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Sample records for cercopithecus mona monkey

  1. Locomotor Anatomy and Behavior of Patas Monkeys (Erythrocebus patas with Comparison to Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops

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    Adrienne L. Zihlman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas living in African savanna woodlands and grassland habitats have a locomotor system that allows them to run fast, presumably to avoid predators. Long fore- and hindlimbs, long foot bones, short toes, and a digitigrade foot posture were proposed as anatomical correlates with speed. In addition to skeletal proportions, soft tissue and whole body proportions are important components of the locomotor system. To further distinguish patas anatomy from other Old World monkeys, a comparative study based on dissection of skin, muscle, and bone from complete individuals of patas and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops was undertaken. Analysis reveals that small adjustments in patas skeletal proportions, relative mass of limbs and tail, and specific muscle groups promote efficient sagittal limb motion. The ability to run fast is based on a locomotor system adapted for long distance walking. The patas’ larger home range and longer daily range than those of vervets give them access to highly dispersed, nutritious foods, water, and sleeping trees. Furthermore, patas monkeys have physiological adaptations that enable them to tolerate and dissipate heat. These features all contribute to the distinct adaptation that is the patas monkeys’ basis for survival in grassland and savanna woodland areas.

  2. The subclavian artery and its branches in the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

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    Blagojević Zdenka M.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Within experimental, human and veterinary medicine, more and more attention has been paid to experimental animals. One of them being the small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus. The small green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus has a shod muzzle, small teeth, and is mostly of gray-greenish color; the lower pan of its neck, chest, belly and inner sides of its thoracic limbs being whitish. Its total length is about 110 cm, the tail being 50 cm long. On its head, on both sides, there are white hairs directed towards the neck, reminiscent of whiskers. The monkeys have large buccal sacs. The extremities and tail are more gray than the rest of the body. The skin of the face, ears and fore limbs is black. The digits are very long, whilst the thumb short. Cell cultures from the small green monkey are used for the cultivation of poliovirus in the manufacture of vaccines against poliomyelitis. In addition, kidney cultures from the same monkey serve for detection of the virus in biological material. This was the main reason that prompted us to undertake a study of one part of the monkey's cardiosvascular system and thus contribute to a better understanding of the structure of its body.

  3. Seroprevalence of simian immunodeficiency virus in wild and captive born Sykes' monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis in Kenya

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    Otsyula Moses G

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Sykes' monkey and related forms (Cercopithecus mitis make up an abundant, widespread and morphologically diverse species complex in eastern Africa that naturally harbors a distinct simian immunodeficiency virus (SIVsyk. We carried out a retrospective serological survey of SIV infection from both wild and captive Sykes' monkeys from Kenya. We compared two commercially available, cross-reactive ELISA tests using HIV antigens with a novel SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay and analyzed the data by origin, subspecies, age and sex. Results The SIVsyk antigen-specific Western blot assay detected more serum samples as positive than either of the cross-reactive ELISA assays. Using this assay, we found that seroprevalence is higher than previously reported, but extremely variable in wild populations (from 0.0 to 90.9%. Females were infected more often than males in both wild and captive populations. Seropositive infants were common. However, no seropositive juveniles were identified. Conclusion We have developed a specific and sensitive Western blot assay for anti-SIVsyk antibody detection. Sykes' monkeys are commonly infected with SIVsyk, but with extremely variable prevalence in the wild. Higher infection prevalence in females suggests predominantly sexual transmission. High infection prevalence in infants, but none in juveniles, suggests maternal antibodies, but little or no vertical transmission.

  4. Identifying preferred habitats of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) through patch use.

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    Emerson, Sara E; Brown, Joel S

    2013-11-01

    To examine habitat preferences of two groups of samango monkeys (Cercopithecus (nictitans) mitis erythrarchus) in the Soutpansberg, South Africa, we used experimental food patches in fragments of tall forest and in bordering secondary growth short forest. Additionally, to test for the impacts of group cohesion and movement on habitat use, we tested for the interaction of space and time in our analyses of foraging intensity in the experimental food patches placed throughout the home ranges of the two groups. We expected the monkeys to harvest the most from patches in tall forest habitats and the least from patches in short forest. Further, because the monkeys move through their habitats in groups, we expected to see group cohesion effects illustrated by daily spatial variation in the monkeys’ use of widespread foraging grids. In the forest height experiments, the two groups differed in their foraging responses, with 8% greater foraging overall for one group. However, forest height did not significantly impact foraging in either group, meaning that, given feeding opportunities, samango monkeys are able to utilise secondary growth forest. For one group, missed opportunity costs of staying with the group appeared through the statistical interaction of day with foraging location (the monkeys did not always spread out to take advantage of all available food patches). In several subsequent experiments in widespread grids, significant daily spatial variation in foraging occurred, pointing to spatial cohesion during group movement as likely being an important predictor of habitat use. For an individual social forager, staying with the group may be more important than habitat type in driving habitat selection. PMID:24432361

  5. Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) hunt green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda.

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    Furuichi, Takeshi

    2006-04-01

    Red-tailed monkeys (Cercopithecus ascanius) were observed hunting green pigeons (Treron calva) in the Kalinzu Forest in Uganda. During 2 h 39 min, I observed two cases of successful hunting and one case of unsuccessful hunting in a Ficus saussureana tree. Red-tailed monkeys stalked the pigeons until they were within 2-3 m, and then jumped and caught them. In both successful cases, blue monkeys (C. mitis) ran to the hunting site from adjacent trees in order to poach the prey, and the red-tailed monkeys fled. One of these red-tailed monkeys dropped the pigeon while fleeing, and the blue monkey climbed down from the tree to search for it. This is the first record of cercopithecoid monkeys hunting birds that are outside of the nest and moving freely, and also the first record of red-tailed monkeys hunting vertebrates. However rare it may be, the repeated hunting attempts using similar techniques and the immediate attempt of blue monkeys to poach the prey suggest that this type of hunting was not a one-time event that happened by chance. Blue monkeys and an adult chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii) in and around the fig tree did not attempt to hunt. The hunting of volant birds may be enabled by the small body size and the quick movements of red-tailed monkeys. PMID:16467957

  6. Nutrient contents of three commonly consumed fruits of lowe’s monkey (Cercopithecus campbelii lowei)

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    Wiafe, Edward D

    2015-01-01

    Proximate analysis of three commonly consumed fruits (maize, hog plum and banana) was conducted to determine food biochemistry of the Lowe’s monkeys with specific objectives of determining the nutrient content and chemical composition of the food of Lowe’s monkeys by ‘Weende system of Analysis’. The results indicated the following order of nutrients: Nitrogen-Free-Extract, moisture, protein, fats, ash and fiber. The proportions of the nutrients contents of the three fruits did not differ from...

  7. Bilateral ovarian cysts originating from rete ovarii in an African green monkey (Cercopithecus aethiops).

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    Kim, Sung-Woo; Lee, Yong-Hoon; Lee, Sang-Rae; Kim, Kyoung-Min; Lee, Young-Jeon; Jung, Kang-Jin; Chang, Kwon-Sik; Kim, Doo; Son, Hwa-Young; Reu, Dong-Suck; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2012-09-01

    Ovarian cyst is common incidental finding in humans and many animals and includes follicular cysts, cystic rete ovarii and mesonephric duct cysts. Ovarian cyst is often associated with reproductive disorders in humans and animals. We found accidentally bilateral cystic masses in ovaries in an African green monkey. Grossly, the left and right ovarian cystic masses were single unilocular cystic structures measuring 0.6 and 1.8 cm in diameter, respectively. Histologically, both cysts were thin-walled structures that arose from the center of the ovary and displaced ovarian tissue peripherally. The cysts were lined by a single layer of nonciliated low cuboidal epithelium. Immunohistochemically, epithelial cells in the cysts were positive for cytokeratin, and the stromal cells were positive for smooth muscle actin but negative for vimentin. These results suggest that these ovarian cysts in an African green monkey are cystic rete ovarii. To our knowledge, this is the first report of cystic rete ovarii in African green monkeys and may be of value in relation to research of the pathogenesis and treatment of ovarian cyst. PMID:22673701

  8. Lesula: a new species of Cercopithecus monkey endemic to the Democratic Republic of Congo and implications for conservation of Congo's central basin.

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    John A Hart

    Full Text Available In June 2007, a previously undescribed monkey known locally as "lesula" was found in the forests of the middle Lomami Basin in central Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC. We describe this new species as Cercopithecus lomamiensis sp. nov., and provide data on its distribution, morphology, genetics, ecology and behavior. C. lomamiensis is restricted to the lowland rain forests of central DRC between the middle Lomami and the upper Tshuapa Rivers. Morphological and molecular data confirm that C. lomamiensis is distinct from its nearest congener, C. hamlyni, from which it is separated geographically by both the Congo (Lualaba and the Lomami Rivers. C. lomamiensis, like C. hamlyni, is semi-terrestrial with a diet containing terrestrial herbaceous vegetation. The discovery of C. lomamiensis highlights the biogeographic significance and importance for conservation of central Congo's interfluvial TL2 region, defined from the upper Tshuapa River through the Lomami Basin to the Congo (Lualaba River. The TL2 region has been found to contain a high diversity of anthropoid primates including three forms, in addition to C. lomamiensis, that are endemic to the area. We recommend the common name, lesula, for this new species, as it is the vernacular name used over most of its known range.

  9. Diana monkeys, Cercopithecus diana, adjust their anti-predator response behaviour to human hunting strategies

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    Bshary, Redouan

    2006-01-01

    In Taï National Park, Ivory Coast, humans with guns hunt monkeys for their meat. The poachers imitate animal calls to feign the presence of eagles or leopards, two predators to which monkeys react with high calling rates and approach. In the presence of humans, monkeys become silent and move off. A small area of the park is now avoided by poachers, due to the establishment of a field project on chimpanzees in 1979. This offered the opportunity to investigate whether sudden changes in predatio...

  10. Experimental infections of baboons (Papio spp. and vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops with Trichinella zimbabwensis and successful treatment with ivermectin

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    S. Mukaratirwa

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental Trichinella zimbabwensis infections were established in three baboons (Papios p.and four vervet monkeys (Cercopithecuase thiops and the clinical-pathological manifestations assessed. The infected animals showed clinical signs ranging from fever, diarrhoea, periorbitaol edema and muscular pain in varying degrees. One baboon became blind due to the infection. Levels of creatinine phosphokinase and lactated ehydrogenase increased to reach a peak on Day 42 post-infection(pifor both baboons and monkeys. Blood parameters such as packed cell volume, levels of red blood cells and white blood cells did not change significantly from the normal ranges except for the levels of eosinophils which peaked above the normal ranges at Day 28 and 56 pi in baboons and at Day 56 pi in monkeys.

  11. Distribution and abundance of sacred monkeys in Igboland, southern Nigeria.

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    Baker, Lynne R; Tanimola, Adebowale A; Olubode, Oluseun S; Garshelis, David L

    2009-07-01

    Although primates are hunted on a global scale, some species are protected against harassment and killing by taboos or religious doctrines. Sites where the killing of sacred monkeys or the destruction of sacred groves is forbidden may be integral to the conservation of certain species. In 2004, as part of a distribution survey of Sclater's guenon (Cercopithecus sclateri) in southern Nigeria, we investigated reports of sacred monkeys in the Igbo-speaking region of Nigeria. We confirmed nine new sites where primates are protected as sacred: four with tantalus monkeys (Chlorocebus tantalus) and five with mona monkeys (Cercopithecus mona). During 2004-2006, we visited two communities (Akpugoeze and Lagwa) previously known to harbor sacred populations of Ce. sclateri to estimate population abundance and trends. We directly counted all groups and compared our estimates with previous counts when available. We also estimated the size of sacred groves and compared these with grove sizes reported in the literature. The mean size of the sacred groves in Akpugoeze (2.06 ha, n = 10) was similar to others in Africa south of the Sahel, but larger than the average grove in Lagwa (0.49 ha, n = 15). We estimated a total population of 124 Sclater's monkeys in 15 groups in Lagwa and 193 monkeys in 20 groups in Akpugoeze. The Akpugoeze population was relatively stable over two decades, although the proportion of infants declined, and the number of groups increased. As Sclater's monkey does not occur in any official protected areas, sacred populations are important to the species' long-term conservation. Despite the monkeys' destruction of human crops, most local people still adhere to the custom of not killing monkeys. These sites represent ideal locations in which to study the ecology of Sclater's monkey and human-wildlife interactions. PMID:19408287

  12. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2001-01-01

    The Mona tool provides an implementation of the decision procedures for the logics WS1S and WS2S. It has been used for numerous applications, and it is remarkably efficient in practice, even though it faces a theoretically non-elementary worst-case complexity. The implementation has matured over ...... by experimenting with separate versions of the Mona tool that in turn omit each of them....

  13. The Mona Lisa

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    方海昌

    2004-01-01

    Mona Lisa Was One Of Leonardo da Vincis favourite paintings he carried it with him until he died.Today it is regarded as the most famous painting in the world and is visited by many thousands of ople every year.

  14. Relation between phylogeny of African green monkey CD4 genes and their respective simian immunodeficiency virus genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fomsgaard, Anders; Müller-Trutwin, Michaela C.; Diop, Ousmane; Hansen, Jan; Mathiot, Christian; Corbet, Sylvie; Barré-Sinoussi, Francoise; Allan, Jonathan S.

    1997-01-01

    mangabeys, rhesus and pig-tail macaques, chimpanzees, and humans. Chimpanzees and humans consistently clustered together. Monkeys within the Cercopithecus genus formed a separate cluster which included pata monkeys, supporting its grouping as a member of Cercopithecus. Surprisingly, sooty mangabeys were...

  15. Conversations with...Mona Siddiqui

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    Angela Quartermaine

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The renowned Islamic theologian, Professor Mona Siddiqui OBE, is Professor of Islamic and Interreligious Studies at the University of Edinburgh. Born in Karachi, Pakistan, the family moved to the UK in 1968 and she currently resides in Scotland. She earned her BA in Arabic and French at the University of Leeds, and her MA in Middle-Eastern Studies and PhD in Classical Islamic Law from the University of Manchester.  In addition to being the first Muslim woman to be appointed the Head of Theology and Religious Studies Department at University of Glasgow, her academic work includes texts on the Qur’an (2007, Islam (2010 and Islamic Law (2012a. Professor Siddiqui has also worked extensively on promoting interfaith relations, for which she was awarded an OBE in 2011. She currently holds a visiting professorship at the universities of Utrecht and Tilburg and is an associate scholar at Georgetown University’s Berkley Centre for Religion, Peace and World Affairs.

  16. Gross and histopathological findings in Cercopithecus aethiops with experimental Cyclospora infection in Kenya

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    Nguhiu PN

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Purity N Nguhiu1, Claire N Wamae2,3, Japheth K Magambo4, Paul G Mbuthia5, Daniel C Chai6, Dorcas S Yole61Department of Veterinary Services, Kabete, Ministry of Livestock Development, Nairobi, 2Directorate of Research and Development, Kenya Methodist University, Meru, 3Kenya Medical Research Institute, Nairobi, 4Meru University College of Science and Technology, Meru, 5Department of Veterinary Pathology, Microbiology and Parasitology, University of Nairobi, 6Department of Tropical Infectious Diseases, Institute of Primate Research, Karen, Nairobi, KenyaAbstract: In 2009, experimental Cyclospora infections were established in two juvenile female and two adult male Cercopithecus aethiops (African green monkeys at Nairobi's Institute of Primate Research (IPR. The study animals were humanely sacrificed, and gross and histopathological evaluation was done at seven weeks post-infection. On gross examination, the juveniles had no abnormalities except for a slight enlargement of the mesenteric lymph nodes, while the adults displayed more pathology of enlarged lymph nodes, hemorrhagic gastrointestinal tracts, widespread necrotic foci of the liver, and enlarged spleens. Significant histopathological findings were observed in both the juveniles and adults, which ranged from mild inflammatory reactions in the stomach and intestines to intense cellular infiltrations with mitotic activity and lymphocytic infiltrations around the periportal area of the livers. The lymph nodes had extensive hyperplasia with many mitotic cells.Keywords: Cyclospora spp., cyclosporiasis, nonhuman primates, pathological findings, histopathological findings, African green monkeys

  17. Diagenesis of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico

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    Gonzalez, L.A. (Univ. of Iowa, Iowa City (USA)); Ruiz, H.; Monell, V. (Univ. of Puerto Rico, Mayaguez (Puerto Rico))

    1990-05-01

    Isla de Mona is a carbonate plateau, 50 mi west of Puerto Rico. The plateau is composed mostly of two Miocene carbonate units, the Isla de Mona Dolomite overlain by Lirio Limestone. These two units consist primarily of back-reef sands with a reefal sequence present in the Lirio Limestone to the southwest. The Lirio Limestone is heavily karstified with numerous sinkholes in the central part of the island resembling present-day cenotes of the Yucatan peninsula. Numerous large cave openings are exposed along cliffs surrounding the island, with cavern size rapidly decreasing toward the interior. Within the Isla de Mona Dolomite, three different soil development episodes can be identified in the central part of the island, and on the periphery of the island several episodes of vadose diagenesis are identified by the presence of vadose silts and paleotravertine. Both units exhibit selective dissolution of aragonitic skeletal grains with fabric retentive replacement of former high magnesium calcite skeletal components, by calcite in the Lirio Limestone, and by dolomite in the Isla de Mona Dolomite. Petrographic relationships suggest early diagenetic modification by fluids that were substantially undersaturated with respect to aragonite, which preferentially dissolved aragonitic components, near saturation with respect to calcite/high magnesian calcite during dolomitization, and saturated with respect to calcite during calcitization. Stable isotopic composition of individual dolomitized components and dolomite microspar in the Isla de Mona Dolomite define a hyperbolic trend characteristic of composition produced by fluid mixing. The similarity of the karstified Lirio Limestone to present-day Yucatan, the nature and fluid chemistry requirement of the aragonite dissolution and calcite replacement process, the isotopic composition of the dolomite suggest diagenetic modification under meteoric-marine fluid mixing.

  18. Monas Sebagai Wajah Dewasa Kota Jakarta: Analisis Manajemen Reputasi dalam Pengelolaan Monas Sebagai Ikon Negara

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    Bhernadetta Pravita Wahyuningtyas

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Article explains the management of Monumen Nasional (Monass reputation, an Icon of Jakarta as well as a symbol of Indonesia. The study used post-positivist paradigm, the nature of the study was descriptive and the selected approach was qualitative. Data compilation was done by in-depth interviews and observation, narrative analysis was applied. The aim of this study was to review the management of reputation of MONAS in its golden age. It can be concluded that Monas as an iconic monument or a symbol of Indonesia is improving continuously, therefore the people could be proud of it. The reputation management of MONAS is the results of coordination and socialization process within the institution, because the reputation achieved through cooperation of each department, and could not be achieved without communication.

  19. Blood supply of the insular cortex of Cercopithecus Aethiops: Another approach to establish non-human primate model for addiction

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    Filipović Branislav

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The non-human primate model has already been applied in studies about alcoholism in the last decade, demonstrating a high confidence level of similarities between humans and non-human monkeys. Authors indented to establish the definitive model for addiction by investigating the insular blood supply in Cercopithecus Aethiops. In 23 out of 24 Latex injected adult brains, the insula received blood supplied by the M2 segment of the middle cerebral artery (MCA. The cortex was supplied by two separate trunks, while perforating branches originating directly from MCA, individually, or together with lateral striate (lenticulostriate arteries. Their average caliber was about 120 µm, and the number of its branches ranged from 2 to 9. No left - right asymmetries have been recorded. Similarities with the human vascular pattern have been studied. .

  20. Analysis of Teacher's Mission from Mona Lisa Smile

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    曾显宇

    2013-01-01

    Miss. Catherine in the film Mona Lisa Smile upholds the modern educational concept-equality,innovation and love. She is equipped with noble professional quality to perform a teacher’s mission. This paper makes attempt to discuss what missions the teacher should perform in the educational process through analysis of the film Mona Lisa Smile.

  1. Mona Lisa kuulsa naeratuse saladus leidis lahenduse / Johannes Saar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Saar, Johannes, 1965-

    2004-01-01

    Firenze kunstiajalooõpetaja Giuseppe Pallanti jõudis 25-aastase arhiivitöö tulemusena järeldusele, et Leonardo da Vinci Mona Lisa modelliks on siidikaupmehe Francesco del Giocondo abikaasa Lisa Gerardini

  2. Bryophytes of Mona Island Natural Reserve, Puerto Rico

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    Reyes-Colón, Carmen M.; Sastre-DJ, Inés

    1998-01-01

    This checklist provides in addition to a list of mosses and hepatics, a key to the species. We report 17 moss species of which 9 are new to Mona Island and 3 are new records for Puerto Rico (Fissidens minutus, Plaubelia sprengelii and Brymela callicostelloides). This report represents a 35% increase to the moss flora of Mona Island. Thirteen hepatics are reported of which 8 are new records, representing an increase of 31%. Two new synonyms (Bryum microdecurrens = Bryum coronatum, Riccia britt...

  3. Das Geheimnis der Mona Lisa gelöst

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    Probst, Veit

    2008-01-01

    Das Gemälde von Leonardo da Vinci „Mona Lisa“ hängt im Louvre in Paris. Millionen von Besuchern haben sich in ihr geheimnisvolles Lächeln verliebt und sich gefragt, wer die Dame wohl sei, die Leonardo da Vinci in diesem Portrait verewigt hat. Auch die Fachwelt ist sich bis heute nicht einig, wer Mona Lisa wirklich war. Doch in der Universitätsbibliothek Heidelberg ist man sich sicher, ihre Herkunft geklärt zu haben. In einer Inkunabel - einer Schrift aus der Frühzeit des Buchdrucks – findet s...

  4. Red colobus as prey: the leaping habits of five sympatric Old World monkeys.

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    Stern, Michael; Goldstone, Rebecca

    2005-01-01

    This study explored the leaping habits of five sympatric Old World monkeys (Colobus badius, Colobus guereza, Cercopithecus ascanius, Cercopithecus mitis and Cercocebus albigena) in an attempt to determine why chimpanzees prefer to hunt red colobus. We videotaped the leaps of the monkeys for 3 months in Uganda's Kibale National Park. Data were collected on leap preparation time as well as several other variables of the leaps. The leap preparation time of red colobus was found to be about double that of the other species studied. This difference is a likely reason why red colobus represent the preferred prey of chimpanzees. The hypothesis that red colobus spend more time in isolated trees than do other species was not supported. PMID:15775681

  5. Polyspecific associations of Cercopithecus campbelli and C. petaurista with C. diana: what are the costs and benefits?

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    Buzzard, Paul J

    2010-10-01

    Polyspecific associations (PSA) are common in many African primate communities, including the diurnal primates at Taï Forest, Côte d'Ivoire. In this paper I use data on the PSA of two forest guenons, Campbell's (Cercopithecus campbelli) and lesser spot-nosed monkeys (C. petaurista), with Diana monkeys (C. diana) and other primates to clarify interspecific relationships during 17 months including a 3-month low-fruit period. I analyzed association in relation to fruit availability and measured forest strata use for C. campbelli and C. petaurista when alone and in associations with and without C. diana. I also measured predator risk and reactions to potential predators. C. campbelli and C. petaurista had high association rates with C. diana monkeys, and fruit availability did not influence association rates. C. campbelli and C. petaurista used higher strata when in association with C. diana than when alone, but they used even higher strata when associated with other primates without C. diana. This suggested that C. diana competitively exclude C. campbelli and C. petaurista from higher strata. There were relatively large numbers of potential predators, and C. diana were usually the first callers to threatening stimuli, suggesting that antipredator benefits of association with C. diana outweighed the competitive costs. C. campbelli spent more time in association with C. diana than C. petaurista did and appeared to be more reliant on C. diana for antipredator benefits. C. petaurista were less reliant on C. diana because of a cryptic strategy and may have associated less in some months because of high chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes) presence. PMID:20535628

  6. Agonism and dominance in female blue monkeys.

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    Klass, Keren; Cords, Marina

    2015-12-01

    Agonistic behavior features prominently in hypotheses that explain how social variation relates to ecological factors and phylogenetic constraints. Dominance systems vary along axes of despotism, tolerance, and nepotism, and comparative studies examine cross-species patterns in these classifications. To contribute to such studies, we present a comprehensive picture of agonistic behavior and dominance relationships in wild female blue monkeys (Cercopithecus mitis), an arboreal guenon, with data from 9 groups spanning 18 years. We assessed where blue monkeys fall along despotic, tolerant, and nepotistic spectra, how their dominance system compares to other primates, primarily cercopithecines, and whether their agonistic behavior matches socioecological model predictions. Blue monkeys showed low rates of mainly low-intensity agonism and little counter-aggression. Rates increased with rank and group size. Dominance asymmetry varied at different organizational levels, being more pronounced at the level of interactions than dyad or group. Hierarchies were quite stable, had moderate-to-high linearity and directional consistency and moderate steepness. There was clear maternal rank inheritance, but inconsistent adherence to Kawamura's rules. There was little between-group variation, although hierarchy metrics showed considerable variation across group-years. Overall, blue monkeys have moderately despotic, moderately tolerant, and nepotistic dominance hierarchies. They resemble other cercopithecines in having significantly linear and steep hierarchies with a generally stable, matriline-based structure, suggesting a phylogenetic basis to this aspect of their social system. Blue monkeys most closely match Sterck et al.'s [1997] Resident-Nepotistic-Tolerant dominance category, although they do not fully conform to predictions of any one socioecological model. Our results suggest that socioecological models might better predict variation within than across clades, thereby

  7. The prefrontal cortex blood supply in Cercopithecus aethiops: New approach to the non-primate model of schizophrenia

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    Filipović B.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Establishing a non-human prefrontal cortex schizophrenia studying model has been a subject of interest in the past decade. Authors intended to contribute to this model with the study of the blood supply of the prefrontal cortex of Cercopithecus aethiops. Hence, we have microdissected 24 formaldehyde ethanol fixed brains (48 hemispheres of adult Cercopithecus aethiops in order to reveal the origin, calibers and pathway of the prefrontal branches. On 22 of 24 brains, prefrontal rami originated from the dorsal terminal branch of the middle cerebral artery by a common arterial trunk, while on two brains they occurred as "early cortical branches" from the terminal part of the middle cerebral artery. The average caliber of the common trunk on both sides was approximately 500 μm, or about a half of the "mother artery" without significant left - right asymmetries. The adequacy of the vascular pattern of the prefrontal cortex of the Cercopithecus aethiops for future experimental investigations of schizophrenia has also been discussed.

  8. Mona M. Amer: APA/APAGS award for distinguished graduate student in professional psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-01

    Presents the citation of Mona M. Amer, who received the APA/APAGS Award for Distinguished Graduate Student in Professional Psychology "for her outstanding and innovative leadership in addressing the mental health needs of Muslim and Arab Americans." A brief profile and a selected bibliography accompany the citation. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115845

  9. Small is beautiful? Progress and collections of the Geology Museum, University of the West Indies, Mona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.; Jackson, T.A.; Brown, I.C.; Wood, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Geology has been taught at the University of the West Indies, Mona, since 1961. The associated Geology Museum (UWIGM) opened to the public in 1969/1970, although the idea for such a museum was over 100 years old at that time. The collections of the UWIGM share many hazards with those in museums in o

  10. Comparative and functional myology of the prehensile tail in New World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemelin, P

    1995-06-01

    The caudal myology of prehensile-tailed monkeys (Cebus apella, Alouatta palliata, Alouatta seniculus, Lagothrix lagotricha, and Ateles paniscus) and nonprehensile-tailed primates (Eulemur fulvus, Aotus trivirgatus, Callithrix jacchus, Pithecia pithecia, Saimiri sciureus, Macaca fascicularis, and Cercopithecus aethiops) was examined and compared in order to identify muscular differences that correlate with osteological features diagnostic of tail prehensility. In addition, electrophysiological stimulation was carried out on different segments of the intertransversarii caudae muscle of an adult spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) to assess their action on the prehensile tail. Several important muscular differences characterize the prehensile tail of New World monkeys compared to the nonprehensile tail of other primates. In atelines and Cebus, the mass of extensor caudae lateralis and flexor caudae longus muscles is more uniform along the tail, and their long tendons cross a small number of vertebrae before insertion. Also, prehensile-tailed monkeys, especially atelines, are characterized by well-developed flexor and intertransversarii caudae muscles compared to nonprehensile-tailed primates. Finally, Ateles possesses a bulkier abductor caudae medialis and a more cranial origin for the first segment of intertransversarii caudae than do other prehensile-tailed platyrrhines. These myological differences between nonprehensile-tailed and prehensile-tailed primates, and among prehensile-tailed monkeys, agree with published osteological and behavioral data. Caudal myological similarities and differences found in Cebus and atelines, combined with tail-use data from the literature, support the hypothesis that prehensile tails evolved in parallel in Cebus and atelines. PMID:7595958

  11. Myocardial bridges over the ramus intervetricularis anterior and its branches in Cercopithecus aethiops sabeus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolić Valentina

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Myocardial bridges (MBs are structures consisting of heart muscle fibers running above the subepicardially positioned coronary arteries. In the light of previous studies, MBs are most often associated with the ramus interventricularis anterior (RIA which put this vessel into the focus of our research. The purpose of the present study was to determine the frequency of occurrence and quantitative analysis of myocardial bridges over the RIA and its lateral branches. The studied material consisted of 55 Cercopithecus aethiops hearts, of both sexes, preserved in formaldehyde solution. Standard anatomical methods were used in the analysis, with the help of a stereomicroscope. The presence of MBs over the RIA was confirmed in a total of 70.9% samples, with no statistically significant differences related to the gender. In 2 hearts (3.6% multiple bridges were revealed. The length of the bridges varies in the range of 0.5 mm - 31.6 mm, the distance from the origin of RIA varies between 0.5 mm - 25 mm which makes the proximal third of the anterior (paraconal interventricular groove most frequently tunneled. The lateral branches of RIA were overbridged in 5.4%, with a single muscular band. The lenght of MBs varied from 6.2 mm - 12.5 mm, and they were localized over the first lateral branch in all cases.

  12. Examining deep litter as environmental enrichment for a family group of Wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Grace; Sadowski, Leslie; Cassella, Christine; Lukas, Kristen E

    2010-01-01

    Manipulable substrates promote species-typical behavior and decrease abnormal behavior in a variety of primate species. However, the effects of providing litter to arboreal primates are not as well studied, and there is little information specifically concerning enrichment for guenons. To inform the captive management of an under-studied species, we evaluated deep litter substrate as environmental enrichment for a family group of Wolf's guenons, Cercopithecus wolfi. We expected it to promote species-typical behavior and to act as an intervention by reducing aggressive behaviors targeted toward a juvenile group member by his parents. We compared the guenons' behavior during baseline periods in which normal husbandry routines were followed to periods when the entire floor of their enclosure was covered with 30 cm of straw or wood wool. We then evaluated the group's preference between litters by comparing their relative use. The guenons spent more time feeding and were more active during both litter conditions, but relative to their respective baselines, they spent more time examining straw and less time examining wood wool. Straw, but not wood wool, promoted some affiliative behavior as well as greater tolerance of the juvenile's social proximity to others. However, the addition of deep litter did not ameliorate patterns of agonistic behavior among our subjects. Our results suggest that straw conferred greater behavioral benefits than wood wool as a deep litter substrate for this guenon group and may constitute a form of environmental enrichment for this species. PMID:19816906

  13. A Comprehensive Study on Coastline Process and Sedimentary Dynamics, Sardinera Beach, Mona Island, P.R.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Delga, A. M.; Ramirez, W. R.

    2008-12-01

    Sardinera beach in Mona Island, Puerto Rico, has a great recreational and ecological value and is an important research place to gather information on shoreline processes in an area far from the main land and with only scarce man made influences. Beach rock exposures present along the shoreline in Sardinera Beach have increased considerably during the last decade. A new management plan is being developed for Mona Island and the Department of Natural Resources (DNRA) of Puerto Rico wants to better understand the beach sand dynamics on this and other Mona Island beaches. This research includes field and laboratory work that characterize coastal sedimentary processes and helps to better understand the shoreline changes as well as seasonal variations in sand movement and composition. This work also establish the logistics and methodology basis for further studies that will expand to other Mona Island beaches. Benchmarks, GPS coordinates, and landmarks were used to establish ten permanent beach profiles along Sardinera Beach. Beach profiles were (and will be) measured monthly. Sardinera Beach sands are composed mostly of carbonate (CaCO3) components, products of the combination of biological, chemical and diagenetic processes, high grade of micritization, and of lithic limestone fragments. Sand composition differences between Sardinera Beach, the Mona Shelf and adjacent beach, reef crest and reef lagoon systems suggest Sardinera sands are not replenished by the modern marine components produced in these environments. The input of "fresh bioclasts" in this beach seems to be limited by natural (beach rock) and mane made (dock) barriers along the shore and by alteration in the current patterns produced by the man made aperture of the reef. Sardinera's micritized and recrystalized sand deposits seem to have been re-transported between the reefal lagoon and the beach. Sand volume analysis indicates a total sand loss of 1,322 m3 between the months of September to April

  14. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Finn Surlyk

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  15. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge, Danish North Sea: Plate 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surlyk, Finn

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The 331 m long core from the Mona-1 well in the Danish North Sea spans almost the entire Upper Cretaceous Chalk Group but only about 10% of Late Cretaceous time is represented. The succession comprises 14 facies representing pelagic deposition, turbidity flow, and mass-transport processes, including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab¬sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites, and the resultant deposits were thoroughly bioturbated if deposited during normal oxygenation at the sea floor. Periodic benthic dysoxia resulted in the preservation of primary structures, as represented by laminated chalk which consists of thin pelagic laminae alternating with thin turbidites. In addition to the thin turbidites in the laminated chalk, four dif¬ferent turbidite facies are interpreted as representing high- to low-energy flows. Clast-supported chalk conglomerates have previously not been differentiated from other turbidites, but are here interpreted to be directly related to the down-slope evolution of debris flows. Debris flows are rep¬resented by matrix-supported conglomerates, which form one of the most common facies in the succession. High-concentration, gravity-driven suspension flows passed into dilute visco-plastic flows during the final stages of deposition and resulted in the deposition of structureless chalks. Limited shear deformation produced distinct quasi-facies from which the precursor facies can be deduced, whereas intense or continued shear deformation produced a shear-banded quasi-facies from which the precursor facies cannot be deduced in all cases. A series of major slump packages (14–18 in total are interpreted, forming over 40% of the succession; debrites appear to be the most common precursor facies involved in

  16. MONA, LISA and VINCI Soon Ready to Travel to Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-11-01

    First Instruments for the VLT Interferometer Summary A few months from now, light from celestial objects will be directed for the first time towards ESO's Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). During this "First Light" event and the subsequent test phase, the light will be recorded with a special test instrument, VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument). The main components of this high-tech instrument are aptly named MONA (a system that combines the light beams from several telescopes by means of optical fibers) and LISA (the infrared camera). VINCI was designed and constructed within a fruitful collaboration between ESO and several research institutes and industrial companies in France and Germany . It is now being assembled at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany) and will soon be ready for installation at the telescope on Paranal. With the VLTI and VINCI, Europe's astronomers are now entering the first, crucial phase of an exciting scientific and technology venture that will ultimately put the world's most powerful optical/IR interferometric facility in their hands . PR Photo 31/00 : VINCI during tests at the ESO Headquarters in Garching. The VLT Interferometer (VLTI) ESO Press Photo 31/00 ESO Press Photo 31/00 [Preview; JPEG: 400 x 301; 43k] [Normal; JPEG: 800 x 602;208xk] [Full-Res; JPEG: 1923 x 1448; 2.2Mb] PR Photo 31/00 shows the various components of the complex VINCI instrument for the VLT Interferometer , during the current tests at the Optical Laboratory at the ESO Headquarters in Garching (Germany). It will later be installed in "clean-room" conditions within the Interferometric Laboratory at the Paranal Observatory. This electronic photo was obtained for documentary purposes. VINCI (VLT INterferometer Commissioning Instrument) is the "First Light" instrument for the Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) at the Paranal Observatory (Chile). Early in 2001, it will be used for the first tests

  17. Road and Street Centerlines, Mona proposed roads, Published in 2007, 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, Juab County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — , published at 1:24000 (1in=2000ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'Mona proposed roads'. Data by this...

  18. Effect of protein deficient cassava diet on Cercopithecus aethiops hearts and its possible role in the aetiology and pathogenesis of endomyocardial fibrosis in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sezi, C L

    1996-05-01

    Despite the current hypotheses for its causation, the exact cause of endmyocardial fibrosis is unknown. However, endomyocardial fibrosis being a disease of the low socio-economic groups who feed on low protein high carbohydrate diets consisting exclusively of cassava in Uganda and the demonstration by the author of a bimodal age distribution among the female patients and monomodal pattern in the male patients, led the author to suspect protein deficiency and cassava as aetiological factors thereby attributing the first mode to the increased but unmet protein needs for childhood growth and the second mode to the increased but unmet protein needs for pregnancies and lactation in the 20-40 year age groups. Consequently a new hypothesis that "prolonged ingestion of tuber (cassava/tapioca) crops associated with extreme deprivation of protein causes EMF" was formulated. In order to verify this hypothesis, three Cercopithecus aethiops were fed on uncooked banana diet while another three were fed on uncooked cassava and hearts harvested for histology whenever the animal health deteriorated. Changes in the endomyocardium included cell vacuolation, interstitial fibrosis and endocardial thickening by the 130th day in the animals on cassava but the animals on bananas were free from such changes. By the 160th day, the former exhibited marked thickening of the endocardium, interstitial fibrosis, fibrous septa formation, pappillary muscle fibrosis as well as apical fibrosis of the left ventricle, which findings occur in the human disease. Calcification and inflammatory cells were absent. A repeat of the experimental feeding with cassava using a batch of five animals, one of which survived up to seven months revealed cardiac findings similar to those seen at 160 days. Thus, the pathogenetic process, hitherto obscure, begins with cardiac cell necrosis followed by fibrosis consequent upon the failure of cardiac cell repair due to protein deficiency caused by the protein free cassava

  19. Historical perspective and contemporary management of acute coronary syndromes: from MONA to THROMBINS2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kline, Kristopher P; Conti, C Richard; Winchester, David E

    2015-01-01

    Acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains a major burden on morbidity and mortality in the United States. Medical professionals and students often use the mnemonic 'MONA' (morphine, oxygen, nitroglycerin and aspirin) to recall treatments for ACS; however, this list of therapies is outdated. We provide a historical perspective on 'MONA,' attempt to uncover its origin in the medical literature, and demonstrate the myriad changes that have occurred over the last 50 years of ACS management. We have developed a novel mnemonic, 'THROMBINS2' (thienopyridines, heparin/enoxaparin, renin-angiotensin system blockers, oxygen, morphine, beta blocker, intervention, nitroglycerin, statin/salicylate) to help bedside clinicians recall all the elements of contemporary ACS management. We demonstrate the mortality benefit for each component of contemporary ACS management, correlating the continued improvement with historical data on mortality after myocardial infarction. We encourage providers to utilize this mnemonic to explore options and guide treatments in ACS patients. PMID:26457728

  20. Intestinal structural changes in African green monkeys after long term psyllium or cellulose feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulini, I; Mehta, T; Hargis, A

    1987-02-01

    Intestinal structure of male adult African Green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops ssp vervets) was studied after 3 1/2 yr of consuming diets containing 10% psyllium husk or cellulose. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) identified mild damage (cellular swelling and disarray, and microvillar denudation and disarray) at villous tips throughout the small intestine in the psyllium-fed monkeys. The cellulose group had similar duodenal damage. Differences were not found in colons by SEM. By light microscopy, jejunum had shorter villi with psyllium feeding, based upon villous height (P less than 0.05), and length around a sectioned villus (P less than 0.1), but not based upon the number of enterocytes per villus. Jejunal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layer thicknesses were increased in psyllium-fed monkeys. Colonic mucosal height was significantly (P less than 0.05) reduced and muscle layer thickness was mildly reduced in the psyllium-fed monkeys. Group differences were not found in intestinal weight or length or in the weight of small intestinal mucosal scrapings. Psyllium husk may cause epithelial cell loss and muscle layer hypertrophy in the jejunum and ileum and thinning of the colonic wall after prolonged feeding. PMID:3031252

  1. The Mona Lisa Project: an update on the progress of measurement and monitoring activities

    OpenAIRE

    Gril, Joseph; Cocchi, Linda; Dionisi-Vici, Paolo; Goli, Giacomo; Marcon, Bertrand; Mazzanti, Paola; Togni, Marco; Uzielli, Luca

    2015-01-01

    International audience Since 2004 an international research goup rof Wood Technologists has been given by the Louvre Museum the task of analysing the mechanical situation of the wooden panel on which Leonardo da Vinci painted his “Mona Lisa”, possibly between 1503 and 1504. The general purpose of such study was to evaluate influences which could possibly derive from environmental fluctuations in the showcase where the painting is exhibited, and any measure which could improve its conservat...

  2. Development and characterization of 11 microsatellite loci for the Mona Island iguana (Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor; Rosas G., Keysa; Acevedo-Rodríguez, Pedro; Funk, S. M.; McMillan, Owen

    2008-01-01

    We isolated and characterized 11 microsatellite loci in the Mona Island iguana (Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri). Eleven loci exhibit moderate to high allelic diversity (two to 12 alleles, mean = 4.5) and polymorphism (mean observed heterozygosity, 0.56; range, 0.26 to 0.78) in 41 adults. This marker set has low probability of identity and high parentage exclusion power and will be suitable for studies of paternity, social organization and relatedness in this species.

  3. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  4. macaque monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Kimmel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available From human perception to primate neurophysiology, monitoring eye position is critical to the study of vision, attention, oculomotor control, and behavior. Two principal techniques for the precise measurement of eye position—the long-standing sclera-embedded search coil and more recent optical tracking techniques—are in use in various laboratories, but no published study compares the performance of the two methods simultaneously in the same primates. Here we compare two popular systems—a sclera-embedded search coil from C-N-C Engineering and the EyeLink 1000 optical system from SR Research—by recording simultaneously from the same eye in the macaque monkey while the animal performed a simple oculomotor task. We found broad agreement between the two systems, particularly in positional accuracy during fixation, measurement of saccade amplitude, detection of fixational saccades, and sensitivity to subtle changes in eye position from trial to trial. Nonetheless, certain discrepancies persist, particularly elevated saccade peak velocities, post-saccadic ringing, influence of luminance change on reported position, and greater sample-to-sample variation in the optical system. Our study shows that optical performance now rivals that of the search coil, rendering optical systems appropriate for many if not most applications. This finding is consequential, especially for animal subjects, because the optical systems do not require invasive surgery for implantation and repair of search coils around the eye. Our data also allow laboratories using the optical system in human subjects to assess the strengths and limitations of the technique for their own applications.

  5. Ciencia y economía del guano: La Isla Mona en Puerto Rico, siglo XIX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Teresa Cortés Zavala

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se hace una breve historia de la isla de Mona desde los ámbitos de la geología y la arqueología para dimensionar el espacio, los actores sociales involucrados y las distintas actividades efectuadas en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX para aprovechar sus recursos naturales. La participación de autoridades de gobierno, científicos, empresarios y trabajadores tuvo un claro propósito: diversificar las actividades productivas en respuesta a la debilidad del modelo económico y a las crisis cíclicas que se vivían por los altibajos en los precios del azúcar y el café en el mercado internacional. La experiencia exitosa del Perú con la explotación y comercialización del guano en los mercados europeos generó en Puerto Rico múltiples leyendas sobre el potencial económico de las islas de Mona y Monito, que en el mejor de los casos permanecería en el imaginario colectivo como una utopía en la búsqueda del desarrollo económico.

  6. The End of Panopticon/panopticism in William Gibson’s Mona Lisa Overdrive : A Baudrillardian Reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanieh Zaltash

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper seeks to examine William Gibson’s Mona Lisa Overdrive as a cyberpunk novel in the light of Baudrillard’s theory of “Simulation”. Jean Baudrillard believes that reality is replaced by “hyperreality” and human beings live in a total “simulation” in which everything, such as power might be simulated. Thus, according to Baudrillard, power exists just as “the simulation of power” which is the result of “the circularization of power” between the dominator and the dominated. Baudrillard delineates “the circularization of power” through criticizing Michel Foucault’s theories regarding power and panopticon, and introduces “the end of panopticon” which is centered upon the reversibility of the positions of the observer and the observed. In a meticulous analysis of TV performance of the Loud family in 1971, Baudrillard claims that the panoptic system is ended through playing on the opposition of seeing and being seen. The findings suggest that Mona Lisa Overdrive depicts “the end of panopticon,” in a sense that Angie Mitchell in this novel can be considered as a counterpart for Baudrillard’s instance of the Loud family. Indeed, this study attempts to elucidate “the end of panopticon” in Mona Lisa Overdrive (1988 through scrutinizing Angie Mitchell’s way of living.Keywords: Hyperreality, Simulation, Simulation of power, Panopticon, Foucault, The end of Panopticon, Mona Lisa Overdrive, William Gibson, Jean Baudrillard   

  7. NOAA ESRI Grid - 6m Multibeam Bathymetry, Puerto Rico (Isla de Mona) - Project NF-08-04, , UTM 19N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 6 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of selected portions of seafloor around Isla de Mona in Puerto Rico, derived...

  8. NOAA ESRI Grid - 6m Bathymetric Slope, Puerto Rico (Isla de Mona) - Project NF-08-04, , UTM 19N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 6 meter cell size representing the slope (in degrees) of selected portions of seafloor around Isla de Mona in Puerto Rico,...

  9. NOAA ESRI Grid - 3m Multibeam Bathymetry, Puerto Rico (Isla de Mona) - Project NF-08-04, , UTM 19N NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Grid with 3 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of selected portions of seafloor around Isla de Mona in Puerto Rico, derived...

  10. NOAA ESRI Geotiff - 5m Bathymetry around Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, Project NF-07-06, 2007, UTM 19 NAD 83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset contains an ESRI Geotiff with 5 meter cell size representing the bathymetry of selected portions of seafloor around Isla De Mona in Puerto Rico,...

  11. NOAA TIFF Image - 2 m Backscatter Mosaic of Isla de Mona, PR, Project NF-07-06, 2007, UTM 19 NAD83

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 2 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the southern coast of Isla de Mona, collected using a Kongsberg EM 1002 (95 kHz) multibeam...

  12. NOAA TIFF Image - 2 m Backscatter Mosaic of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, Project NF-07-06, 2007, UTM 19 NAD83 (NCEI Accession 0131853)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a 2 meter resolution backscatter mosaic of the southern coast of Isla de Mona, collected using a Kongsberg EM 1002 (95 kHz) multibeam...

  13. Social and emotional values of sounds influence human (Homo sapiens and non-human primate (Cercopithecus campbelli auditory laterality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Basile

    Full Text Available The last decades evidenced auditory laterality in vertebrates, offering new important insights for the understanding of the origin of human language. Factors such as the social (e.g. specificity, familiarity and emotional value of sounds have been proved to influence hemispheric specialization. However, little is known about the crossed effect of these two factors in animals. In addition, human-animal comparative studies, using the same methodology, are rare. In our study, we adapted the head turn paradigm, a widely used non invasive method, on 8-9-year-old schoolgirls and on adult female Campbell's monkeys, by focusing on head and/or eye orientations in response to sound playbacks. We broadcast communicative signals (monkeys: calls, humans: speech emitted by familiar individuals presenting distinct degrees of social value (female monkeys: conspecific group members vs heterospecific neighbours, human girls: from the same vs different classroom and emotional value (monkeys: contact vs threat calls; humans: friendly vs aggressive intonation. We evidenced a crossed-categorical effect of social and emotional values in both species since only "negative" voices from same class/group members elicited a significant auditory laterality (Wilcoxon tests: monkeys, T = 0 p = 0.03; girls: T = 4.5 p = 0.03. Moreover, we found differences between species as a left and right hemisphere preference was found respectively in humans and monkeys. Furthermore while monkeys almost exclusively responded by turning their head, girls sometimes also just moved their eyes. This study supports theories defending differential roles played by the two hemispheres in primates' auditory laterality and evidenced that more systematic species comparisons are needed before raising evolutionary scenario. Moreover, the choice of sound stimuli and behavioural measures in such studies should be the focus of careful attention.

  14. Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: speleogenesis of the worlds largest flank margin cave; Sistema Faro, Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico: espeleogenesis de la cueva del tipo flank margin mas grande del mundo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lace, M. J.; Kambesis, P. N.; Mylroie, J. E.

    2016-07-01

    Isla de Mona, a small, uplifted carbonate plateau jutting out of the waters of the Mona Passage, is an incredibly fragile and densely karstic environment. Expedition work was conducted by the Isla de Mona Project in cooperation with the Departamento Recursos Naturales y Ambientales de Puerto Rico (DRNA), including contributions from many researchers and cavers volunteering from across the U.S and Puerto Rico in the course of 12 separate expeditions, spanning a 14 year period (1998 to 2013). Over 200 caves have been documented on the island to date, the majority of this inventory is composed of flank margin caves but also includes sea caves, pit caves and talus caves. The most extensive example of cave development on the island is Sistema Faro - a sprawling maze-like series of chambers formed within the eastern point of the island with over 40 cliffside entrances overlooking the Caribbean Sea. Detailed cartography and analysis of the geomorphology and development of the Sistema Faro has helped form a complex model of carbonate island cave development as a function of tectonic uplift, lithology, sea level changes, karst hydrogeology and cliff retreat. This communication examines the roles these controls have played in the genesis of the world's largest flank margin cave. (Author)

  15. Variations in alluvial style of Tertiary units in response to tectonism, Las Monas area, middle Magdalena valley, Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, D.W.; Siemers, C.T.

    1989-03-01

    Detailed sedimentologic and petrographic analyses of Tertiary alluvial sandstone outcrops within and east of producing oil fields in the Las Monas area in Colombia, South America, indicate that depositional style changed from fluvial-deltaic to braided streams atop alluvial fans to high-sinuosity meandering streams in response to uplifts in the surrounding areas. Diverse paleocurrent trends in the Tertiary formations in the perimeter area demonstrate that streams flowed northeast and northwest. Streams in the oil field had easterly and southerly components. Source areas contributing sediment were different and reflected uplifts to the west and south of the Las Monas area. Petrographic composition of sandstones that have easterly and southerly paleocurrent trends in the field area contain more feldspar and less polycrystalline strained quartz than sandstones having a northerly trend in the perimeter area. Sandstones in the field area represent an unroofing of a western granitic terrain, possibly in the ancestral Central Cordillera.

  16. Natal dispersal, home range and habitat use of hatchlings of the Mona Island iguana (Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri)

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez-Buitrago, Néstor; Sabat, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    In the last two decades our knowledge of the biology of the highly threatened rock iguanas (Cyclura) has been expanding. However, most studies have focused on the adults and none has been conducted to document the biology of the younger stages. In some instances, such as the Mona Island iguana (Cyclura cornuta stejnegeri), the biology of young stages has been overlooked due to their low relative abundance in the population. The causes of this population trait remain unknown and ...

  17. SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP IS A LONG TERM SOLUTION. INTERVIEW WITH MRS. MONA NICOLICI, COMMUNITY RELATIONS MANAGER AT PETROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorian Ilie

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations Development Programme in Romania discussed with Mrs. Mona Nicolici about the social business competition Made in the country of Andrei, a contest that was launched at the beginning of this year, about the project The Country of Andrei of which this competition is part of, about the corporate social responsibility program of Petrom and about the future plans of the company fromthis point of view.

  18. [18F]fluoro-β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine derivatives show stereo, geometrical, and regio specificities as in vivo central dopaminergic probes in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stereo (D and L), geometrical (E and Z), and regiospecific (2-, 4-, and 6-[18F]fluoro) analogs of β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMT) have been investigated in adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, n=12) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Brain transport through the blood-brain barrier and central aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)-mediated decarboxylation rates were established. Results show strict structural dependency of the kinetic behavior of radiofluorinated FMMT analogs, with the E-isomer exhibiting a higher specificity over the (Z) geometrical counterpart for central dopaminergic structures. The 6-[18F]fluoro substituted L-(E)-FMMT was also favored over the 2- and 4-[18F]fluorosubstituted isomers in terms of their ability to localize in the same brain areas. The role of PET in drug development is also exemplified in this work

  19. [{sup 18}F]fluoro-{beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine derivatives show stereo, geometrical, and regio specificities as in vivo central dopaminergic probes in monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, S.-C.; Quintana, Javier; Satyamurthy, N.; Lacan, Goran; Yu Danchu; Phelps, Michael E.; Barrio, Jorge R

    1999-05-01

    Stereo (D and L), geometrical (E and Z), and regiospecific (2-, 4-, and 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro) analogs of {beta}-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMT) have been investigated in adult vervet monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops sabaeus, n=12) in vivo with positron emission tomography (PET). Brain transport through the blood-brain barrier and central aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)-mediated decarboxylation rates were established. Results show strict structural dependency of the kinetic behavior of radiofluorinated FMMT analogs, with the E-isomer exhibiting a higher specificity over the (Z) geometrical counterpart for central dopaminergic structures. The 6-[{sup 18}F]fluoro substituted L-(E)-FMMT was also favored over the 2- and 4-[{sup 18}F]fluorosubstituted isomers in terms of their ability to localize in the same brain areas. The role of PET in drug development is also exemplified in this work.

  20. Evidence of Substrate Specialization among Euendolithic Cyanobacteria from Mona Island, Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couradeau, E.; Roush, D.; Guida, B. S.; Garcia-Pichel, F.

    2015-12-01

    Euendolithic Cyanobacteria are able to actively bore into mineral carbonates. They are of global significance because they colonize any exposed marine, freshwater or terrestrial carbonate surface. They are responsible of shaping coastal limestomes, damaging mollusk shells, coral skeletons and historical landmarks. Despite their global importance, little is known about the boring mechanism, more specifically how Cyanobacteria realize the tour de force of combining oxygenic photosynthesis to carbonate dissolution. In fact there is only one cultured boring strain, which only bores into calcium carbonate while microborers are found on various types of substrates including magnesium carbonates. The boring mechanism proposed for the model strain may not be general highlighting the need of going back to the field to interrogate eudolithic Cyanobacterial communities boring on other substrates. We collected samples from marine intertidal limestones (mostly calcite CaCO3) and dolostones (mostly dolomite CaMg(CO3)2) from the Mona Island, Puerto Rico that were all infested by endolithic microbial communities. After determination of the samples mineralogy using powder X-ray diffraction, we analyzed the endolithic microbial communities using 16S rDNA library next generation sequencing. Our results indicate that the substrate type does not drive any significant difference in community composition at the phylum level but affects the distribution of Cyanobacteria. We found that while close relatives to the model strain Mastigocoleus testarum BC008 are prominent in limestones, 2 OTUs accounting for up to 26% of the Cyanobacteria, they are in low abundance in dolostones. These latter being dominated by members of the Pleurocapsales closely related to the known boring strain Hyella sp. This study brings the first evidence of substrate specialization among euendolithic Cyanobacteria and stresses the need of studying dolostone boring strains in more details.

