the number of wavelengths increased, the model complexity needed to be increased to avoid poor estimations.

  14. Effects of Milrinone continuous intravenous infusion on global cerebral oxygenation and cerebral vasospasm after cerebral aneurysm surgical clipping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed A. Ghanem

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Milrinone improved significantly the global cerebral oxygenation and reduced the incidence of cerebral vasospasm during the dangerous period of cerebral spasm after cerebral aneurysm clipping.

  15. The relationship between helminth infections and low haemoglobin levels in Ethiopian children with blood type A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B

    2017-05-01

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction

  16. Awareness and distribution of ABO, Rhesus blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes among medical undergraduates in a Nigerian university.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akingbola, T S; Yuguda, S; Akinyemi, O O; Olomu, S

    2016-09-01

    In the past two decades the Nigerian government and religious organisations have put more emphasis on knowing the haemoglobin electrophoresis of school children and intending couples respectively. Knowledge of the distribution of blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoretic patterns among young people is vital for the prevention of haemoglobinopathies in the population and for providing effective blood banking services. Therefore, this study was designed to assess the frequency and awareness of blood group and haemoglobinphenotypes among a new set of fourth year clinical medical and dental students of the University of Ibadan, Nigeria. Data, including socio-demographics, self- reported blood group and haemoglobin phenotypes, were obtained from 155 students using a self-administered questionnaire. The ABO, Rhesus (Rh) blood groups and haemoglobin electrophoresis were determined by the tile (slide) technique and cellulose acetate at alkaline phrespectively. Only 43.9% of the participants knew their blood groups while less than a third (29.7%) knew their haemoglobin phenotypes. knowledge of both their blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes was documented in as low as 20.6% of the respondents. The frequency of haemoglobin AA, AS, AC and. CC were 78.0%, 16.8%, 3.9% and 1.3% respectively. Similarly, the distribution of blood groups were: 0 RhD positive - 47.8%;0 RhD negative- 1.9%;ARhD positive- 21.9%; A RhD negative - 1.3%; B RhD positive - 23.2%; B RhD negative -1.3% and AB RhD positive - 2.6%. No participant was AB RhD negative. Participants who bad previously donated blood and those who were females were more likely to know their blood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes respectively (pblood groups and haemoglobin phenotypes among the medical and dental students was poor. Documentation and routine screening for haemoglobinphenotypes as well as blood grouping, accompanied by appropriate counseling should be institutionalised in Nigeriantertiary institutions.

  17. Microembolism after cerebral angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manaka, Hiroshi; Sakai, Hideki; Nagata, Izumi

    2000-01-01

    Acute microemboli are detected more precisely with the recently developed diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI). We happened to obtain 24 DWIs after 350 diagnostic cerebral angiographies in 1999. DWIs after cerebral angiographies showed bright lesions in 7 patients (28%), of whom 6 had no neurological symptoms after cerebral angiography. Seven of the 24 patients had risk factors for arteriosclerosis. Only one patient had embolic events due to angiography. Microemboli related to cerebral angiographies are inevitable in some patients. Most are silent, however, we should investigate the cause of microemboli and should make cerebral angiography safer. (author)

  18. Landsliding in partially saturated materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godt, J.W.; Baum, R.L.; Lu, N.

    2009-01-01

    [1] Rainfall-induced landslides are pervasive in hillslope environments around the world and among the most costly and deadly natural hazards. However, capturing their occurrence with scientific instrumentation in a natural setting is extremely rare. The prevailing thinking on landslide initiation, particularly for those landslides that occur under intense precipitation, is that the failure surface is saturated and has positive pore-water pressures acting on it. Most analytic methods used for landslide hazard assessment are based on the above perception and assume that the failure surface is located beneath a water table. By monitoring the pore water and soil suction response to rainfall, we observed shallow landslide occurrence under partially saturated conditions for the first time in a natural setting. We show that the partially saturated shallow landslide at this site is predictable using measured soil suction and water content and a novel unified effective stress concept for partially saturated earth materials. Copyright 2009 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Low plasma concentrations of interleukin 10 in severe malarial anaemia compared with cerebral and uncomplicated malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurtzhals, J A; Adabayeri, V; Goka, B Q

    1998-01-01

    -back regulation of TNF, stimulates bone-marrow function in vitro and counteracts anaemia in mice. We investigated the associations of these cytokines with malarial anaemia. METHODS: We enrolled 175 African children with malaria into two studies in 1995 and 1996. In the first study, children were classified...... as having severe anaemia (n=10), uncomplicated malaria (n=26), or cerebral anaemia (n=41). In the second study, patients were classified as having cerebral malaria (n=33) or being fully conscious (n=65), and the two groups were subdivided by measured haemoglobin as normal (>110 g/L), moderate anaemia (60...... anaemia was 270 pg/mL (95% CI 152-482) compared with 725 pg/mL (465-1129) in uncomplicated malaria and 966 pg/mL (612-1526) in cerebral malaria (pcerebral...

  20. Nitrogen saturation in stream ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earl, Stevan R; Valett, H Maurice; Webster, Jackson R

    2006-12-01

    The concept of nitrogen (N) saturation has organized the assessment of N loading in terrestrial ecosystems. Here we extend the concept to lotic ecosystems by coupling Michaelis-Menten kinetics and nutrient spiraling. We propose a series of saturation response types, which may be used to characterize the proximity of streams to N saturation. We conducted a series of short-term N releases using a tracer (15NO3-N) to measure uptake. Experiments were conducted in streams spanning a gradient of background N concentration. Uptake increased in four of six streams as NO3-N was incrementally elevated, indicating that these streams were not saturated. Uptake generally corresponded to Michaelis-Menten kinetics but deviated from the model in two streams where some other growth-critical factor may have been limiting. Proximity to saturation was correlated to background N concentration but was better predicted by the ratio of dissolved inorganic N (DIN) to soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), suggesting phosphorus limitation in several high-N streams. Uptake velocity, a reflection of uptake efficiency, declined nonlinearly with increasing N amendment in all streams. At the same time, uptake velocity was highest in the low-N streams. Our conceptual model of N transport, uptake, and uptake efficiency suggests that, while streams may be active sites of N uptake on the landscape, N saturation contributes to nonlinear changes in stream N dynamics that correspond to decreased uptake efficiency.

  1. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaimohan, S M; Naresh, M D; Arumugam, V; Mandal, A B

    2009-10-01

    Birds often show efficient oxygen management in order to meet the special demands of their metabolism. However, the structural studies of avian haemoglobins (Hbs) are inadequate for complete understanding of the mechanism involved. Towards this end, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out for parakeet Hb. Parakeet Hb was crystallized as the met form in low-salt buffered conditions after extracting haemoglobin from crude blood by microcentrifugation and purifying the sample by column chromatography. Good-quality crystals were grown from 10% PEG 3350 and a crystal diffracted to about 2.8 A resolution. Preliminary diffraction data showed that the Hb crystal belonged to the monoclinic system (space group C2), with unit-cell parameters a = 110.68, b = 64.27, c = 56.40 A, beta = 109.35 degrees . Matthews volume analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  2. The effect of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate on the oxygen dissociation curve of human haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodford, P J; Norrington, F E; Paterson, R A; Wootton, R

    1977-01-01

    1. Oxygen dissociation curves for concentrated human haemoglobin solutions (1.6 mmol dm-3 in haem) have been measured by mixing known quantities of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin solutions and measuring the resulting partial pressure of oxygen with an oxygen electrode. 2. Observations in the presence of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate support previous conclusions derived from experiments at low haemoglobin concentrations, the validity of which has been questioned. 3. The two affinity state model of Monod, Wyman & Changeux (1965) does not fully describe the actions of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and a model in which this allosteric effector not only binds preferentially to the T state but also lowers the oxygen affinity of this state gives an improved fit to the data. PMID:604451

  3. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  4. Purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies of parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaimohan, S. M.; Naresh, M. D.; Arumugam, V.; Mandal, A. B.

    2009-01-01

    Parakeet (Psittacula krameri) haemoglobin has been purified and crystallized under low salt buffered conditions. Preliminary analysis of the crystal that belonged to monoclinic system (C2) is reported. Birds often show efficient oxygen management in order to meet the special demands of their metabolism. However, the structural studies of avian haemoglobins (Hbs) are inadequate for complete understanding of the mechanism involved. Towards this end, purification, crystallization and preliminary X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out for parakeet Hb. Parakeet Hb was crystallized as the met form in low-salt buffered conditions after extracting haemoglobin from crude blood by microcentrifugation and purifying the sample by column chromatography. Good-quality crystals were grown from 10% PEG 3350 and a crystal diffracted to about 2.8 Å resolution. Preliminary diffraction data showed that the Hb crystal belonged to the monoclinic system (space group C2), with unit-cell parameters a = 110.68, b = 64.27, c = 56.40 Å, β = 109.35°. Matthews volume analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit

  5. Relationship of white blood cell counts, haemoglobin and ESR with IHD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahzad, F.; Shahzad Tawwab, S.; Abbas, A.

    2009-01-01

    To find any association of white blood cells, haemoglobin and ESR with ischemic heart disease in high risk native population. Methodology: The study included 93 male patients with Ischemic heart disease, between 40 and 60 years of age; 96 age and gender matched subjects. All study participants were non-diabetics. Complete blood cells count, haemoglobin and ESR levels were compared between the patient and control groups. Results: Total leukocyte counts along with neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group compared to the control population (p<0.001) and lymphocytes were significantly lower (p<0.001) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Haemoglobin levels were significantly lower (p<0.001) and ESR was higher (p=0.030) in the patient group as compared to the control group. Conclusion: Although, our findings of the study variables extend previous reports, the prevalence and prognostic importance of theses variables in IHD should be assessed in future experimental studies. These parameters could be important in public health because they are routinely measured by clinicians and may be helpful to predict the risk of future and secondary ischemic events in a high risk population. (author)

  6. Capillary crystallization and molecular-replacement solution of haemoglobin II from the clam Lucina pectinata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gavira, José A.; Jesus, Walleska de; Camara-Artigas, Ana; López-Garriga, Juan; García-Ruiz, Juan M.

    2006-01-01

    The haemoglobin II from the clam L. pectinata has been crystallized using counter-diffusion in single capillary in the presence of agarose to improve crystal quality. Initial phases have been obtained by molecular replacement. Haemoglobin II is one of three haemoglobins present in the cytoplasm of the Lucina pectinata mollusc that inhabits the Caribbean coast. Using HBII purified from its natural source, crystallization screening was performed using the counter-diffusion method with capillaries of 0.2 mm inner diameter. Crystals of HbII suitable for data collection and structure determination were grown in the presence of agarose at 0.1%(w/v) in order to improve their quality. The crystals belong to the tetragonal space group P4 2 2 1 2, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 73.92, c = 152.35 Å, and diffracted X-rays to a resolution of better than 2.0 Å. The asymmetric unit is a homodimer with a corresponding Matthews coefficient (V M ) of 3.15 Å 3 Da −1 and a solvent content of 61% by volume

  7. Haemoglobin, anaemia, dementia and cognitive decline in the elderly, a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poulter Ruth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anaemia may increase risk of dementia or cognitive decline. There is also evidence that high haemoglobin levels increase risk of stroke, and consequently possible cognitive impairment. The elderly are more at risk of developing dementia and are also more likely to suffer from anaemia, although there is relatively little longitudinal literature addressing this association. Methods To evaluate the evidence for any relationship between incident cognitive decline or dementia in the elderly and anaemia or haemoglobin level, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of peer reviewed publications. Medline, Embase and PsychInfo were searched for English language publications between 1996 and 2006. Criteria for inclusion were longitudinal studies of subjects aged ≥65, with primary outcomes of incident dementia or cognitive decline. Other designs were excluded. Results Three papers were identified and only two were able to be combined into a meta-analysis. The pooled hazard ratio for these two studies was 1.94 (95 percent confidence intervals of 1.32–2.87 showing a significantly increased risk of incident dementia with anaemia. It was not possible to investigate the effect of higher levels of haemoglobin. Conclusion Anaemia is one factor to bear in mind when evaluating risk of incident dementia. However, there are few data available and the studies were methodologically varied so a cautionary note needs to be sounded and our primary recommendation is that further robust research be carried out.

  8. Study of helminthiasis in pregnancy and its correlation with haemoglobin level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Shrinivas; Radhika; R, Sreelatha; K, Kavitha

    2014-10-01

    To study types of worm infestation in pregnancy and to correlate helminthiasis with haemoglobin level in antenatal women presenting in 2nd and 3rd trimester. This prospective cross sectional hospital based study conducted at Vanivilas hospital attached to Bangalore medical college, over a period of sixmonths. Study included 500 pregnant women attending antenatal opd in 2nd and 3rd trimester, selected by systematic random sampling method. Parasitic examination and haemoglobin estimation done respectively with Stool and blood samples collected from study group. Presence of parasites was correlated with haemoglobin percentage. Helminthiasis was found in 62 women (12.4%). All infected women had single type helminth infection. Ascariasis was more commonly found than hookworm (10% Vs 2.4%). Anaemia of various degrees was found in 88.7% of women with helminthiasis as compared to 56.4% women without worm infestation (p-value Helminthiasis is a significant burden in pregnancy and it is associated with anaemia. Hence, the policy of universal administration of anthelminthic drug in pregnancy after first trimester, as recommended by WHO should be practically enforced besides health education.

  9. Effect of Vitamin C and Tablets Fe on Haemoglobin Levels Against Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilo Wirawan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iron deficiency anaemia is the most common nutritional problem of pregnant women in Indonesia. The existing program/intervention has been implemented namely supplementation of iron pills for mothers at the third semester of pregnancy. This study aims to compare the effect of single and multiple micronutrients supplementation of iron and iron plus vitamin C. Methods: Type of the study is study experimental with the design of community intervention, implementing pre and post trials. Subjects were pregnant women at the second semester of pregnancy. Haemoglobin level was examinedby Cyanmet hemoglobin. Data analysis was done through independent and paired t-test. Results: showed that there were statistically signifi cant difference between the intervention and control group (p = 0.001. The haemoglobin level of the intervention group increased by 0.91 grm%, while the control group was 0.43 grm%. The proportion of anaemia amongpregnant mothers declined after intervention from 80.95 to 42.86 at the intervention group. Similarly, the proportion of anaemia of the control group reduced from 80.95% to 71.43% after the intervention. Conclusion: intervention with multiple micronutrients of Fe combined with vitamin C has more effect in changing the haemoglobin levels of pregnant mothers.Recommendation: Fe tablet administration should still be accompanied by vitamin C to help boost hemoglobin levels. Required for controlled administration of iron tablet, along with vitamin C so that the effect can be seen.

  10. Quantification of extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations during physical exercise using time-domain near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, Héloïse; Bherer, Louis; Boucher, Étienne; Hoge, Richard; Lesage, Frédéric; Dehaes, Mathieu

    2016-10-01

    Fitness is known to have beneficial effects on brain anatomy and function. However, the understanding of mechanisms underlying immediate and long-term neurophysiological changes due to exercise is currently incomplete due to the lack of tools to investigate brain function during physical activity. In this study, we used time-domain near infrared spectroscopy (TD-NIRS) to quantify and discriminate extra-cerebral and cerebral hemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation ( SO 2 ) in young adults at rest and during incremental intensity exercise. In extra-cerebral tissue, an increase in deoxy-hemoglobin ( HbR ) and a decrease in SO 2 were observed while only cerebral HbR increased at high intensity exercise. Results in extra-cerebral tissue are consistent with thermoregulatory mechanisms to dissipate excess heat through skin blood flow, while cerebral changes are in agreement with cerebral blood flow ( CBF ) redistribution mechanisms to meet oxygen demand in activated regions during exercise. No significant difference was observed in oxy- ( HbO 2 ) and total hemoglobin ( HbT ). In addition HbO 2 , HbR and HbT increased with subject's peak power output (equivalent to the maximum oxygen volume consumption; VO 2 peak) supporting previous observations of increased total mass of red blood cells in trained individuals. Our results also revealed known gender differences with higher hemoglobin in men. Our approach in quantifying both extra-cerebral and cerebral absolute hemoglobin during exercise may help to better interpret past and future continuous-wave NIRS studies that are prone to extra-cerebral contamination and allow a better understanding of acute cerebral changes due to physical exercise.

  11. Can the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen be estimated with near-infrared spectroscopy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boas, D A; Strangman, G; Culver, J P; Hoge, R D; Jasdzewski, G; Poldrack, R A; Rosen, B R; Mandeville, J B

    2003-01-01

    We have measured the changes in oxy-haemoglobin and deoxy-haemoglobin in the adult human brain during a brief finger tapping exercise using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO 2 ) can be estimated from these NIRS data provided certain model assumptions. The change in CMRO 2 is related to changes in the total haemoglobin concentration, deoxy-haemoglobin concentration and blood flow. As NIRS does not provide a measure of dynamic changes in blood flow during brain activation, we relied on a Windkessel model that relates dynamic blood volume and flow changes, which has been used previously for estimating CMRO 2 from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data. Because of the partial volume effect we are unable to quantify the absolute changes in the local brain haemoglobin concentrations with NIRS and thus are unable to obtain an estimate of the absolute CMRO 2 change. An absolute estimate is also confounded by uncertainty in the flow-volume relationship. However, the ratio of the flow change to the CMRO 2 change is relatively insensitive to these uncertainties. For the finger tapping task, we estimate a most probable flow-consumption ratio ranging from 1.5 to 3 in agreement with previous findings presented in the literature, although we cannot exclude the possibility that there is no CMRO 2 change. The large range in the ratio arises from the large number of model parameters that must be estimated from the data. A more precise estimate of the flow-consumption ratio will require better estimates of the model parameters or flow information, as can be provided by combining NIRS with fMRI

  12. Evaluation of haemoglobin (erythrogen): for improved somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2004-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is accelerated when the plant regeneration medium is supplemented with haemoglobin (erythrogen). In cotton SVPR 2 lines, a higher frequency of embryoid formation was observed when the medium contained 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Fresh weight of the callus, rate of embryoid induction, number of embryoids formed and the percentage of plant regeneration from somatic embryos were increased. Among the two different cultivars tested, MCU 11 showed no response to the presence of haemoglobin when compared to SVPR 2, and embryogenic callus formation was completely absent in the former. Medium containing MS salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol , 0.3 mg/l thiamine-HCL, 0.3 mg/l Picloram (PIC), 0.1 mg/l kinetin and 400 mg/l haemoglobin effected a better response with respect to embryogenic callus induction. After 8 weeks of culture, a high frequency of embryoid induction was observed on medium containing MS basal salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol, 0.3 mg/l PIC , 0.1 mg/l isopentenyl adenine, 1.0 g/l NH4NO3 and 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Plant regeneration was observed in 75.8% of the mature somatic embryos, and whole plant regeneration was achieved within 6-7 months of culture. The regenerated plantlets were fertile and similar to in vivo-grown, seed-derived plants except that they were phenotypically smaller. A positive influence of haemoglobin was observed at concentrations up to 400 mg/l at all stages of somatic embryogenesis. The increase in the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities, for example superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicated the presence of excess oxygen uptake and the stressed condition of the plant tissues that arose from haemoglobin supplementation. This increased oxygen uptake and haemoglobin-mediated stress appeared to accelerate somatic embryogenesis in cotton.

  13. Changes in haemoglobin levels according to changes in body mass index and smoking habits, a 20-year follow-up of a male cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjelbakken, Tove; Dahl, Inger Marie S.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Langbakk, Bodil; Lochen, Maja-Lisa

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin level declines with increasing age in cross sectional studies. Little is known about the longitudinal changes of haemoglobin. Because both high or low haemoglobin levels increase mortality and morbidity we examined how changes in lifestyle factors like body mass index (BMI) and smoking habits influence cohort changes in haemoglobin level. In all, 4159 men aged 20-49 years at baseline were examined in 1974 and 1994-1995 in a longitudinal, population-based study from the municipality of Tromso, Northern Norway. Mean haemoglobin was 148 g/l. There was no difference in mean haemoglobin after 20 years in any strata of age. Mean BMI increased 2.1 kg/m 2 . The prevalence of smokers decreased 20.1 percentage points. In a multiple regression analysis increase in BMI was associated with increased haemoglobin change. Smoking cessation lowered mean haemoglobin 1.6 g/l compared to never smokers. Haemoglobin increased 0.8 g/l in smoking quitters whose BMI increased >2.5 kg/m 2 compared to a decrease of 6.7 g/l in weight reducers. There was a positive dose-response relationship between changes in cigarettes smoked per day and change in haemoglobin among consistent smokers. In conclusion, in contrast to cross sectional studies, mean haemoglobin did not change during 20 years ageing of relatively young men. This could be explained by higher BMI and less smoking. The increase in BMI affected haemoglobin change to such an extent that the reduction in haemoglobin due to smoking cessation was counteracted. Prospective studies are needed to address the health implications

  14. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyriacou, P A; Shafqat, K; Pal, S K

    2007-01-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO 2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  15. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  16. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  17. Unchanged cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism after acclimatization to high altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Kirsten; Paulson, Olaf B; Hornbein, Thomas F.

    2002-01-01

    The authors investigated the effect of acclimatization to high altitude on cerebral blood flow and oxidative metabolism at rest and during exercise. Nine healthy, native sea-level residents were studied 3 weeks after arrival at Chacaltaya, Bolivia (5,260 m) and after reacclimatization to sea level....... At high altitude at rest, arterial carbon dioxide tension, oxygen saturation, and oxygen tension were significantly reduced, and arterial oxygen content was increased because of an increase in hemoglobin concentration. Global cerebral blood flow was similar in the four conditions. Cerebral oxygen delivery...... and cerebral metabolic rates of oxygen and glucose also remained unchanged, whereas cerebral metabolic rates of lactate increased slightly but nonsignificantly at high altitude during exercise compared with high altitude at rest. Reaction time was unchanged. The data indicate that cerebral blood flow...

  18. Cerebral venous angioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inagawa, Tetsuji; Taguchi, Haruyoshi; Kamiya, Kazuko; Yano, Takashi; Nakajima, Reiko

    1984-01-01

    This report presents a 27-year-old male patient who was diagnosed as having cerebral venous angioma in the postero-temporal area by CT scan and cerebral angiography. The patient improved by removing angioma with electrocoagulation of medullary veins. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Maternal anaemia at delivery and haemoglobin evolution in children during their first 18 months of life using latent class analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kobto G Koura

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Anaemia during pregnancy and at delivery is an important public health problem in low- and middle-income countries. Its association with the children's haemoglobin level over time remains unclear. Our goals were to identify distinct haemoglobin level trajectories using latent class analysis and to assess the association between these trajectories and maternal anaemia and other risk factors. METHOD: A prospective study of children from birth to 18 months of life was conducted in a rural setting in Tori-Bossito, Benin. The main outcome measure was the haemoglobin levels repeatedly measured at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18 months. Variables were collected from the mothers at delivery and from their children at birth and during the follow-up. The analyses were performed by means of Latent Class Analysis which has never been used for this kind of data. All the analyses were performed with Stata software, version 11.0, using the generalized linear latent and mixed model (GLLAMM framework. RESULTS: We showed that 33.7% of children followed a low haemoglobin trajectory and 66.3% a high trajectory during the first 18 months of life. Newborn anaemia, placental malaria, malaria attack, sickle cell trait and male gender were significantly associated with a lower children's haemoglobin level over time, whereas maternal age, children living in a polygamous family and with good feeding practices had a higher Hb level in the first18 months. We also showed that maternal anaemia was a predictor for 'low haemoglobin level trajectory' group membership but have no significant effect on children haemoglobin level over time. CONCLUSION: Latent Class Analyses framework seems well suited to analyse longitudinal data under the hypothesis that different subpopulations of subjects are present in the data, each with its own set of parameters, with distinctive evolutions that themselves may reflect distinctive aetiologies.

  20. Soluble haemoglobin is a marker of recent Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, P H; Bygbjerg, I C; Theander, T G

    1997-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (Mab) were raised against haemoglobin (Hb) associated with Plasmodium falciparum protein and used to develop an ELISA, measuring circulating levels of released Hb. This assay was evaluated in different malaria patients in parallel with ELISA assays for C-reactive protein (CR...... after treatment. Soluble Hb levels were associated with malariometric parameters in a similar fashion to haptoglobin. The new Mab-based assay for measuring soluble Hb in the peripheral blood of malaria patients may be useful for future epidemiological studies of malaria....

  1. Epidemiological evidence for the role of the haemoglobin receptor, HmbR, in meningococcal virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Odile B.; Evans, Nicholas J.; Blair, Jessica M.; Grimes, Holly S.; Tinsley, Colin R.; Nassif, Xavier; Kriz, Paula; Ure, Roisin; Gray, Steve J.; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the haemoglobin receptor gene (hmbR) was investigated in disease and carried Neisseria meningitidis isolates revealing that the gene occurred at a significantly higher frequency in disease isolates compared to those obtained from carriage. Where hmbR was absent, the locus was occupied by the cassettes exl2 or exl3, or with a “pseudo hmbR” gene designated exl4. The hmbR locus in published N. meningitidis genomes, as well as N. gonorrhoeae and N. lactamica ST-640, exhibited ...

  2. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.

  3. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi [Department of Radiology, Kyoto City Hospital, 1-2 Higashi-Takada-cho, Mibu, Nakagyo-ku, 604-8845 Kyoto (Japan); Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko [Department of Pediatric Neurology, St. Joseph Hospital for Handicapped Children, 603-8323 Kyoto (Japan)

    2002-10-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  4. Unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Katsumi; Kanda, Toyoko; Yamori, Yuriko

    2002-01-01

    We evaluated six children in whom MR imaging showed unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral atrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy. The aim of this study was to clarify whether this disorder based on neuroimaging constitutes a new homogeneous clinical entity. The subjects were six children whose ages at the time of MR imaging ranged from 8 months to 11 years. Their clinical and MR features were analyzed. All of the children were born between 38 and 42 weeks gestation, without any significant perinatal events. Spastic hemiplegia and epilepsy were observed in all of the patients, and mental retardation was observed in four. The MR findings included unilateral cerebral polymicrogyria associated with ipsilateral cerebral hemiatrophy and ipsilateral brain stem atrophy in all patients. The ipsilateral sylvian fissure was hypoplastic in four patients. These patients showed relatively homogeneous clinical and neuroimaging features. Although the additional clinical features varied according to the site and the extent affected by the polymicrogyria, this disorder could constitute a new relatively homogeneous clinical entity. (orig.)

  5. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harres, A.; Mikhov, M.; Skumryev, V.; Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E.; Geshev, J.

    2016-01-01

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe_3O_4 and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  6. Criteria for saturated magnetization loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harres, A. [Departamento de Física, UFSM, Santa Maria, 97105-900 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Mikhov, M. [Faculty of Physics, University of Sofia, 1164 Sofia (Bulgaria); Skumryev, V. [Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats, 08010 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Andrade, A.M.H. de; Schmidt, J.E. [Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil); Geshev, J., E-mail: julian@if.ufrgs.br [Departament de Física, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Instituto de Física, UFRGS, Porto Alegre, 91501-970 Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil)

    2016-03-15

    Proper estimation of magnetization curve parameters is vital in studying magnetic systems. In the present article, criteria for discrimination non-saturated (minor) from saturated (major) hysteresis loops are proposed. These employ the analysis of (i) derivatives of both ascending and descending branches of the loop, (ii) remanent magnetization curves, and (iii) thermomagnetic curves. Computational simulations are used in order to demonstrate their validity. Examples illustrating the applicability of these criteria to well-known real systems, namely Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} and Ni fine particles, are provided. We demonstrate that the anisotropy-field value estimated from a visual examination of an only apparently major hysteresis loop could be more than two times lower than the real one. - Highlights: • Proper estimation of hysteresis-loop parameters is vital in magnetic studies. • We propose criteria for discrimination minor from major hysteresis loops. • The criteria analyze magnetization, remanence and ZFC/FC curves and/or their derivatives. • Examples of their application on real nanoparticles systems are given. • Using the criteria could avoid twofold or bigger saturation-field underestimation errors.

  7. High activity antioxidant enzymes protect flying-fox haemoglobin against damage: an evolutionary adaptation for flight?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinke, N B; O'Brien, G M

    2006-11-01

    Flying-foxes are better able to defend haemoglobin against autoxidation than non-volant mammals such as sheep. When challenged with the common physiological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, haemolysates of flying-fox red blood cells (RBC) were far less susceptible to methaemoglobin formation than sheep. Challenge with 1-acetyl-2-phenylhydrazine (APH) caused only half as much methaemoglobin formation in flying-fox as in ovine haemolysates. When intact cells were challenged with phenazine methosulfate (PMS), flying-fox RBC partially reversed the oxidant damage, and reduced methaemoglobin from 40 to 20% over 2 h incubation, while ovine methaemoglobin remained at 40%. This reflected flying-fox cells' capacity to replenish GSH fast enough that it did not deplete beyond 50%, while ovine RBC GSH was depleted to around 20%. The greater capacity of flying-foxes to defend haemoglobin against oxidant damage may be explained in part by antioxidant enzymes catalase, superoxide dismutase and cytochrome-b ( 5 ) reductase having two- to four-fold higher activity than in sheep (P foxes.

  8. New technology increases perioperative haemoglobin levels for paediatric cardiopulmonary bypass: what is the benefit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuys, Clarke; Horton, Stephen; Bennett, Martin; Augustin, Simon

    2006-01-01

    Increasing perioperative haemoglobin level by reducing priming volume and maintaining a safe cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) system is the aim of every perfusionist. In this study, we have compared the two membrane oxygenators and pump systems used for paediatric bypass at the Royal Children's Hospital on a regular basis since 1988. We looked at all patients who had the Cobe VPCML (Cobe Laboratories, Denver, CO, USA) and Terumo RX-05 (Terumo Corporation, Tokyo, Japan) oxygenators used for flows from 800 mL/min up to the maximum rated flow for the respective oxygenator from January 2002 until March 2004. The VPCML refers to using only the 0.4-m2 section of the oxygenator. The pump systems used were the Stöckert CAPS (Stöckert Instrumente GmbH, Munich, Germany) and Jostra HL 30 (Jostra AB, Lund, Sweden). Changing from the VPCML to the RX-05 resulted in a 37% reduction in priming volume. The introduction of the Jostra HL 30 with a custom-designed mast system reduced the priming volume by another 15%. This change in priming volume allowed a significant increase, from 6 to 34%, in the percentage of patients who received bloodless primes, and for those patients who received blood primes, an increase in haemoglobin (Hb) on bypass from 8.2 to 9.6 g/dL, on average.

  9. External carotid compression: a novel technique to improve cerebral perfusion during selective antegrade cerebral perfusion for aortic arch surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grocott, Hilary P; Ambrose, Emma; Moon, Mike

    2016-10-01

    Selective antegrade cerebral perfusion (SACP) involving cannulation of either the axillary or innominate artery is a commonly used technique for maintaining cerebral blood flow (CBF) during the use of hypothermic cardiac arrest (HCA) for operations on the aortic arch. Nevertheless, asymmetrical CBF with hypoperfusion of the left cerebral hemisphere is a common occurrence during SACP. The purpose of this report is to describe an adjunctive maneuver to improve left hemispheric CBF during SACP by applying extrinsic compression to the left carotid artery. A 77-yr-old male patient with a history of aortic valve replacement presented for emergent surgical repair of an acute type A aortic dissection of a previously known ascending aortic aneurysm. His intraoperative course included cannulation of the right axillary artery, which was used as the aortic inflow during cardiopulmonary bypass and also allowed for subsequent SACP during HCA. After the onset of HCA, the innominate artery was clamped at its origin to allow for SACP. Shortly thereafter, however, the left-sided cerebral oxygen saturation (SrO2) began to decrease. Augmenting the PaO2, PaCO2 and both SACP pressure and flow failed to increase left hemispheric SrO2. Following the use of ultrasound guidance to confirm the absence of atherosclerotic disease in the carotid artery, external pressure was applied partially compressing the artery. With the carotid compression, the left cerebral saturation abruptly increased, suggesting pressurization of the left cerebral hemispheric circulation and augmentation of CBF. Direct ultrasound visualization and cautious partial compression of the left carotid artery may address asymmetrical CBF that occurs with SACP during HCA for aortic arch surgery. This strategy may lead to improved symmetry of CBF and corresponding cerebral oximetry measurements during aortic arch surgery.

  10. Mapping of calf muscle oxygenation and haemoglobin content during dynamic plantar flexion exercise by multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torricelli, Alessandro; Quaresima, Valentina; Pifferi, Antonio; Biscotti, Giovanni; Spinelli, Lorenzo; Taroni, Paola; Ferrari, Marco; Cubeddu, Rinaldo

    2004-01-01

    A compact and fast multi-channel time-resolved near-infrared spectroscopy system for tissue oximetry was developed. It employs semiconductor laser and fibre optics for delivery of optical signals. Photons are collected by eight 1 mm fibres and detected by a multianode photomultiplier. A time-correlated single photon counting board is used for the parallel acquisition of time-resolved reflectance curves. Estimate of the reduced scattering coefficient is achieved by fitting with a standard model of diffusion theory, while the modified Lambert-Beer law is used to assess the absorption coefficient. In vivo measurements were performed on five healthy volunteers to monitor spatial changes in calf muscle (medial and lateral gastrocnemius; MG, LG) oxygen saturation (SmO 2 ) and total haemoglobin concentration (tHb) during dynamic plantar flexion exercise performed at 50% of the maximal voluntary contraction. At rest SmO 2 was 73.0 ± 0.9 and 70.5 ± 1.7% in MG and LG, respectively (P = 0.045). At the end of the exercise, SmO 2 decreased (69.1 ± 1.8 and 63.8 ± 2.1% in MG and LG, respectively; P 2 and tHb

  11. Detection of cerebral atrophy in type- II diabetes mellitus by magnetic resonance imaging of brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, G.; Khan, N.; Aziz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that affects many systems in the body. Cerebral atrophy is one of the complications of diabetes and research is on going to find out its aetiopathological factors. The main aim of the study was to determine the frequency of cerebral atrophy in type-II diabetes mellitus using magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Methods: One hundred diabetic patients (Random blood sugar >126 mg/dl) were recruited in this study after the informed consent from every patient. Duration of diabetes was five years and more in all the patients as determined by their glycosylated haemoglobin which was >6 in all the patients. All the patients were undergone MRI of brain using 1.5 Tesla power magnetic resonance imaging machine of Picker Company. Evan's index, a specific parameter for measurement of cerebral atrophy was calculated on MR images and was used in this study. Results: In male group the frequency of cerebral atrophy was 22 (47%) and in female group it was found to be 23 (43%). When we study the overall population the frequency was found to be 45 (45%). The results are well in concordance with the previous data published on this issue. Conclusions: Cerebral atrophy, a complication of long standing diabetes is quite frequent in our population and is well diagnosed by MRI. (author)

  12. The effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furst, Daniel E; Kay, Jonathan; Wasko, Mary Chester; Keystone, Edward; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Deodhar, Atul; Murphy, Frederick T; Magnus, Jeanette H; Hsia, Elizabeth C; Hsu, Benjamin; Xu, Stephen; Rahman, Mahboob U; Doyle, Mittie K

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with RA, PsA or AS. Secondary analysis was performed on integrated data from five randomized controlled studies: three RA, one PsA and one AS (2303 patients total). Golimumab 50 or 100 mg was injected s.c. every 4 weeks with or without MTX. Control groups received placebo injections plus MTX or background therapy. Patients with haemoglobin levels below the age- and sex-specific normal ranges were considered to have anaemia. Ferritin levels were used to distinguish anaemia of mixed aetiology (≥ 15 and <60 ng/ml) and anaemia of inflammation (≥ 60 ng/ml). Changes from baseline to weeks 14 and 24 in haemoglobin level were compared between treatment groups using an analysis of variance on the van der Waerden normal scores. At baseline, 21% of RA patients, 9% of PsA patients and 15% of AS patients had anaemia. Of these, 24%, 57% and 25%, respectively, had anaemia of inflammation. The median increase from baseline to week 14 in the haemoglobin level of anaemic patients was 0.3 g/dl in the control group and 0.9 g/dl in the golimumab group (P < 0.001). Haemoglobin levels improved within the subgroups of patients with anaemia of mixed aetiology (control, 0.4 g/dl vs golimumab, 0.7 g/dl) (P = 0.305) and with anaemia of inflammation (0.2 vs 1.4 g/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001). Compared with the control group, patients receiving golimumab treatment had significantly improved haemoglobin levels, particularly among patients with anaemia of inflammation.

  13. Cerebral Palsy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Going to an Occupational Therapist Scoliosis In the Band: Jens' Story Cerebral ... KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For specific medical advice, diagnoses, and treatment, consult your doctor. © 1995- ...

  14. Cerebral Contusions and Lacerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion Cerebral contusions are ... Contusions and Lacerations Concussion Diffuse Axonal Injury Intracranial Hematomas Skull Fracture Sports-Related Concussion NOTE: This is ...

  15. Aspirin-mediated acetylation of haemoglobin increases in presence of high glucose concentration and decreases protein glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycation represents the first stage in the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin was shown to prevent sugars reacting with proteins, but the exact mechanism of this interaction was not well defined. We performed a quantitative analysis to calculate the levels of acetylation and glycation of haemoglobin, among others red blood cell (RBC proteins, using a label free approach. After glucose incubation, increases in the acetylation levels were seen for several haemoglobin subunits, while a parallel decrease of their glycation levels was observed after aspirin incubation. These results suggest that, a mutual influence between these two modifications, occur at protein level.

  16. Comparative genome-wide analysis and evolutionary history of haemoglobin-processing and haem detoxification enzymes in malarial parasites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponsuwanna, Patrath; Kochakarn, Theerarat; Bunditvorapoom, Duangkamon; Kümpornsin, Krittikorn; Otto, Thomas D; Ridenour, Chase; Chotivanich, Kesinee; Wilairat, Prapon; White, Nicholas J; Miotto, Olivo; Chookajorn, Thanat

    2016-01-29

    Malaria parasites have evolved a series of intricate mechanisms to survive and propagate within host red blood cells. Intra-erythrocytic parasitism requires these organisms to digest haemoglobin and detoxify iron-bound haem. These tasks are executed by haemoglobin-specific proteases and haem biocrystallization factors that are components of a large multi-subunit complex. Since haemoglobin processing machineries are functionally and genetically linked to the modes of action and resistance mechanisms of several anti-malarial drugs, an understanding of their evolutionary history is important for drug development and drug resistance prevention. Maximum likelihood trees of genetic repertoires encoding haemoglobin processing machineries within Plasmodium species, and with the representatives of Apicomplexan species with various host tropisms, were created. Genetic variants were mapped onto existing three-dimensional structures. Genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data were used to analyse the selective pressure and the effect of these mutations at the structural level. Recent expansions in the falcipain and plasmepsin repertoires are unique to human malaria parasites especially in the Plasmodium falciparum and P. reichenowi lineage. Expansion of haemoglobin-specific plasmepsins occurred after the separation event of Plasmodium species, but the other members of the plasmepsin family were evolutionarily conserved with one copy for each sub-group in every Apicomplexan species. Haemoglobin-specific falcipains are separated from invasion-related falcipain, and their expansions within one specific locus arose independently in both P. falciparum and P. vivax lineages. Gene conversion between P. falciparum falcipain 2A and 2B was observed in artemisinin-resistant strains. Comparison between the numbers of non-synonymous and synonymous mutations suggests a strong selective pressure at falcipain and plasmepsin genes. The locations of amino acid changes from non

  17. Cerebral venous angiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnoli, A.L.; Hildebrandt, G.

    1985-01-01

    Clinical symptoms and radiological signs in 15 patients with cerebral venous malformations are presented and the diagnostic problems discussed. The circulation time in combination with cerebral malformations and angiomas of the scalp are described. CT findings in cases of venous malformations of the brain stem are evaluated. Spot-like enhancement, as well as sharply demarcated round shaped enhancement are characteristic for venous angiomas. Cavernous angiomas usually present as homogenous or inhomogenous round shaped enhanced areas. (Author)

  18. Cerebral cartography and connectomics

    OpenAIRE

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamic...