  1. THE CLEVER MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付惠娟

    2004-01-01

    A man was walking through a forest. He had a few caps in his hands. In the forest there were a lot of monkeys. The day was hot, so he decided to have a rest under a tree. I-le put one cap on his head and lay down to sleep.

  2. The End of Panopticon/panopticism in William Gibson’s Mona Lisa Overdrive : A Baudrillardian Reading

    OpenAIRE

    Hanieh Zaltash; Farid Parvaneh

    2014-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine William Gibson’s Mona Lisa Overdrive as a cyberpunk novel in the light of Baudrillard’s theory of “Simulation”. Jean Baudrillard believes that reality is replaced by “hyperreality” and human beings live in a total “simulation” in which everything, such as power might be simulated. Thus, according to Baudrillard, power exists just as “the simulation of power” which is the result of “the circularization of power” between the dominator and the dominated. Baudrillard d...

  3. Effects of the Platelet Rich Plasma on Apexogenesis in Young Monkeys: Radiological and Hystologycal Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet-reach plasma (PRP) is an attractive tool in regenerative medicine due to its ability to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Since dental pulp derived stem cells are recognized as central in apexogenesis, the aim of the study was to evaluate radiologically and histologically effects of PRP on apexogenesis in teeth with immature roots. The study included eight monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops) divided in two equal groups for evaluation 3 and 12 months after treatment. All participants obtained the same treatment including pulpotomy and after-treatment with: hydroxiapatite (HA)-incisor and HA+canine PRP. Radiological evaluation was performed using the long cone paralleling technique for recording of defined parameters and histological evaluation was performed using tissue removed en block for the observation of parameters related to apexogenesis. The results obtained radiologically and histologically have shown increase in bridge formation in HA+PRP (75%) group after 3 months comparing to HA group (50%). Contrary to that, after 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. The root delay was not registered in the HA+PRP group contrary to HA group where it was registered in 25% after 12 months. Results of the study suggest that PRP is a powerful tool for intensive and rapid apexogenesis since it offers clear and comprehensive results (mostly in the first three months) which are early radiologically visible without any failure in the proposed requests

  4. The effects of hydroxyapatite and platelet rich plasma on apexogenesis in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vanja

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available There are very few data about the effects of endogenous growth factors in vital pulp therapy, and still they are often controversial. This study was undertaken with the aim to evaluate the effects of platelet rich plasma (PRP in conjugation with hydroxyapatite (HAP, as pulp capping materials, on root and periodontium formation. Eight young monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops with permanent dentition and incomplete root formation were involved in this study. After pulpotomy, the pulp lesion was capped with calcium hydroxide (control, HAP (experimental or HAP in conjugation with PRP (experimental. Six moths later, the animals were sacrificed, the tissue was removed en block, and prepared for histological analysis in a routine way. The results of histological analysis revealed that the healing process, characterized by dentin bridge formation, maintained morphological and functional integrity of dental pulp and complete formation of dental root and surrounding periodontium. The inflammatory reaction was scored as mild to moderate, in almost all samples in all groups, suggesting the biocompatibility of the used materials. Materials used in this study are convenient as capping agents, contributing in maintaining the integrity of the pulp tissue and facilitating root and periodontium formation. According to histological data it could be suggested that hydroxyapatite in conjugation with endogenous growth factors, represent a superior alternative to other materials used in this study.

  5. Psyllium husk. I: Effect on plasma lipoproteins, cholesterol metabolism, and atherosclerosis in African green monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCall, M R; Mehta, T; Leathers, C W; Foster, D M

    1992-08-01

    Psyllium's effects on plasma and lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations, cholesterol metabolism, and diet-induced atherosclerosis were studied in adult male African green monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). Animals were fed for 3.5 y one of three experimental diets: low-cholesterol cellulose (LCC), high-cholesterol cellulose (HCC), or high-cholesterol psyllium (HCP). The LCC and HCP groups had significantly (P less than 0.05) lower plasma cholesterol concentrations (39% lower) at 1 mo than did the HCC group. These responses persisted throughout the study. Plasma cholesterol changes were due to a reduction in intermediate-density and low-density lipoproteins; very-low and high-density-lipoprotein concentrations were similar among groups. Aortic atherosclerosis, evaluated as percent sudanophilia at 3.5 y, was lowest in the LCC group, intermediate in the HCP group, and highest in the HCC group. Cholesterol absorption, neutral steroid and fat excretion, HMGCoA reductase activity (in intestine and liver), and body weight were unrelated to psyllium's hypocholesterolemic effects. PMID:1322032

  6. Effects of the platelet rich plasma on apexogenesis in young monkeys: Radiological and hystologycal evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vanja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelet-reach plasma (PRP is an attractive tool in regenerative medicine due to its ability to stimulate proliferation and differentiation of stem cells. Since dental pulp derived stem cells are recognized as central in apexogenesis, the aim of the study was to evaluate radiologically and histologically effects of PRP on apexogenesis in teeth with immature roots. The study included eight monkeys (Cercopithecus Aethiops divided in two equal groups for evaluation 3 and 12 months after treatment. All participants obtained the same treatment including pulpotomy and after-treatment with: hydroxiapatite (HA-incisor and HA+canine PRP. Radiological evaluation was performed using the long cone paralleling technique for recording of defined parameters and histological evaluation was performed using tissue removed en block for the observation of parameters related to apexogenesis. The results obtained radiologically and histologically have shown increase in bridge formation in HA+PRP (75% group after 3 months comparing to HA group (50%. Contrary to that, after 12 months there were no significant differences between groups. The root delay was not registered in the HA+PRP group contrary to HA group where it was registered in 25% after 12 months. Results of the study suggest that PRP is a powerful tool for intensive and rapid apexogenesis since it offers clear and comprehensive results (mostly in the first three months which are early radiologically visible without any failure in the proposed requests.

  7. Humans Can Pass Staph Germs to Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160157.html Humans Can Pass Staph Germs to Monkeys Scientists found ... green monkeys in The Gambia were acquired from humans. Most of the human-to-monkey transmission likely ...

  8. Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs with Their Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_157593.html Monkeys Move Robotic Wheelchairs With Their Thoughts Scientists say technology might ... made it possible for monkeys to operate a robotic wheelchair using only the monkey's thoughts say the ...

  9. RH: DUBEY ET AL.-TOXOPLASMA GONDII FROM CATS IN PUERTO RICO MOUSE VIRULENT TOXOPLASMA GONDII ISOLATED FROM FERALCATS IN MONA ISLAND, PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cats are essential in the life cycle of Toxoplasma gondii because they are the only hosts that can excrete the environmentally-resistant oocysts. Samples of serum, feces, and tissues from cats from Mona, a remote island off the coast of Puerto Rico were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies t...

  10. Safety evaluation of an acai-fortified fruit and berry functional juice beverage (MonaVie Active®)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety of an acai (Euterpe oleracea Mart.) pulp enriched fruit and berry juice, MonaVie Active®, fortified with the functional ingredient, glucosamine, was studied. The beverage was found not to be mutagenic, clastogenic, cytotoxic, or genotoxic, as determined by the bacterial reverse mutation assay, chromosomal aberration assay, mouse micronucleus assay, and mammalian cell gene mutation (L5178Y) assay. The single dose LD50 based on a 14-day acute oral toxicity study is greater than 20,000 mg/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a repeat dose 90-day oral subchronic toxicity study by gavage, 220 animals were randomly assigned to a control group, an untreated group, or one of three experimental groups (10, 20 and 40 g/kg bw). No treatment-related significant changes in body weight, food and water consumption, ophthalmology, organ weights, urinanalysis, hematological and clinical chemistry, or gross pathology, were observed in surviving animals compared to the control groups. Three animals died midway through the observation period (male, 20 g/kg bw/day; male 40 g/kg bw/day; and, female, 10 g/kg bw/day). These animals died without preceding clinical symptoms, histopathological lesions, or evidence of injury to tissue or organs except for signs of suffocation/aspiration congestion, which was concluded to be due to problems with the gavage administration of the fluid test article, and not due to the test article itself. The NOEAL was determined to be 40 g/kg bw/day for male and female rats, which was the highest dose tested. Phylloquinone (vitamin K1) content averaged 21.7 μg/100 g, comparable to amounts found in iceberg lettuce. In conclusion, the results provide additional experimental evidence that MonaVie Active® juice is non-toxic.

  11. Sequence divergence, polymorphism and evolution of the middle-wave and long-wave visual pigment genes of great apes and Old World monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dulai, K S; Bowmaker, J K; Mollon, J D; Hunt, D M

    1994-10-01

    In man, the spectral shift between the middle-wave (MW) and long-wave (LW) visual pigments is largely achieved by amino acid substitution at two codons, both located in exon 5. A third amino acid site coded by exon 3 is polymorphic between pigments. We have studied the equivalent regions of the cone opsin genes in two members of the Hominidea (the gorilla, Gorilla gorilla and the chimpanzee, Pan troglodytes) and in three members of the Cercopithecoidea family of Old World primates (the diana monkey, Cercopithecus diana, the talapoin monkey, Miopithecus talapoin, and the crab-eating macaque, Macaca fascicularis). No variation in the codons that specify the amino acids involved in spectral tuning were found. We predict therefore that the MW and LW pigments of gorilla and chimpanzee have similar spectral characteristics to those of man. Multiple copies of the same opsin gene sequence were identified in the chimpanzee, talapoin and macaque and we also show that non-human Old World primates are similar to man in showing a bunching of polymorphic sites in exon 3. We discuss the ancestry of the separate MW and LW genes of Old World primates and the equivalent polymorphic gene of the marmoset, a New World primate. PMID:7975287

  12. Surface electromagnetic geophysical exploration of the ground-water resources of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico, a caribbean carbonate island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, M.I.; Troester, Joseph W.; Richards, Ronald T.

    1995-01-01

    Two electromagnetic surface geophysical techniques were used to explore the ground-water resources of Isla de Mona, Puerto Rico—a 55-square-kilometer island located between Puerto Rico and Hispañiola, Isla de Mona is a tectonically uplifted carbonate plateau of Neogene age that has an average elevation of about 50 meters above mean sea level. This plateau is bounded by vertical cliffs except on the southwest where there is a narrow, 3-square-kilometer coastal plain. The coastal plain is composed of Quaternary carbonate deposits, and has a maximum elevation of less than 10 meters above mean sea level. No large-scale surface-water features are found on the plateau or on the coastal plain. To better understand the aquifer characteristics of the island, terrain conductivity and transient electromagnetic data were collected on the coastal plain and on the plateau. Computer programs were used to analyze quantitatively the electromagnetic data. Geoelectric models were produced to approximate the depth below land surface of the saline-freshwater interface underlying both the coastal plain and the plateau. Because the geophysical methods could not discern the water-table, it was assumed that it was near sea level. The thickness of the freshwater lens was estimated by subtracting the elevation of the land surface above mean sea level from the depth to the saline-freshwater interface as determined from the geophysical data. Results from the geophysical methods and water-level observations indicate that a freshwater lens with a maximum thickness of about 10 meters exists under the coastal plain. This lens thins towards the ocean, and it also thins away from the ocean toward the plateau. The model produced from the transient electromagnetic data indicates that the freshwater lens under the plateau has a maximum thickness of about 14 meters, which is a much thinner lens than previously estimated. A freshwater lens thickness of 14 meters is similar to direct measurements by

  13. An experimental social relation between two monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boren, J J

    1966-11-01

    A technique was developed for studying the reinforcement of one organism by another. Two pairs of monkeys served as subjects in adjoining but separate lever-pressing chambers. However, they were in visual, aural, and tactile contact with each other. After both pairs were trained to tolerate delays of reinforcement and one pair was trained under stimulus control to exchange reinforcements, monkey A of each pair pressed a lever to feed monkey B, and monkey B pressed to feed monkey A. The experiment sought to determine if this social interaction could be maintained. With a free responding procedure where the monkeys could work at any time in any order, the social relation proved unstable. After several oscillations in which one monkey did most of the responding and the other monkey did most of the eating, the reinforcement frequency for both pairs of animals decreased to very low levels. The final outcome would have been starvation had the experimenter not intervened. PMID:4961522

  14. Epidurography with metrizamide in Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Epidurography with metrizamide was performed on 9 Rhesus monkeys; physiologic saline was substituted for metrizamide in 3 control monkeys. Metrizamide successfully outlined the epidural space without causing any adverse clinical effects or direct tissue injury. (Auth.)

  15. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  16. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  17. Systems Biology of the Vervet Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Jasinska, Anna J.; Schmitt, Christopher A.; Susan K Service; Cantor, Rita M.; Dewar, Ken; James D. Jentsch; Kaplan, Jay R; Turner, Trudy R.; Warren, Wesley C.; George M Weinstock; Woods, Roger P.; Freimer, Nelson B.

    2013-01-01

    Nonhuman primates (NHP) provide crucial biomedical model systems intermediate between rodents and humans. The vervet monkey (also called the African green monkey) is a widely used NHP model that has unique value for genetic and genomic investigations of traits relevant to human diseases. This article describes the phylogeny and population history of the vervet monkey and summarizes the use of both captive and wild vervet monkeys in biomedical research. It also discusses the effort of an inter...

  18. Breeding monkeys for biomedical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourne, G. H.; Golarzdebourne, M. N.; Keeling, M. E.

    1973-01-01

    Captive bred rhesus monkeys show much less pathology than wild born animals. The monkeys may be bred in cages or in an outdoor compound. Cage bred animals are not psychologically normal which makes then unsuited for some types of space related research. Compound breeding provides contact between mother and infant and an opportunity for the infants to play with their peers which are important requirements to help maintain their behavioral integrity. Offspring harvested after a year in the compound appear behaviorally normal and show little histopathology. Compound breeding is also an economical method for the rapid production of young animals. The colony can double its size about every two and a half years.

  19. Full-length genome analyses of two new simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains from mustached monkeys (C. Cephus) in Gabon illustrate a complex evolutionary history among the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Florian; Schmidt, Fabian; Boué, Vanina; Butel, Christelle; Mouacha, Fatima; Ngari, Paul; Ondo, Bertrand Mve; Leroy, Eric; Heeney, Jonathan L; Delaporte, Eric; Peeters, Martine; Rouet, François

    2014-07-01

    The Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) mus/mon/gsn lineage is a descendant of one of the precursor viruses to the HIV-1/SIVcpz/gor viral lineage. SIVmus and SIVgsn were sequenced from mustached and greater spot nosed monkeys in Cameroon and SIVmon from mona monkeys in Cameroon and Nigeria. In order to further document the genetic diversity of SIVmus, we analyzed two full-length genomes of new strains identified in Gabon. The whole genomes obtained showed the expected reading frames for gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, env, nef, and also for a vpu gene. Analyses showed that the Gabonese SIVmus strains were closely related and formed a monophyletic clade within the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Nonetheless, within this lineage, the position of both new SIVmus differed according to the gene analyzed. In pol and nef gene, phylogenetic topologies suggested different evolutions for each of the two new SIVmus strains whereas in the other nucleic fragments studied, their positions fluctuated between SIVmon, SIVmus-1, and SIVgsn. In addition, in C1 domain of env, we identified an insertion of seven amino acids characteristic for the SIVmus/mon/gsn and HIV‑1/SIVcpz/SIVgor lineages. Our results show a high genetic diversity of SIVmus in mustached monkeys and suggest cross-species transmission events and recombination within SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Additionally, in Central Africa, hunters continue to be exposed to these simian viruses, and this represents a potential threat to humans. PMID:25054885

  20. Full-Length Genome Analyses of Two New Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV Strains from Mustached Monkeys (C. Cephus in Gabon Illustrate a Complex Evolutionary History among the SIVmus/mon/gsn Lineage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Liégeois

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV mus/mon/gsn lineage is a descendant of one of the precursor viruses to the HIV-1/SIVcpz/gor viral lineage. SIVmus and SIVgsn were sequenced from mustached and greater spot nosed monkeys in Cameroon and SIVmon from mona monkeys in Cameroon and Nigeria. In order to further document the genetic diversity of SIVmus, we analyzed two full-length genomes of new strains identified in Gabon. The whole genomes obtained showed the expected reading frames for gag, pol, vif, vpr, tat, rev, env, nef, and also for a vpu gene. Analyses showed that the Gabonese SIVmus strains were closely related and formed a monophyletic clade within the SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Nonetheless, within this lineage, the position of both new SIVmus differed according to the gene analyzed. In pol and nef gene, phylogenetic topologies suggested different evolutions for each of the two new SIVmus strains whereas in the other nucleic fragments studied, their positions fluctuated between SIVmon, SIVmus-1, and SIVgsn. In addition, in C1 domain of env, we identified an insertion of seven amino acids characteristic for the SIVmus/mon/gsn and HIV‑1/SIVcpz/SIVgor lineages. Our results show a high genetic diversity of SIVmus in mustached monkeys and suggest cross-species transmission events and recombination within SIVmus/mon/gsn lineage. Additionally, in Central Africa, hunters continue to be exposed to these simian viruses, and this represents a potential threat to humans.

  1. Monkeys match and tally quantities across senses

    OpenAIRE

    Jordan, Kerry E.; Maclean, Evan L.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    We report here that monkeys can actively match the number of sounds they hear to the number of shapes they see and present the first evidence that monkeys sum over sounds and sights. In Experiment 1, two monkeys were trained to choose a simultaneous array of 1-9 squares that numerically matched a sample sequence of shapes or sounds. Monkeys numerically matched across (audio-visual) and within (visual-visual) modalities with equal accuracy and transferred to novel numerical values. In Experime...

  2. Radioimmunoassay for rhesus monkey gonadotropins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterologous double-antibody radioimmunoassay methods are described for the measurement of circulating levels of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) FSH and LH; the latter assay is also applicable to rhesus chorionic gonadotropin (CG) estimations. The FSH assay utilizes purified rat FSH for trace, either of two anti-human FSH antisera and a semipurified rhesus pituitary standard. The LH assay utilizes purified ovine LH for trace, an anti-human CG antiserum and the same rhesus pituitary standard. The use of these systems obviates the necessity of purifying rhesus gonadotropins which are required for the development of homologous radioimmunoassay systems. (U.S.)

  3. MONA Implementation Secrets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    period of six years. Compared to the first naive version, the present tool is faster by several orders of magnitude. This speedup is obtained from many different contributions working on all levels of the compilation and execution of formulas. We present a selection of implementation "secrets" that have...... been discovered and tested over the years, including formula reductions, DAGification, guided tree automata, three-valued logic, eager minimization, BDD-based automata representations, and cache-conscious data structures. We describe these techniques and quantify their respective effects by...

  4. Pre-Columbian monkey tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslam, Michael; Luncz, Lydia V; Staff, Richard A; Bradshaw, Fiona; Ottoni, Eduardo B; Falótico, Tiago

    2016-07-11

    Stone tools reveal worldwide innovations in human behaviour over the past three million years [1]. However, the only archaeological report of pre-modern non-human animal tool use comes from three Western chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes verus) sites in Côte d'Ivoire, aged between 4.3 and 1.3 thousand years ago (kya) [2]. This anthropocentrism limits our comparative insight into the emergence and development of technology, weakening our evolutionary models [3]. Here, we apply archaeological techniques to a distinctive stone tool assemblage created by a non-human animal in the New World, the Brazilian bearded capuchin monkey (Sapajus libidinosus). Wild capuchins at Serra da Capivara National Park (SCNP) use stones to pound open defended food, including locally indigenous cashew nuts [4], and we demonstrate that this activity dates back at least 600 to 700 years. Capuchin stone hammers and anvils are therefore the oldest non-human tools known outside of Africa, opening up to scientific scrutiny questions on the origins and spread of tool use in New World monkeys, and the mechanisms - social, ecological and cognitive - that support primate technological evolution. PMID:27404235

  5. Antifouling activity by sea anemone (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora extracts against marine biofilm bacteria Actividades antiincrustantes de las extractos de las anémonas marinas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora frente a biofilm de bacterias marinas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subramanian Bragadeeswaran

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Sea anemones (Actiniaria are solitary, ocean-dwelling members of the phylum Cnidaria and the class Anthozoa. In this study, we screened antibacterial activity of two benthic sea anemones (Heteractis magnifica and H. aurora collected from the Mandapam coast of southeast India. Crude extracts of the sea anemone were assayed against seven bacterial biofilms isolated from three different test panels. The crude extract of H. magnifica showed a maximum inhibition zone of 18 mm against Pseudomonas sp. and Escherichia coli and a minimum inhibition zone of 3 mm against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococcus sp., and Bacillus cerens for methanol, acetone, and DCM extracts, respectively. The butanol extract of H. aurora showed a maximum inhibition zone of 23 mm against Vibrio parahaemolyticus, whereas the methanol extract revealed a minimum inhibition zone of 1 mm against V. parahaemolyticus. The present study revealed that the H. aurora extracts were more effective than those of H. magnifica and that the active compounds from the sea anemone can be used as antifouling compounds.Las anémonas de mar (Actiniaria son solitarias, habitantes oceánicos del phylum Cnidaria y de la clase Anthozoa. En este estudio se determina la actividad antibacteriana de dos anémonas bentónicas Heteractis magnifica y H. aurora recolectadas en la costa de Mandapam, sudeste de India. Los extractos crudos de estas anémonas fueron ensayados frente a siete biofilms bacterianos aislados de tres paneles de control distintos. El extracto crudo de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona inhibición máxima de 18 mm contra Psudomonas sp. y Escherichia coli y la zona de inhibición mínima de 3 mm fue encontrada frente a Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Micrococus sp. y Bacillus cerens de extractos de metanol, acetona y DCM respectivamente. El extracto de butanol de la anémona H. magnifica mostró una zona de inhibición máxima de 23 mm frente a Vibrio parahemolyticus, mientras que con el

  6. Nuclear weapon testing and the monkey business

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasons for India's total ban on the export of rhesus monkeys to U.S. have been explained. The major reason is that some of the animals were used in nuclear weapon related radiation experiments. This was a clear violation of a stricture in the agreement about supply of monkeys. The stricture prohibited the use of animals for research concerning military operations, including nuclear weapon testing. It is pleaded that a strict enforcement of strictures rather than a total ban on the export of monkeys would be better in the interest of advancement of knowledge in human medicine and disease control. (M.G.B.)

  7. Physiology responses of Rhesus monkeys to vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajebrahimi, Zahra; Ebrahimi, Mohammad; Alidoust, Leila; Arabian Hosseinabadi, Maedeh

    Vibration is one of the important environmental factors in space vehicles that it can induce severe physiological responses in most of the body systems such as cardiovascular, respiratory, skeletal, endocrine, and etc. This investigation was to assess the effect of different vibration frequencies on heart rate variability (HRV), electrocardiograms (ECG) and respiratory rate in Rhesus monkeys. Methods: two groups of rhesus monkey (n=16 in each group) was selected as control and intervention groups. Monkeys were held in a sitting position within a specific fixture. The animals of this experiment were vibrated on a table which oscillated right and left with sinusoidal motion. Frequency and acceleration for intervention group were between the range of 1 to 2000 Hz and +0.5 to +3 G during 36 weeks (one per week for 15 min), respectively. All of the animals passed the clinical evaluation (echocardiography, sonography, radiography and blood analysis test) before vibration test and were considered healthy and these tests repeated during and at the end of experiments. Results and discussions: Our results showed that heart and respiratory rates increased significantly in response to increased frequency from 1 to 60 Hz (p controls. There were no significant differences in heart and respiratory rate from 60 t0 2000 Hz among studied groups. All monkeys passed vibration experiment successfully without any arrhythmic symptoms due to electrocardiography analysis. Conclusion: Our results indicate that vibration in low frequency can effect respiratory and cardiovascular function in rhesus monkey. Keywords: Vibration, rhesus monkey, heart rate, respiratory rate

  8. Hunting Activity Among Naturalistically Housed Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) at the Fundació Mona (Girona, Spain). Predation, Occasional Consumption and Strategies in Rehabilitated Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Feliu; Marina Mosquera; Mei Ventura; David Riba; Miquel Llorente

    2012-01-01

    Simple Summary: Hunting is well documented in wild chimpanzees, but has rarely been documented in captive chimpanzees. At Fundació Mona Primate Rescue we have obtained evidence of five episodes of hunting in rehabilitated chimpanzees who had no previous experience of these types of behaviors. This demonstrated that they were able to perform this species-typical behavior in a naturalistic environment without learning it in the wild. Abstract: Predatory behavior in wild chimpanzees and other pr...

  9. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan

    OpenAIRE

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2015-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood s...

  10. Radiation-induced emesis in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine the emesis ED50 for 60Co radiation, 15 male rhesus monkeys were exposed to whole-body radiation doses ranging from 350 to 550 rad midline tissue dose. An up-and-down sequence of exposures was used. Step size between doses was 50 rad, and dose rate was 20 rad/min. There had been no access to food for 1 to 2 h. The ED50 +- SE was found to be 446 +- 27 rad. To determine the effect of motion on emesis ED50, six more monkeys were exposed to 60Co radiation as above, except that the chair in which they were seated was oscillated forward and backward 5 to 150 (pitch axis) at a variable rate not exceeding 0.3 Hz. Radioemesis ED50 +- SE with motion was 258 +- 19 rad, a value significantly lower (P < 0.01) than for stationary monkeys

  11. Analysis of prostate-specific antigen transcripts in chimpanzees, cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James N Mubiru

    Full Text Available The function of prostate-specific antigen (PSA is to liquefy the semen coagulum so that the released sperm can fuse with the ovum. Fifteen spliced variants of the PSA gene have been reported in humans, but little is known about alternative splicing in nonhuman primates. Positive selection has been reported in sex- and reproductive-related genes from sea urchins to Drosophila to humans; however, there are few studies of adaptive evolution of the PSA gene. Here, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR product cloning and sequencing, we study PSA transcript variant heterogeneity in the prostates of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis, baboons (Papio hamadryas anubis, and African green monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops. Six PSA variants were identified in the chimpanzee prostate, but only two variants were found in cynomolgus monkeys, baboons, and African green monkeys. In the chimpanzee the full-length transcript is expressed at the same magnitude as the transcripts that retain intron 3. We have found previously unidentified splice variants of the PSA gene, some of which might be linked to disease conditions. Selection on the PSA gene was studied in 11 primate species by computational methods using the sequences reported here for African green monkey, cynomolgus monkey, baboon, and chimpanzee and other sequences available in public databases. A codon-based analysis (dN/dS of the PSA gene identified potential adaptive evolution at five residue sites (Arg45, Lys70, Gln144, Pro189, and Thr203.

  12. Aging: Lessons for Elderly People from Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockford, Catherine

    2016-07-11

    As life expectancy increases, health in the elderly is a growing issue. Health is linked to remaining socially active, but the elderly typically narrow their social networks. The social life of aging monkeys shows interesting parallels, indicating social patterns may be rooted in evolution. PMID:27404240

  13. Canine Distemper Outbreak in Rhesus Monkeys, China

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu, Wei; Zheng, Ying; Zhang, Shoufeng; Fan, Quanshui; Liu, Hua; Zhang, Fuqiang; Wang, Wei; Liao, Guoyang; Hu, Rongliang

    2011-01-01

    Since 2006, canine distemper outbreaks have occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi, People’s Republic of China. Approximately 10,000 animals were infected (25%–60% disease incidence); 5%–30% of infected animals died. The epidemic was controlled by vaccination. Amino acid sequence analysis of the virus indicated a unique strain.

  14. Integrase of Mason-Pfizer monkey virus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Snášel, Jan; Krejčík, Zdeněk; Jenčová, Věra; Rosenberg, Ivan; Ruml, Tomáš; Alexandratos, J.; Gustchina, A.; Pichová, Iva

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 272, č. 1 (2005), s. 203-216. ISSN 1742-464X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4055304 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : integrase * Mason-Pfizer monkey virus * HIV-1 Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  15. Apparent hallucinations in monkeys during around-the-clock amphetamine for seven to fourteen days. Possible relevance to amphetamine psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, E B; Lyon, M; Ellison, G

    1983-04-01

    Schizophrenia-like symptoms have been experimentally produced in humans by a single, large dose of amphetamine or by relatively low level, but continuous administration of the drug. In animal studies of the psychotomimetic properties of amphetamine, high doses and, in particular, repeated daily-injection drug schedules have often been used. However, amphetamine psychosis is not always a prominent effect of repeated intake drug schedules in humans and available clinical evidence suggests that psychosis develops more readily when the drug is taken in a continuous fashion over longer periods. The state produced by single large doses of amphetamine, although clearly abnormal, has been said to bear less resemblance to schizophrenia than the delayed paranoid symptoms developing after longer periods of continuous intake. In the present experiments we have studied the behavioral effects of 7 to 14 days of continuous administration of amphetamine to monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops) using subcutaneously implanted silicone capsules releasing approximately .7 to 1.5 mg/kg/day of d-amphetamine base. Around-the-clock TV monitoring of the animals revealed a general biphasic sequence of drug effects, although considerable individual variation occurred: a) an "acute" phase dominated by stereotyped movements and/or prolonged staring, lasting for 2 to 5 days; b) a "late" phase peaking during days 5 to 10 after capsule implantation and characterized by highly individual, but striking sequences of: (1) Attack or sudden threat reactions directed at invisible objects; (2) rapid orienting and flight behavior without apparent cause; (3) sudden startle reactions; (4) prolonged vocalization; (5) visual tracking of invisible objects, sometimes involving coordinated patterns of "eating behavior" and (6) prolonged and rapid grooming directed at various parts of the body. These behaviors might be termed "hallucinatory" since no eliciting stimuli could be determined for their occurrence. Motor

  16. A narrative analysis positioning HIV relative to personal (sexual) relationship challenges in an agony aunt column in the Western Cape, South Africa - Aunty Mona's "love advice".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viljoen, Lario; Thorne, Marguerite; Thomas, Angelique; Bond, Virginia; Hoddinott, Graeme

    2016-01-01

    HIV prevalence and incidence in South Africa remain high, making HIV a part of everyday life. Community narratives on HIV treatment and prevention are important and influence official and unofficial health messaging and community perceptions and understandings of HIV. We explore how contributors and the columnist of an agony aunt column position HIV relative to choices made about love, partnership, and sex over three years. We analysed all columns of an agony aunt series (Antie Mona) published between December 2012 and November 2015. The column is published in a South African, Afrikaans-language newspaper "Son", prioritising sensationalist news items. Trends were identified through narrative analysis. Data were managed in ATLAS.ti and inductive, iterative coding conducted. It was found that letters to the agony aunt rarely refer to HIV directly (less than 7%). Euphemisms such as diseases of the flesh and the great flu were more commonly used instead of HIV or AIDS. Letters addressed HIV in three ways: direct references to experiences living with HIV; direct questions about HIV prevention; and scenarios where HIV could (from a public health perspective) have been the main concern, but everyday issues took precedence. The majority of letters fell into this latter category where the writers focused on the immediate concerns of good sexual relations, problems related to love and romantic relationships, good moral behaviour of others, and issues of oppressive life conditions rather than on HIV directly. The findings illustrate that informal, public contributions to health information, such as agony aunts, are important narratives that inform popular perspectives on HIV and health. A better appreciation of this context would allow health implementers to ensure that these role players receive updated health messaging to avoid the risk of HIV-related stigma where HIV is used as a moral rod to punish perceived moral transgressions. PMID:27421055

  17. Head Rotation Detection in Marmoset Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simhadri, Sravanthi

    Head movement is known to have the benefit of improving the accuracy of sound localization for humans and animals. Marmoset is a small bodied New World monkey species and it has become an emerging model for studying the auditory functions. This thesis aims to detect the horizontal and vertical rotation of head movement in marmoset monkeys. Experiments were conducted in a sound-attenuated acoustic chamber. Head movement of marmoset monkey was studied under various auditory and visual stimulation conditions. With increasing complexity, these conditions are (1) idle, (2) sound-alone, (3) sound and visual signals, and (4) alert signal by opening and closing of the chamber door. All of these conditions were tested with either house light on or off. Infra-red camera with a frame rate of 90 Hz was used to capture of the head movement of monkeys. To assist the signal detection, two circular markers were attached to the top of monkey head. The data analysis used an image-based marker detection scheme. Images were processed using the Computation Vision Toolbox in Matlab. The markers and their positions were detected using blob detection techniques. Based on the frame-by-frame information of marker positions, the angular position, velocity and acceleration were extracted in horizontal and vertical planes. Adaptive Otsu Thresholding, Kalman filtering and bound setting for marker properties were used to overcome a number of challenges encountered during this analysis, such as finding image segmentation threshold, continuously tracking markers during large head movement, and false alarm detection. The results show that the blob detection method together with Kalman filtering yielded better performances than other image based techniques like optical flow and SURF features .The median of the maximal head turn in the horizontal plane was in the range of 20 to 70 degrees and the median of the maximal velocity in horizontal plane was in the range of a few hundreds of degrees per

  18. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production

  19. Metabolism of lithocholic and chenodeoxycholic acids in the squirrel monkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H.; Hamada, M.; Kato, F.

    1985-09-01

    Metabolism of lithocholic acid (LCA) and chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) was studied in the squirrel monkey to clarify the mechanism of the lack of toxicity of CDCA in this animal. Radioactive LCA was administered to squirrel monkeys with biliary fistula. Most radioactivity was excreted in the bile in the form of unsulfated lithocholyltaurine. The squirrel monkey thus differs from humans and chimpanzees, which efficiently sulfate LCA, and is similar to the rhesus monkey and baboon in that LCA is poorly sulfated. When labeled CDCA was orally administered to squirrel monkeys, less than 20% of the dosed radioactivity was recovered as LCA and its further metabolites in feces over 3 days, indicating that bacterial metabolism of CDCA into LCA is strikingly less than in other animals and in humans. It therefore appears that LCA, known as a hepatotoxic secondary bile acid, is not accumulated in the squirrel monkey, not because of its rapid turnover through sulfation, but because of the low order of its production.

  20. Differences of monkey and human overt attention under natural conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Kruse, Wolfgang; Hoffmann, Klaus-Peter; König, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Rhesus monkeys are widely used as animal models of human attention. Such research rests upon the assumption that similar mechanisms underlie attention in both species. Here, we directly compare the influence of low-level stimulus features on overt attention in monkeys and humans under natural conditions. We recorded eye-movements in humans and rhesus monkeys during free-viewing of natural images. We find that intrinsic low-level features, such luminance-contrast, texture-contrast and...

  1. Maintenance of microflora suppression in irradiated monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After at least two weeks of decontamination, rhesus monkeys were submitted to a total body irradiation of 8.5 Gy, followed by a bone marrow graft. In the following weeks, a number of colonizations were found. Twenty-seven colonizations were known to be present on the day of irradiation. Sixteen colonizations were due to microorganisms suppressed before irradiation. Thirty-two colonizations were considered as exogenous. Only a few colonizations in the irradiated animals could not be controlled. Irradiation caused severe diarrhoea in decontaminated animals, leading to a life-threatening loss of water and electrolytes. When this loss was corrected, the monkeys survived for prolonged periods following irradiation. The amount of food consumed, which contained antibiotics, had no effect on the faecal concentration. The addition of solid food particles, however, resulted in a much lower faecal concentration. No significant antibiotic serum levels were found. (orig.)

  2. Hemorrhoids: an experimental model in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plapler Hélio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Hemorrhoids are a matter of concern due to a painful outcome. We describe a simple, easy and reliable experimental model to produce hemorrhoids in monkeys. METHODS: 14 monkeys (Cebus apella were used. After general anesthesia, hemorrhoids were induced by ligation of the inferior hemorrhoidal vein, which is very alike to humans. The vein was located through a perianal incision, dissected and ligated with a 3-0 vicryl. The skin was sutured with a 4-0 catgut thread. Animals were kept in appropriate cages and evaluated daily. RESULTS: Nine days later there were hemorrhoidal piles in the anus in fifty percent (50% of the animals. Outcome was unremarkable. There was no bleeding and all animals showed no signs of pain or suffering. CONCLUSION: This is an affordable and reliable experimental model to induce hemorrhoids for experimental studies.

  3. Spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, M; Mansfield, K G

    1999-06-01

    Spontaneous tumors in nonhuman primates are of great importance. A spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma was observed in an 18-year-old female rhesus monkey. Grossly, the visceral pericardium was multifocally irregular and thickened with tan discoloration and was soft in consistency. Histologically, the pericardium contained highly in-folded branching fronds lined by a single layer of cuboidal cells. Tumor invaded into approximately half of the thickness of the atrial and ventricular muscles. Tumor penetration was not observed into the atrial or ventricular cavity. Within the myocardium, neoplastic cells formed glandular structures which were lined by cuboidal to columnar cells. Neoplastic cells were weakly positive with PAS and strongly positive for colloid iron and alcian blue. Immunohistochemically, neoplastic cells were positive for both vimentin and cytokeratin and negative with CEA and Leu-M1, indicating mesothelial origin. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of a spontaneous pericardial mesothelioma in a rhesus monkey. PMID:10475114

  4. Auditory looming perception in rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Neuhoff, John G.; Logothetis, Nikos K.

    2002-01-01

    The detection of approaching objects can be crucial to the survival of an organism. The perception of looming has been studied extensively in the visual system, but remains largely unexplored in audition. Here we show a behavioral bias in rhesus monkeys orienting to “looming” sounds. As in humans, the bias occurred for harmonic tones (which can reliably indicate single sources), but not for broadband noise. These response biases to looming sounds are consistent with an evolved neural mechanis...

  5. What do monkeys' music choices mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamont, Alexandra M

    2005-08-01

    McDermott and Hauser have recently shown that although monkeys show some types of preferences for sound, preferences for music are found only in humans. This suggests that music might be a relatively recent adaptation in human evolution. Here, I focus on the research methods used by McDermott and Hauser, and consider the findings in relation to infancy research and music psychology. PMID:16006174

  6. A freely-moving monkey treadmill model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Justin D.; Nuyujukian, Paul; Freifeld, Oren; Gao, Hua; Walker, Ross; Ryu, Stephen I.; Meng, Teresa H.; Murmann, Boris; Black, Michael J.; Shenoy, Krishna V.

    2014-08-01

    Objective. Motor neuroscience and brain-machine interface (BMI) design is based on examining how the brain controls voluntary movement, typically by recording neural activity and behavior from animal models. Recording technologies used with these animal models have traditionally limited the range of behaviors that can be studied, and thus the generality of science and engineering research. We aim to design a freely-moving animal model using neural and behavioral recording technologies that do not constrain movement. Approach. We have established a freely-moving rhesus monkey model employing technology that transmits neural activity from an intracortical array using a head-mounted device and records behavior through computer vision using markerless motion capture. We demonstrate the flexibility and utility of this new monkey model, including the first recordings from motor cortex while rhesus monkeys walk quadrupedally on a treadmill. Main results. Using this monkey model, we show that multi-unit threshold-crossing neural activity encodes the phase of walking and that the average firing rate of the threshold crossings covaries with the speed of individual steps. On a population level, we find that neural state-space trajectories of walking at different speeds have similar rotational dynamics in some dimensions that evolve at the step rate of walking, yet robustly separate by speed in other state-space dimensions. Significance. Freely-moving animal models may allow neuroscientists to examine a wider range of behaviors and can provide a flexible experimental paradigm for examining the neural mechanisms that underlie movement generation across behaviors and environments. For BMIs, freely-moving animal models have the potential to aid prosthetic design by examining how neural encoding changes with posture, environment and other real-world context changes. Understanding this new realm of behavior in more naturalistic settings is essential for overall progress of basic

  7. Rhesus monkeys know when they remember

    OpenAIRE

    Hampton, Robert R.

    2001-01-01

    Humans are consciously aware of some memories and can make verbal reports about these memories. Other memories cannot be brought to consciousness, even though they influence behavior. This conspicuous difference in access to memories is central in taxonomies of human memory systems but has been difficult to document in animal studies, suggesting that some forms of memory may be unique to humans. Here I show that rhesus macaque monkeys can report the presence or absence...

  8. Monkey cortex through fMRI glasses

    OpenAIRE

    Vanduffel, Wim; Zhu, Qi; Orban, Guy A.

    2014-01-01

    In 1998 several groups reported the feasibility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiments in monkeys, with the goal to bridge the gap between invasive nonhuman primate studies and human functional imaging. These studies yielded critical insights in the neuronal underpinnings of the BOLD signal. Furthermore, the technology has been successful in guiding electrophysiological recordings and identifying focal perturbation targets. Finally, invaluable information was obtained con...

  9. Monkey Gamer: Automatic profiling of Android games

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Javier; Nadjm-Tehrani, Simin; Prem Bianzino, Aruna

    2014-01-01

    Creation of smartphone applications has undergone a massive explosion in recent years and there is an urgent need for evaluation of their resource efficiency, trustworthiness and reliability. A large proportion of these apps are going to be within the gaming area. In this paper we classify game apps on the basis of their development process, their I/O process and their interaction level. We present Monkey Gamer, a software to automatically play a large class of Android games and collect execu...

  10. Malaria in cynomolgus monkeys used in toxicity studies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, Etsuko; Nagayama, Yuko; Koyama, Naoki; Kakiuchi, Dai; Hosokawa, Satoru

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium spp. protozoa cause malaria and are known to infect humans and a variety of animal species including macaque monkeys. Here we report both our experience with malaria recrudescence in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) in a toxicity study and the results of a survey on Plasmodium infection in cynomolgus monkeys imported to Japan for laboratory use. A cynomolgus monkey from the toxicity study presented with severe anemia and Plasmodium protozoa in erythrocytes on a thin blood smear and was subsequently diagnosed with symptomatic malaria. In this animal, congestion and accumulation of hemozoin (malaria pigment) in macrophages were noted in the enlarged and darkly discolored spleen. As a follow-up for the experience, spleen sections from 800 cynomolgus monkeys in toxicity studies conducted between 2003 and 2013 were retrospectively examined for hemozoin deposition as a marker of Plasmodium infection. The origin of the animals included Cambodia, China, Indonesia, and Vietnam. Hemozoin deposition was confirmed in 44% of all examined monkeys. Monkeys from Indonesia showed the highest incidence of hemozoin deposition (approx. 80%). A high prevalence of Plasmodium infection in laboratory monkeys was also confirmed with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) by using Plasmodium genus-specific primers. Although Japan is not a country with endemic malaria, it is important to be aware of the prevalence and potential impact of background infection with Plasmodium spp. and recrudescence of symptomatic malaria in imported laboratory monkeys on pharmaceutical toxicity studies. PMID:26989299

  11. Basic math in monkeys and college students.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica F Cantlon

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Adult humans possess a sophisticated repertoire of mathematical faculties. Many of these capacities are rooted in symbolic language and are therefore unlikely to be shared with nonhuman animals. However, a subset of these skills is shared with other animals, and this set is considered a cognitive vestige of our common evolutionary history. Current evidence indicates that humans and nonhuman animals share a core set of abilities for representing and comparing approximate numerosities nonverbally; however, it remains unclear whether nonhuman animals can perform approximate mental arithmetic. Here we show that monkeys can mentally add the numerical values of two sets of objects and choose a visual array that roughly corresponds to the arithmetic sum of these two sets. Furthermore, monkeys' performance during these calculations adheres to the same pattern as humans tested on the same nonverbal addition task. Our data demonstrate that nonverbal arithmetic is not unique to humans but is instead part of an evolutionarily primitive system for mathematical thinking shared by monkeys.

  12. Selective modification of nanoparticle arrays by laser-induced self assembly (MONA-LISA): putting control into bottom-up plasmonic nanostructuring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalfagiannis, Nikolaos; Siozios, Anastasios; Bellas, Dimitris V.; Toliopoulos, Dimosthenis; Bowen, Leon; Pliatsikas, Nikolaos; Cranton, Wayne M.; Kosmidis, Constantinos; Koutsogeorgis, Demosthenes C.; Lidorikis, Elefterios; Patsalas, Panos

    2016-04-01

    Induced Self Assembly by combining simultaneously large-scale character with atomic-scale precision. The proposed process can serve as a platform that will stimulate further progress towards the engineering of plasmonic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Extensive experimental results that corroborate the results and conclusions presented in the manuscript, but due to their extent cannot fit in the manuscript. The manuscript refers to specific sections here, but in its entirety this document presents the complete results of our MONA-LISA work. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr09192f

  13. [Proceedings of the VII international symposium 'Cultural heritage in geosciences, mining and metallurgy : libraries, archives, museums' : "Museums and their collections" held at the Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Leiden (The Netherlands), 19-23 May, 2003 / Cor F. Winkler Prins and Stephen K. Donovan (editors)]: Small is beautiful? Progress and collections of the Geology Museum, University of the West Indies, Mona

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Donovan, S.K.; Jackson, T.A.; Brown, I.C.; Wood, S.J.

    2004-01-01

    Geology has been taught at the University of the West Indies, Mona, since 1961. The associated Geology Museum (UWIGM) opened to the public in 1969/1970, although the idea for such a museum was over 100 years old at that time. The collections of the UWIGM share many hazards with those in museums in o

  14. Effects of Permanent Separation from Mother on Infant Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suomi, Stephen; And Others

    1973-01-01

    A study designed to investigate the effects of permanent maternal separation in infant rhesus monkeys, 60, 90, and 120 days of age, and housed individually or in Paris. Monkeys separated at 90 days and housed individually showed the highest levels of disturbance. (DP)

  15. Evaluation of diabetes determinants in woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Burns, R.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansen, W.L.; Ferket, P.R.; Heugten, E.

    2007-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix lagotricha) are a threatened specie in the wild with limited successful management in captivity due to diagnosed hypertension and suspected diabetic conditions. Six woolly monkeys with known hypertension problems were tested to determine if diabetes mellitus and current dai

  16. Brain tumors induced by radiation in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two out of four pubescent rhesus monkeys, which received 1,500 rads of supervoltage X-irradiation, showed malignant brain tumors afer the survival of 52 and 102 weeks each. Since the incidence of spontaneous developing brain tumors in monkeys cited in the literatures was quite low, the tumors in the present series may have been radiation induced. (author)

  17. Serum Chemistry concentrations of captive Woolly Monkeys (Lagothrix Lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Ferket, P.; Stoskopf, M.; Heugten, van E.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix sp.) are threatened species and numerous zoos have failed to sustain successful populations. The most common causes of death in captive woolly monkeys are related to pregnancy and hypertension. The objective of this retrospective study was to evaluate serum concentrations o

  18. Fatal Infection of a Pet Monkey with Human herpesvirus 1

    OpenAIRE

    Huemer, Hartwig P.; Larcher, Clara; Czedik-Eysenberg, Thomas; Nowotny, Norbert; Reifinger, Martin

    2002-01-01

    Concerns have been raised about pet monkeys as a potential threat to humans. We report the opposite situation, a danger to pets that arises from humans. Similar to herpesvirus B (Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1), which endangers humans but not its host species, Human herpesvirus 1 can act as a “killer virus” when crossing the species barrier to New World monkeys.

  19. Comparative studies of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri) and titi monkeys (Callicebus) in travel tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragaszy, D M

    1980-01-01

    Squirrel and titi monkeys were observed in a series of experiments in which the subjects' task was to move to a distant goal along above-ground pathways. The pathways were entirely visible to the subjects in all experiments. However, visual cues along the pathways (in Experiment I) and physical and spatial properties of the pathways (in Experiments II and III) were varied systematically in order to determine what effect features had upon selection of travel paths for monkeys of each species. Marked performance differences between the species were evident in these experiments, including differences in latency to move past the choice point, proportion of trials in which the shortest route was chosen first, and changes over test sessions in frequency of initial choice of the shortest route. In particular, titis tended to move past the choice point more slowly than squirrel monkeys; to pay more attention to distant properties of the pathways prior to making a decision, especially after experience in the test setting; and to prefer habitual pathways when these were available, whereas squirrel monkeys preferred novel routes when these were available. The relative "optimality" of decision making in these tasks in relation to species-typical modes of traveling and foraging in natural habitats is discussed. An alternative view of decision making, in which optimality is not assumed to be the only decision-making strategy, is suggested as an appropriate vehicle for further investigation into the sources of short-term variability in choice behavior. PMID:7223106

  20. Plasma Hormone Concentrations in Monkeys after Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grindeland, Richard E.; Mukku, V. R.; Dotsenko, R.; Gosselink, K. L.; Bigbee, A. J.; Helwig, D.; Hargens, Alan R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of a 12.5 day spaceflight on the endocrine status of Rhesus monkeys. Male monkeys (three to four years old; 4 kg) were adapted to chair restraint and trained for 20 months. Blood samples were obtained from four control (C) and two flight (F) monkeys preflight (PF), post-flight (Recovery-R; days 0, 3, 11, and 17), and before and after a mission length simulation (S). Cortisol, T4, T3, testosterone (T), and IGF-1 were measured by RIA (radioimmunassay). Growth hormone (GH) was measured by an in vitro bioassay. Cortisol (16-34 ug/dl), T4 (3.9-7.4 ug/dl), and T (0.2-0.4 mg/ml) did not differ between F and C or between PF, R, and S samples. The low T values reflect the immaturity of the animals. In F, T3 fell from C levels of 208 +/- 4 ng/dl to 44 on R+0 and 150 on R+3, then returned to C. F showed a 55% decrease in GH at R+0 and decreases of 93, 89, and 80%, respectively, at R+3, 11, and 17. IGF-1 decreased from PF levels of 675 ng/ml to 365 (R+0) and 243 (R+3), but returned to C at R+11. GH and IGF-1 levels before and after S did not differ from each other or from C. The cause of the transitory decrease in T3 is unknown. The suppressed GH levels for 17 days after flight may reflect reduced proprioceptive input during flight. The faster recovery of IGF-1 suggests that factors other than reduced GH secretion are involved.

  1. Volume effects in Rhesus monkey spinal cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted to test for the existence of a volume effect in radiation myelopathy using Rhesus monkeys treated with clinically relevant field sizes and fractionation schedules. Five groups of Rhesus monkeys were irradiated using 2.2 Gy per fraction to their spinal cords. Three groups were irradiated with 8 cm fields to total doses of 70.4, 77, and 83.6 Gy. Two additional groups were irradiated to 70.4 Gy using 4 and 16 cm fields. The incidence of paresis expressed within 2 years following the completion of treatment was determined for each group. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to determine parameters of a logistic dose response function. The volume effect was modeled using the probability model in which the probability of producing a lesion in an irradiated volume is governed by the probability of the occurrence of independent events. This is a two parameter model requiring only the estimates of the parameters of the dose-response function for the reference volume, but not needing any additional parameters for describing the volume effect. The probability model using a logistic dose-response function fits the data well with the D50 = 75.8 Gy for the 8-cm field. No evidence was seen for a difference in sensitivities for different anatomical levels of the spinal cord. Most lesions were type 3, combined white matter parenchymal and vascular lesions. Latent periods did not differ significantly from those of type 3 lesions in humans. The spinal cord exhibits a volume effect that is well described by the probability model. Because the dose response function for radiation myelopathy is steep, the volume effect is modest. The Rhesus monkey remains the animal model most similar to humans in dose response, histopathology, and latency for radiation myelopathy. 22 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  2. Which senses play a role in nonhuman primate food selection? A comparison between squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laska, Matthias; Freist, Pamela; Krause, Stephanie

    2007-03-01

    In order to optimize foraging efficiency and avoid toxicosis, animals must be able to detect, discriminate, and learn about the predictive signals of potential food. Primates are typically regarded as animals that rely mainly on their highly developed visual systems, and little is known about the role that the other senses may play in food selection. It was therefore the aim of the present study to assess which senses are involved in the evaluation of food by two species of New World primates: the squirrel monkey and the spider monkey. To this end, six animals per species were repeatedly presented with both familiar and novel food items, and their behavior was videotaped and analyzed. To obtain a further indication of the relative importance of visual and chemosensory cues, the animals were also presented with familiar food items that were experimentally modified in color, odor, or both color and odor. The results demonstrate that squirrel monkeys and spider monkeys use olfactory, gustatory, and tactile cues in addition to visual information to evaluate novel food, whereas they mainly inspect familiar food items visually prior to consumption. Our findings also show that in both species the use of nonvisual cues decreased rapidly with repeated presentations of novel food, suggesting a fast multimodal learning process. Further, the two species clearly differ in their relative use of nonvisual cues when evaluating novel or modified food, with spider monkeys relying more on olfactory cues than squirrel monkeys, and squirrel monkeys relying more on tactile cues compared to spider monkeys. PMID:17146790

  3. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Bramlett-Parker

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates.

  4. Can Rhesus Monkey Learn Executive Attention?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramlett-Parker, Jessica; Washburn, David A

    2016-01-01

    A growing body of data indicates that, compared to humans, rhesus monkeys perform poorly on tasks that assess executive attention, or voluntary control over selection for processing, particularly under circumstances in which attention is attracted elsewhere by competing stimulus control. In the human-cognition literature, there are hotly active debates about whether various competencies such as executive attention, working memory capacity, and fluid intelligence can be improved through training. In the current study, rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) completed an attention-training intervention including several inhibitory-control tasks (a Simon task, numerical Stroop task, global/local interference task, and a continuous performance task) to determine whether generalized improvements would be observed on a version of the Attention Network Test (ANT) of controlled attention, which was administered before and after the training intervention. Although the animals demonstrated inhibition of prepotent responses and improved in executive attention with practice, this improvement did not generalize to the ANT at levels consistently better than were observed for control animals. Although these findings fail to encourage the possibility that species differences in cognitive competencies can be ameliorated through training, they do advance our understanding of the competition between stimulus-control and cognitive-control in performance by nonhuman and human primates. PMID:27304969

  5. Vestibuloocular reflex of rhesus monkeys after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard; Kozlovskaia, Inessa; Raphan, Theodore; Solomon, David; Helwig, Denice; Cohen, Nathaniel; Sirota, Mikhail; Iakushin, Sergei

    1992-01-01

    The vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of two rhesus monkeys was recorded before and after 14 days of spaceflight. The gain (eye velocity/head velocity) of the horizontal VOR, tested 15 and 18 h after landing, was approximately equal to preflight values. The dominant time constant of the animal tested 15 h after landing was equivalent to that before flight. During nystagmus induced by off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR), the latency, rising time constant, steady-state eye velocity, and phase of modulation in eye velocity and eye position with respect to head position were similar in both monkeys before and after flight. There were changes in the amplitude of modulation of horizontal eye velocity during steady-state OVAR and in the ability to discharge stored activity rapidly by tilting during postrotatory nystagmus (tilt dumping) after flight: OVAR modulations were larger, and tilt dumping was lost in the one animal tested on the day of landing and for several days thereafter. If the gain and time constant of the horizontal VOR exchange in microgravity, they must revert to normal soon after landing. The changes that were observed suggest that adaptation to microgravity had caused alterations in way that the central nervous system processes otolith input.