  19. Sleep apnea termination decreases cerebral blood volume: a near-infrared spectroscopy case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jaakko; Noponen, Tommi; Salmi, Tapani; Toppila, Jussi; Meriläinen, Pekka

    2009-07-01

    Medical near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) can be used to estimate cerebral haemodynamic changes non-invasively. Sleep apnea is a common sleep disorder where repetitive pauses in breathing decrease the quality of sleep and exposes the individual to various health problems. We have measured oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin concentration changes during apneic events in sleep from the forehead of one subject using NIRS and used principal component analysis to extract extracerebral and cortical haemodynamic changes from NIRS signals. Comparison of NIRS signals with EEG, bioimpedance, and pulse oximetry data suggests that termination of apnea leads to decreases in cerebral blood volume and flow that may be related to neurological arousal via neurovascular coupling.

  20. Observability of linear systems with saturated outputs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koplon, R.; Sontag, E.D.; Hautus, M.L.J.

    1994-01-01

    We present necessary and sufficient conditions for observability of the class of output-saturated systems. These are linear systems whose output passes through a saturation function before it can be measured.

  1. Fault tolerant control of systems with saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture in connec......This paper presents framework for fault tolerant controllers (FTC) that includes input saturation. The controller architecture known from FTC is based on the Youla-Jabr-Bongiorno-Kucera (YJBK) parameterization is extended to handle input saturation. Applying this controller architecture...... in connection with faulty systems including input saturation gives an additional YJBK transfer function related to the input saturation. In the fault free case, this additional YJBK transfer function can be applied directly for optimizing the feedback loop around the input saturation. In the faulty case......, the design problem is a mixed design problem involved both parametric faults and input saturation....

  2. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Bindu; Nance, Elizabeth; Johnston, Michael V; Kannan, Rangaramanujam; Kannan, Sujatha

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. PMID:24204146

  3. Optimization measurement of muscle oxygen saturation under isometric studies using FNIRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, A. A. A.; Laili, M. H.; Salikin, M. S.; Rusop, M.

    2018-05-01

    Development of functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) technologies has advanced quantification signal using multiple wavelength and detector to investigate hemodynamic response in human muscle. These non-invasive technologies have been widely used to solve the propagation of light inside the tissues including the absorption, scattering coefficient and to quantify the oxygenation level of haemoglobin and myoglobin in human muscle. The goal of this paper is to optimize the measurement of muscle oxygen saturation during isometric exercise using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). The experiment was carried out on 15 sedentary healthy male volunteers. All volunteers are required to perform an isometric exercise at three assessment of muscular fatigue's level on flexor digitalis (FDS) muscle in the human forearm using fNIRS. The slopes of the signals have been highlighted to evaluate the muscle oxygen saturation of regional muscle fatigue. As a result, oxygen saturation slope from 10% exercise showed steeper than the first assessment at 30%-50% of fatigues level. The hemodynamic signal response showed significant value (p=0.04) at all three assessment of muscular fatigue's level which produce a p-value (p<0.05) measured by fNIRS. Thus, this highlighted parameter could be used to estimate fatigue's level of human and could open other possibilities to study muscle performance diagnosis.

  4. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism after subarachnoid hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hidemichi; Sakurai, Takashi; Hayashi, Tatsuo; Hashimoto, Takuo

    2004-01-01

    The mechanism of reduction of cerebral circulation in the early phase of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) has not yet been clarified. Previous studies have variously indicated that cerebral blood flow (CBF) reduction may be due to cerebral vasospasm, an elevation in intracranial pressure (ICP), constriction of intraparenchymal arterioles, or metabolic reduction. The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between cerebral circulation and oxygen metabolism. In 36 patients with aneurysmal SAH, the values of mean cerebral blood flow (mCBF), cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (GMRO 2 ) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were measured by using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with arterial blood drawing and oxygen saturation of internal jugular bulb blood (SjO 2 ) in the acute stage (1-3 days after onset) and the spasm stage (7-10 days after onset). The patients in our study were selected by using the following criteria: no history of cerebrovascular or cardiopulmonary diseases; under the age of 70; the ruptured aneurysm was treated by clipping or coil embolization within 72 hours after onset; no symptoms of cerebral vasospasm; no signs of cerebral ischemic change on CT scans. These patients were divided into 2 groups according to the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) grading classification; the mild group (Grades I and II) consisted of 27 cases and the severe group (Grade IV) consisted of 9 cases. We studied differences in mCBF CMRO 2 , and OEF between the mild group and severe group. In the mild group, mCBF, CMRO 2 , and OEF were significantly higher than in the severe group during both the acute and the spasm stage. Also mCBF showed a direct correlation with CMRO 2 . All the patients were kept under the following conditions: the bed was positioned so that the upper body was raised at an angle at 30 deg; blood pressure was maintained at 130-150 mmHg and PaCO 2 of arterial blood was maintained at 35-40 mmHg; ICP

  5. Cerebral palsy and congenital malformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garne, Ester; Dolk, Helen; Krägeloh-Mann, Inge

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To determine the proportion of children with cerebral palsy (CP) who have cerebral and non-cerebral congenital malformations. METHODS: Data from 11 CP registries contributing to the European Cerebral Palsy Database (SCPE), for children born in the period 1976-1996. The malformations were...... classified as recognized syndromes, chromosomal anomalies, cerebral malformations or non-cerebral malformations. Prevalence of malformations was compared to published data on livebirths from a European database of congenital malformations (EUROCAT). RESULTS: Overall 547 out of 4584 children (11.9%) with CP...... were reported to have a congenital malformation. The majority (8.6% of all children) were diagnosed with a cerebral malformation. The most frequent types of cerebral malformations were microcephaly and hydrocephaly. Non-cerebral malformations were present in 97 CP children and in further 14 CP children...

  6. Relationship Between Cerebral Oxygenation and Hemodynamic and Oxygen Transport Parameters in Surgery for Acquired Heart Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Lenkin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to evaluate the relationship between cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamic and oxygen transport parameters in surgical correction of concomitant acquired heart diseases. Subjects and methods. Informed consent was received from 40 patients who required surgery because of concomitant (two or more acquired heart defects. During procedure, perioperative monitoring of oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation was performed with the aid of PiCCO2 monitor (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany and a Fore-Sight cerebral oximeter (CASMED, USA. Anesthesia was maintained with propofol and fen-tanyl, by monitoring the depth of anesthesia. Early postoperative intensive therapy was based on the protocol for early targeted correction of hemodynamic disorders. Oxygen transport and cerebral oxygenation parameters were estimated intraopera-tively and within 24 postoperative hours. A statistical analysis including evaluation of Spearman correlations was performed with the aid of SPSS 15.0. Results. During perfusion, there was a relationship between cerebral oximetry values and hemat-ocrit levels, and oxygen partial pressure in the venous blood. Furthermore, a negative correlation between cerebral oximetry values and blood lactate levels was found 30 minutes after initiation of extracorporeal circulation (EC. During the study, there was a positive correlation between cerebral oxygenation and values of cardiac index, central venous saturation, and oxygen delivery index. There was a negative relationship between cerebral oxygenation and extravascular lung water at the beginning of surgery and a correlation between cerebral oximetry values and oxygenation index by the end of the first 24 postoperative hours. Conclusion. The cerebral oxygenation values correlate -with the main determinants of oxygen transport during EC and after cardiac surgical procedures. Cerebral oximetry may be used in early targeted therapy for the surgical correction of acquired combined

  7. Receptor saturation in roentgen films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strid, K G; Reichmann, S [Sahlgrenska Sjukhuset, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1980-01-01

    Roentgen-film recording of small object details of low attenuation differences (e.g. pulmonary vessels) is regularly seen to be impaired when the film is exposed to yield high values of optical density (D). This high-density failure is due to receptor saturation, which implies that at high exposure values most silver halide grains of the film are made developable, leaving few grains available to receive additional informative photons. The receptor saturation is analysed by means of a mathematical model of a non-screen film yielding Dsub(max) = 2.0. Optimum recording, defined by maximum signal-to-noise ratio in the image, is found at D approximately 0.64, corresponding to, on an average, 1.6 photons absorbed per grain. On the other hand, maximum contrast occurs at D approximately 1.4, where, on the average, 3.6 photons are absorbed per grain. The detective quantum efficiency of the film, i.e. the fraction of the photons actually contributing to the information content of the image, drops from 41 per cent at maximum signal-to-noise ratio to a mere 10 per cent at maximum contrast.

  8. Haemoglobin Pierre-Benite--a high affinity variant associated with relative polycythaemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beard, M E; Potter, H C; Spearing, R L; Brennan, S O

    2001-12-01

    This is the second reported example of Hb Pierre--Benite (beta90 Glu-->Asp). This mutation is associated with increased oxygen affinity and polycythaemia. No instability was found and there was no charge shift detected by cellulose acetate electrophoresis at pH 8.3. The mutation was however, clearly indicated by electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS), which showed an abnormal beta chain with a 14 Da decrease in mass. Blood volume studies documented a relative rather than a true polycythaemia and this finding has been reported in at least two other high affinity haemoglobin variants--Hb Heathrow and Hb Rahere. This finding led to delay in diagnosis because high oxygen affinity variants are conventionally considered to cause a true polycythaemia.

  9. Haemoglobin modulates NO emission and hyponasty under hypoxia-related stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; van Zanten, Martijn; Mandon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are signalling molecules that are synthesized in response to oxygen depletion. Non-symbiotic plant haemoglobins (Hbs) have been demonstrated to act in roots under oxygen depletion to scavenge NO. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the online emission of NO or ethylene...... was directly quantified under normoxia, hypoxia (0.1–1.0% O2), or full anoxia. The production of both gases was increased with reduced expression of either of the Hb genes GLB1 or GLB2, whereas NO emission decreased in plants overexpressing these genes. NO emission in plants with reduced Hb gene expression......-nitrosylated compounds, and it is demonstrated that hypoxia substantially increased the content of S-nitrosylated compounds. A parallel up-regulation of Hb gene expression in the normoxic shoots of the flooded plants may reflect signal transmission from root to shoot via ethylene and a role for Hb in the shoots. Hb gene...

  10. [Role of erythrocyte cytoplasmic structures in changes in the affinity of haemoglobin for oxygen].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryzgalova, N Iu; Brazhe, N A; Iusipovich, A U; Maksimov, G V; Rubin, A B

    2009-01-01

    Changes in the refractive index of the cytoplasm and the affinity of haemoporphyrin of erythrocyte haemoglobin to oxygen (pH, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate) have been investigated using laser interference microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. It has been established that a decrease in pH and an increase in the content of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate are accompanied by changes in both the form of the cell and the refractive index of the cytoplasm and the affinity of haemoporphyrin of hemoglobin to oxygen. It has been shown that as pH is reduced, the capacity of haemoporphyrin for binding oxygen decreases and as the concentration of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate is increased, the ability of haemoporphyrin for oxygen reabsorption increases.

  11. The effects of dexamethasone on post-asphyxial cerebral oxygenation in the preterm fetal sheep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Christopher A; Koome, Miriam E; Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Quaedackers, Josine S; Galinsky, Robert; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to clinical doses of the glucocorticoid dexamethasone increases brain activity and causes seizures in normoxic preterm fetal sheep without causing brain injury. In contrast, the same treatment after asphyxia increased brain injury. We hypothesised that increased injury was in part mediated by a mismatch between oxygen demand and oxygen supply. In preterm fetal sheep at 0.7 gestation we measured cerebral oxygenation using near-infrared spectroscopy, electroencephalographic (EEG) activity, and carotid blood flow (CaBF) from 24 h before until 72 h after asphyxia induced by 25 min of umbilical cord occlusion. Ewes received dexamethasone intramuscularly (12 mg 3 ml–1) or saline 15 min after the end of asphyxia. Fetuses were studied for 3 days after occlusion. During the first 6 h of recovery after asphyxia, dexamethasone treatment was associated with a significantly greater fall in CaBF (P < 0.05), increased carotid vascular resistance (P < 0.001) and a greater fall in cerebral oxygenation as measured by the difference between oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin (delta haemoglobin; P < 0.05). EEG activity was similarly suppressed in both groups. From 6 to 10 h onward, dexamethasone treatment was associated with a return of CaBF to saline control levels, increased EEG power (P < 0.005), greater epileptiform transient activity (P < 0.001), increased oxidised cytochrome oxidase (P < 0.05) and an attenuated increase in [delta haemoglobin] (P < 0.05). In conclusion, dexamethasone treatment after asphyxia is associated with greater hypoperfusion in the critical latent phase, leading to impaired intracerebral oxygenation that may exacerbate neural injury after asphyxia. PMID:25384775

  12. Influence of altitude training modality on performance and total haemoglobin mass in elite swimmers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Clare E; Saunders, Philo U; Fowlie, John; Savage, Bernard; Pyne, David B; Anson, Judith M; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Prommer, Nicole; Gore, Christopher J

    2012-09-01

    We compared changes in performance and total haemoglobin mass (tHb) of elite swimmers in the weeks following either Classic or Live High:Train Low (LHTL) altitude training. Twenty-six elite swimmers (15 male, 11 female, 21.4 ± 2.7 years; mean ± SD) were divided into two groups for 3 weeks of either Classic or LHTL altitude training. Swimming performances over 100 or 200 m were assessed before altitude, then 1, 7, 14 and 28 days after returning to sea-level. Total haemoglobin mass was measured twice before altitude, then 1 and 14 days after return to sea-level. Changes in swimming performance in the first week after Classic and LHTL were compared against those of Race Control (n = 11), a group of elite swimmers who did not complete altitude training. In addition, a season-long comparison of swimming performance between altitude and non-altitude groups was undertaken to compare the progression of performances over the course of a competitive season. Regardless of altitude training modality, swimming performances were substantially slower 1 day (Classic 1.4 ± 1.3% and LHTL 1.6 ± 1.6%; mean ± 90% confidence limits) and 7 days (0.9 ± 1.0% and 1.9 ± 1.1%) after altitude compared to Race Control. In both groups, performances 14 and 28 days after altitude were not different from pre-altitude. The season-long comparison indicated that no clear advantage was obtained by swimmers who completed altitude training. Both Classic and LHTL elicited ~4% increases in tHb. Although altitude training induced erythropoeisis, this physiological adaptation did not transfer directly into improved competitive performance in elite swimmers.

  13. Relationship between haemoglobin concentration and packed cell volume in cattle blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paa-Kobina Turkson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A convention that has been adopted in medicine is to estimate haemoglobin (HB concentration as a third of packed cell volume (PCV or vice versa. The present research set out to determine whether a proportional relationship exists between PCV and Hb concentration in cattle blood samples, and to assess the validity of the convention of estimating Hb concentration as a third of PCV. A total of 440 cattle in Ghana from four breeds (Ndama, 110; West African Short Horn, 110; Zebu, 110 and Sanga, 110 were bled for haematological analysis, specifically packed cell volume, using the microhaematocrit technique and haemoglobin concentration using the cyanmethaemoglobin method. Means, standard deviations, standard errors of mean and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. Trendline analyses generated linear regression equations from scatterplots. For all the cattle, a significant and consistent relationship (r = 0.74 was found between Hb concentration and PCV (%. This was expressed as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.28 PCV + 3.11. When the Hb concentration was estimated by calculating it as a third of PCV, the relationship was expressed in linear regression as Hb concentration (g/dL = 0.83 calculated Hb + 3.11. The difference in the means of determined (12.2 g/dL and calculated (10.9 g/dL Hb concentrations for all cattle was significant (p < 0.001, whereas the difference in the means of determined Hb and corrected calculated Hb was not significant. In conclusion, a simplified relationship of Hb (g/dL = (0.3 PCV + 3 may provide a better estimate of Hb concentration from the PCV of cattle.

  14. Haemoglobin C and S role in acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Verra

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A recently proposed mechanism of protection for haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu-->Lys links an abnormal display of PfEMP1, an antigen involved in malaria pathogenesis, on the surface of HbC infected erythrocytes together with the observation of reduced cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes and impaired rosetting in vitro. We investigated the impact of this hypothesis on the development of acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA encoding PfEMP1 in HbC in comparison with HbA and HbS carriers of Burkina Faso. We measured: i total IgG against a single VSA, A4U, and against a panel of VSA from severe malaria cases in human sera from urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso of different haemoglobin genotypes (CC, AC, AS, SC, SS; ii total IgG against recombinant proteins of P. falciparum asexual sporozoite, blood stage antigens, and parasite schizont extract; iii total IgG against tetanus toxoid. Results showed that the reported abnormal cell-surface display of PfEMP1 on HbC infected erythrocytes observed in vitro is not associated to lower anti- PfEMP1 response in vivo. Higher immune response against the VSA panel and malaria antigens were observed in all adaptive genotypes containing at least one allelic variant HbC or HbS in the low transmission urban area whereas no differences were detected in the high transmission rural area. In both contexts the response against tetanus toxoid was not influenced by the beta-globin genotype. These findings suggest that both HbC and HbS affect the early development of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. The enhanced immune reactivity in both HbC and HbS carriers supports the hypothesis that the protection against malaria of these adaptive genotypes might be at least partially mediated by acquired immunity against malaria.

  15. Malaria and gravidity interact to modify maternal haemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouédraogo Smaïla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primigravidity is one of the main risk factors for both malaria and anaemia. Since the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp in sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between anaemia and gravidity and its evolution during pregnancy has been little explored. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gravidity on the variation of haemoglobin during pregnancy according to the timing of gestation. Methods Data from three studies carried out in nearby areas in south Benin (Ouidah, Comé, Allada between 2005 and 2012 were analysed. At inclusion (first antenatal visit, ANV1 women’s age, area of residence, schooling, gravidity, gestational age, weight and height were recorded. Thick blood smears were performed on ANV1, second visit (ANV2 and at delivery. In Allada, women’s serum ferritin and CRP concentrations were also assessed. The impact of gravidity on maternal haemoglobin (Hb was analysed using a logistic or linear regression depending on the outcome. The statistical significance was set to P Results In total, data from 3,591 pregnant women were analysed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a constant association between Hb concentrations and gravidity in the three periods of Hb assessment (ANV1, ANV2 and delivery. Mean Hb concentration was significantly lower in primigravidae than in multigravidae at ANV1 (mean difference = -2.4 g/L, CI 95%: [-3.4, -1.4], P Conclusion In a context of IPTp, Hb levels improved progressively throughout pregnancy in primigravidae, likely as a result of reduction in malaria infection. In multigravidae, the improvement was less perceptible and anaemia was mainly due to iron deficiency.

  16. Nanomedicine in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishnan B

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Bindu Balakrishnan,1 Elizabeth Nance,1 Michael V Johnston,2 Rangaramanujam Kannan,3 Sujatha Kannan1 1Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Johns Hopkins University; Baltimore, MD, USA; 2Department of Neurology and Pediatrics, Kennedy Krieger Institute, Baltimore, MD, USA; 3Department of Ophthalmology, Center for Nanomedicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA Abstract: Cerebral palsy is a chronic childhood disorder that can have diverse etiologies. Injury to the developing brain that occurs either in utero or soon after birth can result in the motor, sensory, and cognitive deficits seen in cerebral palsy. Although the etiologies for cerebral palsy are variable, neuroinflammation plays a key role in the pathophysiology of the brain injury irrespective of the etiology. Currently, there is no effective cure for cerebral palsy. Nanomedicine offers a new frontier in the development of therapies for prevention and treatment of brain injury resulting in cerebral palsy. Nanomaterials such as dendrimers provide opportunities for the targeted delivery of multiple drugs that can mitigate several pathways involved in injury and can be delivered specifically to the cells that are responsible for neuroinflammation and injury. These materials also offer the opportunity to deliver agents that would promote repair and regeneration in the brain, resulting not only in attenuation of injury, but also enabling normal growth. In this review, the current advances in nanotechnology for treatment of brain injury are discussed with specific relevance to cerebral palsy. Future directions that would facilitate clinical translation in neonates and children are also addressed. Keywords: dendrimer, cerebral palsy, neuroinflammation, nanoparticle, neonatal brain injury, G4OH-PAMAM

  17. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast terahertz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    2010-01-01

    states, due to conduction band onparabolicity and scattering into satellite valleys in strong THz fields. Saturable absorber parameters, such as linear and nonsaturable transmission, and saturation fluence, are extracted by fits to a classic saturable absorber model. Further, we observe THz pulse......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in the terahertz THz frequency range at room temperature using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. The saturation mechanism is based on a decrease in electron conductivity of semiconductors at high electron momentum...

  18. Mechanics of non-saturated soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coussy, O.; Fleureau, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    This book presents the different ways to approach the mechanics of non saturated soils, from the physico-chemical aspect to the mechanical aspect, from the experiment to the theoretical modeling, from the laboratory to the workmanship, and from the microscopic scale to the macroscopic one. Content: water and its representation; experimental bases of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; transfer laws in non-saturated environment; energy approach of the behaviour of non-saturated soils; homogenization for the non-saturated soils; plasticity and hysteresis; dams and backfilling; elaborated barriers. (J.S.)

  19. Monitoring of cerebral haemodynamics in newborn infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liem, K Djien; Greisen, Gorm

    2010-01-01

    The most important cerebrovascular injuries in newborn infants, particularly in preterm infants, are cerebral haemorrhage and ischemic injury. The typical cerebral vascular anatomy and the disturbance of cerebral haemodynamics play important roles in the pathophysiology. The term 'cerebral haemod...

  20. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin.......001) and women (r = 0.08, p = 0.05). In non-smokers, alcohol consumption > 14 drinks/week and more than seven drinks/week for men and women, respectively, increased mean haemoglobin by 1.3% in men and by average 1.9% in women compared with those consuming a parts per thousand currency sign14 and less than...... small changes in haemoglobin do not justify the use of separate reference ranges in smokers and alcohol consumers....

  1. Association between glycated haemoglobin and the risk of congestive heart failure in diabetes mellitus : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erqou, Sebhat; Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Suffoletto, Matthew; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Melle, Joost P.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Clinical trials to date have not provided definitive evidence regarding the effects of glucose lowering on the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). We synthesized available prospective epidemiological data on the association between glycaemia measured by haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and

  2. Socioeconomic determinants of haemoglobin levels of African women are less important in areas with more health facilities: a multilevel analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, M; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Meijerink, H.; Ven, André van der

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND : The prevalence of anaemia in Africa is the highest in the world. Especially women are at risk because of blood loss during menstruation and increased iron requirements during pregnancy. This study examined determinants of the haemoglobin (Hb) level of African women at

  3. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  4. Anaemia during pregnancy: impact on birth outcome and infant haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koura, Ghislain K; Ouedraogo, Smaïla; Le Port, Agnès; Watier, Laurence; Cottrell, Gilles; Guerra, José; Choudat, Isabelle; Rachas, Antoine; Bouscaillou, Julie; Massougbodji, Achille; Garcia, André

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effect of maternal anaemia on pregnancy outcome and describe its impact on infant haemoglobin level in the first 18 months of life, we conducted a prospective study of 617 pregnant women and their children in Benin. Prevalence of maternal anaemia at delivery was 39.5%, and 61.1% of newborns were anaemic at birth. Maternal anaemia was not associated with low birth weight [OR = 1.2 (0.6-2.2)] or preterm birth [OR = 1.3 (0.7-2.4)], whereas the newborn's anaemia was related to maternal anaemia [OR = 1.8 (1.2-2.5)]. There was no association between an infant's haemoglobin level until 18 months and maternal anaemia. However, malaria attacks during follow-up, male gender and sickle cell trait were all associated with a lower infant haemoglobin level until 18 months, whereas good infant feeding practices and a polygamous family were positively associated with a higher haemoglobin level during the first 18 months of life. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. Limited influence of haemoglobin variants on Plasmodium falciparum msp1 and msp2 alleles in symptomatic malaria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mockenhaupt, Frank P.; Ehrhardt, Stephan; Otchwemah, Rowland; Eggelte, Teunis A.; Anemana, Sylvester D.; Stark, Klaus; Bienzle, Ulrich; Kohne, Elisabeth

    2004-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) S, HbC, and alpha(+)-thalassaemia confer protection from malaria. Accordingly, these traits may influence the multiplicity of infection (MOI) of Plasmodium falciparum and the presence of distinct parasite genotypes. In 840 febrile children in northern Ghana, we typed the P.

  6. Saturation in dual radiation action

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, H.H.; Zaider, M.

    1988-01-01

    The theory of dual radiation action (TDRA) was developed with the aim of applying microdosimetry to radiobiology. It therefore can deal only with the first phases in a long chain of events that results in patent effects. It is, however, clear that the initial spatial and temporal pattern of energy deposition has a profound influence on the ultimate outcome. As often happens, the early formulation of the theory contained a number of simplifying assumptions. Although most of these were explicitly stated when the first version of the TDRA was published experimental data obtained when the limitations are important were cited as contrary evidence causing considerable confusion. A more advanced version eliminated some of the restrictions but there remain others, one of which relates to certain aspects of saturation which are addressed here

  7. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rStO2) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rStO2 can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the bur...

  8. Neuroimaging of cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wengenroth, M.; Saam, T.; Haehnel, S.

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral vasculitis can have a variety of origins. Furthermore, there are no vasculitis-specific symptoms or imaging signs and vasculitis of the CNS can mimic many other neurological diseases, which require different treatment approaches. Thus, the clinical and radiological diagnosis of cerebral vasculitis is challenging. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR angiography (MRA) should be the radiological imaging methods of choice to assess the degree of parenchymal damage and to detect vessel wall changes. If the results are unclear digital subtraction angiography (DSA) should be pursued in order to also detect changes in medium sized vessels. Vasculitis of small vessels cannot be detected by vascular imaging and requires brain or leptomeningeal biopsy. In this review we present the current diagnostic approach and a variety of imaging findings in cerebral vasculitis and discuss the main radiological differential diagnoses. (orig.) [de

  9. Duplicated middle cerebral artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Jesus; Machado, Calixto; Scherle, Claudio; Hierro, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Duplicated middle cerebral artery (DMCA) is an anomalous vessel arising from the internal carotid artery. The incidence DMCA is relatively law, and an association between this anomaly and cerebral aneurysms has been documented. There is a controversy whether DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is an important fact to consider in aneurysm surgery. We report the case of a 34-year-old black woman who suffered a subarachnoid hemorrhage and the angiography a left DMCA, and an aneurysm in an inferior branch of the main MCA. The DMCA and the MCA had perforating arteries. The aneurysm was clipped without complications. The observation of perforating arteries in our patient confirms that the DMCA may have perforating arteries. This is very important to be considered in cerebral aneurysms surgery. Moreover, the DMCA may potentially serve as a collateral blood supply to the MCA territory in cases of MCA occlusion. PMID:22140405

  10. Diaschisis with cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, R.; Reivich, M.; Goldberg, H.; Banka, R.; Greenberg, J.

    1977-01-01

    Fifteen patients admitted to Philadelphia General Hospital with acute strokes had repeated measurements of cerebral blood flow measured by the /sup 133/X inhalation method. A progressive decline in cerebral blood flow in both hemispheres was observed during the first week after infarction in twelve of these patients. This decline could be partially explained by loss of autoregulation, but could not be correlated with level of consciousness, clinical status of PCO2. This progressive decline in flow in the non-ischemic hemisphere indicates a process more complex than a simple destruction of axonal afferants to neurons as implied by the term diaschisis. The flow changes in the non-ischemic hemisphere are likely caused by a combination of the immediate effects of decreased neuronal stimulation modified by loss of autoregulation, release of vasoactive substances, cerebral edema, and other factors.

  11. Cerebral hemodynamics in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hachinski, V C; Olesen, Jes; Norris, J W

    1977-01-01

    Clinical and angiographic findings in migraine are briefly reviewed in relation to cerebral hemodynamic changes shown by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) studies. Three cases of migraine studied by the intracarotid xenon 133 method during attacks are reported. In classic migraine, with typical...... prodromal symptoms, a decrease in cerebral blood flow has been demonstrated during the aura. Occasionally, this flow decrease persists during the headache phase. In common migraine, where such prodromata are not seen, a flow decrease has not been demonstrated. During the headache phase of both types...... of migraine, rCBF has usually been found to be normal or in the high range of normal values. The high values may represent postischemic hyperemia, but are probably more frequently secondary to arousal caused by pain. Thus, during the headache phase rCBF may be subnormal, normal or high. These findings do...

  12. Cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakamoto, Toshihisa; Sawada, Yusuke; Yukioka, Tetsuo; Nishide, Kazuyuki; Yoshioka, Toshiharu

    1982-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism is reported. A 18-year-old patient with multiple bone fractures was in semiconma immediately after an injury. Brain CT showed no brain swelling or intracranial hematoma. Hypoxemia and alcoholemia were noted on admission, which returned to normal without improvement of consciousness level. In addition, respiratory symptoms with positive radiographic changes, tachycardia, pyrexia, sudden drop in hemoglobin level, and sudden thrombocytopenia developed. These symptoms were compatible with Gurd's criteria of systemic fat embolism. Eight days after injury, multiple low density areas appeared on CT and disappeared within the subsequent two weeks, and subdural effusion with cerebral atrophy developed. These CT findings were not considered due to cerebral trauma. Diagnosis of cerebral fat embolism was made. The subdural effusion was drained. Neurologic and pulmonary recoveries took place slowly and one month following the injury the patient became alert and exhibited fully coordinated limb movement. The CT scans of the present case well corresponded with hitherto reported pathological findings. Petechiae in the white matter must have developed on the day of injury, which could not be detected by CT examination. It is suggested that some petechial regions fused to purpuras and then gradually resolved when they were detected as multiple low density areas on CT. CT in the purpuras phase would have shown these lesions as high density areas. These lesions must have healed with formation of tiny scars and blood pigment which were demonstrated as the disappearance of multiple low density areas by CT examination. Cerebral atrophy and subsequent subdural effusion developed as a result of demyelination. The patient took the typical clinical course of cerebral fat embolism and serial CT scans served for its assessment. (author)

  13. Gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vazquez, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Important aspects of the gammagraphy of cerebral perfusion and the diverse clinical applications in the neurological diseases are comment in this article. We focus in the usefulness of the photon emission cerebral tomography (SPECT) and its capacity to cross the hemato encephalic barrier through the use of radiopharmacons like 99 mTc-H M-PAO and 99mTc-EDC, thus managing to offer functional data on the captantes neurons of the radiopharmacon. The clinical applications of SPECT are studied; cerebrovascular disease, transient ischemic attacks, dementias, Alzheimer disease, as well as other neurological diseases are referred. (The author)

  14. Experimental Focal Cerebral Ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia due to occlusion of a major cerebral artery is the cause of ischemic stroke which is a major reason of mortality, morbidity and disability in the populations of the developed countries. In the seven studies summarized in the thesis focal ischemia in rats induced by occlusion...... in the penumbra is recruited in the infarction process leading to a progressive growth of the infarct. The penumbra hence constitutes an important target for pharmacological treatment because of the existence of a therapeutic time window during which treatment with neuroprotective compounds may prevent...

  15. Cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following various cerebral diseases, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kino, Masao; Anno, Izumi; Yano, Yuhiko; Anno, Yasuro.

    1980-01-01

    Patients having cerebral atrophic and degenerative changes following hypoglycemia, cerebral contusion, or cerebral hypoxia including cerebrovascular disorders were reported. Description was made as to cerebral changes visualized on CT images and clinical courses of a patient who revived 10 minutes after heart stoppage during neurosurgery, a newborn with asphyxia, a patient with hypoglycemia, a patient who suffered from asphyxia by an accident 10 years before, a patient with carbon monoxide poisoning at an acute stage, a patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning 10 years before, a patient with diffuse cerebral ischemic changes, a patient with cerebral edema around metastatic tumor, a patient with respiration brain, a patient with neurological sequelae after cerebral contusion, a patient who had an operation to excise right parietal lobe artery malformation, and a patient who was shooted by a machine gun and had a lead in the brain for 34 years. (Tsunoda, M.)

  16. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  17. Patterning via optical saturable transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantu, Precious

    For the past 40 years, optical lithography has been the patterning workhorse for the semiconductor industry. However, as integrated circuits have become more and more complex, and as device geometries shrink, more innovative methods are required to meet these needs. In the far-field, the smallest feature that can be generated with light is limited to approximately half the wavelength. This, so called far-field diffraction limit or the Abbe limit (after Prof. Ernst Abbe who first recognized this), effectively prevents the use of long-wavelength photons >300nm from patterning nanostructures barrier is developed and experimentally verified. This approach, which I refer to as Patterning via Optical Saturable Transitions (POST) has the potential for massive parallelism, enabling the creation of nanostructures and devices at a speed far surpassing what is currently possible with conventional optical lithographic techniques. The fundamental understanding of this technique goes beyond optical lithography in the semiconductor industry and is applicable to any area that requires the rapid patterning of large-area two or three-dimensional complex geometries. At a basic level, this research intertwines the fields of electrochemistry, material science, electrical engineering, optics, physics, and mechanical engineering with the goal of developing a novel super-resolution lithographic technique.

  18. Sensorial saturation for infants' pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellieni, Carlo Valerio; Tei, Monica; Coccina, Francesca; Buonocore, Giuseppe

    2012-04-01

    Sensorial saturation (SS) is a multisensorial stimulation consisting of delicate tactile, gustative, auditory and visual stimuli. This procedure consists of simultaneously: attracting the infant's attention by massaging the infant's face; speaking to the infant gently, but firmly, and instilling a sweet solution on the infant's tongue. We performed a systematic Medline search of for articles focusing on human neonatal studies related to SS. The search was performed within the last 10 years and was current as of January 2012. We retrieved 8 articles that used a complete form of SS and 2 articles with an incomplete SS. Data show that the use of SS is effective in relieving newborns' pain. Oral solution alone are less effective than SS, but the stimuli without oral sweet solution are ineffective. the partial forms of SS have some effectiveness, but minor than the complete SS. Only one article showed lack of SS as analgesic method, after endotracheal suctioning. SS can be used for all newborns undergoing blood samples or other minor painful procedures. It is more effective than oral sugar alone. SS also promotes interaction between nurse and infant and is a simple effective form of analgesia for the neonatal intensive care unit.

  19. Δ isobars and nuclear saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekström, A.; Hagen, G.; Morris, T. D.; Papenbrock, T.; Schwartz, P. D.

    2018-02-01

    We construct a nuclear interaction in chiral effective field theory with explicit inclusion of the Δ -isobar Δ (1232 ) degree of freedom at all orders up to next-to-next-to-leading order (NNLO). We use pion-nucleon (π N ) low-energy constants (LECs) from a Roy-Steiner analysis of π N scattering data, optimize the LECs in the contact potentials up to NNLO to reproduce low-energy nucleon-nucleon scattering phase shifts, and constrain the three-nucleon interaction at NNLO to reproduce the binding energy and point-proton radius of 4He. For heavier nuclei we use the coupled-cluster method to compute binding energies, radii, and neutron skins. We find that radii and binding energies are much improved for interactions with explicit inclusion of Δ (1232 ) , while Δ -less interactions produce nuclei that are not bound with respect to breakup into α particles. The saturation of nuclear matter is significantly improved, and its symmetry energy is consistent with empirical estimates.

  20. Foetal haemoglobin and disease severity in sickle cell anaemia patients in Kampala, Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mpalampa Lena

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell anaemia (SCA is a major chronic health problem in Uganda. In patients with SCA, the level of foetal haemoglobin (HbF has been found to be important in influencing the clinical course of the disease. Thus populations with high levels of HbF like those in Saudi Arabia have been described as having a milder clinical course with fewer complications as compared to populations with lower levels. Disease modifying drugs can increase the Hb F levels and modify the presentation of SCA. Methods This was a cross sectional study in which we determined foetal haemoglobin levels and examined the relationship between HbF levels and disease severity in SCA patients in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda. We consecutively enrolled 216 children aged 1 year to 18 years with SCA attending the Sickle Cell Clinic at Mulago Hospital whose guardians had given consent. The history included age at onset of initial symptoms and diagnosis, number of hospitalisations and blood transfusions and other complications of SCA (cardiovascular accidents, avascular hip necrosis and priapism. A detailed physical examination was performed to assess the current state and help describe the disease severity for each patient. Blood samples were drawn for HbF levels. HbF levels ≥10% was defined as high. Results Of the 216 children, (80 37% had HbF levels ≥10%. Significant correlations were observed between HbF level and several clinical parameters independent of age including age at diagnosis (p value 0.013, number of hospitalisations (p value 0.024 and transfusions (p value 0.018 since birth. Conclusion A third of the children with SCA attending the Sickle cell clinic in Mulago Hospital have high HbF levels. Higher HbF level is associated with later onset of symptoms and presentation, and less severe disease characterised by fewer hospitalisations and blood transfusions. We suggest HbF levels should be determined at initial contact for patients with SCA to

  1. Cerebral malaria: susceptibility weighted MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinit Baliyan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral malaria is one of the fatal complications of Plasmodium falciparum infection. Pathogenesis involves cerebral microangiopathy related to microvascular plugging by infected red blood cells. Conventional imaging with MRI and CT do not reveal anything specific in case of cerebral malaria. Susceptibility weighted imaging, a recent advance in the MRI, is very sensitive to microbleeds related to microangiopathy. Histopathological studies in cerebral malaria have revealed microbleeds in brain parenchyma secondary to microangiopathy. Susceptibility weighted imaging, being exquisitely sensitive to microbleeds may provide additional information and improve the diagnostic accuracy of MRI in cerebral malaria.

  2. High Altitude Cerebral Edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-03-01

    described neuropathological findings of cerebral edema and wi4espread petechial hemorrhages in two HAPE fatalities and later reported (52...lethargy, thirst, indigestion, hysterical outburst o: other behavior disturbances, decreased concentration, fever , couhh and peripheral edema (52...autopsy results from the two fatalities in their series. In both cases multiple, widespread petechial hemorrhages were noted throughout the brain. One

  3. The influence of norepinephrine and phenylephrine on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation during propofol-remifentanil and propofol-remifentanil-dexmedetomidine anaesthesia in piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Rasmussen, Rune

    2018-01-01

    of dexmedetomidine. Cerebral perfusion measured by laser speckle contrast imaging was related to cerebral oxygenation as measured by an intracerebral Licox probe (partial pressure of oxygen) and transcranial near infrared spectroscopy technology (NIRS) (cerebral oxygen saturation). Results During propofol......–remifentanil anaesthesia, increases in blood pressure by norepinephrine and phenylephrine did not change cerebral perfusion significantly, but cerebral partial pressure of oxygen (Licox) increased following vasopressors in both groups and increases following norepinephrine were significant (NBP: P = 0.04, LBP: P = 0......–remifentanil–dexmedetomidine anaesthesia was not followed by significant changes in cerebral perfusion. Licox measures increased significantly following both vasopressors in both groups, whereas the decreases in NIRS measures were only significant in the NBP group. Conclusions Cerebral partial pressure of oxygen measured by Licox...

  4. Cerebral oxygenation in the beach chair position for shoulder surgery in regional anesthesia: impact on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, José A; Märzendorfer, Olivia; Brada, Muriel; Saporito, Andrea; Borgeat, Alain; Bühler, Philipp

    2016-12-01

    Beach chair position is considered a potential risk factor for central neurological events particularly if combined with low blood pressure. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of regional anesthesia on cerebral blood flow and neurobehavioral outcome. This is a prospective, assessor-blinded observational study evaluating patients in the beach chair position undergoing shoulder surgery under regional anesthesia. University hospital operating room. Forty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists classes I-II physical status scheduled for elective shoulder surgery. Cerebral saturation and blood flow of the middle cerebral artery were measured prior to anesthesia and continued after beach chair positioning until discharge to the postanesthesia care unit. The anesthesiologist was blinded for these values. Controlled hypotension with systolic blood pressure≤100mm Hg was maintained during surgery. Neurobehavioral tests and values of regional cerebral saturation, bispectral index, the mean maximal blood flow of the middle cerebral artery, and invasive blood pressure were measured prior to regional anesthesia, and measurements were repeated after placement of the patient on the beach chair position and every 20 minutes thereafter until discharge to postanesthesia care unit. The neurobehavioral tests were repeated the day after surgery. The incidence of cerebral desaturation events was 5%. All patients had a significant blood pressure drop 5 minutes after beach chair positioning, measured at the heart as well as the acoustic meatus levels, when compared with baseline values (Psurgery (Pshoulder surgery had no major impact on cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation. However, some impact on neurobehavioral outcome 24 hours after surgery was observed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperventilation, cerebral perfusion, and syncope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Immink, R V; Pott, F C; Secher, N H

    2014-01-01

    dioxide (PaCO2) and oxygen (PaO2) partial pressures so that hypercapnia/hypoxia increases and hypocapnia/hyperoxia reduces global cerebral blood flow. Cerebral hypoperfusion and TLOC have been associated with hypocapnia related to HV. Notwithstanding pronounced cerebrovascular effects of PaCO2...... the contribution of a low PaCO2 to the early postural reduction in middle cerebral artery blood velocity is transient. HV together with postural stress does not reduce cerebral perfusion to such an extent that TLOC develops. However when HV is combined with cardiovascular stressors like cold immersion or reduced...... cardiac output brain perfusion becomes jeopardized. Whether, in patients with cardiovascular disease and/or defect, cerebral blood flow cerebral control HV-induced hypocapnia elicits cerebral hypoperfusion, leading to TLOC, remains to be established....

  6. Recurrent cerebral thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Toshihiko; Abe, Shin-e; Kubo, Hideki; Hanyu, Haruo; Takasaki, Masaru

    1992-01-01

    Neuroradiological techniques were used to elucidate pathophysiology of recurrent cerebral thrombosis. Twenty-two patients with cerebral thrombosis who suffered a second attack under stable conditions more than 22 days after the initial stroke were studied. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and hypercholesterolemia were also seen in 20, 8, and 12 patients, respectively. The patients were divided into three groups according to their symptoms: (I) symptoms differed between the first and second strokes (n=12); (II) initial symptoms were suddenly deteriorated (n=6); and (III) symptoms occurring in groups I and II were seen (n=4). In group I, contralateral hemiparesis or suprabulbar palsy was often associated with the initial hemiparesis. The time of recurrent stroke varied from 4 months to 9 years. CT and MRI showed not only lacunae in both hemispheres, but also deep white-matter ischemia of the centrum semi-ovale. In group II, hemiparesis or visual field defect was deteriorated early after the initial stroke. In addition, neuroimaging revealed that infarction in the posterior cerebral artery was progressed on the contralateral side, or that white matter lesion in the middle artery was enlarged in spite of small lesion in the left cerebral hemisphere. All patients in group III had deterioration of right hemiparesis associated with aphasia. CT, MRI, SPECT, and angiography indicated deep white-matter ischemia caused by main trunk lesions in the left hemisphere. Group III seemed to be equivalent to group II, except for laterality of the lesion. Neuroradiological assessment of the initial stroke may help to predict the mode of recurrence, although pathophysiology of cerebral thrombosis is complicated and varies from patient to patient. (N.K.)

  7. Measuring glycated haemoglobin in women with gestational diabetes mellitus: How useful is it?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Vincent W; Chong, Shanley; Mediratta, Sahil; Jalaludin, Bin

    2017-06-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is an important tool for assessing glycaemic status in patients with diabetes, but its usefulness in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), is unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether HbA1c in women with GDM is valuable in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. A retrospective review of women with GDM who had HbA1c measured at diagnosis of GDM (GHb-diag) and at 36 weeks gestation (GHb-36 weeks) was conducted. The association between HbA1c and various pregnancy outcomes was assessed RESULTS: Among 1244 women with GDM in our cohort, both GHb-diag and GHb-36 weeks were independent predictors for large-for-gestation (LGA) babies (OR 1.06, P = 0.005 and OR 1.06, P = 0.002, respectively) and neonatal hypoglycaemia (OR 1.10, P 5.4% or 35 mmol/mol) at diagnosis of GDM should be monitored closely during pregnancy. However, there is not enough evidence to suggest that repeating HbA1c toward the end of pregnancy will provide additional information in predicting adverse pregnancy outcomes. © 2016 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists.

  8. Constitutive expression of Vitreoscilla haemoglobin in Sphingomonas elodea to improve gellan gum production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X C; Chen, Y M; Li, Y D; Li, O; Zhu, L; Qian, C D; Tao, X L; Teng, Y

    2011-02-01

    To improve a commercially used strain for gellan production by exogenous Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb). VHb gene was expressed in Sphingomonas elodea under the control of constitutive bla promoter. Biochemical activity of expressed VHb was confirmed by CO-difference spectra analysis that exhibited a characteristic absorption maximum at 419 nm. During cultivation, not only enhanced cell growth was detected, but also 20% improvement in gellan production was observed after 48 h of incubation, with a maximum yield of 16·82 g l(-1). Moreover, maximum sucrose conversion efficiency (g gellan per g sucrose) was 57·8, 20% higher than that of the parental strain. We further examined the polysaccharide production of VHb-expressing strain at different aeration levels in Erlenmeyer flasks. Again, in all cases, a significant enhancement of gellan production was observed, and the enhancement was more significant under oxygen-limiting conditions (up to 26·8%). VHb exhibited positive effect on cell growth and gellan yield of S. elodea, especially under hypoxic conditions. This is the first application of VHb as an effective metabolic engineering strategy in S. elodea to regulate cell growth and optimize gellan yield. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2010 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  9. Reference Ranges of Reticulocyte Haemoglobin Content in Preterm and Term Infants: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Laila; Peter, Andreas; Arand, Jörg; Springer, Fabian; Poets, Christian F; Franz, Axel R

    2017-01-01

    Despite iron supplementation, some preterm infants develop iron deficiency (ID). The optimal iron status parameter for early detection of ID has yet to be determined. To establish reference ranges for reticulocyte haemoglobin content (Ret-He) in preterm and term infants and to identify confounding factors. Retrospective analyses of Ret-He and complete blood count in infants with a clinically indicated blood sample obtained within 24 h after birth. Mean (SD) Ret-He was 30.7 (3.0) pg in very preterm infants with a gestational age (GA) of pH (r = -0.07). There was a slight variation in Ret-He with mode of delivery [normal vaginal delivery: 32.3 (3.2) pg, secondary caesarean section (CS): 31.4 (3.0) pg, instrumental delivery: 31.3 (2.7) pg and elective CS: 31.2 (2.8) pg]. GA at birth has a negligible impact on Ret-He, and the lower limit of the normal reference range in newborns within 24 h after birth can be set to 25 pg. Moreover, Ret-He seems to be a robust parameter which is not influenced by perinatal factors within the first 24 h after birth. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Adaptation to extreme environments: structure-function relationships in Emperor penguin haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Condò, S G; di Prisco, G; Giardina, B

    1994-04-15

    The functional properties of the single haemoglobin (Hb) of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) have been investigated at different temperatures as a function of proton and organic phosphate concentration. The complete amino acid sequence has been established. Comparison with that of human HbA shows 12 substitutions in the contact regions of alpha beta dimers. In addition to overall similarities shared with most of the avian Hbs previously described, this Hb shows significant differences, which could be related to the peculiar behaviour of this penguin. In particular we may consider that: (1) the shape of the Bohr effect curve seems well adapted for gas exchange during very prolonged dives, preserving penguin Hb from a sudden and not controlled stripping of oxygen; (2) the very minor enthalpy change observed at lower pH could be an example of molecular adaptation, through which oxygen delivery becomes essentially insensitive to exposure to the extremely low temperatures of the environment. Moreover, the small alkaline Bohr effect has been found to be only chloride-linked, since the pH dependence of the oxygen affinity is totally abolished in the absence of this ion. These functional characteristics are discussed on the basis of the primary structure of alpha and beta-chains.

  11. Relationship between changes in haemoglobin mass and maximal oxygen uptake after hypoxic exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Endurance athletes have been using altitude training for decades to improve near sea-level performance. The predominant mechanism is thought to be accelerated erythropoiesis increasing haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) resulting in a greater maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)). Not all studies have shown a proportionate increase in VO₂(max) as a result of increased Hb(mass). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the two parameters in a large group of endurance athletes after altitude training. 145 elite endurance athletes (94 male and 51 female) who participated in various altitude studies as altitude or control participants were used for the analysis. Participants performed Hb(mass) and VO₂(max) testing before and after intervention. For the pooled data, the correlation between per cent change in Hb(mass) and per cent change in VO₂(max) was significant (pstatistical power, we conclude that altitude training of endurance athletes will result in an increase in VO₂(max) of more than half the magnitude of the increase in Hb(mass), which supports the use of altitude training by athletes. But race performance is not perfectly related to relative VO₂(max), and other non-haematological factors altered from altitude training, such as running economy and lactate threshold, may also be beneficial to performance.

  12. Stability and reliability of glycated haemoglobin measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashri, Ramamoorthy; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Akila, Bridgitte; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    To validate the stability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C for up to one month. The study group comprised 142 type 2 diabetic subjects visiting a tertiary centre for diabetes at Chennai city in south India. The HbA1c assay was done on a fasting blood sample using the Bio-Rad Variant machine on Day 0 (day of blood sample collection). Several aliquots were stored at -20°C and the assay was repeated on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after the sample collection. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and variation in the HbA1c levels on the different days was compared with the day 0 level. The median differences between HbA1c levels measured on Day 0 and the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after blood collection were 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% respectively. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the differences between the day '0' and the different time points tend to get larger with time, but these were not clinically significant. HbA1c levels are relatively stable up to 2weeks, if blood samples are stored at -20°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio de; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  14. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB and haemin (HM enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  15. Glycated haemoglobin: A marker of circulating lipids in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh Ishaq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a group of metabolic disorder and is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and dyslipidaemia. Patients with T2DM have dyslipidaemia at wavering degrees, characterised by increased levels of triglyceride and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and decreased levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol. In the present study, we evaluated glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c as a marker of circulating lipids in patients with T2DM. Methods: Two hundred and thirty-nine patients with T2DM were enrolled for the study. A detailed biochemical and lipid profile was done for all patients. Results: Of 239 cases, 96 (40% were male and 143 (60% were female. Of 239 patients, 53 (22% patients with T2DM had controlled glycaemia (HbA1c <6.5 and 186 (78% patients had uncontrolled glycaemia (HbA1c ≥6.5. Pearson's correlation of HbA1c with all lipid parameters was statistically significant. HbA1c, however, had an inverse correlation with HDL and had a significant direct correlation with fasting blood glucose. Conclusion: The study reveals that HbA1c is not only a reliable glycaemic index but can also be used as an important indicator of dyslipidaemia in patients with T2DM.

  16. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-10-10

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb anaemia were estimated using linear and logistic regression analysis. The mean Hb was 11.5 (± 1.38) g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb anaemia in pregnancy were malaria infection (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), Human Immuno-deficiency Virus infection (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.90) and lack of iron supplementation (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.03). Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria, maternal age and parity showed a weak association with anaemia in pregnancy The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in our setting highlights the need to put more effort in the fight against malaria and HIV, and also ensure that pregnant women access iron supplements early in pregnancy.

  17. Dopamine therapy does not affect cerebral autoregulation during hypotension in newborn piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vibeke Ramsgaard Eriksen

    Full Text Available Hypotensive neonates who have been treated with dopamine have poorer neurodevelopmental outcome than those who have not been treated with dopamine. We speculate that dopamine stimulates adrenoceptors on cerebral arteries causing cerebral vasoconstriction. This vasoconstriction might lead to a rightward shift of the cerebral autoregulatory curve; consequently, infants treated with dopamine would have a higher risk of low cerebral blood flow at a blood pressure that is otherwise considered "safe".In anaesthetized piglets, perfusion of the brain, monitored with laser-doppler flowmetry, and cerebral venous saturation was measured at different levels of hypotension. Each piglet was studied in two phases: a phase with stepwise decreases in MAP and a phase with stepwise increases in MAP. We randomized the order of the two phases, whether dopamine was given in the first or second phase, and the infusion rate of dopamine (10, 25, or 40 μg/kg/min. In/deflation of a balloon catheter, placed in vena cava, induced different levels of hypotension. At each level of hypotension, fluctuations in MAP were induced by in/deflations of a balloon catheter in descending aorta.During measurements, PaCO2 and arterial saturation were stable. MAP levels ranged between 14 and 82 mmHg. Cerebral autoregulation (CA capacity was calculated as the ratio between %-change in cerebrovascular resistance and %-change in MAP induced by the in/deflation of the arterial balloon. A breakpoint in CA capacity was identified at a MAP of 38±18 mmHg without dopamine and at 44±18, 31±14, and 24±14 mmHg with dopamine infusion rates of 10, 25, and 40 μg/kg/min (p = 0.057. Neither the index of steady-state cerebral perfusion nor cerebral venous saturation were affected by dopamine infusion.Dopamine infusion tended to improve CA capacity at low blood pressures while an index of steady-state cerebral blood flow and cerebral venous saturation were unaffected by dopamine infusion. Thus

  18. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriëtte; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michaël A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design: Prospective observational controlled study. Setting: Nonacademic university-affiliated

  19. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  20. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors GaAs, GaP, and Ge in a nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy experiment. Saturable absorption is caused by sample conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite valley scattering in the field of a strong THz pulse....

  1. Determination of saturation functions and wettability for chalk based on measured fluid saturations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, D.; Bech, N.; Moeller Nielsen, C.

    1998-08-01

    The end effect of displacement experiments on low permeable porous media is used for determination of relative permeability functions and capillary pressure functions. Saturation functions for a drainage process are determined from a primary drainage experiment. A reversal of the flooding direction creates an intrinsic imbibition process in the sample, which enables determination if imbibition saturation functions. The saturation functions are determined by a parameter estimation technique. Scanning effects are modelled by the method of Killough. Saturation profiles are determined by NMR. (au)

  2. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Pandian, E-mail: prms23@gmail.com [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India); Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N. [University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-11-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation.

  3. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Pandian; Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N.

    2013-01-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2 1 using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation

  4. Recipe for residual oil saturation determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillory, A.J.; Kidwell, C.M.

    1979-01-01

    In 1978, Shell Oil Co., in conjunction with the US Department of Energy, conducted a residual oil saturation study in a deep, hot high-pressured Gulf Coast Reservoir. The work was conducted prior to initiation of CO/sub 2/ tertiary recovery pilot. Many problems had to be resolved prior to and during the residual oil saturation determination. The problems confronted are outlined such that the procedure can be used much like a cookbook in designing future studies in similar reservoirs. Primary discussion centers around planning and results of a log-inject-log operation used as a prime method to determine the residual oil saturation. Several independent methods were used to calculate the residual oil saturation in the subject well in an interval between 12,910 ft (3935 m) and 12,020 ft (3938 m). In general, these numbers were in good agreement and indicated a residual oil saturation between 22% and 24%. 10 references.

  5. Effects of prolonged compression on the variations of haemoglobin oxygenation-assessment by spectral analysis of reflectance spectrophotometry signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Zengyong; Tam, Eric W C; Mak, Arthur F T; Lau, Roy Y C

    2006-01-01

    The consequences of rhythmical flow motion for nutrition and the oxygen supply to tissue are largely unknown. In this study, the periodic variations of haemoglobin oxygenation in compressed and uncompressed skin were evaluated with a reflection spectrometer using an in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat model. Skin compression was induced over the trochanter area by a locally applied external pressure of 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg) via a specifically designed pneumatic indentor. A total of 19 rats were used in this study. The loading duration is 6 h per day for four consecutive days. Haemoglobin oxygenation variations were quantified using spectral analysis based on wavelets' transformation. The results found that in both compressed and uncompressed skin, periodic variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were characterized by two frequencies in the range of 0.01-0.05 Hz and 0.15-0.4 Hz. These frequency ranges coincide with those of the frequency range of the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities found in the flow motion respectively. Tissue compression following the above loading schedule induced a significant decrease in the spectral amplitudes of frequency interval 0.01-0.05 Hz during the pre-occlusion period on day 3 and day 4 as compared to that on day 1 (p 2 consumption rates of arteriolar walls. The modification of vessel wall oxygen consumption might substantially affect the available oxygen supply to the compressed tissue. This mechanism might be involved in the process leading to pressure ulcer formation

  6. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagadeesan, G.; Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K.; Harikrishna Etti, S.; Aravindhan, S.

    2014-01-01

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3 1 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit

  7. Pathophysiological effects and changes in potassium, ionised calcium, glucose and haemoglobin early after severe blunt chest trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocksén, David; Gryth, Dan; Druid, Henrik; Gustavsson, Jenny; Arborelius, Ulf P

    2012-05-01

    Severe lung contusion is often observed after blunt chest trauma due to traffic accidents or fall from heights, but may also occur after a non-penetrating ballistic impact against body armour. Such trauma has been designated behind armour blunt trauma (BABT). Our aim in the present study has been to evaluate pathophysiological changes and compensatory mechanisms that occur early after such severe lung contusion. Twelve pigs wearing body armour were shot with a 7.62mm assault rifle to produce a standardised pulmonary contusion. Exposed animals were compared with five control animals shot with blank ammunition. Physiological parameters and levels of potassium, glucose, haemoglobin, calcium, lactate and pH were monitored for two hours after the shot. The impact induced severe pulmonary contusion with apnoea, desaturation and hypotension in all exposed animals. Increased haemoglobin, glucose and severe hyperkalaemia were seen shortly after impact. Seven of twelve animals died due to the trauma. Dense cardiac tissue was observed during post mortem examination in six of the animals that died during the experimental course. In conclusion, this study has shown that life-threatening hyperkalaemia occurs early after severe lung contusion. Moreover, dense cardiac tissue and early increase of haemoglobin and glucose are intriguing findings that should be investigated in future studies. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, G. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India); Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K. [University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Harikrishna Etti, S. [GKM College of Engineering and Technology, Kamaraj Salai, Chennai 600 063 (India); Aravindhan, S., E-mail: aravindhanpresidency@gmail.com [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2014-10-25

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  9. Effects of a diphenyl-ether herbicide, oxyfluorfen, on human BFU-E/CFU-E development and haemoglobin synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rio, B; Parent-Massin, D; Lautraite, S; Hoellinger, H

    1997-02-01

    The diphenyl-ether herbicides exert their phytotoxic activity by preventing chlorophyll formation in plants as a result of inhibition of protoporphyrinogen oxidase. This enzyme is the last step of the common pathway for chlorophyll and haem biosynthesis. The aim of this work is to determine whether herbicide inhibitors of plant protoporphyrinogen oxidase could act on the human protoporphyrinogen oxidase involved in haemoglobin synthesis and cause heamatologic diseases. Human erythroblastic progenitors (BFU-E/CFU-E: Burst Forming Unit-Erythroid and Colony Forming Unit-Erythroid) were exposed to oxyfluorfen, a diphenyl-ether herbicide in the presence of erythropoietin, and the haematoxicity evaluated in vitro by scoring the development of BFU-E/CFU-E colonies after 7 and 14 days of culture. The toxic effect on differentiation has been evaluated using four criteria: morphology, total protein, total porphyrin, and haemoglobin content. The study of BFU-E/CFU-E proliferation and differentiation showed a cytotoxic effect of oxyfluorfen only at very high concentrations. In contrast, haemoglobin synthesis can be inhibited by concentration of oxyfluorfen (10(-4) M) that have no adverse effect on cellular proliferation.

  10. Impact of nutrition education on knowledge and haemoglobin status of hill women in Uttarakhand State of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhyay, S; Kumar, A R; Raghuvanshi, R S; Singh, B B

    2011-12-01

    This study aimed to examine the impact of the use of single vs. combination of media on nutritional knowledge and haemoglobin status of women in a rural hill area in Uttarakhand State, India. Women from three villages were selected randomly and divided into three groups namely, print media group (n = 59), multimedia group (n = 53) and control group (n = 111). The print media group was exposed to nutrition education through the use of calendars on anaemia for 60 days; the multimedia group was given nutrition education through a combination of media including calendars, video films, and group discussions for 60 days. At pre-exposure stage, 62.7% of the women in the print media group, 67.9% of the multimedia group, and 66.7% of the control group had a low nutrition knowledge level. After exposure, the print media group and the multimedia group showed a significant rise in nutrition knowledge, with the multimedia group scoring significantly higher than the print media group. Overall, 69.1% of the women were anaemic with mean haemoglobin concentration of 10.74 +/- 0.86 g/dl. A non-significant rise in mean haemoglobin concentrations in the experimental groups was found at post-exposure stage. Calendars and video films are effective in increasing nutrition knowledge of illiterate hill women. Use of mass media programmes of longer duration should be encouraged to combat the nutritional problems of rural communities.

  11. Regional Cerebral Oximetry During Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation: Useful or Useless?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genbrugge, Cornelia; Dens, Jo; Meex, Ingrid; Boer, Willem; Eertmans, Ward; Sabbe, Marc; Jans, Frank; De Deyne, Cathy

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 375,000 people annually experience sudden cardiac arrest (CA) in Europe. Most patients who survive the initial hours and days after CA die of postanoxic brain damage. Current monitors, such as electrocardiography and end-tidal capnography, provide only indirect information about the condition of the brain during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). In contrast, cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy provides continuous, noninvasive, real-time information about brain oxygenation without the need for a pulsatile blood flow. It measures transcutaneous cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rSO2). This information could supplement currently used monitors. Moreover, an evolution in rSO2 monitoring technology has made it easier to assess rSO2 in CA conditions. We give an overview of the literature regarding rSO2 measurements during CPR and the current commercially available devices. We highlight the feasibility of cerebral saturation measurement during CPR, its role as a quality parameter of CPR, predictor of return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and neurologic outcome, and its monitoring function during transport. rSO2 is feasible in the setting of CA and has the potential to measure the quality of CPR, predict ROSC and neurologic outcome, and monitor post-CA patients during transport. The literature shows that rSO2 has the potential to serve multiple roles as a neuromonitoring tool during CPR and also to guide neuroprotective therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of Changes in Arterial Carbon Dioxide and Oxygen Partial Pressures on Cerebral Oximeter Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, Andrew; Feiner, John R; Bickler, Philip E; Rollins, Mark D

    2018-01-01

    Cerebral oximetry (cerebral oxygen saturation; ScO2) is used to noninvasively monitor cerebral oxygenation. ScO2 readings are based on the fraction of reduced and oxidized hemoglobin as an indirect estimate of brain tissue oxygenation and assume a static ratio of arterial to venous intracranial blood. Conditions that alter cerebral blood flow, such as acute changes in PaCO2, may decrease accuracy. We assessed the performance of two commercial cerebral oximeters across a range of oxygen concentrations during normocapnia and hypocapnia. Casmed FORE-SIGHT Elite (CAS Medical Systems, Inc., USA) and Covidien INVOS 5100C (Covidien, USA) oximeter sensors were placed on 12 healthy volunteers. The fractional inspired oxygen tension was varied to achieve seven steady-state levels including hypoxic and hyperoxic PaO2 values. ScO2 and simultaneous arterial and jugular venous blood gas measurements were obtained with both normocapnia and hypocapnia. Oximeter bias was calculated as the difference between the ScO2 and reference saturation using manufacturer-specified weighting ratios from the arterial and venous samples. FORE-SIGHT Elite bias was greater during hypocapnia as compared with normocapnia (4 ± 9% vs. 0 ± 6%; P oxygen saturation and mixed venous oxygen tension, as well as increased oxygen extraction across fractional inspired oxygen tension levels (P oxygen extraction (P < 0.0001). Changes in PaCO2 affect cerebral oximeter accuracy, and increased bias occurs with hypocapnia. Decreased accuracy may represent an incorrect assumption of a static arterial-venous blood fraction. Understanding cerebral oximetry limitations is especially important in patients at risk for hypoxia-induced brain injury, where PaCO2 may be purposefully altered.

  13. Cerebral localization in antiquity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, F Clifford

    2009-07-01

    Fragments of neurology can be found in the oldest medical writings in antiquity. Recognizable cerebral localization is seen in Egyptian medical papyri. Most notably, the Edwin Smith papyrus describes hemiplegia after a head injury. Similar echoes can be seen in Homer, the Bible, and the pre-Hippocratic writer Alcmaeon of Croton. While Biblical writers thought that the heart was the seat of the soul, Hippocratic writers located it in the head. Alexandrian anatomists described the nerves, and Galen developed the ventricular theory of cognition whereby mental functions are classified and localized in one of the cerebral ventricles. Medieval scholars, including the early Church Fathers, modified Galenic ventricular theory so as to make it a dynamic model of cognition. Physicians in antiquity subdivided the brain into separate areas and attributed to them different functions, a phenomenon that connects them with modern neurologists.

  14. Cerebral venous thrombosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soralova, T.; Sevcikova, H.; Petersky, D.

    2014-01-01

    We decided to process this theme due to its nonspecific clinical features as they often cause diagnostic problems not only to clinicians but also to diagnostic. It is important to think of this disease mainly in young women who administer hormonal contraception. Imaging methods play the crucial role in diagnostic of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. The gold standard is a native CT of brain which shows the venous sinus thrombosis as a hyperdense lesion in the locus of the sinus (dense triangle sign), CT venography shows the sinus thrombosis as a defect in a contrast filling of the venous sinus (empty delta sign). Other investigative methods are magnetic resonance imaging or MRA. In short we also mention quite a rare but more serious thrombosis of profound cerebral veins v. cerebri magna-Galeni, vv. cerebri internae). The importance of early diagnostic and non specificity of symptoms is presented in 3 clinical cases that are the part of this work. (author)

  15. Applications of cerebral SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McArthur, C., E-mail: claire.mcarthur@nhs.net [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Jampana, R.; Patterson, J.; Hadley, D. [Department of Neuroradiology, Institute of Neurological Sciences, Glasgow (United Kingdom)

    2011-07-15

    Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can provide three-dimensional functional images of the brain following the injection of one of a series of radiopharmaceuticals that crosses the blood-brain barrier and distributes according to cerebral perfusion, neurotransmitter, or cell density. Applications include differentiating between the dementias, evaluating cerebrovascular disease, preoperative localization of epileptogenic foci, diagnosing movement disorders, and evaluation of intracerebral tumours, while also proving a useful research tool. Unlike positronemission tomography (PET), SPECT imaging is widely available and can be performed in any department that has access to a rotating gamma camera. The purpose of this review is to demonstrate the utility of cerebral SPECT and increase awareness of its role in the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders.

  16. Non-invasive diagnosis in cerebral ischemia by means of magnetic resonance imaging and near-infrared spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepgras, A.; Gueckel, F.; Laemmler, B.; Weigel, R.; Schmiedek, P.

    1994-01-01

    We describe the non-invasive assessment of cerebrovascular reserve capacity by means of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and magnetic resonance imaging. Both methods are compared with transcranial Doppler sonography. There is a good correlation of the three methods in the changes in cerebral oxygen saturation and in blood velocity following acetazolamide stimulation of cerebral blood flow, except found in one patient with unilateral carotid artery occlusion. In this patient we found a decreased cerebrovascular reserve capacity, revealed by a magnetic resonance technique designed to quantify CBV and CBF. We postulate a raised oxygen extraction as raised oxygen extraction as the cause of his changes in oxygen saturation. (orig.) [de

  17. Cerebral ketone body metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, A A M

    2005-01-01

    Ketone bodies (KBs) are an important source of energy for the brain. During the neonatal period, they are also precursors for the synthesis of lipids (especially cholesterol) and amino acids. The rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends primarily on the concentration in blood; high concentrations occur during fasting and on a high-fat diet. Cerebral KB metabolism is also regulated by the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which depends on the abundance of monocarboxylic acid transporters (MCT1). The BBB's permeability to KBs increases with fasting in humans. In rats, permeability increases during the suckling period, but human neonates have not been studied. Monocarboxylic acid transporters are also present in the plasma membranes of neurons and glia but their role in regulating KB metabolism is uncertain. Finally, the rate of cerebral KB metabolism depends on the activities of the relevant enzymes in brain. The activities vary with age in rats, but reliable results are not available for humans. Cerebral KB metabolism in humans differs from that in the rat in several respects. During fasting, for example, KBs supply more of the brain's energy in humans than in the rat. Conversely, KBs are probably used more extensively in the brain of suckling rats than in human neonates. These differences complicate the interpretation of rodent studies. Most patients with inborn errors of ketogenesis develop normally, suggesting that the only essential role for KBs is as an alternative fuel during illness or prolonged fasting. On the other hand, in HMG-CoA lyase deficiency, imaging generally shows asymptomatic white-matter abnormalities. The ability of KBs to act as an alternative fuel explains the effectiveness of the ketogenic diet in GLUT1 deficiency, but its effectiveness in epilepsy remains unexplained.

  18. Radiopharmaceuticals for cerebral studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon Cabana, Alba

    1994-01-01

    For obtain good brain scintillation images in nuclear medicine must be used several radiopharmaceuticals. Cerebral studies give a tumors visual image as well as brain anomalities detection and are helpful in the diagnostic diseases . Are described in this work: a cerebrum radiopharmaceuticals classification,labelled compounds proceeding and Tc 99m good properties in for your fast caption, post administration and blood purification for renal way

  19. Neonatal cerebral infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujimoto, Shinji; Togari, Hajime; Sobajima, Hisanori; Suzuki, Shigesumi; Wada, Yoshiro; Yokochi, Kenji; Nishimura, Yutaka; Inukai, Kazuhisa; Futamura, Masahide.

    1992-01-01

    In a retrospective multi-center study, we investigated eighteen infants with unilateral cerebral infarctions confirmed by computed tomography (CT) scans. The initial symptoms were observed in all the patients between 0 and 3 days of age. Convulsions or apneic attacks were the initial symptoms in all but one. Only 4 patients had complicated obstetric histories and none showed polycythemia or electrolyte abnormalities. All of the initial CT scans revealed unilaterally localized hypodense areas. In 10, the initial CT scans were performed within 24 hours after the clinical onset. In 16, the lesions were within the territory of the middle cerebral artery, 9 of which also involved the cortico-spinal tract (CST). In the remaining 2 patients, the lesions were located whithin the territory of the posterior cerebral artery. None of the 9 patients without CST involvement developed hemiplegia, whereas 5 (56%) of the 9 with CST involvement had hemiplegia, which is a fairly low incidence compared with that in adult cases. This difference was thought to be related to neonatal brain plasticity. (author)

  20. Perioperative use of cerebral and renal near-infrared spectroscopy in neonates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Henrik W; Hansen, Tom G

    2016-01-01

    of NIRS in neonates and premature infants undergoing noncardiac surgeries. METHOD: Neonates were monitored with both cerebral and renal NIRS for 24 h after induction of anesthesia and compared with systemic blood pressure (BP), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 ), and heart rate (HR). RESULTS: A total...... of 23 368 min of data were collected from 21 neonates. NIRS reported cerebral/renal hypoxia 2.8 (±8.3)%/19.3 (±25.4)% of the time intraoperatively and 9.6 (±17.0)%/9.9 (±18.9)% of the time postoperatively. A moderate positive correlation was found between SpO2 and NIRS (φcerebral = 0.371, φrenal = 0...... specific regional cerebral and renal monitoring. Despite some practical and economical limitations, NIRS may be considered a useful supplement to perinatal perioperative intensive care....

  1. Cerebral Oximetry in Cardiac Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Shepelyuk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on the data of numerous current references, the review describes different neuromonitoring methods during cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. It shows that it is important and necessary to make neuromonitoring for the early diagnosis and prevention of neurological complications after cardiac surgery. Particular attention is given to cerebral oximetry; the possibilities and advantages of this technique are described. Correction of cerebral oximetric values is shown to improve survival rates and to reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. Lack of cerebral oximetry monitoring denudes a clinician of important information and possibilities to optimize patient status and to prevent potentially menacing complications, which allows one to conclude that it is necessary to use cerebral oximetry procedures within neu-romonitoring in cardiac surgery. Key words: extracorporeal circulation, cerebral oximetry, neurological dysfunction, cerebral oxygenation.

  2. HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL AS A RISK FACTOR FOR LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harishchandra Venkata Yanamandala

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Lower Respiratory Tract Infection (LRTI is an inflammation of the airways, pulmonary tissue below the larynx level. Children who are below 5 years of age suffer about 5-6 episodes of LRTI per year on an average. 1,2 The largest cause of death in children worldwide is pneumonia. If the haemoglobin level is below 11 g/dL 3 , then the child is considered as anaemic. In children, LRTIs associated with anaemia occur more commonly than in adults. Pneumonia kills about an estimated 1.1 million children under the age of 5 years old worldwide. It is more prevalent in South East Asia and Africa. 3,4,5 Anaemia is a condition in which the number of RBCs is very low to meet the body’s physiologic needs. The most common cause of anaemia is deficiency of iron. In both developing and developed countries, anaemia is a common health problem. This study is a prospective study, which was conducted to assess the low haemoglobin level as a risk factor for developing LRTI in children. MATERIALS AND METHODS This is a prospective study, which was conducted in 75 children who attended the outpatient unit of Department of Paediatrics, Gitam Institute of Medical Sciences and Research. It was conducted during the period between December 2015 to December 2016. By the symptoms and signs, pneumonia was diagnosed. Exclusion Criteria- Children who had congenital malformations of chest wall, severe systemic illness and protein malfunction. All children’s height and weight were recorded to assess the nutritional status. RESULTS C-Reactive Protein Estimation (CRP was more than 6 mg/L in 34 (45.3% patients in the study group, 11 (14.7% in the control group. Mantoux test was positive for 17 (22.6% among study group and none in the control group. Pneumonia as per radiological evidence was present in 49 (65.3% and hyperinflation of lungs in 26 (34.7% among the study group. X-ray reports were normal in 8 cases (10.7%. Age was not found to be a significant factor, which

  3. Assessing species saturation: conceptual and methodological challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, Ingrid; Karger, Dirk N; Kessler, Michael

    2018-05-07

    Is there a maximum number of species that can coexist? Intuitively, we assume an upper limit to the number of species in a given assemblage, or that a lineage can produce, but defining and testing this limit has proven problematic. Herein, we first outline seven general challenges of studies on species saturation, most of which are independent of the actual method used to assess saturation. Among these are the challenge of defining saturation conceptually and operationally, the importance of setting an appropriate referential system, and the need to discriminate among patterns, processes and mechanisms. Second, we list and discuss the methodological approaches that have been used to study species saturation. These approaches vary in time and spatial scales, and in the variables and assumptions needed to assess saturation. We argue that assessing species saturation is possible, but that many studies conducted to date have conceptual and methodological flaws that prevent us from currently attaining a good idea of the occurrence of species saturation. © 2018 Cambridge Philosophical Society.

  4. Effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on haemoglobin level of school going children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya .

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Iron deficiency is estimated to affect one-half of the school going children in developing countries and school years are opportune time to intervene. Rationale: No coherent, co-ordinate and effective health services are available in the country for below 16 years. So attempt was made to know real scenario of iron deficiency. Objectives: To assess the effect of whey guava beverage supplementation on the haemoglobin level of school going children. Methodology:  An experimental research design was taken to conduct the study in which 200 children of 6≥and7≥ years in low socio economic status of both the genders were taken. For hemoglobin testing Sahil’s hemoglobinometer was used. Each child in experimental group was given 200ml of whey guava beverage for 90 days except holidays. Results and Discussion: The initial mean Hb levels of 6≥and7≥ year’s old boys and girls of control groups and experimental groups were ranging from 9.50 to 10.24 which were 79.17% to 85.33%. The results revealed that almost all the respondents were anaemic. After 90 days of feeding supplement the final mean Hb levels of 6≥7 years old boys and girls of control group  ranged from 10.10 to 10.65 which was 84.17% to 88.75%. Whereas in experimental group it ranged from 11.06 to 11.42 which were 91.92% to 95.17%. The study clearly evidences that the respondents in experimental group had improved with more Hb levels when compared to control group. Also children who were suffering from anaemia in experimental group became normal. Conclusion: Distribution of whey guava beverage through school feeding program may prove as an outstanding strategy to combat iron deficiency in school children.

  5. Haemoglobin-mediated response to hyper-thermal stress in the keystone species Daphnia magna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca Cambronero, Maria; Zeis, Bettina; Orsini, Luisa

    2018-01-01

    Anthropogenic global warming has become a major geological and environmental force driving drastic changes in natural ecosystems. Due to the high thermal conductivity of water and the effects of temperature on metabolic processes, freshwater ecosystems are among the most impacted by these changes. The ability to tolerate changes in temperature may determine species long-term survival and fitness. Therefore, it is critical to identify coping mechanisms to thermal and hyper-thermal stress in aquatic organisms. A central regulatory element compensating for changes in oxygen supply and ambient temperature is the respiratory protein haemoglobin (Hb). Here, we quantify Hb plastic and evolutionary response in Daphnia magna subpopulations resurrected from the sedimentary archive of a lake with known history of increase in average temperature and recurrence of heat waves. By measuring constitutive changes in crude Hb protein content among subpopulations, we assessed evolution of the Hb gene family in response to temperature increase. To quantify the contribution of plasticity in the response of this gene family to hyper-thermal stress, we quantified changes in Hb content in all subpopulations under hyper-thermal stress as compared to nonstressful temperature. Further, we tested competitive abilities of genotypes as a function of their Hb content, constitutive and induced. We found that Hb-rich genotypes have superior competitive abilities as compared to Hb-poor genotypes under hyper-thermal stress after a period of acclimation. These findings suggest that whereas long-term adjustment to higher occurrence of heat waves may require a combination of plasticity and genetic adaptation, plasticity is most likely the coping mechanism to hyper-thermal stress in the short term. Our study suggests that with higher occurrence of heat waves, Hb-rich genotypes may be favoured with potential long-term impact on population genetic diversity.