  6. Spaceflight and immune responses of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1995-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-a (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CD8+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  7. Thermoregulatory responses of rhesus monkeys during spaceflight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulzman, F M; Ferraro, J S; Fuller, C A; Moore-Ede, M C; Klimovitsky, V; Magedov, V; Alpatov, A M

    1992-03-01

    This study examines the activity, axillary temperature (T(ax)), and ankle skin temperature (Tsk) of two male Rhesus monkeys exposed to microgravity in space. The animals were flown on a Soviet biosatellite mission (COSMOS 1514). Measurements on the flight animals, as well as synchronous flight controls, were performed in the Soviet Union. Additional control studies were performed in the United States to examine the possible role of metabolic heat production in the T(ax) response observed during the spaceflight. All monkeys were exposed to a 24-h light-dark cycle (LD 16:8) throughout these studies. During weightlessness, T(ax) in both flight animals was lower than on earth. The largest difference (0.75 degree C) occurred during the night. There was a reduction in mean heart rate and Tsk during flight. This suggests a reduction in both heat loss and metabolic rate during spaceflight. Although the circadian rhythms in all variables were present during flight, some differences were noted. For example, the amplitude of the rhythms in Tsk and activity were attenuated. Furthermore, the T(ax) and activity rhythms did not have precise 24.0 hour periods and may have been externally desynchronized from the 24-h LD cycle. These data suggest a weakening of the coupling between the internal circadian pacemaker and the external LD synchronizer. PMID:1523235

  8. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  9. The Thatcher illusion in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakata, Ryuzaburo; Osada, Yoshihisa

    2012-07-01

    Like humans, Old World monkeys are known to use configural face processing to distinguish among individuals. The ability to recognize an individual through the perception of subtle differences in the configuration of facial features plays an important role in social cognition. To test this ability in New World monkeys, this study examined whether squirrel monkeys experience the Thatcher illusion, a measure of face processing ability in which changes in facial features are difficult to detect in an inverted face. In the experiment, the monkeys were required to distinguish between a target face and each of the three kinds of distracter faces whose features were altered to be different from those of the target. For each of the pairs of target and distracter faces, four rotation-based combinations of upright and inverted face presentations were used. The results revealed that when both faces were inverted and the eyes of the distracter face were altered by rotating them at an angle of 180° from those of the target face, the monkeys' discrimination learning was obstructed to a greater extent than it was under the other conditions. Thus, these results suggest that the squirrel monkey does experience the Thatcher illusion. Furthermore, it seems reasonable to assume that squirrel monkeys can utilize information about facial configurations in individual recognition and that this facial configuration information could be useful in their social communications. PMID:22411620

  10. Analysis of the virogenes related to the rhesus monkey endogenous type C retrovirus in monkeys and apes.

    OpenAIRE

    Tainsky, M A

    1981-01-01

    Molecular hybridization studies were carried out by using a [3H]complementary DNA (cDNA) probe to compare the endogenous type C retrovirus of rhesus monkeys (MMC-1) with other known retroviruses and related sequences in various primate DNAs. The genomic RNA of the endogenous type C retrovirus of stumptail monkeys (MAC-1) was found to be highly related to the MMC-1 cDNA probe, whereas the other retroviral RNAs tested showed no homology. Related sequences were found in Old World monkey DNAs and...

  11. Keep children away from macaque monkeys!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bréhin, Camille; Debuisson, Cécile; Mansuy, Jean-Michel; Niphuis, Henk; Buitendijk, Hester; Mengelle, Catherine; Grouteau, Erick; Claudet, Isabelle

    2016-03-01

    To warn physicians and parents about the risk of macaque bites, we present two pediatric cases (a 4-year-old boy and a 10-year-old girl) of bites sustained while on holiday. The young boy developed febrile dermohypodermitis and was hospitalized for IV antibiotic treatment. He received an initial antirabies vaccine while still in the holiday destination. Except for local wound disinfection and antibiotic ointment, the girl did not receive any specific treatment while abroad. Both were negative for simian herpes PCR. When travelling in countries or cities with endemic simian herpes virus, parents should keep children away from monkeys. Travel agencies, pediatricians and family physicians should better inform families about the zoonotic risk. PMID:26984356

  12. Developmental changes of cognitive vocal control in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hage, Steffen R; Gavrilov, Natalja; Nieder, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The evolutionary origins of human language are obscured by the scarcity of essential linguistic characteristics in non-human primate communication systems. Volitional control of vocal utterances is one such indispensable feature of language. We investigated the ability of two monkeys to volitionally utter species-specific calls over many years. Both monkeys reliably vocalized on command during juvenile periods, but discontinued this controlled vocal behavior in adulthood. This emerging disability was confined to volitional vocal production, as the monkeys continued to vocalize spontaneously. In addition, they continued to use hand movements as instructed responses during adulthood. This greater vocal flexibility of monkeys early in ontogeny supports the neoteny hypothesis in human evolution. This suggests that linguistic capabilities were enabled via an expansion of the juvenile period during the development of humans. PMID:27252457

  13. INTERCEPTIVE EFFECTS OF EPOSTANE IN RATS AND RHESUS MONKEYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LINZhong-Ming; LIUChang-Guan; CHENHui-Qing; LIWei-Kang; XURui-Ying

    1989-01-01

    Interceptives arc defined as agents which interrupt pregnancy after implantation.Epostane, a potent 3β-hydroxysteruid dehydrogenase inhibitor, possessed interceptive activities in rats and rhesus monkeys. In rats, day 10 and day 11 of pregnancy were the

  14. jMonkeyEngine 3.0 cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Edén, Rickard

    2014-01-01

    If you are a jMonkey developer or a Java developer who is interested to delve further into the game making process to expand your skillset and create more technical games, then this book is perfect for you.

  15. Dissecting the mechanisms of squirrel monkey (Saimiri boliviensis social learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LM Hopper

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Although the social learning abilities of monkeys have been well documented, this research has only focused on a few species. Furthermore, of those that also incorporated dissections of social learning mechanisms, the majority studied either capuchins (Cebus apella or marmosets (Callithrix jacchus. To gain a broader understanding of how monkeys gain new skills, we tested squirrel monkeys (Saimiri boliviensis which have never been studied in tests of social learning mechanisms. To determine whether S. boliviensis can socially learn, we ran “open diffusion” tests with monkeys housed in two social groups (N = 23. Over the course of 10 20-min sessions, the monkeys in each group observed a trained group member retrieving a mealworm from a bidirectional task (the “Slide-box”. Two thirds (67% of these monkeys both learned how to operate the Slide-box and they also moved the door significantly more times in the direction modeled by the trained demonstrator than the alternative direction. To tease apart the underlying social learning mechanisms we ran a series of three control conditions with 35 squirrel monkeys that had no previous experience with the Slide-box. The first replicated the experimental open diffusion sessions but without the inclusion of a trained model, the second was a no-information control with dyads of monkeys, and the third was a ‘ghost’ display shown to individual monkeys. The first two controls tested for the importance of social support (mere presence effect and the ghost display showed the affordances of the task to the monkeys. The monkeys showed a certain level of success in the group control (54% of subjects solved the task on one or more occasions and paired controls (28% were successful but none were successful in the ghost control. We propose that the squirrel monkeys’ learning, observed in the experimental open diffusion tests, can be best described by a combination of social learning mechanisms in concert

  16. Comparison of Plasmodium falciparum infections in Panamanian and Colombian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Harper, J S; Davidson, D E; Escajadillo, A; Christensen, H A

    1985-11-01

    Parameters of blood-induced infections of the Vietnam Oak Knoll, Vietnam Smith, and Uganda Palo Alto strains of Plasmodium falciparum studied in 395 Panamanian owl monkeys in this laboratory between 1976-1984 were compared with those reported from another laboratory for 665 Colombian owl monkeys, studied between 1968-1975, and, at the time, designated Aotus trivirgatus griseimembra. The virulence of these strains was less in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, as indicated by lower mortality rates of the Panamanian monkeys during the first 30 days of patency. Maximum parasitemias of the Vietnam Smith and Uganda Palo Alto strain, in Panamanian owl monkeys dying during the first 15 days of patent infection, were significantly higher than in Colombian owl monkeys. Panamanian owl monkeys that survived the primary attack had significantly higher maximum parasitemias than the surviving Colombian owl monkeys. Peak parasitemias were attained significantly earlier after patency in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys, irrespective of the strain of P. falciparum. More Panamanian than Colombian owl monkeys evidenced self-limited infection after the primary attack of either the Vietnam Smith or Uganda Palo Alto strain. The duration of the primary attacks and recrudescences were significantly shorter in Panamanian than in Colombian owl monkeys. Mean peak parasitemias during recrudescence were usually higher in Panamanian owl monkeys than in Colombian monkeys. Differences of infection parameters were probably attributable, in part, to geographical origin of the two monkey hosts and parasite strains. PMID:3914842

  17. Performing monkeys of Bangladesh: characterizing their source and genetic variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, M Kamrul; Feeroz, M Mostafa; Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A; Akhtar, Sharmin; Kanthaswamy, Sree; Smith, David Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The acquisition and training of monkeys to perform is a centuries-old tradition in South Asia, resulting in a large number of rhesus macaques kept in captivity for this purpose. The performing monkeys are reportedly collected from free-ranging populations, and may escape from their owners or may be released into other populations. In order to determine whether this tradition involving the acquisition and movement of animals has influenced the population structure of free-ranging rhesus macaques in Bangladesh, we first characterized the source of these monkeys. Biological samples from 65 performing macaques collected between January 2010 and August 2013 were analyzed for genetic variation using 716 base pairs of mitochondrial DNA. Performing monkey sequences were compared with those of free-ranging rhesus macaque populations in Bangladesh, India and Myanmar. Forty-five haplotypes with 116 (16 %) polymorphic nucleotide sites were detected among the performing monkeys. As for the free-ranging rhesus population, most of the substitutions (89 %) were transitions, and no indels (insertion/deletion) were observed. The estimate of the mean number of pair-wise differences for the performing monkey population was 10.1264 ± 4.686, compared to 14.076 ± 6.363 for the free-ranging population. Fifteen free-ranging rhesus macaque populations were identified as the source of performing monkeys in Bangladesh; several of these populations were from areas where active provisioning has resulted in a large number of macaques. The collection of performing monkeys from India was also evident. PMID:26758818

  18. Real-Time Dopamine Measurement in Awake Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Schluter, Erik W.; Mitz, Andrew R.; Cheer, Joseph F.; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2014-01-01

    Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV) is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA) concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electr...

  19. The renal microvasculature of the monkey: an anatomical investigation.

    OpenAIRE

    Horacek, M J; Earle, A M; Gilmore, J. P.

    1986-01-01

    Twelve monkeys, Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta, were investigated to study their renal microvasculature. After death, all monkeys were perfused with heparinised isotonic saline to flush their vascular systems. The kidneys were then perfused with silicone rubber and examined. The silicone rubber injections allowed description of afferent arterioles and several efferent vascular patterns observed in the subcapsular, midcortical, and inner cortical regions. The medullary vasculature was ...

  20. Longitudinal Analysis of Early Stage Sarcopenia in Aging Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    McKiernan, Susan H; Colman, Ricki; Lopez, Marisol; Beasley, T.Mark; Weindruch, Richard; Aiken, Judd M.

    2008-01-01

    We present a longitudinal study using the rhesus monkey to determine biochemical and histological changes in vastus lateralis (VL) muscle fibers and whether these changes correlate with muscle mass loss. Dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was used to determine body weight, body fat and to estimate upper leg muscle mass in twelve adult male rhesus monkeys over 12 years. Muscle mass (MM) was evaluated at years six, nine and twelve of the study. Concurrently, VL muscle biopsy samples were co...

  1. Facial expression recognition in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The ability to recognize and accurately interpret facial expressions is critically important for nonhuman primates that rely on these nonverbal signals for social communication. Despite this, little is known about how nonhuman primates, particularly monkeys, discriminate between facial expressions. In the present study, seven rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate four categories of conspecific facial expressions using a matching-to-sample task. In experiment 1, the matching pair showed...

  2. Covert Shifts of Spatial Attention in the Macaque Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Caspari, Natalie; Janssens, Thomas; Mantini, Dante; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vanduffel, Wim

    2015-01-01

    In the awake state, shifts of spatial attention alternate with periods of sustained attention at a fixed location or object. Human fMRI experiments revealed the critical role of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in shifting spatial attention, a finding not predicted by human lesion studies and monkey electrophysiology. To investigate whether a potential homolog of the human SPL shifting region exists in monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we adopted an event-related fMRI paradigm that closely resemble...

  3. Preference transitivity and symbolic representation in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Addessi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Can non-human animals comprehend and employ symbols? The most convincing empirical evidence comes from language-trained apes, but little is known about this ability in monkeys. Tokens can be regarded as symbols since they are inherently non-valuable objects that acquire an arbitrarily assigned value upon exchange with an experimenter. Recent evidence suggested that capuchin monkeys, which diverged from the human lineage 35 million years ago, can estimate, represent and combine token quantities. A fundamental and open question is whether monkeys can reason about symbols in ways similar to how they reason about real objects. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we examined this broad question in the context of economic choice behavior. Specifically, we assessed whether, in a symbolic context, capuchins' preferences satisfy transitivity--a fundamental trait of rational decision-making. Given three options A, B and C, transitivity holds true if A > or = B, B > or = C and A > or = C (where > or = indicates preference. In this study, we trained monkeys to exchange three types of tokens for three different foods. We then compared choices monkeys made between different types of tokens with choices monkeys made between the foods. Qualitatively, capuchins' preferences revealed by the way of tokens were similar to those measured with the actual foods. In particular, when choosing between tokens, monkeys displayed strict economic preferences and their choices satisfied transitivity. Quantitatively, however, values measured by the way of tokens differed systematically from those measured with the actual foods. In particular, for any pair of foods, the relative value of the preferred food increased when monkeys chose between the corresponding tokens. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate that indeed capuchins are capable of treating tokens as symbols. However, as they do so, capuchins experience the cognitive burdens imposed by symbolic

  4. TRANSFERRIN: VARIATIONS IN BLOOD SERUM OF RED HOWLER MONKEYS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    SCHOEN, M A; ARENDS, T

    1964-11-01

    Blood serum samples from 33 red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) were examined. Three different phenotypes were found and denominated A, B, and C. Four serums could not be classified because their transferrin apparently did not bind iron-59, possibly owing to saturation. A difference was observed in the electrophoretic migration and pattern of the transferrins in these monkeys compared with those of other primates. PMID:14197564

  5. Frustrative nonreward and pituitary-adrenal activity in squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, D M; Fong, K D; Schrieken, N; Levine, S

    2000-12-01

    Little is known about frustration-induced changes in stress physiology in humans and nonhuman primates. Here we assess in two experiments with squirrel monkeys plasma levels of pituitary-adrenal stress hormones in conditions designed to provoke frustrative nonreward. In the first experiment 18 prepubertal monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested without food at any of the sites. These monkeys responded with significant increases in cortisol and adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). In the second experiment 18 adult monkeys were trained to feed from one of eight sites, and then tested after food was moved to a different foraging site. Nine monkeys found food at the relocated site, discontinued foraging at the previously baited site, and responded with decreases in cortisol. The other nine monkeys failed to find the relocated site, initially increased their visits to the previously baited site, and responded with elevations in cortisol and ACTH. In keeping with comparable findings in rats, our observations indicate that frustrative nonreward elicits ACTH-stimulated secretion of cortisol in primates. PMID:11239675

  6. A comparative assessment of hand preference in captive red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasibah Sfar

    Full Text Available There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates-the 'task complexity' theory and the 'postural origins' theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the 'niche structure' hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container. In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging. Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence

  7. A comparative assessment of hand preference in captive red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sfar, Nasibah; Mangalam, Madhur; Kaumanns, Werner; Singh, Mewa

    2014-01-01

    There are two major theories that attempt to explain hand preference in non-human primates-the 'task complexity' theory and the 'postural origins' theory. In the present study, we proposed a third hypothesis to explain the evolutionary origin of hand preference in non-human primates, stating that it could have evolved owing to structural and functional adaptations to feeding, which we refer to as the 'niche structure' hypothesis. We attempted to explore this hypothesis by comparing hand preference across species that differ in the feeding ecology and niche structure: red howler monkeys, Alouatta seniculus and yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys, Sapajus xanthosternos. The red howler monkeys used the mouth to obtain food more frequently than the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. The red howler monkeys almost never reached for food presented on the opposite side of a wire mesh or inside a portable container, whereas the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys reached for food presented in all four spatial arrangements (scattered, on the opposite side of a wire mesh, inside a suspended container, and inside a portable container). In contrast to the red howler monkeys that almost never acquired bipedal and clinging posture, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys acquired all five body postures (sitting, bipedal, tripedal, clinging, and hanging). Although there was no difference between the proportion of the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys that preferentially used one hand, the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys exhibited an overall weaker hand preference than the red howler monkeys. Differences in hand preference diminished with the increasing complexity of the reaching-for-food tasks, i.e., the relatively more complex tasks were perceived as equally complex by both the red howler monkeys and the yellow-breasted capuchin monkeys. These findings suggest that species-specific differences in feeding ecology and niche structure can influence the perception of

  8. Male-directed infanticide in spider monkeys (Ateles spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Sara; Di Fiore, Anthony; Champion, Jane; Pavelka, Mary Susan; Páez, Johanna; Link, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Infanticide is considered a conspicuous expression of sexual conflict amongst mammals, including at least 35 primate species. Here we describe two suspected and one attempted case of intragroup infanticide in spider monkeys that augment five prior cases of observed or suspected infanticide in this genus. Contrary to the typical pattern of infanticide seen in most primate societies, where infants are killed by conspecifics independent of their sex, all eight cases of observed or suspected infanticide in spider monkeys have been directed toward male infants within their first weeks of life. Moreover, although data are still scant, infanticides seem to be perpetrated exclusively by adult males against infants from their own social groups and are not associated with male takeovers or a sudden rise in male dominance rank. Although the slow reproductive cycles of spider monkeys might favor the presence of infanticide because of the potential to shorten females' interbirth intervals, infanticide is nonetheless uncommon among spider monkeys, and patterns of male-directed infanticide are not yet understood. We suggest that given the potentially close genetic relationships among adult males within spider monkey groups, and the need for males to cooperate with one another in territorial interactions with other groups of related males, infanticide may be expected to occur primarily where the level of intragroup competition among males outweighs that of competition between social groups. Finally, we suggest that infanticide in spider monkeys may be more prevalent than previously thought, given that it may be difficult for observers to witness cases of infanticide or suspected infanticide that occur soon after birth in taxa that are characterized by high levels of fission-fusion dynamics. Early, undetected, male-biased infanticide could influence the composition of spider monkey groups and contribute to the female-biased adult sex ratios often reported for this genus. PMID

  9. Concentric scheme of monkey auditory cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaki, Hiroko; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2003-04-01

    The cytoarchitecture of the rhesus monkey's auditory cortex was examined using immunocytochemical staining with parvalbumin, calbindin-D28K, and SMI32, as well as staining for cytochrome oxidase (CO). The results suggest that Kaas and Hackett's scheme of the auditory cortices can be extended to include five concentric rings surrounding an inner core. The inner core, containing areas A1 and R, is the most densely stained with parvalbumin and CO and can be separated on the basis of laminar patterns of SMI32 staining into lateral and medial subdivisions. From the inner core to the fifth (outermost) ring, parvalbumin staining gradually decreases and calbindin staining gradually increases. The first ring corresponds to Kaas and Hackett's auditory belt, and the second, to their parabelt. SMI32 staining revealed a clear border between these two. Rings 2 through 5 extend laterally into the dorsal bank of the superior temporal sulcus. The results also suggest that the rostral tip of the outermost ring adjoins the rostroventral part of the insula (area Pro) and the temporal pole, while the caudal tip adjoins the ventral part of area 7a.

  10. Microsatellite polymorphisms of Sichuan golden monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PAN Deng; LI Ying; HU Hongxing; MENG Shijie; MEN Zhengrning; FU Yunxin; ZHANG Yaping

    2005-01-01

    Previous study using protein electrophoresis shows no polymorphism in 44 nuclear loci of Sichuan golden monkey (Rhinopithecus roxellana), which limits our understandings of its population genetic patterns in the nuclear genome. In order to obtain sufficient information, we scanned 14 microsatellite loci in a sample of 32 individuals from its three major habitats (Minshan, Qinling and Shennongjia). A considerable amount of polymorphisms were detected. The average heterozygosities in the local populations were all above 0.5. The differentiations among local populations were significant. There was evidence of geneflow among subpopulations, but geneflow between Qinling and Shennongjia local populations was the weakest. Minshan and Qinling populations might have gone through recent bottlenecks. The estimation of the ratio of the effective population sizes among local populations was close to that from census sizes. Comparisons to available mitochondria data suggested that R. roxellana's social structures played an important role in shaping its population genetic patterns. Our study showed that the polymorphism level of R. roxellana was no higher than other endangered species; therefore, measures should be taken to preserve genetic diversity of this species.

  11. Patterns of mineral lick visitation by spider monkeys and howler monkeys in Amazonia: are licks perceived as risky areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andres; Galvis, Nelson; Fleming, Erin; Di Fiore, Anthony

    2011-04-01

    Mineral licks--also known as "salados," "saladeros," or "collpas"--are specific sites in tropical and temperate ecosystems where a large diversity of mammals and birds come regularly to feed on soil. Although the reasons for vertebrate geophagy are not completely understood, animals are argued to obtain a variety of nutritional and health benefits from the ingestion of soil at mineral licks. We studied the temporal patterns of mineral lick use by white-bellied spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) and red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) in a lowland rain forest in Amazonian Ecuador. Using camera and video traps at four different mineral licks, combined with behavioral follows of one group of spider monkeys, we documented rates of mineral lick visitation by both primate species and the relative frequency and intensity of mineral lick use by spider monkeys. On the basis of 1,612 days and 888 nights of mineral lick monitoring, we found that A. belzebuth and A. seniculus both visit mineral licks frequently throughout the year (on average ∼14% of days for both species), and mineral lick visitation was influenced by short-term environmental conditions (e.g. sunny and dry weather). For spider monkeys, the area surrounding the lick was also the most frequently and most intensively used region within the group's home range. The fact that spider monkeys spent long periods at the lick area before coming to the ground to obtain soil, and the fact that both species visited the lick preferentially during dry sunny conditions (when predator detectability is presumed to be relatively high) and visited simultaneously more often than expected by chance, together suggest that licks are indeed perceived as risky areas by these primates. We suggest that howler and spider monkeys employ behavioral strategies aimed at minimizing the probability of predation while visiting the forest floor at risky mineral lick sites. PMID:21328597

  12. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Camargos Costa; Vanessa Pecini da Cunha; Gabriela Maria Pereira de Assis; Júlio César de Souza Junior; Zelinda Maria Braga Hirano; Mércia Eliane de Arruda; Flora Satiko Kano; Luzia Helena Carvalho; Cristiana Ferreira Alves de Brito

    2014-01-01

    Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4%) and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35%) from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the po...

  13. The renal vascular system of the monkey: a gross anatomical description.

    OpenAIRE

    Horacek, M J; Earle, A M; Gilmore, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    This study was conducted on two species of monkeys, Macaca fascicularis and Macaca mulatta, to describe their gross renal vascular morphology. After death, twelve monkeys were perfused with isotonic saline to flush their vascular systems. The monkeys were then perfused either with latex or methyl methacrylate, or both, one into the arterial and the other into the venous system. The results indicated that there were six to eight arterial segments in the monkey kidney, each supplied by a segmen...

  14. Endocrine responses in the rhesus monkey during acute cold exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, W.G.; Saxton, J.L. (Naval Aerospace Medical Research Lab., Pensacola, FL (United States))

    1991-03-11

    The authors studied five young male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), 3.4 to 6.7 kg, to determine the relationship between fluid balance hormones and urine production during acute, dry cold exposure. Each monkey served as its own control in duplicate experimental sessions at 6C or 26C. A 6-h experimental session consisted of 120 min equilibration at 26C, 120 min experimental exposure, and 120 min recovery at 26C. Urinary and venous catheters were inserted on the morning of a session. Rectal (Tre) and skin temperatures were monitored continuously. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60 and 120 min of exposure, and at 60 min postexposure. Plasma was analyzed for arginine vasopressin (AVP), atrial natriuretic factor (ANF), plasma renin activity (PRA), plasma aldosterone (PA), and osmolality. Urine samples were analyzed for osmolality, electrolytes, and creatinine. Mean Tre was 1.6C lower after 120 min at 6C than at 26C. Urine volume and osmolality were not altered by cold exposure, as they are in humans and rats. Vasopressin and PA increased sharply, with mean plasma levels in monkeys exposed to cold more than threefold and tenfold, respectively, the levels in monkeys exposed at 26C. In contrast, ANF, PRA, and plasma osmolality were not significantly changed by cold exposure. The absence of a cold-induced diuresis in the monkey may be related to the marked increase in plasma AVP level.

  15. Responses of squirrel monkeys to their experimentally modified mobbing calls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fichtel, Claudia; Hammerschmidt, Kurt

    2003-05-01

    Previous acoustic analyses suggested emotion-correlated changes in the acoustic structure of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) vocalizations. Specifically, calls given in aversive contexts were characterized by an upward shift in frequencies, often accompanied by an increase in amplitude. In order to test whether changes in frequencies or amplitude are indeed relevant for conspecific listeners, playback experiments were conducted in which either frequencies or amplitude of mobbing calls were modified. Latency and first orienting response were measured in playback experiments with six adult squirrel monkeys. After broadcasting yaps with increased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a longer orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding control stimuli. Furthermore, after broadcasting yaps with decreased frequencies or amplitude, squirrel monkeys showed a shorter orienting response towards the speaker than after the corresponding manipulated calls with higher frequencies or amplitude. These results suggest that changes in frequencies or amplitude were perceived by squirrel monkeys, indicating that the relationship between call structure and the underlying affective state of the caller agreed with the listener's assessment of the calls. However, a simultaneous increase in frequencies and amplitude did not lead to an enhanced response, compared to each single parameter. Thus, from the receiver's perspective, both call parameters may mutually replace each other.

  16. Chronic experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in Cebus apella monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Riarte

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty young male Cebus apella monkeys were infected with CAl Trypanosoma cruzi strain and reinfected with CA l or Tulahuen T.cruzi strains, with different doses and parasite source. Subpatent parasitemia was usually demonstrated in acute and chronic phases. Patent parasitemia was evident in one monkey in the acute phase and in four of them in the chronic phase after re-inoculations with high doses of CAl strain. Serological conversion was observed in all monkeys; titers were low, regardless of the methods used to investigate anti-T. cruzi specific antibodies. Higher titers were induced only when re-inoculations were perfomed with the virulent Tulahuén strain or high doses of CAl strain. Clinical electrocardiographic and ajmaline test evaluations did not reveal changes between infected and control monkeys. Histopathologically, cardiac lesions were always characterized by focal or multifocal mononuclear infiltrates and/or isolated fibrosis, as seen during the acute and chronic phases; neither amastigote nests nor active inflammation and fibrogenic processes characteristic of human acute and chronic myocarditis respectively, were observed. These morphological aspects more closely resemble those found in the "indeterminate phase" and contrast with the more diffuse and progressive pattern of the human chagasic myocarditis. All monkeys survived and no mortality was observed.

  17. Unrecognized "AIDS" in Monkeys, 1969-1980: Explanations and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, Theodore M; Bronson, Roderick T

    2016-06-01

    AIDS was recognized in humans in 1981 and a simian form was described in the years 1983 to 1985. However, beginning in the late 1960s, outbreaks of opportunistic infections of AIDS were seen in monkeys in the United States. This apparent syndrome went unrecognized at the time. We have assembled those early cases in monkeys and offer reasons why they did not result in earlier recognition of simian or human AIDS, including weaknesses in understanding disease mechanisms, absence of evidence of human retroviruses, and a climate of opinion that devalued investigation of infectious disease and immunologic origins of disease. The "epistemological obstacle" explains important elements of this history in that misconceptions blocked understanding of the dependent relationship among viral infection, immunodeficiency, and opportunistic diseases. Had clearer understanding of the evidence from monkeys allowed human AIDS to be recognized earlier, life-saving prevention and treatment interventions might have been implemented sooner. PMID:27077355

  18. A more consistent intraluminal rhesus monkey model of ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Zhao; Fauzia Akbary; Shengli Li; Jing Lu; Feng Ling; Xunming Ji; Guowei Shang; Jian Chen; Xiaokun Geng; Xin Ye; Guoxun Xu; Ju Wang; Jiasheng Zheng; Hongjun Li

    2014-01-01

    Endovascular surgery is advantageous in experimentally induced ischemic stroke because it causes fewer cranial traumatic lesions than invasive surgery and can closely mimic the pathophysiol-ogy in stroke patients. However, the outcomes are highly variable, which limits the accuracy of evaluations of ischemic stroke studies. In this study, eight healthy adult rhesus monkeys were randomized into two groups with four monkeys in each group:middle cerebral artery occlusion at origin segment (M1) and middle cerebral artery occlusion at M2 segment. The blood lfow in the middle cerebral artery was blocked completely for 2 hours using the endovascular microcoil placement technique (1 mm × 10 cm) (undetachable), to establish a model of cerebral ischemia. The microcoil was withdrawn and the middle cerebral artery blood lfow was restored. A revers-ible middle cerebral artery occlusion model was identiifed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and neurological evaluation. The results showed that the middle cerebral artery occlusion model was successfully established in eight adult healthy rhesus monkeys, and ischemic lesions were apparent in the brain tissue of rhesus monkeys at 24 hours after occlusion. The rhesus monkeys had symp-toms of neurological deifcits. Compared with the M1 occlusion group, the M2 occlusion group had lower infarction volume and higher neurological scores. These experimental ifndings indicate that reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion can be produced with the endovascular microcoil technique in rhesus monkeys. The M2 occluded model had less infarction and less neurological impairment, which offers the potential for application in the ifeld of brain injury research.

  19. Molecular systematics and biogeography of the Neotropical monkey genus, Alouatta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Ortiz, L; Bermingham, E; Rico, C; Rodríguez-Luna, E; Sampaio, I; Ruiz-García, M

    2003-01-01

    We take advantage of the broad distribution of howler monkeys from Mexico to Argentina to provide a historical biogeographical analysis on a regional scale that encompasses the entire Neotropics. The phylogenetic relationships among 9 of the 10 recognized Alouatta species were inferred using three mitochondrial and two nuclear genes. The nuclear gene regions provided no phylogenetic resolution among howler monkey species, and were characterized by very low levels of sequence divergence between Alouatta and the Ateles outgroup. The mtDNA genes, on the other hand, produced a well-resolved phylogeny, which indicated that the earliest split among howler monkeys separated cis- and trans-Andean clades. Eight monophyletic mtDNA haplotype clades were identified, representing six named species in South America, including Alouatta seniculus, Alouatta sara, Alouatta macconelli, Alouatta caraya, Alouatta belzebul, and Alouatta guariba, and two in Mesoamerica, Alouatta pigra and Alouatta palliata. Molecular clock-based estimates of branching times indicated that contemporary howler monkey species originated in the late Miocene and Pliocene, not the Pleistocene. The causes of Alouatta diversification were more difficult to pin down, although we posit that the initial cis-, trans-Andean split in the genus was caused by the late Miocene completion of the northern Andes. Riverine barriers to dispersal and putative forest refuges can neither be discounted nor distinguished as causes of speciation in many cases, and one, the other or both have likely played a role in the diversification of South American howler monkeys. Finally, we estimated the separation of Mesoamerican A. pigra and A. palliata at 3Ma, which corresponds to the completion date of the Panama Isthmus promoting a role for this earth history event in the speciation of Central American howler monkeys. PMID:12470939

  20. Genomic diversity and evolution of papillomaviruses in rhesus monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, S. Y.; Bernard, H U; Ratterree, M.; Birkebak, T A; Faras, A J; Ostrow, R S

    1997-01-01

    We are studying the diversity of and relationships among papillomaviruses (PVs) to understand the modes and timescales of PV evolution and in the hope of finding animal PVs that may serve as model systems for disease caused by human PVs (HPVs). Toward this goal, we have examined 326 genital samples from rhesus monkeys and long-tailed macaques with a PCR protocol optimized for detecting genital HPV types. In 28 of the rhesus monkey samples, we found amplicons derived from 12 different and nove...

  1. Virulence of Avian Influenza A Viruses for Squirrel Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Brian R.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Sly, D. Lewis; London, William T.; Hosier, Nanette T.; Wood, Frank T.; Webster, Robert G.; Chanock, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus in t...

  2. "Zeroing" in on mathematics in the monkey brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    A new study documented that monkeys showed selective neuronal responding to the concept of zero during a numerical task, and that there were two distinct classes of neurons that coded the absence of stimuli either through a discrete activation pattern (zero or not zero) or a continuous one for which zero was integrated with other numerosities in the relative rate of activity. These data indicate that monkeys, like humans, have a concept of zero that is part of their analog number line but that also may have unique properties compared to other numerosities. PMID:26494578

  3. Reproductive function of monkeys subjected to chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marked functional disorders have been detected in reproductive glands of eight female monkeys (as compared to twelve control animals) subjected to protracted (up to eight years) irradiation (cumulative doses 826-3282 R). Irradiated monkeys exhibited a drastically decreased reproductive capacity, early menopause and sterility. Irradiation of preadolescent animals inhibited, in most cases, the puberty processes and disturbed sex cycles. Structural disorders in sex glands, inhibition of the processes of maturation and ovulation of folloculi, death of the mass of germ cells, atypical vegetations of the integmentary epithelium, sclerosing and cystic degeneration of the glandular tissue have been revealed

  4. Adaptation of the Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum to Panamanian owl monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossan, R N; Baerg, D C

    1987-09-01

    The Panama II strain of Plasmodium falciparum, acquired at the second passage level in splenectomized Colombian owl monkeys, was adapted to owl monkeys of Panamanian origin. Patent infections were induced in 22 of 27 unaltered and 20 of 21 splenectomized recipients during 19 serial passages. The infections were significantly more virulent in splenectomized than normal Panamanian owl monkeys, however recrudescences in seven normal monkeys achieved peak parasitemias 48 times greater than in the primary attack. These results describe the first reproducible infections of indigenous falciparum malaria in Panamanian owl monkeys. PMID:3310680

  5. Auditory Function in Rhesus Monkeys: Effects of Aging and Caloric Restriction in the Wisconsin Monkeys Five Years Later

    OpenAIRE

    Fowler, Cynthia G.; Chiasson, Kirstin Beach; Leslie, Tami Hanson; Thomas, Denise; Beasley, T. Mark; Kemnitz, Joseph W; Weindruch, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Caloric restriction (CR) slows aging in many species and protects some animals from age-related hearing loss (ARHL), but the effect on humans is not yet known. Because rhesus monkeys are long-lived primates that are phylogenically closer to humans than other research animals are, they provide a better model for studying the effects of CR in aging and ARHL. Subjects were from the pool of 55 rhesus monkeys aged 15–28 years who had been in the Wisconsin study on CR and aging for 8–13.5 years. Di...

  6. Sleeping sites choice by a wild group of howler monkeys (Alouatta belzebul) in the Atlantic Forest of Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Martin‑Klimoczko, Lucille; Meunier, Hélène; Moura, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Study of primates sleeping habits is important to understand their behaviour and adaptations. Red-handed howler monkey is a new world monkey which is classified as Vulnerable in the IUCN red list. The present study aims to understand the choice of sleeping trees by these monkeys to facilitate the establishment of an adapted conservation plan. Indeed, data were collected in a fragmented landscape of the Atlantic Forest, following a wild monkey group from dawn to dusk. Trees criteria and monkey...

  7. Monkey-derived monoclonal antibodies against Plasmodium falciparum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, H.A.; Reese, R.T.

    1985-09-01

    A system has been developed that allows efficient production of monkey monoclonal antibodies from owl monkeys. Splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes from monkeys immune to the human malarial parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, were fused with P3X63 Ag8.653 mouse myelomas. The resulting hybridomas were screened by an indirect fluorescent antibody test for the production of monkey monoclonal antibodies (mAb) reactive with P. falciparum. Most of the mAb reacted with the P. falciparum merozoites and immunoprecipitated a parasite-derived glycoprotein having a relative molecular weight of 185,000. These mAb gave a minimum of five different immunoprecipitation patterns, thus demonstrating that a large number of polypeptides obtained when parasitized erythrocytes are solubilized share epitopes with this large glycoprotein. In addition, mAb were obtained that reacted with antigens associated with the infected erythrocyte membrane. One of these mAb bound a M/sub r/ 95,000 antigen. Radioimmunoprecipitation assays using /sup 125/T-antibodies were done.

  8. Monkey hybrid stem cells develop cellular features of Huntington's disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorthongpanich Chanchao

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pluripotent stem cells that are capable of differentiating into different cell types and develop robust hallmark cellular features are useful tools for clarifying the impact of developmental events on neurodegenerative diseases such as Huntington's disease. Additionally, a Huntington's cell model that develops robust pathological features of Huntington's disease would be valuable for drug discovery research. Results To test this hypothesis, a pluripotent Huntington's disease monkey hybrid cell line (TrES1 was established from a tetraploid Huntington's disease monkey blastocyst generated by the fusion of transgenic Huntington's monkey skin fibroblast and a wild-type non-transgenic monkey oocyte. The TrES1 developed key Huntington's disease cellular pathological features that paralleled neural development. It expressed mutant huntingtin and stem cell markers, was capable of differentiating to neural cells, and developed teratoma in severely compromised immune deficient (SCID mice. Interestingly, the expression of mutant htt, the accumulation of oligomeric mutant htt and the formation of intranuclear inclusions paralleled neural development in vitro , and even mutant htt was ubiquitously expressed. This suggests the development of Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. Conclusions Huntington's disease cellular features is influenced by neural developmental events. These results are the first to demonstrate that a pluripotent stem cell line is able to mimic Huntington's disease progression that parallels neural development, which could be a useful cell model for investigating the developmental impact on Huntington's disease pathogenesis.

  9. Present and potential distribution of Snub-nosed Monkey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nüchel, Jonas; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Svenning, Jens-Christian

    Snub-nosed Monkeys (Rhinopithecus), a temperate-subtropical East Asian genus. We use species distribution modeling to assess the following question of key relevancy for conservation management of Rhinopithecus; 1. Which climatic factors determine the present distribution of Rhinopithecus within...

  10. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  11. ‘‘What's wrong with my monkey?''

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsson, I. Anna S.; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    acceptable to use animals as models of human disease; whether it is acceptable to genetically modify animals; and whether these animals' being monkeys makes a difference. The analysis considers the prospect of transgenic marmoset studies coming to replace transgenic mouse studies and lesion studies in...

  12. Prospective and Retrospective Metacognitive Abilities in Rhesus Monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Ding

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Metacognition refers to a knowledge of one’s own cognitive abilities and one’s aptitude to alter these abilities if necessary. Previous research from our lab shows that monkeys exhibit metacognitive abilities by accurately judging their own performance on perceptual and serial working memory tasks. The present study includes two phases during which a monkey makes retrospective and prospective judgments of confidence. In the retrospective phase of this experiment, the subject completes a recall task, and then judges his performance on the test phase by choosing from high and low-risk confidence choices. In the prospective task, the monkey makes his confidence judgment before the test, instead judging how well he learned during the study phase. An analysis of results indicates that monkeys can immediately transfer the ability to make metacognitive judgments from the serial working memory tasks in previous experiments to retrospective and prospective recall tasks in the present study. These findings underline the similarity between the non-human primate and human abilities to make confidence judgments. Further, they are the first evidence to date of a non-human primate making a prospective judgment of future performance, suggesting that the ability to use a metacognitive state to control one’s actions is not uniquely human.

  13. Toxoplasmosis in a colony of New World monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dietz, H.H.; Henriksen, P.; Bille-Hansen, Vivi;

    1997-01-01

    In a colony of New World monkeys five tamarins (Saguinus oedipus, Saguinus labiatus and Leontopithecus rosal. rosal.), three marmosets (Callithrix jacchus and Callithrix pygmaea) and one saki (Pithecia pithecia) died suddenly. The colony comprised 16 marmosets, 10 tamarins and three sakis. The ma...

  14. Individual differences in rhesus monkeys' demand for drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koffarnus, Mikhail N; Hall, Amy; Winger, Gail

    2012-09-01

    A relatively small percentage of humans who are exposed to drugs of abuse eventually become addicted to or dependent on those drugs. These individual differences in likelihood of developing drug addiction may reflect behavioral, neurobiological or genetic correlates of drug addiction and are therefore important to model. Behavioral economic measures of demand establish functions whose overall elasticity (rate of decrease in consumption as price increases) reflects the reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli, including drugs. Using these demand functions, we determined the reinforcing effectiveness of five drugs of abuse (cocaine, remifentanil, ketamine, methohexital and ethanol) in 10 rhesus monkeys with histories of intravenous drug-taking. There was a continuum of reinforcing effectiveness across the five drugs, with cocaine and remifentanil showing the most reinforcing effectiveness. There was also a continuum of sensitivity of the monkeys; two of the 10 animals, in particular, showed greater demand for the drugs than did the remaining eight monkeys. In addition, monkeys that demonstrated greater demand for one drug tended to show greater demand for all drugs but did not show a similar relatively greater demand for sucrose pellets. These findings suggest that the tendency to find drugs to be reinforcing is a general one, not restricted to particular drugs and also, that a minority of animals show a substantially enhanced sensitivity to the reinforcing effects of drugs. The possibility that differences in responsiveness to the reinforcing effects of drugs may form the basis of individual differences in drug-taking in humans should be considered. PMID:21762288

  15. Computed tomography of virally induced monkey brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-five (35) Japanese monkeys (Macaca fuscata) were inoculated intracerebrally with chickembryo fibroblasts which were producing the Schmidt-Ruppin strain of the Rous sarcoma virus. These were then studied by means of computed tomography (CT) to detect brain tumors. Tumors were induced in 54.3% (19/35), with an average latency of 32.6 (15 - 43) days before a CT image appeared. The brains were sectioned into 5-mm slices, coplanar with the CT images. Various CT features, such as necrosis, hemorrhage, and peritumoral edema, correlated with the pathological findings. Contrast-enhanced CT detected tumors greater than 4-6 mm in diameter, and it was accurate within 2 mm in determining. Following brain tumors by CT in 6 monkeys revealed changes in the tumor size. One monkey was treated by differential hypothermia following craniectomy; the therapeutic effect and the tumor size, as subsequently evaluated for six months, revealed tumor regression during the initial 5 weeks, followed by stabilization and late (6 months) progression. The large brain size, 90-110 grams in adults, and the availability of these monkeys make them an excellent model system for neurological, neurosurgical, CT, and multimodality therapeutic experimentation. (author)

  16. Risky business: Rhesus monkeys exhibit persistent preferences for risky options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EricRXu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhesus monkeys appear to prefer risky over safe options in experiential decision-making tasks. These findings might be due, however, to specific contextual factors in the tasks used to date, such as a large number of successive trials and small ‘stakes’, i.e., small amounts of fluid reward. In the present experiment, we increased the stakes and used a small number of trials in order to explore the generality of risky decision-making in monkeys. We found a consistent preference for risky options, except when the expected value of the safe option was greater than the risky option. Thus, with equivalent mean utilities between the safe and risky options, rhesus monkeys appear to have a robust preference for the risky options in a broad range of circumstances, akin to the preferences found in human children and some adults in similar tasks. One account for this result is that monkeys make their choices based on the salience of the largest payoff, without integrating likelihood and value across trials. A related idea is that they fail to override an impulsive tendency to select the option with the potential to obtain the highest possible payoff. Our results rule out both accounts and contribute to an understanding of the diversity of risky decision-making among primates.

  17. Servants, Managers and Monkeys: New Perspectives on Leadership

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskey, Frederick C.

    2014-01-01

    In this article the author questions whether the understanding of teaching and leading is the same today as it was last year? The chances are that the concept of what it means to be a teacher and a leader has changed. After describing three leadership types: servants, managers, and monkeys, Buskey suggest several things that are needed to improve…

  18. Biologic Data of Cynomolgus Monkeys Maintained under Laboratory Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosso, Marilena Caterina; Badino, Paola; Ferrero, Giulio; Costa, Roberto; Cordero, Francesca; Steidler, Stephanie

    2016-01-01

    The cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) is a well-known non-human primate species commonly used in non-clinical research. It is important to know basal clinical pathology parameters in order to have a reference for evaluating any potential treatment-induced effects, maintaining health status among animals and, if needed, evaluating correct substantiative therapies. In this study, data from 238 untreated cynomolgus monkeys (119 males and 119 females of juvenile age, 2.5 to 3.5 years) kept under laboratory conditions were used to build up a reference database of clinical pathology parameters. Twenty-two hematology markers, 24 clinical chemistry markers and two blood coagulation parameters were analyzed. Gender-related differences were evaluated using statistical analyses. To assess the possible effects of stress induced by housing or handling involved in treatment procedures, 78 animals (35 males and 35 females out of 238 juvenile monkeys and four adult males and four adult females) were used to evaluate cortisol, corticosterone and behavioral assessment over time. Data were analyzed using a non-parametric statistical test and machine learning approaches. Reference clinical pathology data obtained from untreated animals may be extremely useful for investigators employing cynomolgus monkeys as a test system for non-clinical safety studies. PMID:27280447

  19. Monkeys Exhibit Prospective Memory in a Computerized Task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Theodore A.; Beran, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) involves forming intentions, retaining those intentions, and later executing those intended responses at the appropriate time. Few studies have investigated this capacity in animals. Monkeys performed a computerized task that assessed their ability to remember to make a particular response if they observed a PM cue embedded…

  20. The Monkey Kid: A Personal Glimpse into the Cultural Revolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita M. Andrew

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Wang, Xiao-Yen (Director/Writer, 'The Monkey Kid '(1995. San Francisco, Calif.: Beijing–San Francisco Film Group. Also released in France by Les Films du Parodoxe under the title, 'La Mome Singe '(1997. 95 minutes. Mandarin Chinese with English subtitles.

  1. Call Combinations in Monkeys: Compositional or Idiomatic Expressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Kate; Zuberbuhler, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Syntax is widely considered the feature that most decisively sets human language apart from other natural communication systems. Animal vocalisations are generally considered to be holistic with few examples of utterances meaning something other than the sum of their parts. Previously, we have shown that male putty-nosed monkeys produce call…

  2. Patterns of cognitive decline in aged rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herndon, J G; Moss, M B; Rosene, D L; Killiany, R J

    1997-08-01

    Although cognitive decline has been well established as a consequence of aging in non-human primate models, the prevalence or frequency of impairment for specific age ranges has not been described. The first aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of cognitive impairment on each of the six tests of cognitive performance by comparing the performance of early-aged (19-23 years old), advanced-aged (24-28 years old), and oldest-aged (29+ years old) monkeys to that of young adults (acquisition of the delayed non-matching-to-sample task (DNMS); (2) performance of the DNMS with a delay of 120 sec; (3) the spatial condition of the delayed recognition span test (DRST); (4) the color condition of the DRST; (5) spatial reversal learning; and (6) object reversal learning. Early-aged monkeys displayed prevalence rates of impairment significantly greater than zero on all tasks except the DRST-color. The highest prevalence of impairment was observed in this age group in a task measuring spatial memory (DRST). Significant trends toward progressively higher impairment rates in advanced-aged and oldest-aged monkeys were observed for DNMS-acquisition, DRST-color and spatial reversal learning tasks. A linear transformation of standardized scores on the six cognitive tests was derived by means of principal components analysis (PCA). The first PCA (PCA1) included data from 30 monkeys with available data on all six measures, and yielded a composite measure which declined linearly with increasing age (r = -0.74). A second PCA (PCA2) was performed on data from 53 monkeys for which three test scores (DNMS-acquisition, DNMS-120s delay, and DRST-spatial condition) were available. The composite score derived from this analysis was highly correlated (r = 0.93) with the composite score from PCA1, suggesting that a score based on only three tests may provide an adequate classification of global cognitive ability. PMID:9331471

  3. Evaluation of third-party reciprocity by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the question of mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, James R; Bucher, Benoit; Kuroshima, Hika; Fujita, Kazuo

    2016-07-01

    Social evaluation during third-party interactions emerges early in human ontogeny, and it has been shown in adult capuchin monkeys who witness violations of reciprocity in object exchanges: Monkeys were less inclined to accept food from humans who refused to reciprocate with another human. A recent study reporting similar evidence in marmoset monkeys raised the possibility that such evaluations might be based on species' inherent cooperativeness. We tested a species not renowned for cooperativeness-squirrel monkeys-using the procedure used with marmosets and found a similar result. This finding rules out any crucial role for cooperative tendencies in monkeys' responses to unfair exchanges. We then tested squirrel monkeys using procedures more similar to those used in the original study with capuchins. Squirrel monkeys again accepted food less frequently from non-reciprocators, but unlike capuchins, they also strongly preferred reciprocators. We conclude that neither squirrel monkeys nor marmoset monkeys engaged in emotional bookkeeping of the type that probably underlies social evaluation in capuchin monkeys; instead, they employed one or more simple behavioral rules. Further comparative studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying social evaluation processes across species. PMID:27021433

  4. Ordinal judgments of symbolic stimuli by capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta): the effects of differential and nondifferential reward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Harris, Emily H; Evans, Theodore A; Klein, Emily D; Chan, Betty; Flemming, Timothy M; Washburn, David A

    2008-02-01

    Ordinal learning was investigated in capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In Experiment 1, both species were presented with pairings of the Arabic numerals 0 to 9. Some monkeys were given food rewards equal to the value of the numeral selected and some were rewarded with a single pellet only for choosing the higher numeral within the pair. Both species learned to select the larger numeral, but only rhesus monkeys that were differentially rewarded performed above chance levels when presented with novel probe pairings. In Experiment 2, the monkeys were first presented with arrays of 5 familiar numerals (from the range 0 to 9) and then arrays of 5 novel letters (from the range A to J) with the same reward outcomes in place as in Experiment 1. Both species performed better with the numerals, suggesting that an ordinal sequence of all stimuli had been learned during Experiment 1, rather than a matrix of two-choice discriminations. PMID:18298281

  5. Human-Rhesus Monkey conflict at Rampur Village under Monohardi Upazila in Narsingdi District of Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Ahsan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Human-Rhesus monkey conflicts were recorded at Rampur Village under Khidirpur Union Parishad of Monohardi upazila under Narsingdi District in Bangladesh from April to September 2012. There were three groups of Rhesus monkeys living in the area. The focal study group comprised 26 individuals (4 adult males, 6 adult females, 10 juveniles and 6 infants. The monkeys consumed parts of 10 plant species. From the questionnaire survey, it was found that the greatest damage caused by monkeys was on betel leaf vines and the least damage on vegetables. Eighty percent respondents opted to conserve the monkeys and 20% opined status quo. Some restricted areas (especially khas lands may be identified and planted with some fruit trees for survival of monkeys and for reducing conflicts with humans.

  6. Efficacy of niclosamide as a potential antipenetrant (TAP) against cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    John I. Bruce; Robert Miller; Lawrence Lightner; Subbiah Yoganathan

    1992-01-01

    A 1% (W/V) formulation of Niclosamide (2', 5-Dichloro-4-nitrosalicylanilide) (TAP) was tested on Cebus apella monkeys as a topical prophylatic against schistosomiasis mansoni. Two experiments were conducted using the same formulation. In the first experiment, the TAP provided complete protection against schistosomiasis for 3 days. Of the 4 monkeys treated with TAP 7 days before exposure to Schistosoma mansoni cercariae, 2 were completely protected. The remaining 2 monkeys of the 7 day treatme...

  7. Lens diameter and thickness as a function of age and pharmacologically stimulated accommodation in rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Wendt, Mark; Croft, Mary Ann; McDonald, Jared; Kaufman, Paul L; Glasser, Adrian

    2008-01-01

    Uncertainty exists regarding accommodative and age changes in lens diameter and thickness in humans and monkeys. In this study, unaccommodated and accommodated refraction, lens diameter, and lens thickness were measured in rhesus monkeys across a range of ages. Iridectomized eyes were studied in 33 anesthetized monkeys aged 4–23 years. Refraction was measured using a Hartinger coincidence refractometer and lens thickness was measured with A-scan ultrasound. Lens diameters were measured with i...

  8. Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    OpenAIRE

    Horvath, C J; Simon, M A; Bergsagel, D. J.; Pauley, D. R.; King, N W; Garcea, R L; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) disease was diagnosed in four rhesus monkeys that died with SIV-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). One juvenile monkey seroconverted for SV40 6 months after inoculation with SIV and developed severe bilateral tubulointerstitial nephritis. In contrast, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurred in two adult monkeys that were seropositive for SV40 before SIV inoculation, as well as a third adult that was naturally infected with SIV and serop...

  9. An assessment of memory awareness in tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Basile, Benjamin M.; Hampton, Robert R.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Murray, Elisabeth A.

    2008-01-01

    Humans, apes, and rhesus monkeys demonstrate memory awareness by collecting information when ignorant and acting immediately when informed. In this study, five capuchin monkeys searched for food after either watching the experimenter bait one of four opaque tubes (seen trials), or not watching (unseen trials). Monkeys with memory awareness should look into the tubes before making a selection only on unseen trials because on seen trials they already know the location of the food. In Experiment...

  10. Topsoil as affected by dung deposition under resting places of red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus)

    OpenAIRE

    Pouvelle, Sandrine; Feer, François; Ponge, Jean-François

    2008-01-01

    The short-term influence of dung deposition and the further redistribution of dung by dung beetles were studied under a resting place of the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) living in tropical rainforests of South America. Monkey dung was experimentally clumped on the field in a place used by troops of howler monkeys for resting in the Nouragues Reserve Station, French Guiana. Dung-treated plots were sampled serially over three weeks and compared with controls located in their immediate...

  11. Differential Cellular Tropism of Lentivirus and Adeno-Associated Virus in the Brain of Cynomolgus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    An, Heeyoung; Cho, Doo-Wan; Lee, Seung Eun; Yang, Young-Su; Han, Su-Cheol; Lee, C. Justin

    2016-01-01

    Many researchers are using viruses to deliver genes of interest into the brains of laboratory animals. However, certain target brain cells are not easily infected by viruses. Moreover, the differential tropism of different viruses in monkey brain is not well established. We investigated the cellular tropism of lentivirus and adeno-associated virus (AAV) toward neuron and glia in the brain of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascularis). Lentivirus and AAV were injected into putamen of the monkey br...

  12. Diffusion dynamics of socially learned foraging techniques in squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claidière, Nicolas; Messer, Emily J E; Hoppitt, William; Whiten, Andrew

    2013-07-01

    Social network analyses and experimental studies of social learning have each become important domains of animal behavior research in recent years yet have remained largely separate. Here we bring them together, providing the first demonstration of how social networks may shape the diffusion of socially learned foraging techniques. One technique for opening an artificial fruit was seeded in the dominant male of a group of squirrel monkeys and an alternative technique in the dominant male of a second group. We show that the two techniques spread preferentially in the groups in which they were initially seeded and that this process was influenced by monkeys' association patterns. Eigenvector centrality predicted both the speed with which an individual would first succeed in opening the artificial fruit and the probability that they would acquire the cultural variant seeded in their group. These findings demonstrate a positive role of social networks in determining how a new foraging technique diffuses through a population. PMID:23810529

  13. Monkeying with the Goodness-of-Fit Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Marsaglia

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The familiar Σ(OBS - EXP 2/EXP goodness-of-fit measure is commonly used to test whether an observed sequence came from the realization of n independent identically distributed (iid discrete random variables. It can be quite effective for testing for identical distribution, but is not suited for assessing independence, as it pays no attention to the order in which output values are received. This note reviews a way to adjust or tamper, that is, monkey-with the classical test to make it test for independence as well as identical distribution--in short, to test for both the i's in iid, using monkey tests similar to those in the Diehard Battery of Tests of Randomness (Marsaglia 1995.

  14. Prefrontal activity predicts monkeys' decisions during an auditory category task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Hoon Lee

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The neural correlates that relate auditory categorization to aspects of goal-directed behavior, such as decision-making, are not well understood. Since the prefrontal cortex plays an important role in executive function and the categorization of auditory objects, we hypothesized that neural activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC should predict an animal's behavioral reports (decisions during a category task. To test this hypothesis, we tested PFC activity that was recorded while monkeys categorized human spoken words (Russ et al., 2008b. We found that activity in the ventrolateral PFC, on average, correlated best with the monkeys' choices than with the auditory stimuli. This finding demonstrates a direct link between PFC activity and behavioral choices during a non-spatial auditory task.

  15. Vitamin D Status in Monkey Candidates for Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, S. B.; Wronski, T. J.; Koslovskeya, I.; Dotsenko, R.; Navidi, M.; Wade, Charles E. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    In preparation for the Cosmos 2229 Biosatellite space flight experiments in Rhesus monkeys, we evaluated the status of vitamin D in animals of different origins: candidates for space flight raised in Moscow (IMBP) and animals housed at Ames Research Ctr. (ARC) for pilot studies. Diets at IMBP were natural foods found by analysis to contain 1.4% Ca, 2.8% P andng/ml,p<.001) in IMBP than ARC animals. 1,25D (174156 vs. 212+77 pg/ml), Pi and AP were similar. In bone, osteoid and osteoblast surfaces averaged 38114% and 33+15% in all, with %vol. of osteoid higher in IMBP than ARC monkeys of the same BW (p<.05) Indices of bone formation were inversely related to 25D, not 1,25D. Of interest are similar 1,25D levels associated with a wide range of substrate and extensive osteoid in bone of D replete animals.

  16. Indiscriminate recombination in simian virus 40-infected monkey cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Winocour, E; Keshet, I

    1980-01-01

    DNA transfection of African green monkey BSC-1 cells with simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA and bacterial virus phi X174 replicative form DNA ("cotransfection") yielded stocks containing SV40/phi X174 recombinant virus, which was detected by an infectious-center in situ plaque hybridization procedure and which was sensitive to anti-SV40 antiserum. The recombinant virus replicated during serial passage. Restriction endonuclease cleavage of the SV40/phi X174 DNA indicated that several different types ...

  17. Trial Outcome and Associative Learning Signals in the Monkey Hippocampus

    OpenAIRE

    Wirth, Sylvia; Avsar, Emin; Chiu, Cindy C.; Sharma, Varun; Smith, Anne C.; Emery N Brown; Suzuki, Wendy A.

    2009-01-01

    In tasks of associative learning, animals establish new links between unrelated items by using information about trial outcome to strengthen correct/rewarded associations and modify incorrect/unrewarded ones. To study how hippocampal neurons convey information about reward and trial outcome during new associative learning, we recorded hippocampal neurons as monkeys learned novel object-place associations. A large population of hippocampal neurons (50%) signaled trial outcome by differentiatin...

  18. Titi monkey call sequences vary with predator location and type.

    OpenAIRE

    Casar, C.; Zuberbuhler, K.; Young, R. J.; Byrne, R.W.

    2013-01-01

    Animal alarm calls can encode information about a predator's category, size, distance or threat level. In non-human primates, alarm calls typically refer to broad classes of disturbances, in some instances to specific predators. Here, we present the results of a field experiment with a New World primate, the black-fronted titi monkey (Callicebus nigrifrons), designed to explore the information conveyed by their alarm call system. Adults produced sequences consisting of two main alarm call typ...

  19. Direct demonstration of retroviral recombination in a rhesus monkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Wooley, D P; Smith, R A; Czajak, S; Desrosiers, R C

    1997-01-01

    Recombination may be an important mechanism for increasing variation in retroviral populations. Retroviral recombination has been demonstrated in tissue culture systems by artificially creating doubly infected cells. Evidence for retroviral recombination in vivo is indirect and is based principally on the identification of apparently mosaic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 genomes from phylogenetic analyses of viral sequences. We infected a rhesus monkey with two different molecularly clon...

  20. Whole-Genome Transcription Profiling of Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus

    OpenAIRE

    DITTMER, DIRK P; Gonzalez, Carlos M.; Vahrson, Wolfgang; DeWire, Scott M.; Hines-Boykin, Rebecca; Damania, Blossom

    2005-01-01

    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV; also called human herpesvirus 8) belong to the gamma-2 grouping of herpesviruses. RRV and KSHV share a high degree of sequence similarity, and their genomes are organized in a similar fashion. RRV serves as an excellent animal model system to study the gamma herpesvirus life cycle both in vitro and in vivo. We have developed a high-sensitivity, high-throughput, high-specificity real-time quantitative reverse t...

  1. Biological Rhythms and Temperature Regulation in Rhesus Monkeys During Spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, Charles A. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This program examined the influence of microgravity on temperature regulation and circadian timekeeping systems in Rhesus monkeys. Animals flown on the Soviet Biosatellite COSMOS 2229 were exposed to 11 2/3 days of microgravity. The circadian patterns temperature regulation, heart rate and activity were monitored constantly. This experiment has extended previous observations from COSMOS 1514 and 2044, as well as provided insights into the physiological mechanisms that produce these changes.

  2. Neurochemical Phenotypes of Myenteric Neurons in the Rhesus Monkey

    OpenAIRE

    Noorian, Ali Reza; Taylor, Georgia M.; Annerino, Dana M.; Greene, James G.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the neurochemical composition of the enteric nervous system (ENS) is critical for elucidating neurological function in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract in health and disease. Despite their status as the closest models of human neurological systems, relatively little is known about enteric neurochemistry in nonhuman primates. We describe neurochemical coding of the enteric nervous system, specifically the myenteric plexus, of the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) by immunohistochemis...

  3. Rhesus Monkeys Behave As If They Perceive the Duncker Illusion

    OpenAIRE

    Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Goldberg, M. E.; Powell, K. D.

    2005-01-01

    The visual system uses the pattern of motion on the retina to analyze the motion of objects in the world, and the motion of the observer him/herself. Distinguishing between retinal motion evoked by movement of the retina in space and retinal motion evoked by movement of objects in the environment is computationally difficult, and the human visual system frequently misinterprets the meaning of retinal motion. In this study, we demonstrate that the visual system of the Rhesus monkey also misint...

  4. Extraction and Analysis of Cortisol from Human and Monkey Hair

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stres...

  5. Pharmacokinetics of bisphenol A in neonatal and adult rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a high-production volume industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 is controversial because of the potential for endocrine disruption, particularly during perinatal development, as suggested by in vitro, experimental animal, and epidemiological studies. The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure serum pharmacokinetics of aglycone (active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in adult and neonatal rhesus monkeys by oral (PND 5, 35, 70) and intravenous injection (PND 77) routes using d6-BPA to avoid sample contamination. The concentration-time profiles observed in adult monkeys following oral administration of 100 μg/kg bw were remarkably similar to those previously reported in human volunteers given a similar dose; moreover, minimal pharmacokinetic differences were observed between neonatal and adult monkeys for the receptor-active aglycone form of BPA. Circulating concentrations of BPA aglycone were quite low following oral administration (< 1% of total), which reflects the redundancy of active UDP-glucuronosyl transferase isoforms in both gut and liver. No age-related changes were seen in internal exposure metrics for aglycone BPA in monkeys, a result clearly different from developing rats where significant inverse age-related changes, based on immaturity of Phase II metabolism and renal excretion, were recently reported. These observations imply that any toxicological effect observed in rats from early postnatal exposures to BPA could over-predict those possible in primates of the same age, based on significantly higher internal exposures and overall immaturity at birth.

  6. Temple Monkeys and Health Implications of Commensalism, Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Jones-Engel, Lisa; Engel, Gregory A.; Heidrich, John; Chalise, Mukesh; Poudel, Narayan; Viscidi, Raphael; Peter A Barry; Allan, Jonathan S; Grant, Richard; Kyes, Randy

    2006-01-01

    The threat of zoonotic transmission of infectious agents at monkey temples highlights the necessity of investigating the prevalence of enzootic infectious agents in these primate populations. Biological samples were collected from 39 rhesus macaques at the Swoyambhu Temple and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, Western blot, polymerase chain reaction, or combination of these tests for evidence of infection with rhesus cytomegalovirus (RhCMV), Cercopithecine herpesvirus 1 (CHV-1), si...

  7. Habitat degradation impacts black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra) gastrointestinal microbiomes

    OpenAIRE

    Amato, Katherine R.; Yeoman, Carl J.; Kent, Angela; Righini, Nicoletta; Carbonero, Franck; Estrada, Alejandro; Rex Gaskins, H; Stumpf, Rebecca M.; Yildirim, Suleyman; Torralba, Manolito; Gillis, Marcus; Wilson, Brenda A.; Nelson, Karen E; White, Bryan A; Leigh, Steven R

    2013-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) microbiome contributes significantly to host nutrition and health. However, relationships involving GI microbes, their hosts and host macrohabitats remain to be established. Here, we define clear patterns of variation in the GI microbiomes of six groups of Mexican black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) occupying a gradation of habitats including a continuous evergreen rainforest, an evergreen rainforest fragment, a continuous semi-deciduous forest and captivity. High ...

  8. Spontaneous number representation in semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Hauser, M D; Carey, S; Hauser, L B

    2000-01-01

    Previous research has shown that animals possess considerable numerical abilities. However, this work was based on experiments involving extensive training, a small number of captive subjects and relatively artificial testing procedures. We present the results of experiments on over 200 semi-free-ranging rhesus monkeys using a task which involves no training and mimics a natural foraging problem. The subjects observed two experimenters place pieces of apple, one at a time, into each of two op...

  9. The "vegetarian brain": chatting with monkeys and pigs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippi, Massimo; Riccitelli, Gianna; Meani, Alessandro; Falini, Andrea; Comi, Giancarlo; Rocca, Maria A

    2013-09-01

    An array of brain regions in the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes cooperates to process observation and execution of actions performed by other individuals. Using functional MRI, we hypothesized that vegetarians and vegans might show brain responses to mouth actions performed by humans, monkeys, and pigs different from omnivores. We scanned 20 omnivores, 19 vegetarians, and 21 vegans while watching a series of silent videos, which presented a single mouth action performed by a human, a monkey, and a pig. Compared to omnivores, vegetarians and vegans have increased functional connectivity between regions of the fronto-parietal and temporal lobes versus the cerebellum during observation of mouth actions performed by humans and, to the same degree, animals. Vegans also had increased connectivity with the supplementary motor area. During human mouth actions, increased amygdala activity in vegetarians and vegans was found. More critically, vegetarians recruited the right middle frontal gyrus and insula, which are involved in social mirroring, whereas vegans activated the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, which are part of the mirror neuron system. Monkey mouth actions triggered language network activity in both groups, which might be due to the attempt to decode monkey mouth gesture, with an additional recruitment of associative temporo-occipital areas in vegans, whereas pig mouth actions activated empathy-related regions, including the anterior cingulum. These results support the role of the action observation-execution matching system in social cognition, which enables us to interact not only with our conspecifics but also with species in phylogenetic proximity to humans. PMID:23052545

  10. Playing Educational Math Games at Home: The Monkey Tales Case

    OpenAIRE

    Derboven, Jan; Zaman, Bieke; Geerts, David; De Grooff, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    In research on educational games, the majority of studies have been executed in controlled school settings: the home as a context in which educational games are played, is still underexplored. However, the home context is becoming more important, as children are increasingly encouraged or even required to engage with learning content at home through educational games. In this article, we describe a study of Monkey Tales, an educational math game targeted at primary school children. Using a co...

  11. Capuchin monkeys display affiliation towards humans who imitate them

    OpenAIRE

    Paukner, Annika; Suomi, Stephen J.; Visalberghi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2009-01-01

    During social interactions, humans often unconsciously and unintentionally imitate the behaviors of others, which increases rapport, liking, and empathy between interaction partners. This effect is thought to be an evolutionary adaptation facilitating group living, and may therefore be shared with other primate species. Here we show that capuchin monkeys, a highly social primate species, prefer human imitators in a variety of ways: they look longer at imitators, spend more time in proximity t...

  12. Immunocytochemical Evidence that Monkey Rod Bipolar Cells Use GABA

    OpenAIRE

    Lassová, Luisa; Fina, Marie; Sulaiman, Pyroja; Vard, Noga

    2010-01-01

    Certain bipolar cells in most species immunostain for GABA or its synthesizing enzyme, GAD. However it is unknown whether they actually release GABA, and if so, from which cellular compartment, and by what release mechanism. We investigated these questions in monkey retina where rod bipolar cells immunostain for GABA. We found that rod bipolar cells immunostain for one isoform of GAD, GAD65, in their somas, dendrites, and axon terminals. Near the fovea, the somatic stain of rod bipolar cells ...

  13. Cloning and Comparison of Factor X from Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Younan; Qin, Shengfang; Tan, Weidong; Lu, Yanrong; Jie ZHANG; Li, Hongxia; Bu, Hong; Cheng, Jingqiu

    2009-01-01

    The reliability of the rhesus monkey as an important experimental animal depends on its genetic concordance with human. During our assessment of the rhesus monkey as a preclinical model for coagulation-related research, we cloned the full-length cDNA of rhesus monkey factor X (FX) and compared its genetic characteristics and coagulation activity with those of human FX. The full-length cDNA of rhesus monkey FX was 1683 bp in length, corresponding to 487 coding amino acids and sharing 94.71% nu...

  14. Plasmodium simium/Plasmodium vivax infections in southern brown howler monkeys from the Atlantic Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Camargos Costa

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood infection by the simian parasite, Plasmodium simium, was identified in captive (n = 45, 4.4% and in wild Alouatta clamitans monkeys (n = 20, 35% from the Atlantic Forest of southern Brazil. A single malaria infection was symptomatic and the monkey presented clinical and haematological alterations. A high frequency of Plasmodium vivax-specific antibodies was detected among these monkeys, with 87% of the monkeys testing positive against P. vivax antigens. These findings highlight the possibility of malaria as a zoonosis in the remaining Atlantic Forest and its impact on the epidemiology of the disease.

  15. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catapano, Rhia; Buttrick, Nicholas; Widness, Jane; Goldstein, Robin; Santos, Laurie R

    2014-01-01

    Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good's price can have irrational effects on people's preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased), we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human pricing effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling. PMID:25520677

  16. Real-time dopamine measurement in awake monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik W Schluter

    Full Text Available Fast-scan cyclic voltammetry (FSCV is often used to measure real-time dopamine (DA concentrations in awake, behaving rodents. Extending this technique to work in monkeys would provide a platform for advanced behavioral studies and a primate model for preclinical research. The present study demonstrates the feasibility of DA recordings in two awake monkeys (Macaca mulatta using a mixture of techniques adapted from rodent, primate and brain slice work. We developed a long carbon fiber electrode to operate in the larger primate brain. This electrode was lowered into the striatum each day using a recording chamber and a detachable micromanipulator system. A manipulator also moved one or more tungsten stimulating electrodes into either the nearby striatum or the ventral tegmental area/substantia nigra pars compacta (VTA/SNc. We developed an electrical stimulation controller to reduce artifacts during electrical stimulation. We also introduce a stimulation-based methodology for estimating distances between electrodes in the brain. Dopamine responses within the striatum were evoked by either stimulation of the striatum near the FSCV electrode, or stimulation within the VTA/SNc. Unexpected juice rewards also evoked dopamine responses in the ventral striatum. Thus, we demonstrate that robust dopamine responses can be recorded from awake, behaving primates with FSCV. In addition, we describe how a stimulation technique borrowed from the neuroprosthetics field can activate the distributed monkey midbrain dopamine system in a way that mimics rodent VTA stimulation.

  17. Capuchin monkeys do not show human-like pricing effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhia eCatapano

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Recent work in judgment and decision-making has shown that a good’s price can have irrational effects on people’s preferences. People tend to prefer goods that cost more money and assume that such expensive goods will be more effective, even in cases where the price of the good is itself arbitrary. Although much work has documented the existence of these pricing effects, unfortunately little work has addressed where these price effects come from in the first place. Here we use a comparative approach to distinguish between different accounts of this bias and to explore the origins of these effects. Specifically, we test whether brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella are also susceptible to pricing effects within the context of an experimentally trained token economy. Using a capuchin population previously trained in a token market, we explored whether monkeys used price as an indicator of value across four experiments. Although monkeys demonstrated an understanding of which goods had which prices (consistently shifting preferences to cheaper goods when prices were increased, we observed no evidence that such price information affected their valuation of different kinds of goods. These results suggest that human price effects may involve more sophisticated human-unique cognitive capacities, such as an understanding of market forces and signaling.

  18. Testing NF-κB-based therapy in hemiparkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Susanta; Roy, Avik; Jana, Arundhati; Ghosh, Sankar; Kordower, Jeffrey H; Pahan, Kalipada

    2012-09-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the most common human neurodegenerative disorder affecting movement, balance, flexibility, and coordination. Despite intense investigation, no effective therapy is available to stop the onset PD or halt its progression. The primate model of PD is considered to be one of the best available models for human PD. Since neuroinflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of PD and NF-κB, a proinflammatory transcription factor, participates in the transcription of many proinflammatory molecules, this study evaluates the ability of a peptide corresponding to the NF-κB essential modifier (NEMO)-binding domain (NBD) of IκB kinase (IKK)α or IKKβ to protect dopaminergic neurons in hemiparkinsonian monkeys. First, we found that NF-κB was activated within the substantia nigra pars compacta of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-intoxicated hemiparkinsonian monkeys. However, intramuscular injection of wild type NBD (wtNBD) peptide reduced nigral activation of NF-κB and expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, protected both the nigrostriatal axis and neurotransmitters, and improved motor functions in hemiparkinsonian monkeys. These findings were specific as mutated NBD peptide did not exhibit such effects. These results may help in the translation of NF-κB-based therapy to PD clinics. PMID:22661311

  19. Prenatal methylmercury exposure affects spatial vision in adult monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decades of research have demonstrated that exposure to methylmercury (MeHg), a ubiquitous environmental pollutant, can have both early and long-term neurobehavioral consequences in exposed offspring. The present study assessed visual functioning in adult macaque monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) exposed in utero to 0, 50, 70, or 90 μg/kg/day of MeHg hydroxide. Twenty-one full-term, normal birth weight offspring (9 controls, 12 exposed) were tested at approximately 11-14.5 years of age on a visual contrast sensitivity task. A forced-choice tracking procedure was utilized with spatial frequencies of 1, 4, 10, and 20 cycles per degree of visual angle. On each test session, a single spatial frequency was presented across five levels of contrast, each differing by 3 dB. Methylmercury-exposed monkeys exhibited reduced contrast sensitivity thresholds, particularly at the higher spatial frequencies. The degree of visual impairment was not related to MeHg body burden or clearance and almost half of the exposed animals were unimpaired. The results from this study demonstrate that chronic in utero MeHg exposure, at subclinical levels, is associated with permanent adverse effects on spatial vision in adult monkeys

  20. Hippocampal formation lesions produce memory impairment in the rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beason-Held, L L; Rosene, D L; Killiany, R J; Moss, M B

    1999-01-01

    There is much debate over the role of temporal lobe structures in the ability to learn and retain new information. To further assess the contributions of the hippocampal formation (HF), five rhesus monkeys received stereotactically placed ibotenic acid lesions of this region without involvement of surrounding ventromedial temporal cortices. After surgery, the animals were trained on two recognition memory tasks: the Delayed Non-Match to Sample (DNMS) task, which tests the ability to remember specific trial unique stimuli, and the Delayed Recognition Span Task (DRST), which tests the ability to remember an increasing array of stimuli. Relative to normal control monkeys, those with HF lesions demonstrated significant impairments in both learning and memory stages of the DNMS task. Additionally, the HF group was significantly impaired on spatial, color, and object versions of the DRST. Contrary to suggestions that damage to the entorhinal and parahippocampal cortices is required to produce significant behavioral deficits in the monkey, these results demonstrate that selective damage to the HF is sufficient to produce impairments on tasks involving delayed recognition and memory load. This finding illustrates the importance of the HF in the acquisition and retention of new information. PMID:10560927

  1. No effects of dioxin singly on limb malformations in macaque monkeys through epidemiological and treated studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asaoka, Kazuo; Iida, Hiroko [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Insitute, Dept. of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry; Watanabe, Kunio [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Primate Research Institute, Field Research Center; Goda, Hiroshi [Towa Kagaku Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ihara, Toshio; Nagata, Ryoichi [Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories, Ltd. (Japan). Safety Research Facility; Yasuda, Mineo [Hiroshima International Univ. (Japan). Fac. of Health Sciences, Dept. of Clinical Engineering; Kubata, Shunichiro [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Life Science, Graduate School of Arts and Sciences

    2004-09-15

    Human populations exposed with highly dioxin were suspected to be caused immunological dysfunctions, carcinogenesis, and developmental and reproductive dysfunctions. Because of species resemblances, the dioxin effects have been investigating using monkeys as a model for assessment of dioxin exposure on human health. Since 1957 the limb malformations of monkeys in Japan have been reported. The higher frequency of them was found in provisional groups of monkeys who were given the same kind of food for human. The chromosomal abnormalities are excluded from the factor for the congenital limb malformations that are still producing in Japan. In this study, the relations between dioxin and the limb malformations of macaque monkeys were estimated by the epidemiological and administered researches. The dioxin levels in monkeys were measured at two districts that one has the provisional groups including monkeys with limb malformations and the other has breeding groups never seeing the malformations for a long time. TEQ was calculated by the levels of dioxin isomers in the monkeys and the values show no difference between the two places and between the individuals with and without the limb malformations. 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) was administered via subcutaneous to pregnant rhesus monkeys from the day 20 of gestation to the day 90 after birth. The exposed babies, including the offspring and died in neonatal, had observed normal limbs in the range of 30-300 ng TCDD /kg of body weight.

  2. Dynamic Response-by-Response Models of Matching Behavior in Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Brian; Glimcher, Paul W.

    2005-01-01

    We studied the choice behavior of 2 monkeys in a discrete-trial task with reinforcement contingencies similar to those Herrnstein (1961) used when he described the matching law. In each session, the monkeys experienced blocks of discrete trials at different relative-reinforcer frequencies or magnitudes with unsignalled transitions between the…

  3. Nutritional analysis and intervention in the captive woolly monkey (Lagothric lagotricha)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.

    2008-01-01

    Woolly monkeys (Lagothrix ssp.) are a threatened species in the wild and are extremely difficult to breed and successfully maintain in captivity. The majority of health complications in woolly monkeys (WM) may be of nutritional origin. The objectives of this thesis were to: 1) determine the current

  4. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp. and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly D. Ange-van Heugten

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27 and spider monkeys (n=61. The research was conducted in three studies: the first investigated spider monkeys in the United States, the second investigated spider monkeys within Europe, and the third investigated woolly monkeys within Europe. Fecal cortisol in spider monkeys in US zoos varied (P=.07 from 30 to 66 ng/g. The zoo with the highest fecal cortisol also had the highest salivary cortisol (P≤.05. For European zoos, fecal cortisol differed between zoos for both spider and woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Spider monkeys had higher fecal cortisol than woolly monkeys (P≤.05. Zoos with the highest dietary carbohydrates, sugars, glucose, and fruit had the highest cortisol. Cortisol was highest for zoos that did not meet crude protein requirements and fed the lowest percentage of complete feeds and crude fiber. Differences among zoos in housing and diets may increase animal stress. The lifespan and reproductive success of captive primates could improve if stressors are reduced and dietary nutrients optimized.

  5. Generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that express green fluorescent protein throughout the whole body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seita, Yasunari; Tsukiyama, Tomoyuki; Iwatani, Chizuru; Tsuchiya, Hideaki; Matsushita, Jun; Azami, Takuya; Okahara, Junko; Nakamura, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji; Itoh, Yasushi; Imamura, Takeshi; Nishimura, Masaki; Tooyama, Ikuo; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Saitou, Mitinori; Ogasawara, Kazumasa; Sasaki, Erika; Ema, Masatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Nonhuman primates are valuable for human disease modelling, because rodents poorly recapitulate some human diseases such as Parkinson's disease and Alzheimer's disease amongst others. Here, we report for the first time, the generation of green fluorescent protein (GFP) transgenic cynomolgus monkeys by lentivirus infection. Our data show that the use of a human cytomegalovirus immediate-early enhancer and chicken beta actin promoter (CAG) directed the ubiquitous expression of the transgene in cynomolgus monkeys. We also found that injection into mature oocytes before fertilization achieved homogenous expression of GFP in each tissue, including the amnion, and fibroblasts, whereas injection into fertilized oocytes generated a transgenic cynomolgus monkey with mosaic GFP expression. Thus, the injection timing was important to create transgenic cynomolgus monkeys that expressed GFP homogenously in each of the various tissues. The strategy established in this work will be useful for the generation of transgenic cynomolgus monkeys for transplantation studies as well as biomedical research. PMID:27109065

  6. A Deficit in Face-Voice Integration in Developing Vervet Monkeys Exposed to Ethanol during Gestation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zangenehpour, Shahin; Javadi, Pasha; Ervin, Frank R;

    2014-01-01

    used an intersensory matching procedure to investigate audiovisual perception of socially relevant stimuli in young FAE vervet monkeys. Here we show a domain-specific deficit in audiovisual integration of socially relevant stimuli. When FAE monkeys were shown a pair of side-by-side videos of a monkey....... However, a group of normally developing monkeys exhibited a significant preference for the non-matching video. This inability to integrate and thereby discriminate audiovisual stimuli was confined to the integration of faces and voices as revealed by the monkeys' ability to match a dynamic face...... to a complex tone or a black-and-white checkerboard to a pure tone, presumably based on duration and/or onset-offset synchrony. Together, these results suggest that prenatal ethanol exposure negatively affects a specific domain of audiovisual integration. This deficit is confined to the integration...

  7. Effects of selective neonatal temporal lobe lesions on socioemotional behavior in infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachevalier, J; Málková, L; Mishkin, M

    2001-06-01

    Normal infant monkeys and infant monkeys with neonatal damage to either the medial temporal lobe or the inferior temporal visual area were assessed in dyadic social interactions at 2 and 6 months of age. Unlike the normal infant monkeys, which developed strong affiliative bonds and little or no behavioral disturbances, the lesioned monkeys (each of which was observed with an unoperated control) exhibited socioemotional abnormalities and aberrant behaviors. The socioemotional changes predominated at 6 months of age and were particularly severe in monkeys with medial temporal lesions. In both the pattern and time course, the socioemotional deficits produced by the neonatal medial temporal lesions bear a striking resemblance to the behavioral syndrome in children with autism. Further analysis of these lesion-induced abnormalities in nonhuman primates may therefore provide insight into this debilitating human developmental disorder. PMID:11439445

  8. Cystic urolithiasis in captive waxy monkey frogs (Phyllomedusa sauvagii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, Kate E; Minter, Larry J; Dombrowski, Daniel S; O'Brien, Jodi L; Lewbart, Gregory A

    2015-03-01

    The waxy monkey frog (Phyllomedusa sauvagii) is an arboreal amphibian native to arid regions of South America, and it has developed behavioral and physiologic adaptations to permit survival in dry environments. These adaptations include a uricotelic nitrogen metabolism and unique cutaneous lipid excretions to prevent evaporative water loss. Uroliths are a rare finding in amphibians. Six adult, presumed wild-caught waxy monkey frogs housed in a museum animal collection were diagnosed with cystic urolithiasis over a 7-yr period, and a single animal was diagnosed with four recurrent cases. Six cases were identified incidentally at routine physical or postmortem examination and four cases were identified during veterinary evaluation for coelomic distension, lethargy, anorexia, and increased soaking behavior. Calculi were surgically removed from three frogs via cystotomy, and a single frog underwent three cystotomies and two cloacotomies for recurrent urolithiasis. Two frogs died within the 24-hr postoperative period. Two representative calculi from a single frog were submitted for component analysis and found to consist of 100% ammonium urate. In the present report, cystic calculi are proposed to be the result of a high-protein diet based on a single invertebrate source, coupled with uricotelism, dehydration, increased cutaneous water loss, body temperature fluctuations facilitating supersaturation of urine, and subsequent accumulation and precipitation of urogenous wastes within the urinary bladder. Surgical cystotomy represents a short-term treatment strategy for this condition. Preventative measures, such as supplying a diversified and balanced diet in addition to environmental manipulation aimed at promoting adequate hydration, are anticipated to be more-rewarding management tools for cystic urolithiasis in the waxy monkey frog. PMID:25831582

  9. Traditions in spider monkeys are biased towards the social domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Santorelli

    Full Text Available Cross-site comparison studies of behavioral variation can provide evidence for traditions in wild species once ecological and genetic factors are excluded as causes for cross-site differences. These studies ensure behavior variants are considered within the context of a species' ecology and evolutionary adaptations. We examined wide-scale geographic variation in the behavior of spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi across five long-term field sites in Central America using a well established ethnographic cross-site survey method. Spider monkeys possess a relatively rare social system with a high degree of fission-fusion dynamics, also typical of chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and humans (Homo sapiens. From the initial 62 behaviors surveyed 65% failed to meet the necessary criteria for traditions. The remaining 22 behaviors showed cross-site variation in occurrence ranging from absent through to customary, representing to our knowledge, the first documented cases of traditions in this taxon and only the second case of multiple traditions in a New World monkey species. Of the 22 behavioral variants recorded across all sites, on average 57% occurred in the social domain, 19% in food-related domains and 24% in other domains. This social bias contrasts with the food-related bias reported in great ape cross-site comparison studies and has implications for the evolution of human culture. No pattern of geographical radiation was found in relation to distance across sites. Our findings promote A. geoffroyi as a model species to investigate traditions with field and captive based experiments and emphasize the importance of the social domain for the study of animal traditions.

  10. Intranasal oxytocin enhances socially-reinforced learning in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa A Parr

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available There are currently no drugs approved for the treatment of social deficits associated with autism spectrum disorders (ASD. One hypothesis for these deficits is that individuals with ASD lack the motivation to attend to social cues because those cues are not implicitly rewarding. Therefore, any drug that could enhance the rewarding quality of social stimuli could have a profound impact on the treatment of ASD, and other social disorders. Oxytocin (OT is a neuropeptide that has been effective in enhancing social cognition and social reward in humans. The present study examined the ability of OT to selectively enhance learning after social compared to nonsocial reward in rhesus monkeys, an important species for modeling the neurobiology of social behavior in humans. Monkeys were required to learn an implicit visual matching task after receiving either intranasal (IN OT or Placebo (saline. Correct trials were rewarded with the presentation of positive and negative social (play faces/threat faces or nonsocial (banana/cage locks stimuli, plus food. Incorrect trials were not rewarded. Results demonstrated a strong effect of socially-reinforced learning, monkeys’ performed significantly better when reinforced with social versus nonsocial stimuli. Additionally, socially-reinforced learning was significantly better and occurred faster after IN-OT compared to placebo treatment. Performance in the IN-OT, but not Placebo, condition was also significantly better when the reinforcement stimuli were emotionally positive compared to negative facial expressions. These data support the hypothesis that OT may function to enhance prosocial behavior in primates by increasing the rewarding quality of emotionally positive, social compared to emotionally negative or nonsocial images. These data also support the use of the rhesus monkey as a model for exploring the neurobiological basis of social behavior and its impairment.

  11. Derivation and characterization of monkey embryonic stem cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf Don P

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Embryonic stem (ES cell based therapy carries great potential in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. However, before clinical application is realized, the safety, efficacy and feasibility of this therapeutic approach must be established in animal models. The rhesus macaque is physiologically and phylogenetically similar to the human, and therefore, is a clinically relevant animal model for biomedical research, especially that focused on neurodegenerative conditions. Undifferentiated monkey ES cells can be maintained in a pluripotent state for many passages, as characterized by a collective repertoire of markers representing embryonic cell surface molecules, enzymes and transcriptional factors. They can also be differentiated into lineage-specific phenotypes of all three embryonic germ layers by epigenetic protocols. For cell-based therapy, however, the quality of ES cells and their progeny must be ensured during the process of ES cell propagation and differentiation. While only a limited number of primate ES cell lines have been studied, it is likely that substantial inter-line variability exists. This implies that diverse ES cell lines may differ in developmental stages, lineage commitment, karyotypic normalcy, gene expression, or differentiation potential. These variables, inherited genetically and/or induced epigenetically, carry obvious complications to therapeutic applications. Our laboratory has characterized and isolated rhesus monkey ES cell lines from in vitro produced blastocysts. All tested cell lines carry the potential to form pluripotent embryoid bodies and nestin-positive progenitor cells. These ES cell progeny can be differentiated into phenotypes representing the endodermal, mesodermal and ectodermal lineages. This review article describes the derivation of monkey ES cell lines, characterization of the undifferentiated phenotype, and their differentiation into lineage-specific, particularly neural, phenotypes

  12. Myeloid-Lymphoid Ontogeny in the Rhesus Monkey (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Batchelder, Cynthia A.; Duru, Nadire; Lee, C. Chang I.; Baker, Chris A.R.; Swainson, Louise; McCune, Joseph M; Tarantal, Alice F

    2014-01-01

    Establishment of a functional immune system has important implications for health and disease, yet questions remain regarding the mechanism, location, and timing of development of myeloid and lymphoid cell compartments. The goal of this study was to characterize the ontogeny of the myeloid-lymphoid system in rhesus monkeys to enhance current knowledge of the developmental sequence of B cell (CD20, CD79), T cell (CD3, CD4, CD8, FoxP3), dendritic cell (CD205), and macrophage (CD68) lineages in ...

  13. The squirrel monkey as a candidate for space flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizzee, K. R.; Ordy, J. M.; Kaack, B.

    1977-01-01

    Because of its size and other unique diurnal-primate characteristics, the squirrel monkey is used in: (1) actual bioflight missions, (2) in laboratory tests designed to clarify the risks to man during launch and recovery as well as in hazardous spaceflight environments; and (3) in the acquisition of data on unknown risks encountered in long duration space exploration. Pertinent data concerning samiri sciureus as described in published and unpublished reports are summarized. Topics include: taxonomy, ethology, life history, sensory-learning-motor capabilities in primate perspective, anatomy and physiology (including homeostatic adaptation to stress), susceptibility to environmental hazards, reproduction, care and clinical management, and previous use in aerospace biomedical research.

  14. Emesis in monkeys following exposure to ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There were 129 male rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) exposed to prompt radiations (neutron/gamma = 0.4 and pulse width = 50 ms) ranging from 700 to 5600 rad (midhead dose). The animals were fasted 18 h preexposure and observed for incidence of vomiting for 2 h postexposure. For doses less than 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited increased directly with dose. Above 1000 rads, the number of animals that vomited decreased with increasing dose. The total number of vomits per dose group followed a nearly identical pattern to the incidence of emesis. In all dose groups, most of the emetic episodes occurred between 20 and 50 min postirradiation

  15. Delayed response task performance as a function of age in cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Darusman, H S; Call, J; Sajuthi, D; Schapiro, S J; Gjedde, A; Kalliokoski, O; Hau, J

    2014-01-01

    We compared delayed response task performance in young, middle-aged, and old cynomolgus monkeys using three memory tests that have been used with non-human primates. Eighteen cynomolgus monkeys-6 young (4-9 years), 6 middle-aged (10-19 years), and 6 old (above 20 years)-were tested. In general, the...... old monkeys scored significantly worse than did the animals in the two other age groups. Longer delays between stimulus presentation and response increased the performance differences between the old and younger monkeys. The old monkeys in particular showed signs of impaired visuo-spatial memory and...

  16. Handedness found in a wild group of moor monkeys in the Karaenta Nature Reserve, South Sulawesi, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio WATANABE

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference of wild moor monkeys Macaca maurus was investigated in food reaching situations at the Karaenta Nature Reserve, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The frequency picking up sweet-corn grains to take into the mouth by either hand of monkeys was counted directly at the feeding ground where sweet-corn grains were scattered for monkeys. Among the 20 monkeys examined, 8 were right-handed, 8 were left-handed, and 4 were ambilateral. The results indicated the prevailed hand preference on individual level but not either trends of left- or right-hand preference on population level. The trend toward a higher proportion of left-handed monkeys found in Japanese and rhesus monkeys was not found. Some other characteristics found in moor monkeys are discussed in comparison with those previous findings in Japanese and Tibetan macaques in order to evaluate variations within the genus Macaca [Current Zoology 56 (2: 209–212, 2010

  17. Spatial processing in the auditory cortex of the macaque monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recanzone, Gregg H.

    2000-10-01

    The patterns of cortico-cortical and cortico-thalamic connections of auditory cortical areas in the rhesus monkey have led to the hypothesis that acoustic information is processed in series and in parallel in the primate auditory cortex. Recent physiological experiments in the behaving monkey indicate that the response properties of neurons in different cortical areas are both functionally distinct from each other, which is indicative of parallel processing, and functionally similar to each other, which is indicative of serial processing. Thus, auditory cortical processing may be similar to the serial and parallel "what" and "where" processing by the primate visual cortex. If "where" information is serially processed in the primate auditory cortex, neurons in cortical areas along this pathway should have progressively better spatial tuning properties. This prediction is supported by recent experiments that have shown that neurons in the caudomedial field have better spatial tuning properties than neurons in the primary auditory cortex. Neurons in the caudomedial field are also better than primary auditory cortex neurons at predicting the sound localization ability across different stimulus frequencies and bandwidths in both azimuth and elevation. These data support the hypothesis that the primate auditory cortex processes acoustic information in a serial and parallel manner and suggest that this may be a general cortical mechanism for sensory perception.

  18. Two processes support visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guderian, Sebastian; Brigham, Danielle; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2011-11-29

    A large body of evidence in humans suggests that recognition memory can be supported by both recollection and familiarity. Recollection-based recognition is characterized by the retrieval of contextual information about the episode in which an item was previously encountered, whereas familiarity-based recognition is characterized instead by knowledge only that the item had been encountered previously in the absence of any context. To date, it is unknown whether monkeys rely on similar mnemonic processes to perform recognition memory tasks. Here, we present evidence from the analysis of receiver operating characteristics, suggesting that visual recognition memory in rhesus monkeys also can be supported by two separate processes and that these processes have features considered to be characteristic of recollection and familiarity. Thus, the present study provides converging evidence across species for a dual process model of recognition memory and opens up the possibility of studying the neural mechanisms of recognition memory in nonhuman primates on tasks that are highly similar to the ones used in humans. PMID:22084079

  19. Aging and iron accumulation in the monkey brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iron is deposited in the mammalian brain with a characteristic distribution, its amount increasing with aging. The relative abundance of iron in the globus pallidus, substantia nigra and putamen is thought to be responsible for the hypointensity of these nuclei on T2-weighted MR images, due to magnetic susceptibility effects. However, no quantitative correlation between iron content and hypointensity has been made to confirm this hypothesis. Two young (1-year-old) and two older (18-year-old) rhesus monkeys were studied with MR imaging at different field strengths (0.5, 1.5, 2.0 T). MR signal intensities from different anatomic structures were measured on T2-weighted coronal images (2,6000/80 [repetition time msec/echo time msec]). At completion of the MR studies, the monkeys were killed, coronal brain sections were stained for iron (Perls method), and optical densities of anatomic structures were measured. A quantitative correlation between the iron content and the signal intensity decrease was found on T2-weighted images in both deep and superficial cerebral structures. The detectability of magnetic susceptibility effects in a single structure is determined by the amount of iron present, with the threshold being inversely correlated to the strength of the magnetic field

  20. Pharmacokinetics and disposition of WR-1065 in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pharmacokinetics of WR-1065 [S-2-(3-aminopropylamino)ethanethiol] were investigated following iv, intraduodenal, and intraportal administrations in the rhesus monkey. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by compartmental modeling of plasma concentration data from 10-min and 120-min iv infusions. Higher apparent volumes of distribution (Vc and Vss) and higher mean residence time (MRT) were observed at the slower infusion rate but a constant total dose. The values reflect a change in the distribution of WR-1065, possibly due to to saturation of binding in plasma and tissue. However, clearance remained unchanged. For a monkey administered approximately twice the 60 mg/kg dose infused over 120 min, data analysis indicates a disproportional increase in AUC and a substantial decrease in clearance. Low and erratic plasma concentrations of free drug (analytically determined without reductive cleavage) were observed following intraduodenal administration of WR-1065, demonstrating the drug's poor oral bioavailability. Results of intraduodenal administrations of radiolabeled drug indicated than an appreciable amount of the radiolabel in the dose reached the systemic circulation. However, after either intraduodenal or iv administration, only 31% of the AUC (radiolabel) could be accounted for as total (free and disulfide-bound) WR-1065 by specific analysis in separate experiments. Low levels of total cysteamine strongly suggest it to be a minor contributor to the disposition of the drug. Free WR-1065 AUC values following intraportal administration were similar to values obtained after iv administration

  1. Monkey Viperin Restricts Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus Replication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Jianyu; Wang, Haiyan; Bai, Juan; Zhang, Qiaoya; Li, Yufeng; Liu, Fei; Jiang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is an important pathogen which causes huge economic damage globally in the swine industry. Current vaccination strategies provide only limited protection against PRRSV infection. Viperin is an interferon (IFN) stimulated protein that inhibits some virus infections via IFN-dependent or IFN-independent pathways. However, the role of viperin in PRRSV infection is not well understood. In this study, we cloned the full-length monkey viperin (mViperin) complementary DNA (cDNA) from IFN-α-treated African green monkey Marc-145 cells. It was found that the mViperin is up-regulated following PRRSV infection in Marc-145 cells along with elevated IRF-1 gene levels. IFN-α induced mViperin expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner and strongly inhibits PRRSV replication in Marc-145 cells. Overexpression of mViperin suppresses PRRSV replication by blocking the early steps of PRRSV entry and genome replication and translation but not inhibiting assembly and release. And mViperin co-localized with PRRSV GP5 and N protein, but only interacted with N protein in distinct cytoplasmic loci. Furthermore, it was found that the 13–16 amino acids of mViperin were essential for inhibiting PRRSV replication, by disrupting the distribution of mViperin protein from the granular distribution to a homogeneous distribution in the cytoplasm. These results could be helpful in the future development of novel antiviral therapies against PRRSV infection. PMID:27232627

  2. Movement Limitation and Immune Responses of Rhesus Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Morton, Darla S.; Swiggett, Jeanene P.; Hakenewerth, Anne M.; Fowler, Nina A.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of restraint on immunological parameters was determined in an 18 day ARRT (adult rhesus restraint test). The monkeys were restrained for 18 days in the experimental station for the orbiting primate (ESOP), the chair of choice for Space Shuttle experiments. Several immunological parameters were determined using peripheral blood, bone marrow, and lymph node specimens from the monkeys. The parameters included: response of bone marrow cells to GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor), leukocyte subset distribution, and production of IFN-alpha (interferon-alpha) and IFN-gamma (interferon-gamma). The only parameter changed after 18 days of restraint was the percentage of CDB+ T cells. No other immunological parameters showed changes due to restraint. Handling and changes in housing prior to the restraint period did apparently result in some restraint-independent immunological changes. Handling must be kept to a minimum and the animals allowed time to recover prior to flight. All experiments must be carefully controlled. Restraint does not appear to be a major issue regarding the effects of space flight on immune responses.

  3. Mirror neurons in a New World monkey, common marmoset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eSuzuki

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mirror neurons respond when executing a motor act and when observing others’ similar act. So far, mirror neurons have been found only in macaques, humans and songbirds. To investigate the degree of phylogenetic specialization of mirror neurons during the course of their evolution, we determined whether mirror neurons with similar properties to macaques occur in a New World monkey, the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus. The ventral premotor cortex (PMv, where mirror neurons have been reported in macaques, is difficult to identify in marmosets, since no sulcal landmarks exist in the frontal cortex. We addressed this problem using in vivo connection imaging methods. That is, we first identified cells responsive to others’ grasping action in a clear landmark, the superior temporal sulcus (STS, under anesthesia, and injected fluorescent tracers into the region. By fluorescence stereomicroscopy, we identified clusters of labelled cells in the ventrolateral frontal cortex, which were confirmed to be within the ventrolateral frontal cortex including PMv after sacrifice. We next implanted electrodes into the ventrolateral frontal cortex and STS and recorded single/multi-units under an awake condition. As a result, we found neurons in the ventrolateral frontal cortex with characteristic mirror properties quite similar to those in macaques. This finding suggests that mirror neurons occur in a common ancestor of New and Old World monkeys and its common properties are preserved during the course of primate evolution.

  4. Geophagy in new world monkeys (Platyrrhini): ecological and geographic patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Stephen F; Veiga, Liza M; Urbani, Bernardo

    2008-01-01

    Geophagy has been recorded in an increasing number of New World monkeys (Platyrrhini) over recent years, permitting a tentative analysis of ecological patterns. While geophagy has now been recorded in species representing all 4 platyrrhine families and a majority of genera, there is a marked tendency for it to occur in the larger-bodied Pitheciidae and Atelidae. Howlers (Alouatta) are responsible for almost a third of reports, which are concentrated in the more frugivorous species, Alouatta belzebul and Alouatta seniculus. Geophagy may also be relatively common in the spider monkeys (Ateles) and the pitheciids, which are specialised frugivores and seed predators, respectively. An overview of the available data points to a marked Amazonian bias, allowing for geographical differences in the number of species and field studies. This pattern is demonstrated most emphatically by Alouatta, for which there are almost as many reports as field studies in the Amazon basin, in stark contrast with Central American sites, which have a long tradition of fieldwork, but no published records of geophagy. There are also relatively few reports from the Brazilian Atlantic forest. Despite the growth in reports, and the patterns identified here, the functional aspects of geophagy in the platyrrhines still remain unclear. PMID:18587239

  5. Chromosome painting defines genomic rearrangements between red howler monkey subspecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consigliere, S; Stanyon, R; Koehler, U; Agoramoorthy, G; Wienberg, J

    1996-06-01

    We hybridized whole human chromosome-specific DNA libraries to chromosomes of two supposed subspecies of Alouatta seniculus: Alouatta seniculus sara and Alouatta seniculus arctoides. The number of hybridization signals per haploid set is 42 in A. s. sara and 43 in A. s. arctoidea; the two karyotypes differ by at least 16 chromosomal rearrangements, including numerous translocations. An unusual sex chromosome system is shared by both taxa. The sex chromosome system results from a Y translocation with a chromosome homologous to parts of human chromosome 3/15 and can be described as X1X2Y1Y2/X1X1X2X2 (male/female). Both red howlers also have microchromosomes, a highly unusual karyological trait not found in other higher primates. These microchromosomes are not hybridized by any human chromosome paint and therefore are probably composed of repetitive DNA. It is well known that New World monkeys have high karyological variability. It is probable that molecular cytogenetic analyses including chromosome painting will permit an accurate reconstruction of the phylogeny of these monkeys and help establish the ancestral karyotype for higher primates. PMID:8817065

  6. Cell tropism and pathogenesis of measles virus in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KaoruTakeuchi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MV is an enveloped negative strand RNA virus belonging to the family of Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, and causes one of the most contagious diseases in humans. Experimentally infected non-human primates are used as animal models for studies of the pathogenesis of human measles. We established a reverse genetics system based on a highly pathogenic wild-type MV (IC-B strain. Infection of monkeys with recombinant MV strains generated by reverse genetics enabled analysis of the molecular basis of MV pathogenesis. In addition, recombinant wild-type MV strains expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein enable visual tracking of MV-infected cells in vitro and in vivo. To date, 3 different molecules have been identified as receptors for MV. Signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM, also called CD150, expressed on immune cells, is a major receptor for MV. CD46, ubiquitously expressed in all nucleated cells in humans and monkeys, is a receptor for vaccine and laboratory strains of MV. The newly identified nectin-4 (also called PVRL4 is an epithelial cell receptor for MV. The impact of MV receptor usage in vivo on disease outcomes is now under investigation.

  7. Relaxin supports implantation and early pregnancy in the marmoset monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einspanier, Almuth; Lieder, Kai; Husen, Bettina; Ebert, Katja; Lier, Susanne; Einspanier, Ralf; Unemori, Elaine; Kemper, Martina

    2009-04-01

    To test the hypothesis that relaxin is an important factor supporting implantation, two approaches have been carried out using a human-relevant animal model, the marmoset monkey. First, uterine mRNA transcription and protein expression during the implantation phase in the conceptive and nonconceptive cycles were examined. Second, functional parameters were analyzed to assess the in vivo effects of exogenous applied relaxin throughout implantation. Relaxin and its receptor, RXFP1, were highly upregulated shortly before and during the physical process of implantation, indicating that relaxin is an important factor for remodeling and immunotolerance. The action of relaxin on the uterus was accompanied by an increase of estrogen-associated factors and macrophage infiltration, suggesting redundant systems necessary for successful implantation. The data from relaxin-treated animals supported those obtained from naive tissues in terms of increases in angiogenesis as well as earlier and faster growth of the uterus and placenta in the relaxin-treated marmoset monkey group, resulting in parturition 7-10 days earlier than the control group, but not pathological. In general, relaxin is very effective in preparing the endometrium for implantation. These findings should encourage further clinical research regarding introducing relaxin for pathological pregnancies, such as early pregnancy failure or insufficient placenta. PMID:19416176

  8. Conversion of monkey fibroblasts to transplantable telencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Zongyong; Xiang, Zheng; Li, Yuemin; Liu, Guoku; Wang, Hong; Zheng, Yun; Qiu, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Shumei; Zhu, Xiaoqing; Li, Yanhua; Ji, Weizhi; Li, Tianqing

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates provide optimal models for the development of stem cell therapies. Although somatic cells have been converted into neural stem/progenitor cells, it is unclear whether telencephalic neuroepithelial stem cells (NESCs) with stable properties can be generated from fibroblasts in primate. Here we report that a combination of transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4) with a new culture medium induces rhesus monkey fibroblasts into NESCs, which can develop into miniature neural tube (NT)-like structures at a cell level. Furthermore, single induced NESCs (iNESCs) can generate later-stage 3D-NTs after grown on matrigel in suspension culture. iNESCs express NT cell markers, have a unique gene expression pattern biasing towards telencephalic patterning, and give rise to cortical neurons. Via transplantation, single iNESCs can extensively survive, regenerate myelinated neuron axons and synapse structures in adult monkey striatum and cortex, and differentiate into cortical neurons. Successful transplantation is closely associated with graft regions and grafted cell identities. The ability to generate defined and transplantable iNESCs from primate fibroblasts under a defined condition with predictable fate choices will facilitate disease modeling and cell therapy. PMID:26584346

  9. Sporadic premature aging in a Japanese monkey: a primate model for progeria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takao Oishi

    Full Text Available In our institute, we have recently found a child Japanese monkey who is characterized by deep wrinkles of the skin and cataract of bilateral eyes. Numbers of analyses were performed to identify symptoms representing different aspects of aging. In this monkey, the cell cycle of fibroblasts at early passage was significantly extended as compared to a normal control. Moreover, both the appearance of senescent cells and the deficiency in DNA repair were observed. Also, pathological examination showed that this monkey has poikiloderma with superficial telangiectasia, and biochemical assay confirmed that levels of HbA1c and urinary hyaluronan were higher than those of other (child, adult, and aged monkey groups. Of particular interest was that our MRI analysis revealed expansion of the cerebral sulci and lateral ventricles probably due to shrinkage of the cerebral cortex and the hippocampus. In addition, the conduction velocity of a peripheral sensory but not motor nerve was lower than in adult and child monkeys, and as low as in aged monkeys. However, we could not detect any individual-unique mutations of known genes responsible for major progeroid syndromes. The present results indicate that the monkey suffers from a kind of progeria that is not necessarily typical to human progeroid syndromes.

  10. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled park insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report the authors describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. They demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in their immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species

  11. Rhesus monkey lens as an in vitro model for studying oxidative stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenses from young rhesus monkeys were incubated in the presence of H2O2 or oxygen radical generating systems to determine their suitability as a model for investigating lenticular oxidative stress. Additionally, direct comparisons were made between the effects found with the monkey lenses and those observed with cultured rat lenses exposed to the same oxidizing systems. As in earlier studies with rat lenses the monkey lenses exhibited impaired ability to actively accumulate from the medium radioactively labelled rubidium and choline following exposure to oxidative stress. Based on the effects of various scavengers of oxygen radicals it appeared that the mechanisms responsible for lens damage were the same for both rat and monkey lenses. However, rat lenses were damaged by lower concentrations of oxidants than were monkey lenses. It was concluded that oxidative stress affects both rat and monkey lenses by similar mechanisms but that lenses from monkeys, and probably other primates, are more resistant to these effects because they have better endogenous antioxidant defenses

  12. Microbial translocation and skeletal muscle in young and old vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Brown, Richelle N; Davis, Ashley T; Uberseder, Beth; Floyd, Edison; Pfisterer, Bianca; Shively, Carol A

    2016-06-01

    Intestinal barrier dysfunction leads to microbial translocation (MT) and inflammation in vertebrate and invertebrate animal models. Age is recently recognized as a factor leading to MT, and in some human and animal model studies, MT was associated with physical function. We evaluated sarcopenia, inflammation, MT biomarkers, and muscle insulin sensitivity in healthy female vervet monkeys (6-27 years old). Monkeys were fed consistent diets and had large and varied environments to facilitate physical activity, and stable social conditions. Aging led to sarcopenia as indicated by reduced walking speeds and muscle mass, but general metabolic health was similar in older monkeys (n = 25) as compared to younger ones (n = 26). When older monkeys were physically active, their MT burden approximated that in young monkeys; however, when older monkeys were sedentary, MT burden was dramatically increased. MT levels were positively associated with inflammatory burden and negatively associated with skeletal muscle insulin sensitivity. Time spent being active was positively associated with insulin sensitivity as expected, but this relationship was specifically modified by the individual monkey's MT, not inflammatory burden. Our data supports clinical observations that MT interacts with physical function as a factor in healthy aging. PMID:27194407

  13. Geophagy in brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a lowland tropical rainforest in Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andres; de Luna, Ana Gabriela; Arango, Ricardo; Diaz, Maria Clara

    2011-01-01

    Spider monkeys and howler monkeys are the only Neotropical primates that eat soil from mineral licks. Not all species within these genera visit mineral licks, and geophagy has been restricted to populations of Ateles belzebuth belzebuth,Ateles belzebuth chamek and Alouatta seniculus in western Amazonian rainforests. With the aid of a camera trap we studied the visitation patterns of a group of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) to a mineral lick at Serrania de Las Quinchas, in Colombia. Spider monkeys visited the lick frequently throughout the year, with a monthly average of 21.7 ± 7.2 visits per 100 days of camera trapping (n = 14 months). Spider monkeys visited the mineral lick almost always on days with no rain, or very little (<3 mm) rain, suggesting that proximate environmental variables might determine spider monkeys' decisions to come to the ground at the licks. This study expands the geographical occurrence of mineral lick use by spider monkeys providing additional data for future assessments on the biogeographical correlates of mineral lick use by platyrrhines. PMID:21494049

  14. Isolation and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciurea) insulin and glucagon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jinghua (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States)); Eng, J.; Yalow, R.S. (Veterans Administration Medical Center, Bronx, NY (United States) City Univ. of New York, NY (United States))

    1990-12-01

    It was reported two decades ago that insulin was not detectable in the glucose-stimulated state in Saimiri sciurea, the New World squirrel monkey, by a radioimmunoassay system developed with guinea pig anti-pork insulin antibody and labeled park insulin. With the same system, reasonable levels were observed in rhesus monkeys and chimpanzees. This suggested that New World monkeys, like the New World hystricomorph rodents such as the guinea pig and the coypu, might have insulins whose sequences differ markedly from those of Old World mammals. In this report the authors describe the purification and amino acid sequences of squirrel monkey insulin and glucagon. They demonstrate that the substitutions at B29, B27, A2, A4, and A17 of squirrel monkey insulin are identical with those previously found in another New World primate, the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). The immunologic cross-reactivity of this insulin in their immunoassay system is only a few percent of that of human insulin. It appears that the peptides of the New World monkeys have diverged less from those of the Old World mammals than have those of the New World hystricomorph rodents. The striking improvements in peptide purification and sequencing have the potential for adding new information concerning the evolutionary divergence of species.