  6. Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), diabetes and trajectories of change in episodic memory performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Colleen; Andel, Ross; Infurna, Frank J; Seetharaman, Shyam

    2017-02-01

    As the ageing population grows, it is important to identify strategies to moderate cognitive ageing. We examined glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and diabetes in relation to level and change in episodic memory in older adults with and without diabetes. Data from 4419 older adults with (n=950) and without (n=3469) diabetes participating in a nationally representative longitudinal panel study (the Health and Retirement Study) were examined. Average baseline age was 72.66 years and 58% were women. HbA1c was measured in 2006 and episodic memory was measured using immediate and delayed list recall over 4 biennial waves between 2006 and 2012. Growth curve models were used to assess trajectories of episodic memory change. In growth curve models adjusted for age, sex, education, race, depressive symptoms and waist circumference, higher HbA1c levels and having diabetes were associated with poorer baseline episodic memory (p=0.036 and HbA1c on episodic memory decline was smaller than the effect of age. The results were stronger for women than men and were not modified by age or race. When the main analyses were estimated for those with and without diabetes separately, HbA1c was significantly linked to change in episodic memory only among those with diabetes. Higher HbA1c and diabetes were both associated with declines in episodic memory, with this relationship further exacerbated by having diabetes and elevated HbA1c. HbA1c appeared more important for episodic memory performance among women than men. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Year-to-year variability in haemoglobin mass response to two altitude training camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Blake D; Buttifant, David; Gore, Christopher J; White, Kevin; Kemp, Justin

    2013-12-01

    To quantify the year-to-year variability of altitude-induced changes in haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) in elite team-sport athletes. 12 Australian-Footballers completed a 19-day (ALT1) and 18-day (ALT2) moderate altitude (∼2100 m), training camp separated by 12 months. An additional 20 participants completed only one of the two training camps (ALT1 additional n=9, ALT2 additional n=11). Total Hb(mass) was assessed using carbon monoxide rebreathing before (PRE), after (POST₁) and 4 weeks after each camp. The typical error of Hb(mass) for the pooled data of all 32 participants was 2.6%. A contemporary statistics analysis was used with the smallest worthwhile change set to 2% for Hb(mass). POST₁ Hb(mass) was very likely increased in ALT1 (3.6 ± 1.6%, n=19; mean ± ∼90 CL) as well as ALT2 (4.4 ± 1.3%, n=23) with an individual responsiveness of 1.3% and 2.2%, respectively. There was a small correlation between ALT1 and ALT2 (R=0.21, p=0.59) for a change in Hb(mass), but a moderately inverse relationship between the change in Hb(mass) and initial relative Hb(mass) (g/kg (R=-0.51, p=0.04)). Two preseason moderate altitude camps 1 year apart yielded a similar (4%) mean increase in Hb(mass) of elite footballers, with an individual responsiveness of approximately half the group mean effect, indicating that most players gained benefit. Nevertheless, the same individuals generally did not change their Hb(mass) consistently from year to year. Thus, a 'responder' or 'non-responder' to altitude for Hb(mass) does not appear to be a fixed trait.

  8. Metabolic and Cardiovascular Ageing Indices in Relation to Glycated Haemoglobin in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvarna H I, Shruthi; Moodithaya, Shailaja; Sharma, Raghava

    2017-01-01

    Ageing is a natural phenomenon that has tremendous amount of control over normal physiological functions. Diabetes mellitus and ageing share common symptoms like stiffness and loss of functioning of tissues due to cross-liked proteins and free radicals. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) is often used as a stable cumulative index of glycemic control and has shown that even in non-diabetic adults, there is a steady increase in HbA1c levels with age. Aim of the study is to evaluate the strength of association of HbA1c with metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices in subjects between the age group of 40 to 60 yrs. A total of 220 subjects, with (n=110) and without (n=110) diabetes were assessed for the metabolic and cardiovascular ageing indices. BMI, waist hip ratio, fat percentage, Fasting blood sugar and HbA1c were assessed as metabolic ageing indices. The cardiovascular ageing indices measured were resting heart rate, blood pressure and heart rate variability. Ageing indices were compared between subjects with and without diabetes using independent' t' test and showed that the T2DM group exhibit significant accelerated ageing as compared to that of the controls. Pearson's and partial correlation coefficient was used to assess the association of HbA1c with the ageing indices without and with controlling for chronological age, indicated that, strength of association of levels of HBA1c with cardiovascular and other metabolic indices of ageing is statistically significant. The study concludes that the tightness of glycemic control has a significant impact on the biological ageing process. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  9. Tubal origin of ovarian cancer - the double-edged sword of haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shiou-Fu; Gerry, Emily; Shih, Ie-Ming

    2017-05-01

    Ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) is the most malignant neoplasm of the gynaecological tract. While the origins of many human malignant neoplasms are clear, the origin of HGSC remains poorly understood. This lack of knowledge limits our understanding of its pathogenesis and compromises efforts devoted to developing better early detection tools and effective preventative interventions. The paradigm of the tubal origin of HGSC has been advanced since the initial report of dysplastic lesions (now known as serous tubal intraepithelial carcinomas or STICs) that morphologically resemble HGSC in the Fallopian tube. These were observed in a group of patients with a genetic predisposition to ovarian cancer who were undergoing risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy. Since then, a series of clinico-pathological and molecular studies have characterized STICs and their concurrent HGSCs, and the results support the new paradigm of a tubal origin of many 'ovarian' HGSCs. Reactive oxygen species-containing ovulatory follicular fluid has been thought to be the major culprit behind DNA damage in tubal epithelial cells, leading to either cell death or, if the cells survive, mutagenesis. A recent report from this journal demonstrates that ferryl haemoglobin (Hb) in peritoneal fluid could prevent cell death from DNA-damaged fimbrial epithelial cells, facilitating ovulation-induced carcinogenesis of tubal epithelium. This timely study provides new insight into the tumour initiation event in HGSC. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Behaviour of perioperative values of haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cells in elderly patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study on non-transfused patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, L; De Vecchi, E; Romano', C L; Vassena, C; Banfi, G

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on how elderly patients recover pre-operative haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cell levels after total hip and knee arthroplasties. In this study we aimed to evaluate blood loss and recovery blood levels in relation to gender, type of surgery and preoperative haemoglobin values. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 187 patients over 65 years of age who underwent total knee or total hip arthroplasty between January 2008 and December 2009. Preoperative blood analysis was carried out within 40 days prior to intervention followed by a 15-day postoperative follow-up. Haemoglobin recovery values in anaemic patients versus healthy patients was also estimated. All tested values decreased significantly during the first 3-5 postoperative days. Haemoglobin levels decreased statistically significantly more in males than in females, while no significant differences were observed for haematocrit and erythrocytes. Recovery of haemoglobin values did not differ significantly between healthy patients and patients with preoperative haemoglobin below 120 g/L. Furthermore, our data showed a higher blood loss in total hip arthroplasty, whilst recovery rates showed to be higher after a total knee arthroplasty procedure. In conclusion, the type of intervention and gender played an important role in blood loss and recovery rates in total joint arthroplasty.

  11. Cerebral malformations without antenatal diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girard, Nadine J. [Diagnostic Neuroradiology, Hopital Timone, Marseille (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cerebral malformations are usually described following the different steps in development. Disorders of neurulation (dysraphisms), or diverticulation (holoprosencephalies and posterior fossa cysts), and total commissural agenesis are usually diagnosed in utero. In contrast, disorders of histogenesis (proliferation-differentiation, migration, organization) are usually discovered in infants and children. The principal clinical symptoms that may be a clue to cerebral malformation include congenital hemiparesis, epilepsy and mental or psychomotor retardation. MRI is the imaging method of choice to assess cerebral malformations. (orig.)

  12. Saturation and forward jets at HERA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquet, C.; Peschanski, R.; Royon, C.

    2004-01-01

    We analyse forward-jet production at HERA in the framework of the Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff saturation models. We obtain a good description of the forward-jet cross-sections measured by the H1 and ZEUS Collaborations in the two-hard-scale region (k T∼ Q >> Λ QCD ) with two different parametrizations with either significant or weak saturation effects. The weak saturation parametrization gives a scale compatible with the one found for the proton structure function F2. We argue that Mueller-Navelet jets at the Tevatron and the LHC could help distinguishing between both options

  13. Scintillation probe with photomultiplier tube saturation indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruch, J.F.; Urban, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    A photomultiplier tube saturation indicator is formed by supplying a supplemental light source, typically an light emitting diode (LED), adjacent to the photomultiplier tube. A switch allows the light source to be activated. The light is forwarded to the photomultiplier tube by an optical fiber. If the probe is properly light tight, then a meter attached to the indicator will register the light from the LED. If the probe is no longer light tight, and the saturation indicator is saturated, no signal will be registered when the LED is activated. 2 figs

  14. Molecular pathophysiology of cerebral edema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzanich, Volodymyr; Simard, J Marc

    2015-01-01

    Advancements in molecular biology have led to a greater understanding of the individual proteins responsible for generating cerebral edema. In large part, the study of cerebral edema is the study of maladaptive ion transport. Following acute CNS injury, cells of the neurovascular unit, particularly brain endothelial cells and astrocytes, undergo a program of pre- and post-transcriptional changes in the activity of ion channels and transporters. These changes can result in maladaptive ion transport and the generation of abnormal osmotic forces that, ultimately, manifest as cerebral edema. This review discusses past models and current knowledge regarding the molecular and cellular pathophysiology of cerebral edema. PMID:26661240

  15. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, prevents reduction of jugular bulb saturation during rewarming from hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iritakenishi, T; Hayashi, Y; Yamanaka, H; Kamibayashi, T; Ueda, K; Mashimo, T

    2012-01-01

    Inadequate cerebral oxygen balance during cardiopulmonary bypass may cause neuropsychological dysfunction. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase III inhibitor, augments cerebral blood flow by direct vasodilatation. We conducted a prospective, randomized study in patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass to clarify the clinical efficacy of milrinone in the imbalance of cerebral oxygen supply and demand during the rewarming period of cardiopulmonary bypass. This is a prospective, randomized and placebo-controlled study. After anesthesia, a 5.5 F fiberoptic oximeter catheter was inserted into the right jugular bulb retrogradely for monitoring the jugular venous oxyhemoglobin saturation (SjO(2)). Patients were randomly assigned to two groups, one receiving a continuous infusion of milrinone, 0.5 µg/kg/min during hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass, and the other receiving saline as control. Milrinone significantly prevented the reduction of the jugular venous oxyhemoglobin saturation at 10 minutes from the start of rewarming compared with the control group, but did not do so from 10 to 20 minutes after rewarming. Milrinone suppresses the reduction of SjO(2) and improves the balance of cerebral oxygen supply and demand during the early rewarming period of hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass.

  16. Minimum K_2,3-saturated Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ya-Chen

    2010-01-01

    A graph is K_{2,3}-saturated if it has no subgraph isomorphic to K_{2,3}, but does contain a K_{2,3} after the addition of any new edge. We prove that the minimum number of edges in a K_{2,3}-saturated graph on n >= 5 vertices is sat(n, K_{2,3}) = 2n - 3.

  17. Semiconductor saturable absorbers for ultrafast THz signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Turchinovich, Dmitry

    We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths.......We demonstrate saturable absorber behavior of n-type semiconductors in the THz frequency range using nonlinear THz spectroscopy. Further, we observe THz pulse shortening and increase of the group refractive index at high field strengths....

  18. Ultrafast THz Saturable Absorption in Doped Semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Hoffmann, Matthias C.

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields.......We demonstrate ultrafast THz saturable absorption in n-doped semiconductors by nonlinear THz time-domain spectroscopy. This effect is caused by the semiconductor conductivity modulation due to electron heating and satellite-valley scattering in strong THz fields....

  19. Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmut Edip Gürol

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid beta-peptides (Ab in the walls of leptomeningeal arteries, arterioles, and veins. Despite the fact that these pathological changes were first described in 1909, major advancement in our understanding of the clinicoradiological manifestations, neurobiology, and course of CAA has occurred only during the last 30 years. No significant associations have been shown between CAA and other systemic/visceral amyloidoses or vascular risk factors, including hypertension. CAA is well known as the most common cause of spontaneous and anticoagulant-related lobar parenchymal ICH in the elderly. It also causes lobar cerebral microbleeds (CMBs, small dot-like dark susceptibility artifacts visible with gradient recalled echo (GRE-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. CMBs are important markers of disease severity and predictors of CAA progression. Amyloid angiopathy is also a common cause of ischemic microvascular white matter disease (WMD and deep cerebral infarctions. Such WMD is defined as subcortical and periventricular white matter changes without obvious infarction, as well as a dark appearance on computerized tomography (CT and a bright appearance on fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR-MRI. CAA-related vascular dysfunction, with its hemorrhagic and ischemic complications, is a recognized contributor to vascular cognitive impairment in the elderly, an independent effect that is synergistically increased by Alzheimer pathologies, such as plaques and tangles. A set of clinicoradiological criteria was established for the accurate diagnosis of CAA. According to the Boston Criteria, patients aged 55 years and older with multiple hemorrhages (on CT or GRE-MRI restricted to the lobar, cortical, or corticosubcortical regions (cerebellar hemorrhage allowed are diagnosed as probable CAA when no other etiology is found; a single hemorrhage in the same region is classified as possible

  20. Interfaces para control cerebral

    OpenAIRE

    Spinelli, Enrique Mario

    2000-01-01

    La función de una interfaz para control cerebral basada en señales de electroencefalograma (EEG), en forma general denominada BCI (Brain control Interface), es establecer un enlace directo entre el cerebro y una máquina, sin utilizar acciones motoras directas. Una BCI permite realizar operaciones simples a partir de la interpretación de las señales de EEG. Su desarrollo está principalmente orientado hacia la ayuda a personas con discapacidades motoras severas, que poseen deterioros en el sist...

  1. Techniques in cerebral protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fanelli, Fabrizio; Bezzi, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Passariello, Roberto

    2006-10-01

    Carotid angioplasty and stenting is a valid alternative option to conventional carotid endarterectomy in the treatment of carotid artery stenosis. During the stenting process, however, distal embolization can occur with neurological consequences. To avoid this, cerebral protection devices have been introduced. Three principal types of protection system have been developed: distal balloon occlusion, distal filters and proximal protection with or without reversal of flow. As protection devices became the focus of interest by manufactures and physicians, several trials are going on worldwide to analyze the characteristics of each of them and to evaluate their efficacy to reduce the rate of distal embolization.

  2. Data analytics identify glycated haemoglobin co-markers for type 2 diabetes mellitus diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinek, Herbert F; Stranieri, Andrew; Yatsko, Andrew; Venkatraman, Sitalakshmi

    2016-08-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) is being more commonly used as an alternative test for the identification of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) or to add to fasting blood glucose level and oral glucose tolerance test results, because it is easily obtained using point-of-care technology and represents long-term blood sugar levels. HbA1c cut-off values of 6.5% or above have been recommended for clinical use based on the presence of diabetic comorbidities from population studies. However, outcomes of large trials with a HbA1c of 6.5% as a cut-off have been inconsistent for a diagnosis of T2DM. This suggests that a HbA1c cut-off of 6.5% as a single marker may not be sensitive enough or be too simple and miss individuals at risk or with already overt, undiagnosed diabetes. In this study, data mining algorithms have been applied on a large clinical dataset to identify an optimal cut-off value for HbA1c and to identify whether additional biomarkers can be used together with HbA1c to enhance diagnostic accuracy of T2DM. T2DM classification accuracy increased if 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OhdG), an oxidative stress marker, was included in the algorithm from 78.71% for HbA1c at 6.5% to 86.64%. A similar result was obtained when interleukin-6 (IL-6) was included (accuracy=85.63%) but with a lower optimal HbA1c range between 5.73 and 6.22%. The application of data analytics to medical records from the Diabetes Screening programme demonstrates that data analytics, combined with large clinical datasets can be used to identify clinically appropriate cut-off values and identify novel biomarkers that when included improve the accuracy of T2DM diagnosis even when HbA1c levels are below or equal to the current cut-off of 6.5%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Cerebral aneurysms – an audit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    Abstract. We performed an audit to determine the profile of cerebral aneurysms at the Universitas Hospital Bloem- fontein, the only government hospital with a vascular suite in the Free State and Northern Cape area. Two hun- dred and twenty-three government patients, diagnosed with cerebral aneurysms during the period.

  4. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P.W. REIMUS

    2004-11-08

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass

  5. SATURATED ZONE IN-SITU TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    REIMUS, P.W.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters used in the development of parameter distributions for total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170037]), Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]), Saturated Zone Colloid Transport (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170006]), and ''Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Model Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170042]). Specifically, this scientific analysis contributes the following to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as part of a natural barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvial Testing Complex (ATC) located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and colloid

  6. The evaluation of cerebral oxygenation by oximetry in patients with ischaemic stroke.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demet G

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available AIMS: To evaluate the clinical significance of estimation of the regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 in the patients with ischaemic stroke by the cerebral oximetry during acute, sub-acute and chronic phases. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: In this prospective study, 24 patients with ischaemic stroke in the middle cerebral artery territory were included. A detailed clinical examination and appropriate laboratory investigations were carried out. The rSO2 was determined by oximetery (INVOS 3100-SD bilaterally on the first, third, seventh, and fifteenth days. The blood pressure, the peripheral capillary oxygen saturation and the arterial blood gas values were noted too. the changes were evaluated along with Glasgow coma scale (GCS using unpaired student t-test and one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: There were significant differences between the rSO2 values in acute, subacute and chronic phases on the side of the lesion (p value < 0.05. The values of oxygen saturation gradually increased throughout the chronic phase. These values showed a positive correlation with GCS, but the results were not significant statistically. The rSO2 values were also significantly higher on the non-lesional side than those on the lesion side in the acute phase (p= 0.0034, the discrepancy disappeared during the sub-acute and chronic phases. CONCLUSION: Cerebral oximetry can be used as a measure to evaluate the cerebral oxygenation during the various phases of ischaemic stroke. It has a potential to serve as a useful marker for detection of cerebral oxygenation imbalances, to judge the effectiveness of the management and for the follow-up of patients with ischaemic stroke.

  7. Therapeutic interventions in cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dilip R

    2005-11-01

    Various therapeutic interventions have been used in the management of children with cerebral palsy. Traditional physiotherapy and occupational therapy are widely used interventions and have been shown to be of benefit in the treatment of cerebral palsy. Evidence in support of the effectiveness of the neurodevelopmental treatment is equivocal at best. There is evidence to support the use and effectiveness of neuromuscular electrical stimulation in children with cerebral palsy. The effectiveness of many other interventions used in the treatment of cerebral palsy has not been clearly established based on well-controlled trials. These include: sensory integration, body-weight support treadmill training, conductive education, constraint-induced therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and the Vojta method. This article provides an overview of salient aspects of popular interventions used in the management of children with cerebral palsy.

  8. The Effect of Date (Phoenix dactylifera Juice on Haemoglobin Level An Experimental Study in Iron Supplemented Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ady Try Himawan Zen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There has been more research on the iron supplementation. Date juice has been shown to be rich in iron. It has been reported to increase the hemoglobin level in rats. Few studies has been conducted on the effect of date juice on the hemoglobin level in male white Wistar rats fed low iron diet.This research was conducted to evaluate the effect of (Phoenix dactylifera juice on haemoglobin level in iron supplemented rats. In this experimental study using post test control group design, 24 male white Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups. G-I served as the control group (standard diet and aquadest. G II was given the low Fe diet and aquadest for 21 d. G-III,IV were given the low fe diet and aquadest plus date juice at the concentration of 50%, 100% respectively. The treatment was given for 14 days. Spectrophotometer was used to assess the haemoglobin level of rats. One way anova followed by Post Hoc LSD was applied for the data analysis. Mean of hemoglobin (g/dl level for the four groups were 12,03, 7.72, 9.25, 10.35 respectively. Test resulted in p<0.05. Post Hoc LSD test resulted in a significant different between K-I and G-II, G-III, G-IV ;G-II and G-III, G-IV ;G-III and G-IV. In conclusion, date juice increases the haemoglobin level in male white rats fed on the low fe diet.

  9. Novel haemoglobin-derived antimicrobial peptides from chicken (Gallus gallus) blood: purification, structural aspects and biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilchenko, A S; Rogozhin, E A; Vasilchenko, A V; Kartashova, O L; Sycheva, M V

    2016-12-01

    To purify and characterize antimicrobial peptides derived from the acid extract of Gallus gallus blood cells. Two polypeptides (i.e. CHb-1 and CHb-2) with antibacterial activity were detected in the acidic extract of blood cells from chicken (G. gallus). The isolated peptides that possessed a potent antibacterial activity were purified using a two-step chromatography procedure that involved solid-phase extraction of a total protein/peptide extract followed by thin fractionation by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC). The molecular masses of the purified peptides were similar and were 4824·4 and 4825·2 Da, which have been measured by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS). Their amino acid sequences were determined by Edman degradation and showed that the peptides were fully identical to the two fragments of G. gallus α-haemoglobin localized into different subunits (A and D respectively). The peptides were active in micromolar concentrations against Gram-negative Escherichia coli K12 TG1. Using the 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine, the FITC-dextran labelled probes and the live/dead staining allowed to show the hemocidin mode of action and estimate the pore size. In this study, for the first time, α-haemoglobin from chicken (G. gallus) has been investigated as a donor of the two high homologous native peptide fragments that possess potent antibacterial activity in vitro. These are membrane-active peptides and their mechanism of action against E. coli involves a toroidal pore formation. The obtained results expand the perception of the role of haemoglobin in a living system, describing it as a source of multifunction substances. Additionally, the data presented in this paper may contribute to the development of new, cost-effective, antimicrobial agents. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gordon, I.

    1998-01-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics

  11. Cerebral imaging in pediatrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, I [London, Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children (United Kingdom)

    1998-06-01

    Radioisotope brain imaging has focused mainly on regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). However the use of ligand which go to specific receptor sites is being introduced in pediatrics, mainly psychiatry. rCBF is potentially available in many institutions, especially with the availability of multi-headed gamma cameras. The use of this technique in pediatrics requires special attention to detail in the manner of data acquisition and handling the child. The interpretation of the rCBF study in a child requires knowledge of normal brain maturation. The major clinical use in pediatrics is epilepsy because of the advances in surgery and the frequency of complex partial seizures. Other indications in pediatric neurology include brain death, acute neurological loss including stroke, language disorders, cerebral palsy, hypertension due to renovascular disease, traumatic brain injury and migraine. There are pediatric physiological conditions in which rCBF has been undertaken, these include anorexia nervosa, autism, Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS) and attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity (ADHD). Research using different ligands to specific receptor sites will also be reviewed in pediatrics.

  12. Cerebral cartography and connectomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sporns, Olaf

    2015-05-19

    Cerebral cartography and connectomics pursue similar goals in attempting to create maps that can inform our understanding of the structural and functional organization of the cortex. Connectome maps explicitly aim at representing the brain as a complex network, a collection of nodes and their interconnecting edges. This article reflects on some of the challenges that currently arise in the intersection of cerebral cartography and connectomics. Principal challenges concern the temporal dynamics of functional brain connectivity, the definition of areal parcellations and their hierarchical organization into large-scale networks, the extension of whole-brain connectivity to cellular-scale networks, and the mapping of structure/function relations in empirical recordings and computational models. Successfully addressing these challenges will require extensions of methods and tools from network science to the mapping and analysis of human brain connectivity data. The emerging view that the brain is more than a collection of areas, but is fundamentally operating as a complex networked system, will continue to drive the creation of ever more detailed and multi-modal network maps as tools for on-going exploration and discovery in human connectomics. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2017-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions. PMID:28101056

  14. Cerebral Gluconeogenesis and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, James; Geng, Xiaokun; Shen, Jiamei; Ding, Yuchuan

    2016-01-01

    The gluconeogenesis pathway, which has been known to normally present in the liver, kidney, intestine, or muscle, has four irreversible steps catalyzed by the enzymes: pyruvate carboxylase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase, and glucose 6-phosphatase. Studies have also demonstrated evidence that gluconeogenesis exists in brain astrocytes but no convincing data have yet been found in neurons. Astrocytes exhibit significant 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase-3 activity, a key mechanism for regulating glycolysis and gluconeogenesis. Astrocytes are unique in that they use glycolysis to produce lactate, which is then shuttled into neurons and used as gluconeogenic precursors for reduction. This gluconeogenesis pathway found in astrocytes is becoming more recognized as an important alternative glucose source for neurons, specifically in ischemic stroke and brain tumor. Further studies are needed to discover how the gluconeogenesis pathway is controlled in the brain, which may lead to the development of therapeutic targets to control energy levels and cellular survival in ischemic stroke patients, or inhibit gluconeogenesis in brain tumors to promote malignant cell death and tumor regression. While there are extensive studies on the mechanisms of cerebral glycolysis in ischemic stroke and brain tumors, studies on cerebral gluconeogenesis are limited. Here, we review studies done to date regarding gluconeogenesis to evaluate whether this metabolic pathway is beneficial or detrimental to the brain under these pathological conditions.

  15. Effects of prolonged compression on the variations of haemoglobin oxygenation-assessment by spectral analysis of reflectance spectrophotometry signals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Zengyong; Tam, Eric W C; Mak, Arthur F T; Lau, Roy Y C [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-11-07

    The consequences of rhythmical flow motion for nutrition and the oxygen supply to tissue are largely unknown. In this study, the periodic variations of haemoglobin oxygenation in compressed and uncompressed skin were evaluated with a reflection spectrometer using an in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat model. Skin compression was induced over the trochanter area by a locally applied external pressure of 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg) via a specifically designed pneumatic indentor. A total of 19 rats were used in this study. The loading duration is 6 h per day for four consecutive days. Haemoglobin oxygenation variations were quantified using spectral analysis based on wavelets' transformation. The results found that in both compressed and uncompressed skin, periodic variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were characterized by two frequencies in the range of 0.01-0.05 Hz and 0.15-0.4 Hz. These frequency ranges coincide with those of the frequency range of the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities found in the flow motion respectively. Tissue compression following the above loading schedule induced a significant decrease in the spectral amplitudes of frequency interval 0.01-0.05 Hz during the pre-occlusion period on day 3 and day 4 as compared to that on day 1 (p < 0.05). In contrast, at a frequency range of 0.15-0.4 Hz, prolonged compression caused a significant increase in spectral amplitude during the pre-occlusion period in the compressed tissue on day 3 (p = 0.041) and day 4 (p = 0.024) compared to that in the uncompressed tissue on day 1. These suggested that the variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were closely related to the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities. Increased amplitude in the frequency interval 0.15-0.4 Hz indicated an increased workload of the vascular smooth muscle and could be attributed to the increase of O{sub 2} consumption rates of arteriolar walls. The modification of vessel wall oxygen consumption might

  16. Cerebral blood flow and oximetry response to blood transfusion in relation to chronological age in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, J; Leung, T S; Aladangady, N

    2016-06-01

    Preterm infants frequently receive blood transfusion (BT) and the aim of this study was to measure the effect of BT on cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in preterm infants in relation to chronological age. Preterm infants undergoing intensive care recruited to three chronological age groups: 1 to 7 (Group 1; n=20), 8 to 28 (Group 2; n=21) & ≥29days of life (Group 3; n=18). Pre and post-BT anterior cerebral artery (ACA) time averaged mean velocity (TAMV) and superior vena cava (SVC) flow were measured. Cerebral Tissue Haemoglobin Index (cTHI) and Oxygenation Index (cTOI) were measured from 15-20min before to 15-20min post-BT using NIRS. Vital parameters and blood pressure were measured continuously. Mean BP increased significantly, and there was no significant change in vital parameters following BT. Pre-BT ACA TAMV was higher in Group 2 and 3 compared to Group 1 (pBlood transfusion increased cTOI and cTHI and decreased ACA TAMV in all groups. PDA had no impact on the baseline cerebral oximetry and blood flow as well as changes following blood transfusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lipid order, saturation and surface property relationships: a study of human meibum saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudgil, Poonam; Borchman, Douglas; Yappert, Marta C; Duran, Diana; Cox, Gregory W; Smith, Ryan J; Bhola, Rahul; Dennis, Gary R; Whitehall, John S

    2013-11-01

    Tear film stability decreases with age however the cause(s) of the instability are speculative. Perhaps the more saturated meibum from infants may contribute to tear film stability. The meibum lipid phase transition temperature and lipid hydrocarbon chain order at physiological temperature (33 °C) decrease with increasing age. It is reasonable that stronger lipid-lipid interactions could stabilize the tear film since these interactions must be broken for tear break up to occur. In this study, meibum from a pool of adult donors was saturated catalytically. The influence of saturation on meibum hydrocarbon chain order was determined by infrared spectroscopy. Meibum is in an anhydrous state in the meibomian glands and on the surface of the eyelid. The influence of saturation on the surface properties of meibum was determined using Langmuir trough technology. Saturation of native human meibum did not change the minimum or maximum values of hydrocarbon chain order so at temperatures far above or below the phase transition of human meibum, saturation does not play a role in ordering or disordering the lipid hydrocarbon chains. Saturation did increase the phase transition temperature in human meibum by over 20 °C, a relatively high amount. Surface pressure-area studies showing the late take off and higher maximum surface pressure of saturated meibum compared to native meibum suggest that the saturated meibum film is quite molecularly ordered (stiff molecular arrangement) and elastic (molecules are able to rearrange during compression and expansion) compared with native meibum films which are more fluid agreeing with the infrared spectroscopic results of this study. In saturated meibum, the formation of compacted ordered islands of lipids above the surfactant layer would be expected to decrease the rate of evaporation compared to fluid and more loosely packed native meibum. Higher surface pressure observed with films of saturated meibum compared to native meibum

  18. Cerebral oxygenation is associated with neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm children at age 2 to 3 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, Elise A.; Van Braeckel, Koenraad N. J. A.; van der Veere, Christa N.; Groen, Henk; Dijk, Peter H.; Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.

    AIM: The aim of the study was to determine whether regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (rc SO2 ) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE), using near-infrared spectroscopy, are associated with neurodevelopmental outcome of preterm infants. METHOD: We measured rc SO2 on days 1, 2, 3, 4,

  19. Interger multiplication with overflow detection or saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulte, M.J.; Balzola, P.I.; Akkas, A.; Brocato, R.W.

    2000-01-11

    High-speed multiplication is frequently used in general-purpose and application-specific computer systems. These systems often support integer multiplication, where two n-bit integers are multiplied to produce a 2n-bit product. To prevent growth in word length, processors typically return the n least significant bits of the product and a flag that indicates whether or not overflow has occurred. Alternatively, some processors saturate results that overflow to the most positive or most negative representable number. This paper presents efficient methods for performing unsigned or two's complement integer multiplication with overflow detection or saturation. These methods have significantly less area and delay than conventional methods for integer multiplication with overflow detection and saturation.

  20. Tracking Controller for Intrinsic Output Saturated Systems in Presence of Amplitude and Rate Input Saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chater, E.; Giri, F.; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    We consider the problem of controlling plants that are subject to multiple saturation constraints. Especially, we are interested in linear systems whose input is subject to amplitude and rate constraints of saturation type. Furthermore, the considered systems output is also subject to an intrinsi...

  1. Studies of non-isothermal flow in saturated and partially saturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, C.K.; Maki, K.S.; Glass, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    Physical and numerical experiments have been performed to investigate the behavior of nonisothermal flow in two-dimensional saturated and partially saturated porous media. The physical experiments were performed to identify non-isothermal flow fields and temperature distributions in fully saturated, half-saturated, and residually saturated two-dimensional porous media with bottom heating and top cooling. Two counter-rotating liquid-phase convective cells were observed to develop in the saturated regions of all three cases. Gas-phase convection was also evidenced in the unsaturated regions of the partially saturated experiments. TOUGH2 numerical simulations of the saturated case were found to be strongly dependent on the assumed boundary conditions of the physical system. Models including heat losses through the boundaries of the test cell produced temperature and flow fields that were in better agreement with the observed temperature and flow fields than models that assumed insulated boundary conditions. A sensitivity analysis also showed that a reduction of the bulk permeability of the porous media in the numerical simulations depressed the effects of convection, flattening the temperature profiles across the test cell

  2. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design:  Prospective observational controlled study. Setting:  Nonacademic university-affiliated

  3. Saturated poroelastic actuators generated by topology optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    2011-01-01

    the coupling of internal fluid pressure and elastic shear stresses a slab of the optimized porous material deflects/deforms when a pressure is imposed and an actuator is created. Several phenomenologically based constraints are imposed in order to get a stable force transmitting actuator.......In this paper the fluid-structure interaction problem of a saturated porous media is considered. The pressure coupling properties of porous saturated materials change with the microstructure and this is utilized in the design of an actuator using a topology optimized porous material. By maximizing...

  4. High speed drying of saturated steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marty, C.; Peyrelongue, J.P.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the drying process for the saturated steam used in the PWR nuclear plant turbines in order to prevent negative effects of water on turbine efficiency, maintenance costs and equipment lifetime. The high speed drying concept is based on rotating the incoming saturated steam in order to separate water which is more denser than the steam; the water film is then extracted through an annular slot. A multicellular modular equipment has been tested. Applications on high and low pressure extraction of various PWR plants are described (Bugey, Loviisa)

  5. Site-Scale Saturated Zone Flow Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Zyvoloski

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this model report is to document the components of the site-scale saturated-zone flow model at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in accordance with administrative procedure (AP)-SIII.lOQ, ''Models''. This report provides validation and confidence in the flow model that was developed for site recommendation (SR) and will be used to provide flow fields in support of the Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) for the License Application. The output from this report provides the flow model used in the ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'', MDL-NBS-HS-000010 Rev 01 (BSC 2003 [162419]). The Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport model then provides output to the SZ Transport Abstraction Model (BSC 2003 [164870]). In particular, the output from the SZ site-scale flow model is used to simulate the groundwater flow pathways and radionuclide transport to the accessible environment for use in the TSPA calculations. Since the development and calibration of the saturated-zone flow model, more data have been gathered for use in model validation and confidence building, including new water-level data from Nye County wells, single- and multiple-well hydraulic testing data, and new hydrochemistry data. In addition, a new hydrogeologic framework model (HFM), which incorporates Nye County wells lithology, also provides geologic data for corroboration and confidence in the flow model. The intended use of this work is to provide a flow model that generates flow fields to simulate radionuclide transport in saturated porous rock and alluvium under natural or forced gradient flow conditions. The flow model simulations are completed using the three-dimensional (3-D), finite-element, flow, heat, and transport computer code, FEHM Version (V) 2.20 (software tracking number (STN): 10086-2.20-00; LANL 2003 [161725]). Concurrently, process-level transport model and methodology for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain using FEHM V 2.20 are being

  6. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  7. On the saturation of astrophysical dynamos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorch, Bertil; Archontis, Vasilis

    2004-01-01

    In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate in the li......In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate...

  8. Nonlinear saturation of the Rayleigh Taylor instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, A.; Mahajan, S.; Kaw, P.; Sen, A.; Benkadda, S.; Verga, A.

    1997-01-01

    The problem of the nonlinear saturation of the 2 dimensional Rayleigh Taylor instability is re-examined to put various earlier results in a proper perspective. The existence of a variety of final states can be attributed to the differences in the choice of boundary conditions and initial conditions in earlier numerical modeling studies. Our own numerical simulations indicate that the RT instability saturates by the self consistent generation of shear flow even in situations (with periodic boundaries) where, in principle, an infinite amount of gravitational energy can be tapped. Such final states can be achieved for suitable values of the Prandtl number. (author)

  9. Saturable absorption in detonation nanodiamond dispersions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanyukov, Viatcheslav; Mikheev, Gennady; Mogileva, Tatyana; Puzyr, Alexey; Bondar, Vladimir; Lyashenko, Dmitry; Chuvilin, Andrey

    2017-07-01

    We report on a saturable absorption in aqueous dispersions of nanodiamonds with femtosecond laser pulse excitation at a wavelength of 795 nm. The open aperture Z-scan experiments reveal that in a wide range of nanodiamond particle sizes and concentrations, a light-induced increase of transmittance occurs. The transmittance increase originates from the saturation of light absorption and is associated with a light absorption at 1.5 eV by graphite and dimer chains (Pandey dimer chains). The obtained key nonlinear parameters of nanodiamond dispersions are compared with those of graphene and carbon nanotubes, which are widely used for the mode-locking.

  10. Haemoglobin mass and running time trial performance after recombinant human erythropoietin administration in trained men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jérôme Durussel

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEpo increases haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass and maximal oxygen uptake (v O(2 max. PURPOSE: This study defined the time course of changes in Hb(mass, v O(2 max as well as running time trial performance following 4 weeks of rHuEpo administration to determine whether the laboratory observations would translate into actual improvements in running performance in the field. METHODS: 19 trained men received rHuEpo injections of 50 IU•kg(-1 body mass every two days for 4 weeks. Hb(mass was determined weekly using the optimized carbon monoxide rebreathing method until 4 weeks after administration. v O(2 max and 3,000 m time trial performance were measured pre, post administration and at the end of the study. RESULTS: Relative to baseline, running performance significantly improved by ∼6% after administration (10:30±1:07 min:sec vs. 11:08±1:15 min:sec, p<0.001 and remained significantly enhanced by ∼3% 4 weeks after administration (10:46±1:13 min:sec, p<0.001, while v O(2 max was also significantly increased post administration (60.7±5.8 mL•min(-1•kg(-1 vs. 56.0±6.2 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p<0.001 and remained significantly increased 4 weeks after rHuEpo (58.0±5.6 mL•min(-1•kg(-1, p = 0.021. Hb(mass was significantly increased at the end of administration compared to baseline (15.2±1.5 g•kg(-1 vs. 12.7±1.2 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. The rate of decrease in Hb(mass toward baseline values post rHuEpo was similar to that of the increase during administration (-0.53 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, 95% confidence interval (CI (-0.68, -0.38 vs. 0.54 g•kg(-1•wk(-1, CI (0.46, 0.63 but Hb(mass was still significantly elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline (13.7±1.1 g•kg(-1, p<0.001. CONCLUSION: Running performance was improved following 4 weeks of rHuEpo and remained elevated 4 weeks after administration compared to baseline. These field performance effects coincided with r

  11. Soluble CD163, a product of monocyte/macrophage activation, is inversely associated with haemoglobin levels in placental malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Lin Lin Chua

    Full Text Available In Plasmodium falciparum malaria, activation of monocytes and macrophages (monocytes/macrophages can result in the production of various inflammatory mediators that contribute to immunopathology. Soluble CD163 (sCD163 is a specific marker of monocyte/macrophage activation typically found at increased levels during various inflammatory conditions and can be associated with poor clinical outcomes. To better understand the relationships between levels of sCD163 and clinical parameters in women with placental malaria, we measured plasma sCD163 levels in maternal peripheral and placental blood compartments at delivery and determined their correlations with birth weight and maternal haemoglobin concentrations. sCD163 levels were negatively correlated with birth weight only in the placental compartment (r = -0.145, p = 0.03 and were inversely correlated with maternal haemoglobin concentrations, both in peripheral blood (r = -0.238, p = 0.0004 and in placental blood (r = -0.259, p = 0.0001. These inverse relationships suggest a potential role for monocyte/macrophage activation in the pathogenesis of malaria in pregnancy, particularly in relation to malaria-associated anaemia.