  15. Application and Assessment of Ketamine-Xylidinothiazoline Combinations for Anaesthesia in Rhesus Monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jianhua; GAO Li; Liu Huanqi; FAN Honggang; MA Haikun; LIU Yun; WANG Hongbin

    2009-01-01

    The quantitative anaesthesia assessment technique was used to evaluate the effectiveness of ketamine, ketaminexylidinothiazoline in rhesus monkey. Total 20 healthy adult rhesus monkeys were divided into two groups and anaesthetized anaesthesia rectal temperature, respiratory rate, heart rate, saturation of blood oxygen and blood pressure were recorded. The degree of sedation, analgesia, muscle relaxation were monitored either. The results showed that ketamine alone did not produce adequate anaesthesia, and the combination of xylidinothiazoline and ketamine provided adequate anesthesia for rhesus monkeys with no significant side effects and little effects on respiration and circulation.

  16. Autism-like behaviours and germline transmission in transgenic monkeys overexpressing MeCP2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhen; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Jun-Tao; Cai, Yi-Jun; Cheng, Tian-Lin; Cheng, Cheng; Wang, Yan; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Nie, Yan-Hong; Chen, Zhi-Fang; Bian, Wen-Jie; Zhang, Ling; Xiao, Jianqiu; Lu, Bin; Zhang, Yue-Fang; Zhang, Xiao-Di; Sang, Xiao; Wu, Jia-Jia; Xu, Xiu; Xiong, Zhi-Qi; Zhang, Feng; Yu, Xiang; Gong, Neng; Zhou, Wen-Hao; Sun, Qiang; Qiu, Zilong

    2016-02-01

    Methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MeCP2) has crucial roles in transcriptional regulation and microRNA processing. Mutations in the MECP2 gene are found in 90% of patients with Rett syndrome, a severe developmental disorder with autistic phenotypes. Duplications of MECP2-containing genomic segments cause the MECP2 duplication syndrome, which shares core symptoms with autism spectrum disorders. Although Mecp2-null mice recapitulate most developmental and behavioural defects seen in patients with Rett syndrome, it has been difficult to identify autism-like behaviours in the mouse model of MeCP2 overexpression. Here we report that lentivirus-based transgenic cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) expressing human MeCP2 in the brain exhibit autism-like behaviours and show germline transmission of the transgene. Expression of the MECP2 transgene was confirmed by western blotting and immunostaining of brain tissues of transgenic monkeys. Genomic integration sites of the transgenes were characterized by a deep-sequencing-based method. As compared to wild-type monkeys, MECP2 transgenic monkeys exhibited a higher frequency of repetitive circular locomotion and increased stress responses, as measured by the threat-related anxiety and defensive test. The transgenic monkeys showed less interaction with wild-type monkeys within the same group, and also a reduced interaction time when paired with other transgenic monkeys in social interaction tests. The cognitive functions of the transgenic monkeys were largely normal in the Wisconsin general test apparatus, although some showed signs of stereotypic cognitive behaviours. Notably, we succeeded in generating five F1 offspring of MECP2 transgenic monkeys by intracytoplasmic sperm injection with sperm from one F0 transgenic monkey, showing germline transmission and Mendelian segregation of several MECP2 transgenes in the F1 progeny. Moreover, F1 transgenic monkeys also showed reduced social interactions when tested in pairs, as

  17. Infection and Persistence of Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus in Immortalized B-Cell Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Bilello, John P.; Lang, Sabine M.; Wang, Fred; Aster, Jon C.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Similar to its close relative human herpesvirus 8, rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV) persists predominantly in B cells of its natural host. Rhesus monkey B-cell lines immortalized by the Epstein-Barr-related virus from rhesus monkeys (rhEBV) were used as targets for infection by RRV. These cultured B cells were susceptible to infection by RRV and continued to produce low titers of RRV for months of continuous culture. Infection by RRV did not detectably alter the growth rates of these B-cell l...

  18. Cellular adaptation contributes to calorie restriction-induced preservation of skeletal muscle in aged rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    McKiernan, Susan H; Colman, Ricki J; Aiken, Erik; Evans, Trent D.; Beasley, T.Mark; Aiken, Judd M.; Weindruch, Richard; Anderson, Rozalyn M.

    2011-01-01

    We have previously shown that a 30% reduced calorie intake diet delayed the onset of muscle mass loss in adult monkeys between ~16 and ~22 years of age and prevented multiple cellular phenotypes of aging. In the present study we show the impact of long term (~17 years) calorie restriction (CR) on muscle aging in very old monkeys (27–33yrs) compared to age-matched Control monkeys fed ad libitum, and describe these data in the context of the whole longitudinal study. Muscle mass was preserved i...

  19. Estrogen and androgen dynamics in the cynomolgus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied the dynamics of androgen, estrogen, and cortisol (F) production, metabolism, and protein binding in cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) to provide baseline data and to compare these parameters with those obtained in other primates. Constant infusions of 3H-labeled androgens, 14C-labeled estrogens, and [3H]F were administered to 11 male cynomolgus monkeys (M. fascicularis) for 3.5 h. Blood samples were obtained from a peripheral vein during the infusion, and all urine was collected for 96 h. In each of 3 monkeys, a catheter was inserted into the hepatic vein, and during the infusions blood samples were obtained from the hepatic and peripheral veins and the femoral artery. All blood and urine samples were analyzed for radioactivity as testosterone (T), androstenedione (A), dihydrotestosterone (DHT), estradiol (E2), and estrone (E1). When indicated, blood samples were also analyzed for radioactivity as F. Blood samples taken before the infusions were analyzed for endogenous T, A, DHT, E1, E2, and F concentrations; percent free T, free E2, and free F; and sex hormone-binding globulin and F-binding globulin capacities. The mean +/- SE MCRs for T, A, E2, E1, and F were 44 +/- 4, 407 +/- 40, 175 +/- 17, 315 +/- 28, and 57 +/- 6 liters/day, respectively. The mean blood production rates were 128 +/- 19, 91 +/- 14, 3.3 +/- 0.5, and 9.2 +/- 1.1 micrograms/day and 13.4 +/- 1.9 mg/day for T, A, E2, E1, and F, respectively. The aromatization of androgens was 1.30 +/- 0.10% for A to E1 and 0.28 +/- 0.03% for T to E2. The percent free F (4.34 +/- 0.42%) was greater than the percent free T (1.73 +/- 0.16%) or free E2 (2.75 +/- 0.22%), and the concentration of F-binding globulin was greater than that of sex hormone-binding globulin (227 +/- 35 vs. 60 +/- 7 nM)

  20. Tahyna virus genetics, infectivity, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whitehead Stephen S

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tahyna virus (TAHV is a human pathogen of the California encephalitis virus (CEV serogroup (Bunyaviridae endemic to Europe, Asia, and Africa. TAHV maintains an enzootic life cycle with several species of mosquito vectors and hares, rabbits, hedgehogs, and rodents serving as small mammal amplifying hosts. Human TAHV infection occurs in summer and early fall with symptoms of fever, headache, malaise, conjunctivitis, pharyngitis, and nausea. TAHV disease can progress to CNS involvement, although unlike related La Crosse virus (LACV, fatalities have not been reported. Human infections are frequent with neutralizing antibodies present in 60-80% of the elderly population in endemic areas. Results In order to determine the genomic sequence of wild-type TAHV, we chose three TAHV isolates collected over a 26-year period from mosquitoes. Here we present the first complete sequence of the TAHV S, M, and L segments. The three TAHV isolates maintained a highly conserved genome with both nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity greater than 99%. In order to determine the extent of genetic relatedness to other members of the CEV serogroup, we compared protein sequences of TAHV with LACV, Snowshoe Hare virus (SSHV, Jamestown Canyon virus (JCV, and Inkoo virus (INKV. By amino acid comparison, TAHV was most similar to SSHV followed by LACV, JCV, and INKV. The sequence of the GN protein is most conserved followed by L, N, GC, NSS, and NSM. In a weanling Swiss Webster mouse model, all three TAHV isolates were uniformly neurovirulent, but only one virus was neuroinvasive. In rhesus monkeys, the virus was highly immunogenic even in the absence of viremia. Cross neutralization studies utilizing monkey immune serum demonstrated that TAHV is antigenically distinct from North American viruses LACV and JCV. Conclusions Here we report the first complete sequence of TAHV and present genetic analysis of new-world viruses, LACV, SSHV, and JCV with old

  1. Virulence of Avian Influenza A Viruses for Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Brian R.; Hinshaw, Virginia S.; Sly, D. Lewis; London, William T.; Hosier, Nanette T.; Wood, Frank T.; Webster, Robert G.; Chanock, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    Ten serologically distinct avian influenza A viruses were administered to squirrel monkeys and hamsters to compare their replication and virulence with those of human influenza A virus, A/Udorn/307/72 (H3N2). In squirrel monkeys, the 10 avian influenza A viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication and virulence. The levels of virus replication and clinical response were closely correlated. Two viruses, A/Mallard/NY/6874/78 (H3N2) and A/Pintail/Alb/121/79 (H7N8), resembled the human virus in their level and duration of replication and in their virulence. At the other end of the spectrum, five avian viruses were restricted by 100- to 10,000-fold in replication in the upper and lower respiratory tract and were clearly attenuated compared with the human influenza virus. In hamsters, the 10 viruses exhibited a spectrum of replication in the nasal turbinates, ranging from viruses that replicated as efficiently as the human virus to those that were 8,000- fold restricted. Since several avian viruses were closely related serologically to human influenza viruses, studies were done to confirm the avian nature of these isolates. Each of the avian viruses plaqued efficiently at 42°C, a restrictive temperature for replication of human influenza A viruses. Avian strains that had replicated either very efficiently or very poorly in squirrel monkeys still grew to high titer in the intestinal tracts of ducks, a tropism characteristic of avian, but not mammalian, influenza viruses. These observations indicate that some avian influenza A viruses grow well and cause disease in a primate host, whereas other avian viruses are very restricted in this host. These findings also provide a basis for determining the gene or genes involved in the restriction of replication that is observed with the attenuated avian viruses. Application of such information may allow the preparation of reassortant viruses derived from a virulent human influenza virus and an attenuated avian virus for possible

  2. Cortical cholinergic innervation: Distribution and source in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its late-life variant, senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type (SDAT), the predominant neurochemical abnormalities are marked decrements in the activities of ChAT and AChE, the high affinity uptake of tritium-choline, and synthesis of acetylcholine. Two studies are undertaken to delineate more clearly the variability of cortical cholinergic innervation and the contribution of the Ch system, particularly the Ch4, to this cholinergic innervation. In the first study, ChAT activity was assessed in multiple samples of neocortex from seven normal cynomolgus monkeys. In the second study, the nbM was lesioned in order to determine the contribution of the Ch system to cortical cholinergic innervation

  3. Olfactory communication among Costa Rican squirrel monkeys: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S

    1992-01-01

    Behaviors with a possible role in olfactory communication among troop members were investigated as part of a field study on the reproductive and foraging ecology of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica. All age classes engaged in the olfaction-related behaviors. Apart from olfactory investigation of female genitals by males during the mating season, no other potential olfaction-related behavior (urine wash, branch investigation, rump, chest, back rub and sneeze) exceeded 1% of mean behavioral samples. Assessment of reproduction condition appears to be the primary function of such olfactory investigation of the female genital region. The primary function of urine washing is suggested to be the general communication of reproductive status, possibly facilitating reproductive synchrony. Sneezing, rump, back and chest rubbing do not appear to deposit substances active in olfactory communication. PMID:1306175

  4. Anterior hypothalamic lesions and pubertal development in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Werff ten Bosch, J J; Dierschke, D J; Terasawa, E; Slob, A K

    1983-03-01

    Electrolytic lesions were made in the anterior hypothalamus of 8 prepubertal female rhesus monkeys, aged 1.1-1.7 years. Six unoperated females served as controls. No effects were found of the lesions upon age and body weight at menarche or at first ovulation, as estimated by blood levels of progesterone and laparoscopic observations. From these findings it appears that the neural control of puberty in the female rhesus may not be exerted through the anterior hypothalamus, in contrast with the rat and ferret. Further, an attempt was made to identify biometric correlates of hormonal changes during puberty. Firstly, the well known dip in growth rate, about 0.4 years before menarche, was observed. Secondly, there was a marked spurt in growth of the nipples starting at 0.2 years before menarche. The close temporal association between accelerated nipple growth and menarche suggests that both of these developmental characteristics result from changes in (presumably ovarian) steroid hormone secretion. PMID:6838715

  5. Postconflict behaviour in brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, João R; Santos, António J; Cruz, Mónica G

    2009-01-01

    Postconflict affiliation has been mostly studied in Old World primates, and we still lack comparative research to understand completely the functional value of reconciliation. Cebus species display great variability in social characteristics, thereby providing a great opportunity for comparative studies. We recorded 190 agonistic interactions and subsequent postconflict behaviour in a captive group of brown capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella). Only 26.8% of these conflicts were reconciled. Reconciliation was more likely to occur between opponents that supported each other more frequently and that spent more time together. Postconflict anxiety was mostly determined by conflict intensity, and none of the variables thought to measure relationship quality had a significant effect on postconflict stress. PMID:19923844

  6. GLP-1 receptor localization in monkey and human tissue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pyke, Charles; Heller, R Scott; Kirk, Rikke Kaae;

    2014-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) analogs are increasingly being used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It is clear that these drugs lower blood glucose through an increase in insulin secretion and a lowering of glucagon secretion; in addition, they lower body weight and systolic blood pressure...... and increase heart rate. Using a new monoclonal antibody for immunohistochemistry, we detected GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) in important target organs in humans and monkeys. In the pancreas, GLP-1R was predominantly localized in β-cells with a markedly weaker expression in acinar cells. Pancreatic ductal...... epithelial cells did not express GLP-1R. In the kidney and lung, GLP-1R was exclusively expressed in smooth muscle cells in the walls of arteries and arterioles. In the heart, GLP-1R was localized in myocytes of the sinoatrial node. In the gastrointestinal tract, the highest GLP-1R expression was seen in the...

  7. Alterations in opiate receptor binding in MPTP-induced hemiparkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porrino, L J; Viola, J J; Crane, A M; Pontieri, F E

    1991-06-24

    Quantitative autoradiography was used to study [3H]naloxone binding in the striatum of normal monkeys and monkeys made hemiparkinsonian by the unilateral infusion of the neurotoxin, 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). The density of [3H]naloxone binding sites was significantly higher in the caudate and putamen on the MPTP-treated side of hemiparkinsonian monkeys, as compared with binding on the untreated side and in the striatum of normal monkeys. A more extensive patchy distribution of binding sites was evident throughout the striatum on the MPTP-treated side than seen in the striatum of the untreated side or in normal striatum. PMID:1652716

  8. Video-task acquisition in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, W. D.; Washburn, D. A.; Hyatt, C. W.; Rumbaugh, D. M. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    This study describes video-task acquisition in two nonhuman primate species. The subjects were seven rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and seven chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). All subjects were trained to manipulate a joystick which controlled a cursor displayed on a computer monitor. Two criterion levels were used: one based on conceptual knowledge of the task and one based on motor performance. Chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys attained criterion in a comparable number of trials using a conceptually based criterion. However, using a criterion based on motor performance, chimpanzees reached criterion significantly faster than rhesus monkeys. Analysis of error patterns and latency indicated that the rhesus monkeys had a larger asymmetry in response bias and were significantly slower in responding than the chimpanzees. The results are discussed in terms of the relation between object manipulation skills and video-task acquisition.

  9. Do Right- and Left-Handed Monkeys Differ on Cognitive Measures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Twelve left- and 14 right-handed monkeys were compared on 6 measures of cognitive performance (2 maze-solving tasks, matching-to-sample, delayed matching-to-sample, delayed response using spatial cues, and delayed response using form cues). The dependent variable was trials-to-training criterion for each of the 6 tasks. Significant differences were found between left- and right-handed monkeys on the 2 versions of the delayed response task. Right-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on the form cue version of the task, whereas left-handed monkeys reached criterion significantly faster on delayed response for spatial position (p less than .05). The results suggest that sensitive hand preference measures of laterality can reveal differences in cognitive performance, which in turn may reflect underlying laterality in functional organization of the nervous system.

  10. Effects of age on latency and variability of visual response in monkeys

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Shan; WANG Xiusong; FU Yu; ZHANG Jie; MA Yuanye; WANG Yongchang; ZHOU Yifeng

    2005-01-01

    @@ Visual function declines during normal aging[1]. The neural mechanisms underlying age-related changes have retinal ganglion cells and cells in dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus(dLGN)in old monkeys are relatively normal[1,2].

  11. Social dominance in monkeys: dopamine D2 receptors and cocaine self-administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Drake; Grant, Kathleen A; Gage, H Donald; Mach, Robert H; Kaplan, Jay R; Prioleau, Osric; Nader, Susan H; Buchheimer, Nancy; Ehrenkaufer, Richard L; Nader, Michael A

    2002-02-01

    Disruption of the dopaminergic system has been implicated in the etiology of many pathological conditions, including drug addiction. Here we used positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to study brain dopaminergic function in individually housed and in socially housed cynomolgus macaques (n = 20). Whereas the monkeys did not differ during individual housing, social housing increased the amount or availability of dopamine D2 receptors in dominant monkeys and produced no change in subordinate monkeys. These neurobiological changes had an important behavioral influence as demonstrated by the finding that cocaine functioned as a reinforcer in subordinate but not dominant monkeys. These data demonstrate that alterations in an organism's environment can produce profound biological changes that have important behavioral associations, including vulnerability to cocaine addiction. PMID:11802171

  12. A method for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in conscious monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Hiroshi; Nomiya, Nana; Imai, Daiki; Sato, Shigeru; Sakurai, Ken; Takasuna, Kiyoshi; Furuhama, Kazuhisa

    2016-02-01

    To establish a method for estimating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in conscious monkeys, the radiographic contrast medium iodixanol and the standard agent inulin were coadministered as tracers to male cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) as a bolus injection; blood was collected after 60, 90 and 120 min. An equation based on a single-blood-sample method derived from Jacobsson's formula was prepared using the data from healthy and saline- and gentamicin-treated monkeys by a multisample strategy with iodixanol. The GFR using the equation with iodixanol was in agreement with that from the multisample method with inulin or iodixanol. When the GFR decreased to more than 60% of the basal reference level, serum creatinine concentrations tended to increase, whereas serum blood urea nitrogen concentrations fluctuated. The results suggest that the single-sample-blood method with iodixanol is a practical tool for estimating the monkey GFR in a toxicological research setting therefore minimizing animal sufferings. PMID:25994107

  13. The effect of environmental enrichment on the behavior of captive tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Kirsten R; Mikkelsen, L F; Hau, J

    2010-01-01

    The authors provided different forms of environmental enrichment to six old laboratory male tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) and studied the behavior of the monkeys during a baseline period and during three enrichment periods. Each observation period lasted 5 d, with an interval of 6 d...... between periods. During the first enrichment period, the authors provided Buster cubes and wood cylinders with drilled holes filled with gum arabic. During the second enrichment period, monkeys were provided with a deep litter of bark shavings, and during the third enrichment period, they were given...... Buster cubes, wood cylinders and bark shavings. When provided with enrichment, the monkeys engaged in natural, species-specific activities and began to exhibit behavioral profiles that more closely resembled those of their natural counterparts. This suggests that their psychological well-being had...

  14. Protective efficacy of multiple vaccine platforms against Zika virus challenge in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbink, Peter; Larocca, Rafael A; De La Barrera, Rafael A; Bricault, Christine A; Moseley, Edward T; Boyd, Michael; Kirilova, Marinela; Li, Zhenfeng; Ng'ang'a, David; Nanayakkara, Ovini; Nityanandam, Ramya; Mercado, Noe B; Borducchi, Erica N; Agarwal, Arshi; Brinkman, Amanda L; Cabral, Crystal; Chandrashekar, Abishek; Giglio, Patricia B; Jetton, David; Jimenez, Jessica; Lee, Benjamin C; Mojta, Shanell; Molloy, Katherine; Shetty, Mayuri; Neubauer, George H; Stephenson, Kathryn E; Peron, Jean Pierre S; Zanotto, Paolo M de A; Misamore, Johnathan; Finneyfrock, Brad; Lewis, Mark G; Alter, Galit; Modjarrad, Kayvon; Jarman, Richard G; Eckels, Kenneth H; Michael, Nelson L; Thomas, Stephen J; Barouch, Dan H

    2016-09-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is responsible for a major ongoing epidemic in the Americas and has been causally associated with fetal microcephaly. The development of a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is therefore an urgent global health priority. Here we demonstrate that three different vaccine platforms protect against ZIKV challenge in rhesus monkeys. A purified inactivated virus vaccine induced ZIKV-specific neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV strains from both Brazil and Puerto Rico. Purified immunoglobulin from vaccinated monkeys also conferred passive protection in adoptive transfer studies. A plasmid DNA vaccine and a single-shot recombinant rhesus adenovirus serotype 52 vector vaccine, both expressing ZIKV premembrane and envelope, also elicited neutralizing antibodies and completely protected monkeys against ZIKV challenge. These data support the rapid clinical development of ZIKV vaccines for humans. PMID:27492477

  15. Sexual differentiation of behaviour in monkeys: role of prenatal hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallen, K; Hassett, J M

    2009-03-01

    The theoretical debate over the relative contributions of nature and nurture to the sexual differentiation of behaviour has increasingly moved towards an interactionist explanation that requires both influences. In practice, however, nature and nurture have often been seen as separable, influencing human clinical sex assignment decisions, sometimes with disastrous consequences. Decisions about the sex assignment of children born with intersex conditions have been based almost exclusively on the appearance of the genitals and how other's reactions to the gender role of the assigned sex affect individual gender socialisation. Effects of the social environment and gender expectations in human cultures are ubiquitous, overshadowing the potential underlying biological contributions in favour of the more observable social influences. Recent work in nonhuman primates showing behavioural sex differences paralleling human sex differences, including toy preferences, suggests that less easily observed biological factors also influence behavioural sexual differentiation in both monkeys and humans. We review research, including Robert W. Goy's pioneering work with rhesus monkeys, which manipulated prenatal hormones at different gestation times and demonstrated that genital anatomy and specific behaviours are independently sexually differentiated. Such studies demonstrate that, for a variety of behaviours, including juvenile mounting and rough play, individuals can have the genitals of one sex but show the behaviour more typical of the other sex. We describe another case, infant distress vocalisations, where maternal responsiveness is best accounted for by the mother's response to the genital appearance of her offspring. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that sexual differentiation arises from complex interactions where anatomical and behavioural biases, produced by hormonal and other biological processes, are shaped by social experience into the behavioural sex

  16. Hierarchical auditory processing directed rostrally along the monkey's supratemporal plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikuchi, Yukiko; Horwitz, Barry; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2010-09-29

    Connectional anatomical evidence suggests that the auditory core, containing the tonotopic areas A1, R, and RT, constitutes the first stage of auditory cortical processing, with feedforward projections from core outward, first to the surrounding auditory belt and then to the parabelt. Connectional evidence also raises the possibility that the core itself is serially organized, with feedforward projections from A1 to R and with additional projections, although of unknown feed direction, from R to RT. We hypothesized that area RT together with more rostral parts of the supratemporal plane (rSTP) form the anterior extension of a rostrally directed stimulus quality processing stream originating in the auditory core area A1. Here, we analyzed auditory responses of single neurons in three different sectors distributed caudorostrally along the supratemporal plane (STP): sector I, mainly area A1; sector II, mainly area RT; and sector III, principally RTp (the rostrotemporal polar area), including cortex located 3 mm from the temporal tip. Mean onset latency of excitation responses and stimulus selectivity to monkey calls and other sounds, both simple and complex, increased progressively from sector I to III. Also, whereas cells in sector I responded with significantly higher firing rates to the "other" sounds than to monkey calls, those in sectors II and III responded at the same rate to both stimulus types. The pattern of results supports the proposal that the STP contains a rostrally directed, hierarchically organized auditory processing stream, with gradually increasing stimulus selectivity, and that this stream extends from the primary auditory area to the temporal pole. PMID:20881120

  17. Temporal discounting and inter-temporal choice in rhesus monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaewon Hwang

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Humans and animals are more likely to take an action leading to an immediate reward than actions with delayed rewards of similar magnitudes. Although such devaluation of delayed rewards has been almost universally described by hyperbolic discount functions, the rate of this temporal discounting varies substantially among different animal species. This might be in part due to the differences in how the information about reward is presented to decision makers. In previous animal studies, reward delays or magnitudes were gradually adjusted across trials, so the animals learned the properties of future rewards from the rewards they waited for and consumed previously. In contrast, verbal cues have been used commonly in human studies. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were trained in a novel inter-temporal choice task in which the magnitude and delay of reward were indicated symbolically using visual cues and varied randomly across trials. We found that monkeys could extract the information about reward delays from visual symbols regardless of the number of symbols used to indicate the delay. The rate of temporal discounting observed in the present study was comparable to the previous estimates in other mammals, and the animal’s choice behavior was largely consistent with hyperbolic discounting. Our results also suggest that the rate of temporal discounting might be influenced by contextual factors, such as the novelty of the task. The flexibility furnished by this new inter-temporal choice task might be useful for future neurobiological investigations on inter-temporal choice in non-human primates.

  18. Hand position affects saccadic reaction times in monkeys and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thura, David; Boussaoud, Driss; Meunier, Martine

    2008-05-01

    In daily life, activities requiring the hand and eye to work separately are as frequent as activities requiring tight eye-hand coordination, and we effortlessly switch from one type of activity to the other. Such flexibility is unlikely to be achieved without each effector "knowing" where the other one is at all times, even when it is static. Here, we provide behavioral evidence that the mere position of the static hand affects one eye movement parameter: saccadic reaction time. Two monkeys were trained and 11 humans instructed to perform nondelayed or delayed visually guided saccades to either a right or a left target while holding their hand at a location either near or far from the eye target. From trial to trial, target locations and hand positions varied pseudorandomly. Subjects were tested both when they could and when they could not see their hand. The main findings are 1) the presence of the static hand in the workspace did affect saccade initiation; 2) this interaction persisted when the hand was invisible; 3) it was strongly influenced by the delay duration: hand-target proximity retarded immediate saccades, whereas it could hasten delayed saccades; and 4) this held true both for humans and for each of the two monkeys. We propose that both visual and nonvisual hand position signals are used by the primates' oculomotor system for the planning and execution of saccades, and that this may result in a hand-eye competition for spatial attentional resources that explains the delay-dependent reversal observed. PMID:18337364

  19. Covert shifts of spatial attention in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspari, Natalie; Janssens, Thomas; Mantini, Dante; Vandenberghe, Rik; Vanduffel, Wim

    2015-05-20

    In the awake state, shifts of spatial attention alternate with periods of sustained attention at a fixed location or object. Human fMRI experiments revealed the critical role of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in shifting spatial attention, a finding not predicted by human lesion studies and monkey electrophysiology. To investigate whether a potential homolog of the human SPL shifting region exists in monkeys (Macaca mulatta), we adopted an event-related fMRI paradigm that closely resembled a human experiment (Molenberghs et al., 2007). In this paradigm, a pair of relevant and irrelevant shapes was continuously present on the horizontal meridian. Subjects had to covertly detect a dimming of the relevant shape while ignoring the irrelevant dimmings. The events of interest consisted of the replacement of one stimulus pair by the next. During shift but not stay events, the relevant shape of the new pair appeared at the contralateral position relative to the previous one. Spatial shifting events activated parietal areas V6/V6A and medial intraparietal area, caudo-dorsal visual areas, the most posterior portion of the superior temporal sulcus, and several smaller frontal areas. These areas were not activated during passive stimulation with the same sensory stimuli. During stay events, strong direction-sensitive attention signals were observed in a distributed set of contralateral visual, temporal, parietal, and lateral prefrontal areas, the vast majority overlapping with the sensory stimulus representation. We suggest medial intraparietal area and V6/V6A as functional counterparts of human SPL because they contained the most widespread shift signals in the absence of contralateral stay activity, resembling the functional characteristics of the human SPL shifting area. PMID:25995460

  20. Extraction and analysis of cortisol from human and monkey hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jerrold; Novak, Melinda; Hamel, Amanda; Rosenberg, Kendra

    2014-01-01

    The stress hormone cortisol (CORT) is slowly incorporated into the growing hair shaft of humans, nonhuman primates, and other mammals. We developed and validated a method for CORT extraction and analysis from rhesus monkey hair and subsequently adapted this method for use with human scalp hair. In contrast to CORT "point samples" obtained from plasma or saliva, hair CORT provides an integrated measure of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) system activity, and thus physiological stress, during the period of hormone incorporation. Because human scalp hair grows at an average rate of 1 cm/month, CORT levels obtained from hair segments several cm in length can potentially serve as a biomarker of stress experienced over a number of months. In our method, each hair sample is first washed twice in isopropanol to remove any CORT from the outside of the hair shaft that has been deposited from sweat or sebum. After drying, the sample is ground to a fine powder to break up the hair's protein matrix and increase the surface area for extraction. CORT from the interior of the hair shaft is extracted into methanol, the methanol is evaporated, and the extract is reconstituted in assay buffer. Extracted CORT, along with standards and quality controls, is then analyzed by means of a sensitive and specific commercially available enzyme immunoassay (EIA) kit. Readout from the EIA is converted to pg CORT per mg powdered hair weight. This method has been used in our laboratory to analyze hair CORT in humans, several species of macaque monkeys, marmosets, dogs, and polar bears. Many studies both from our lab and from other research groups have demonstrated the broad applicability of hair CORT for assessing chronic stress exposure in natural as well as laboratory settings. PMID:24513702

  1. Viewing preferences of rhesus monkeys related to memory for complex pictures, colours and faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F A; Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1994-01-31

    In order to determine the preferences of rhesus monkeys for visual stimuli, their eye movements were measured in response to presentations of complex pictures, fields of uniform colour, and of faces using the scleral search coil technique. The monkeys (n = 4) controlled both the onset and offset of the stimuli by the direction of their gaze. Each stimulus was presented 4 times, with 0 or 2, and 36 or 38 trials between successive presentations. Several trends were apparent in their scanning behaviour: (1) all 4 monkeys spent more time looking at pictures and faces compared to colour fields. As individuals, they differed in their overall propensity in looking at visual stimuli: monkeys that spent the most (or least) time looking at pictures spent the most (or least) time looking at colour fields. (2) Although the monkeys appeared to prefer pictures and faces to colour fields as measured by gaze duration, preferences for individual pictures, faces and colour fields were not evident. (3) Memory for recently presented stimuli substantially affected gaze duration which was significantly longer for the first compared to the second presentation of the pictures and faces, and memory was estimated to influence gaze duration over as many as 38 intervening trials. These effects were not significant in the case of colour fields. (4) There were no significant differences either in the average latencies to initiate eye movements or the number of saccades on the first and second presentations of pictures, colors or faces for the 4 monkeys. However, the average latencies to the first eye movement within a trial were longer for colour fields than for pictures for all 4 monkeys. Individual monkeys differed substantially in their mean latencies for the initiation of the first eye movement within a trial, which ranged from 235 ms to 414 ms in the two extreme cases. (5) At the presentation of faces, the monkeys tended to make saccades to major facial features, and only occasionally to

  2. Influence of thyroid hormones on MDMA-induced thermogenesis and reinforcing strength in monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Banks, Matthew L.; Czoty, Paul W.; Sprague, Jon E; Nader, Michael A.

    2008-01-01

    In monkeys, elevating ambient temperature has been shown to increase sensitivity to MDMA reinforcement. Previous rodent studies have shown that elevations in thyroid status (hyperthyroidism) parallel changes in elevating the ambient temperature on MDMA-induced thermogenesis, but the interaction has not been examined in monkeys. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of chronic levothyroxine (3.0 or 4.5 μg/kg/day, im; Levo) treatment on MDMA-induced increases in temperature fol...

  3. Immune senescence in old and very old rhesus monkeys: reduced antibody response to influenza vaccination

    OpenAIRE

    Coe, Christopher L.; Lubach, Gabriele R.; Kinnard, Jeanne

    2012-01-01

    The health of old monkeys usually begins to deteriorate by 20 years of age, coinciding with the onset of a slowly progressing immune senescence. Changes in lymphocyte subsets and responses to several antigens have been characterized in geriatric primates, but systematic research has not been conducted on vaccination against influenza virus, a topic of considerable clinical concern for elderly humans. Antibody responses were significantly reduced to primary immunizations in old monkeys, but by...

  4. NO EFFECT OF DIFFERENT ESTROGEN RECEPTOR LIGANDS ON COGNITION IN ADULT FEMALE MONKEYS

    OpenAIRE

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E.; Herndon, James G.

    2008-01-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Dela...

  5. Wood Consumption by Geoffroyi’s Spider Monkeys and Its Role in Mineral Supplementation

    OpenAIRE

    Chaves, Oscar M.; Stoner, Kathryn E.; Ángeles-Campos, Sergio; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor

    2011-01-01

    Wood consumption is a rare behavior in frugivorous primates; however, it can be necessary for nutritional balancing as it may provide macro and/or micronutrients that are scarce in the most frequently eaten items (fruits). We tested this hypothesis in six spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) communities inhabiting continuous and fragmented rainforests in Lacandona, Mexico. We investigated the importance of both live and decayed wood in the diet of the monkeys, and assessed if wood consumption is ...

  6. Dose-response data for X-ray induced translocations in spermatogonia of rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yields of translocations in spermatocytes after irradiation of spermatogonia of Rhesus monkeys with doses of 100, 220, or 300 rad X-rays were low and consistent with a humped dose-response curve with a peak at about 200 rad. Such a curve would agree well with earlier results on the marmoset and man, but the yields at any dose in the Rhesus monkey were lower

  7. Preference in rhesus monkeys given a choice between cocaine and d,l-cathinone.

    OpenAIRE

    Woolverton, W L; Johanson, C E

    1984-01-01

    Previous experiments have shown that both cocaine and d,l-cathinone can function as positive reinforces when delivered intravenously to rhesus monkeys. However, the relative reinforcing efficacies of these compounds have not been established. In the present experiment, three rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose between saline and several doses of d,l-cathinone or cocaine as well as between several doses of both drugs in a discrete-trial choice procedure. Sufficient doses (.05 to .2 mg/kg/inj...

  8. Systematic mapping of the monkey inferior colliculus reveals enhanced low frequency sound representation

    OpenAIRE

    Bulkin, David A.; Jennifer M Groh

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the functional architecture of the inferior colliculus (IC) in rhesus monkeys. We systematically mapped multiunit responses to tonal stimuli and noise in the IC and surrounding tissue of six rhesus macaques, collecting data at evenly placed locations and recording nonresponsive locations to define boundaries. The results show a modest tonotopically organized region (17 of 100 recording penetration locations in 4 of 6 monkeys) surrounded by a large mass of tissue that, although...

  9. Effects of Vestibular Prosthesis Electrode Implantation and Stimulation on Hearing in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Dai, Chenkai; Fridman, Gene Y.; Della Santina, Charles C.

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the effects of vestibular prosthesis electrode implantation and activation on hearing in rhesus monkeys, we measured auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) in four rhesus monkeys before and after unilateral implantation of vestibular prosthesis electrodes in each of 3 left semicircular canals (SCC). Each of the 3 left SCCs were implanted with electrodes via a transmastoid approach. Right ears, which served as controls, were not s...

  10. Sleeping sites and lodge trees of the night monkey ( Aotus azarae) in Bolivia

    OpenAIRE

    García, Juan E.; Braza, Francisco

    1993-01-01

    Between 1984 and 1987, we recorded the sleeping-site and lodge tree preferences of night monkeys at the Beni Biological Station, Bolivia. We characterized the structure of sleeping-site compared lodge trees to nonlodge trees, and determined the frequency of their use. Aotus azarae used branch and liana platforms on trees of the middle strate of the forest as sleeping sites, but the lodge trees provided sparse cover. Monkeys may manipulate either natural accumulations of material or bird nests...

  11. Effects of lead exposure on peripheral nerve in the cynomolgus monkey.

    OpenAIRE

    Purser, D A; Berrill, K R; Majeed, S K

    1983-01-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and nerve conduction velocity has been examined, using the cynomolgus monkey as a model for human lead poisoning, with lead dose and blood lead concentration maintained under controlled conditions, to determine whether nerve conduction velocity could be used as an objective measure of the effects of lead on the nervous system at subclinical concentrations. Five cynomolgus monkeys were maintained at a blood lead concentration of 90-100 microgra...

  12. Bioassay of circulating luteinizing hormone in the rhesus monkey: comparison with radioimmunoassay during physiological changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentration of biologically active LH in Rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) serum was measured by a highly sensitive bioassay based upon testosterone production by dispersed rat interstitial cells. The sensitivity of the in vitro bioassay was equal to or higher than that of radioimmunoassay, with detection limits of 0.1 mIU of human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) or 10 ng of a Rhesus pituitary gonadotropin preparation (LER-1909-2). Parallel dose-response curves were obtained for hMG and Rhesus monkey pituitary gonadotropin. The method permits bioassay of LH in 20--100 μl of serum from adult male monkeys, and from female monkeys during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Bioactive LH concentrations could be assayed in 0.25 to 5 μl of serum from mid-cycle, postmenopausal, and castrated female monkeys. Serum LH was undetectable in two hypophysectomized adult female monkeys and six intact immature animals, and was 13 +- 6 (SD) mIU/ml in adult male monkeys. In adult females, follicular phase LH levels ranged from 17 to 169 mIU/ml, with a mean of 76 +- 52 mIU/ml. The midcycle LH peak was 1738 +- 742 mIU/ml and the luteal phase values ranged from 6-47 mIU/ml, with a mean of 35 +- 5 mIU/ml. Serum LH concentrations ranged from 100 to 900 mIU/ml in two menopausal females, and from 590--1480 mIU/ml in castrated females. Treatment of castrated female monkeys with estrogen plus progesterone produced an initial two-fold rise in sepum LH within 3 days, followed by a gradual decline to one-fourth to one-tenth of the initial levels after 10 days of treatment. Serum LH was suppressed to undetectable levels during the third week, and remained so for the duration of the 60-day treatment period

  13. Familial hypercholesterolemia in a rhesus monkey pedigree: molecular basis of low density lipoprotein receptor deficiency.

    OpenAIRE

    HUMMEL, M.; Li, Z G; Pfaffinger, D; Neven, L.; Scanu, A M

    1990-01-01

    We have recently identified a family of rhesus monkeys with members exhibiting a spontaneous hypercholesterolemia associated with a low density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR) deficiency. By using the polymerase chain reaction, we now show that the affected monkeys are heterozygous for a nonsense mutation in exon 6 of the LDLR gene. This mutation changes the sequence of the codon for amino acid 284 (tryptophan) from TGG to TAG, thereby generating a nonsense codon potentially resulting in a trunca...

  14. MONKEY DANCE TRANSFORMATION AND DISPLACEMENT: FROM TRADITIONAL PERFORMANCE TO URBAN EVERYDAYNESS

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Sutandio

    2012-01-01

    This research attempts to investigate how the monkey dance, a traditional mobile performance from village to village, transforms and displaces itself into a semi-permanent urban street performance as the effect of modernization and globalization. The research is closely relevant to the theme of the everyday life on the relation between art and the social. Doger monyet (monkey dance) performance has always been regarded as the marginal art/culture. Its place has always been among the mid-lower...

  15. Foraging density for squirrel monkey Saimiri sciureus in two forests in Puerto Lopez - Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge Astwood R.; José Rodríguez P; Karen Rodríguez-C

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective. Forest remnants were analyzed to determine the density of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) and the degree of alteration of the forest, by selecting areas for the conservation and maintenance of the species in natural environments. Materials and methods. Linear transects were conducted on two wooden fragments, “La Reforma” and “Campo Hermoso” farms (Puerto Lopez, Meta, Colombia), recording sightings of squirrel monkeys and identifying the tree species used by the primates...

  16. Rhesus monkey is a new model of secondary lymphedema in the upper limb

    OpenAIRE

    Wu, Guojun; Xu, Hao; Zhou, Wenhong; Yuan, Xianshun; Yang, Zhe; Yang, Qing; Ding, Feng; Meng, Zhigang; Liang, Weili; Geng, Chong; Gao, Ling; Tian, Xingsong

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study is to establish the rhesus monkey model of lymphedema in the upper limbs, and assess the suitability of this model. Methods: An animal model of lymphedema was established by the combined irradiation and surgical techniques in the upper limbs of these rhesus monkeys. Physical examination, high-resolution MR lymphangiography, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and immunohistochemical staining were performed to determine the severity of the edema in the upper limbs of ...

  17. Threats from the past: Barbados green monkeys (Chlorocebus sabaeus) fear leopards after centuries of isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns-Cusato, Melissa; Glueck, Amanda C; Merchak, Andrea R; Palmer, Cristin L; Rieskamp, Joshua D; Duggan, Ivy S; Hinds, Rebecca T; Cusato, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Ability to recognize and differentiate between predators and non-predators is a crucial component of successful anti-predator behavior. While there is evidence that both genetic and experiential mechanisms mediate anti-predator behaviors in various animal species, it is unknown to what extent each of these two mechanisms are utilized by the green monkey (Chlorocebus sabaeus). Green monkeys on the West Indies island of Barbados offer a unique opportunity to investigate the underpinnings of anti-predator behaviors in a species that has been isolated from ancestral predators for over 350 years. In the first experiment, monkeys in two free-ranging troops were presented with photographs of an ancestral predator (leopard, Panthera pardus) and a non-predator (African Buffalo, Syncerus caffer). Relative to non-predator stimuli, images of a leopard elicited less approach, more alarm calls, and more escape responses. Subsequent experiments were conducted to determine whether the monkeys were responding to a leopard-specific feature (spotted fur) or a general predator feature (forward facing eyes). The monkeys showed similar approach to images of an unfamiliar non-predator regardless of whether the image had forward facing predator eyes or side facing non-predator eyes. However, once near the images, the monkeys were less likely to reach for peanuts near the predator eyes than the non-predator eyes. The monkeys avoided an image of spotted leopard fur but approached the same image of fur when the dark spots had been removed. Taken together, the results suggest that green monkey anti-predator behavior is at least partially mediated by genetic factors. PMID:26910174

  18. Caloric restriction delays aging-induced cellular phenotypes in rhesus monkey skeletal muscle

    OpenAIRE

    McKiernan, Susan H.; Colman, Ricki J; Lopez, Marisol; Beasley, T. Mark; Aiken, Judd M.; Anderson, Rozalyn M; Weindruch, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Sarcopenia is the age-related loss of skeletal muscle mass and function and is characterized by a reduction in muscle mass and fiber cross-sectional area, alterations in muscle fiber type and mitochondrial functional changes. In rhesus monkeys, calorie restriction (CR) without malnutrition improves survival and delays the onset of age-associated diseases and disorders including sarcopenia. We present a longitudinal study on the impact of CR on early stage sarcopenia in the upper leg of monkey...

  19. Chronic high-frequency stimulation therapy in hemiparkinsonian rhesus monkeys using an implanted human DBS system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yiqun; Yin, Peihao; Hu, Xiaowu; Ge, Yiqin; Zhou, Xiaoping

    2013-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is routinely used in the treatment of Parkinson's disease, tremor disease, dystonia, and epilepsy. This study aims to establish a hemiparkinsonian monkey model and to investigate the effect of implanted human DBS system for the chronic alleviation of parkinsonian symptoms. Hemiparkinsonism was induced in four rhesus monkeys by unilateral infusion of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. DBS leads were implanted stereotaxically in the right subthalamic (STN) of the monkeys. Subcutaneous extension wires were used to connect the leads to the internal pulse generators (IPG) for stimulation in two of the monkeys (human DBS test group). Post-operative imaging studies confirmed optimal locations of lead contacts. One week later, the IPG was turned on to determine the optimal stimulating parameters, using apomorphine (APO)-induced rotation as a behavioral readout. Animal behavior was scored on a scale of 0-10 over a 12-month period using the modified disability rating scale of hemiparkinsonian monkeys (DRSH). Parkinsonian symptoms in the group of monkeys with DBS improved dramatically (DRSH 3-4) compared to controls (DRSH 7-8). DBS leads were within the STN without intracranial hemorrhage, infection, or other serious complications. Histological examination showed cell necrosis and lymphocytic infiltration of the tissues around the lead and STN gliosis surrounding the lead contact. This study demonstrates that therapeutically effective human DBS systems can be established in relevant disease models in monkeys. Such combination of human DBS systems in hemiparkinsonian monkeys should be valuable in studying the mechanism of action and chronic consequences of DBS therapy in humans. PMID:22622869

  20. Effect of dietary fibre on the faeces score in colobine monkeys at dutch zoos

    OpenAIRE

    Nijboer, J.; M Clauss; Everts, H.; A. C. Beynen

    2006-01-01

    In captivity colobine monkeys often display a soft to watery faecal consistency, in contrast to their wild conspecifics, which usually display well-formed faeces. It has been suggested that dietary fibre, and possibly also dietary water content is related to faecal consistency. To further test this assumption we pooled data on 15 individual feeding periods from six feeding trials with colobine monkeys from different species, during which dietary and faecal chemical composition had been determ...

  1. Event-related potentials elicited by errors during the stop-signal task. I: Macaque monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Godlove, David C.; Emeric, Erik E.; Segovis, Courtney M.; Young, Michelle S.; Schall, Jeffrey D.; Woodman, Geoffrey F.

    2011-01-01

    The error-related negativity (ERN) and positivity (Pe) are components of event-related potential (ERP) waveforms recorded from humans that are thought to reflect performance monitoring. Error-related signals have also been found in single-neuron responses and local-field potentials recorded in supplementary eye field and anterior cingulate cortex of macaque monkeys. However, the homology of these neural signals across species remains controversial. Here, we show that monkeys exhibit ERN and P...

  2. Recognizing Facial Cues: Individual Discrimination by Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Lisa A.; Winslow, James T.; Hopkins, William D.; de Waal, Frans B. M.

    2000-01-01

    Faces are one of the most salient classes of stimuli involved in social communication. Three experiments compared face-recognition abilities in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). In the face-matching task, the chimpanzees matched identical photographs of conspecifics' faces on Trial 1, and the rhesus monkeys did the same after 4 generalization trials. In the individual-recognition task, the chimpanzees matched 2 different photographs of the same individual afte...

  3. Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Isolated From Newly Weaned Infant Rhesus Monkeys and Ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Wenhai; He, Zhanlong; Huang, Fen

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proteus mirabilis is an important uropathogen that causes complicated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and induces diarrhea in infants. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate P. mirabilis infection in newly weaned infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with diarrhea. Materials and Methods: Stool samples were collected from 74 rhesus monkeys and 12 ferrets with diarrhea. Proteus mirabilis was isolated from the samples through Polymerase Chain R...

  4. The ascorbic acid content in monkeys subjected to low-dose prolonged irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The level of ascorbic acid has been studied in monkeys subjected to prolonged low-dose irradiation. In addition to changes in the clinical picture (ulcerous gingivitis, hypochromic anemia, petechia, impaired immunogenesis, etc.), a decrease in the ascorbic acid content in blood has been observed. The prolonged irradiation with low doses has been found to cause stable disorders in the ascorbic acid metabolism which are observed in monkeys survived after irradiation (two years later)

  5. Impaired Preadipocyte Differentiation Into Adipocytes in Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose of PCOS-Like Female Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Erica; Chazenbalk, Gregorio D.; Aguilera, Paul; Madrigal, Vanessa; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Daniel A Dumesic; David H Abbott

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic characteristics of polycystic ovary syndrome women and polycystic ovary syndrome-like, prenatally androgenized (PA) female monkeys worsen with age, with altered adipogenesis of sc abdominal adipose potentially contributing to age-related adverse effects on metabolism. This study examines whether adipocyte morphology and gene expression in sc abdominal adipose differ between late reproductive-aged PA female rhesus monkeys compared with age-matched controls (C). Subcutaneous abdominal...

  6. Percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization guided by ultrasound technology for islet transplantation in rhesus monkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FengGao; Shao-DongAi; ShengLiu; Wen-BinZeng; WeiWang

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pig islet xenotransplantation has the potential to overcome the shortage of donated human islets for islet cell transplantation in type 1 diabetes. Testing in non-human primate models is necessary before clinical application in humans. Intraportal islet transplantation in monkeys is usually performed by surgical infusion during laparotomy or laparoscopy. In this paper, we describe a new method of percutaneous transhepatic portal catheterization (PTPC) as an alternative to current methods of islet transplantation in rhesus monkeys. METHODS: We performed ultrasound-guided PTPC in five adult rhesus monkeys weighing 7-8 kg, with portal vein catheterization confirmed by digital subtraction angiography. We monitored for complications in the thoracic and abdominal cavity. To evaluate the safety of ultrasound-guided PTPC, we recorded the changes in portal pressure throughout the microbead transplantation procedure. RESULTS:  Ultrasound-guided PTPC and infusion of 16 000 microbeads/kg body weight into the portal vein was successful in all five monkeys. Differences in the hepatobiliary anatomy of rhesus monkeys compared to humans led to a higher initial complication rate. The first monkey died of abdominal hemorrhage 10 hours post-transplantation. The second suffered from a mild pneumothorax but recovered fully after taking only conservative measures. After gaining experience with the first two monkeys, we decreased both the hepatic puncture time and the number of puncture attempts required, with the remaining three monkeys experiencing no complications. Portal pressures initially increased proportional to the number of transplanted microbeads but returned to pre-infusion levels at 30 minutes post-transplantation. The changes in portal pressures occurring during the procedure were not significantly different. CONCLUSIONS: Ultrasound-guided PTPC is an effective, convenient, and minimally invasive method suitable for use in non-human primate models of

  7. Nástroje pro náhodné testování (Monkey testing)

    OpenAIRE

    Espinoza, Victor

    2010-01-01

    This bachelor thesis focuses on explaining the term Monkey testing and its usage in a field of software development. The first chapter presents principal ideas about testing and we get familiar with testing in general. In the next part we familiarize with particular types of testing and with the role of testing during software development. Following part of this thesis introduces test automation its advantages and risks. Next chapter is about monkey testing which may be considered as a subgro...

  8. Susceptibility of the Aotus nancymaae owl monkey to eastern equine encephalitis

    OpenAIRE

    Espinosa, Benjamin J.; Weaver, Scott C.; Paessler, Slobodan; Brining, Douglas; Salazar, Milagros; Kochel, Tadeusz

    2009-01-01

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is an arthropod-borne virus associated with life-threatening encephalitis in humans, equines, birds and many other domestic animals. To investigate the suitability of the Aotus nancymaae New World owl monkey as a viable animal model for EEE candidate vaccine testing we used clinical presentation, serology, viral isolation and PCR to evaluate pathogenesis and immunity in infected animals. Monkeys were inoculated subcutaneously (SQ) or intranasally (IN) ...

  9. A rate code for sound azimuth in monkey auditory cortex: implications for human neuroimaging studies

    OpenAIRE

    Werner-Reiss, Uri; Jennifer M Groh

    2008-01-01

    Is sound location represented in the auditory cortex of humans and monkeys? Human neuroimaging experiments have had only mixed success at demonstrating sound location sensitivity in primary auditory cortex. This is in apparent conflict with studies in monkeys and other animals, where single-unit recording studies have found stronger evidence for spatial sensitivity. Does this apparent discrepancy reflect a difference between humans and animals, or does it reflect differences in the sensitivit...

  10. Study of treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in rhesus monkeys with pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine.

    OpenAIRE

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy of the combination of pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine for the treatment of congenital Toxoplasma gondii infection in rhesus monkeys was studied. The dosage regimen for pyrimethamine and sulfadiazine was established by pharmacokinetic studies in two monkeys. Those studies showed that the distributions of both drugs followed a one-compartment model. The serum elimination half-lives were found to be 5.2 h for sulfadiazine and 44.4 h for pyrimethamine. Sulfadiazine reached a maximum c...

  11. Reimagining "Tense and Tender Ties" in García's Monkey Hunting

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Yu-Fang

    2012-01-01

    In her article "Reimagining 'Tense and Tender Ties' in Garcia's Monkey Hunting" Yu-Fang Cho analyses Cristina García's re-narration of transnational histories of the multi-racial, multi-generational Chinese Cuban family in Monkey Hunting (2003) as a critical project that recasts developmental immigrant narratives primarily set in the United States as part of the emerging cultural archive of global migrations. Drawing on recent scholarship on comparative racialization, especially Ann Laura Sto...