  12. Structural and Functional Characterization of a New Double Variant Haemoglobin (HbG-Philadelphia/Duarte α(2)β(2)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fais, Antonella; Casu, Mariano; Ruggerone, Paolo; Ceccarelli, Matteo; Porcu, Simona; Era, Benedetta; Anedda, Roberto; Sollaino, Maria Carla; Galanello, Renzo; Corda, Marcella

    2011-01-01

    WE REPORT THE FIRST CASE OF COSEGREGATION OF TWO HAEMOGLOBINS (HBS): HbG-Philadelphia [α68(E17)Asn → Lys] and HbDuarte [β62(E6)Ala → Pro]. The proband is a young patient heterozygous also for β°-thalassaemia. We detected exclusively two haemoglobin variants: HbDuarte and HbG-Philadelphia/Duarte. Functional study of the new double variant HbG-Philadelphia/Duarte exhibited an increase in oxygen affinity, with a slight decrease of cooperativity and Bohr effect. This functional behaviour is attributed to β62Ala → Pro instead of α68Asn → Lys substitution. Indeed, HbG-Philadelphia isolated in our laboratory from blood cells donor carrier for this variant is not affected by any functional modification, whereas purified Hb Duarte showed functional properties very similar to the double variant. NMR and MD simulation studies confirmed that the presence of Pro instead of Ala at the β62 position produces displacement of the E helix and modifications of the tertiary structure. The substitution α68(E17)Asn → Lys does not cause significant structural and dynamical modifications of the protein. A possible structure-based rational of substitution effects is suggested.

  13. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christ, F.; Steudel, H.; Klotz, D.; Bonn Univ.; Bonn Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Since 1982 (Hauser and co-workers), literature has reported focal cerebral tissue charges in AIDS patients whose diagnosis was unclear at first but which could be identified finally as florid toxoplasmosis encephalitis by biopsy and autopsy. It was found that the value of otherwise reliable serological tests (KBR, Sabin-Feldmann tests, etc.) is questionable in patients with severely impaired or incompetent immune systems, and, in particular, that a negative or uncharacteristic test result may not preclude any opportunistic infection process. Furthermore, isolation of Toxoplasma gondii or specific antibodies from the cerebrospinal fluid will be successful in exceptional cases only. In patients with AIDS or lymphadenopathy syndrome, the differential diagnosis will have to include - first and foremost - reactivated toxoplasma infection (not newly acquired, as a rule) if central neurological symptoms occur. (orig.) [de

  14. Cerebral white matter hypoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, R.B.; Shields, W.D.; Sankar, R.

    1990-01-01

    This paper demonstrates the MR imaging findings in children with cerebral white matter hypoplasia (CWMH). The MR studies of four children, aged 3-7 y (mean age, 2.3 y) with a diagnosis of CWMH were reviewed. In all cases multiplanar T1-weighted and T2-weighted spin-echo images were obtained. All children had similar histories of severe developmental delay and nonprogressive neurologic deficits despite normal gestational and birth histories. In two cases there was a history of maternal cocaine abuse. Autopsy correlation was available in one child. The MR images of all four children demonstrated diffuse lack of white matter and enlarged ventricles but normal-appearing gray matter. The corpus callosum, although completely formed, was severely thinned. There was no evidence of gliosis or porencephaly, and the distribution of myelin deposition was normal for age in all cases. Autopsy finding in one child correlated exactly with the MR finding

  15. Multiple cerebral hydatid cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banzo, J.; Pina, J.I.; Abos, M.D.; Rios, G.; Garcia, D.; Marin, F.; Diaz, F.J.

    1984-12-01

    A 39-year-old woman was admitted to hospital with headaches, vomiting, psychic impairment and diplopia. Three hydatid cysts of the lung had been previously removed. An avascular mass in the left hemisphere with left-to-right displacement of the anterior cerebral arteries was noted during a brain angioscintigraphy. A cerebralthrombosis (CT) brain scan showed two cystic lesions situated in the left-frontal and occipital regions. A CT abdominal scan showed multiple cysts in the liver, spleen and both kidneys. At operation, two brain cysts were totally extirpated without rupture. The definite pathological diagnosis was secondry hydatid cysts. The headaches, vomiting and diplopia were persistent in the post-operative period. Seven days after the operation, a CT brain scan showed an infratenrorial cyst. The patient rejected any surgical intervention.

  16. Wavelet coherence analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation in neonatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghua Tian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral autoregulation represents the physiological mechanisms that keep brain perfusion relatively constant in the face of changes in blood pressure and thus plays an essential role in normal brain function. This study assessed cerebral autoregulation in nine newborns with moderate-to-severe hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy (HIE. These neonates received hypothermic therapy during the first 72 h of life while mean arterial pressure (MAP and cerebral tissue oxygenation saturation (SctO2 were continuously recorded. Wavelet coherence analysis, which is a time-frequency domain approach, was used to characterize the dynamic relationship between spontaneous oscillations in MAP and SctO2. Wavelet-based metrics of phase, coherence and gain were derived for quantitative evaluation of cerebral autoregulation. We found cerebral autoregulation in neonates with HIE was time-scale-dependent in nature. Specifically, the spontaneous changes in MAP and SctO2 had in-phase coherence at time scales of less than 80 min (<0.0002 Hz in frequency, whereas they showed anti-phase coherence at time scales of around 2.5 h (~0.0001 Hz in frequency. Both the in-phase and anti-phase coherence appeared to be related to worse clinical outcomes. These findings suggest the potential clinical use of wavelet coherence analysis to assess dynamic cerebral autoregulation in neonatal HIE during hypothermia.

  17. Common antigenic determinants of haemoglobin as basis of immunological cross-reactivity between chironomid species (Diptera, Chironomidae): studies with human and animal sera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baur, X; Dewair, M; Haegele, K; Prelicz, H; Scholl, A; Tichy, H

    1983-01-01

    Chironomids, of which approximately 10,000 species exist, are reported to cause severe immediate type allergic diseases in man. In the present study, immunological cross-reactivity between 14 chironomid species from different continents was proven by RAST inhibition, double immunodiffusion and a new allergoprint technique, based upon PAGE separation of insect crude extracts. Using isolated chironomid haemoglobins and sera of sensitized persons, as well as rabbit antibodies against larval crude extract or against the haemoglobin fraction of Chironomus thummi, it could be proven that cross-reactivity derives at least predominantly from haemoglobin components with common antigenic determinants in the different species. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 PMID:6197219

  18. Oxygen general saturation after bronchography under general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty-six patients undergoing bronchography or bronchoscopy under general anaesthesia were continuously monitored by pulse oximetry for 5 hours after these procedures. Significant falls in oxygen saturation were observed in the first hour and were of most clinical relevance in patients with preexisting pulmonary ...

  19. Iron saturation control in RHIC dipole magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, P.A.; Gupta, R.C.; Kahn, S.A.; Hahn, H.; Morgan, G.H.; Wanderer, P.J.; Willen, E.

    1991-01-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) will require 360 dipoles of 80 mm bore. This paper discusses the field perturbations produced by the saturation of the yoke iron. Changes have been made to the yoke to reduce these perturbations, in particular, decapole -4 . Measurements and calculations for 6 series of dipole magnets are presented. 2 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab

  20. Wave propagation in thermoelastic saturated porous medium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the existence and propagation of four waves in the medium. Three of the waves are ... predicted infinite speed for propagation of ther- mal signals. Lord and ..... saturated reservoir rock (North-sea Sandstone) is chosen for the numerical model ...

  1. Saturated fat, carbohydrates and cardiovascular disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, R. S.; de Graaf, D. J.; Luxwolda, M. F.; Muskiet, M. H. A.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. J.; Muskiet, F. A. J.

    The dietary intake of saturated fatty acids (SAFA) is associated with a modest increase in serum total cholesterol, but not with cardiovascular disease (CVD). Replacing dietary SAFA with carbohydrates (CHO), notably those with a high glycaemic index, is associated with an increase in CVD risk in

  2. Saturation at Low X and Nonlinear Evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stasto, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    In this talk the results of the analytical and numerical analysis of the nonlinear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation are presented. The characteristic BFKL diffusion into infrared regime is suppressed by the generation of the saturation scale Q s . We identify the scaling and linear regimes for the solution. We also study the impact of subleading corrections onto the nonlinear evolution. (author)

  3. Saturation of bentonite dependent upon temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hausmannova, Lucie; Vasicek, Radek

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. The fundamental idea behind the long-term safe operation of a deep repository is the use of the Multi-barrier system principle. Barriers may well differ according to the type of host rock in which the repository is located. It is assumed that the buffer in the granitic host rock environment will consist of swelling clays which boast the ideal properties for such a function i.e. low permeability, high swelling pressure, self-healing ability etc. all of which are affected primarily by mineralogy and dry density. Water content plays a crucial role in the activation of swelling pressure as well as, subsequently, in the potential self healing of the various contact areas of the numerous buffer components made from bentonite. In the case of a deep repository, a change in water content is not only connected with the possible intake of water from the host rock, but also with its redistribution owing to changes in temperature after the insertion of the heat source (disposal waste package containing spent fuel) into the repository 'nest'. The principal reason for the experimental testing of this high dry density material is the uncertainty with regard to its saturation ability (final water content or the degree of saturation) at higher temperatures. The results of the Mock-Up-CZ experiment showed that when the barrier is constantly supplied with a saturation medium over a long time period the water content in the barrier as well as the degree of saturation settle independently of temperature. The Mock-Up-CZ experiment was performed at temperatures of 30 deg. - 90 deg. C in the barrier; therefore it was decided to experimentally verify this behaviour by means of targeted laboratory tests. A temperature of 110 deg. C was added to the set of experimental temperatures resulting in samples being tested at 25 deg. C, 95 deg. C and 110 deg. C. The degree of saturation is defined as the ratio of pore water volume to pore

  4. Two-beam interaction in saturable media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjødt-Eriksen, Jens; Schmidt, Michel R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of two coupled soliton solutions of the nonlinear Schrodinger equation with a saturable nonlinearity is investigated It is shown by means of a variational method and by direct numerical calculations that two well-separated solitons can orbit around each other, if their initial velocity...

  5. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate. 431. Table 1. Competitive oxygenation of tetralin and cyclooctene with sodium periodate catalyzed by different manga- .... Teacher Education University. My grateful thanks also extend to Dr D Mohajer for his useful sugges- tions. References. 1.

  6. Multiscale optimization of saturated poroelastic actuators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Casper Schousboe; Sigmund, Ole

    A multiscale method for optimizing the material micro structure in a macroscopically heterogeneous saturated poroelastic media with respect to macro properties is presented. The method is based on topology optimization using the homogenization technique, here applied to the optimization of a bi...

  7. Synthesis and characterization of saturated polyester and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    but which can actually be used for processes, which pro- duce interesting ... ing the synthesis of saturated polyester (from GPET waste). This has been done for the .... The solid product obtained from the glycolysis of PET was bis(hydroxy ethyl ...

  8. Cross-sectional relationship between haemoglobin concentration and measures of physical and cognitive function in an older rural South African population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Collin F; Davies, Justine I; Gomez-Olive, F Xavier; Hands, Katherine J; Kahn, Kathleen; Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Tipping, Brent; Tollman, Stephen M; Wade, Alisha; Witham, Miles D

    2018-04-21

    Age cohort differences in haemoglobin concentrations and associations with physical and cognitive performance among populations of lower income and middle-income countries have not previously been described. We examined the association between these factors among older men and women in rural South Africa. We analysed cross-sectional data from a population-based study of rural South African men and women aged 40 and over (n=4499), with data drawn from questionnaire responses, a cognitive battery, objective physical function tests and blood tests. Anaemia was defined as a haemoglobin concentration age, grip strength, walk speed and a latent cognitive function z-score for men and women separately. We used unadjusted correlations and linear models to adjust for comorbidities and inflammation. In total, 1042 (43.0%) women and 833 (40.1%) men were anaemic. Haemoglobin concentrations were inversely correlated with age for men but not for women; in adjusted analyses, haemoglobin was 0.3 g/dL lower per decade older for men (95% CI 0.2 to 0.4 g/dL). In adjusted analyses, haemoglobin concentration was independently associated with grip strength in women (B=0.391, 95% CI 0.177 to 0.605), but this did not reach significance in men (B=0.266, 95% CI -0.019 to 0.552); no associations were observed between haemoglobin levels and walk speed or cognitive score. Anaemia was prevalent in this study population of middle-aged and older, rural South African adults, but in contrast to high-income countries, it was not associated with poor physical or cognitive function. Our findings need to be replicated in other populations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  9. Cerebral Laterality and Verbal Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherman, Jay L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Research suggests that we process information by way of two distinct and functionally separate coding systems. Their location, somewhat dependent on cerebral laterality, varies in right- and left-handed persons. Tests this dual coding model. (Editor/RK)

  10. Hydrocephalus in cerebral venous thrombosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuurbier, Susanna M.; van den Berg, René; Troost, Dirk; Majoie, Charles B.; Stam, Jan; Coutinho, Jonathan M.

    2015-01-01

    Increased intracranial pressure is common in cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT), but hydrocephalus is rarely reported in these patients. We examined the frequency, pathophysiology and associated clinical manifestations of hydrocephalus in patients with CVT admitted to our hospital between 2000 and

  11. Cerebral infarcts resulting from trauma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.

    1985-01-01

    Vascular occlusions due to cerebral trauma have always been regarded as great rarities. However, we have found hypo-dense foci of vascular distribution in 3.5% of 3500 CT examinations for trauma during the late phase. Lesions in the vascular territory of the posterior cerebral artery are usually the result of supratentorial pressure rise from epidural and subdural haematomas, leading to compression of the vessels against the edge of the tentorium. Typical infacts in the territory of the medial and anterior cerebral arteries were found only rarely by CT after cerebral trauma. Infarcts at the watersheds between the three vascular territories were found with surprising frequency and small infarcts were found in the basal ganglia. It is assumed that these were due to ischaemic or hypoxic events due to cardiac or pulmonary complications during the initial phase. (orig.) [de

  12. Cerebral Cavernous Malformation and Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Text Size: SMALL • LARGE Cerebral Cavernous Angioma and Hemorrhage By Jack Hoch; Reviewed by Dr. Issam Awad ... for years, the mechanism by which these lesions hemorrhage remains poorly understood. Hemorrhage Types Since cavernous angiomas ...

  13. MRI of cerebral alveolar echinococcosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaci, M.; Tunaci, A.; Engin, G.; Oezkorkmaz, B.; Ahishali, B.; Rozanes, I.

    1999-01-01

    Cerebral alveolar echinococcosis is rare. We report a case with multiple intracranial masses which show cauliflower-like contrast enhancement pattern on MRI. The lesions originated from hepatic involvement with invasion of the inferior vena cava. (orig.)

  14. Learn More About Cerebral Palsy

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-03-30

    This podcast describes the causes, preventions, types, and signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy.  Created: 3/30/2008 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities.   Date Released: 3/21/2008.

  15. Parálisis cerebral :

    OpenAIRE

    Cabrero Izquierdo, María del Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Se aborda el tema de la parálisis cerebral definiendo qué es, clasificando los tipos de parálisis dependiendo de la afectación y las características principales. Se explican algunos de sus tratamientos, se dan sistemas alternativos y/o aumentativos de comunicación para un alumno con PC (parálisis cerebral).

  16. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-01-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.)

  17. Cerebral candidiasis. Computed tomography appearance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaabane, M.; Ladeb, M.F.; Bouhaouala, M.H.; Ben Hammouda, M.; Ataalah, R.; Gannouni, A.; Krifa, H.

    1989-07-01

    A three year old child who had been suffering from oral candidiasis since the age of 1 year presented with osteitis of the clavicle, 2 cerebral frontal abscesses and an occipital abscess which extended across the calvaria and was associated with osteolysis. Histological and microbiological studies following surgery confirmed the diagnosis of candidiasis in this girl who was found to have IgA immunodefinciency. The authors report the computed tomographic appearance of the cerebral lesions and review the literature. (orig.).

  18. Microscopic analysis of saturable absorbers: Semiconductor saturable absorber mirrors versus graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hader, J.; Moloney, J. V. [Nonlinear Control Strategies, Inc., 3542 N. Geronimo Ave., Tucson, Arizona 85705 (United States); College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Yang, H.-J.; Scheller, M. [College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Koch, S. W. [Department of Physics and Materials Sciences Center, Philipps Universität Marburg, Renthof 5, 35032 Marburg (Germany)

    2016-02-07

    Fully microscopic many-body calculations are used to study the influence of strong sub-picosecond pulses on the carrier distributions and corresponding optical response in saturable absorbers used for mode-locking—semiconductor (quantum well) saturable absorber mirrors (SESAMs) and single layer graphene based saturable absorber mirrors (GSAMs). Unlike in GSAMs, the saturation fluence and recovery time in SESAMs show a strong spectral dependence. While the saturation fluence in the SESAM is minimal at the excitonic bandgap, the optimal recovery time and least pulse distortion due to group delay dispersion are found for excitation higher in the first subband. For excitation near the SESAM bandgap, the saturation fluence is about one tenth of that in the GSAM. At energies above the bandgap, the fluences in both systems become similar. A strong dependence of the saturation fluence on the pulse width in both systems is caused by carrier relaxation during the pulse. The recovery time in graphene is found to be about two to four times faster than that in the SESAMs. The occurrence of negative differential transmission in graphene is shown to be caused by dopant related carriers. In SESAMs, a negative differential transmission is found when exciting below the excitonic resonance where excitation induced dephasing leads to an enhancement of the absorption. Comparisons of the simulation data to the experiment show a very good quantitative agreement.

  19. Optical characterization of two-layered turbid media for non-invasive, absolute oximetry in cerebral and extracerebral tissue.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bertan Hallacoglu

    Full Text Available We introduce a multi-distance, frequency-domain, near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS method to measure the optical coefficients of two-layered media and the thickness of the top layer from diffuse reflectance measurements. This method features a direct solution based on diffusion theory and an inversion procedure based on the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. We have validated our method through Monte Carlo simulations, experiments on tissue-like phantoms, and measurements on the forehead of three human subjects. The Monte Carlo simulations and phantom measurements have shown that, in ideal two-layered samples, our method accurately recovers the top layer thickness (L, the absorption coefficient (µ a and the reduced scattering coefficient (µ' s of both layers with deviations that are typically less than 10% for all parameters. Our method is aimed at absolute measurements of hemoglobin concentration and saturation in cerebral and extracerebral tissue of adult human subjects, where the top layer (layer 1 represents extracerebral tissue (scalp, skull, dura mater, subarachnoid space, etc. and the bottom layer (layer 2 represents cerebral tissue. Human subject measurements have shown a significantly greater total hemoglobin concentration in cerebral tissue (82±14 µM with respect to extracerebral tissue (30±7 µM. By contrast, there was no significant difference between the hemoglobin saturation measured in cerebral tissue (56%±10% and extracerebral tissue (62%±6%. To our knowledge, this is the first time that an inversion procedure in the frequency domain with six unknown parameters with no other prior knowledge is used for the retrieval of the optical coefficients and top layer thickness with high accuracy on two-layered media. Our absolute measurements of cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation are based on the discrimination of extracerebral and cerebral tissue layers, and they can enhance the impact of NIRS for cerebral hemodynamics and

  20. Prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis (leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose) in a population of 3645 adult subjects--consequence for measurement of urinary albumin excretion rate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess prevalence of positive urinary dipstick analysis for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, or glucose in the general population and measure the urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) in subjects with or without a positive dipstick analysis. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study...... of 3645 subjects. SETTING: An unselected urban population study. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Prevalence data of positive dipstick analyses and UAER values. RESULTS: Prevalence data of a positive dipstick analysis were 12%, 4%, 3% and 6%, respectively, for leucocyte esterase, nitrite, haemoglobin, and glucose...

  1. Deworming drugs for soil-transmitted intestinal worms in children: effects on nutritional indicators, haemoglobin, and school performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor-Robinson, David C; Maayan, Nicola; Soares-Weiser, Karla; Donegan, Sarah; Garner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends treating all school children at regular intervals with deworming drugs in areas where helminth infection is common. As the intervention is often claimed to have important health, nutrition, and societal effects beyond the removal of worms, we critically evaluated the evidence on benefits. Objectives To summarize the effects of giving deworming drugs to children to treat soil-transmitted helminths on weight, haemoglobin, and cognition; and the evidence of impact on physical well-being, school attendance, school performance, and mortality. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register (14 April 2015); Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), published in the Cochrane Library (2015, Issue 4); MEDLINE (2000 to 14 April 2015); EMBASE (2000 to 14 April 2015); LILACS (2000 to 14 April 2015); the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT); and reference lists, and registers of ongoing and completed trials up to 14 April 2015. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing deworming drugs for soil-transmitted helminths with placebo or no treatment in children aged 16 years or less, reporting on weight, haemoglobin, and formal tests of intellectual development. We also sought data on school attendance, school performance, and mortality. We included trials that combined health education with deworming programmes. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently assessed the trials, evaluated risk of bias, and extracted data. We analysed continuous data using the mean difference (MD) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Where data were missing, we contacted trial authors. We used outcomes at time of longest follow-up. The evidence quality was assessed using GRADE. This edition of the Cochrane Review adds the DEVTA trial from India, and draws on an independent analytical replication of a trial from

  2. Cerebral oxygenation in patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position: comparing general to regional anesthesia and the impact on neurobehavioral outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, J; Borgeat, A; Trachsel, T; Cobo Del Prado, I; De Andrés, J; Bühler, P

    2014-02-01

    Ischemic brain damage has been reported in healthy patients after beach chair position for surgery due to cerebral hypoperfusion. Near-infrared spectroscopy has been described as a non-invasive, continuous method to monitor cerebral oxygen saturation. However, its impact on neurobehavioral outcome comparing different anesthesia regimens has been poorly described. In this prospective, assessor-blinded study, 90 patients undergoing shoulder surgery in beach chair position following general (G-group, n=45) or regional anesthesia (R-group; n=45) were enrolled to assess the prevalence of cerebral desaturation events comparing anesthesia regimens and their impact on neurobehavioral and neurological outcome. Anesthesiologists were blinded to regional cerebral oxygen saturation values. Baseline data assessed the day before surgery included neurological and neurobehavioral tests, which were repeated the day after surgery. The baseline data for regional cerebral oxygen saturation/bispectral index and invasive blood pressure both at heart and auditory meatus levels were taken prior to anesthesia, 5 min after induction of anesthesia, 5 min after beach chair positioning, after skin incision and thereafter all 20 min until discharge. Patients in the R-group showed significantly less cerebral desaturation events (psurgery (pshoulder surgery in beach chair position influencing neurobehavioral test results at 24h. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of dexmedetomidine on microregional O2 balance during reperfusion after focal cerebral ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Oak Z; Grayson, Jeremy; Barsoum, Sylviana; Liu, Xia; Dinani, Aliraza; Weiss, Harvey R

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to determine whether there is an association between microregional O2 balance and neuronal survival in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion using dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenoreceptor agonist and a sedative. Rats were subjected to 1 hour middle cerebral artery occlusion and a 2-hour reperfusion. During reperfusion, normal saline (n = 14) or dexmedetomidine 1 μg/kg/minute (n = 14) was infused intravenously. At 2 hours of reperfusion, regional cerebral blood flow using (14)C-iodoantipyrine autoradiography, microregional arterial and venous (20-60 μm in diameter) O2 saturation (SvO2) using cryomicrospectrophotometry, and the size of cortical infarction were determined. Ischemia-reperfusion decreased microregional SvO2 (52.9 ± 3.7% vs. 61.1 ± .6%, P < .005) with increased variation or heterogeneity (P < .0001) with similar regional cerebral blood flow and O2 consumption. Dexmedetomidine during reperfusion decreased the heterogeneity of SvO2 that was analyzed with an analysis of variance (P < .01) and reported as coefficient of variation (100 × standard deviation/Mean) (11.8 vs. 16.4). The number of veins with O2 saturation less than 50% decreased with dexmedetomidine (13/80 vs. 27/81, P < .01). The percentage of cortical infarct in total cortex was smaller with dexmedetomidine (8.3 ± 2.2% vs. 12.6 ± 1.5%, P < .005). In the cerebral ischemic reperfused cortex, dexmedetomidine decreased the heterogeneity of SvO2 and the number of small veins with low O2 saturation suggesting improved microregional O2 supply/consumption balance. The improvement was accompanied by the reduced size of cortical infarction. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Augmented hypoxic cerebral vasodilation in men during 5 days at 3,810 m altitude

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, J B; Sperling, B; Severinghaus, J W

    1996-01-01

    , at the lower PCO2 due to the logarithmic relationship of PCO2 to CSF pH. This change was not significant after correction to log PCO2. We conclude that the cerebral vascular response to acute isocapnic hypoxia may increase during acclimatization at high altitude. The mechanism is unknown but is presumably......The fractional increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) velocity (VCBF) from the control value with 5-min steps of isocapnic hypoxia and hyperoxic hypercapnia was measured by transcranial Doppler in six sea-level native men before and during a 5-day sojourn at 3,810 m altitude to determine whether...... cerebral vasoreactivity to low arterial O2 saturation (SaO2) gradually increased [as does the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR)] or diminished (adapted, in concert with known slow fall of CBF) at altitude. A control resting PCO2 value was chosen each day during preliminary hyperoxia to set ventilation...

  5. Effects of head-up vs. supine CPR on cerebral oxygenation and cerebral metabolism - a prospective, randomized porcine study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putzer, Gabriel; Braun, Patrick; Martini, Judith; Niederstätter, Ines; Abram, Julia; Lindner, Andrea Katharina; Neururer, Sabrina; Mulino, Miriam; Glodny, Bernhard; Helbok, Raimund; Mair, Peter

    2018-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that during cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) head-up position (HUP) as compared to standard supine position (SUP) decreases intracranial pressure (ICP) and increases cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP). The impact of this manoeuvre on brain oxygenation and metabolism is not clear. We therefore investigated HUP as compared to SUP during basic life support (BLS) CPR for their effect on brain oxygenation and metabolism. Twenty pigs were anaesthetized and instrumented. After 8 min of cardiac arrest (CA) pigs were randomized to either HUP or SUP and resuscitated mechanically for 20 min. Mean arterial pressure (MAP), ICP, CPP, cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO 2 ) and brain tissue oxygen tension (P bt O 2 ) were measured at baseline, after CA and every 5 min during CPR. Cerebral venous oxygen saturation (S cv O 2 ) was measured at baseline, after CA and after 20 min of CPR. Cerebral microdialysis parameters, e.g. lactate/pyruvate ratio (L/P ratio) were taken at baseline and the end of the experiment. ICP was significantly lower in HUP compared to SUP animals after 5 min (18.0 ± 4.5 vs. 24.1 ± 5.2 mmHg; p = 0.033) and 20 min (12.0 ± 3.4 vs. 17.8 ± 4.3 mmHg; p = 0.023) of CPR. Accordingly, CPP was significantly higher in the HUP group after 5 min (11.2 ± 9.5 vs. 1.0 ± 9.2 mmHg; p = 0.045) and 20 min (3.4 ± 6.4 vs. -3.8 ± 2.8 mmHg; p = 0.023) of CPR. However, no difference was found in rSO 2 , P bt O 2 , S cv O 2 and L/P ratio between groups after 20 min of CPR. In this animal model of BLS CPR, HUP as compared to SUP did not improve cerebral oxygenation or metabolism. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P. W.; Umari, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  7. Saturated Zone In-Situ Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. W. Reimus; M. J. Umari

    2003-12-23

    The purpose of this scientific analysis is to document the results and interpretations of field experiments that have been conducted to test and validate conceptual flow and radionuclide transport models in the saturated zone (SZ) near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations provide estimates of flow and transport parameters that are used in the development of parameter distributions for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) calculations. These parameter distributions are documented in the revisions to the SZ flow model report (BSC 2003 [ 162649]), the SZ transport model report (BSC 2003 [ 162419]), the SZ colloid transport report (BSC 2003 [162729]), and the SZ transport model abstraction report (BSC 2003 [1648701]). Specifically, this scientific analysis report provides the following information that contributes to the assessment of the capability of the SZ to serve as a barrier for waste isolation for the Yucca Mountain repository system: (1) The bases for selection of conceptual flow and transport models in the saturated volcanics and the saturated alluvium located near Yucca Mountain. (2) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated fractured volcanics at the C-wells complex near Yucca Mountain. The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, anisotropy in hydraulic conductivity, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, matrix diffusion coefficients, fracture apertures, and colloid transport parameters. (3) Results and interpretations of hydraulic and tracer tests conducted in saturated alluvium at the Alluvium Testing Complex (ATC), which is located at the southwestern corner of the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The test interpretations include estimates of hydraulic conductivities, storativities, total porosities, effective porosities, longitudinal dispersivities, matrix diffusion mass transfer coefficients, and

  8. Cerebral trypanosomiasis and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes Apio Claudio Martins

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 36 year-old black female, complaining of headache of one month's duration presented with nausea, vomiting, somnolence, short memory problems, loss of weight, and no fever history. Smoker, intravenous drugs abuser, promiscuous lifestyle. Physical examination: left homonimous hemianopsia, left hemiparesis, no papilledema, diffuse hyperreflexia, slowness of movements. Brain CT scan: tumor-like lesion in the splenium of the corpus calosum, measuring 3.5 x 1.4 cm, with heterogeneous enhancing pattern, sugesting a primary CNS tumor. Due to the possibility of CNS infection, a lumbar puncture disclosed an opening pressure of 380 mmH(20; 11 white cells (lymphocytes; glucose 18 mg/dl (serum glucose 73 mg/dl; proteins 139 mg/dl; presence of Trypanosoma parasites. Serum Elisa-HIV tests turned out to be positive. Treatment with benznidazole dramatically improved clinical and radiographic picture, but the patient died 6 weeks later because of respiratory failure. T. cruzi infection of the CNS is a rare disease, but we have an increasing number of cases in HIV immunecompromised patients. Diagnosis by direct observation of CSF is uncommon, and most of the cases are diagnosed by pathological examination. It is a highly lethal disease, even when properly diagnosed and treated. This article intends to include cerebral trypanosomiasis in the differential diagnosis of intracranial space-occupying lesions, especially in immunecompromised patients from endemic regions.

  9. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C.; Lapresle, J.

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. γEG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed [fr

  10. Pseudotumoral delayed cerebral radionecrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ciaudo-Lacroix, C; Lapresle, J [Centre Hospitalier de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France)

    1985-01-01

    A 60 year-old woman with a scalp epithelioma underwent radiotherapy, the dose being 57 Gray. A first epileptic seizure occurred twenty months later. Neurological examination revealed signs of left hemisphere involvement. ..gamma..EG, angiography, CT scans, demonstrated a pseudotumoral avascular process. On account of the localisation, the patient being right-handed, no surgical procedure was performed. In spite of corticotherapy and anticonvulsive treatment, seizures recurred and neurological signs slowly progressed. The patient died, 22 months after the first seizure, of an associated disseminated carcinoma with cachexia. Neuropathological examination showed a massive lesion presenting all the features of delayed radionecrosis in the left hemisphere: situated mainly in the white matter; numerous vascular abnormalities; wide-spread demyelination; disappearance of oligoglial cells. The Authors recall the clinical and anatomical aspects of this condition for which the only successful treatment is surgical removal when location and size of the lesion permit. Finally, the mechanisms which have been proposed to explain this delayed cerebral radionecrosis are discussed.

  11. Neurovascular Saturation Thresholds Under High Intensity Auditory Stimulation During Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schei, Jennifer L.; Van Nortwick, Amy S.; Meighan, Peter C.; Rector, David M.

    2012-01-01

    Coupling between neural activity and hemodynamic responses is important in understanding brain function, interpreting brain imaging signals, and assessing pathological conditions. Tissue state is a major factor in neurovascular coupling and may alter the relationship between neural and hemodynamic activity. However, most neurovascular coupling studies are performed under anesthetized or sedated states which may have severe consequences on coupling mechanisms. Our previous studies showed that following prolonged periods of sleep deprivation, evoked hemodynamic responses were muted despite consistent electrical responses, suggesting that sustained neural activity may decrease vascular compliance and limit blood perfusion. To investigate potential perfusion limitations during natural waking conditions, we simultaneously measured evoked response potentials (ERPs) and evoked hemodynamic responses using optical imaging techniques to increasing intensity auditory stimulation. The relationship between evoked hemodynamic responses and integrated ERPs followed a sigmoid relationship where the hemodynamic response approached saturation at lower stimulus intensities than the ERP. If limits in blood perfusion are caused by stretching of the vessel wall, then these results suggest there may be decreased vascular compliance due to sustained neural activity during wake, which could limit vascular responsiveness and local blood perfusion. Conditions that stress cerebral vasculature, such as sleep deprivation and some pathologies (e.g., epilepsy), may further decrease vascular compliance, limit metabolic delivery, and cause tissue trauma. While ERPs and evoked hemodynamic responses provide an indication of the correlated neural activity and metabolic demand, the relationship between these two responses is complex and the different measurement techniques are not directly correlated. Future studies are required to verify these findings and further explore neurovascular coupling during

  12. Space Charge Saturated Sheath Regime and Electron Temperature Saturation in Hall Thrusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Staack, D.; Smirnov, A.; Fisch, N.J.

    2005-01-01

    Secondary electron emission in Hall thrusters is predicted to lead to space charge saturated wall sheaths resulting in enhanced power losses in the thruster channel. Analysis of experimentally obtained electron-wall collision frequency suggests that the electron temperature saturation, which occurs at high discharge voltages, appears to be caused by a decrease of the Joule heating rather than by the enhancement of the electron energy loss at the walls due to a strong secondary electron emission

  13. Comparison of pulseoximetry oxygen saturation and arterial oxygen saturation in open heart intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Mahoori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulseoximetry is widely used in the critical care setting, currently used to guide therapeutic interventions. Few studies have evaluated the accuracy of SPO2 (puls-eoximetry oxygen saturation in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to compare pulseoximetry with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 during clinical routine in such patients, and to examine the effect of mild acidosis on this relationship.Methods: In an observational prospective study 80 patients were evaluated in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. SPO2 was recorded and compared with SaO2 obtained by blood gas analysis. One or serial arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs were performed via a radial artery line while a reliable pulseoximeter signal was present. One hundred thirty seven samples were collected and for each blood gas analyses, SaO2 and SPO2 we recorded.Results: O2 saturation as a marker of peripheral perfusion was measured by Pulseoxim-etry (SPO2. The mean difference between arterial oxygen saturation and pulseoximetry oxygen saturation was 0.12%±1.6%. A total of 137 paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.754; P<0.0001 between changes in SPO2 and those in SaO2 in samples with normal hemoglobin. Also in forty seven samples with mild acidosis, paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.799; P<0.0001 and the mean difference between SaO2 and SPO2 was 0.05%±1.5%.Conclusion: Data showed that in patients with stable hemodynamic and good signal quality, changes in pulseoximetry oxygen saturation reliably predict equivalent changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Mild acidosis doesn’t alter the relation between SPO2 and SaO2 to any clinically important extent. In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with stable hemodynamic.

  14. Validation of the Hemo_Control instrument for determination of B-haemoglobin concentration in primary health care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aakre, Kristin; Bliksrud, Yngve; Frøyshov, Bess

    2009-01-01

    of the Hemo_Control instrument were calculated after measuring the concentration of venous samples under standardized conditions; by experienced laboratory technicians in a hospital laboratory, and venous and capillary samples under conditions similar to where the instrument is intended for use; by personnel...... was lower than the quality goal of +/- 5% considered acceptable for patient care. High within series imprecision (5.5%) was observed for measurements of capillary blood samples in one of the primary care centres, whereas adequate analytical performance was obtained at the other centre. The Hemo_Control......OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the analytical performance of a new portable haemoglobinometer, Hemo_Control (EKF-diagnostic, GmbH, Germany), which measures haemoglobin concentration in venous and capillary samples. METHOD: The within series and between series imprecision...

  15. [Peroxynitrite effect on the haemoglobin oxygen affinity in vitro in presence of different partial pressure of carbon dioxide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepuro, T L; Zinchuk, V V

    2011-08-01

    Peroxynitrite (ONOO-) besides its toxic possesses regulatory action that includes the modulation of oxygen binding properties of blood. The aim of this work was to estimate ONOO- effect on the haemoglobin oxygen affinity (HOA) in vitro in presence of different partial pressure of carbon dioxide (CO2). The ONOO- presence in venous blood in conditions of hypercapnia induced oxyhaemoglobin dissociation curve shift leftward while in hypocapnic conditions the result of a different character was obtained. The revealed effect of ONOO- is realized, possibly, through various modifications ofhaemoglobin whose formation is dependent on the CO2 pressure. The ONOO- influences the HOA in different manner that can be important in regulation of blood oxygenation in lungs and maintenance of oxygen consumption in tissues.

  16. Effect of moderate hypoxia at three acclimation temperatures on stress responses in Atlantic cod with different haemoglobin types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Methling, Caroline; Aluru, Neelakanteswar; Vijayan, Mathilakath M

    2010-01-01

    in a difference in stress response to hypoxia exposure. Two hsp70-isoforms (labelled a and b) were detected and they differed in expression in the gills but not in the liver of Atlantic cod. Acclimation temperature significantly affected the expression of hsp70 in the liver, and in an isoform-specific manner...... in the gills. Hypoxia exposure increased the expression of hsp70 in the liver, but not the gills, of cod and this response was not influenced by the acclimation temperature. The expression of hsp70 in both tissues did not differ between fish with different haemoglobin types. Acclimation temperature...... hypoxic exposure influence the organismal and cellular stress responses in Atlantic cod. We hypothesise that HbI-2 fish are more tolerant to short-term hypoxic episodes than HbI-1 fish, and this adaptation may be independent of tissue hsp70 expression....

  17. Position statement of the Australian Diabetes Society: individualisation of glycated haemoglobin targets for adults with diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, N Wah; Conn, Jennifer J; d'Emden, Michael C; Gunton, Jenny E; Jenkins, Alicia J; Ross, Glynis P; Sinha, Ashim K; Andrikopoulos, Sofianos; Colagiuri, Stephen; Twigg, Stephen M

    2009-09-21

    Tight glycaemic control reduces the risk of development and progression of organ complications in people with type 1 or type 2 diabetes. In this position statement, the Australian Diabetes Society recommends a general target glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) level of position statement also provides guidelines for the individualisation of glycaemic targets to a tighter or lesser degree, with a recommended target HbA(1c) level of diabetes and its duration, pregnancy, diabetes medication being taken, presence of cardiovascular disease, risk of and problems from hypoglycaemia, and comorbidities. Management of diabetes also includes: adequate control of other cardiovascular risk factors, including weight, blood pressure and lipid serum levels; antiplatelet therapy; and smoking cessation.

  18. Ventilation onset prior to umbilical cord clamping (physiological-based cord clamping improves systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme R Polglase

    Full Text Available As measurement of arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2 is common in the delivery room, target SpO2 ranges allow clinicians to titrate oxygen therapy for preterm infants in order to achieve saturation levels similar to those seen in normal term infants in the first minutes of life. However, the influence of the onset of ventilation and the timing of cord clamping on systemic and cerebral oxygenation is not known.We investigated whether the initiation of ventilation, prior to, or after umbilical cord clamping, altered systemic and cerebral oxygenation in preterm lambs.Systemic and cerebral blood-flows, pressures and peripheral SpO2 and regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (SctO2 were measured continuously in apnoeic preterm lambs (126±1 day gestation. Positive pressure ventilation was initiated either 1 prior to umbilical cord clamping, or 2 after umbilical cord clamping. Lambs were monitored intensively prior to intervention, and for 10 minutes following umbilical cord clamping.Clamping the umbilical cord prior to ventilation resulted in a rapid decrease in SpO2 and SctO2, and an increase in arterial pressure, cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen extraction. Ventilation restored oxygenation and haemodynamics by 5-6 minutes. No such disturbances in peripheral or cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics were observed when ventilation was initiated prior to cord clamping.The establishment of ventilation prior to umbilical cord clamping facilitated a smooth transition to systemic and cerebral oxygenation following birth. SpO2 nomograms may need to be re-evaluated to reflect physiological management of preterm infants in the delivery room.