  12. No effect of different estrogen receptor ligands on cognition in adult female monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Wilson, Mark E; Herndon, James G

    2009-03-01

    Many studies in women and animal models suggest that estrogens affect cognitive function. Yet, the mechanisms by which estrogens may impact cognition remain unclear. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of different estrogen receptor (ER) ligands on cognitive function in adult ovariectomized female rhesus monkeys. The monkeys were tested for 6 weeks on a battery of memory and attentional tasks administered on a touchscreen: the object, face, and spatial versions of the Delayed Recognition Span Test (DRST) and a Visual Search task. Following a 2-week baseline period with oil vehicle treatment, monkeys were randomly assigned to one of 3 treatment groups: estradiol benzoate (EB), selective ERbeta agonist (diarylpropionitrile DPN) or selective ER modulator tamoxifen (TAM). In each treatment group, monkeys received oil vehicle for 2 weeks and the drug for 2 weeks, in a cross-over design. After a 4-week washout, a subset of monkeys was re-tested on the battery when treated with a selective ERalpha agonist (propyl-pyrazole-triol, PPT) or oil vehicle. Overall, drug treatments had no or negligible effects on cognitive performance. These results support the contention that exogenous estrogens and selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMS) do not significantly affect cognition in young adult female macaques. Additional studies are needed to determine whether the cognitive effects of estrogens in monkeys of more advanced age are mediated by ERbeta, ERalpha or complex interactions between the two receptors. PMID:19101578

  13. Biological effects of 239PuO2 inhalation in the Rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhesus monkeys were exposed to polydisperse, high-fired 239PuO2 aerosols and have been studied for 3 yr to determine the biological effects associated with this inhalation exposure. Initial lung burdens in 16 monkeys exposed to aerosols of 239PuO2 ranged from 7 to 1800 nCi. Two monkeys are serving as controls. The inhaled 239 PuO2 was retained with a long effective half-life in the lung with some translocation from the lung to the pulmonary lymph nodes. In animals exposed to high levels of 239PuO2, there was a depression in the number of lymphocytes in the peripheral blood. However, blood lymphocytes cultured at time periods up to 30 mo after inhalation showed no increase in chromosome aberration frequency. An animal with an estimated initial lung burden of 1000 nCi showed marked alterations in respiratory function. Only slight respiratory changes were detected in the other animals evaluated. To date, three monkeys have died, two of radiation pneumonitis and the third of gastric torsion. Comparing these data from Rhesus monkeys with those obtained from baboons and Beagle dogs indicate that Rhesus monkeys are similar to dogs in their early radiation response

  14. Profiling serum antibodies to Mycobacterium tuberculosis proteins in rhesus monkeys with nontuberculous Mycobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Fangui; Pan, Jinchun; Wu, Ruike; Chen, Meiling; Kuang, Huiwen; Zhao, Weibo

    2016-02-14

    Recent evidence indicates that the prevalence of diseases caused by nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) has been increasing in both human and animals. In this study, antibody profiles of NTM in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were determined and compared with those of monkeys infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC). Antibodies against 10 M. tuberculosis proteins, purified protein derivative (PPD), and mammalian old tuberculin (MOT) were detected in 14 monkeys naturally infected with NTM by indirect ELISA. Sera from 10 monkeys infected with MTBC and 10 healthy monkeys were set as controls. All antigens showed high serological reactivities to MTBC infections and low reactivities in healthy monkeys. NTM infections showed strong antibody responses to MOT and PPD; moderate antibody responses to 16kDa, U1, MPT64L, 14kDa, and TB16.3; and low antibody responses to 38kDa, Ag85b, CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6. According to the criteria of MTBC, only CFP10, ESAT-6, and CFP10-ESAT-6 showed negative antibody responses in all NTM infections. Taken together, these results suggest that positive results of a PPD/MOT-based ELISA in combination with results of antibodies to M. tuberculosis-specific antigens, such as CFP10 and ESAT-6, could discriminate NTM and MTBC infections. Two positive results indicate an MTBC infection, and a negative result for an M. tuberculosis-specific antigen may preliminarily predict an NTM infection. PMID:26437786

  15. A draft map of rhesus monkey tissue proteome for biomedical research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Gyun Lee

    Full Text Available Though the rhesus monkey is one of the most valuable non-human primate animal models for various human diseases because of its manageable size and genetic and proteomic similarities with humans, proteomic research using rhesus monkeys still remains challenging due to the lack of a complete protein sequence database and effective strategy. To investigate the most effective and high-throughput proteomic strategy, comparative data analysis was performed employing various protein databases and search engines. The UniProt databases of monkey, human, bovine, rat and mouse were used for the comparative analysis and also a universal database with all protein sequences from all available species was tested. At the same time, de novo sequencing was compared to the SEQUEST search algorithm to identify an optimal work flow for monkey proteomics. Employing the most effective strategy, proteomic profiling of monkey organs identified 3,481 proteins at 0.5% FDR from 9 male and 10 female tissues in an automated, high-throughput manner. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD001972. Based on the success of this alternative interpretation of MS data, the list of proteins identified from 12 organs of male and female subjects will benefit future rhesus monkey proteome research.

  16. Strategies for the production of genetically identical monkeys by embryo splitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paprocki AM

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Genetically identical rhesus monkeys would have tremendous utility as models for the study of human disease and would be particularly valuable for vaccine trials and tissue transplantation studies where immune function is important. While advances in nuclear transfer technology may someday enable monkeys to be cloned with some efficiency, embryo splitting may be a more realistic approach to creating pairs of genetically identical monkeys. Although several different approaches to embryo splitting, including blastocyst bisection and blastomere separation, have been used successfully in rodents and domestic species for production of pairs and sets of identical offspring, efforts to create monozygotic twins in rhesus monkeys using these approaches have not met with similar success. Aggregation of split embryos with other types of blastomeres, such as tetraploid and developmentally asynchronous blastomeres, that could potentially increase their cell numbers and developmental competence without contributing to term development has been investigated as an alternative approach to creating monozygotic twin monkeys. The major challenges encountered with respect to the efficient production of monozygotic twins in rhesus monkeys and potential strategies to overcome these challenges are discussed.

  17. Spatial Attention and Temporal Expectation Under Timed Uncertainty Predictably Modulate Neuronal Responses in Monkey V1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Jitendra; Sugihara, Hiroki; Katz, Yarden; Schummers, James; Tenenbaum, Joshua; Sur, Mriganka

    2015-09-01

    The brain uses attention and expectation as flexible devices for optimizing behavioral responses associated with expected but unpredictably timed events. The neural bases of attention and expectation are thought to engage higher cognitive loci; however, their influence at the level of primary visual cortex (V1) remains unknown. Here, we asked whether single-neuron responses in monkey V1 were influenced by an attention task of unpredictable duration. Monkeys covertly attended to a spot that remained unchanged for a fixed period and then abruptly disappeared at variable times, prompting a lever release for reward. We show that monkeys responded progressively faster and performed better as the trial duration increased. Neural responses also followed monkey's task engagement-there was an early, but short duration, response facilitation, followed by a late but sustained increase during the time monkeys expected the attention spot to disappear. This late attentional modulation was significantly and negatively correlated with the reaction time and was well explained by a modified hazard function. Such bimodal, time-dependent changes were, however, absent in a task that did not require explicit attentional engagement. Thus, V1 neurons carry reliable signals of attention and temporal expectation that correlate with predictable influences on monkeys' behavioral responses. PMID:24836689

  18. Severe dopaminergic neuron loss in rhesus monkey brain impairs morphine-induced conditioned place preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Yan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that dopamine is critical for reward, but the precise role of dopamine in reward remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine what percentage of dopaminergic neurons in the primate brain is required for the expression of conditioned reward by measuring the performance of dopamine-deficient rhesus monkeys in a morphine-induced conditioned place preference paradigm. Animals with mild Parkinsonian symptoms successfully developed and retained a morphine preference that was equivalent to control monkeys. However, these monkeys could not maintain the preference as well as controls when they retained severe Parkinsonian symptoms. On the other hand, monkeys initially in a severe Parkinsonian state developed a preference for morphine, but this preference was weaker than that of the controls. Histological results showed that the loss of dopaminergic neurons in monkeys that had severe Parkinsonian symptoms was about 80% in comparison to the control monkeys. All these data suggest that a severely impaired dopamine system alters rewarding-seeking behavior in non-human primates.

  19. Effect of space flight on cytokine production and other immunologic parameters of rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonnenfeld, G.; Davis, S.; Taylor, G. R.; Mandel, A. D.; Konstantinova, I. V.; Lesnyak, A.; Fuchs, B. B.; Peres, C.; Tkackzuk, J.; Schmitt, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    During a recent flight of a Russian satellite (Cosmos #2229), initial experiments examining the effects of space flight on immunologic responses of rhesus monkeys were performed to gain insight into the effect of space flight on resistance to infection. Experiments were performed on tissue samples taken from the monkeys before and immediately after flight. Additional samples were obtained approximately 1 month after flight for a postflight restraint study. Two types of experiments were carried out throughout this study. The first experiment determined the ability of leukocytes to produce interleukin-1 and to express interleukin-2 receptors. The second experiment examined the responsiveness of rhesus bone marrow cells to recombinant human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). Human reagents that cross-reacted with monkey tissue were utilized for the bulk of the studies. Results from both studies indicated that there were changes in immunologic function attributable to space flight. Interleukin-1 production and the expression of interleukin-2 receptors was decreased after space flight. Bone marrow cells from flight monkeys showed a significant decrease in their response to GM-CSF compared with the response of bone marrow cells from nonflight control monkeys. These results suggest that the rhesus monkey may be a useful surrogate for humans in future studies that examine the effect of space flight on immune response, particularly when conditions do not readily permit human study.

  20. Easy rider: monkeys learn to drive a wheelchair to navigate through a complex maze.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Etienne

    Full Text Available The neurological bases of spatial navigation are mainly investigated in rodents and seldom in primates. The few studies led on spatial navigation in both human and non-human primates are performed in virtual, not in real environments. This is mostly because of methodological difficulties inherent in conducting research on freely-moving monkeys in real world environments. There is some incertitude, however, regarding the extrapolation of rodent spatial navigation strategies to primates. Here we present an entirely new platform for investigating real spatial navigation in rhesus monkeys. We showed that monkeys can learn a pathway by using different strategies. In these experiments three monkeys learned to drive the wheelchair and to follow a specified route through a real maze. After learning the route, probe tests revealed that animals successively use three distinct navigation strategies based on i the place of the reward, ii the direction taken to obtain reward or iii a cue indicating reward location. The strategy used depended of the options proposed and the duration of learning. This study reveals that monkeys, like rodents and humans, switch between different spatial navigation strategies with extended practice, implying well-conserved brain learning systems across different species. This new task with freely driving monkeys provides a good support for the electrophysiological and pharmacological investigation of spatial navigation in the real world by making possible electrophysiological and pharmacological investigations.

  1. Transplantation of adult monkey neural stem cells into a contusion spinal cord injury model in rhesus macaque monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nemati, Shiva Nemati; Jabbari, Reza; Hajinasrollah, Mostafa;

    2014-01-01

    confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histological analysis. Animals were clinically observed for 6 months. RESULTS: Analysis confirmed homing of mNSCs into the injury site. Transplanted cells expressed neuronal markers (TubIII). Hind limb performance improved in trans- planted animals based on......, therefore, to explore the efficacy of adult monkey NSC (mNSC) in a primate SCI model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this experimental study, isolated mNSCs were analyzed by flow cytometry, immunocytochemistry, and RT-PCR. Next, BrdU-labeled cells were transplanted into a SCI model. The SCI animal model was......OBJECTIVE: Currently, cellular transplantation for spinal cord injuries (SCI) is the subject of numerous preclinical studies. Among the many cell types in the adult brain, there is a unique subpopulation of neural stem cells (NSC) that can self-renew and differentiate into neurons. The study aims...

  2. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organisation of the black spider monkey (Ateles panisius paniscus L.) in Surinam

    OpenAIRE

    Roosmalen, van, J.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in central Surinam in terms of food category, food plant identity and phenology, and in terms of quantity, density and dispersion of the most important of these food sources. It recognizes the fundamental importance of mature-fruit feeding to spider-monkey foragi...

  3. Analysis of maternal microchimerism in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) using real-time quantitative PCR amplification of MHC polymorphisms

    OpenAIRE

    Bakkour, Sonia; Baker, Chris AR; Tarantal, Alice F; Wen, Li; Busch, Michael P; Lee, Tzong-Hae; McCune, Joseph M

    2014-01-01

    Although pregnancy-associated microchimerism is known to exist in humans, its clinical significance remains unclear. Fetal microchimerism has been documented in rhesus monkeys, but the trafficking and persistence of maternal cells in the monkey fetus and infant have not been fully explored. To investigate the frequency of maternal microchimerism in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta), a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) strategy was developed and validated to target polymorphic major h...

  4. A 4-channel 3 Tesla phased array receive coil for awake rhesus monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments

    OpenAIRE

    Khachaturian, Mark Haig

    2010-01-01

    Awake monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI combined with conventional neuroscience techniques has the potential to study the structural and functional neural network. The majority of monkey fMRI and diffusion MRI experiments are performed with single coils which suffer from severe EPI distortions which limit resolution. By constructing phased array coils for monkey MRI studies, gains in SNR and anatomical accuracy (i.e., reduction of EPI distortions) can be achieved using parallel imaging. The major...

  5. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, G.; Guskey, L E

    1982-01-01

    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 P...

  6. Pharmacokinetic modeling: Prediction and evaluation of route dependent dosimetry of bisphenol A in monkeys with extrapolation to humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed for bisphenol A (BPA) in adult rhesus monkeys using intravenous (iv) and oral bolus doses of 100 μg d6-BPA/kg (). This calibrated PBPK adult monkey model for BPA was then evaluated against published monkey kinetic studies with BPA. Using two versions of the adult monkey model based on monkey BPA kinetic data from and , the aglycone BPA pharmacokinetics were simulated for human oral ingestion of 5 mg d16-BPA per person (Völkel et al., 2002). Völkel et al. were unable to detect the aglycone BPA in plasma, but were able to detect BPA metabolites. These human model predictions of the aglycone BPA in plasma were then compared to previously published PBPK model predictions obtained by simulating the Völkel et al. kinetic study. Our BPA human model, using two parameter sets reflecting two adult monkey studies, both predicted lower aglycone levels in human serum than the previous human BPA PBPK model predictions. BPA was metabolized at all ages of monkey (PND 5 to adult) by the gut wall and liver. However, the hepatic metabolism of BPA and systemic clearance of its phase II metabolites appear to be slower in younger monkeys than adults. The use of the current non-human primate BPA model parameters provides more confidence in predicting the aglycone BPA in serum levels in humans after oral ingestion of BPA. -- Highlights: ► A bisphenol A (BPA) PBPK model for the infant and adult monkey was constructed. The hepatic metabolic rate of BPA increased with age of the monkey. ► The systemic clearance rate of metabolites increased with age of the monkey. ► Gut wall metabolism of orally administered BPA was substantial across all ages of monkeys. ► Aglycone BPA plasma concentrations were predicted in humans orally given oral doses of deuterated BPA.

  7. Passive antibody therapy of Lassa fever in cynomolgus monkeys: importance of neutralizing antibody and Lassa virus strain.

    OpenAIRE

    Jahrling, P. B.; Peters, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Lassa virus-infected cynomolgus monkeys were passively immunized with immune plasma of primate or human origin to gain insight into criteria for plasma selection and administration to human Lassa fever patients. Protective efficacy was correlated with neutralizing antibody concentrations, expressed as a log10 neutralization index (LNI). Convalescent Lassa-immune monkey plasma was titrated for protective efficacy in monkeys by intravenous inoculation with dilutions of plasma on the day of subc...

  8. Comparative study of delayed brain damage in pubescent and adult rhesus monkeys from radiation within the therapeutic range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole brains of pubescent and fully adult rhesus monkeys were subjected to 6,000 rads of fractionated supervoltage X-irradiation, and the difference of these two age groups in clinical and neuropathological changes after the irradiation was studied. The pubescent monkey was more vulnerable to irradiation than the fully adult monkey, and showed more clinical signs and more focal lesions of delayed brain damage from radiation. (author)

  9. Metabolic changes in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys: a proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingjie Wu

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1H-MRS in a study of cross-modal plasticity in the visual cortex of binocular blindness macaque monkeys. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four healthy neonatal macaque monkeys were randomly divided into 2 groups, with 2 in each group. Optic nerve transection was performed in both monkeys in the experimental group (group B to obtain binocular blindness. Two healthy macaque monkeys served as a control group (group A. After sixteen months post-procedure, (1H-MRS was performed in the visual cortex of all monkeys. We compared the peak areas of NAA, Cr, Cho, Glx and Ins and the ratios of NAA/Cr, Cho/Cr, Glx/Cr and Ins/Cr of each monkey in group B with group A. RESULTS: The peak area of NAA and the NAA/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B were found to be dramatically decreased, the peak area of NAA slightly decreased and the NAA/Cr ratio clearly decreased in visual cortex of monkey 3 in group B than those in group A. The peak area of Ins and the Ins/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of monkey 4 in group B slightly increased. The peak area of Cho and the Cho/Cr ratio in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B dramatically increased compared with group A. The peak area of Glx in the visual cortex of all monkeys in group B slightly increased compared with group A. CONCLUSIONS: (1H-MRS could detect biochemical and metabolic changes in the visual cortex and therefore this technique can be used to provide valuable information for investigating the mechanisms of cross-modal plasticity of binocular blindness in a macaque monkey model.

  10. A spatially nonselective baseline signal in parietal cortex reflects the probability of a monkey's success on the current trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingsha; Wang, Xiaolan; Goldberg, Michael E

    2014-06-17

    We recorded the activity of neurons in the lateral intraparietal area of two monkeys while they performed two similar visual search tasks, one difficult, one easy. Each task began with a period of fixation followed by an array consisting of a single capital T and a number of lowercase t's. The monkey had to find the capital T and report its orientation, upright or inverted, with a hand movement. In the easy task the monkey could explore the array with saccades. In the difficult task the monkey had to continue fixating and find the capital T in the visual periphery. The baseline activity measured during the fixation period, at a time in which the monkey could not know if the impending task would be difficult or easy or where the target would appear, predicted the monkey's probability of success or failure on the task. The baseline activity correlated inversely with the monkey's recent history of success and directly with the intensity of the response to the search array on the current trial. The baseline activity was unrelated to the monkey's spatial locus of attention as determined by the location of the cue in a cued visual reaction time task. We suggest that rather than merely reflecting the noise in the system, the baseline signal reflects the cortical manifestation of modulatory state, motivational, or arousal pathways, which determine the efficiency of cortical sensorimotor processing and the quality of the monkey's performance. PMID:24889623

  11. Human chromosome 'painting' probes used to measure chromosome translocations in non-human primates: extrapolations from monkey to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chromosome painting with a probe specific for human chromosome 4 was used to 'paint' monkey chromosomes to measure the persistence of translocations in peripheral blood lymphocytes of a rhesus monkey exposed to ionising radiation more than 25 years ago. The human probe painted the entire length of two large rhesus and cynomolgus monkey chromosomes with no cross hybridisation to other chromosomes, facilitating rapid detection of chromosome translocations. Translocation frequency measured in one monkey was significantly higher than that for unirradiated animals. The use of human probes to obtain cytogenetic data from Macaca species irradiated years previously or exposed to chemical clastogens makes this genus an excellent model for studying genetic damage. (author)

  12. Development of a shaker culture of Buffalo green monkey kidney cells: potential use for detection of enteroviruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, G; Guskey, L E

    1982-08-01

    Buffalo green monkey kidney cells were adapted to grow as shaker cultures. Replication of environmental and clinical isolates of poliovirus, coxsackievirus, and echovirus in these cultures was analyzed by plaque assay and compared with replication in Buffalo green monkey kidney cell monolayers and HEp-2 cell shaker cultures. Dose-response tests with various concentrations of Mahoney type 1 poliovirus indicated that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures could detect as little as 1 PFU in an inoculum of 0.2 ml. These data suggest that Buffalo green monkey kidney cell shaker cultures can be effectively used for the detection of small quantities of enteroviruses from environmental sources. PMID:6289745

  13. Soluble human CD4 elicits an antibody response in rhesus monkeys that inhibits simian immunodeficiency virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhesus monkeys infected with the simian immunodeficiency virus of macaques (SIVmac) demonstrate significant virologic and clinical improvement as a result of treatment with human recombinant soluble CD4 (rsCD4). The authors show that human rsCD4 does not efficiently inhibit SIVmac replication in bone marrow macrophages of rhesus monkeys and does not significantly augment bone marrow hematopoietic colony formation in vitro. However, plasma of human rsCD4-treated rhesus monkeys does exhibit significant anti-SIVmac activity in vitro. Plasma of these animals efficiently blocks SIVmac replicaton in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow macrophages. It also increases granulocyte/macrophage colony formation in vitro by bone marrow cells of SIVmac-infected monkeys. This plasma and the IgG fraction of plasma from a rhesus monkey immunized with human rsCD4 in adjuvant demonstrate reactivity with a soluble form of the rhesus monkey CD4 molecule, exhibit binding to CD4+ but not CD8+ concanavalin A-activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes, and precipitate the CD4 molecule from surface-labeled activated rhesus monkey peripheral blood lymphocytes. Moreover, anti-viral activity is demonstrable in the IgG fraction of plasma from a human rsCD4-immunized monkey. These studies raise the possibility that a modified human CD4 molecule serving as an immunogen might elicit an antibody response that could potentially induce a beneficial therapeutic response in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals

  14. Expression of pax-6 in rhesus monkey of optical defocus induced myopia and form deprivation myopia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟兴武; 葛坚; 邓文国; 陈晓莲; 黄娟

    2004-01-01

    Background Pax-6 gene plays an important role in the process of eye development. This study was to determine the role of pax-6 in the axial myopia produced by hyperopic optical defocus and form deprivation in infant monkeys. Methods Among seven normal infant rhesus monkeys (aged 1 to 1.5 months), five wore -3.00 D spectacle lenses over their right eyes and zero-powered lenses over their left eyes. Monocular form deprivation was produced by eyelid fusion in two monkeys. Ten weeks later, the monkeys were sacrificed by an overdose of barbiturates and their eyes were removed immediately. A 5 mm×5 mm button of retina and sclera was taken from the posterior poles along with a 4-mm optic nerve. RNA was isolated separately from each of these three types of tissues. After that, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for determining gene expression in the retina, sclera and optic nerve. Semi-quantitative analyses were performed on the PCR products. Results As expected, the optically induced hyperopic defocus and the form deprivation produced myopic growth. For the lens-treatment monkeys, pax-6 gene expression in the retinas of the defocused eyes was significantly higher than in the retinas of the left eyes (t=5.703, P=0.005). However, there were no analogous significant differences between pax-6 expression in the scleras or the optic nerves. For the two form-deprived monkeys, there were no obvious differences in pax-6 gene expression in the retinas or the optic nerves. Conclusion The result that the expression of pax-6 was enhanced by hyperopic defocus in the infant monkey retina suggests that pax-6 may be involved in vision-dependent eye growth and emmetropization.

  15. Viral vector-based reversible neuronal inactivation and behavioral manipulation in the macaque monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Juliane Nielsen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Viral vectors are promising tools for the dissection of neural circuits. In principle, they can manipulate neurons at a level of specificity not otherwise achievable. While many studies have used viral vector-based approaches in the rodent brain, only a few have employed this technique in the non-human primate, despite the importance of this animal model for neuroscience research. Here, we report for the first time that a viral vector-based approach can be used to manipulate a monkey’s behavior in a task. For this purpose, we used the allatostatin receptor/allatostatin (AlstR/AL system, which has previously been shown to allow inactivation of neurons in vivo. The AlstR was expressed in neurons in monkey V1 by injection of an AAV1 vector. Two monkeys were trained in a detection task, in which they had to make a saccade to a faint peripheral target. Injection of AL caused a retinotopic deficit in the detection task in one monkey. Specifically, the monkey showed marked impairment for detection targets placed at the visual field location represented at the virus injection site, but not for targets shown elsewhere. We confirmed that these deficits indeed were due to the interaction of AlstR and AL by injecting saline, or AL at a V1 location without AlstR expression. Post-mortem histology confirmed AlstR expression in this monkey. We failed to replicate the behavioral results in a second monkey, as AL injection did not impair the second monkey’s performance in the detection task. However, post-mortem histology revealed a very low level of AlstR expression in this monkey. Our results demonstrate that viral vector-based approaches can produce effects strong enough to influence a monkey’s performance in a behavioral task, supporting the further development of this approach for studying how neuronal circuits control complex behaviors in non-human primates.

  16. Effects of the menstrual cycle on looking preferences for faces in female rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacreuse, Agnès; Martin-Malivel, Julie; Lange, Henry S; Herndon, James G

    2007-04-01

    Fluctuations of ovarian hormones across the menstrual cycle influence a variety of social and cognitive behaviors in primates. For example, female rhesus monkeys exhibit heightened interest for males and increased agonistic interactions with other females during periods of high estrogen levels. In the present study, we hypothesized that females' preference for males during periods of high estrogen levels is also expressed at the level of face perception. We tested four intact females on two face-tasks involving neutral portraits of male and female rhesus monkeys, chimpanzees and humans. In the visual preference task (VP), monkeys had to touch a button to view a face image. The image remained on the screen as long as the button was touched, and the duration of pressing was taken as an index of the monkey's looking time for the face stimulus. In the Face-Delayed Recognition Span Test (Face-DRST), monkeys were rewarded for touching the new face in an increasing number of serially presented faces. Monkeys were tested 5 days a week across one menstrual cycle. Blood was collected every other day for analysis of estradiol and progesterone. Two of the four females were cycling at the time of testing. We did not find an influence of the cycle on Face-DRST, likely due to a floor effect. In the VP however, the two cycling individuals looked longer at conspecific male faces than female faces during the peri-ovulatory period of the cycle. Such effects were absent for human and chimpanzee faces and for the two noncycling subjects. These data suggest that ovarian hormones may influence females' preferences for specific faces, with heightened preference for male faces during the peri-ovulatory period of the cycle. Heightened interest for stimuli of significant reproductive relevance during periods of high conception risk may help guide social and sexual behavior in the rhesus monkey. PMID:16909232

  17. Effects of ionizing radiation on male germ cells of crab-eating monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effects of ionizing radiation on sperm concentration, testicular volume, and sperm shape of the crab-eating monkey were studied by using acute and low dose-rate gamma-ray and X-ray. The animals were acutely irradiated with 0.25-3.00 Gy with Cs-137 gamma-ray at a dose-rate of 0.25 Gy/min. Sperm concentrations were decreased with time after irradiation in a dose-dependent fashion. The time required for the lowest concentration of sperm depended on radiation doses. A linear dose-response relationship was seen for sperm concentrations. In comparing the present results in monkeys to previous results in mice and golden hamsters, the sensitivity of spermatogenic cells in killing effect of gamma ray varied in the following order: monkeys>hamsters>mice. The present monkeys were also subjected to whole-body irradiation with 0.3-1.5 Gy of Cs-137 gamma-ray at 1.8 x 10-5 Gy/min, for the purpose of estimating low-dose rate irradiation on sperm concentrations, testicular volume and sperm shape. Noticeable changes in either sperm concentration or testicular volume did not occur by irradiation of 0.3 Gy. Sperm concentrations were markedly changed with 1.0 Gy. Changes in sperm concentrations and testicular volume after X-ray irradiation at the dose-rate of 0.32 Gy/min showed that killing effects of X-ray are apparently higher than those of gamma-ray. When the incidence of abnormal head shapes of sperm was examined in monkeys with chronic gamma-ray irradiation, the highest incidence of abnormality was 1.5-1.8% at 0.25-0.50 Gy. The incidence of sperm abnormality in monkeys was comparable to that in hamsters; however, it was markedly higher in mice than monkeys. (Namekawa, K)

  18. Mirror-induced self-directed behaviors in rhesus monkeys after visual-somatosensory training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Liangtang; Fang, Qin; Zhang, Shikun; Poo, Mu-ming; Gong, Neng

    2015-01-19

    Mirror self-recognition is a hallmark of higher intelligence in humans. Most children recognize themselves in the mirror by 2 years of age. In contrast to human and some great apes, monkeys have consistently failed the standard mark test for mirror self-recognition in all previous studies. Here, we show that rhesus monkeys could acquire mirror-induced self-directed behaviors resembling mirror self-recognition following training with visual-somatosensory association. Monkeys were trained on a monkey chair in front of a mirror to touch a light spot on their faces produced by a laser light that elicited an irritant sensation. After 2-5 weeks of training, monkeys had learned to touch a face area marked by a non-irritant light spot or odorless dye in front of a mirror and by a virtual face mark on the mirroring video image on a video screen. Furthermore, in the home cage, five out of seven trained monkeys showed typical mirror-induced self-directed behaviors, such as touching the mark on the face or ear and then looking at and/or smelling their fingers, as well as spontaneously using the mirror to explore normally unseen body parts. Four control monkeys of a similar age that went through mirror habituation but had no training of visual-somatosensory association did not pass any mark tests and did not exhibit mirror-induced self-directed behaviors. These results shed light on the origin of mirror self-recognition and suggest a new approach to studying its neural mechanism. PMID:25578908

  19. Learning to cope with stress modulates anterior cingulate cortex stargazin expression in monkeys and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alex G; Capanzana, Roxanne; Brockhurst, Jacqueline; Cheng, Michelle Y; Buckmaster, Christine L; Absher, Devin; Schatzberg, Alan F; Lyons, David M

    2016-05-01

    Intermittent mildly stressful situations provide opportunities to learn, practice, and improve coping with gains in subsequent emotion regulation. Here we investigate the effects of learning to cope with stress on anterior cingulate cortex gene expression in monkeys and mice. Anterior cingulate cortex is involved in learning, memory, cognitive control, and emotion regulation. Monkeys and mice were randomized to either stress coping or no-stress treatment conditions. Profiles of gene expression were acquired with HumanHT-12v4.0 Expression BeadChip arrays adapted for monkeys. Three genes identified in monkeys by arrays were then assessed in mice by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Expression of a key gene (PEMT) involved in acetylcholine biosynthesis was increased in monkeys by coping but this result was not verified in mice. Another gene (SPRY2) that encodes a negative regulator of neurotrophic factor signaling was decreased in monkeys by coping but this result was only partly verified in mice. The CACNG2 gene that encodes stargazin (also called TARP gamma-2) was increased by coping in monkeys as well as mice randomized to coping with or without subsequent behavioral tests of emotionality. As evidence of coping effects distinct from repeated stress exposures per se, increased stargazin expression induced by coping correlated with diminished emotionality in mice. Stargazin modulates glutamate receptor signaling and plays a role in synaptic plasticity. Molecular mechanisms of synaptic plasticity that mediate learning and memory in the context of coping with stress may provide novel targets for new treatments of disorders in human mental health. PMID:27003116

  20. Audiovisual integration facilitates monkeys' short-term memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, James; Poremba, Amy

    2016-07-01

    Many human behaviors are known to benefit from audiovisual integration, including language and communication, recognizing individuals, social decision making, and memory. Exceptionally little is known about the contributions of audiovisual integration to behavior in other primates. The current experiment investigated whether short-term memory in nonhuman primates is facilitated by the audiovisual presentation format. Three macaque monkeys that had previously learned an auditory delayed matching-to-sample (DMS) task were trained to perform a similar visual task, after which they were tested with a concurrent audiovisual DMS task with equal proportions of auditory, visual, and audiovisual trials. Parallel to outcomes in human studies, accuracy was higher and response times were faster on audiovisual trials than either unisensory trial type. Unexpectedly, two subjects exhibited superior unimodal performance on auditory trials, a finding that contrasts with previous studies, but likely reflects their training history. Our results provide the first demonstration of a bimodal memory advantage in nonhuman primates, lending further validation to their use as a model for understanding audiovisual integration and memory processing in humans. PMID:27010716

  1. Habitat use by squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boinski, S

    1987-01-01

    This paper analyses movement patterns, habitat preferences, activity schedules, and dispersion of troop members in squirrel monkeys (Saimiri oerstedi) in relation to seasonal changes in food abundance in a Costa Rican tropical wet forest. Secondary forest was the preferred habitat and use of primary forest and late successional forest was limited primarily to seasons when food availability was low. Range area differed between seasons, varying from 79 to 110 ha, and totaling 176 ha over 11 months. The number of hectares used, hourly rate of group movement, and proportion of time spent foraging each season were all negatively related to relative food abundance. There was a tendency to spend less time in foraging activities in the middle of the day and to spend more time exclusively in travel at dawn and dusk. In all seasons dispersion was least when the troop was travelling and it was generally greatest during seasons of low food abundance. Measures of the allocation of time by the troop to food-related activities and the extent of troop dispersion each season were consistent with estimates based on behavior sampling of individuals. PMID:3504420

  2. Universal behaviors as candidate traditions in wild spider monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire J Santorelli

    Full Text Available Candidate traditions were documented across three communities of wild spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi using an a priori approach to identify behavioral variants and a statistical approach to examine differences in their proportional use. This methodology differs from previous studies of animal traditions, which used retrospective data and relied on the 'exclusion method' to identify candidate traditions. Our a priori approach increased the likelihood that behavior variants with equivalent functions were considered and our statistical approach enabled the proportional use of 'universal' behaviors, i.e., used across all communities, to be examined for the first time in any animal species as candidate traditions. Among universal behaviors we found 14 'community preferred' variants. After considering the extent to which community preferred variants were due to ecological and, to a lesser degree, genetic differences, we concluded that at least six were likely maintained through social learning. Our findings have two main implications: (i tradition repertoires could be larger than assumed from previous studies using the exclusion method; (ii the relative use of universal behavior variants can reinforce community membership.

  3. Photobinding of 3H 8-methoxypsoralen to monkey intraocular tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young (less than 1 year) and old (greater than 15 years) Rhesus monkeys were utilized in this study in order to determine whether ultraviolet (UV) radiation at ambient levels induces psoralen photobinding in primate eyes (in particular the lens and retina). Unilateral aphakia or pseudophakia was induced surgically and the eyes were allowed to heal. The animals then were given a single intraperitoneal injection of 3H 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP) and immediately exposed to BLB lights (of measured radiation intensity at the corneal surface). The animals were killed at varying time periods (2-6 weeks), and the eyes were removed immediately. One-half of each cornea and lens was frozen for subsequent optical spectroscopy and the remaining ocular tissues were fixed for histopathologic studies and autoradiography. These data demonstrate that low level UV radiation (less than 0.4 mW/cm2) can cause 8-MOP photobinding to lens proteins and DNA and to aphakic, pseudophakic, and young phakic primate retinas. The older phakic primate lens serves as a protective UV filter and prevents psoralen photobinding within the retina. These data suggest that older aphakes and pseudophakes may require UV radiation protection to prevent direct as well as photosensitized retinal photodamage

  4. Metabolism of [75Se]selenite by rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of [75Se]selenite was studied in rhesus monkeys. In blood samples taken various times after injection, Sephadex G-150 gel filtration revealed that the majority of the 75Se was associated with hemoglobin and low-molecular-weight compounds in erythrocytes up to 24 hours after selenium injection. Subsequently a gradual increase of 75Se occurred in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) with a concurrent decrease of label with hemoglobin. In contrast to the erythrocytes, over 80% of the labeled selenium in plasma was associated with one peak 3 hours and later after injection. This major protein eluted at a position similar to GSH-Px on gel filtration, but subsequent chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephacel separated the radiolabeled protein from GSH-Px. Gel filtration of heart, muscle, brain and pancreas cytosol revealed two major selenium-containing proteins, whereas one was predominant in liver and kidney. The major selenium peak was associated with GSH-Px in liver but not in the kidney. GSH-Px activity with either organic or inorganic peroxides as substrates and glutathione transferase activity were higher in liver than kidney

  5. Metabolism of (75Se)selenite by rhesus monkeys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beilstein, M.A.; Butler, J.A.; Whanger, P.D.

    1984-08-01

    The metabolism of (75Se)selenite was studied in rhesus monkeys. In blood samples taken various times after injection, Sephadex G-150 gel filtration revealed that the majority of the 75Se was associated with hemoglobin and low-molecular-weight compounds in erythrocytes up to 24 hours after selenium injection. Subsequently a gradual increase of 75Se occurred in glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) with a concurrent decrease of label with hemoglobin. In contrast to the erythrocytes, over 80% of the labeled selenium in plasma was associated with one peak 3 hours and later after injection. This major protein eluted at a position similar to GSH-Px on gel filtration, but subsequent chromatography on diethylaminoethyl (DEAE)-Sephacel separated the radiolabeled protein from GSH-Px. Gel filtration of heart, muscle, brain and pancreas cytosol revealed two major selenium-containing proteins, whereas one was predominant in liver and kidney. The major selenium peak was associated with GSH-Px in liver but not in the kidney. GSH-Px activity with either organic or inorganic peroxides as substrates and glutathione transferase activity were higher in liver than kidney.

  6. Neural Prediction of Multidimensional Decisions in Monkey Superior Colliculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Ryohei P.; Hasegawa, Yukako T.; Segraves, Mark A.

    To examine the function of the superior colliculus (SC) in decision-making processes and the application of its single trial activity for “neural mind reading,” we recorded from SC deep layers while two monkeys performed oculomotor go/no-go tasks. We have recently focused on monitoring single trial activities in single SC neurons, and designed a virtual decision function (VDF) to provide a good estimation of single-dimensional decisions (go/no-go decisions for a cue presented at a specific visual field, a response field of each neuron). In this study, we used two VDFs for multidimensional decisions (go/no-go decisions at two cue locations) with the ensemble activity which was simultaneously recorded from a small group (4 to 6) of neurons at both sides of the SC. VDFs predicted cue locations as well as go/no-go decisions. These results suggest that monitoring of ensemble SC activity had sufficient capacity to predict multidimensional decisions on a trial-by-trial basis, which is an ideal candidate to serve for cognitive brain-machine interfaces (BMI) such as two-dimensional word spellers.

  7. Upper Cretaceous chalk facies and depositional history recorded in the Mona-1 core, Mona Ridge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anderskouv, Kresten; Surlyk, Finn

    2011-01-01

    , including mudflow, debris flow, and slumping. Pelagic deposits vary mainly in terms of the concentration of siliciclastic material, the trace-fossil assemblage, and the presence or ab­sence of primary sedimentary structures. Pelagic sedimentation was probably punctuated by the deposition of thin turbidites...

  8. Exposure to sunlight reduces the risk of myopia in rhesus monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Wang

    Full Text Available Exposure to sunlight has recently been postulated as responsible for the effect that more time spent outdoors protects children from myopia, while early life exposure to natural light was reported to be possibly related to onset of myopia during childhood. In this study, we had two aims: to determine whether increasing natural light exposure has a protective effect on hyperopic defocus-induced myopia, and to observe whether early postnatal exposure to natural light causes increased risk of refractive error in adolescence. Eight rhesus monkeys (aged 20-30 days were treated monocularly with hyperopic-defocus (-3.0D lens and divided randomly into two groups: AL group (n=4, reared under Artificial (indoor Lighting (08:00-20:00; and NL group (n=4, exposed to Natural (outdoor Light for 3 hours per day (11:00-14:00, and to indoor lighting for the rest of the light phase. After being reared with lenses for ca. 190 days, all monkeys were returned to unrestricted vision until the age of 3 years. Another eight age-matched monkeys, reared with unrestricted vision under artificial lighting since birth, were employed as controls. The ocular refraction, corneal curvature and axial dimensions were measured before lens-wearing (at 23±3 days of age, monthly during the light phase, and at the age of puberty (at 1185+3 days of age. During the lens-wearing treatment, infant monkeys in the NL group were more hyperopic than those in the AL group (F=5.726, P=0.032. Furthermore, the two eyes of most NL monkeys remained isometropic, whereas 3 of 4 AL monkeys developed myopic anisometropia more than -2.0D. At adolescence, eyes of AL monkeys showed significant myopic anisometropia compared with eyes of NL monkeys (AL vs NL: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.22±0.44D; P=0.002 and controls (AL vs Control: -1.66±0.87D vs -0.05±0.85D; P<0.0001. All differences in refraction were associated with parallel changes in axial dimensions. Our results suggest that exposure to natural outdoor

  9. Characterization of the Sweet Taste Receptor Tas1r2 from an Old World Monkey Species Rhesus Monkey and Species-Dependent Activation of the Monomeric Receptor by an Intense Sweetener Perillartine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Chenggu; Jiang, Hua; Li, Lei; Liu, Tianming; Song, Xuejie; Liu, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Sweet state is a basic physiological sensation of humans and other mammals which is mediated by the broadly acting sweet taste receptor-the heterodimer of Tas1r2 (taste receptor type 1 member 2) and Tas1r3 (taste receptor type 1 member 3). Various sweeteners interact with either Tas1r2 or Tas1r3 and then activate the receptor. In this study, we cloned, expressed and functionally characterized the taste receptor Tas1r2 from a species of Old World monkeys, the rhesus monkey. Paired with the human TAS1R3, it was shown that the rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to natural sugars, amino acids and their derivates. Furthermore, similar to human TAS1R2, rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could respond to artificial sweeteners and sweet-tasting proteins. However, the responses induced by rhesus monkey Tas1r2 could not be inhibited by the sweet inhibitor amiloride. Moreover, we found a species-dependent activation of the Tas1r2 monomeric receptors of human, rhesus monkey and squirrel monkey but not mouse by an intense sweetener perillartine. Molecular modeling and sequence analysis indicate that the receptor has the conserved domains and ligand-specific interactive residues, which have been identified in the characterized sweet taste receptors up to now. This is the first report of the functional characterization of sweet taste receptors from an Old World monkey species. PMID:27479072

  10. Manual laterality for pointing gestures compared to grasping actions in guenons and mangabeys

    OpenAIRE

    Maille, Audrey; Chapelain, Amandine; Déruti, Laure; Bec, Philippe; Blois-Heulin, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    In both humans and apes, the production of communicative gestures appears to be controlled by cerebral structures in the left hemisphere that would be distinct from those involved in noncommunicative actions. Whether communicative gestures also rely on specific lateralized systems in monkeys remains unclear. We assessed manual laterality for requesting gestures, i.e. pointing, and for grasping actions in two species of Old World monkeys, Campbell's monkeys, Cercopithecus campbelli, and red-ca...

  11. Protective effect and the therapeutic index of indralin in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radioprotective effect of indralin in rhesus monkeys was examined over 60 d following gamma irradiation. Male and female rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) 2-3-years-old and weighing 2.1-3.5 kg were used. Animals were exposed to total-body gamma irradiation from 60Co at a dose of 6.8 Gy (lethal dose, 100% lethality over 30 days). Indralin (40-120 mg kg-1) was administered intramuscularly 5 min prior to radiation exposure. Indralin taken at a dose of 120 mg kg-1 protected five out of six monkeys (compared with the radiation control group, in which all 10 animals died). The average effective dose of indralin in the monkeys exposed to gamma irradiation for 30 min was equal to 77.3 (63.3-94.3) mg kg-1, and the maximum tolerated dose of indralin administered to monkeys was 800 mg kg-1. Indralin reduced radiation-induced injuries in macaques, thus resulting in a less severe course of acute radiation syndrome. Delayed and less pronounced manifestation of the haemorrhagic syndrome of the disease, and milder forms of both leukopenia and anaemia were also noted. The therapeutic index for indralin, expressed as the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the average effective dose, was equal to 10. Therefore, indralin has a significant radioprotective effect against radiation and has a high therapeutic index in rhesus monkeys. (author)

  12. The elusive illusion: Do children (Homo sapiens) and capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella) see the Solitaire illusion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Audrey E; Agrillo, Christian; Perdue, Bonnie M; Beran, Michael J

    2016-02-01

    One approach to gaining a better understanding of how we perceive the world is to assess the errors that human and nonhuman animals make in perceptual processing. Developmental and comparative perspectives can contribute to identifying the mechanisms that underlie systematic perceptual errors often referred to as perceptual illusions. In the visual domain, some illusions appear to remain constant across the lifespan, whereas others change with age. From a comparative perspective, many of the illusions observed in humans appear to be shared with nonhuman primates. Numerosity illusions are a subset of visual illusions and occur when the spatial arrangement of stimuli within a set influences the perception of quantity. Previous research has found one such illusion that readily occurs in human adults, the Solitaire illusion. This illusion appears to be less robust in two monkey species, rhesus macaques and capuchin monkeys. We attempted to clarify the ontogeny of this illusion from a developmental and comparative perspective by testing human children and task-naïve capuchin monkeys in a computerized quantity judgment task. The overall performance of the monkeys suggested that they perceived the numerosity illusion, although there were large differences among individuals. Younger children performed similarly to the monkeys, whereas older children more consistently perceived the illusion. These findings suggest that human-unique perceptual experiences with the world might play an important role in the emergence of the Solitaire illusion in human adults, although other factors also may contribute. PMID:26513327

  13. Perception of place-of-articulation information by monkeys versus humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinnott, Joan M.; Gilmore, Casey S.

    2003-04-01

    Four monkeys and six humans representing five different native languages were compared in the ability to categorize natural CV tokens of /b/ vs /d/ produced by four talkers of American-English (two male; two female) in four vowel contexts /i,e,a,u/. A two-choice left/right procedure was used in which percent correct and response time data were compared between species. Both measures indicated striking vowel context effects for monkeys, but none for humans. Specifically, monkeys performed better for back vowels /a,u/ than front vowels /i,e/. Since back vowels have more distinctive F2 onset transitions differentiating /b/ vs /d/, these results imply that monkey perception is more dependent than human perception on the actual acoustic structure of the syllables. We conclude that humans do not use general mechanisms in place perception, rather they use some sort of special mechanism to eliminate vowel context effects. While monkeys do not provide accurate models of adult humans, they may be able to provide a model of the preverbal human infant before it learns a more speech-specific adult strategy of place information extraction. [Work supported by NIH.

  14. Host switching of human lice to new world monkeys in South America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drali, Rezak; Abi-Rached, Laurent; Boutellis, Amina; Djossou, Félix; Barker, Stephen C; Raoult, Didier

    2016-04-01

    The coevolution between a host and its obligate parasite is exemplified in the sucking lice that infest primates. In the context of close lice-host partnerships and cospeciation, Pediculus mjobergi, the louse of New World primates, has long been puzzling because its morphology resembles that of human lice. To investigate the possibility that P. mjobergi was transmitted to monkeys from the first humans who set foot on the American continent thousands of years ago, we obtained and compared P. mjobergi lice collected from howler monkeys from Argentina to human lice gathered from a remote and isolated village in Amazonia that has escaped globalization. Morphological examinations were first conducted and verified the similarity between the monkey and human lice. The molecular characterization of several nuclear and mitochondrial genetic markers in the two types of lice revealed that one of the P. mjobergi specimens had a unique haplotype that clustered with the haplotypes of Amazonian head lice that are prevalent in tropical regions in the Americas, a natural habitat of New World monkeys. Because this phylogenetic group forms a separate branch within the clade of lice from humans that were of American origin, this finding indicates that human lice have transferred to New World monkeys. PMID:26867815

  15. Relevance and clinical significance of serum resistin level in obese T2DM rhesus monkey models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, S-D; He, Z-L; Chen, Y; Ma, J; Yu, W-H; Li, Y-Y; Yang, F-M; Wang, J-B; Chen, L-X; Zhao, Y; Lu, S-Y

    2015-09-01

    Resistin is a type of hormone-like adipocytokines, which is secreted specifically by adipocytes. It may be a key factor in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) from obesity- associated insulin resistance due to results that show that it has a close relationship with insulin resistance in rodents. We utilized the rhesus monkeys as study objects to preliminarily test the association with glucose metabolism and to conduct a correlation analysis for clinical parameters and serum resistin levels in obese rhesus monkey models of T2DM. The results suggested that resistin was significantly increased in T2DM monkeys (P negative correlation with islet β-cell function (HOMA-β). In the course of glucose metabolism, reverse release change of resistin and insulin in T2DM monkeys occurred, but the phenomenon that was not observed in the control group, these findings indicated that resistin negatively regulated and interfered with carbohydrate metabolism in T2DM monkey models. The character of the releasing change of resistin might be a unique process in T2DM. Therefore, all of the results could provide references for clinical diagnostic criteria for human cases of T2DM, and could have clinical significance for obese T2DM diagnosis and degree of insulin resistance. PMID:26069076

  16. Responses of squirrel monkeys to seasonal changes in food availability in an eastern Amazonian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Anita I

    2007-02-01

    Tropical forests are characterized by marked temporal and spatial variation in productivity, and many primates face foraging problems associated with seasonal shifts in fruit availability. In this study, I examined seasonal changes in diet and foraging behaviors of two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus), studied for 12 months in Eastern Brazilian Amazonia, an area characterized by seasonal rainfall. Squirrel monkeys were primarily insectivorous (79% of feeding and foraging time), with fruit consumption highest during the rainy season. Although monkeys fed from 68 plant species, fruit of Attalea maripa palms accounted for 28% of annual fruit-feeding records. Dietary shifts in the dry season were correlated with a decline in ripe A. maripa fruits. Despite pronounced seasonal variation in rainfall and fruit abundance, foraging efficiency, travel time, and distance traveled remained stable between seasons. Instead, squirrel monkeys at this Eastern Amazonian site primarily dealt with the seasonal decline in fruit by showing dietary flexibility. Consumption of insects, flowers, and exudates increased during the dry season. In particular, their foraging behavior at this time strongly resembled that of tamarins (Saguinus sp.) and consisted of heavy use of seed-pod exudates and specialized foraging on large-bodied orthopterans near the forest floor. Comparisons with squirrel monkeys at other locations indicate that, across their geographic range, Saimiri use a variety of behavioral tactics during reduced periods of fruit availability. PMID:17154390

  17. Artificial turf foraging boards as environmental enrichment for pair-housed female squirrel monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fekete, J M; Norcross, J L; Newman, J D

    2000-03-01

    We investigated the use of artificial turf foraging boards to determine if providing captive squirrel monkeys an opportunity for semi-natural foraging behavior would 1) alter the monkeys' time budget to better approximate that seen in wild populations, 2) reduce the stereotypic, self-injurious, and aggressive behavior occasionally seen in captive squirrel monkeys, and 3) provide sustained enrichment. Five groups of pair-housed female squirrel monkeys were videotaped the week prior to, the week following, and for 2 weeks during the enrichment phase, when treat-enhanced boards were provided for 2 h daily. During the first 30 min of daily enrichment, inactivity declined 35.3%, locomotion increased 3.8%, and board-related behaviors occupied 36.3% of the activity budget; these changes were not evident after 1.5 h. Stereotypic behavior (pacing, headswinging, tailchewing) and aggression were not altered by the foraging opportunity. The foraging board retained the interest of the subjects across 2 weeks in the same daily pattern. Use of the foraging board altered the squirrel monkeys' time budget to become more like activity patterns seen in wild populations. PMID:11487235

  18. Luteal phase defects in the rhesus monkey: the significance of serum FSH:LH ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilks, J W; Hodgen, G D; Ross, G T

    1976-12-01

    Luteal phases of an abbreviated duration or suboptimal progesterone secretion were identified in the rhesus monkey. Characterization of menstrual cycles with short luteal phases (8 days) in 5 monkeys revealed the following deviations from normal: a. a failure of serum FSH to decline progressively from an early follicular phase high to a preovulatory nadir; b. a commonly inadequate, or absent, preovulatory FSH surge; c. subnormal serum LH concentrations during both the follicular and luteal portions of the menstrual cycle; d. ratios of serum FSH:LH which did not progressively decrease during the follicular phase; and e. serum estradiol concentrations below normal values during the luteal portion of the menstrual cycle. One monkey had abnormally low serum concentrations of progesterone, although the luteal phase was 19 days in duration. Serum gonadotropin and estradiol patterns in this latter monkey were identical to those observed in monkeys with short luteal phases. It is concluded that inappropriate ratios of serum FSH:LH during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle result in impaired corpus leteum function. The data document the usefulness of the nonhuman primate for investigating those luteal phase defects which also occur in the woman. PMID:826543

  19. Metabolism of kadsurenone and 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The metabolism of the PAF antagonists kadsurenone and tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone was studied in rhesus monkeys and rat liver microsomes. The monkey metabolites of the two drugs were isolated as their glucuronide conjugates from the urine of iv dosed males. The metabolites from both monkey and microsomal metabolism were purified by reverse phase HPLC and identified by spectral (NMR, UV, and mass spectrometric) analysis. The principal pathway of biotransformation of the tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone in monkeys was hydroxylation of the C-5 propyl side chain to give two metabolites, 10-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone and 9-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone. These compounds were excreted as glucuronides. Microsomal incubation of tritium-labeled 9,10-dihydrokadsurenone yielded the 10-, 9-, and 8-hydroxy-9,10-dihydrokadsurenone as major metabolites. Kadsurenone was also metabolized at the C-5 side chain, an allyl group. The monoglucuronide of 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone was isolated from monkey urine. Spectral analysis was not definitive as to the site of conjugation, and the structure of the metabolite was assigned as the C-10 conjugate. A major metabolite of rat liver microsomal incubation of kadsurenone was 9,10-dihydroxykadsurenone

  20. Tropical rain forest fragmentation, howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata), and dung beetles at Los Tuxtlas, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, A; Anzures D, A; Coates-Estrada, R

    1999-01-01

    In Neotropical rain forests, fresh mammal dung, especially that of howler monkeys, constitutes an important resource used by dung beetles as food and for oviposition and further feeding by their larvae. Tropical rain forest destruction, fragmentation, and subsequent isolation causing reductions in numbers of and the disappearance of howler monkeys may result in decreasing numbers of dung beetles, but this has not been documented. In this study, we present information on the presence of howlers and dung beetles in 38 isolated forest fragments and 15 agricultural habitats. Howler monkeys were censused by visual means, while dung beetles were sampled with traps baited with a mixture of howler, cow, horse, and dog dung. Results indicated that loss of area and isolation of forest fragments result in significant decrements in howlers and dung beetles. However, dung beetle abundance was found to be closely related to the presence of howler monkeys at the sites and habitats investigated. Scenarios of land management designed to reduce isolation among forest fragments may help sustain populations of howler monkeys and dung beetles, which may have positive consequences for rain forest regeneration. PMID:10402034

  1. Sensor placement on Canton Tower for health monitoring using asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuristic optimization algorithms have become a popular choice for solving complex and intricate sensor placement problems which are difficult to solve by traditional methods. This paper proposes a novel and interesting methodology called the asynchronous-climb monkey algorithm (AMA) for the optimum design of sensor arrays for a structural health monitoring system. Different from the existing algorithms, the dual-structure coding method is designed and adopted for the representation of the design variables. The asynchronous-climb process is incorporated in the proposed AMA that can adjust the trajectory of each individual dynamically in the search space according to its own experience and other monkeys. The concept of ‘monkey king’ is introduced in the AMA, which reflects the Darwinian principle of natural selection and can create an interaction network to correctly guide the movement of other monkeys. Numerical experiments are carried out using two different objective functions by considering the Canton Tower in China with or without the antenna mast to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. Investigations have indicated that the proposed AMA exhibits faster convergence characteristics and can generate sensor configurations superior in all instances when compared to the conventional monkey algorithm. For structures with stiffness mutation such as the Canton Tower, the sensor placement needs to be considered for each part separately. (paper)

  2. Habitat fragmentation and effects of herbivore (howler monkey) abundances on bird species richness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeley, Kenneth J; Terborgh, John W

    2006-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation can alter herbivore abundances, potentially causing changes in the plant community that can propagate through the food web and eventually influence other important taxonomic groups such as birds. Here we test the relationship between the density of red howler monkeys (Alouatta seniculus) and bird species richness on a large set of recently isolated land-bridge islands in Lago Guri, Venezuela (n = 29 islands). Several of these islands host relict populations of howler monkeys at densities up to more than 30 times greater than those on the mainland. These "hyperabundant" herbivores previously have been shown to have a strong positive influence on aboveground plant productivity. We predicted that this should lead to a positive, indirect effect of howler monkey density on bird species richness. After accounting for passive sampling (the tendency for species richness to be positively associated with island area, regardless of differences in habitat quality) we found a significant positive correlation between howler monkey density and bird species richness. A path analysis incorporating data on tree growth rates from a subset of islands (n = 9) supported the hypothesis that the effect of howler monkeys on the resident bird communities is indirect and is mediated through changes in plant productivity and habitat quality. These results highlight the potential for disparate taxonomic groups to be related through indirect interactions and trophic cascades. PMID:16634305

  3. Insights into social relationships among female black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra at Palenque National Park, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarie VAN BELLE, Alejandro ESTRADA, Karen B. STRIER

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the social relationships among adult females in two multimale-multifemale groups of black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra during a 14-month study in Palenque National Park, Mexico. Based on over 900 focal hours and over 5400 scan samples recording neighboring group members, we found that females very rarely engaged in agonistic interactions and no dominance hierarchy could be discerned. Relationships among resident females were primarily affiliative, but females of one study group spent a higher proportion of time in close proximity and engaged in affiliative interactions with one another at higher rates than females in the other study group. The strength of female relationships increased with the birth of an infant. Although no females immigrated during the study period, the temporary association of three extragroup females with our study groups implies that the social system of black howler monkeys is more dynamic than previously suggested. These findings suggest that female black howler monkeys behave more similarly to female red howler monkeys A. seniculus than to female mantled howler monkeys A. palliata [Current Zoology 57 (1: 1–7, 2011].

  4. Insights into social relationships among female black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra at Palenque National Park, Mexico

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sarie VAN BELLE; Alejandro ESTRADA; Karen B. STRIER

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the social relationships among adult females in two multimale-multifemale groups of black howler monkeys Alouatta pigra during a 14-month study in Palenque National Park, Mexico. Based on over 900 focal hours and over 5400 scan samples recording neighboring group members, we found that females very rarely engaged in agonistic interactions and no dominance hierarchy could be discerned. Relationships among resident females were primarily affiliative, but females of one study group spent a higher proportion of time in close proximity and engaged in affiliative interactions with one another at higher rates than females in the other study group. The strength of female relationships increased with the birth of an infant. Although no females immigrated during the study period, the temporary association of three extragroup females with our study groups implies that the social system of black howler monkeys is more dynamic than previously suggested. These findings suggest that female black howler monkeys behave more similarly to female red howler monkeys A. Seniculus than to female mantled howler monkeys A. Palliata.

  5. Learning by observation in the macaque monkey under high experimental constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbaine, Faiçal; Demolliens, Marie; Belmalih, Abdelouahed; Brovelli, Andrea; Boussaoud, Driss

    2015-08-01

    While neuroscience research has tremendously advanced our knowledge about the neural mechanisms of individual learning, i.e. through trial-and-error, it is only recently that neuroscientists have begun to study observational learning, and thus little is known about its neural mechanisms. One limitation is that observational learning has been addressed under unconstrained experimental conditions, not compatible with neuronal recordings. This study examined observational learning in macaque monkeys under the constraining conditions of behavioral neurophysiology. Two animals sat in primate chairs facing each other, with their head fixed. A touch screen was placed face up between the chairs at arm's reach, and the monkeys were trained on an abstract visuomotor associative task. In one experiment, the monkeys alternated the roles of "actor" and "observer". The actor learned to associate visual cues with reaching targets, while the observer "watched" freely. Then, the observer was given the same cue-target associations just performed by the actor, or had to learn new, not previously observed ones. The results show that learning performance is better after observation. In experiment 2, one monkey learned from a human actor who performed the task with errors only, or with successes only in separate blocks. The monkey's gain in performance was higher after observation of errors than after successes. The findings suggest that observational learning can occur even under highly constraining conditions, and open the way for investigating the neuronal correlates of social learning using the methods of behavioral neurophysiology. PMID:25934491

  6. Does population increase equate to conservation success? Forest fragmentation and conservation of the black howler monkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam S Wyman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Community Baboon Sanctuary (CBS in Belize is a community reserve for the endangered black howler monkey (Alouatta pigra. This study assessed the performance of the CBS as an International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN Category IV protected area through deforestation and forest fragmentation of the CBS and 500 m river buffer, and impacts on black howler monkey habitat over 15 years (1989-2004. Using satellite imagery remote sensing and landscape metrics, this study helps fill the gap in our understanding of forest fragmentation processes and habitat provision, using the black howler monkey as a specific example. Increased fragmentation resulted in decreased forest cover by 33% within both the CBS and river buffer. However, connectivity between habitat patches has remained high, indicating that dispersal and colonising potential between most forest patches has not been jeopardised. We conclude that conservation within the CBS may be more complex than simply equating forest conservation with black howler monkey conservation. One could say the CBS has been successful at black howler monkey conservation, as documented by population increases over the past 20 years. However, if the conservation objective is forest preservation, one could conclude conservation failure and may signal that the CBS should not be managed for a single outcome as assigned by an IUCN Category IV designation.

  7. Effects of GABA[subscript A] Modulators on the Repeated Acquisition of Response Sequences in Squirrel Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Una C.; Winsauer, Peter J.; Stevenson, Michael W.; Moerschbaecher, Joseph M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of positive and negative GABA[subscript A] modulators under three different baselines of repeated acquisition in squirrel monkeys in which the monkeys acquired a three-response sequence on three keys under a second-order fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of food reinforcement. In two of these baselines, the…

  8. Effect of membranes and porous hydroxyapatite on healing in bone defects around titanium dental implants. An experimental study in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Warrer, K; Hjørting-Hansen;

    1991-01-01

    edentulous areas in each of 7 monkeys. A titanium implant was then placed centrally in each defect, and in each monkey, the defects were treated with 1 of the following 4 treatment modalities: (1) coverage with PTFE membrane; (2) grafting of HA and covering with a PTFE membrane; (3) HA grafting; (4) no...

  9. Induced Neurocysticercosis in Rhesus Monkeys (Macaca mulatta Produces Clinical Signs and Lesions Similar to Natural Disease in Man

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Chowdhury

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurocysticercosis is a serious endemic zoonosis resulting in increased cases of seizure and epilepsy in humans. The genesis of clinical manifestations of the disease through experimental animal models is poorly exploited. The monkeys may prove useful for the purpose due to their behavior and cognitive responses mimicking man. In this study, neurocysticercosis was induced in two rhesus monkeys each with 12,000 and 6,000 eggs, whereas three monkeys were given placebo. The monkeys given higher dose developed hyperexcitability, epileptic seizures, muscular tremors, digital cramps at 10 DPI, and finally paralysis of limbs, followed by death on 67 DPI, whereas the monkeys given lower dose showed delayed and milder clinical signs. On necropsy, all the infected monkeys showed numerous cysticerci in the brain. Histopathologically, heavily infected monkeys revealed liquefactive necrosis and formation of irregular cystic cavities lined by atrophied parenchymal septa with remnants of neuropil of the cerebrum. In contrast, the monkeys infected with lower dose showed formation of typical foreign body granulomas characterized by central liquefaction surrounded by chronic inflammatory response. It was concluded that the inflammatory and immune response exerted by the host against cysticerci, in turn, led to histopathological lesions and the resultant clinical signs thereof.

  10. Habitat preferences, diet, feeding strategy and social organisation of the black spider monkey (Ateles panisius paniscus L.) in Surinam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roosmalen, van M.G.M.

    1980-01-01

    This study describes habitat choice of the Surinam black spider monkey ( Atelespaniscuspaniscus ) and clarifies complex temporal and spatial effects of food sources on the behaviour of a group of spider monkeys in a 350 ha study area in central Surinam in terms of food category,

  11. Investigating the effect of autoinduction in cynomolgus monkeys of a novel anticancer MDM2 antagonist, idasanutlin, and relevance to humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, Kelli J; Yu, Li J; Reddy, Micaela B; Fretland, Adrian J; Parrott, Neil; Hussain, Sazzad; Palacios, Mary; Vazvaei, Faye; Zhi, Jianguo; Tuerck, Dietrich

    2016-08-01

    1. Idasanutlin (RG7388) is a potent p53-MDM2 antagonist currently in clinical development for treatment of cancer. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the cause of marked decrease in plasma exposure after repeated oral administration of RG7388 in monkeys and whether the autoinduction observed in monkeys is relevant to humans. 2. In monkey liver and intestinal microsomes collected after repeated oral administration of RG7388 to monkeys, significantly increased activities of homologue CYP3A8 were observed (ex vivo). Investigation using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model suggested that the loss of exposure was primarily due to induction of metabolism in the gut of monkeys. 3. Studies in monkey and human primary hepatocytes showed that CYP3A induction by RG7388 only occurred in monkey hepatocytes but not in human hepatocytes, which suggests the observed CYP3A induction is monkey specific. 4. The human PK data obtained from the first cohorts confirmed the lack of relevant induction as predicted by the human hepatocytes and the PBPK modelling based on no induction in humans. PMID:26586447

  12. “Golden Monkeys on the Snow Mountain”: China's First Marionette TV Series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaZhijuan

    2005-01-01

    Quanzhou Marionette Theatre has just finished the production of China's first marionette TV series entitled “Golden Monkeys on the Snow Mountain”. The series tells a story about a young Tibetan girl fighting against foreign poachers of golden monkeys on snow mountains.

  13. γ-Ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The yield of translocations induced by γ-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity. (orig.)

  14. Isolation and characterization of liver epithelial progenitor cells from normal adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lifang Jin; Shaohui Ji; Xianghui Tang; Xiangyu Guo; Yongqing Lu; Hongwei Chen; Hongkui Deng; Qi Zhou; Weizhi Ji

    2009-01-01

    @@ Dear Editor, Based on their ability to proliferate and the capacity to differentiate into specific cell types, hepatic progenitor/stem cells (HPCs) from adult human liver may have potential therapeutic effects on end-stage liver failure. In addition, adult HPCs have a reduced risk of teratoma formation and are not subject to the same ethical issues as fetal HPCs or embryonic stem cells [1]. The HPCs from rhesus monkeys are relevant because they may serve as a valuable preclinical model for assessment of cell therapy in humans. To date, there are no reports of HPCs or liver epithelial progenitor cells (LEPCs) isolated from normal adult rhesus monkey although a few studies in other species were reported [2, 3]. We report here for the first time the successful isolation of rhesus monkey LEPCs (mLEPCs) from normal adult livers (n=12).

  15. Effects of cholinergic deafferentation of the rhinal cortex on visual recognition memory in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchi, Janita; Saunders, Richard C.; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2005-01-01

    Excitotoxic lesion studies have confirmed that the rhinal cortex is essential for visual recognition ability in monkeys. To evaluate the mnemonic role of cholinergic inputs to this cortical region, we compared the visual recognition performance of monkeys given rhinal cortex infusions of a selective cholinergic immunotoxin, ME20.4-SAP, with the performance of monkeys given control infusions into this same tissue. The immunotoxin, which leads to selective cholinergic deafferentation of the infused cortex, yielded recognition deficits of the same magnitude as those produced by excitotoxic lesions of this region, providing the most direct demonstration to date that cholinergic activation of the rhinal cortex is essential for storing the representations of new visual stimuli and thereby enabling their later recognition. PMID:15684066

  16. Pedal arteries of monkeys, with special reference to the plantar metatarsal arteries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinenoya,Hitoshi

    1987-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Japanese, Formosan and crab-eating monkeys, the dorsal metatarsal arteries and their lateral distal perforating branches were well developed and supplied, directly or via the catella plantaris distalis, the plantar digital arteries. In the black ape, the plantar digital arteries arose from the medial plantar artery. The plantar metatarsal arteries of these monkeys, including the black ape, arose from the catella plantaris proximalis or deep plantar arch and were classified into the superficial plantar metatarsal (sM, superficial plantar intermetatarsal (sI, deep plantar metatarsal (dM and deep plantar intermetatarsal (dI arteries in relation to the interosseous muscles and metatarsal bones. This classification largely coincides with that of the human hand and foot (Murakami, 1969, 1971 and the monkey hand (Nakai et al., 1987.

  17. Metabolic mapping of the oculomotor system in MPTP-induced parkinsonian monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, V W; Porrino, L J; Crane, A M; Burns, R S; Kopin, I J; Sokoloff, L

    1988-01-01

    The quantitative autoradiographic 2-[14C]deoxyglucose method was used to map the distribution of alterations of local cerebral metabolic rate for glucose (lCMRGlc) in the oculomotor system of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine-(MPTP)-induced parkinsonian monkeys. The lCMRGlc was decreased in the frontal eye fields and in the paralamellar mediodorsal thalamus in the parkinsonian monkeys as compared to normal controls. No changes in lCMRGlc were observed in other areas of the oculomotor system. L-Dopa therapy reversed the oculomotor symptoms in these monkeys, as well as the decrease of lCMRGlc in the frontal eye fields and the paralamellar mediodorsal thalamus. Because the frontal eye fields are known to be involved in the initiation of voluntary saccades, these findings suggest a functional anatomical basis for the oculomotor deficits in Parkinson's disease. PMID:3257855

  18. Neonatal face-to-face interactions promote later social behaviour in infant rhesus monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettmer, Amanda M.; Kaburu, Stefano S. K.; Simpson, Elizabeth A.; Paukner, Annika; Sclafani, Valentina; Byers, Kristen L.; Murphy, Ashley M.; Miller, Michelle; Marquez, Neal; Miller, Grace M.; Suomi, Stephen J.; Ferrari, Pier F.

    2016-01-01

    In primates, including humans, mothers engage in face-to-face interactions with their infants, with frequencies varying both within and across species. However, the impact of this variation in face-to-face interactions on infant social development is unclear. Here we report that infant monkeys (Macaca mulatta) who engaged in more neonatal face-to-face interactions with mothers have increased social interactions at 2 and 5 months. In a controlled experiment, we show that this effect is not due to physical contact alone: monkeys randomly assigned to receive additional neonatal face-to-face interactions (mutual gaze and intermittent lip-smacking) with human caregivers display increased social interest at 2 months, compared with monkeys who received only additional handling. These studies suggest that face-to-face interactions from birth promote young primate social interest and competency. PMID:27300086

  19. Incidence of cataracts in rhesus monkeys treated with whole-body irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The incidence of cataract formation was investigated in rhesus monkeys exposed to different doses of whole-body irradiation. Application of 850 to 900 rad (8.5 to 9 Gy) caused cataracts in 17% of the monkeys within 3 years after treatment; after 10 to 15 years, incidence increased to 100%. Young lenses showed a significantly lower incidence than adult lenses, although no differences in the stage of cataractogenesis could be demonstrated. Sex differences did not play a role in incidence and severity of cataracts. Lower doses (400 rad or 4 Gy) did not cause cataracts. In view of the close similarity between monkeys and humans, these results indicate that a single dose of 850 to 900 rad, sometimes employed in the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia in children, carries a strong risk of cataract development

  20. Frequency response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex /VOR/ in the monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buettner, U. W.; Henn, V.; Young, L. R.

    1981-01-01

    The frequency response of the vestibulo-ocular reflex has been investigated in the alert monkey during sinusoidal rotation about a vertical axis in a frequency range of 0.001-0.5 Hz. Phase and gain of nystagmus slow phase velocity was determined. In the frequency range above 0.1 Hz, nystagmus slow phase velocity was in phase with (compensated for) head velocity. At lower frequencies, an increasing phase lead was present which could reach more than 90 deg. Gain fell off correspondingly at low frequencies. Calculated time constants were 10-40 s in different monkeys. Animals which had been exposed to numerous previous rotary stimuli in the laboratory showed much shorter time constants than did 'native' monkeys.

  1. gamma. -ray-induced reciprocal translocations in spermatogonia of the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, Y.; Tobari, I.; Yamagiwa, J.; Utsugi, T.; Kitazume, M.; Nakai, S. (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1984-12-01

    The yield of translocations induced by ..gamma..-rays in the crab-eating monkey (Macaca fascicularis) spermatogonia were studied by cytological analysis in spermatocytes derived from them. The frequencies of translocations were 0.09 per cent at 0 Gy, 1.9 per cent at 1 Gy, 2.5 per cent at 2 Gy and 1.3 per cent at 3 Gy, showing a humped dose-response curve with a peak yield around 2 Gy. No remarkable inter-seasonal or inter-animal variations in the induction of translocation were observed. The frequencies in the crab-eating monkey were significantly higher than those in the same Macaca genus, the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta). This inter-species difference in radiosensitivity might be affected by the condition of spermatogonial stem cells at the time of exposure to radiation, depending on the seasonal change in spermatogenetic activity.

  2. Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fate of mercury (Hg) released from dental silver amalgam tooth fillings into human mouth air is uncertain. A previous report about sheep revealed uptake routes and distribution of amalgam Hg among body tissues. The present investigation demonstrates the bodily distribution of amalgam Hg in a monkey whose dentition, diet, feeding regimen, and chewing pattern closely resemble those of humans. When amalgam fillings, which normally contain 50% Hg, are made with a tracer of radioactive 203Hg and then placed into monkey teeth, the isotope appears in high concentration in various organs and tissues within 4 wk. Whole-body images of the monkey revealed that the highest levels of Hg were located in the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and jaw. The dental profession's advocacy of silver amalgam as a stable tooth restorative material is not supported by these findings

  3. Cerebral influence on postural effects of cerebellar vermal zonal lesions or eighth nerve section in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, J; Chambers, W W; Liu, C N

    1978-01-01

    In monkeys, cerebellar vermal cortical or fastigial nuclear lesion resulted in no significant postural asymmetry. Combined decerebration (but not bulbar pyramid section) and unilateral vermal cortical or fastigial nuclear lesion gave marked ipsilateral hyperextension and contralateral hyperflexion of limbs. Unilateral eighth nerve section resulted in only ipsilateral head tilt but combined unilateral eighth nerve section and decerebration or bilateral or contralateral cerebral cortical areas 4 and 6 lesion gave also ipsilateral flexion and contralateral extension of limbs. Cervical deafferentation or postbrachial spinal cord transection did not alter these results. This study indicates a powerful cerebral influence on postural effects of cerebellar vermal zonal lesion or eighth nerve section in monkeys. Possible mechanisms mediating these effects in monkeys as compared to cats were discussed. PMID:107730

  4. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  5. Homogeneous antibodies in lethally irradiated and autologous bone marrow reconstituted Rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten Rhesus monkeys were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with autologous bone marrow. During the restoration period, the animals were immunized with DNP-Rhesus albumin and IgA1lambda-10S human paraprotein. One or more transient homogenous immunoglobulin components appeared in sera of all experimental monkeys. In four animals, these homogeneous immunoglobulins were shown to be specific antibodies against DNP-Rhesus albumin. They gradually became as heterogeneous as those in control monkeys which were immunized but not irradiated and transplanted. The onset of the specific antibody response after immunization was slightly delayed in the experimental group. On determining the time necessary to reach normalization of the overall immunoglobulin levels and the normal heterogeneity of the immunoglobulin spectrum, it was found to be more than 1 year in most of the animals. (author)

  6. Modelling spider monkeys Ateles spp. Gray, 1825: ecological responses and conservation implications to increased elevation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shanee

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Spider monkeys (Ateles spp. are among the most widely-distributed and endangered neotropical primate genera. Throughout their distribution expanding human populations and associated demands for land are causing widespread deforestation, especially in low-lying areas where many populations of spider monkeys are being pushed to high elevation sites with sub-optimal conditions. In this paper ecological data from a wide range of sources has been collected and examined to try to better understand and predict spider monkey ecological responses to high elevation areas with lower environmental carrying capacities. Results show a significant reduction in group and foraging party sizes with increased elevation. A general reduction in density is also noted with increasing elevation, while home range sizes remain static. It is recommended that these observations be taken into account when planning conservation actions and new protected areas, and further implications are also discussed.

  7. Processing of form stimuli presented unilaterally in humans, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), and monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, William D.; Washburn, David A.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    Visual forms were unilaterally presented using a video-task paradigm to ten humans, chimpanzees, and two rhesus monkeys to determine whether hemispheric advantages existed in the processing of these stimuli. Both accuracy and reaction time served as dependent measures. For the chimpanzees, a significant right hemisphere advantage was found within the first three test sessions. The humans and monkeys failed to show a hemispheric advantage as determined by accuracy scores. Analysis of reaction time data revealed a significant left hemisphere advantage for the monkeys. A visual half-field x block interaction was found for the chimpanzees, with a significant left visual field advantage in block two, whereas a right visual field advantage was found in block four. In the human subjects, a left visual field advantage was found in block three when they used their right hands to respond. The results are discussed in relation to recent reports of hemispheric advantages for nonhuman primates.

  8. Polymorphic New World monkeys with more than three M/L cone types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Gerald H.; Deegan, Jess F.

    2005-10-01

    Most New World (platyrrhine) monkeys have M/L cone photopigment polymorphisms that map directly into individual variations in visual sensitivity and color vision. We used electroretinogram flicker photometry to examine M/L cone photopigments in the New World monkey Callicebus moloch (the dusky Titi). Like other New World monkeys, this species has an M/L cone photopigment polymorphism that reflects the presence of X-chromosome opsin gene alleles. However, unlike other platyrrhines in which three M/L photopigments are typical, Callicebus has a total of five M/L cone photopigments. The peak sensitivity values for these pigments extend across the range from 530 to 562 nm. The result is an enhanced array of potential color vision phenotypes in this species.

  9. Topsoil as Affected by Dung Deposition Under Resting Places of Red Howler Monkey (Alouatta seniculus)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. POUVELLE; F. FEER; J. F. PONGE

    2008-01-01

    The short-term influence of dung deposition and the further redistribution of dung by dung beetles were studied under a resting place of the red howler monkey (Alouatta senieulus) living in tropical rainforests of South America. Monkey dung was experimentally clumped on the field in a place used by troops of howler monkeys for resting in the Nouragues Reserve Station, French Guiana. Dung-treated plots were sampled serially over three weeks and compared with controls located in their immediate vicinity. The composition of the soil matrix (top 10 cm) was studied in successive microlayers using an optical method. Under the influence of dung beetle activity, the topsoil became more homogeneous by losing its litter, its content in earthworm aeces increased in the course of time, and surface mineral deposits were penetrated by roots. The results were interpreted in the light of present knowledge on the effects of soil animal activity on plant growth and survival of seedlings.

  10. The calcium endocrine system of adolescent rhesus monkeys and controls before and after spaceflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, Meena; Deftos, Leonard; Thierry-Palmer, Myrtle; Dotsenko, Rita; Bigbee, Allison; Grindeland, Richard E.

    2002-01-01

    The calcium endocrine system of nonhuman primates can be influenced by chairing for safety and the weightless environment of spaceflight. The serum of two rhesus monkeys flown on the Bion 11 mission was assayed pre- and postflight for vitamin D metabolites, parathyroid hormone, calcitonin, parameters of calcium homeostasis, cortisol, and indexes of renal function. Results were compared with the same measures from five monkeys before and after chairing for a flight simulation study. Concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were 72% lower after the flight than before, and more than after chairing on the ground (57%, P endocrine system were similar to the effects of chairing on the ground, but were more pronounced. Reduced intestinal calcium absorption, losses in body weight, increases in cortisol, and higher postflight blood urea nitrogen were the changes in flight monkeys that distinguished them from the flight simulation study animals.

  11. Effect of mass of neptunium V in intestinal absorption in the monkey and the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coefficient of gastrointestinal transfer of neptunium as pentavalent neptunyl nitrate was studied in rats and monkeys as a function of the ingested mass. In both species, the transfer coefficient ranged between 1.10-3 - 1.10-2 when the administered mass varied from 0.3 ng to 2 mg per kg. At low concentrations, the values obtained in the monkey are about twice as low as thoses obtained in the rat. Considering the strong urinary excretion, the amounts retained at the organ levels represent about 0.1% in the rat and 0.04% in the monkey for low concentrations. The values obtained are usually in good agreement with the few data published on the rat

  12. Hemopoiesis in monkeys in the course of and after total chronic irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological and cytogenetic changes in blood-formation system of 2 types of monkeys were studied following chronic prolonged irradiation with low daily doses and considerable integral radiation load. Peak decrease of total leukocyte number of 1 mkl in both groups of monkeys at the expense of neutrophils was observed at integral dose of 10.78 Gy and was caused by decrease of index of neutrophil maturation. Violations of hereditary structures of bone marrow cells and peripheric blood lymphocytes were stable. Structural chromosomal aberrations remained in monkeys of both groups up to natural animal death. Quantitative and qualitative violations were less pronounced in macaca rhesus than in hamadryas baboons. This fact revealed high radiosensitivity of the baboons

  13. Training squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) to deceive: acquisition and analysis of behavior toward cooperative and competitive trainers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J R; Kuroshima, H; Kuwahata, H; Fujita, K; Vick, S J

    2001-09-01

    Three squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) learned to reach toward a container that covered food if a cooperative trainer rewarded such reaches by giving the food. A competitive trainer kept any food found, but wrong selections by this trainer were also rewarded. The monkeys initially reached toward the baited container indiscriminately, but gradually and with the aid of color-cued containers, all 3 reliably reached "honestly" and "deceptively" in the presence of the cooperative and competitive trainers, respectively. The monkeys did not appear to take the trainers' knowledge about the location of the food into account, and deception did not occur if food was placed under the normally unbaited container. With additional containers present, monkeys misled the competitive trainer into selecting the unbaited container farthest from the baited one. Although not indicative of mental attribution, the monkeys' behavior suggests awareness of the acquired communicative function of the reaching response. PMID:11594497

  14. Attenuation of cocaine self-administration by chronic oral phendimetrazine in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czoty, P W; Blough, B E; Fennell, T R; Snyder, R W; Nader, M A

    2016-06-01

    Chronic treatment with the monoamine releaser d-amphetamine has been consistently shown to decrease cocaine self-administration in laboratory studies and clinical trials. However, the abuse potential of d-amphetamine is an obstacle to widespread clinical use. Approaches are needed that exploit the efficacy of the agonist approach but avoid the abuse potential associated with dopamine releasers. The present study assessed the effectiveness of chronic oral administration of phendimetrazine (PDM), a pro-drug for the monoamine releaser phenmetrazine (PM), to decrease cocaine self-administration in four rhesus monkeys. Each day, monkeys pressed a lever to receive food pellets under a 50-response fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement and self-administered cocaine (0.003-0.56 mg/kg per injection, i.v.) under a progressive-ratio (PR) schedule in the evening. After completing a cocaine self-administration dose-response curve, sessions were suspended and PDM was administered (1.0-9.0 mg/kg, p.o., b.i.d.). Cocaine self-administration was assessed using the PR schedule once every 7 days while food-maintained responding was studied daily. When a persistent decrease in self-administration was observed, the cocaine dose-effect curve was re-determined. Daily PDM treatment decreased cocaine self-administration by 30-90% across monkeys for at least 4 weeks. In two monkeys, effects were completely selective for cocaine. Tolerance developed to initial decreases in food-maintained responding in the third monkey and in the fourth subject, fluctuations were observed that were lower in magnitude than effects on cocaine self-administration. Cocaine dose-effect curves were shifted down and/or rightward in three monkeys. These data provide further support for the use of agonist medications for cocaine abuse, and indicate that the promising effects of d-amphetamine extend to a more clinically viable pharmacotherapy. PMID:26964683

  15. Apolipoprotein A-I metabolism in cynomolgus monkey. Identification and characterization of beta-migrating pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh plasma from control (C) and hypercholesterolemic (HC) cynomolgus monkeys was analyzed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting with antibody to cynomolgus monkey apolipoprotein (apo) A-I. Two bands were evident on the autoradiogram: an alpha-migrating band (high density lipoprotein) and a beta-migrating band that comigrated exactly with cynomolgus monkey low density lipoprotein (LDL). The presence of beta-migrating apo A-I in the plasma of these monkeys was confirmed by Geon-Pevikon preparative electrophoresis, crossed immunoelectrophoresis, and isotope dilution studies in which radiolabeled apo A-I was found to equilibrate also with alpha- and beta-migrating pools of apo A-I in the plasma. Subfractionation of C and HC plasma by agarose column chromatography (Bio-Gel A-0.5M and A-15M) followed by agarose electrophoresis-immunoblotting indicated that the beta-migrating apo A-I in C was relatively homogeneous and eluted with proteins of Mr approximately 50 kD [apo A-I(50 kD)], whereas two beta-migrating fractions were identified in HC, one that eluted with the 50-kD proteins, and the other that eluted in the LDL Mr range [apo A-I(LDL)]. The apo A-I(LDL) was precipitated by antibody to cynomolgus monkey apo B. The apo A-I(50 kD) accounted for 5 +/- 1% (mean +/- SD) of the plasma apo A-I in C plasma, and 15 +/- 7% in HC plasma. No apo A-I(LDL) was detected in C plasma, but that fraction accounted for 9 +/- 7% of the apo A-I in HC plasma. These data establish the presence of multiple pools of apo A-I in the cynomolgus monkey, which must be taken into consideration in any comprehensive model of apo A-I metabolism in this species

  16. La Crosse virus infectivity, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity in mice and monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murphy Brian R

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background La Crosse virus (LACV, family Bunyaviridae, was first identified as a human pathogen in 1960 after its isolation from a 4 year-old girl with fatal encephalitis in La Crosse, Wisconsin. LACV is a major cause of pediatric encephalitis in North America and infects up to 300,000 persons each year of which 70–130 result in severe disease of the central nervous system (CNS. As an initial step in the establishment of useful animal models to support vaccine development, we examined LACV infectivity, pathogenesis, and immunogenicity in both weanling mice and rhesus monkeys. Results Following intraperitoneal inoculation of mice, LACV replicated in various organs before reaching the CNS where it replicates to high titer causing death from neurological disease. The peripheral site where LACV replicates to highest titer is the nasal turbinates, and, presumably, LACV can enter the CNS via the olfactory neurons from nasal olfactory epithelium. The mouse infectious dose50 and lethal dose50 was similar for LACV administered either intranasally or intraperitoneally. LACV was highly infectious for rhesus monkeys and infected 100% of the animals at 10 PFU. However, the infection was asymptomatic, and the monkeys developed a strong neutralizing antibody response. Conclusion In mice, LACV likely gains access to the CNS via the blood stream or via olfactory neurons. The ability to efficiently infect mice intranasally raises the possibility that LACV might use this route to infect its natural hosts. Rhesus monkeys are susceptible to LACV infection and develop strong neutralizing antibody responses after inoculation with as little as 10 PFU. Mice and rhesus monkeys are useful animal models for LACV vaccine immunologic testing although the rhesus monkey model is not optimal.

  17. Self-control assessments of capuchin monkeys with the rotating tray task and the accumulation task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beran, Michael J; Perdue, Bonnie M; Rossettie, Mattea S; James, Brielle T; Whitham, Will; Walker, Bradlyn; Futch, Sara E; Parrish, Audrey E

    2016-08-01

    Recent studies of delay of gratification in capuchin monkeys using a rotating tray (RT) task have shown improved self-control performance in these animals in comparison to the accumulation (AC) task. In this study, we investigated whether this improvement resulted from the difference in methods between the rotating tray task and previous tests, or whether it was the result of greater overall experience with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 1 produced similar performance levels by capuchins monkeys in the RT and AC tasks when identical reward and temporal parameters were used. Experiment 2 demonstrated a similar result using reward amounts that were more similar to previous AC experiments with these monkeys. In Experiment 3, monkeys performed multiple versions of the AC task with varied reward and temporal parameters. Their self-control behavior was found to be dependent on the overall delay to reward consumption, rather than the overall reward amount ultimately consumed. These findings indicate that these capuchin monkeys' self-control capacities were more likely to have improved across studies because of the greater experience they had with delay of gratification tasks. Experiment 4 and Experiment 5 tested new, task-naïve monkeys on both tasks, finding more limited evidence of self-control, and no evidence that one task was more beneficial than the other in promoting self-control. The results of this study suggest that future testing of this kind should focus on temporal parameters and reward magnitude parameters to establish accurate measures of delay of gratification capacity and development in this species and perhaps others. PMID:27298233

  18. Morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rhesus monkeys: Resistance to inactivation of insula and extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, XuJun; Zhao, Ning; Bai, Fan; Li, ChuanYu; Liu, CiRong; Wei, JingKuan; Zong, Wei; Yang, LiXin; Ryabinin, Andrey E; Ma, YuanYe; Wang, JianHong

    2016-05-01

    Drug addicts experience strong craving episodes in response to drug-associated cues. Attenuating these responses using pharmacological or behavioral approaches could aid recovery from addiction. Cue-induced drug seeking can be modeled using the conditioned place preference procedure (CPP). Our previous work showed that conditioned place preference (CPP) can be induced by administration of increasing doses of morphine in rhesus monkeys. Here, we investigated whether expression of morphine-induced CPP can be attenuated by inhibiting activity of insular cortex or by repeated unreinforced exposures to the CPP test. The insula has been demonstrated to be involved in addiction to several drugs of abuse. To test its role in morphine CPP, bilateral cannulae were implanted into the insula in seven adult monkeys. The CPP was established using a biased apparatus by intramuscular injections of morphine at increasing doses (1.5, 3.0 and 4.5mg/kg) for each monkey. After the monkeys established morphine CPP, their insulae were reversibly inactivated by bilateral microinjection with 5% lidocaine (40μl) prior to the post-conditioning test (expression) of CPP using a within-subject design. The microinjections of lidocaine failed to affect CPP expression when compared to saline injections. We subsequently investigated morphine-associated memory during six episodes of CPP tests performed in these monkeys over the following 75.0±0.2months. While the preference score showed a declining trend with repeated testing, morphine-induced CPP was maintained even on the last test performed at 75months post-conditioning. This observation indicated strong resistance of morphine-induced memories to extinction in rhesus monkeys. Although these data do not confirm involvement of insula in morphine-induced CPP, our observation that drug-associated memories can be maintained over six drug-free years following initial experience with morphine has important implications for treatment of drug addiction

  19. Persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated blood stage Plasmodium falciparum in Aotus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De, Sai Lata; Stanisic, Danielle I; van Breda, Karin; Bellete, Bernadette; Harris, Ivor; McCallum, Fiona; Edstein, Michael D; Good, Michael F

    2016-08-01

    Malaria is a disease caused by a protozoan of the Plasmodium genus and results in 0.5-0.7million deaths per year. Increasing drug resistance of the parasite and insecticide resistance of mosquitoes necessitate alternative control measures. Numerous vaccine candidates have been identified but none have been able to induce robust, long-lived protection when evaluated in malaria endemic regions. Rodent studies have demonstrated that chemically attenuated blood stage parasites can persist at sub-patent levels and induce homologous and heterologous protection against malaria. Parasite-specific cellular responses were detected, with protection dependent on CD4+ T cells. To investigate this vaccine approach for Plasmodium falciparum, we characterised the persistence and immunogenicity of chemically attenuated P. falciparum FVO strain parasites (CAPs) in non-splenectomised Aotus nancymaae monkeys following administration of a single dose. Control monkeys received either normal red blood cells or wild-type parasites followed by drug treatment. Chemical attenuation was performed using tafuramycin A, which irreversibly binds to DNA. CAPs were detected in the peripheral blood for up to 2days following inoculation as determined by thick blood smears, and for up to 8days as determined by quantitative PCR. Parasite-specific IgG was not detected in monkeys that received CAPs; however, in vitro parasite-specific T cell proliferation was observed. Following challenge, the CAP monkeys developed an infection; however, one CAP monkey and the infection and drug-cure monkeys showed partial or complete resistance. These experiments lay the groundwork for further assessment of CAPs as a potential vaccine against malaria. PMID:27238088

  20. The Monkey game: A computerized verbal working memory task for self-reliant administration in primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Weijer-Bergsma, Eva; Kroesbergen, Evelyn H; Jolani, Shahab; Van Luit, Johannes E H

    2016-06-01

    In two studies, the psychometric properties of an online self-reliant verbal working memory task (the Monkey game) for primary school children (6-12 years of age) were examined. In Study 1, children (n = 5,203) from 31 primary schools participated. The participants completed computerized verbal and visual-spatial working memory tasks (i.e., the Monkey game and the Lion game) and a paper-and-pencil version of Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices. Reading comprehension and math achievement test scores were obtained from the schools. First, the internal consistency of the Monkey game was examined. Second, multilevel modeling was used to examine the effects of classroom membership. Multilevel multivariate regression analysis was used to examine the Monkey game's concurrent relationship with the Lion game and its predictive relationships with reading comprehension and math achievement. Also, age-related differences in performance were examined. In Study 2, the concurrent relationships between the Monkey game and two tester-led computerized working memory tasks were further examined (n = 140). Also, the 1- and 2-year stability of the Monkey game was investigated. The Monkey game showed excellent internal consistency, good concurrent relationships with the other working memory measures, and significant age differences in performance. Performance on the Monkey game was also predictive of subsequent reading comprehension and mathematics performance, even after controlling for individual differences in intelligence. Performance on the Monkey game was influenced by classroom membership. The Monkey game is a reliable and suitable instrument for the online computerized and self-reliant assessment of verbal working memory in primary school children. PMID:26092393

  1. Infrahyoid and accessory motoneurons in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueyama, T; Satoda, T; Tashiro, T; Sugimoto, T; Matsushima, R; Mizuno, N

    1990-01-15

    The segmental and topographical organization of motoneurons innervating the infrahyoid (IH) and the spinal accessory (AC) muscles was studied in the Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata) with the retrograde horseradish peroxidase (HRP) method after application of HRP to the peripheral nerve branches supplying the IH and AC muscles. IH motoneurons constitute two distinct slender cell columns, a longer medial and a shorter lateral one. The medial cell column extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the lower levels of the second cervical (C2) cord segment. In the medial column, motoneurons supplying the sternohyoid and sternothyroid muscles are distributed at the medullary and C1 levels, while those innervating the omohyoid muscle are primarily distributed at the C2 level. The lateral cell column consists of motoneurons supplying the thyrohyoid muscle and extends from the most caudal level of the hypoglossal nucleus to the middle levels of the C1 cord segment. Axons of thyrohyoid motoneurons follow a dorsomedially directed bent emergent course, making a hairpin turn. AC motoneurons supplying the sternocleidomastoid (SC) and trapezius (TZ) muscles form a single slender cell column extending from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C6 cord segment. SC motoneurons are distributed from the most rostral level of the pyramidal decussation to the middle levels of the C3 cord segment, while TZ motoneurons are distributed from the upper levels of the C2 cord segment to the lower levels of the C6 cord segment. At the levels of the C2 and C3 cord segments, both SC and TZ motoneurons are distributed in the AC cell column; the cluster of SC motoneurons is located dorsomedial to that of TZ motoneurons. PMID:2152765

  2. Levofloxacin cures experimental pneumonic plague in African green monkeys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Colby Layton

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Yersinia pestis, the agent of plague, is considered a potential bioweapon due to rapid lethality when delivered as an aerosol. Levofloxacin was tested for primary pneumonic plague treatment in a nonhuman primate model mimicking human disease. METHODS AND RESULTS: Twenty-four African Green monkeys (AGMs, Chlorocebus aethiops were challenged via head-only aerosol inhalation with 3-145 (mean = 65 50% lethal (LD(50 doses of Y. pestis strain CO92. Telemetered body temperature >39 °C initiated intravenous infusions to seven 5% dextrose controls or 17 levofloxacin treated animals. Levofloxacin was administered as a "humanized" dose regimen of alternating 8 mg/kg and 2 mg/kg 30-min infusions every 24-h, continuing until animal death or 20 total infusions, followed by 14 days of observation. Fever appeared at 53-165 h and radiographs found multilobar pneumonia in all exposed animals. All control animals died of severe pneumonic plague within five days of aerosol exposure. All 16 animals infused with levofloxacin for 10 days survived. Levofloxacin treatment abolished bacteremia within 24 h in animals with confirmed pre-infusion bacteremia, and reduced tachypnea and leukocytosis but not fever during the first 2 days of infusions. CONCLUSION: Levofloxacin cures established pneumonic plague when treatment is initiated after the onset of fever in the lethal aerosol-challenged AGM nonhuman primate model, and can be considered for treatment of other forms of plague. Levofloxacin may also be considered for primary presumptive-use, multi-agent antibiotic in bioterrorism events prior to identification of the pathogen.

  3. Intrasulcal electrocorticography in macaque monkeys with minimally invasive neurosurgical protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Matsuo

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrocorticography (ECoG, multichannel brain-surface recording and stimulation with probe electrode arrays, has become a potent methodology not only for clinical neurosurgery but also for basic neuroscience using animal models. The highly evolved primate’s brain has deep cerebral sulci, and both gyral and intrasulcal cortical regions have been implicated in important functional processes. However, direct experimental access is typically limited to gyral regions, since placing probes into sulci is difficult without damaging the surrounding tissues. Here we describe a novel methodology for intrasulcal ECoG in macaque monkeys. We designed and fabricated ultra-thin flexible probes for macaques with micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS technology. We developed minimally invasive operative protocols to implant the probes by introducing cutting edge devices for human neurosurgery. To evaluate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG, we conducted electrophysiological recording and stimulation experiments. First, we inserted parts of the Parylene-C-based probe into the superior temporal sulcus to compare visually evoked ECoG responses from the ventral bank of the sulcus with those from the surface of the inferior temporal cortex. Analyses of power spectral density and signal-to-noise ratio revealed that the quality of the ECoG signal was comparable inside and outside of the sulcus. Histological examination revealed no obvious physical damage in the implanted areas. Second, we placed a modified silicone ECoG probe into the central sulcus and also on the surface of the precentral gyrus for stimulation. Thresholds for muscle twitching were significantly lower during intrasulcal stimulation compared to gyral stimulation. These results demonstrate the feasibility of intrasulcal ECoG in macaques. The novel methodology proposed here opens up a new frontier in neuroscience research, enabling the direct measurement and manipulation of electrical activity in the

  4. Tissue tropism of simian immunodeficiency virus in rhesus monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is a T-lymphotropic lentivirus that is genetically, immunologically, and morphologically related to the human immunodeficiency viruses type 1 and 2 (HIV-1, HIV-2). In rhesus monkeys, SIV induces a progressively fatal immunodeficiency syndrome strikingly similar to human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The tissue and cellular tropism of SIV was determined by immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization using a 3.48 kilobase SIV envelope gene probe labeled with biotin, 35S, or 3H. Probes labeled with 35S nonspecifically bound to tissue eosinophils and produced poor signal resolution compared to tritium labeled probes. Biotin labeled probes did not detect SIV under similar hybridization conditions. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues produced strong hybridization signal with superior morphology compared to frozen tissues. Gastrointestinal, respiratory, and lymphoid tissues most frequently contained SIV RNA. The distribution of SIV did not correlate with sex, or viral inoculum, but was most extensive in animals with SIV induced granulomatous encephalitis. SIV was most frequently observed in lymphocytes and macrophages. In the brain focal granulomas were composed almost entirely of EBM11+, lysozyme+, macrophages which contained large amounts of SIV RNA and p27 core protein detected by the monoclonal antibody R1C7. Cells away from granulomas in the brain parenchyma and around blood vessels contained virus and were compatible with oligodendrocytes and astrocytes. Lymph nodes in follicular hyperplasia contained small numbers of SIV positive cells compatible with lymphocytes in the paracortex and mantle zones as well as in cells of the germinal center. Lymph nodes in various stages of follicular depletion with expanded paracortices contained large numbers of cells with SIV RNA in lymphocytes and macrophages

  5. Immunization with purified protein antigens from Streptococcus mutans against dental caries in rhesus monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehner, T; Russell, M W; Caldwell, J.; Smith, R.

    1981-01-01

    Protein antigens I, I/II, II, and III were prepared from Streptococcus mutans (serotype c). Their immunogenicities and protective effects against dental caries were investigated in 40 rhesus monkeys kept entirely on a human-type diet, containing about 15% sucrose. Antigens I, I/II and, to a lesser extent, antigen II induced significant reductions in dental caries, as compared with sham-immunized monkeys. This was achieved with 1 or 2 doses of antigen, the first of which was administered with ...

  6. Stroop-Like Effects for Monkeys and Humans: Processing Speed or Strength of Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.

    1994-01-01

    Stroop-like effects have been found using a variety of paradigms and subject groups. In the present investigation, 6 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and 28 humans exhibited Stroop-like interference and facilitation in a relative-numerousness task. Monkeys, like humans, processed the meanings of the numerical symbols automatically, despite the fact that these meanings were irrelevant to task performance. These data also afforded direct comparison of interpretations of the Stroop effect in terms of processing speed versus association strength. These findings were consistent with parallel-processing models of Stroop-like interference proposed elsewhere, but not with processing-speed accounts posited frequently to explain the effect.

  7. microRNA-128a dysregulation in transgenic Huntington’s disease monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Kocerha, Jannet; Xu, Yan; Melinda S Prucha; Zhao, Dongming; Chan, Anthony WS

    2014-01-01

    Background Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with a single causal mutation in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently been implicated as epigenetic regulators of neurological disorders, however, their role in HD pathogenesis is not well defined. Here we study transgenic HD monkeys (HD monkeys) to examine miRNA dysregulation in a primate model of the disease. Results In this report, 11 miRNAs were found to be significantly associated (P v...

  8. Evaluation of Artemisone Combinations in Aotus Monkeys Infected with Plasmodium falciparum▿

    OpenAIRE

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Kotecka, Barbara M.; Edstein, Michael D.; Haynes, Richard K.; Fugmann, Burkhard; Kyle, Dennis E.; Karl H Rieckmann

    2009-01-01

    Artemisone (single oral dose, 10 mg/kg of body weight) cured nonimmune Aotus monkeys of their Plasmodium falciparum infections when combined with mefloquine (single oral dose, 5 and 10 mg/kg but not 2.5 mg/kg). In combination with amodiaquine (20 mg/kg/day), artemisone (10 mg/kg/day) given orally for 3 days cured all infected monkeys. Three days of treatment with artemisone (30 mg/kg/day) and clindamycin (100 mg/kg/day) was also curative.

  9. Evaluation of Artemisone Combinations in Aotus Monkeys Infected with Plasmodium falciparum▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Kotecka, Barbara M.; Edstein, Michael D.; Haynes, Richard K.; Fugmann, Burkhard; Kyle, Dennis E.; Rieckmann, Karl H.

    2009-01-01

    Artemisone (single oral dose, 10 mg/kg of body weight) cured nonimmune Aotus monkeys of their Plasmodium falciparum infections when combined with mefloquine (single oral dose, 5 and 10 mg/kg but not 2.5 mg/kg). In combination with amodiaquine (20 mg/kg/day), artemisone (10 mg/kg/day) given orally for 3 days cured all infected monkeys. Three days of treatment with artemisone (30 mg/kg/day) and clindamycin (100 mg/kg/day) was also curative. PMID:19506062

  10. Evaluation of artemisone combinations in Aotus monkeys infected with Plasmodium falciparum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obaldia, Nicanor; Kotecka, Barbara M; Edstein, Michael D; Haynes, Richard K; Fugmann, Burkhard; Kyle, Dennis E; Rieckmann, Karl H

    2009-08-01

    Artemisone (single oral dose, 10 mg/kg of body weight) cured nonimmune Aotus monkeys of their Plasmodium falciparum infections when combined with mefloquine (single oral dose, 5 and 10 mg/kg but not 2.5 mg/kg). In combination with amodiaquine (20 mg/kg/day), artemisone (10 mg/kg/day) given orally for 3 days cured all infected monkeys. Three days of treatment with artemisone (30 mg/kg/day) and clindamycin (100 mg/kg/day) was also curative. PMID:19506062

  11. Modified Monkey Optimization Algorithm for Solving Optimal Reactive Power Dispatch Problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanagasabai Lenin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel approach Modified Monkey optimization (MMO algorithm for solving optimal reactive power dispatch problem has been presented. MMO is a population based stochastic meta-heuristic algorithm and it is inspired by intelligent foraging behaviour of monkeys. This paper improves both local leader and global leader phases.  The proposed (MMO algorithm has been tested in standard IEEE 30 bus test system and simulation results show the worthy performance of the proposed algorithm in reducing the real power loss.

  12. Auditory Association Cortex Lesions Impair Auditory Short-Term Memory in Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Michael; D'Amato, Michael R.; Rodman, Hillary R.; Gross, Charles G.

    1990-01-01

    Monkeys that were trained to perform auditory and visual short-term memory tasks (delayed matching-to-sample) received lesions of the auditory association cortex in the superior temporal gyrus. Although visual memory was completely unaffected by the lesions, auditory memory was severely impaired. Despite this impairment, all monkeys could discriminate sounds closer in frequency than those used in the auditory memory task. This result suggests that the superior temporal cortex plays a role in auditory processing and retention similar to the role the inferior temporal cortex plays in visual processing and retention.

  13. Dietary Omega-3 Fatty Acid Deficiency and Visual Loss in Infant Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Neuringer, M.; Connor, W.E.; Van Petten, C; Barstad, L

    1984-01-01

    Linolenic acid (18:3 omega 3) is a dietary precursor of docosahexaenoic acid (22:6 omega 3), the major fatty acid in the photoreceptor membranes of the retina. We hypothesized that rhesus monkeys deprived of dietary omega-3 fatty acids during prenatal and postnatal development would show plasma depletion of these fatty acids and visual impairment. Semipurified diets low in omega-3 fatty acids were fed to one group of adult female rhesus monkeys throughout pregnancy and to their infants from b...

  14. Age-related pharmacokinetic changes of acetaminophen, antipyrine, diazepam, diphenhydramine, and ofloxacin in male cynomolgus monkeys and beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyanagi, Takashi; Yamaura, Yoshiyuki; Yano, Koji; Kim, Soonih; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2014-10-01

    1. The pharmacokinetics of acetaminophen (marker of gastric emptying), antipyrine (marker of hepatic metabolic activity and total body water), diazepam (lipophilic and highly distributed), diphenhydramine (hepatic blood flow-limited and alpha-1 acid glycoprotein bound) and ofloxacin (renally eliminated) were evaluated in cynomolgus monkeys (3-18 years old) and beagle dogs (2-11 years old) as models in elderly persons. 2. Gastric pH fluctuated with aging in monkeys and dogs. The concentration of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein appeared to be increased by aging. There were no age-related differences in the absorption rates of the drugs under the conditions used in the study. Total body fat increased and water decreased in monkeys, but these parameters did not change in dogs. 3. Hepatic blood flow decreased in both species, but a significant decrease of hepatic clearance was only seen in monkeys. Renal clearance decreased significantly with age in monkeys and showed a tendency to decrease in dogs. 4. Age-related alterations of physiological parameters in monkeys are in agreement with clinical observations in humans, except for the lack of a change in the plasma albumin concentration. Therefore, this study suggests that monkey might be a suitable animal model for prediction of age-related changes in pharmacokinetics in humans. PMID:24650193

  15. Rod photoreceptors express GPR55 in the adult vervet monkey retina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouskila, Joseph; Javadi, Pasha; Casanova, Christian;

    2013-01-01

    components (Müller cells). The aim of this study was to determine the expression pattern of GPR55 in the monkey retina by using confocal microscopy. Our results show that GPR55 is strictly localized in the photoreceptor layer of the extrafoveal portion of the retina. Co-immunolabeling of GPR55 with rhodopsin...

  16. Primate numts and reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys (Primates: Colobinae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Praveen Karanth

    2008-12-01

    A recent phylogenetic study of langurs and leaf monkeys of South Asia suggested a reticulate evolution of capped and golden leaf monkeys through ancient hybridization between Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus. To test this hybridization scenario, I analysed nuclear copies of the mitochondrial cytochrome gene (numts) from capped, golden and Phayre’s leaf monkeys. These numts were aligned with mitochondrial cytochrome sequences of various species belonging to the genera Semnopithecus and Trachypithecus. In the phylogenetic tree derived from this alignment, the numts fell into three distinct clades (A, B and C) suggesting three independent integration events. Clade A was basal to Semnopithecus, and clades B and C were basal to Trachypithecus. Among the numts in clades A and C were sequences derived from species not represented in their respective sister mitochondrial groups. This unusual placement of certain numts is taken as additional support for the hybridization scenario. Based on the molecular dating of these integration events, hybridization is estimated to have occurred around 7.1 to 3.4 million years ago. Capped and golden leaf monkeys might have to be assigned to a new genus to reconcile their unique evolutionary history. Additionally, northeast India appears to be a ‘hot spot’ for lineages that might have evolved through reticulate evolution.

  17. Human parvovirus B19 can infect cynomolgus monkey marrow cells in tissue culture.

    OpenAIRE

    Gallinella, G.; Anderson, S M; Young, N S; Brown, K E

    1995-01-01

    The human pathogenic parvovirus B19 cannot be grown in standard tissue culture but propagates in human bone marrow, where it is cytotoxic to erythroid progenitor cells. We now show that parvovirus B19 can replicate in cynomolgus bone marrow. Cynomolgus monkeys may be a suitable animal model for pathogenesis studies of parvovirus B19.

  18. Clonidine attenuates morphine withdrawal and subsequent drug sensitization in rhesus monkeys1

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-qing CHEN; Hai-feng ZHAI; Yan-ying CUI; Jie SHI; Bernard LE FOLL; Lin LU

    2007-01-01

    Aim: Clonidine is an α2 adrenoceptor agonist that is frequently used to reduce withdrawal symptoms during opioid detoxification in humans. The long-term effects of clonidine on withdrawal symptoms and its effects on subsequent drug exposure have not been thoroughly documented. The aim of the study was to determine if clonidine administered during morphine withdrawal in rhesus mon-keys produces long-lasting effects on withdrawal symptoms and alters the effects of subsequently taken drugs of abuse. Methods: Adult male rhesus monkeys were treated with increasing doses of morphine for 90 d to induce opiate (narcotic)dependence. The immediate and long-lasting effects of 1 week's administration of clonidine were measured via the recording of morphine withdrawal signs and the subsequent effects of challenge injections of morphine or cocaine. Results:Monkeys chronically treated with morphine displayed withdrawal signs that lasted 2 weeks after cessation of morphine administration and displayed sensitized re-sponses to subsequent morphine and cocaine injections. Clonidine significantly reduced certain morphine withdrawal signs and overall withdrawal score, but these effects did not persist upon cessation of clonidine treatment. Sensitization to the effects of morphine and cocaine were significantly reduced in monkeys previ-ously treated with clonidine. Conclusion: Our results suggest that in addition to its short-term alleviating effect on morphine withdrawal signs, clonidine may re-duce subsequent effects of drugs of abuse after prolonged abstinence.

  19. THREE-DIMENSIONAL FINITE-DIFFERENCE THERMOREGULATORY MODEL OF A SQUIRREL MONKEY

    Science.gov (United States)

    A three-dimensional thermoregulatory model of a squirrel monkey, whose shape is approximated by 742 rectangular blocks of varying sizes, has been developed. The inhomogeneous model has four layers: a core, a composite layer of muscle and fat, skin, and fur. The model simulates th...