  19. Scaling of saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepherd, T.G.

    1994-01-01

    By using finite-amplitude conservation laws for pseudomomentum and pseudoenergy, rigorous upper bounds have been derived on the saturation amplitudes in baroclinic instability for layered and continuously-stratified quasi-geostrophic models. Bounds have been obtained for both the eddy energy and the eddy potential enstrophy. The bounds apply to conservative (inviscid, unforced) flow, as well as to forced-dissipative flow when the dissipation is proportional to the potential vorticity. This approach provides an efficient way of extracting an analytical estimate of the dynamical scalings of the saturation amplitudes in terms of crucial non-dimensional parameters. A possible use is in constructing eddy parameterization schemes for zonally-averaged climate models. The scaling dependences are summarized, and compared with those derived from weakly-nonlinear theory and from baroclinic-adjustment estimates

  20. Effective stress principle for partially saturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McTigue, D.F.; Wilson, R.K.; Nunziato, J.W.

    1984-04-01

    In support of the Nevada Nuclear Waste Storage Investigation (NNWSI) Project, we have undertaken a fundamental study of water migration in partially saturated media. One aspect of that study, on which we report here, has been to use the continuum theory of mixtures to extend the classical notion of effective stress to partially saturated media. Our analysis recovers previously proposed phenomenological representations for the effective stress in terms of the capillary pressure. The theory is illustrated by specializing to the case of linear poroelasticity, for which we calculate the deformation due to the fluid pressure in a static capillary fringe. We then examine the transient consolidation associated with liquid flow induced by an applied surface load. Settlement accompanies this flow as the liquid is redistributed by a nonlinear diffusion process. For material properties characteristic of tuff from the Nevada Test Site, these effects are found to be vanishingly small. 14 references, 7 figures, 1 table

  1. Saturated tearing modes in tokamaks with divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bateman, G.

    1982-12-01

    We have developed a self-consistent theory of saturated tearing modes capable of predicting multiple magnetic island widths in tokamaks with no assumptions on the cross-sectional shape, aspect ratio, or plasma pressure. We are in the process of implementing this algorithm in the form of a computer code. We propose: (1) to complete, refine, document and publish this computer code; (2) to carry out a survey in which we vary the current profile, aspect ratio, cross-sectional shape, and pressure profile in order to determine their effect on saturated tearing mode magnetic island widths; and (3) to determine the effect of some externally applied magnetic perturbation harmonics on these magnetic island widths. Particular attention will be paid to the coupling between different helical harmonics, the effect of multiple magnetic islands on the profiles of temperature, pressure and current, and the potential of magnetic island overlap leading to a disruptive instability

  2. Tearing mode saturation with finite pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    With finite pressure, the saturation of the current-driven tearing mode is obtained in three-dimensional nonlinear resistive magnetohydrodynamic simulations for Tokamak plasmas. To effectively focus on the tearing modes, the perturbed pressure effects are excluded while the finite equilibrium pressure effects are retained. With this model, the linear growth rates of the tearing modes are found to be very insensitive to the equilibrium pressure increase. The nonlinear aspects of the tearing modes, however, are found to be very sensitive to the pressure increase in that the saturation level of the nonlinear harmonics of the tearing modes increases monotonically with the pressure rise. The increased level is associated with enhanced tearing island sizes or increased stochastic magnetic field region. (author)

  3. The danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    Denmark introduced a new tax on saturated fat in food products with effect from October 2011. The objective of this paper is to make an effect assessment of this tax for some of the product categories most significantly affected by the new tax, namely fats such as butter, butter-blends, margarine...... on saturated fat in food products has had some effects on the market for the considered products, in that the level of consumption of fats dropped by 10 – 20%. Furthermore, the analysis points at shifts in demand from high-price supermarkets towards low-price discount stores – a shift that seems to have been...... utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat...

  4. Activating mitochondrial function and haemoglobin expression with EH-201, an inducer of erythropoietin in neuronal cells, reverses memory impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horng, Lin-Yea; Hsu, Pei-Lun; Chen, Li-Wen; Tseng, Wang-Zou; Hsu, Kai-Tin; Wu, Chia-Ling; Wu, Rong-Tsun

    2015-10-01

    Memory impairment can be progressive in neurodegenerative diseases, and physiological ageing or brain injury, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress are critical components of these issues. An early clinical study has demonstrated cognitive improvement during erythropoietin treatment in patients with chronic renal failure. As erythropoietin cannot freely cross the blood-brain barrier, we tested EH-201 (2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside, also known as TSG), a low MW inducer of erythropoietin, for its therapeutic effects on memory impairment in models of neurodegenerative diseases, physiological ageing or brain injury. The effects of EH-201 were investigated in astrocytes and PC12 neuronal-like cells. In vivo, we used sleep-deprived (SD) mice as a stress model, amyloid-β (Aβ)-injected mice as a physiological ageing model and kainic acid (KA)-injected mice as a brain damage model to assess the therapeutic effects of EH-201. EH-201 induced expression of erythropoietin, PPAR-γ coactivator 1α (PGC-1α) and haemoglobin in astrocytes and PC12 neuronal-like cells. In vivo, EH-201 treatment restored memory impairment, as assessed by the passive avoidance test, in SD, Aβ and KA mouse models. In the hippocampus of mice given EH-201 in their diet, levels of erythropoietin, PGC-1α and haemoglobin were increased The induction of endogenous erythropoietin in neuronal cells by inducers such as EH-201 might be a therapeutic strategy for memory impairment in neurodegenerative disease, physiological ageing or traumatic brain injury. © 2015 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. Trimester-specific reference intervals for haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) in pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connor, Catherine

    2011-11-26

    Abstract Background: Diabetes in pregnancy imposes additional risks to both mother and infant. These increased risks are considered to be primarily related to glycaemic control which is monitored by means of glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)). The correlation of HbA(1c) with clinical outcomes emphasises the need to measure HbA(1c) accurately, precisely and for correct interpretation, comparison to appropriately defined reference intervals. Since July 2010, the HbA(1c) assay in Irish laboratories is fully metrologically traceable to the IFCC standard. The objective was to establish trimester-specific reference intervals in pregnancy for IFCC standardised HbA(1c) in non-diabetic Caucasian women. Methods: The authors recruited 311 non-diabetic Caucasian pregnant (n=246) and non-pregnant women (n=65). A selective screening based on risk factors for gestational diabetes was employed. All subjects had a random plasma glucose <7.7 mmol\\/L and normal haemoglobin level. Pregnancy trimester was defined as trimester 1 (T1, n=40) up to 12 weeks +6 days, trimester 2 (T2, n=106) 13-27 weeks +6 days, trimester 3 (T3, n=100) >28 weeks to term. Results: The normal HbA(1c) reference interval for Caucasian non-pregnant women was 29-37 mmol\\/mol (Diabetes Control and Complications Trial; DCCT: 4.8%-5.5%), T1: 24-36 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.3%-5.4%), T2: 25-35 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.4%-5.4%) and T3: 28-39 mmol\\/mol (DCCT: 4.7%-5.7%). HbA(1c) was significantly decreased in trimesters 1 and 2 compared to non-pregnant women. Conclusions: HbA(1c) trimester-specific reference intervals are required to better inform the management of pregnancies complicated by diabetes.

  6. Stabilization of Neutral Systems with Saturating Actuators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. El Haoussi

    2012-01-01

    to determine stabilizing state-feedback controllers with large domain of attraction, expressed as linear matrix inequalities, readily implementable using available numerical tools and with tuning parameters that make possible to select the most adequate solution. These conditions are derived by using a Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional on the vertices of the polytopic description of the actuator saturations. Numerical examples demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  7. Gluon saturation beyond (naive) leading logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beuf, Guillaume

    2014-12-15

    An improved version of the Balitsky–Kovchegov equation is presented, with a consistent treatment of kinematics. That improvement allows to resum the most severe of the large higher order corrections which plague the conventional versions of high-energy evolution equations, with approximate kinematics. This result represents a further step towards having high-energy QCD scattering processes under control beyond strict Leading Logarithmic accuracy and with gluon saturation effects.

  8. The inherited diseases of haemoglobin are an emerging global health burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Fucharoen

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Thalasseamia is one of the common genetic disorders. A genetic defect causes reduction of the globin chains leading to chronic haemolytic anaemia from birth. The mainstay of treatment is blood transfusion to maintain adequate levels of the haemoglobin. Secondary iron overload in β-thalassaemia patients is secondary to multiple blood transfusions and increased iron absorption. Excesses iron potentially catalyses free-radicals generation and impairment in cellular function and integrity. Extensive iron-induced injury develops in the heart, liver, pancreas and endocrine system. In regularly transfused patients, in the absence of iron-chelation therapy, death from iron-induced heart failure occurs by the mid-teenage years. Conventional treatment with the parenteral iron chelator desferrioxamine improves mortality but it is too expensive for middle and lowincome countries. Oral iron chelators, such as deferiprone (L1 and deferasirox, appear to be promising, however, they are still too expensive or need special monitoring. Serum ferritin has been used for many years as a guide for chelation therapy. However, recent studies demonstrated that using serum ferritin or liver iron measurements as a monitor of iron-chelation intensive therapy would have been discontinued long before the iron had cleared from the heart. There is evidence of the value of myocardial T2* measurements by MRI for the detection of early cardiac iron overload which cannot be predicted by liver iron or serum ferritin and for the monitoring of iron-chelation therapy. The major problem is the expensiveness of MRI measurement. In conclusion, the problem of iron chelation in low-income countries may be summarized as follows: i drugs, are not available in every countries that need the medicine, ii the cost of drugs is too high for most low income countries, iii there is poor education of doctor, parents/ patients and local government about the benefit of iron chelation, iv there is need

  9. THE SATURATION OF SASI BY PARASITIC INSTABILITIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilet, Jerome; Sato, Jun'ichi; Foglizzo, Thierry

    2010-01-01

    The standing accretion shock instability (SASI) is commonly believed to be responsible for large amplitude dipolar oscillations of the stalled shock during core collapse, potentially leading to an asymmetric supernovae explosion. The degree of asymmetry depends on the amplitude of SASI, but the nonlinear saturation mechanism has never been elucidated. We investigate the role of parasitic instabilities as a possible cause of nonlinear SASI saturation. As the shock oscillations create both vorticity and entropy gradients, we show that both Kelvin-Helmholtz and Rayleigh-Taylor types of instabilities are able to grow on a SASI mode if its amplitude is large enough. We obtain simple estimates of their growth rates, taking into account the effects of advection and entropy stratification. In the context of the advective-acoustic cycle, we use numerical simulations to demonstrate how the acoustic feedback can be decreased if a parasitic instability distorts the advected structure. The amplitude of the shock deformation is estimated analytically in this scenario. When applied to the set up of Fernandez and Thompson, this saturation mechanism is able to explain the dramatic decrease of the SASI power when both the nuclear dissociation energy and the cooling rate are varied. Our results open new perspectives for anticipating the effect, on the SASI amplitude, of the physical ingredients involved in the modeling of the collapsing star.

  10. Saturation and nucleation in hot nuclear systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deangelis, A.R.

    1990-07-01

    We investigate nuclear fragmentation in a supersaturated system using classical nucleation theory. This allows us to go outside the normally applied constraint of chemical equilibrium. The system is governed by a virial equation of state, which we use to find an expression for the density as a function of pressure and temperature. The evolution of the system is discussed in terms of the phase diagram. Corrections are included to account for the droplet surface and all charges contained in the system. Using this model we investigate and discuss the effects of temperature and saturation, and compare the results to those of other models of fragmentation. We also discuss the limiting temperatures of the system for the cases with and without chemical equilibrium. We find that large nuclei will be formed in saturated systems, even above the limiting temperature as previously defined. We also find that saturation and temperature dominate surface and Coulomb effects. The effects are quite large, thus even a qualitative inspection of the yields may give an indication of the conditions during fragmentation

  11. Multipactor saturation in parallel-plate waveguides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sorolla, E.; Mattes, M.

    2012-01-01

    The saturation stage of a multipactor discharge is considered of interest, since it can guide towards a criterion to assess the multipactor onset. The electron cloud under multipactor regime within a parallel-plate waveguide is modeled by a thin continuous distribution of charge and the equations of motion are calculated taking into account the space charge effects. The saturation is identified by the interaction of the electron cloud with its image charge. The stability of the electron population growth is analyzed and two mechanisms of saturation to explain the steady-state multipactor for voltages near above the threshold onset are identified. The impact energy in the collision against the metal plates decreases during the electron population growth due to the attraction of the electron sheet on the image through the initial plate. When this growth remains stable till the impact energy reaches the first cross-over point, the electron surface density tends to a constant value. When the stability is broken before reaching the first cross-over point the surface charge density oscillates chaotically bounded within a certain range. In this case, an expression to calculate the maximum electron surface charge density is found whose predictions agree with the simulations when the voltage is not too high.

  12. Mass transfer in water-saturated concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, A.; Claisse, P.A.; Harris, A.W.; Nickerson, A.K.

    1990-01-01

    Cements and concretes are often considered as components of barriers for the containment of radioactive waste. The performance of such materials as mainly physical barriers to the transport of dissolved radionuclides depends on the mass transfer characteristics of the material. In particular the diffusion and sorption behavior of the radionuclides and the water permeability are important. These parameters also influence how the chemistry of the concrete is imposed on the repository. In addition, the transport of gas through concrete controls the way in which gases escape from the repository. Diffusion and gas transport have been measured in a variety of cementitious materials, covering both structural concretes and cementitious backfills; all possible repository construction materials. Measurements have been made using aqueous iodide, strontium and caesium ions and tritiated water as diffusants. The results show that the diffusion of tritiated water is more rapid than that of other species, whilst the transport of strontium and caesium is hindered by sorption; particularly in materials containing blast furnace slag. The transport of gas in these materials has been found to be very sensitive to the degree of water saturation and is extremely low in fully saturated structural concretes. Cementitious backfills have, nevertheless, been identified that have appreciable gas transport even when almost water saturated. The consequences of the results for the performance of cementitious barriers are discussed

  13. Self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in Iranian patients with type 2 diabetes: can coping styles and social support have a buffering role?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shayeghian, Zeinab; Aguilar-Vafaie, Maria E; Besharat, Mohammad Ali; Amiri, Parisa; Parvin, Mahmoud; Gillani, Kobra Roohi; Hassanabadi, Hamidreza

    2015-01-01

    Diabetes self-care is a key element in the overall management of diabetes. However, the importance of psychosocial factors for successful disease management is under investigated. This study aimed at exploring the role of coping styles and social support in the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin in patients with type 2 diabetes. One hundred adults (60% female, aged 40-70 years) with type 2 diabetes completed questionnaires assessing self-care activities, coping styles and social support. In addition, a blood test was performed to obtain glycated haemoglobin levels. Result showed significant relationships of glycated haemoglobin with self-care activities, coping styles and social support. Regression analysis indicated that social support had a moderating role on the relationship between self-care activities and glycated haemoglobin, such that, at very high levels of social support the association, between Self-Care and HbA1c disappears. Findings indicate that health care providers, within the context of the Iranian social and cultural situation, should pay more attention to psychosocial factors when addressing self-care activities. Delineation of the role of coping styles and social support might be useful for identifying patients in need of particular counselling and support for improving self-care activities and HbA1c levels.

  14. Purification, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic studies of haemoglobin from mongoose (Helogale parvula) in two different crystal forms induced by pH variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed Abubakkar, M; Saraboji, K; Ponnuswamy, M N

    2013-02-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) is a respiratory pigment; it is a tetrameric protein that ferries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and transports carbon dioxide on the return journey. The oxygen affinity of haemoglobin is regulated by the concentration of oxygen surrounding it and several efforts have revealed the shapes of Hb in different states and with different functions. However, study of the molecular basis of Hbs from low-oxygen-affinity species is critically needed in order to increase the understanding of the mechanism behind oxygen adaptation. The present study reports the preliminary crystallographic study of low-oxygen-affinity haemoglobin from mongoose, a burrowing mammal. Haemoglobin from mongoose was purified by anion-exchange chromatography, crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and diffraction data sets were collected from monoclinic (2.3 Å resolution) and orthorhombic (2.9 Å resolution) crystal forms obtained by pH variation. The monoclinic and orthorhombic asymmetric units contained half and a whole biological molecule, respectively.

  15. The predictive value of current haemoglobin levels for incident tuberculosis and/or mortality during long-term antiretroviral therapy in South Africa: a cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerkhoff, Andrew D.; Wood, Robin; Cobelens, Frank G.; Gupta-Wright, Ankur; Bekker, Linda-Gail; Lawn, Stephen D.

    2015-01-01

    Low haemoglobin concentrations may be predictive of incident tuberculosis (TB) and death in HIV-infected patients receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART), but data are limited and inconsistent. We examined these relationships retrospectively in a long-term South African ART cohort with multiple

  16. Different functional modulation by heterotropic ligands (2,3-diphosphoglycerate and chlorides) of the two haemoglobins from fallow-deer (Dama dama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeletti, M; Pucciarelli, S; Priori, A M; Canofeni, S; Barra, D; Fioretti, E; Coletta, M

    2001-02-01

    Two haemoglobin components have been identified and purified from fallow-deer (Dama dama) erythrocytes. They are present in similar amounts and the two tetrameric molecules share the same alpha chain, while two different beta chains are detected in the two components. The beta chains differ by 14 residues, even though they both have 145 amino-acid residues, which account for a molecular mass of 16,023 and 16,064 Da, respectively, while alpha chain has 141 residues, yielding a molecular mass of 15,142 Da. Compared with human Hb, the N-terminal region of both beta chains shows deletion of Val beta 1 and the replacement of His beta 2 by a methionyl residue, a modification which is common to most ruminant haemoglobins. Although both isolated components show a low intrinsic affinity for oxygen, meaningful differences between the two haemoglobins have been found with respect to the effect of heterotropic effectors, such as 2,3-diphosphoglycerate and chloride ions. In view of the high sequence homology between the two components, the different effect of heterotropic ligands has been tentatively correlated to possible localized structural variations between beta chains of the two haemoglobin components.

  17. Randomised feasibility study of a more liberal haemoglobin trigger for red blood cell transfusion compared to standard practice in anaemic cancer patients treated with chemotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yakymenko, D.; Frandsen, K. B.; Christensen, I. J.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: The primary objective of this feasibility study was to identify quality of life (QoL) scores and symptom scales as tools for measuring patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with haemoglobin level in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Secondary objectives included comparing QoL......-An, FACT-An TOI, fatigue and dyspnoea. Conclusions: QoL scores of physical and functional domains as well as self-reported anaemia-related symptoms correlated well with haemoglobin level in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients.......Objectives: The primary objective of this feasibility study was to identify quality of life (QoL) scores and symptom scales as tools for measuring patient-reported outcomes (PRO) associated with haemoglobin level in chemotherapy-treated cancer patients. Secondary objectives included comparing Qo......L and symptoms between randomisation arms. Background: Anaemia in cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy is associated with decreased QoL. One treatment option is red blood cell transfusion (RBCT). However, the optimal haemoglobin trigger for transfusion is unknown. Methods: Patients were randomised...

  18. Diabetic patients have abnormal cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Croughwell, N.; Lyth, M.; Quill, T.J.; Newman, M.; Greeley, W.J.; Smith, L.R.; Reves, J.G.

    1990-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that insulin-dependent diabetic patients with coronary artery bypass graft surgery experience altered coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption. In a study of 23 patients (11 diabetics and 12 age-matched controls), cerebral blood flow was measured using 133Xe clearance during nonpulsatile, alpha-stat blood gas managed cardiopulmonary bypass at the conditions of hypothermia and normothermia. In diabetic patients, the cerebral blood flow at 26.6 +/- 2.42 degrees C was 25.3 +/- 14.34 ml/100 g/min and at 36.9 +/- 0.58 degrees C it was 27.3 +/- 7.40 ml/100 g/min (p = NS). The control patients increased cerebral blood flow from 20.7 +/- 6.78 ml/100 g/min at 28.4 +/- 2.81 degrees C to 37.6 +/- 8.81 ml/100 g/min at 36.5 +/- 0.45 degrees C (p less than or equal to 0.005). The oxygen consumption was calculated from jugular bulb effluent and increased from hypothermic values of 0.52 +/- 0.20 ml/100 g/min in diabetics to 1.26 +/- 0.28 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.001) at normothermia and rose from 0.60 +/- 0.27 to 1.49 +/- 0.35 ml/100 g/min (p = 0.0005) in the controls. Thus, despite temperature-mediated changes in oxygen consumption, diabetic patients did not increase cerebral blood flow as metabolism increased. Arteriovenous oxygen saturation gradients and oxygen extraction across the brain were calculated from arterial and jugular bulb blood samples. The increase in arteriovenous oxygen difference between temperature conditions in diabetic patients and controls was significantly different (p = 0.01). These data reveal that diabetic patients lose cerebral autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass and compensate for an imbalance in adequate oxygen delivery by increasing oxygen extraction

  19. Hydrostatic determinants of cerebral perfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wagner, E.M.; Traystman, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    We examined the cerebral blood flow response to alterations in perfusion pressure mediated through decreases in mean arterial pressure, increases in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure, and increases in jugular venous (JV) pressure in 42 pentobarbital anesthetized dogs. Each of these three pressures was independently controlled. Cerebral perfusion pressure was defined as mean arterial pressure minus JV or CSF pressure, depending on which was greater. Mean hemispheric blood flow was measured with the radiolabeled microsphere technique. Despite 30-mm Hg reductions in mean arterial pressure or increases in CSF or JV pressure, CBF did not change as long as the perfusion pressure remained greater than approximately 60 mm Hg. However, whenever perfusion pressure was reduced to an average of 48 mm Hg, cerebral blood flow decreased 27% to 33%. These results demonstrate the capacity of the cerebral vascular bed to respond similarly to changes in the perfusion pressure gradient obtained by decreasing mean arterial pressure, increasing JV pressure or increasing CSF pressure, and thereby support the above definition of cerebral perfusion pressure

  20. Cerebral Sinovenous Thrombosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Ichord

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral sinovenous thrombosis (CSVT is a rare but serious cerebrovascular disorder affecting children from the newborn period through childhood and adolescence. The incidence is estimated at 0.6/100,000/year, with 30–50% occurring in newborns. Causes are diverse and are highly age dependent. Acute systemic illness is the dominant risk factor among newborns. In childhood CSVT, acute infections of the head and neck such as mastoiditis are most common, followed by chronic underlying diseases such as nephrotic syndrome, cancer, and inflammatory bowel disease. Signs and symptoms are also age related. Seizures and altered mental status are the commonest manifestations in newborns. Headache, vomiting, and lethargy, sometimes with 6th nerve palsy, are the most common symptoms in children and adolescents. Recent multicenter cohort studies from North America and Europe have provided updated information on risk factors, clinical presentations, treatment practices, and outcomes. While systemic anticoagulation is the most common specific treatment used, there are wide variations and many uncertainties even among experts concerning best practice. The treatment dilemma is especially pronounced for neonatal CSVT. This is due in part to the higher prevalence of intracranial hemorrhage among newborns on the one hand, and the clear evidence that newborns suffer greater long-term neurologic morbidity on the other hand. With the advent of widespread availability and acceptance of acute endovascular therapy for arterial ischemic stroke, there is renewed interest in this therapy for children with CSVT. Limited published evidence exists regarding the benefits and risks of these invasive therapies. Therefore, the authors of current guidelines advise reserving this therapy for children with progressive and severe disease who have failed optimal medical management. As research focused on childhood cerebrovascular disease continues to grow rapidly, the future prospects

  1. [Near-infrared spectroscopy in sepsis therapy : predictor of a low central venous oxygen saturation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenstern, C; Koch, C; Röhrig, R; Rosengarten, B; Henrich, M; Weigand, M A

    2012-10-01

    Early goal-directed hemodynamic optimization has become a cornerstone of sepsis therapy. One major defined goal is to achieve adequate central venous oxygen saturation (SO(2)). This study aimed to investigate the correlation between central venous SO(2) and frontal cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) measurement in patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. The NIRS method provides non-invasive measurement of regional oxygen saturation (rSO(2)) in tissues approximately 2 cm below the optical NIRS sensors which depends on arterial, capillary and venous blood. Thus this system gives site-specific real-time data about the balance of oxygen supply and demand. This was a secondary analysis from a prospective study of surgical intensive care (ICU) patients in the early phase of severe sepsis or septic shock. Bilateral cerebral rSO(2), central venous SO(2), arterial oxygen saturation (S(a)O(2)) and other surrogate parameters of oxygen supply, such as hemoglobin, partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen content in arterial blood were recorded. A total of 16 ICU patients (4 women, median age 65.5 years) were included in the study. As sepsis focus an intra-abdominal infection was detected in 62.5 % of patients, severe pneumonia was determined in 31.3 % and skin and soft tissue infections were recognized in 12.5 %. At study inclusion 50 % of patients had septic shock, the median sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score was 10.2 (interquartile range 5.25-8.75) and the median acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II) score was 26 (range 23.25-29.75). Mortality at day 28 was 37.5 %. Minimum rSO(2) (median 58) and right-sided rSO(2) (median 58) values showed a significant correlation in the analysis of receiver operating characteristics (area under the curve 0.844, p= 0.045). A central venous SO(2)< 70 % was indicated by rSO(2)< 56.5 with sensitivity and specificity of 75 % and 100 %, respectively. Cerebral NIRS could provide a fast and easily

  2. 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Button Past Emails 11 Things to Know about Cerebral Palsy Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Cerebral palsy (CP) is the most common motor disability in ...

  3. Dynamic Cerebral Autoregulation after Cardiopulmonary Bypass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Claus Behrend; Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R

    2016-01-01

    Background Cerebral hemodynamic disturbances in the peri- or postoperative period may contribute to postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). We therefore examined dynamic cerebral autoregulation (d...

  4. The effect on haemoglobin of the use of iron cooking pots in rural Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geerligs, Paul Prinsen; Brabin, Bernard; Mkumbwa, Albert; Broadhead, Robin; Cuevas, Luis E

    2003-04-01

    Innovative low-cost sustainable strategies are required to reduce the high prevalence of iron-deficiency anaemia in developing countries. We undertook a community-based randomized controlled intervention trial to assess the effects of cooking in iron or aluminium cooking pots in Malawian households in an area with high malaria prevalence. Analysis was by intention to treat and consistency of use. The primary outcomes were change in haemoglobin and iron status. The study population comprised 164 participants eating from aluminium cooking pots and 158 from iron cooking pots. The mean haemoglobin change was significantly increased after 6 weeks in adults who consistently ate from an iron cooking pot (+3.6 g/l compared to -3.2 g/l, mean difference between groups 6.8 g/l, 95% CI +0.86, +12.74). In children, no significant haemoglobin change was observed in consistent pot users, although they showed a significant reduction in iron deficiency (iron 8.6 ZP/g and aluminium 10.8 ZP/g, mean difference 2.2 ZP/g, 95% CI +1.08, +3.32). Rural Malawian adults in a high malaria transmission area who consistently consume food prepared in iron cooking pots show a significant rise in haemoglobin after 6 weeks use. Children showed a reduction in iron deficiency, but no significant improvement in haemoglobin, possibly because of their high malaria parasite prevalence. Using iron cooking pots in developing countries could provide an innovative way to prevent iron deficiency and anaemia in malarious areas where regular iron supplementation is problematic.

  5. Cerebral oximetry in preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm; Andresen, Bjørn; Plomgaard, Anne Mette

    2016-01-01

    Preterm birth constitutes a major cause of death before 5 years of age and it is a major cause of neurodevelopmental impairment across the world. Preterm infants are most unstable during the transition between fetal and newborn life during the first days of life and most brain damage occurs...... in this period. The brain of the preterm infant is accessible for tissue oximetry by near-infrared spectroscopy. Cerebral oximetry has the potential to improve the long-term outcome by helping to tailor the support of respiration and circulation to the individual infant's needs, but the evidence is still lacking....... The goals for research include testing the benefit and harms of cerebral oximetry in large-scale randomized trials, improved definition of the hypoxic threshold, better understanding the effects of intensive care on cerebral oxygenation, as well as improved precision of oximeters and calibration among...

  6. NEYROPSYCHOLOGICAL CONSECUENCES OF CEREBRAL PALSY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA MARÍA NAVARRO MELENDRO

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral Palsy is defined as a movement alteration result of a non progressive damage witch is permanent in anencephalon that has not acquired its final maturation. Patients that suffer cerebral palsy present learning disabilities,that varies between being completely normal to severe as a consequence of memory, gnosis, praxis, perceptive andlanguage impairments. Nevertheless the consequences of this disease are not always predictable. This paper pretendsto make a description of the cognitive and behavioral deficits that overcomes along with the manifestation of thecerebral palsy and its possible treatment. We used a complete neuropsychological battery to evaluate a 7 years oldpatient who was diagnosed of cerebral palsy and spastic diplegia finding some cognitive impairment in fields such asmnesic, gnosic and attention processes.

  7. Natriuretic peptides and cerebral hemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Barringer, Filippa; Zois, Nora Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    Natriuretic peptides have emerged as important diagnostic and prognostic tools for cardiovascular disease. Plasma measurement of the bioactive peptides as well as precursor-derived fragments is a sensitive tool in assessing heart failure. In heart failure, the peptides are used as treatment...... in decompensated disease. In contrast, their biological effects on the cerebral hemodynamics are poorly understood. In this mini-review, we summarize the hemodynamic effects of the natriuretic peptides with a focus on the cerebral hemodynamics. In addition, we will discuss its potential implications in diseases...... where alteration of the cerebral hemodynamics plays a role such as migraine and acute brain injury including stroke. We conclude that a possible role of the peptides is feasible as evaluated from animal and in vitro studies, but more research is needed in humans to determine the precise response...

  8. Cerebral edema associated with acute hepatic failure.

    OpenAIRE

    Fujiwara, Masachika; Watanabe, Akiharu; Yamauchi, Yasuhiko; Hashimoto, Makoto; Nakatsukasa, Harushige; Kobayashi, Michio; Higashi, Toshihiro; Nagashima, Hideo

    1985-01-01

    The clinicopathological findings of cerebral edema were investigated in patients with acute hepatic failure autopsied at Okayama University Hospital between 1970 and 1980 retrospectively. Nine (64%) of 14 hepatic failure cases were found to have cerebral edema during a post-mortem examination of the brain. Clinical features of the patients with cerebral edema were not significantly different from those of the patients without cerebral edema. However, general convulsions were observed more fre...

  9. Cerebral MR imaging in vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, D.; Geissler, A.; Peter, H.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper evaluates the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of MR imaging for the detection of cerebral involvement in vasculitis. Seventy-six patient with proved systematic vasculitis and two with isolated cerebral vasculitis were examined. Half of them had central nervous system symptoms. T2-weighted sequences were performed at 2 T in most cases. All but two symptomatic and one-third of the asymptomatic patients showed pathologic changes in the white matter. The distribution and shape of lesions depend on the caliber of the involved vessel. In small-vessel vasculitis, the distribution was mostly subcortical, the average size was 0.5--10 mm, and lesions were predominantly round

  10. Features to validate cerebral toxoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina da Cunha Correia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Neurotoxoplasmosis (NT sometimes manifests unusual characteristics. Methods We analyzed 85 patients with NT and AIDS according to clinical, cerebrospinal fluid, cranial magnetic resonance, and polymerase chain reaction (PCR characteristics. Results In 8.5%, focal neurological deficits were absent and 16.4% had single cerebral lesions. Increased sensitivity of PCR for Toxoplasma gondii DNA in the central nervous system was associated with pleocytosis and presence of >4 encephalic lesions. Conclusions Patients with NT may present without focal neurological deficit and NT may occur with presence of a single cerebral lesion. Greater numbers of lesions and greater cellularity in cerebrospinal fluid improve the sensitivity of PCR to T gondii.

  11. Cerebral vasculitis associated with cocaine abuse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, B.R.; Fainstat, M.

    1987-01-01

    A case of cerebral vasculitis in a previously healthy 22-year-old man with a history of cocaine abuse is described. Cerebral angiograms showed evidence of vasculitis. A search for possible causes other than cocaine produced no results. The authors include cocaine with methamphetamines, heroin, and ephedrine as illicit drugs that can cause cerebral vasculitis

  12. Neuroevolutional Approach to Cerebral Palsy and Speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mysak, Edward D.

    Intended for cerebral palsy specialists, the book emphasizes the contribution that a neuroevolutional approach to therapy can make to habilitation goals of the child with cerebral palsy and applies the basic principles of the Bobath approach to therapy. The first section discusses cerebral palsy as a reflection of disturbed neuro-ontogenisis and…

  13. Cerebral toksoplasmose primaert diagnosticeret som tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cortsen, M E; Skøt, J; Skriver, E B

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of AIDS are reported. The initial diagnoses were brain tumors because of the cerebral mass lesions which resembled glioblastoma. In the light of the increasing occurrence of AIDS, attention is drawn to cerebral toxoplasmosis...

  14. Fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, J.; Washiyama, K.; Hong Kim, C.; Ibuchi, Y.

    1981-01-01

    Three cases of angiographically demonstrated fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery are reported. Fenestration occurred at the medial half of the horizontal segment of the anterior cerebral artery in all cases. Its embryology and clinical significance are briefly discussed, and the anatomical and radiological literature on fenestration of the anterior cerebral artery is reviewed. (orig.)

  15. Soil aquifer treatment of artificial wastewater under saturated conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Essandoh, H. M K; Tizaoui, Chedly; Mohamed, Mostafa H A; Amy, Gary L.; Brdjanovic, Damir

    2011-01-01

    A 2000 mm long saturated laboratory soil column was used to simulate soil aquifer treatment under saturated conditions to assess the removal of chemical and biochemical oxygen demand (COD and BOD), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), nitrogen

  16. Calcium phosphate saturation in the western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naik, S.; Reddy, C.V.G.

    Temperature, inorganic phosphate concentration and pH seem to be the major factors influencing the degree of saturation of calcium phosphate in sea water. Two water regions can be demarcated in the study area based on the saturation patterns...

  17. Automated agitation management accounting for saturation dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, A D; Chase, J G; Shaw, G M; Lee, D

    2004-01-01

    Agitation-sedation cycling in critically ill is damaging to patient health and increases length of and cost. A physiologically representative model of the agitation-sedation system is used as a platform to evaluate feedback controllers offering improved agitation management. A heavy-derivative controller with upper and infusion rate bounds maintains minimum plasma concentrations through a low constant infusion, and minimizes outbursts of agitation through strong, timely boluses. controller provides improved agitation management using from 37 critically ill patients, given the saturation of effect at high concentration. Approval was obtained the Canterbury Ethics Board for this research.

  18. Modelling contaminant transport in saturated aquifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lakshminarayana, V.; Nayak, T.R.

    1990-01-01

    With the increase in population and industrialization the problem of pollution of groundwater has become critical. The present study deals with modelling of pollutant transport through saturated aquifers. Using this model it is possible to predict the concentration distribution, spatial as well as temporal, in the aquifer. The paper also deals with one of the methods of controlling the pollutant movement, namely by pumping wells. A simulation model is developed to determine the number, location and rate of pumping of a number of wells near the source of pollution so that the concentration is within acceptable limits at the point of interest. (Author) (18 refs., 14 figs., tab.)

  19. Elevated transferrin saturation and risk of diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellervik, Christina; Mandrup-Poulsen, Thomas; Andersen, Henrik Ullits

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We tested the hypothesis that elevated transferrin saturation is associated with an increased risk of any form of diabetes, as well as type 1 or type 2 diabetes separately. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used two general population studies, The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS, N = 9......,121) and The Copenhagen General Population Study (CGPS, N = 24,195), as well as a 1:1 age- and sex-matched population-based case-control study with 6,129 patients with diabetes from the Steno Diabetes Centre and 6,129 control subjects, totaling 8,535 patients with diabetes and 37,039 control subjects. RESULTS...

  20. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Signild; Holm, Lotte; Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård

    2015-01-01

    arguments and themes involved in the debates surrounding the introduction and the repeal. SUBJECTS/METHODS: An analysis of parliamentary debates, expert reports and media coverage; key informant interviews; and a review of studies about the effects of the tax on consumer behaviour. RESULTS: A tax......BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Health promoters have repeatedly proposed using economic policy tools, taxes and subsidies, as a means of changing consumer behaviour. As the first country in the world, Denmark introduced a tax on saturated fat in 2011. It was repealed in 2012. In this paper, we present...... indicates that the tax was effective in changing consumer behaviour....

  1. Rectifier transformer saturation on commutation failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, E.; Bronner, G.

    1989-01-01

    The rectifier transformer's service differs from the power transformer's service because of the rectifier load. Under certain fault conditions, such as a commutation failure, d.c. magnetization may be introduced into the rectifier transformer cores, resulting in possible saturation of the magnetic circuit, thus in degradation of the performance of the transformer. It is the purpose of this paper to present an approach for evaluating the electromagnetic transient process under such a fault condition. The studies were made on the operating 1000MVA converter system at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

  2. Let us save the brain with cerebral oximeter: Two case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlknur Suidiye Şeker

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the neonates, tracheal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF surgery may result in hemodynamic instabilization, leading to cerebral perfusion insufficiency due to the retraction of the pulmonary vessels and truncus brachiocephalicus. We represented one male and one female neonates which were performed thoracoscopic primary repair of TEF through right thoracotomy at the 3th and 4th postpartum day. Anesthesia was induced using sodium thiopental (5 mg/kg, fentanyl 4 mcg, and rocuronium (0.5 mg/kg given through intravenous route. Sevoflurane 2% and 50% O2in air were used for the maintenance therapy. During the right lung compression to expose posterior esophagus, no value was observed on the pulse oximeter (PO probe placed on the right hand, and radial artery was not palpated. At the same time, oxygen saturation was observed as 96%–97% on the left foot probe. As the right cerebral oximeter values (rSO2 were rapidly decreased to 31%, the lung compression was ceased. Right pulse oximeter and right rSO2measurements return to the baseline levels. For the second case - different from the first case -both left and right rSO2was rapidly decreased to 40% levels and return to the baseline levels after was removed the retractors. Right PO and right and left cerebral rSO2values returned to baseline immediately when the retractor compression was ended During the operations involving the great vessels in neonates, cerebral perfusion could be preserved using cerebral oximeter. Cerebral oximeter is more efficient than pulse oximeter for detecting cerebral tissue oxygenation and could be helpful to minimize neuronal damage in the neonates.

  3. A demonstration experiment for studying the properties of saturated vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, Igor V.; Lebedeva, Olga V.; Polushkina, Svetlana V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper proposes an important demonstration experiment that can be used at secondary schools in physics. The described experiment helps students learn the main concepts of the topic ‘saturated vapor’, namely, evaporation, condensation, dynamic equilibrium, saturation vapor, partial pressure, and the dependence of saturated vapor pressure on temperature.

  4. What is cerebral small vessel disease?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onodera, Osamu

    2011-01-01

    An accumulating amount of evidence suggests that the white matter hyperintensities on T 2 weighted brain magnetic resonance imaging predict an increased risk of dementia and gait disturbance. This state has been proposed as cerebral small vessel disease, including leukoaraiosis, Binswanger's disease, lacunar stroke and cerebral microbleeds. However, the concept of cerebral small vessel disease is still obscure. To understand the cerebral small vessel disease, the precise structure and function of cerebral small vessels must be clarified. Cerebral small vessels include several different arteries which have different anatomical structures and functions. Important functions of the cerebral small vessels are blood-brain barrier and perivasucular drainage of interstitial fluid from the brain parenchyma. Cerebral capillaries and glial endfeet, take an important role for these functions. However, the previous pathological investigations on cerebral small vessels have focused on larger arteries than capillaries. Therefore little is known about the pathology of capillaries in small vessel disease. The recent discoveries of genes which cause the cerebral small vessel disease indicate that the cerebral small vessel diseases are caused by a distinct molecular mechanism. One of the pathological findings in hereditary cerebral small vessel disease is the loss of smooth muscle cells, which is an also well-recognized finding in sporadic cerebral small vessel disease. Since pericytes have similar character with the smooth muscle cells, the pericytes should be investigated in these disorders. In addition, the loss of smooth muscle cells may result in dysfunction of drainage of interstitial fluid from capillaries. The precise correlation between the loss of smooth muscle cells and white matter disease is still unknown. However, the function that is specific to cerebral small vessel may be associated with the pathogenesis of cerebral small vessel disease. (author)

  5. In vivo detection of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and carboxyhemoglobin saturation with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongjiang; Yang, Sihua; Xing, Da

    2012-08-15

    A method for noninvasively detecting hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) and carboxyhemoglobin saturation (SCO) in subcutaneous microvasculature with multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy is presented. Blood samples mixed with different concentrations of carboxyhemoglobin were used to test the feasibility and accuracy of photoacoustic microscopy compared with the blood-gas analyzer. Moreover, fixed-point detection of SO2 and SCO in mouse ear was obtained, and the changes from normoxia to carbon monoxide hypoxia were dynamically monitored in vivo. Experimental results demonstrate that multiwavelength photoacoustic microscopy can detect SO2 and SCO, which has future potential clinical applications.

  6. Particle Correlations in Saturated QCD Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Baier, R; Nardi, M; Wiedemann, Urs Achim; Baier, Rudolf; Kovner, Alex; Nardi, Marzia; Wiedemann, Urs Achim

    2005-01-01

    We study quantitatively angular correlations in the two-particle spectrum produced by an energetic probe scattering off a dense hadronic target with sizeable saturation momentum. To this end, two parton inclusive cross sections for arbitrary projectiles with small color charge density are derived in the eikonal formalism. Our results are the following: For large momenta of the observed particles, the perturbative limit with characteristic back-to-back correlation is recovered. As the trigger momenta get closer to the saturation scale Q_s, the angular distribution broadens. When the momenta are significantly smaller than Q_s, the azimuthal distribution is broad but still peaked back-to-back. However, in a narrow momentum range (0.5 - 1.5) Q_s, we observe that the azimuthal correlation splits into a double peak with maxima displaced away from 180 degree. We argue that it is the soft multiple scattering physics that is responsible for the appearance of this shift in the angle of maximal correlation. We also poin...

  7. Simulation of saturated tearing modes in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nguyen, Canh N.; Bateman, Glenn; Kritz, Arnold H.

    2004-01-01

    A quasi-linear model, which includes the effect of the neoclassical bootstrap current, is developed for saturated tearing modes in order to compute magnetic island widths in axisymmetric toroidal plasmas with arbitrary aspect ratio and cross-sectional shape. The model is tested in a simple stand-alone code and is implemented in the BALDUR [C. E. Singer et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 49, 275 (1982)] predictive modeling code. It is found that the widths of tearing mode islands increase with decreasing aspect ratio and with increasing elongation. Also, the island widths increase when the gradient of the current density increases at the edge of the islands and when the current density inside the islands is suppressed, such as the suppression caused by the near absence of the bootstrap current within the islands. In simulations of tokamak discharges, it is found that tearing mode island widths oscillate in time in response to periodic sawtooth crashes. The local enhancements in the transport produced by magnetic islands have a noticeable effect on global plasma confinement in simulations of low aspect ratio, high beta tokamaks, where saturated tearing mode islands can occur with widths that are greater than 15% of the plasma minor radius

  8. Thermal effects on tearing mode saturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.S.; Chu, M.S.; Greene, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of geometry on tearing modes, saturated states of tearing modes, and the thermal effect on tearing modes are presented. The configuration of current and magnetic fields are quite different in slabs and in Tokamaks. However, for any magnetic island regardless of geometry and heating conditions, at island saturation the product of resistivity and current is the same at magnetic O and X lines. The temperature perturbation effect on the nonlinear development of tearing modes is investigated. Thermal conduction along the field lines is much faster than that in the perpendicular direction, and thus the temperature profile follows the island structure. Utilizing Spitzer's conductivity relation, the temperature perturbation is modelled as helical components of resistivity. For a usual tearing mode unstable Tokamak, where shear is positive, the islands continue to grow to a larger size when the islands are cooled. When they are heated, the island sizes are reduced. The temperature perturbation can induce islands even for equilibria stable with respect to tearing modes. Again, the islands appear when cooling takes place. The equilibria with the cooled islands show enhanced field line stochasticity, thus enhanced heat transport. Therefore, thermal instability can be directly related to pressure disruptions. (author)

  9. Facilitated transport near the carrier saturation limit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anawat Sungpet

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Permeation of ethylbenzene, styrene and 1-hexene through perfluorosulfonate ionomer membranes was carried out with the feed concentrations ranging from 1 M to pure. On comparison, fluxes of ethylbenzene through the Ag+-form membrane were the lowest. Only a small increase in ethylbenzene flux was observed after the feed concentration exceeded 3 M, indicating the existence of carrier saturation. The increase in styrene flux was suppressed to some degree at high concentration driving forces. In contrast, 1-hexene flux was the highest and continued to increase even at very high feed concentrations. After the experiments with pure feeds, extraction of the solutes from the membranes revealed that 62.5% of Ag+ ions reacted with 1-hexene as against 40.6% for styrene and 28.9% for ethylbenzene. Equilibrium constants, determined by distribution method, of 1-hexene, styrene and ethylbenzene were 129, 2.2 and 0.7 M-1 respectively, which suggested that stability of the complex was a key factor in the carrier saturation phenomenon.

  10. Salt-saturated concrete strength and permeability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeifle, T.W.; Hansen, F.D.; Knowles, M.K.

    1996-01-01

    Laboratory-scale experiments applicable to the use of salt-saturated concrete as a seal material for a transuranic waste repository have been completed. Nitrogen gas permeability measurements were made using a flexible-wall permeameter, a confining pressure of 1 MPa, and gas pressure gradients ranging from 0.3 MPa to 0.75 MPa. Results show that salt-saturated concrete has very low intrinsic permeability with values ranging from 9.4 x 10 -22 m 2 to 9.7 x 10 -17 m 2 . Strength and deformation characteristics were investigated under conditions of triaxial compression with confining pressures ranging from 0 to 15 MPa using either axial strain-rate or axial stress-rate control and show that the failure strength of concrete increases with confining pressure which can be adequately described through pressure-sensitive failure criteria. Axial, radial, and volumetric strains were also measured during each test and these data were used to determine elastic properties. Experimental results are applicable in the design and analysis of scale-related functions and apply to other concrete structures subjected to compressive loadings such as dams and prestressed structural members

  11. SITE-SCALE SATURATED ZONE TRANSPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. KELLER

    2004-01-01

    This work provides a site-scale transport model for calculating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone (SZ) at Yucca Mountain, for use in the abstractions model in support of ''Total System Performance Assessment for License Application'' (TSPA-LA). The purpose of this model report is to provide documentation for the components of the site-scale SZ transport model in accordance with administrative procedure AP-SIII.10Q, Models. The initial documentation of this model report was conducted under the ''Technical Work Plan For: Saturated Zone Flow and Transport Modeling and Testing'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 163965]). The model report has been revised in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan For: Natural System--Saturated Zone Analysis and Model Report Integration'', Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]) to incorporate Regulatory Integration Team comments. All activities listed in the technical work plan that are appropriate to the transport model are documented in this report and are described in Section 2.1.1.4 (BSC 2004 [DIRS 171421]). This report documents: (1) the advection-dispersion transport model including matrix diffusion (Sections 6.3 and 6.4); (2) a description and validation of the transport model (Sections 6.3 and 7); (3) the numerical methods for simulating radionuclide transport (Section 6.4); (4) the parameters (sorption coefficient, Kd ) and their uncertainty distributions used for modeling radionuclide sorption (Appendices A and C); (5) the parameters used for modeling colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport (Table 4-1, Section 6.4.2.6, and Appendix B); and (6) alternative conceptual models and their dispositions (Section 6.6). The intended use of this model is to simulate transport in saturated fractured porous rock (double porosity) and alluvium. The particle-tracking method of simulating radionuclide transport is incorporated in the finite-volume heat and mass transfer numerical analysis (FEHM) computer code, (FEHM V2.20, STN: 10086

  12. Oculoauriculovertebral spectrum and cerebral anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schrander-Stumpel, C. T.; de Die-Smulders, C. E.; Hennekam, R. C.; Fryns, J. P.; Bouckaert, P. X.; Brouwer, O. F.; da Costa, J. J.; Lommen, E. J.; Maaswinkel-Mooy, P. D.

    1992-01-01

    We report on three Dutch children with a clinical diagnosis of oculoauriculovertebral spectrum (OAVS) and hydrocephalus. The clinical features are compared to 15 published cases of OAVS and hydrocephalus. Several other cerebral abnormalities were present in the whole group. About half of the cases

  13. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.

    1988-12-01

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases.

  14. CT of cerebral hydatid disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudwan, M.A.; Khaffaji, S.

    1988-01-01

    Six cases of cerebral hydatid disease (CHD) were seen in Kuwait over a period of 8 years. The typical CT appearance of a large well-defined spherical nonenhanced unilocular cyst was seen in four cases. Two unusual but characteristic types of calcification were seen, one in each of the remaining two cases. (orig.)

  15. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  16. MR imaging of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saginoya, Toshiyuki [Urasoe General Hospital, Okinawa (Japan); Yamaguchi, Keiichiro; Kuniyoshi, Kazuhide [and others

    1996-06-01

    We evaluated 35 patients with cerebral palsy on the basis of MR imaging findings in the brain. The types of palsy were spastic quadriplegia (n=11), spastic diplegia (n=9), spastic hemiplegia (n=2), double hemiplegia (n=1), athetosis (n=10) and mixed (n=2). Of all patients, 28 (80%) generated abnormal findings. In spastic quadriplegia, although eight cases revealed severe brain damage, two cases showed no abnormal findings in the brain. One of the three had cervical cord compression caused by atlanto-axial subluxation. In spastic diplegia, the findings were divided according to whether the patient was born at term or preterm. If the patient had been born prematurely, the findings showed periventricular leukomalacia and abnormally high intensity in the posterior limbs of the internal capsule on T2-weighted images. MR imaging in spastic hemiplegia revealed cerebral infarction. In the athetoid type, half of all cases showed either no abnormal findings or slight widening of the lateral ventricle. Three cases showed abnormal signals of the basal ganglia. The reason why athetoid-type palsy did not show severe abnormality is unknown. We believe that MR imaging is a useful diagnostic modality to detect damage in the brain in cerebral palsy and plays an important role in the differentiation of cerebral palsy from the spastic palsy disease. (author)

  17. Cerebral gigantism with West syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Munni; Malhi, P; Bhalla, A K; Singhi, P D

    2003-07-01

    A case of cerebral gigantism (Sotos syndrome) with West syndrome in a one-year-old male child is reported. The case had a large stature, typical facies and neurodevelopmental delay along with infantile spasms, which were refractory to treatment with valproate and clonazepam.

  18. Cerebral imaging revealing Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral imaging is the only non-invasive means of examining the brain and is essential in studying Alzheimer's disease. As a tool for early diagnosis, evaluation and treatment monitoring, this technology is at the heart of the research being done to further improve its reliability and sensitivity. (authors)

  19. Ocular defects in cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katoch Sabita

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a high prevalence of ocular defects in children with developmental disabilities. This study evaluated visual disability in a group of 200 cerebral palsy (CP patients and found that 68% of the children had significant visual morbidity. These findings emphasize the need for an early ocular examination in patients with CP.

  20. Computerized tomography of cerebral infarction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, K; Mihara, T; Kobayashi, E; Yamamoto, K; Kusumoto, K [Kagoshima Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1978-12-01

    In 120 cases of patients with cerebral infarction, the affected areas in the CT images were analyzed with special reference to the site, the size, and the extension. Moreover, on 39 scans of 34 cases examined with 8 weeks after the onset of strokes, the CT images were analyzed from the viewpoint of the presence of a mass effect, edema, contrast enhancement, and the accompanying hemorrhage. From these investigations, the authors have obtained the following results; 1) The greatest incidence of infarcts was in the area supplied by the middle cerebral artery (57% of the cases), and, among those, the area of the lenticulostriate arteries showed the highest incidence (53%). Even in the posterior fossa, infarcts were found in 6% of the cases. These findings are coincident with those in autopsied cases. 2) Putaminal infarcts and infarctions occurring in the area supplied by the calcarine artery seemed to be uniformity of the arcuate pattern. 3) Most of the infarcts in the perfusion area of the anterior cerebral artery and the basal ganglia were found to be small and multifocal; they were thought to correspond with water-shed and/or lacunar infarcts. 4) In approximately 25% of the cases examined within 8 weeks after the onset of strokes, the CT images revealed mass effects which had never been observed after more than 3 weeks. In conclusion, the presence of a mass effect, accompanying hemorrhage, and contrast enhancement detected by CT should lead us to reconsider the conventional management of cerebral infarction.

  1. Cerebral edema in drug addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daruši Dragana J.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. The effect of drugs leaves permanent consequences on the brain, organic in type, followed by numerous manifestations, and it significantly affects the development of mental dysfunctions. The clinicians are often given a task to estimate a patient’s personality during treatment or during experts estimate of a drug addict. The aim of this research was to determine the differences, if any, in characteristics of addicts experience and personality traits in drug addicts with or without cerebral edema. Methods. The research was conducted on a sample of 252 male drug addicts, the average age of 23.3 (SD = 4.3 years. Cerebral edema was confirmed on magnetic resonance (MR images of the brain performed during the treatment of the addicts. The participants were tested by the psychologists using Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI-201 test, and the data were processed using canonical discriminate analysis within the SPSS program. The dependent variable in the study was cerebral edema. A block of independent variables, designed for the requirements of this study, consisted of two subgroups. The first one consisted of 12 variables describing the relevant characteristics of drug abuse. The second subgroup consisted of 8 psychopathological tendencies in the personality defined by the mentioned test. Results. Cerebral edema was confirmed in 52 (20.63% of the drug addicts. The differences between the groups of drug addicts with and without cerebral edema were determined in the following: the time span of taking drugs (0.301, use of alcohol parallel with drugs (0.466, and treatment for addiction (0.603. In the drug addicts with a cerebral edema, MMPI-201 confirmed the increase in the scales for hypochondria, psychopathic deviations and psychastenia, and the decrease in the scales for schizophrenia and depression. Conclusion. Our study confirmed a possible connection between cerebral edema and personality traits in a number of the

  2. MR angiography of cerebral aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Hitoshi; Tanada, Shuji; Sakaki, Saburo; Hamamoto, Ken; Sadamoto, Kazuhiko.

    1992-01-01

    Time-of-flight (TOF) MR angiography (MRA) and phase-contrast (PC) MRA are examined clinically for evaluating cerebral aneurysms. In the morphological diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms, three-dimensional (3D) MRA is superior to two-dimensional (2D) MRA because 3D MRA has a higher S/N ratio and a higher spatial resolution. However, it is difficult to decide which, 3D TOF MRA or 3D PC MRA, is superior, for both methods have many scan parameters. In our study, 3D PC MRA was performed using two methods; one had the same acquisition time as 3D TOF MRA, while the other had the same spatial resolution as 3D TOF MRA. The detectability of aneurysms by each MRA method was evaluated in comparison with 3D TOF MRA. In fifteen patients (6 males and 9 females), a total of 16 cerebral aneurysms (3 ruptured and 13 unruptured) were studied. The lesion sizes ranged from 2.5 to 18 mm. All the 16 lesions were examined by means of 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA, and conventional angiography. MR imaging was performed with a 1.5 tesla MRI system (Signa). All of the 16 cerebral aneurysms were detected by 3D TOF MRA, while only 11 of them were detected by 3D PC MRA. When 3D PC MRA was performed with the same acquisition time as 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA was superior in showing one of the 7 aneurysms. When 3D PC MRA was performed with same spatial resolution as 3D TOF MRA, 3D PC MRA was superior in showing two of the 10 aneurysms. 3D TOF MRA was superior to 3D PC MRA in the detection of cerebral aneurysms because of the long acquisition times and the different flow velocity, which induced different signal intensities between the aneurysms and parent arteries in 3D PC MRA. 3D PC MRA was superior to 3D TOF MRA in patients with large thrombotic aneurysms of the internal carotid artery. We consider that 3D TOF MRA should be the first choice for screening and following-up cerebral aneurysms. 3D PC MRA should then be performed for large cerebral aneurysms in addition to 3D TOF MRA. (author)

  3. Anestesia e paralisia cerebral Anestesia y parálisis cerebral Anesthesia and cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Március Vinícius M Maranhão

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: A paralisia cerebral (PC é uma doença não progressiva decorrente de lesão no sistema nervoso central, levando a um comprometimento motor do paciente. O portador de PC freqüentemente é submetido a procedimentos cirúrgicos devido a doenças usuais e situações particulares decorrentes da paralisia cerebral. Foi objetivo deste artigo revisar aspectos da paralisia cerebral de interesse para o anestesiologista, permitindo um adequado manuseio pré, intra e pós-operatório neste tipo de paciente. CONTEÚDO: O artigo aborda aspectos da paralisia cerebral como etiologia, classificação, fatores de risco, fisiopatologia, quadro clínico, diagnóstico, terapêuticas utilizadas bem como avaliação pré-operatória, medicação pré-anestésica, manuseio intra e pós-operatório, analgesia pós-operatória e dor crônica. CONCLUSÕES: O anestesiologista desempenha um papel importante na diminuição da morbidade e mortalidade anestésico-cirúrgica em pacientes portadores de paralisia cerebral. O conhecimento da fisiopatologia dos diferentes tipos de paralisia cerebral bem como das doenças associadas e suas terapêuticas é imprescindível, pois permite ao anestesiologista antecipar e prevenir complicações intra e pós-operatórias neste tipo de paciente.JUSTIFICATIVA Y OBJETIVOS: La parálisis cerebral (PC es una enfermedad no progresiva consecuente de una lesión en el sistema nervioso central, llevando a un comprometimiento motor del paciente. El portador de PC, frecuentemente es sometido a procedimientos quirúrgicos debido a enfermedades usuales y situaciones particulares consecuentes de la parálisis cerebral. El objetivo de este artículo, fue revisar aspectos de la parálisis cerebral de interés para el anestesista, permitiendo un adecuado manoseo pre, intra y posoperatorio en este tipo de paciente. CONTENIDO: El artículo aborda aspectos de la parálisis cerebral como etiología, clasificación, factores de

  4. [Advances in genetic research of cerebral palsy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang-Fang; Luo, Rong; Qu, Yi; Mu, De-Zhi

    2017-09-01

    Cerebral palsy is a group of syndromes caused by non-progressive brain injury in the fetus or infant and can cause disabilities in childhood. Etiology of cerebral palsy has always been a hot topic for clinical scientists. More and more studies have shown that genetic factors are closely associated with the development of cerebral palsy. With the development and application of various molecular and biological techniques such as chromosome microarray analysis, genome-wide association study, and whole exome sequencing, new achievements have been made in the genetic research of cerebral palsy. Chromosome abnormalities, copy number variations, susceptibility genes, and single gene mutation associated with the development of cerebral palsy have been identified, which provides new opportunities for the research on the pathogenesis of cerebral palsy. This article reviews the advances in the genetic research on cerebral palsy in recent years.

  5. Energy dependent saturable and reverse saturable absorption in cube-like polyaniline/polymethyl methacrylate film

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thekkayil, Remyamol [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); Philip, Reji [Light and Matter Physics Group, Raman Research Institute, C.V. Raman Avenue, Bangalore 560 080 (India); Gopinath, Pramod [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India); John, Honey, E-mail: honey@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695 547 (India)

    2014-08-01

    Solid films of cube-like polyaniline synthesized by inverse microemulsion polymerization method have been fabricated in a transparent PMMA host by an in situ free radical polymerization technique, and are characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The nonlinear optical properties are studied by open aperture Z-scan technique employing 5 ns (532 nm) and 100 fs (800 nm) laser pulses. At the relatively lower laser pulse energy of 5 μJ, the film shows saturable absorption both in the nanosecond and femtosecond excitation domains. An interesting switchover from saturable absorption to reverse saturable absorption is observed at 532 nm when the energy of the nanosecond laser pulses is increased. The nonlinear absorption coefficient increases with increase in polyaniline concentration, with low optical limiting threshold, as required for a good optical limiter. - Highlights: • Synthesized cube-like polyaniline nanostructures. • Fabricated polyaniline/PMMA nanocomposite films. • At 5 μJ energy, saturable absorption is observed both at ns and fs regime. • Switchover from SA to RSA is observed as energy of laser beam increases. • Film (0.1 wt % polyaniline) shows high β{sub eff} (230 cm GW{sup −1}) and low limiting threshold at 150 μJ.

  6. Near-simultaneous hemoglobin saturation and oxygen tension maps in mouse brain using an AOTF microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shonat, R D; Wachman, E S; Niu, W; Koretsky, A P; Farkas, D L

    1997-09-01

    A newly developed microscope using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) was used to generate in vivo hemoglobin saturation (SO2) and oxygen tension (PO2) maps in the cerebral cortex of mice. SO2 maps were generated from the spectral analysis of reflected absorbance images collected at different wavelengths, and PO2 maps were generated from the phosphorescence lifetimes of an injected palladium-porphyrin compound using a frequency-domain measurement. As the inspiratory O2 was stepped from hypoxia (10% O2), through normoxia (21% O2), to hyperoxia (60% O2), measured SO2 and PO2 levels rose accordingly and predictably throughout. A plot of SO2 versus PO2 in different arterial and venous regions of the pial vessels conformed to the sigmoidal shape of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve, providing further validation of the two mapping procedures. The study demonstrates the versatility of the AOTF microscope for in vivo physiologic investigation, allowing for the generation of nearly simultaneous SO2 and PO2 maps in the cerebral cortex, and the frequency-domain detection of phosphorescence lifetimes. This class of study opens up exciting new possibilities for investigating the dynamics of hemoglobin and O2 binding during functional activation of neuronal tissues.

  7. Simulation of the saturation process of a radwaste storage cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robbe, M.F.; Clouard, A.

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a simulation of the saturation of the barrier and the plug of a storage cell by the surrounding host rock. Generally speaking, the unsaturated barrier and plug start saturating immediately in the vicinity of the quasi-saturated host rock. Then the saturation front propagates towards the canisters and the symmetry axis. Apart from the part in contact with the plug, the barrier is saturated at about 30 years. The part of the barrier near the plug is saturated around 80 years. If the top of the plug is saturated very soon, the part in the corner near the gallery and the symmetry axis is not completely saturated after 100 years. In the site, we observe a small desaturation during the first month, at the limit with the plug and the barrier, and especially in the corner limited by both FoCa clay pieces. This transient phenomenon may be assigned to the time difference between the immediate suction of water by the unsaturated materials and the delayed water flows coming from the saturated host rock to compensate the water suction. The purpose of this computation was at once to estimate the time necessary for the saturation of the clay layers surrounding the radwaste canisters and to evaluate the hydro-mechanical behaviour of the storage cell during the saturation process. Therefore a mechanical simulation was performed using the present hydraulic results to initiate the mechanical computation. (authors)

  8. A Systematic Review of Known Mechanisms of Hydroxyurea-induced Foetal Haemoglobin for Treatment of Sickle Cell Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pule, Gift D.; Mowla, Shaheen; Novitzky, Nicolas; Wiysonge, Charles S.; Wonkam, Ambroise

    2016-01-01

    Aims To report on molecular mechanisms of foetal haemoglobin (HbF) induction by hydroxyurea (HU) for the treatment of Sickle Cell Disease (SCD). Study Design Systematic review. Results Studies have provided consistent associations between genomic variations in HbF-promoting loci and variable HbF level in response to HU. Numerous signal transduction pathways have been implicated, through the identification of key genomic variants in BCL11A, HBS1L-MYB, SAR1 or XmnI polymorphism that predispose the response to the treatment, and signal transduction pathways, that modulate γ-globin expression (cAMP/cGMP; Giα/JNK/Jun; methylation and microRNA). Three main molecular pathways have been reported: 1) Epigenetic modifications, transcriptional events and signalling pathways involved in HU-mediated response, 2) Signalling pathways involving HU-mediated response and 3) Post-transcriptional pathways (regulation by microRNAs). Conclusions The complete picture of HU-mediated mechanisms of HbF production in SCD remains elusive. Research on post-transcriptional mechanisms could lead to therapeutic targets that may minimize alterations to the cellular transcriptome. PMID:26327494

  9. Distribution of glycated haemoglobin and its determinants in Korean youth and young adults: a nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Ji-Young; Hwang, Seung-Sik; Kim, Jae Hyun; Lee, Young Ah; Lee, Seong Yong; Shin, Choong Ho; Yang, Sei Won

    2018-01-31

    The present study aimed to describe the distribution of and to investigate the factors associated with glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) values in Korean youth (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old). Data from the Korea Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2011-2015) were used. A total of 6,418 participants (male 3,140 [53.2%]) aged 10-29 years were included in the analysis. Percentiles of HbA1c were calculated and HbA1c values were compared according to age, sex, and associated factors. The mean HbA1c values (% [mmol/mol]) were 5.42 ± 0.01 (35.7 ± 0.1) for youths and 5.32 ± 0.01 (34.7 ± 0.1) for young adults (P distribution of HbA1c values in Korean youth and young adults. There were significant differences in the level of HbA1c according to age and sex.

  10. Effect of dietary Fe-deficiency on growth organ weight, haemoglobin formation and 59Fe-retention in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sinha, R.K.; Gautam, D.

    1985-01-01

    Rats of the experimental group consuming diets adequate in all respects, but deficient in iron (5 ppm iron in contrast to 50 ppm iron for the control group) were found to suffer from moderate to severe anaemia (Hb 7.39 ± 0.2 g/100 ml, in contrast to 13.88 ± 0.19 g/100 ml for the control group; PCV per cent 27.88 ± 0.76 in contrast to 43.82 ± 0.65 for the control group) whereas they had satisfactory growth rates and normal outward appearance in all respects. However, their spleen and heart weight/g of body weight were also found to be significantly reduced, though liver and kidney weights remained normal. Their 59 Fe retention was considerably more than that of the control group indicating iron absorption and uptake were entirely dependent on iron-storage or haemoglobin status of the body. The results indicated that even for almost normal growth and a deceptive normal outward appearance a subject could be actually morbid because of Fe-deficiency anaemia under conditions of otherwise adequate diets and sedentary activity. (author)

  11. Changes in levels of haemoglobin A1c during the first 6 years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olivarius, Niels de Fine; Siersma, V.; Hansen, Lars Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    in HbA(1c) was investigated in a multivariate mixed model. RESULTS: During the first year after diabetes diagnosis, HbA(1c) dropped to near normal average level and then started rising almost linearly. A sharp rise in long-term glycaemic level was observed in approximately a quarter of the patients......OBJECTIVE: To assess the variability in levels of glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)) during the first six years after diagnosis of clinical type 2 diabetes in relation to possible predictors. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were from a population-based sample from general practice of 581 newly diagnosed...... diabetic patients aged 40 or over. Estimation of HbA(1c) was centralized. The changes in levels of HbA(1c) were described by HbA(1c) at diagnosis and a regression line fitted to the HbA(1c) measurements after 1-year follow-up for each patient. The predictive effect of patient characteristics for changes...

  12. Alpha- and beta-cell abnormalities in haemoglobin A1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calanna, Salvatore; Scicali, Roberto; Di Pino, Antonino

    2014-01-01

    New recommendations for the use of glycated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) to diagnose prediabetes and type 2 diabetes have changed the constitution of the two populations. We aimed to investigate the pathophysiological characteristics of individuals with HbA1c-defined prediabetes and type 2 diabetes......, respectively. Ten subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes, i.e. HbA1c from 5.7 to 6.4 % (39-46 mmol/mol), eight newly diagnosed patients with HbA1c-defined type 2 diabetes [HbA1c ≥6.5 % (≥48 mmol/mol)], and ten controls with HbA1c lower than 5.7 % (.... Subjects with HbA1c-defined prediabetes showed significantly lower insulinogenic index (P = 0.02), disposition index (P = 0.001), and glucagon suppression compared with controls; and similar (P = NS) insulinogenic index and glucagon suppression and higher disposition index (P = 0.02) compared to HbA1c...

  13. Comparative clinical evaluation of glycosylated haemoglobin level in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A chairside diagnostic method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, T S; Agrawal, Parul; Goyal, Pravesh; Farista, Sana; Sowmya, N K; Deonani, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) level can consequently be interpreted as an average of the blood glucose present over the past 3-4 months. Periodontitis is associated with glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of HbA1c in healthy and periodontitis patients who were previously not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. A total of 40 patients were selected for study and divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a healthy periodontium, and Group 2 included patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Finger stick blood was collected by special collection unit (A1CNOW+® Bayer Health Care, Tarrytown New York, USA), for estimating level of HbA1c. Both groups showed similar HbA1c levels clinically with slight increase in levels in the test group, but was statistically significant (test--5.66 ± 0.35%, control--5.17 ± 0.3% P = 0.003). Indians are at a high-risk of developing periodontitis and diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between periodontitis and glycemic control in nondiabetic individuals, periodontal disease may be a potential contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  14. Comparative clinical evaluation of glycosylated haemoglobin level in healthy and chronic periodontitis patients: A chairside diagnostic method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T S Srinivasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective and Background: Glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c level can consequently be interpreted as an average of the blood glucose present over the past 3-4 months. Periodontitis is associated with glycemic control in patients with diabetes. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of HbA1c in healthy and periodontitis patients who were previously not diagnosed with diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 patients were selected for study and divided into two groups. Group 1 included patients with a healthy periodontium, and Group 2 included patients suffering from chronic periodontitis. Finger stick blood was collected by special collection unit (A1CNOW +® Bayer Health Care, Tarrytown New York, USA, for estimating level of HbA1c. Result: Both groups showed similar HbA1c levels clinically with slight increase in levels in the test group, but was statistically significant (test - 5.66 ± 0.35%, control - 5.17 ± 0.3% P = 0.003. Conclusion: Indians are at a high-risk of developing periodontitis and diabetes. These data suggest a possible link between periodontitis and glycemic control in nondiabetic individuals, periodontal disease may be a potential contributor to the development of type 2 diabetes.

  15. Saturation of DNA repair in mammalian cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, F E; Setlow, R B

    1979-01-01

    Excision repair seems to reach a plateau in normal human cells at a 254 nm dose near 20 J/m/sup 2/. We measured excision repair in normal human fibroblasts up to 80 J/m/sup 2/. The four techniques used (unscheduled DNA synthesis, photolysis of BrdUrd incorporated during repair, loss of sites sensitive to a UV endonuclease from Micrococcus luteus, and loss of pyrimidine dimers from DNA) showed little difference between the two doses. Moreover, the loss of endonuclease sites in 24h following two 20 J/m/sup 2/ doses separated by 24h was similar to the loss observed following one dose. Hence, we concluded that the observed plateau in excision repair is real and does not represent some inhibitory process at high doses but a true saturation of one of the rate limiting steps in repair.

  16. The Danish tax on saturated fat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Dejgård; Smed, Sinne

    2013-01-01

    and oils. This assessment is done by conducting an econometric analysis on weekly food purchase data from a large household panel dataset (GfK Consumer Tracking Scandinavia), spanning the period from January 2008 until July 2012.The econometric analysis suggest that the introduction of the tax on saturated...... and fats, a shift that seems to have been utilized by discount chains to raise the prices of butter and margarine by more than the pure tax increase. Due to the relatively short data period with the tax being active, interpretation of these findings from a long-run perspective should be done...... with considerable care. It is thus recommended to repeat – and broaden – the analysis at a later stage, when data are available for a longer period after the introduction of the fat tax....

  17. Relative Humidity in the Tropopause Saturation Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selkirk, H. B.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Pfister, L.; Thornberry, T. D.; Bui, T. V.

    2017-12-01

    The tropical tropopause separates two very different atmospheric regimes: the stable lower stratosphere where the air is both extremely dry and nearly always so, and a transition layer in the uppermost tropical troposphere, where humidity on average increases rapidly downward but can undergo substantial temporal fluctuations. The processes that control the humidity in this layer below the tropopause include convective detrainment (which can result in either a net hydration or dehydration), slow ascent, wave motions and advection. Together these determine the humidity of the air that eventually passes through the tropopause and into the stratosphere, and we refer to this layer as the tropopause saturation layer or TSL. We know from in situ water vapor observations such as Ticosonde's 12-year balloonsonde record at Costa Rica that layers of supersaturation are frequently observed in the TSL. While their frequency is greatest during the local rainy season from June through October, supersaturation is also observed in the boreal winter dry season when deep convection is well south of Costa Rica. In other words, local convection is not a necessary condition for the presence of supersaturation. Furthermore, there are indications from airborne measurements during the recent POSIDON campaign at Guam that if anything deep convection tends to `reset' the TSL locally to a state of just-saturation. Conversely, it may be that layers of supersaturation are the result of slow ascent. To explore these ideas we take Ticosonde water vapor observations from the TSL, stratify them on the basis of relative humidity and report on the differences in the the history of upstream convective influence between supersaturated parcels and those that are not.

  18. Genetic modification of cerebral arterial wall: implications for prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijay, Anantha; Santhanam, R; Katusic, Zvonimir S

    2006-10-01

    Genetic modification of cerebral vessels represents a promising and novel approach for prevention and/or treatment of various cerebral vascular disorders, including cerebral vasospasm. In this review, we focus on the current understanding of the use of gene transfer to the cerebral arteries for prevention and/or treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We also discuss the recent developments in vascular therapeutics, involving the autologous use of progenitor cells for repair of damaged vessels, as well as a cell-based gene delivery approach for the prevention and treatment of cerebral vasospasm.

  19. Restoration of Haemoglobin Level Using Hydrodynamic Gene Therapy with Erythropoietin Does Not Alleviate the Disease Progression in an Anaemic Mouse Model for TGFβ1-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lea Hougaard; Wogensen, Lise; Marcussen, N.

    2015-01-01

    . The experiment is conducted by hydrodynamic gene transfer of a plasmid encoding murine Epo in a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses TGF-β1 locally in the kidneys. This model develops anaemia due to chronic kidney disease characterised by thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, deposition...... of mesangial matrix and mild interstitial fibrosis. A group of age matched wildtype littermates are treated accordingly. After a single hydrodynamic administration of plasmid DNA containing murine EPO gene, sustained high haemoglobin levels are observed in both transgenic and wildtype mice from 7.5 ± 0.6 mmol...... treatment in this model of chronic kidney disease normalises haemoglobin levels but has no effect on kidney fibrosis or function....

  20. A comparison of post-op haemoglobin levels and allogeneic blood transfusion rates following total knee arthroplasty without drainage or with reinfusion drains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Shariff; Bhattacharya, Rajarshi; Bhavikatti, Mainudden; Dawson, Matthew

    2010-02-01

    The effects of re-infusion drains on the rate of allogeneic blood transfusion and post-op haemoglobin levels in Total Knee Arthroplasty were examined. A group of 22 patients undergoing primary Total Knee Arthroplasty using a CBCII Constavac Stryker re-infusion drainage system were compared with a group of 30 patients, matched for age, sex and type of prosthesis but without any drain usage. The re-infusion drain.group had a significantly lower day 1 and day 3 post-operative haemoglobin compared to the non-drainage group. The re-infusion drain group had a higher allogenic transfusion rate compared to the non-drainage group. There were no significant differences between the two groups regarding the rate of wound and transfusion related complications and mean length of post-operative stay. We found that reinfusion drains were ineffective in reducing allogeneic transfusion requirements as compared with non-drainage in total knee arthroplasty.

  1. Rapid screening for glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency and haemoglobin polymorphisms in Africa by a simple high-throughput SSOP-ELISA method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevold, Anders; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Lusingu, John

    2005-01-01

    was available. METHODS: A simple and rapid technique was developed to detect the most prominent single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the HbB and G6PD genes. The method is able to detect the different haemoglobin polymorphisms A, S, C and E, as well as G6PD polymorphisms B, A and A- based on PCR......-amplification followed by a hybridization step using sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOPs) specific for the SNP variants and quantified by ELISA. RESULTS: The SSOP-ELISA method was found to be specific, and compared well to the commonly used PCR-RFLP technique. Identical results were obtained in 98......% (haemoglobin) and 95% (G6PD) of the tested 90 field samples from a high-transmission area in Tanzania, which were used to validate the new technique. CONCLUSION: The simplicity and accuracy of the new methodology makes it suitable for application in settings where resources are limited. It would serve...

  2. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygen metabolism in thalamic hemorrhage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasui, Nobuyuki; Asakura, Ken

    1987-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral oxygen consumption (CMRO 2 ), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral blood volume (CBV) were studied in 20 cases of thalamic hemorrhage using positron CT and 15 O labeled gas steady-state inhalation method. CBF reduction was limited around the thalamus in the small sized hematoma. CBF were significantly diminished in the mean cortical, parietal, temporal, basal ganglia and thalamic area ipsilateral and cerebellar cortex contralateral to the medium sized hematoma. There was bilateral and diffuse CBF reduction in the large sized hematoma which was caused by increased intracranial pressure. CMRO 2 value were similary changed as CBF. OEF change showed within normal limit. Diffuse CBV reduction was observed in the large sized hematoma. This reduction was the result of decreased vascular bed caused by mass effect of the hematoma and hydrocephalus. Effect of surgical treatment such as ventricular drainage and hematoma evacuation were also discussed in correlation to CBF in some case using positron and single photon ECT. (author)

  3. Clinical application of cerebral dynamic perfusion studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLand, F.H.

    1975-01-01

    Radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies are assuming a far greater importance in the detection and differential diagnosis of cerebral lesions. Perfusion studies not only contribute to the differential diagnosis of lesions but in certain cases are the preferred methods by which more accurate clinical interpretations can be made. The characteristic blood flow of arterio-venous malformations readily differentiates this lesion from neoplasms. The decreased perfusion or absent perfusion observed in cerebral infarctions is diagnostic without concurrent evidence from static images. Changes in rates and direction of blood flow contribute fundamental information to the status of stenosis and vascular occlusion and, in addition, offer valuable information on the competency and routes of collateral circulation. The degree of cerebral perfusion after cerebral vascular accidents appears to be directly related to patient recovery, particularly muscular function. Cerebral perfusion adds a new parameter in the diagnosis of subdural haematomas and concussion and in the differentiation of obscuring radioactivity from superficial trauma. Although pictorial displays of perfusion blood flow will offer information in most cerebral vascular problems, the addition of computer analysis better defines temporal relationships of regional blood flow, quantitative changes in flow and the detection of the more subtle increases or decreases in cerebral blood flow. The status of radionuclide cerebral perfusion studies has taken on an importance making it the primary modality for the diagnosis of cerebral lesions. (author)

  4. Lack of specific (3H) prazosin binding sites in dog and rabbit cerebral arteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, P.M.; Banner, W. Jr.; Duckles, S.P.

    1984-01-01

    In order to explore the characteristics of alpha adrenergic receptors on cerebrovascular smooth muscle, specific binding sites for the alpha 1 adrenergic ligand, ( 3 H) prazosin, were studied in blood vessel homogenates. No specific ( 3 H) prazosin binding was found in either rabbit or dog cerebral arteries, but specific binding was demonstrated in the rabbit saphenous and ear arteries. In the ear artery 3 H-prazosin binding was saturable with a K/sub d/ of 0.51 +/- 0.20 nM and a Bmax of 89 +/- 29 fmoles/mg protein. To confirm the adequacy of our membrane preparation, homogenates of both dog and rabbit cerebral arteries showed saturable specific binding with two different ligands: one for muscarinic receptors, [ 3 H](-) quinuclidinyl benzilate (QNB) and one for alpha 2 adrenergic receptors, ( 3 H) yohimbine. The results of these studies demonstrate a lack of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors on cerebral blood vessels, confirming functional studies showing only a weak contractile response to norepinephrine. 29 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  5. Assessment of cerebral blood flow following administration of surfactant in premature newborns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvo, M.J.; Matias, M.; Serrano, I.; Lubian, S.; Vallejos, E.; Canovas, S.

    1998-01-01

    To assess, by Doppler ultrasound, the possible changes in the patterns of cerebral blood flow after administration of a surfactant. Fifteen newborns with a period of gestation of less than 30 weeks received low-dose surfactant, as prophylaxis in six cases and as treatment in nine, administered slowly via endo tracheal tube with indwelling catheter. The Doppler recordings in anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and descending aorta (DAo) were assessed prior to administration of the surfactant, immediately afterwards and 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour and 24 hours later. The findings were correlated with simultaneous oxygen saturation and arterial blood pressure readings. There was little change in the systolic and diastolic velocities, although both tended to rise progressively throughout the 24 hours of the study period. The mean initial resistance index (R I) in ACA was elevated (0.84±0.11), tending in every case to diminish by 24 hours post administration (0.78±0.11) to levels that are considered normal in the newborn. Lower velocities (p<0.001 and higher RI(p<0.001) were recorded when reversed diastolic velocity was observed in the DAo in relation to patent ducts arteriosus. There were no significant changes in the oxygen saturation or mean arterial pressure. One infant presented a grade I germinal matrix hemorrhage. The findings suggest that this treatment does not produce significant changes in the cerebral blood flow under the circumstances described here. (Author) 40 refs

  6. Invos Cerebral Oximeter compared with the transcranial Doppler for monitoring adequacy of cerebral perfusion in patients undergoing carotid endarterectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassiadis, N; Zayed, H; Rashid, H; Green, D W

    2006-12-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to assess the correlation between signals obtained during carotid endarterectomy (CEA) under local (LA) or general anesthesia from the Somanetics Invos cerebral oximeter (CO) and transcranial Doppler (TCD). Forty patients were enrolled in the study. The percentages fall in TCD mean flow velocity (FVm) and CO regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) on the ipsilateral side following clamping were recorded and the correlation coefficient and Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation were calculated. Fourteen patients were not included in the statistical analysis because either no TCD window or reliable TCD signal was obtained. The remaining 26 patients had a fall in either FVm, rSO2 or both during carotid clamping. There was a highly statistically significant correlation between the percentage fall in FVm and rSO2 with a correlation coefficient of 0.73, P<0.0001, with a 95% confidence interval (CI) for r=0.48 to 0.87; Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation (rho) =0.67, P=0.0008, with a 95% CI for rho=0.384 to 0.84. A significant decline in both TCD and rSO2 was noted in 3 patients under LA out of which 2 required shunts for alteration in conscious level. In 2 LA patients there was a significant decline in TCD but not in rSO2 and the endarterectomy was completed without a shunt. Regional oxygen saturation correlates well with FVm during carotid clamping. However, the inability to obtain reliable TCD FVm readings in 35% of patients is a serious disadvantage for this monitor. It appears that CO is a satisfactory and possibly superior device for monitoring adequacy of cerebral perfusion and oxygenation during CEA in comparison with the TCD.

  7. Electrical conductivity modeling in fractal non-saturated porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, W.; Cai, J.; Hu, X.; Han, Q.

    2016-12-01

    The variety of electrical conductivity in non-saturated conditions is important to study electric conduction in natural sedimentary rocks. The electrical conductivity in completely saturated porous media is a porosity-function representing the complex connected behavior of single conducting phases (pore fluid). For partially saturated conditions, the electrical conductivity becomes even more complicated since the connectedness of pore. Archie's second law is an empirical electrical conductivity-porosity and -saturation model that has been used to predict the formation factor of non-saturated porous rock. However, the physical interpretation of its parameters, e.g., the cementation exponent m and the saturation exponent n, remains questionable. On basis of our previous work, we combine the pore-solid fractal (PSF) model to build an electrical conductivity model in non-saturated porous media. Our theoretical porosity- and saturation-dependent models contain endmember properties, such as fluid electrical conductivities, pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension (representing the complex degree of electrical flowing path). We find the presented model with non-saturation-dependent electrical conductivity datasets indicate excellent match between theory and experiments. This means the value of pore fractal dimension and tortuosity fractal dimension change from medium to medium and depends not only on geometrical properties of pore structure but also characteristics of electrical current flowing in the non-saturated porous media.

  8. Correcting saturation of detectors for particle/droplet imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalt, Peter A M

    2010-01-01

    Laser-based diagnostic methods are being applied to more and more flows of theoretical and practical interest and are revealing interesting new flow features. Imaging particles or droplets in nephelometry and laser sheet dropsizing methods requires a trade-off of maximized signal-to-noise ratio without over-saturating the detector. Droplet and particle imaging results in lognormal distribution of pixel intensities. It is possible to fit a derived lognormal distribution to the histogram of measured pixel intensities. If pixel intensities are clipped at a saturated value, it is possible to estimate a presumed probability density function (pdf) shape without the effects of saturation from the lognormal fit to the unsaturated histogram. Information about presumed shapes of the pixel intensity pdf is used to generate corrections that can be applied to data to account for saturation. The effects of even slight saturation are shown to be a significant source of error on the derived average. The influence of saturation on the derived root mean square (rms) is even more pronounced. It is found that errors on the determined average exceed 5% when the number of saturated samples exceeds 3% of the total. Errors on the rms are 20% for a similar saturation level. This study also attempts to delineate limits, within which the detector saturation can be accurately corrected. It is demonstrated that a simple method for reshaping the clipped part of the pixel intensity histogram makes accurate corrections to account for saturated pixels. These outcomes can be used to correct a saturated signal, quantify the effect of saturation on a derived average and offer a method to correct the derived average in the case of slight to moderate saturation of pixels

  9. Animal models of cerebral ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodanovich, M. Yu.; Kisel, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    Cerebral ischemia remains one of the most frequent causes of death and disability worldwide. Animal models are necessary to understand complex molecular mechanisms of brain damage as well as for the development of new therapies for stroke. This review considers a certain range of animal models of cerebral ischemia, including several types of focal and global ischemia. Since animal models vary in specificity for the human disease which they reproduce, the complexity of surgery, infarct size, reliability of reproduction for statistical analysis, and adequate models need to be chosen according to the aim of a study. The reproduction of a particular animal model needs to be evaluated using appropriate tools, including the behavioral assessment of injury and non-invasive and post-mortem control of brain damage. These problems also have been summarized in the review.

  10. MR of experimental cerebral ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeLaPaz, R.; Steinberg, G.; Rocklage, S.; Glover, G.H.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on MR imaging of cerebral ischemia and treatment with N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonists in an animal model. Forty-four New Zealand white rabbits underwent 1-hour transorbital ICA-MCA-ACA occlusion and pretreatment or immediate posttreatment with systemic dextromethorphan (DM, n = 14), dextrorphan (DX, n = 14), or normal saline (NS, n = 16). Serial MR studies (1.5 T) were performed 1--6 hours after occlusion with T1- and T2-weighted spinecho, IVIM (b = 1,352), gradient recalled acquisition in a steady-state, and chemical shift sequences (for magnetic susceptibility, T2* and T2') and DyDTPA-BMA intravenous contrast material (Salutar). Spatial correlation between MR findings, histologic findings (ischemic neuronal damage), and regional cerebral blood flow (microspheres) was done

  11. Retinopathy of prematurity and induced changes in arterial oxygen saturation with near infrared spectrophotometry: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Siebenthal, K.; Keel, M.; Dietz, V.; Fauchere, J. C.; Martin, X.; Wolf, Martin; Duc, G.; Bucher, H. U.

    1996-10-01

    Near-infrared spectrophotometry (NIRS) is a noninvasive method for measuring oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin in the neonatal brain. Using oxygen as a tracer, it is possible to calculate cerebral blood flow (cbf) and hemoglobin concentration (cHbc), which corresponds to cerebral blood volume, by inducing small changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Variability of tcpO2 is considered to be associated with severe retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). A preliminary analysis without control found a 51 percent incidence of ROP in infants subjected to NIRS measurements whereas among infants who were not exposed to oxygen changes, only 29 percent developed ROP. A controlled study with matched pairs was performed. Thirty-nine premature newborns who had received NIRS recordings were matched with 39 out of 172 infants who had not received NIRS. Using this controlled study design there was no difference in the incidence and severity of ROP between the two groups. The conclusions are that: 1) small changes in oxygen saturation of 3 to 10 percent to measure cbf and cHbc did not increase the incidence or the degree of severity of ROP. 2) A controlled study design is important. Analyses of uncontrolled data would have led to the conclusion that oxygen changes as used with NIRS increase the risk of ROP.

  12. Primary cerebral lymphoma: radiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruiz, J.C.; Grandse, D.; Equidazu, J.; Elizagaray, E.; Grande, J.; Carrandi, J.

    1990-01-01

    We present four cases of primary cerebral lymphoma in non-immunodepressed adult patients. All cases were dsemonstrated with pathological study. CAT study showed solitary or multiple isodense lesions, which incorporated avidly and homoneneously the contrast. Arteriography performed in three patients and magnetic resonance, performed in one did not help for diagnosis. We also review the radiological findings obtained with different imaging methods, and suggest the criteria which could be useful for early diagnosis (Author)

  13. Cerebral hyperperfusion following carotid endarterectomy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schroeder, T; Sillesen, H; Sørensen, O

    1987-01-01

    , occurred in the low pressure ratio group, while the hemispheric asymmetry on average was unchanged in the high pressure ratio group. This relative hyperemia was most pronounced 2 to 4 days following reconstruction. The marked hyperemia, absolute as well as relative, in patients with a low ICA/CCA pressure...... ratio suggests a temporary impairment of autoregulation. Special care should be taken to avoid postoperative hypertension in such patients, who typically have preoperative hypoperfusion, to avoid the occurrence of cerebral edema or hemorrhage....

  14. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage

  15. MR findings of cerebral palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Sang Hum; Chang, Seung Kuk; Cho, Mee Young; Park, Dong Woo; Kim, Jong Deok; Eun, Choong Ki [Pusan Paik Hospital, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-11-15

    To evaluate the MR findings of brain damage in cerebral palised patients and to correlate it with gestational age and the time of damage. A retrospective analysis was performed in 40 patients who underwent MR scanning for evaluation of brain lesion in clinically diagnosed cerebral palsy. Authors classified the patients into two groups as premature and full-term and compared MR findings of the two groups. Abnormal MR findings were noted in 28 cases (70%). Five out of 6 patients who had been born prematurely showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions. Twenty-three out of 34 patients who had been born at full-term showed abnormal MR findings. Of these 23 patients, migration anomalies in 7 patients, isolate periventricular white matter lesions in 3 patients, and other combined periventricular subcortical white matter and deep gray matter lesions in 14 patients were seen. At least, 10 patients(43%) of full term group showed abnormal MRI findings reflecting intrauterine brain damage and all 5 patients of premature group showed isolate periventricular white matter lesions suggesting immaturity of brain. MRI is thought to be very useful in the assessment of brain damage for the patients with cerebral palsy by recognizing the location of the lesion and estimating the time of damage.

  16. Behcet's disease with cerebral vasculitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scardamaglia, L.; Desmond, P.M.; Gonzales, M.F.; Bendrups, A.; Brodtmann, A.

    2001-01-01

    The case presented illustrates the diagnostic dilemma off neurological involvement in Behcet's disease and other inflammatory diseases. 'Psychiatric' symptoms were present for 2 years without abnormalities on SPECT or MRI and without CSF pleocytosis. Even at the time of fitting, no CSF abnormalities were observed. The preceding psychiatric presentations may have been due to cerebral vasculitis that was exacerbated by withdrawal of steroids. Magnetic resonance imaging is currently the most sensitive imaging modality. Lesions are usually in the brainstem, cerebellum, basal ganglia region or periventricular white matter, and the pons and the mesencephalon are commonly affected. In our patient there was no diencephalic or brainstem involvement. The inflammatory process can appear as a very large lesion, with gadolinium enhancement and significant mass effect, as in our patient. Brain magnetic resonance imaging. Postgadolinium-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid, axial image shows two large lesions in the right frontal lobe, with the larger, posterior lesion demonstrating vivid ring enhancement. A central nodule is isodense, with the cerebral white matter within the larger lesion. Surrounding low T 1 signal involves the hemispheric white matter without cortical extension and is consistent with vasogenic oedema. Minor mass effect is demonstrated with bowing of the anterior falx cerebri to the left. Biopsy shows prominent fibrinoid necrosis in small calibre postcapillary venules and cerebral white matter. There are surrounding acute and chronic inflammatory cells and nuclear debris, consistent with vasculitis

  17. Analysis of an SEIR Epidemic Model with Saturated Incidence and Saturated Treatment Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinhong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The dynamics of SEIR epidemic model with saturated incidence rate and saturated treatment function are explored in this paper. The basic reproduction number that determines disease extinction and disease survival is given. The existing threshold conditions of all kinds of the equilibrium points are obtained. Sufficient conditions are established for the existence of backward bifurcation. The local asymptotical stability of equilibrium is verified by analyzing the eigenvalues and using the Routh-Hurwitz criterion. We also discuss the global asymptotical stability of the endemic equilibrium by autonomous convergence theorem. The study indicates that we should improve the efficiency and enlarge the capacity of the treatment to control the spread of disease. Numerical simulations are presented to support and complement the theoretical findings.

  18. Extra-cerebral oxygenation influence on near-infrared-spectroscopy-determined frontal lobe oxygenation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik; Rasmussen, Peter; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Frontal lobe oxygenation (Sc O2 ) is assessed by spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SR-NIRS) although it seems influenced by extra-cerebral oxygenation. We aimed to quantify the impact of extra-cerebral oxygenation on two SR-NIRS derived Sc O2 . METHODS: Multiple...... regression analysis estimated the influence of extra-cerebral oxygenation as exemplified by skin oxygenation (Sskin O2 ) on Sc O2 in 21 healthy subjects exposed to whole-body exercise in hypoxia (Fi O2 = 12%; n = 10) and normoxia (n = 12), whole-body heating, hyperventilation (n = 21), administration...... of norepinephrine with and without petCO2 -correction (n = 15), phenylephrine and head-up tilt (n = 7). Sc O2 was assessed simultaneously by NIRO-200NX (Sniro O2 ) and INVOS-4100 (Sinvos O2 ). Arterial (Sa O2 ) and jugular bulb oxygen saturations (Sj O2 ) were obtained. RESULTS: The regression analysis indicated...

  19. Void fraction prediction in saturated flow boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francisco J Collado

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: An essential element in thermal-hydraulics is the accurate prediction of the vapor void fraction, or fraction of the flow cross-sectional area occupied by steam. Recently, the author has suggested to calculate void fraction working exclusively with thermodynamic properties. It is well known that the usual 'flow' quality, merely a mass flow rate ratio, is not at all a thermodynamic property because its expression in function of thermodynamic properties includes the slip ratio, which is a parameter of the process not a function of state. By the other hand, in the classic and well known expression of the void fraction - in function of the true mass fraction of vapor (also called 'static' quality), and the vapor and liquid densities - does not appear the slip ratio. Of course, this would suggest a direct procedure for calculating the void fraction, provided we had an accurate value of the true mass fraction of vapor, clearly from the heat balance. However the classic heat balance is usually stated in function of the 'flow' quality, what sounds really contradictory because this parameter, as we have noted above, is not at all a thermodynamic property. Then we should check against real data the actual relationship between the thermodynamic properties and the applied heat. For saturated flow boiling just from the inlet of the heated tube, and not having into account the kinetic and potential terms, the uniform applied heat per unit mass of inlet water and per unit length (in short, specific linear heat) should be closely related to a (constant) slope of the mixture enthalpy. In this work, we have checked the relation between the specific linear heat and the thermodynamic enthalpy of the liquid-vapor mixture using the actual mass fraction. This true mass fraction is calculated using the accurate measurements of the outlet void fraction taken during the Cambridge project by Knights and Thom in the sixties for vertical and horizontal

  20. Nitrogen Saturation in Highly Retentive Watersheds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, M. L.; McDowell, W. H.

    2009-12-01

    Watershed managers are often concerned with minimizing the amount of N delivered to N-limited estuaries and coastal zones. A major concern is that watersheds might reach N saturation, in which N delivered to coastal zones increases due to declines in the efficiency of N retention despite constant or even reduced N inputs. We have quantified long-term changes in N inputs (atmospheric deposition, imported food and agricultural fertilizers), outputs (N concentration and export) and retention in the urbanizing Lamprey River watershed in coastal NH. Overall, the Lamprey watershed is 70% forested, receives about 13.5 kg N/ha/yr and has a high rate of annual N retention (85%). Atmospheric deposition (8.7 kg/ha/yr) is the largest N input to the watershed. Of the 2.2 kg N/ha/yr exported in the Lamprey River, dissolved organic N (DON) is the dominant form (50% of total) and it varies spatially throughout the watershed with wetland cover. Nitrate accounts for 30% of the N exported, shows a statistically significant increase from 1999 to 2009, and its spatial variability in both concentration and export is related to human population density. In sub-basins throughout the Lamprey, inorganic N retention is high (85-99%), but the efficiency of N retention declines sharply with increased human population density and associated anthropogenic N inputs. N assimilation in the vegetation, denitrification to the atmosphere and storage in the groundwater pool could all be important contributors to the current high rates of N retention. The temporal and spatial patterns that we have observed in nitrate concentration and export are driven by increases in N inputs and impervious surfaces over time, but the declining efficiency of N retention suggests that the watershed may also be reaching N saturation. The downstream receiving estuary, Great Bay, already suffers from low dissolved oxygen levels and eelgrass loss in part due to N loading from the Lamprey watershed. Targeting and reducing

  1. [Acute mild hypoxia impairment of dynamic cerebral autoregulation assessed by spectral analysis and thigh-cuff deflation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsukawa, Hajime; Ogawa, Yojiro; Aoki, Ken; Yanagida, Ryo; Iwasaki, Kenichi

    2012-01-01

    Acute hypoxia may impair dynamic cerebral autoregulation. However, previous studies have been controversial. The difference in methods of estimation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation is reported to be responsible for conflicting reports. We, therefore, conducted this study using two representative methods of estimation of dynamic cerebral autoregulation to test our hypothesis that dynamic cerebral autoregulation is impaired during acute exposure to mild hypoxia. Eleven healthy men were exposed to 15% oxygen concentration for two hours. They were examined under normoxia (21% O(2)) and hypoxia (15% O(2)). The mean arterial pressure (MAP) in the radial artery was measured by tonometry, and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFv) in the middle cerebral artery was measured by transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Dynamic cerebral autoregulation was assessed by spectral and transfer function analyses of beat-by-beat changes in MAP and CBFv. Moreover, the dynamic rate of regulation and percentage restoration of CBFv were estimated when a temporal decrease in arterial pressure was induced by thigh-cuff deflation. Arterial oxygen saturation decreased significantly during hypoxia (97±0% to 88±1%), whereas respiratory rate was unchanged, as was steady-state CBFv. With 15% O(2), the very-low-frequency power of CBFv variability increased significantly. Transfer function coherence (0.40±0.02 to 0.53±0.05) and gain (0.51±0.07 cm/s/mmHg to 0.79±0.11 cm/s/mmHg) in the very-low-frequency range increased significantly. Moreover, the percentage restoration of CBF velocity determined by thigh-cuff deflation decreased significantly during hypoxia (125±25% to 65±8%). Taken together, these results obtained using two representative methods consistently indicate that mild hypoxia impairs dynamic cerebral autoregulation.

  2. Cardiac function and oxygen saturation during maximal breath-holding in air and during whole-body surface immersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marabotti, Claudio; Piaggi, Paolo; Menicucci, Danilo; Passera, Mirko; Benassi, Antonio; Bedini, Remo; L'Abbate, Antonio

    2013-09-01

    The magnitude of the oxygen-sparing effect induced by the diving response in humans is still under debate. We wished to compare cardiovascular changes during maximal breath-holding (BH) in air and during whole-body immersion at the surface in a group of BH divers. Twenty-one divers performed a maximal static apnea in air or during whole-body immersion. Dopplerechocardiography, arterial blood pressure and haemoglobin saturation (SaO₂) were obtained at the beginning of, and at 1/3, 2/3 and maximal BH time. BH time was on the average 3.6 ± 0.4 min, with no differences between the two conditions. SaO₂ significantly decreased during BH in both conditions, but was significantly higher during immersion as compared to the dry (P = 0.04). In both conditions, BH induced a significant linear increase in right ventricular diameter (P whole-body immersion, associated with reduced LV ejection fraction and progressive hindrance to diastolic filling. For a similar apnea duration, SaO₂ decreased less during immersed BH, indicating an O₂-sparing effect of diving, suggesting that interruption of apnea was not triggered by a threshold critical value of blood O₂ desaturation.

  3. Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency and Haemoglobin Drop after Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine Use for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria during Pregnancy in Ghana - A Cohort Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Owusu

    Full Text Available Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (SP is still the only recommended antimalarial for use in intermittent preventive treatment of malaria during pregnancy (IPTp in some malaria endemic countries including Ghana. SP has the potential to cause acute haemolysis in G6PD deficient people resulting in significant haemoglobin (Hb drop but there is limited data on post SP-IPTp Hb drop. This study determined the difference, if any in proportions of women with significant acute haemoglobin drop between G6PD normal, partial deficient and full deficient women after SP-IPTp.Prospectively, 1518 pregnant women who received SP for IPTp as part of their normal antenatal care were enrolled. Their G6PD status were determined at enrollment followed by assessments on days 3, 7,14 and 28 to document any adverse effects and changes in post-IPTp haemoglobin (Hb levels. The three groups were comparable at baseline except for their mean Hb (10.3 g/dL for G6PD normal, 10.8 g/dL for G6PD partial deficient and 10.8 g/dL for G6PD full defect women.The prevalence of G6PD full defect was 2.3% and 17.0% for G6PD partial defect. There was no difference in the proportions with fractional Hb drop ≥ 20% as compared to their baseline value post SP-IPTp among the 3 groups on days 3, 7, 14. The G6PD full defect group had the highest median fractional drop at day 7. There was a weak negative correlation between G6PD activity and fractional Hb drop. There was no statistical difference between the three groups in the proportions of those who started the study with Hb ≥ 8g/dl whose Hb level subsequently fell below 8g/dl post-SP IPTp. No study participant required transfusion or hospitalization for severe anaemia.There was no significant difference between G6PD normal and deficient women in proportions with significant acute haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp and lower G6PD enzyme activity was not strongly associated with significant acute drug-induced haemoglobin drop post SP-IPTp but a larger

  4. Cerebral energy metabolism during induced mitochondrial dysfunction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, T H; Bindslev, TT; Pedersen, S M

    2013-01-01

    In patients with traumatic brain injury as well as stroke, impaired cerebral oxidative energy metabolism may be an important factor contributing to the ultimate degree of tissue damage. We hypothesize that mitochondrial dysfunction can be diagnosed bedside by comparing the simultaneous changes...... in brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) and cerebral cytoplasmatic redox state. The study describes cerebral energy metabolism during mitochondrial dysfunction induced by sevoflurane in piglets....

  5. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only inc...... the cerebral tissue's increased demand for glucose supply during neural activation with recent evidence supporting a key function for astrocytes in rCBF regulation....

  6. Altitude training and haemoglobin mass from the optimised carbon monoxide rebreathing method determined by a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Christopher J; Sharpe, Ken; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Saunders, Philo U; Humberstone, Clare E; Robertson, Eileen Y; Wachsmuth, Nadine B; Clark, Sally A; McLean, Blake D; Friedmann-Bette, Birgit; Neya, Mitsuo; Pottgiesser, Torben; Schumacher, Yorck O; Schmidt, Walter F

    2013-12-01

    To characterise the time course of changes in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in response to altitude exposure. This meta-analysis uses raw data from 17 studies that used carbon monoxide rebreathing to determine Hbmass prealtitude, during altitude and postaltitude. Seven studies were classic altitude training, eight were live high train low (LHTL) and two mixed classic and LHTL. Separate linear-mixed models were fitted to the data from the 17 studies and the resultant estimates of the effects of altitude used in a random effects meta-analysis to obtain an overall estimate of the effect of altitude, with separate analyses during altitude and postaltitude. In addition, within-subject differences from the prealtitude phase for altitude participant and all the data on control participants were used to estimate the analytical SD. The 'true' between-subject response to altitude was estimated from the within-subject differences on altitude participants, between the prealtitude and during-altitude phases, together with the estimated analytical SD. During-altitude Hbmass was estimated to increase by ∼1.1%/100 h for LHTL and classic altitude. Postaltitude Hbmass was estimated to be 3.3% higher than prealtitude values for up to 20 days. The within-subject SD was constant at ∼2% for up to 7 days between observations, indicative of analytical error. A 95% prediction interval for the 'true' response of an athlete exposed to 300 h of altitude was estimated to be 1.1-6%. Camps as short as 2 weeks of classic and LHTL altitude will quite likely increase Hbmass and most athletes can expect benefit.

  7. Bridging Theory and Experiment to Address Structural Properties of Truncated Haemoglobins: Insights from Thermobifida fusca HbO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howes, Barry D; Boechi, Leonardo; Boffi, Alberto; Estrin, Dario E; Smulevich, Giulietta

    2015-01-01

    In this chapter, we will discuss the paradigmatic case of Thermobifida fusca (Tf-trHb) HbO in its ferrous and ferric states and its behaviour towards a battery of possible ligands. This choice was dictated by the fact that it has been one of the most extensively studied truncated haemoglobins, both in terms of spectroscopic and molecular dynamics studies. Tf-trHb typifies the structural properties of group II trHbs, as the active site is characterized by a highly polar distal environment in which TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10 provide three potential H-bond donors in the distal cavity capable of stabilizing the incoming ligands. The role of these residues in key topological positions, and their interplay with the iron-bound ligands, has been addressed in studies carried out on the CO, F(-), OH(-), CN(-), and HS(-) adducts formed with the wild-type protein and a combinatorial set of mutants, in which the distal polar residues, TrpG8, TyrCD1, and TyrB10, have been singly, doubly, or triply replaced by a Phe residue. In this context, such a complete analysis provides an excellent benchmark for the investigation of the relationship between protein structure and function, allowing one to translate physicochemical properties of the active site into the observed functional behaviour. Tf-trHb will be compared with other members of the group II trHbs and, more generally, with members of the other trHb subgroups. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Crystallization and preliminary structural analysis of the giant haemoglobin from Glossoscolex paulistus at 3.2 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachega, J. F. R., E-mail: bachega@ursa.if.sc.usp.br; Bleicher, L.; Horjales, E. R. [Centro de Biotecnologia Molecular Estrutural, Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Santiago, P. S. [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Garratt, R. C. [Centro de Biotecnologia Molecular Estrutural, Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Tabak, M., E-mail: bachega@ursa.if.sc.usp.br [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction data to 3.2 Å from crystals of the 3.6 MDa erythrocruorin from a Brazilian earthworm represent the highest resolution reported to date for similar complexes. An unambiguous molecular replacement solution shows the particle to belong to the type I class. Glossoscolex paulistus is a free-living earthworm encountered in south-east Brazil. Its oxygen transport requirements are undertaken by a giant extracellular haemoglobin, or erythrocruorin (HbGp), which has an approximate molecular mass of 3.6 MDa and, by analogy with its homologue from Lumbricus terrestris (HbLt), is believed to be composed of a total of 180 polypeptide chains. In the present work the full 3.6 MDa particle in its cyanomet state was purified and crystallized using sodium citrate or PEG8000 as precipitant. The crystals contain one-quarter of the full particle in the asymmetric unit of the I222 cell and have parameters of a = 270.8 Å, b = 320.3 Å and c = 332.4 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 3.15 Å using synchrotron radiation on beamline X29A at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and represent the highest resolution data described to date for similar erythrocruorins. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using a search model corresponding to one-twelfth of its homologue from HbLt. This revealed that HbGp belongs to the type I class of erythrocruorins and provided an interpretable initial electron density map in which many features including the haem groups and disulfide bonds could be identified.

  9. Haemoglobin Fontainebleau (HBA2: c. 64G>C) in Oman: molecular and haematological characteristics and interaction with various haemoglobinopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daar, Shahina; Al Zadjali, Shoaib; Alkindi, Salam; Wali, Yasser; Al-Rawas, Abdulhakeem; Al-Haddabi, Humood; Al-Riyami, Arwa Z

    2018-04-01

    To describe the laboratory features of haemoglobin Fontainebleau (Hb FB) and its interactions with various α and β globin gene mutations in the Omani population. Over a period of 10 years, a total of 94 blood samples were suspected to have an α variant on HPLC at the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital, Muscat, Oman. Molecular testing was performed using PCR based techniques to define the variant and to analyse other interacting mutations in either α or β globin genes. Of 94 subjects, molecular analysis confirmed the Hb FB variant in 55 samples (38 non-cord and 17 cord blood). A total of 36/38 non-cord samples were heterozygous for the variant, while all 17 cord blood samples were heterozygotes. A total of 43/55 individuals had a concomitant α and/or β globin gene mutation. Hb FB is the the most common α variant in the Omani population. We report the different HPLC profiles of this variant that we observed, with and without other haemoglobinopathies in non-cord and cord blood samples. This is the first report describing the HPLC profiles of this α globin chain variant on 1 year follow-up testing of cord blood samples. With careful analysis by HPLC, it is possible not only to identify Hb FB but also to predict any concomitant α and/or β globin gene mutations. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. Malaria in Pregnancy Is a Predictor of Infant Haemoglobin Concentrations during the First Year of Life in Benin, West Africa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Accrombessi

    Full Text Available Anaemia is an increasingly recognized health problem in Africa, particularly in infants and pregnant women. Although malaria is known to be the main risk factor of anaemia in both groups, the consequences of maternal factors, particularly malaria in pregnancy (MiP, on infant haemoglobin (Hb concentrations during the first months of life are still unclear.We followed-up a cohort of 1005 Beninese pregnant women from the beginning of pregnancy until delivery. A subsample composed of the first 400 offspring of these women were selected at birth and followed until the first year of life. Placental histology and blood smear at 1st clinical antenatal visit (ANC, 2nd ANC and delivery were used to assess malaria during pregnancy. Infant Hb concentrations were measured at birth, 6, 9 and 12 months of age. A mixed multi-level model was used to assess the association between MiP and infant Hb variations during the first 12 months of life.Placental malaria (difference mean [dm] = - 2.8 g/L, 95% CI [-5.3, -0.3], P = 0.03 and maternal peripheral parasitaemia at delivery (dm = - 4.6 g/L, 95% CI [-7.9, -1.3], P = 0.007 were the main maternal factors significantly associated with infant Hb concentrations during the first year of life. Poor maternal nutritional status and malaria infection during infancy were also significantly associated with a decrease in infant Hb.Antimalarial control and nutritional interventions before and during pregnancy should be reinforced to reduce specifically the incidence of infant anaemia, particularly in Sub-Saharan countries.

  11. Under general anesthesia arginine vasopressin prevents hypotension but impairs cerebral oxygenation during arthroscopic shoulder surgery in the beach chair position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Soo Y; Kim, Seok J; Jeong, Cheol W; Jeong, Chang Y; Chung, Sung S; Lee, JongUn; Yoo, Kyung Y

    2013-12-01

    Patients undergoing surgery in the beach chair position (BCP) are at a risk of cerebral ischemia. We evaluated the effect of arginine vasopressin (AVP) on hemodynamics and cerebral oxygenation during surgery in the BCP. Thirty patients undergoing shoulder surgery in BCP under propofol-remifentanil anesthesia were randomly allocated either to receive IV AVP 0.07 U/kg (AVP group, N = 15) or an equal volume of saline (control group, N = 15) 2 minutes before taking BCP. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), heart rate (HR), jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), and regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) were measured after induction of anesthesia and before (presitting in supine position) and after patients took BCP. AVP itself given before the positioning increased MAP and decreased SjvO2 and SctO2 (P 20% SctO2 decrease from presitting value) (80% vs 13%; P = 0.0003) was higher in the AVP group. The incidence of jugular desaturation (SjvO2 shoulder surgery under general anesthesia. However, it was associated with regional cerebral but not jugular venous oxygen desaturation on upright positioning.

  12. Empirical algorithms to predict aragonite saturation state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Daniela; Dowd, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Novel sensor packages deployed on autonomous platforms (Profiling Floats, Gliders, Moorings, SeaCycler) and biogeochemical models have a potential to increase the coverage of a key water chemistry variable, aragonite saturation state (ΩAr) in time and space, in particular in the under sampled regions of global ocean. However, these do not provide the set of inorganic carbon measurements commonly used to derive ΩAr. There is therefore a need to develop regional predictive models to determine ΩAr from measurements of commonly observed or/and non carbonate oceanic variables. Here, we investigate predictive skill of several commonly observed oceanographic variables (temperature, salinity, oxygen, nitrate, phosphate and silicate) in determining ΩAr using climatology and shipboard data. This will allow us to assess potential for autonomous sensors and biogeochemical models to monitor ΩAr regionally and globally. We apply the regression models to several time series data sets and discuss regional differences and their implications for global estimates of ΩAr.

  13. Saturated output tabletop x-ray lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R.; Li, Y.; Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A.; Shlyaptsev, N.

    2000-01-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion x-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (Compact Multipulse Terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) have produced several x-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 (micro)J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d → 4p transition at 147 (angstrom) with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the x-ray laser output

  14. SATURATED ZONE FLOW AND TRANSPORT MODEL ABSTRACTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.W. ARNOLD

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the saturated zone (SZ) flow and transport model abstraction task is to provide radionuclide-transport simulation results for use in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) for license application (LA) calculations. This task includes assessment of uncertainty in parameters that pertain to both groundwater flow and radionuclide transport in the models used for this purpose. This model report documents the following: (1) The SZ transport abstraction model, which consists of a set of radionuclide breakthrough curves at the accessible environment for use in the TSPA-LA simulations of radionuclide releases into the biosphere. These radionuclide breakthrough curves contain information on radionuclide-transport times through the SZ. (2) The SZ one-dimensional (I-D) transport model, which is incorporated in the TSPA-LA model to simulate the transport, decay, and ingrowth of radionuclide decay chains in the SZ. (3) The analysis of uncertainty in groundwater-flow and radionuclide-transport input parameters for the SZ transport abstraction model and the SZ 1-D transport model. (4) The analysis of the background concentration of alpha-emitting species in the groundwater of the SZ

  15. Saturation and stability of nonlinear photonic crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Franco-Ortiz, M; Corella-Madueño, A; Rosas-Burgos, R A; Adrian Reyes, J; Avendaño, Carlos G

    2017-01-01

    We consider a one-dimensional photonic crystal made by an infinite set of nonlinear nematic films immersed in a linear dielectric medium. The thickness of each equidistant film is negligible and its refraction index depends continuously on the electric field intensity, giving rise to all the involved nonlinear terms, which joints from a starting linear index for negligible amplitudes to a final saturation index for extremely large field intensities. We show that the nonlinear exact solutions of this system form an intensity-dependent band structure which we calculate and analyze. Next, we ponder a finite version of this system; that is, we take a finite array of linear dielectric stacks of the same size separated by the same nonlinear extremely thin nematic slabs and find the reflection coefficients for this arrangement and obtain the dependence on the wave number and intensity of the incident wave. As a final step we analyze the stability of the analytical solutions of the nonlinear crystal by following the evolution of an additive amplitude to the analytical nonlinear solution we have found here. We discuss our results and state our conclusions. (paper)

  16. Saturated output tabletop X-ray lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunn, J.; Osterheld, A.L.; Nilsen, J.; Hunter, J.R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Yuelin Li [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); ILSA, Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States); Faenov, A.Ya.; Pikuz, T.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); MISDC of VNIIFTRI, Mendeleevo (Russian Federation); Shlyaptsev, V.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); DAS, Univ. of California Davis-Livermore, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The high efficiency method of transient collisional excitation has been successfully demonstrated for Ne-like and Ni-like ion X-ray laser schemes with small 5-10 J laser facilities. Our recent studies using the tabletop COMET (compact multipulse terawatt) laser system at the Lawrence livermore national laboratory (LLNL) have produced several X-ray lasers operating in the saturation regime. Output energy of 10-15 {mu}J corresponding to a gL product of 18 has been achieved on the Ni-like Pd 4d{yields}4p transition at 147 A with a total energy of 5-7 J in a 600 ps pulse followed by a 1.2 ps pulse. Analysis of the laser beam angular profile indicates that refraction plays an important role in the amplification and propagation process in the plasma column. We report further improvement in the extraction efficiency by varying a number of laser driver parameters. In particular, the duration of the second short pulse producing the inversion has an observed effect on the X-ray laser output. (orig.)

  17. Cerebral Palsy. Fact Sheet = La Paralisis Cerebral. Hojas Informativas Sobre Discapacidades.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Information Center for Children and Youth with Disabilities, Washington, DC.

    This fact sheet on cerebral palsy is written in both English and Spanish. First, it provides a definition of cerebral palsy and considers various causes (e.g., an insufficient amount of oxygen reaching the fetal or newborn brain). The fact sheet then offers incidence figures and explains characteristics of the three main types of cerebral palsy:…

  18. Cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow in man during light sleep (stage 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Schmidt, J F; Holm, S

    1991-01-01

    . They differ in respect of arousal threshold as a stronger stimulus is required to awaken a subject from deep sleep as compared to light sleep. Our results suggest that during non-rapid eye movement sleep cerebral metabolism and thereby cerebral synaptic activity is correlated to cerebral readiness rather than...

  19. CT findings of cerebral fat embolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mashiyama, Shoji; Kawakami, Kiyoshi; Ohtsuki, Taisuke; Ishibashi, Takao.

    1986-01-01

    A case of cerebral fat embolism following multiple bone fractures is presented. A 27-year-old patient was admitted to our clinic 50 minutes after a traffic accident. He was somnolent on admission, but his consciousness level was gradually raised and respiratory symptoms (dyspnea, bloody sputum) appeared with petechiae of his conjunctiva and chest. We diagnosed cerebral fat embolism. On CT scan we found multiple high-density areas, which gradually turned into multiple low-density areas. Subsequent cerebral atrophy and subdural effusion developed one month after the injury. This patient showed a typical clinical course and CT findings of cerebral fat embolism. (author)

  20. Genetics Home Reference: cerebral cavernous malformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Additional NIH Resources (1 link) National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke Educational Resources (7 links) Boston Children's Hospital: Cavernous Malformations Disease InfoSearch: Cerebral Cavernous Malformation ...