  20. Effectiveness of atp, antibiotics and vitamins as protective agents against action of prolonged irradiation of monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the experiments on 27 rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) subjected to prolonged irradiation (dose-rate 1 R/min) an adequate therapeutic action of a complex of vitamines (groups B, C and P) and antibiotics (kanamycin, oletetrin, oxacillin and ampicillin) has been detected. A double prescription of ATP, in addition to a therapeutic complex, enhanced significantly a positive action of antibiotics and vitamins

  1. The Role of the Antiviral APOBEC3 Gene Family in Protecting Chimpanzees against Lentiviruses from Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etienne, Lucie; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Sudmant, Peter H.; Wu, Lily I.; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Emerman, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Cross-species transmissions of viruses from animals to humans are at the origin of major human pathogenic viruses. While the role of ecological and epidemiological factors in the emergence of new pathogens is well documented, the importance of host factors is often unknown. Chimpanzees are the closest relatives of humans and the animal reservoir at the origin of the human AIDS pandemic. However, despite being regularly exposed to monkey lentiviruses through hunting, chimpanzees are naturally infected by only a single simian immunodeficiency virus, SIVcpz. Here, we asked why chimpanzees appear to be protected against the successful emergence of other SIVs. In particular, we investigated the role of the chimpanzee APOBEC3 genes in providing a barrier to infection by most monkey lentiviruses. We found that most SIV Vifs, including Vif from SIVwrc infecting western-red colobus, the chimpanzee’s main monkey prey in West Africa, could not antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3G. Moreover, chimpanzee APOBEC3D, as well as APOBEC3F and APOBEC3H, provided additional protection against SIV Vif antagonism. Consequently, lentiviral replication in primary chimpanzee CD4+ T cells was dependent on the presence of a lentiviral vif gene that could antagonize chimpanzee APOBEC3s. Finally, by identifying and functionally characterizing several APOBEC3 gene polymorphisms in both common chimpanzees and bonobos, we found that these ape populations encode APOBEC3 proteins that are uniformly resistant to antagonism by monkey lentiviruses. PMID:26394054

  2. Elasticity and stress relaxation of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riede, Tobias

    2010-09-01

    Fundamental frequency is an important perceptual parameter for acoustic communication in mammals. It is determined by vocal fold oscillation, which depends on the morphology and viscoelastic properties of the oscillating tissue. In this study, I tested if stress-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vocal folds allows the prediction of a species' natural fundamental frequency range across its entire vocal repertoire as well as of frequency contours within a single call type. In tensile tests, the load-strain and stress-relaxation behavior of rhesus monkey vocal folds and ventricular folds has been examined. Using the string model, predictions about the species' fundamental frequency range, individual variability, as well as the frequency contour of 'coo' calls were made. The low- and mid-frequency range (up to 2 kHz) of rhesus monkeys can be predicted relatively well with the string model. The discrepancy between predicted maximum fundamental frequency and what has been recorded in rhesus monkeys is currently ascribed to the difficulty in predicting the behavior of the lamina propria at very high strain. Histological sections of the vocal fold and different staining techniques identified collagen, elastin, hyaluronan and, surprisingly, fat cells as components of the lamina propria. The distribution of all four components is not uniform, suggesting that different aspects of the lamina propria are drawn into oscillation depending on vocal fold tension. A differentiated recruitment of tissue into oscillation could extend the frequency range specifically at the upper end of the frequency scale. PMID:20709920

  3. Protection against yellow fever in monkeys by immunization with yellow fever virus nonstructural protein NS1.

    OpenAIRE

    Schlesinger, J J; Brandriss, M. W.; Cropp, C.B.; Monath, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Immunization of monkeys with yellow fever virus-specified nonstructural protein NS1 resulted in protection against fatal hepatitis as well as marked reduction in the magnitude of viremia after subcutaneous challenge with yellow fever virus. The results may be relevant to the design of possible subunit or recombinant flavivirus vaccines.

  4. Novel Vaccine Approach Achieves “Functional Cure” of AIDS Virus in Monkeys | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Frank Blanchard, Staff Writer, and Jeff Lifson, Guest Writer Scientists at the Oregon Health & Science University and the AIDS and Cancer Virus Program of the Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research have used a novel vaccine approach to achieve a “functional cure” and apparent eradication of infection with a monkey version of the AIDS virus.

  5. Same/different concept learning by capuchin monkeys in matching-to-sample tasks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Truppa

    Full Text Available The ability to understand similarities and analogies is a fundamental aspect of human advanced cognition. Although subject of considerable research in comparative cognition, the extent to which nonhuman species are capable of analogical reasoning is still debated. This study examined the conditions under which tufted capuchin monkeys (Cebus apella acquire a same/different concept in a matching-to-sample task on the basis of relational similarity among multi-item stimuli. We evaluated (i the ability of five capuchin monkeys to learn the same/different concept on the basis of the number of items composing the stimuli and (ii the ability to match novel stimuli after training with both several small stimulus sets and a large stimulus set. We found the first evidence of same/different relational matching-to-sample abilities in a New World monkey and demonstrated that the ability to match novel stimuli is within the capacity of this species. Therefore, analogical reasoning can emerge in monkeys under specific training conditions.

  6. Processing of vocalizations in humans and monkeys: A comparative fMRI study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humans and many other animals use acoustical signals to mediate social interactions with con-specifics. The evolution of sound-based communication is still poorly understood and its neural correlates have only recently begun to be investigated. In the present study, we applied functional MRI to humans and macaque monkeys listening to identical stimuli in order to compare the cortical networks involved in the processing of vocalizations. At the first stages of auditory processing, both species showed similar fMRI activity maps within and around the lateral sulcus (the Sylvian fissure in humans). Monkeys showed remarkably similar responses to monkey calls and to human vocal sounds (speech or otherwise), mainly in the lateral sulcus and the adjacent superior temporal gyrus (STG). In contrast, a preference for human vocalizations and especially for speech was observed in the human STG and superior temporal sulcus (STS). The STS and Broca's region were especially responsive to intelligible utterances. The evolution of the language faculty in humans appears to have recruited most of the STS. It may be that in monkeys, a much simpler repertoire of vocalizations requires less involvement of this temporal territory. (authors)

  7. The Crossed Projection to the Striatum in Two Species of Monkey and in Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Innocenti, Giorgio M; Dyrby, Tim B; Andersen, Kasper Winther;

    2016-01-01

    The corpus callosum establishes the anatomical continuity between the 2 hemispheres and coordinates their activity. Using histological tracing, single axon reconstructions, and diffusion tractography, we describe a callosal projection to n caudatus and putamen in monkeys and humans. In both species...

  8. Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhan; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Ge; Ke, Qiong; Qiu, Sien; Gao, Liang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Huang, Qunshan; Feng, Guoping; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:27173128

  9. Late effects of therapeutic irradiation on coronary arteries in the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lesions of the coronary arteries have been found in rhesus monkeys treated with radiation schedules as employed in patients with malignant tumors in the thoracic area. These findings in subhuman primates may indicate that human coronary arteries are susceptible to developing atherosclerosis-like lesions after therapeutic irradiation

  10. Pharmacological treatments inhibiting levodopa-induced dyskinesias in MPTP-lesioned monkeys: brain glutamate biochemical correlates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NicolasMorin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Antiglutamatergic drugs can relieve Parkinson’s disease (PD symptoms and decrease L-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID. This review reports relevant studies investigating glutamate receptor subtypes in relation to motor complications in PD patients and 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP-lesioned monkeys. Antagonists of the ionotropic glutamate receptors, such as NMDA and AMPA receptors, display antidyskinetic activity in PD patients and animal models such as the MPTP monkey. Metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5 receptor antagonists were shown to reduce the severity of LID in PD patients as well as in already dyskinetic non-human primates and to prevent the development of LID in de novo treatments in non-human primates. An increase in striatal post-synaptic NMDA, AMPA and mGlu5 receptors is documented in PD patients and MPTP monkeys with LID. This increase can be prevented in MPTP monkeys with the addition of a specific glutamate receptor antagonist to the L-DOPA treatment and also with drugs of various pharmacological specificities suggesting multiple receptor interactions. This is yet to be well documented for presynaptic mGlu4 and mGlu2/3 and offers additional new promising avenues.

  11. Multidrug-Resistant Proteus mirabilis Isolated From Newly Weaned Infant Rhesus Monkeys and Ferrets

    OpenAIRE

    Yu,; He; Huang

    2015-01-01

    Background Proteus mirabilis is an important uropathogen that causes complicated Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) and induces diarrhea in infants. Objectives This study aimed to investigate P. mirabilis infection in newly weaned infant rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) and ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) with diarrhea. Materials and Methods Stool samples were collected from 74 rhesus mo...

  12. Fecal and Salivary Cortisol Concentrations in Woolly (Lagothrix ssp.) and Spider Monkeys (Ateles spp.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ange-van Heugten, K.D.; Heugten, van E.; Timmer, S.; Bosch, G.; Elias, A.; Whisnant, S.; Swarts, H.J.M.; Ferket, P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2009-01-01

    Detrimental physiological effects due to stressors can contribute to the low captive success of primates. The objective of this research was to investigate the potential impact of diet composition on cortisol concentrations in feces and saliva in woolly (n=27) and spider monkeys (n=61). The research

  13. Normal Anatomy, Histology, and Spontaneous Pathology of the Nasal Cavity of the Cynomolgus Monkey (Macaca fascicularis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamanza, Ronnie; Taylor, Ian; Gregori, Michela; Hill, Colin; Swan, Mark; Goodchild, Joel; Goodchild, Kane; Schofield, Jane; Aldous, Mark; Mowat, Vasanthi

    2016-07-01

    The evaluation of inhalation studies in monkeys is often hampered by the scarcity of published information on the relevant nasal anatomy and pathology. We examined nasal cavities of 114 control cynomolgus monkeys from 11 inhalation studies evaluated 2008 to 2013, in order to characterize and document the anatomic features and spontaneous pathology. Compared to other laboratory animals, the cynomolgus monkey has a relatively simple nose with 2 unbranched, dorsoventrally stacked turbinates, large maxillary sinuses, and a nasal septum that continues into the nasopharynx. The vomeronasal organ is absent, but nasopalatine ducts are present. Microscopically, the nasal epithelium is thicker than that in rodents, and the respiratory (RE) and transitional epithelium (TE) rest on a thick basal lamina. Generally, squamous epithelia and TE line the vestibule, RE, the main chamber and nasopharynx, olfactory epithelium, a small caudodorsal region, while TE is observed intermittently along the passages. Relatively high incidences of spontaneous pathology findings, some resembling induced lesions, were observed and included inflammation, luminal exudate, scabs, squamous and respiratory metaplasia or hyperplasia, mucous cell hyperplasia/metaplasia, and olfactory degeneration. Regions of epithelial transition were the most affected. This information is considered helpful in the histopathology evaluation and interpretation of inhalation studies in monkeys. PMID:26940715

  14. Bone marrow stromal cells of the vervet monkey: characterization and ability to support simian cytomegalovirus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main objective of the initial phase of experimentation was to establish the optimal conditions which would allow the reproduceable and reliable culture of vervet monkey bone marrow stromal cells. The effect of the medium compositions on the growth of monkey bone marrow. Stromal cells as well as the effect of varying initial densities on the establishment of the culture were studied. The morphology of the stromal cells was observed and studied using light microscopy and both transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Two cell shapes were determined and their ability to incorporate tritiated thymidine into DNA, when cultured, was studied using autoradiagraphy. The monkey bone marrow stromal cells were characterized according to their cytochemical and growth characteristics and their ability to support the myeloid lineage. The second phase of the research had three aims. Firstly to determine whether vervet cytomegalovirus (VCMV) can replicate in monkey bone marrow stromal cells. Secondly, to determine whether the phase of the cell cycle at which the cells were infected, affected the production of virus. Thirdly, to determine whether VCMV infection of the bone marrow stromal cells interferes with their ability to produce colony stimulating activity. The radiosensitivity of bone marrow stromal cells was measured by the suppression of colony formation after irradiation of the primary cell suspension

  15. Social Behavior in Interacting Squirrel Monkeys with Differential Nutritional and Environmental Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappell, Patricia F.

    This paper reports an observational study of the effects of handling on the social behavior of squirrel monkeys who received a protein deficient diet. After birth, experimental animals received a low-protein diet for a 6-week period. A subgroup of these animals were handled between 3 and 12 weeks of age. All of the animals interacted (in four…

  16. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, van J.A.R.A.M.; Gispen, W.H.; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal's own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  17. Efficient production of cynomolgus monkeys with a toolbox of enhanced assisted reproductive technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhan; Li, Jiayu; Wang, Ge; Ke, Qiong; Qiu, Sien; Gao, Liang; Wan, Haifeng; Zhou, Yang; Xiang, Andy Peng; Huang, Qunshan; Feng, Guoping; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua

    2016-01-01

    The efficiency of assisted reproductive technologies (ARTs) in nonhuman primates is low due to no screening criterions for selecting sperm, oocyte, and embryo as well as its surrogate mothers. Here we analyzed 15 pairs of pregnant and non-pregnant cynomolgus monkeys, each pair of which received embryos from one batch of fertilized oocytes, and found ratio of endometrial to myometrial thicknesses in abdominal ultrasonic transverse section of uterus is a reliable indicator for selection of recipients for embryo transfer. We performed 305 ovarian stimulations in 128 female cynomolgus monkeys and found that ovarian stimulation can be performed in a whole year and repeated up to six times in the same monkey without deteriorating fertilization potential of eggs until a poor response to stimulation happened. Fertilization can be efficiently achieved with both conventional and piezo-driven intracytoplasmic sperm injection procedures. In semen collection, semen quality is higher with the penile robe electrical stimulus method compared with the rectal probe method. Moreover, caesarean section is an effective strategy for increasing baby survival rates of multiple pregnancies. These findings provide a practical guidance for the efficient use of ARTs, facilitating their use in genetic engineering of macaque monkeys for basic and translational neuroscience research. PMID:27173128

  18. Effects of anesthesia upon 18F-FDG uptake in rhesus monkey brains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kinetics of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) in the monkey brain were monitored, and comparisons were made between the conscious state and when under ketamine and pentobarbital anesthesia. Rhesus monkeys were intravenously injected with 18F-FDG and followed by 60 min of PET scanning. In the conscious state, the 18F-FDG concentration reached a plateau 5 min after intravenous injection. Under ketamine anesthesia, the 18F-FDG concentration gradually increased with time in all monitored regions. At 60 min after injection, the concentration in the striatum was about 3.2 times greater than that in the conscious state, and about 4.5 times greater in the cerebral cortex. Under pentobarbital anesthesia, the 18F-FDG concentration in the occipital cortex was slightly lower. These findings demonstrate that 18F-FDG concentration in the monkey brain is significantly affected by anesthesia. The results also imply the existence of a short-term regulation mechanism for hexokinase activity in intact monkey brain. (author)

  19. Interactions between Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol and heroin: self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-Xu; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2012-12-01

    The cannabinoid receptor agonist Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) enhances the antinociceptive effects of µ-opioid receptor agonists, raising the possibility of using a combination of THC and opioids for treating pain. This study examined the effects of noncontingent and contingent administration of THC on intravenous heroin self-administration in rhesus monkeys. Self-administration of different unit doses of heroin (0.0001-0.1 mg/kg/infusion) generated a typical inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. In one experiment (n=4), noncontingent THC (0.1-1.0 mg/kg) dose dependently shifted the heroin dose-response curve downward in three monkeys and slightly leftward in one monkey. In a second experiment (n=4), monkeys could self-administer THC alone (0.0032-0.032 mg/kg/infusion), heroin alone, or a mixture of THC and heroin. THC alone did not maintain responding above that obtained with saline; however, increasing the THC dose with heroin dose dependently decreased the number of infusions received and the rate of responding, as compared with data that were obtained with heroin alone. These results indicate that THC does not significantly enhance the positive reinforcing effects of heroin, further supporting the view that combining cannabinoid and opioid receptor agonists (e.g. for treating pain) does not increase, and might decrease, the abuse liability of individual drugs. PMID:23044830

  20. Effect of cobalt-60 radiation on response to endodontic therapy in monkeys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Response of teeth that had received therapeutic doses of Cobalt-60 radiation to endodontic therapy were investigated in three monkeys. The results indicated no appreciable effect of the irradiation on the response to root canal treatment aside from reduction in osteoblastic activity

  1. COMPARATIVE ANATOMY OF THE VITREOUS BODY IN RHESUS-MONKEYS AND MAN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WORST, JGF; LOS, LI

    1992-01-01

    In the isolated unfixed vitreous body a structural organization can be visualized by slitlamp microscopy or by an ink-injection technique. We discuss the observations on human and rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) vitreous bodies using the ink-injection technique. Advantages and disadvantages of this m

  2. Activity budgets in a group of Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys in Shennongjia Nature Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiming LI

    2009-01-01

    We examined time allocation by Sichuan snub-nosed monkeys Rhinopithecus roxellana in the montane, temperate and highly seasonal forests of the Shennongjia Nature Reserve in China, in order to improve our understanding of the ecological and social influences on monkey behavior. We collected data on activity budgets in relation to food availability in a group of monkeys from July 2003 to September 2004 (except February 2004), using instantaneous scan samples. The monkeys spent 36.21% of daytime moving (n=21, 269 records), 24.39% foraging, 9.33% inactive, 11.7% performing social behaviors, and 18.38% performing other behaviors. There were seasonal and annual variations in the proportions of time devoted to some activities. These variations were largely attributed to seasonal or annual fluctuations in the distribution and quality of food resources. Adult males spent more time moving, searching, and displaying other behaviors, but less time feeding and performing social behaviors than adult females. Adults performed other behaviors more often and moving less often than juveniles. These differences in activity budgets may reflect fundamental differences in reproductive biology, parental investment, and development among the different age/sex classes.

  3. Retrosplenial Cortical Contributions to Anterograde and Retrograde Memory in the Monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Mark J; Mitchell, Anna S

    2016-06-01

    Primate retrosplenial cortex (RSC) is important for memory but patient neuropathologies are diffuse so its key contributions to memory remain elusive. This study provides the first causal evidence that RSC in macaque monkeys is crucial for postoperative retention of preoperatively and postoperatively acquired memories. Preoperatively, monkeys learned 300 object-in-place scene discriminations across sessions. After RSC removal, one-trial postoperative retention tests revealed significant retrograde memory loss for these 300 discriminations relative to unoperated control monkeys. Less robust evidence was found for a deficit in anterograde memory (new postoperative learning) after RSC lesions as new learning to criterion measures failed to reveal any significant learning impairment. However, after achieving ≥90% learning criterion for the postoperatively presented novel 100 object-in-place scene discriminations, short-term retention (i.e., measured after 24 h delay) of this well-learnt set was impaired in the RSC monkeys relative to controls. A further experiment assessed rapid "within" session acquisition of novel object-in-place scene discriminations, again confirming that new learning per se was unimpaired by bilateral RSC removal. Primate RSC contributes critically to memory by supporting normal retention of information, even when this information does not involve an autobiographical component. PMID:26946129

  4. TALEN-based generation of a cynomolgus monkey disease model for human microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Qiong; Li, Weiqiang; Lai, Xingqiang; Chen, Hong; Huang, Lihua; Kang, Zhuang; Li, Kai; Ren, Jie; Lin, Xiaofeng; Zheng, Haiqing; Huang, Weijun; Ma, Yunhan; Xu, Dongdong; Chen, Zheng; Song, Xinming; Lin, Xinyi; Zhuang, Min; Wang, Tao; Zhuang, Fengfeng; Xi, Jianzhong; Mao, Frank Fuxiang; Xia, Huimin; Lahn, Bruce T; Zhou, Qi; Yang, Shihua; Xiang, Andy Peng

    2016-09-01

    Gene editing in non-human primates may lead to valuable models for exploring the etiologies and therapeutic strategies of genetically based neurological disorders in humans. However, a monkey model of neurological disorders that closely mimics pathological and behavioral deficits in humans has not yet been successfully generated. Microcephalin 1 (MCPH1) is implicated in the evolution of the human brain, and MCPH1 mutation causes microcephaly accompanied by mental retardation. Here we generated a cynomolgus monkey (Macaca fascicularis) carrying biallelic MCPH1 mutations using transcription activator-like effector nucleases. The monkey recapitulated most of the important clinical features observed in patients, including marked reductions in head circumference, premature chromosome condensation (PCC), hypoplasia of the corpus callosum and upper limb spasticity. Moreover, overexpression of MCPH1 in mutated dermal fibroblasts rescued the PCC syndrome. This monkey model may help us elucidate the role of MCPH1 in the pathogenesis of human microcephaly and better understand the function of this protein in the evolution of primate brain size. PMID:27502025

  5. Histological and histomorphometrical evaluation of tissue reactions adjacent to endosteal implants in monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Rostrup, E; Hjörting-Hansen, E;

    1992-01-01

    A qualitative and quantitative histological study of the initial healing response adjacent to 24 submerged and non-submerged implants placed in the lower jaws of 6 monkeys is presented. The histomorphometric analysis showed no significant differences in mineralized bone-implant contact length bet...

  6. Increased rigidity with age in social behavior of Java-monkeys (Macaca fascicularis)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gispen, W.H.; Veenema, H.C.; Hooff, J.A.R.A.M. van; Spruijt, B.M.

    2001-01-01

    In this study we investigated the effect of aging on the structure of behavior of socially housed Java-monkeys. Indices of the sequential structure of an animal s own ongoing behavior and of its responses to behavior of other animals were calculated using an information statistic approach. These ind

  7. Nutritional benefits of Crematogaster mimosae ants and Acacia drepanolobium gum for patas monkeys and vervets in Laikipia, Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isbell, Lynne A; Rothman, Jessica M; Young, Peter J; Rudolph, Kathleen

    2013-02-01

    Patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas) are midsized primates that feed extensively on the gum of Acacia drepanolobium and the ants are housed in swollen thorns of this Acacia. Their diet resembles that expected more of smaller bodied primates. Patas monkeys are also more like smaller bodied primates in reproducing at high rates. We sought to better understand the convergence of patas monkeys with smaller bodied primates by comparing their feeding behavior on ants and gum with that of closely related, sympatric vervets (Chlorocebus pygerythrus), and analyzing the nutrient content of the gum of A. drepanolobium and of Crematogaster mimosae, the most common ant species eaten by patas monkeys in Laikipia, Kenya. All occurrences of feeding and moving during focal animal sampling revealed that 1) patas monkeys seek A. drepanolobium gum but vervets avoid it; 2) both species open swollen thorns most often in the morning when antsare less active; 3) patas monkeys continually feed onswollen thorns and gum while moving quickly throughout the day, whereas vervets reduce their consumption of these items and their travel rate at mid-day, and; 4) vervets eat young swollen thorns at a higher rate than patas monkeys. Patas monkeys are able to spend little time acquiring substantial amounts of energy, protein, and minerals from A. drepanolobium gum and C. mimosae ants each day. These findings, when coupled with evidence of causes of infant and adult female mortality, suggest that reproductive success of female patas monkeys is more immediately affected by illness, disease, interactions between adults and infants, and access to water than by food. PMID:23280312

  8. Cytogenetic and other biological effects of 239PuO2 inhaled by the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixteen immature rhesus monkeys were exposed via inhalation to an insoluble, polydisperse 239PuO2 aerosol labeled with 169Yb which had an activity median aerodynamic diameter of 1.6 μm and a sigma/sub g/ of 1.6. Four groups with three monkeys per group were exposed to achieve initial 239Pu lung burdens of 1000 to 2000, 200 to 300, 20 to 65, and 2 to 10 nCi, respectively. To determine early retention and distribution of the aerosol, four additional monkeys were exposed with initial lung burdens of 200 to 600 nCi and were sacrificed 4 hr and 30 days after inhalation exposure. Two monkeys were sham exposed and served as controls. Using data derived from external whole-body counting of the 169Yb label, it was estimated that the inhaled 239PuO2 was retained in the body with an average effective half-life of 1000 days with some translocation from the lung to the pulmonary lymph nodes. Chromosome aberrations were scored in blood lymphocytes cultured 1, 3, 7, 19, 31, and 43 months after inhalation. Only in animals with cumulative lung doses greater than 1000 rad was there a significant increase in the frequency of rings and dicentrics when compared to the controls. An animal with an estimated initial lung burden of 1000 nCi showed marked alterations in respiratory function 30 days prior to his death from pulmonary fibrosis 990 days after inhalation exposure. Only slight respiratory changes were detected in the other animals evaluated. To date, three monkeys have died, two with initial lung burdens of 1800 and 1000 nCi 239Pu which died from radiation pneumonitis and the third with an initial lung burden of 20 nCi which died of gastric torsion presumably not related to Pu exposure. Comparison of survival data from rhesus monkeys with those obtained from baboons and beagles indicates that rhesus monkeys, baboons, and dogs are similar in their early response to inhaled 239PuO2

  9. Scopolamine impairs auditory delayed matching-to-sample performance in monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plakke, Bethany; Ng, Chi-Wing; Poremba, Amy

    2008-06-13

    Information concerning the major neurotransmitters critical for auditory memory is sparse. One possibility is the cholinergic system, important for performance in some tasks requiring visual short-term memory and attention [T.G. Aigner, M. Mishkin, The effects of physostigmine and scopolamine on recognition memory in monkeys, Behav. Neural. Biol. 45 (1986) 81-87; N. Hironaka, K. Ando, Effects of cholinergic drugs on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in rhesus monkeys, Jpn. J. Psychopharmacol. 16 (1996) 103-108; T.M. Myers, G. Galbicka, M.L. Sipos, S. Varadi, J.L. Oubre, M.G. Clark, Effects of anticholinergics on serial-probe recognition accuracy of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta), Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 73 (2002) 829-834; H. Ogura, T.G. Aigner, MK-801 Impairs recognition memory in rhesus monkeys: comparison with cholinergic drugs, J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 266 (1993) 60-64; D.M. Penetar, J.H. McDonough Jr., Effects of cholinergic drugs on delayed match-to-sample performance of rhesus monkeys, Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. 19 (1983) 963-967; M.A. Taffe, M.R. Weed, L.H. Gold, Scopolamine alters rhesus monkey performance on a novel neuropsychological test battery, Cogn. Brain Res. 8 (1999) 203-212]. Five rhesus monkeys were trained to perform an auditory go/no-go delayed matching-to-sample (DMTS) task wherein two acoustic stimuli (500ms), separated by variable memory delays (500ms, 2500ms, or 5000ms), were either identical sound presentations, i.e., match trials, or two different sound presentations, i.e., nonmatch trials. Sound stimuli were chosen semi-randomly from a large set sound set ( approximately 900). After reaching a criterion of 80% correct on the behavioral task, monkeys were injected with saline or doses of scopolamine hydrochloride mixed in saline (3 microg, 5 microg, and 10 microg per 1kg of weight), 30 min before training. Scopolamine impaired performance accuracy on match trials in a dose-dependent manner. Blocking muscarinic receptors with

  10. Novel Helicobacter species isolated from rhesus monkeys with chronic idiopathic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, J G; Handt, L; Xu, S; Shen, Z; Dewhirst, F E; Paster, B J; Dangler, C A; Lodge, K; Motzel, S; Klein, H

    2001-05-01

    Chronic, idiopathic diffuse colitis is a well recognised clinical and pathological entity in captive rhesus monkeys. Six rhesus monkeys were diagnosed with clinically debilitating, chronic diarrhoea. Histologically, colonic tissues were characterised as chronic, moderate to severe colitis and typhlitis, with diffuse mononuclear inflammation of lamina propria, reactive lymphoid hyperplasia and multifocal micro-abscesses. Colonic tissues were cultured for Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp.; all results were negative. Samples were negative for Clostridium difficile A and B toxins, and special stains of colonic tissue for acid-fast bacteria were also negative. The six diarrhoeic monkeys tested gave negative results for serum IgG antibodies to herpes B virus, STLV, SRV and SIV. Colonic tissue from the six diarrhoeic and two clinically normal monkeys with histologically confirmed colitis from the same colony were also subjected to micro-aerobic culture. Micro-aerobic cultures from all eight monkeys incubated at 37 degrees C and 42 degrees C revealed pinpoint or spreading colonies on antibiotic-containing media. Bacteria were identified as gram-negative, oxidase positive and urease negative. Of the nine strains characterised biochemically, two separate biotypes (corresponding to different species by 16S rRNA analysis) were identified. One biotype (type 1), from non-diarrhoeic monkeys and the second biotype (type 2) from diarrhoeic animals with subclinical chronic colonic inflammation, differed by catalase activity, ability to reduce nitrate to nitrite and sensitivity to cephalothin. Complete 16S rRNA analysis of five of the nine strains characterised biochemically indicated that the organisms isolated were two novel Helicobacter spp. By electron microscopy, these novel helicobacters had spiral morphology with bipolar sheathed flagella. This is the first report describing the isolation of novel Helicobacter spp. from inflamed colons of rhesus monkeys. Studies are needed to

  11. Influence of trypanocidal therapy on the haematology of vervet monkeys experimentally infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngotho, Maina; Kagira, John M; Kariuki, Christopher; Maina, Naomi; Thuita, John K; Mwangangi, David M; Farah, Idle O; Hau, Jann

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterise the sequential haematological changes in vervet monkeys infected with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and subsequently treated with sub-curative diminazene aceturate (DA) and curative melarsoprol (MelB) trypanocidal drugs. Fourteen vervet monkeys, on a serial timed-kill pathogenesis study, were infected intravenously with 10(4) trypanosomes of a stabilate T. b. rhodesiense KETRI 2537. They were treated with DA at 28 days post infection (dpi) and with MelB following relapse of infection at 140 dpi. Blood samples were obtained from the monkeys weekly, and haematology conducted using a haematological analyser. All the monkeys developed a disease associated with macrocytic hypochromic anaemia characterised by a reduction in erythrocytes (RBC), haemoglobin (HB), haematocrit (HCT), mean cell volume (MCV), platelet count (PLT), and an increase in the red cell distribution width (RDW) and mean platelet volume (MPV). The clinical disease was characteristic of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT) with a pre-patent period of 3 days. Treatment with DA cleared trypanosomes from both the blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The parasites relapsed first in the CSF and later in the blood. This treatment normalised the RBC, HCT, HB, PLT, MCV, and MPV achieving the pre-infection values within two weeks while RDW took up to 6 weeks to attain pre-infection levels after treatment. Most of the parameters were later characterised by fluctuations, and declined at one to two weeks before relapse of trypanosomes in the haemolymphatic circulation. Following MelB treatment at 140 dpi, most values recovered within two weeks and stabilised at pre-infection levels, during the 223 days post treatment monitoring period. It is concluded that DA and MelB treatments cause similar normalising changes in the haematological profiles of monkeys infected with T. b. rhodesiense, indicating the efficacy of the drugs. The infection related changes in haematology

  12. Effects of U-75875, a peptidomimetic inhibitor of retroviral proteases, on simian immunodeficiency virus infection in rhesus monkeys.

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, L. N.; Soike, K F; Murphey-Corb, M; Bohm, R P; Roberts, E. D.; Kakuk, T J; Thaisrivongs, S; Vidmar, T J; Ruwart, M. J.; Davio, S R

    1994-01-01

    U-75875 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) proteases and blocks Gag-Pol protein processing and viral maturation and replication in vitro. Rhesus monkeys were treated with vehicle alone or with formulated U-75875 at doses of 7 or 20 mg/kg of body weight per day for 26 days by continuous intravenous infusion beginning 6 h prior to intravenous inoculation with 10 monkey 50% infectious doses of SIV Delta B670, and the monkeys were monitored...

  13. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Someswara Rao, Chinta; Viswanadha Raju, S

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship between the H. sapiens and monkey. This similarity will be helpful at theft identification, maternity identification, disease identification, etc. PMID:26981409

  14. Comparative analysis of clinical peculiarities of radiation disease in dogs and monkeys induced by gamma-neutron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative analysis of clinical indices, permitting definition of species differences in radiosensitivity of dogs and two varieties of monkeys, irradiated by the doses resulting in the development of intestinal from of radiation disease, was carried out. Hamadryad baboon, demonstrated the highest radiosensitivity. Monkeys, irradiated by superlethal doses, developed symptomocomplex of early transient ineffectiveness, the frequency of its appearance depends obviously on irradiation dose and it is expressed by individual radiosensitivity, the fact being the most explicit species peculiarity of radiation disease development in monkeys. 4 refs.; 3 figs

  15. Auditory Rehabilitation in Rhesus Macaque Monkeys (Macaca mulatta) with Auditory Brainstem Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Min Wang; Zhi-Jun Yang; Fu Zhao; Bo Wang; Xing-Chao Wang; Pei-Ran Qu; Pi-Nan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:The auditory brainstem implants (ABIs) have been used to treat deafness for patients with neurofibromatosis Type 2 and nontumor patients.The lack of an appropriate animal model has limited the study of improving hearing rehabilitation by the device.This study aimed to establish an animal model of ABI in adult rhesus macaque monkey (Macaca mulatta).Methods:Six adult rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) were included.Under general anesthesia,a multichannel ABI was implanted into the lateral recess of the fourth ventricle through the modified suboccipital-retrosigmoid (RS) approach.The electrical auditory brainstem response (EABR) waves were tested to ensure the optimal implant site.After the operation,the EABR and computed tomography (CT) were used to test and verify the effectiveness via electrophysiology and anatomy,respectively.The subjects underwent behavioral observation for 6 months,and the postoperative EABR was tested every two weeks from the 1st month after implant surgery.Result:The implant surgery lasted an average of 5.2 h,and no monkey died or sacrificed.The averaged latencies of peaks Ⅰ,Ⅱ and Ⅳ were 1.27,2.34 and 3.98 ms,respectively in the ABR.One-peak EABR wave was elicited in the operation,and one-or two-peak waves were elicited during the postoperative period.The EABR wave latencies appeared to be constant under different stimulus intensities;however,the amplitudes increased as the stimulus increased within a certain scope.Conclusions:It is feasible and safe to implant ABIs in rhesus macaque monkeys (M.mulatta) through a modified suboccipital RS approach,and EABR and CT are valid tools for animal model establishment.In addition,this model should be an appropriate animal model for the electrophysiological and behavioral study of rhesus macaque monkey with ABI.

  16. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys (Macaca mulatta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malkova, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-12-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including decreased social interactions and increased self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in Group AH (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As adults (Experiment 1), the monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation were also assessed. Group TE now showed only few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed in infancy. In contrast, Group AH continued to display decreased social interactions and increased self-directed activity and showed also increased submission and reduced responses to separation, but normal reactivity to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those in Experiment 1 and then given the AH ablations (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. No other socioemotional effects, except for an increase in food/water consumption, were observed. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  17. Long-term effects of neonatal medial temporal ablations on socioemotional behavior in monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Málková, Ludise; Mishkin, Mortimer; Suomi, Stephen J.; Bachevalier, Jocelyne

    2010-01-01

    Socioemotional abnormalities, including low levels of social interaction and high levels of self-directed activity, were reported when rhesus monkeys with neonatal ablations of either the medial temporal lobe (AH) or the inferior temporal cortex (TE) were paired with unoperated peers at two and six months of age, though these abnormalities were more severe in the AH group (Bachevalier et al., 2001). As they reached adulthood (Experiment 1), the same monkeys were re-evaluated in the same dyads and their reactivity to novel toys, social status, and reactions to separation from age-matched peers were also assessed. Group TE now showed few if any of the abnormal behaviors observed when they were infants. By contrast, Group AH continued to display low levels of social interaction, high levels of self-directed activity and submissive behavior, and reduced responses to separation, although they reacted normally to novel toys. To determine whether this degree of socioemotional impairment was less severe than that produced by the same damage in adulthood, we assessed dyadic social interactions of monkeys raised until adulthood in laboratory conditions similar to those of the earlier groups and then given the AH ablation (Experiment 2). Two months postoperatively these adult-lesioned monkeys showed a small reduction in social interactions that became more pronounced six months postoperatively, yet remained less severe than that seen in the infant-lesioned monkeys. Also, except for an increase in food and water consumption throughout this 6-month period, they showed no other socioemotional effects. The finding that neonatal AH lesions produce more severe socioemotional disturbances than the same lesion in adulthood is the reverse of the effect commonly reported for other cognitive functions after cerebral damage. PMID:21133531

  18. Noninvasive scalp recording of cortical auditory evoked potentials in the alert macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nejime, Masafumi; Konoike, Naho; Nakada, Tsutomu; Nakamura, Katsuki

    2015-09-01

    Scalp-recorded evoked potentials (EP) provide researchers and clinicians with irreplaceable means for recording stimulus-related neural activities in the human brain, due to its high temporal resolution, handiness, and, perhaps more importantly, non-invasiveness. This work recorded the scalp cortical auditory EP (CAEP) in unanesthetized monkeys by using methods that are essentially identical to those applied to humans. Young adult rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta, 5-7 years old) were seated in a monkey chair, and their head movements were partially restricted by polystyrene blocks and tension poles placed around their head. Individual electrodes were fixated on their scalp using collodion according to the 10-20 system. Pure tone stimuli were presented while electroencephalograms were recorded from up to nineteen channels, including an electrooculogram channel. In all monkeys (n = 3), the recorded CAEP comprised a series of positive and negative deflections, labeled here as macaque P1 (mP1), macaque N1 (mN1), macaque P2 (mP2), and macaque N2 (mN2), and these transient responses to sound onset were followed by a sustained potential that continued for the duration of the sound, labeled the macaque sustained potential (mSP). mP1, mN2 and mSP were the prominent responses, and they had maximal amplitudes over frontal/central midline electrode sites, consistent with generators in auditory cortices. The study represents the first noninvasive scalp recording of CAEP in alert rhesus monkeys, to our knowledge. PMID:26031378

  19. Ecological factors predictive of wild spider monkey (Ateles belzebuth) foraging decisions in Yasuní, Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Scott A

    2014-12-01

    Because fruiting trees are uncommon in tropical forests, frugivorous primates experience selective pressure to incorporate knowledge of where to find feeding trees, what to expect when they arrive there, and when they can return after depleting a tree. I investigated these abilities in wild spider monkeys (Ateles belzebuth) in Yasuní, Ecuador, by analyzing the characteristics of feeding trees that drive foraging decisions. Foraging data were derived from four 2-week follows of focal adult females, conducted between May and December 1999, during which I measured and mapped all trees in which the focal subject fed, feeding bout duration, and the number of conspecifics feeding simultaneously with the focal. Taking into account the order in which feeding trees were visited across each follow, I analyzed each foraging decision from the second week of a follow, treating all previously visited trees as options for visits. I scored each option tree in terms of nine ecological variables, including the distance from the decision to each location tree, DBH, recent feeding time and mean feeding times for the focal and other monkeys present, and the interval in hours between the foraging decision and the most recent visit to each option tree. I then examined the predictive strength of the model using logistic regression analysis, comparing characteristics of selected trees to those not selected. The overall model successfully predicted trees selected by focal monkeys (r(2)  = 0.27). Monkeys preferentially moved to nearby, large canopy trees, in which previous feeding success was high, and which were visited after an interval of 3.5 days. Interval mattered most for medium and large trees, but did not predict selection for trees DBH. Despite the large home range and large numbers of trees, Yasuní spider monkeys appeared to integrate spatial, value, and temporal information when deciding where to feed. PMID:24865445

  20. Brain α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in MPTP-lesioned monkeys and parkinsonian patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morissette, Marc; Morin, Nicolas; Grégoire, Laurent; Rajput, Alex; Rajput, Ali H; Di Paolo, Thérèse

    2016-06-01

    L-DOPA-induced dyskinesias (LID) appear in the majority of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptor-mediated signaling has been implicated in PD and LID and modulation of brain α7 nACh receptors might be a potential therapeutic target for PD. This study used [(125)I]α-Bungarotoxin autoradiography to investigate α7 nACh receptors in LID in post-mortem brains from PD patients (n=14) and control subjects (n=11), and from 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-lesioned monkeys treated with saline (n=5), L-DOPA (n=4) or L-DOPA+2-methyl-6-(phenylethynyl)pyridine (MPEP) (n=5), and control monkeys (n=4). MPEP is the prototypal metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptor antagonist; it reduced the development of LID in these monkeys. [(125)I]α-Bungarotoxin specific binding to striatal and pallidal α7 nACh receptors were only increased in L-DOPA-treated dyskinetic MPTP monkeys as compared to controls, saline and L-DOPA+MPEP MPTP monkeys; dyskinesia scores correlated positively with this binding. The total group of Parkinsonian patients had higher [(125)I]α-Bungarotoxin specific binding compared to controls in the caudate nucleus but not in the putamen. PD patients without motor complications had higher [(125)I]α-Bungarotoxin specific binding compared to controls only in the caudate nucleus. PD patients with LID only had higher [(125)I]α-Bungarotoxin specific binding compared to controls in the caudate nucleus and compared to those without motor complications and controls in the putamen. PD patients with wearing-off only, had [(125)I]α-Bungarotoxin specific binding at control values in the caudate nucleus and lower in the putamen. Reduced motor complications were associated with normal striatal α7 nACh receptors, suggesting the potential of this receptor to manage motor complications in PD. PMID:27038656

  1. Why are there apes? Evidence for the co-evolution of ape and monkey ecomorphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Kevin D

    2016-04-01

    Apes, members of the superfamily Hominoidea, possess a distinctive suite of anatomical and behavioral characters which appear to have evolved relatively late and relatively independently. The timing of paleontological events, extant cercopithecine and hominoid ecomorphology and other evidence suggests that many distinctive ape features evolved to facilitate harvesting ripe fruits among compliant terminal branches in tree edges. Precarious, unpredictably oriented, compliant supports in the canopy periphery require apes to maneuver using suspensory and non-sterotypical postures (i.e. postures with eccentric limb orientations or extreme joint excursions). Diet differences among extant species, extant species numbers and evidence of cercopithecoid diversification and expansion, in concert with a reciprocal decrease in hominoid species, suggest intense competition between monkeys and apes over the last 20 Ma. It may be that larger body masses allow great apes to succeed in contest competitions for highly desired food items, while the ability of monkeys to digest antifeedant-rich unripe fruits allows them to win scramble competitions. Evolutionary trends in morphology and inferred ecology suggest that as monkeys evolved to harvest fruit ever earlier in the fruiting cycle they broadened their niche to encompass first more fibrous, tannin- and toxin-rich unripe fruits and later, for some lineages, mature leaves. Early depletion of unripe fruit in the central core of the tree canopy by monkeys leaves a hollow sphere of ripening fruits, displacing antifeedant-intolerant, later-arriving apes to small-diameter, compliant terminal branches. Hylobatids, orangutans, Pan species, gorillas and the New World atelines may have each evolved suspensory behavior independently in response to local competition from an expanding population of monkeys. Genetic evidence of rapid evolution among chimpanzees suggests that adaptations to suspensory behavior, vertical climbing, knuckle

  2. Protective Effects of High Ambient Lighting on the Development of Form-Deprivation Myopia in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Earl L.; Hung, Li-Fang; Huang, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This study shows that high ambient lighting retards the development of vision-induced myopia in infant monkeys. The results suggest that the protective effects of outdoor activities against myopia in children are due to exposure to high light levels.

  3. Results from the EPL monkey-pod flight experiments conducted aboard the NASA/Ames CV-990, May 1976

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Pace, N.

    1976-01-01

    The participation of the Environmental Physiology Laboratory (EPL) in the general purpose laboratory concept verification test 3 is documented. The EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment was designed to incorporate a 10-12 kg, pig tailed monkey, Macaca nemestrina, into the pod and measure the physiological responses of the animal continously. Four major elements comprise the EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment System: (1) a fiberglass pod containing the instrumented monkey plus feeder and watering devices, (2) an inner console containing the SKYLAB mass spectrometer with its associated valving and electronic controls, sensing, control and monitoring units for lower body negative pressure, feeder activity, waterer activity, temperatures, and gas metabolism calibration, (3) an umbilical complex comprising gas flow lines and electrical cabling between the inner and outer console and (4) an outer console in principle representing the experiment support to be provided from general space craft sources.

  4. Results from the EPL monkey-pod experiment conducted as part of the 1974 NASA/Ames shuttle CVT-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahlmann, D. F.; Kodama, A. M.; Mains, R. C.; Pace, N.

    1974-01-01

    The participation of the Environmental Physiology Laboratory (EPL) in the general purpose laboratory concept verification test 3 is documented. The EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment was designed to incorporate a 10-12 kg, pig tailed monkey, Macaca nemestrina, into the pod and measure the physiological responses of the animal continuously. Four major elements comprise the EPL Monkey-Pod Experiment System: (1) a fiberglass pod containing the instrumented monkey plus feeder and watering devices, (2) an inner console containing the SKYLAB mass spectrometer with its associated valving and electronic controls, sensing, control and monitoring units for lower body negative pressure, feeder activity, waterer activity, temperatures, and gas metabolism calibration, (3) an umbilical complex comprising gas flow lines and electrical cabling between the inner and outer console and (4) an outer console in principle representing the experiment support to be provided from general spacecraft sources.

  5. Research and in situ conservation of owl monkeys enhances environmental law enforcement at the Colombian-Peruvian border

    OpenAIRE

    Maldonado, Angela M; Peck, Mika R

    2014-01-01

    This study reports on impacts of illegal trade in owl monkeys (Aotus nancymaae, A. vociferans) for the biomedical research market in the Colombian-Peruvian Amazonian border. Through freedom of information requests and interviews with hunters we found that 912 owl monkeys, including A. nancymaae captured in Peru, were trapped over a 3-month period in 2012 to supply a malaria research facility based in Leticia, Colombia, which had trapping permits for the use of only 800 A. vociferans annually ...

  6. Magnitude and Diversity of Cytotoxic-T-Lymphocyte Responses Elicited by Multiepitope DNA Vaccination in Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Subbramanian, Ramu A.; Kuroda, Marcelo J.; Charini, William A.; Barouch, Dan H.; Costantino, Cristina; Santra, Sampa; Schmitz, Jörn E.; Martin, Kristi L.; Lifton, Michelle A.; Gorgone, Darci A.; Shiver, John W.; Letvin, Norman L.

    2003-01-01

    In an effort to develop an AIDS vaccine that elicits high-frequency cytotoxic-T-lymphocyte (CTL) responses with specificity for a diversity of viral epitopes, we explored two prototype multiepitope plasmid DNA vaccines in the simian-human immunodeficiency virus/rhesus monkey model to determine their efficiency in priming for such immune responses. While a simple multiepitope vaccine construct demonstrated limited immunogenicity in monkeys, this same multiepitope genetic sequence inserted into...

  7. IL-15 increases the frequency of effector memory CD8+ T cells in rhesus monkeys immunized with HIV vaccine

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shirui; Qi, Xiangrong; Gao, Yingying; Hao, Yanling; Cui, Lianxian; Ruan, Li; He, Wei

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have suggested that interleukin (IL)-15 is a promising adjuvant that promotes cellular immunity when administered with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine. Here we evaluated the effect of IL-15 plasmid on HIV-specific immune responses, especially cellular immunity, in eight rhesus monkeys. These monkeys were immunized three times with HIV DNA vaccine with or without IL-15 plasmid and boosted with recombinant Tiantan strain vaccinia virus-based HIV vaccine (rTV) 22 weeks...

  8. Early adverse rearing experiences alter sleep-wake patterns and plasma cortisol levels in juvenile rhesus monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Barrett, Catherine E; Noble, Pamela; Hanson, Erin; Pine, Daniel S.; Winslow, James T.; Nelson, Eric E.

    2009-01-01

    Monkeys separated from their mothers soon after birth and raised with peers display many disturbances in emotional behavior that are similar to human mood and anxiety disorders. In addition to emotional disturbances, both mood and anxiety disorders are often characterized by disruptions in normal sleep-wake cycles, a behavior that has not been well characterized in adversely-reared non-human primates. Because polysomnographic measures are difficult to obtain in unrestrained monkeys we used 24...

  9. Normative Values of Retinal Oxygen Saturation in Rhesus Monkeys: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP) Study

    OpenAIRE

    Jing LI; Yang, Yiquan; Yang, Diya; Liu, Xiangxiang; Sun, Yunxiao; Wei, Shifei; Wang, Ningli

    2016-01-01

    Objective To study the normal values of the retinal oxygen saturation in Rhesus monkeys and to evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements. Methods Eighteen adult Rhesus macaque monkeys were included in this experimental study. An Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap, Reykjavik, Iceland) was used to perform oximetry on all subjects. Global arterial (SaO2) and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), arteriovenous difference in SO2 were measured. In the first ex...

  10. Correlation between amount of virus with altered nucleotide sequence and the monkey test for acceptability of oral poliovirus vaccine.

    OpenAIRE

    Chumakov, K M; Powers, L B; Noonan, K E; Roninson, I B; Levenbook, I S

    1991-01-01

    Production of live attenuated oral poliomyelitis vaccine (OPV) requires rigorous neurovirulence safety testing of each vaccine lot, currently carried out in monkeys. It has been reported that a change from 472-U to 472-C in the type 3 OPV RNA is associated with an increased histologic lesion score produced upon intraspinal inoculation of the mutant virus in monkeys. We have developed a method, based on polymerase chain reaction, for measuring the relative abundance of these mutant sequences d...

  11. MONKEY: Identifying conserved transcription-factor binding sitesin multiple alignments using a binding site-specific evolutionarymodel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, Alan M.; Chiang, Derek Y.; Pollard, Daniel A.; Iyer, VenkyN.; Eisen, Michael B.

    2004-10-28

    We introduce a method (MONKEY) to identify conserved transcription-factor binding sites in multispecies alignments. MONKEY employs probabilistic models of factor specificity and binding site evolution, on which basis we compute the likelihood that putative sites are conserved and assign statistical significance to each hit. Using genomes from the genus Saccharomyces, we illustrate how the significance of real sites increases with evolutionary distance and explore the relationship between conservation and function.

  12. Effects of prenatal androgens on rhesus monkeys: A model system to explore the organizational hypothesis in primates

    OpenAIRE

    Thornton, Jan; Zehr, Julia L.; Loose, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    After proposing the organizational hypothesis from research in prenatally androgenized guinea pigs (Phoenix et al., 1959), the same authors almost immediately extended the hypothesis to a nonhuman primate model, the rhesus monkey. Studies over the last 50 years have verified that prenatal androgens have permanent effects in rhesus monkeys on the neural circuits that underlie sexually dimorphic behaviors. These behaviors include both sexual and social behaviors, all of which are also influence...

  13. A Genetic System for Rhesus Monkey Rhadinovirus: Use of Recombinant Virus To Quantitate Antibody-Mediated Neutralization

    OpenAIRE

    Bilello, John P.; Morgan, Jennifer S.; Damania, Blossom; Lang, Sabine M.; Desrosiers, Ronald C.

    2006-01-01

    Rhesus monkey rhadinovirus (RRV), a simian gamma-2 herpesvirus closely related to the Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus, replicates lytically in cultured rhesus monkey fibroblasts and establishes persistence in B cells. Overlapping cosmid clones were generated that encompass the entire 130-kilobase-pair genome of RRV strain 26-95, including the terminal repeat regions required for its replication. Cloned RRV that was produced by cotransfection of overlapping cosmids spanning the entire RR...

  14. Comprehensive analysis of the T-cell receptor beta chain gene in rhesus monkey by high throughput sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Zhoufang; Liu, Guangjie; Tong, Yin; Zhang, Meng; Xu, Ying; Qin, Li; Wang, Zhanhui; Chen, Xiaoping; He, Jiankui

    2015-01-01

    Profiling immune repertoires by high throughput sequencing enhances our understanding of immune system complexity and immune-related diseases in humans. Previously, cloning and Sanger sequencing identified limited numbers of T cell receptor (TCR) nucleotide sequences in rhesus monkeys, thus their full immune repertoire is unknown. We applied multiplex PCR and Illumina high throughput sequencing to study the TCRβ of rhesus monkeys. We identified 1.26 million TCRβ sequences corresponding to 643...

  15. L-theanine attenuates abstinence signs in morphine-dependent rhesus monkeys and elicits anxiolytic-like activity in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Wise, Laura E.; Premaratne, Ishani D.; Gamage, Thomas F; Lichtman, Aron H.; Hughes, Larry D.; Harris, Louis S.; Aceto, Mario D.

    2012-01-01

    L-theanine, 2-Amino-4-(ethylcarbamoyl) butyric acid, an amino acid found in green tea (Camellia sinensis), is sold in the United States as a dietary supplement to reduce stress and improve cognition and mood. The observations that L-theanine has been shown to inhibit caffeine’s stimulatory effects and that caffeine produces precipitated withdrawal signs in opioid-addicted monkeys and some opioid withdrawal signs in some normal monkeys, suggest that L-theanine may suppress opioid withdrawal si...

  16. Ranging, activity budget, and diet composition of red titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) in primary forest and forest edge

    OpenAIRE

    Kulp, Jenna; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation of tropical rainforests are increasingly creating forest edges and corresponding edge effects. Furthermore, primary forest is increasingly being replaced by secondary forest. The presence of high population densities of titi monkeys in fragmented and secondary forests suggests that they are capable of adapting to such habitat alterations. The aim of our study was to examine the ability of the red titi monkey (Callicebus cupreus) to adapt to forest edges and sec...

  17. Wild bearded capuchin monkeys (Sapajus libidinosus strategically place nuts in a stable position during nut-cracking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy M Fragaszy

    Full Text Available Humans can use hand tools smoothly and effectively in varying circumstances; in other words, skillfully. A few other species of primates crack encased foods using hammer tools and anvils. Are they skilled? Positioning the food on the anvil so that it does not fall off when struck is a component of skilled cracking. We discovered that bearded capuchin monkeys deliberately place palm nuts in a relatively stable position on the anvil before striking them. In the first experiment, we marked the meridians of palm nuts where they stopped when rolled on a flat surface ("Stop meridian". We videotaped monkeys as they cracked these nuts on an anvil. In playback we coded the position of the Stop meridian prior to each strike. Monkeys typically knocked the nuts on the anvil a few times before releasing them in a pit. They positioned the nuts so that the Stop meridian was within 30 degrees of vertical with respect to gravity more often than expected, and the nuts rarely moved after the monkeys released them. In the second experiment, 14 blindfolded people (7 men asked to position marked nuts on an anvil as if to crack them reliably placed them with the Stop meridian in the same position as the monkeys did. In the third experiment, two people judged that palm nuts are most bilaterally symmetric along a meridian on, or close to, the Stop meridian. Thus the monkeys reliably placed the more symmetrical side of the nuts against the side of the pit, and the nuts reliably remained stationary when released. Monkeys apparently used information gained from knocking the nut to achieve this position. Thus, monkeys place the nuts skillfully, strategically managing the fit between the variable nuts and pits in the anvil, and skilled placement depends upon information generated by manual action.

  18. Immunochemical properties of antigen-specific monkey T-cell suppressor factor induced with a Streptococcus mutans antigen.

    OpenAIRE

    Lamb, J R; Zanders, E D; Kontiainen, S; Lehner, T.

    1980-01-01

    Antigen-specific suppressor factor could be released from monkey suppressor T cells induced in vitro with a protein antigen isolated from the carcinogenic bacterium Streptococcus mutans. The suppressor activity was due to the factor itself and not to carryover of free antigen. Characterization of the monkey factor revealed it to have a molecular weight of ca. 70,000, and to contain a constant region and determinants encoded by the major histocompatibility complex. The presence of immunoglobul...

  19. Primary and Secondary Infections of Macaca fascicularis Monkeys with Asian and American Genotypes of Dengue Virus 2▿

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo, Lidice; Izquierdo, Alienys; Prado, Irina; Rosario, Delfina; Alvarez, Mayling; Santana, Emidalys; Castro, Jorge; Martínez, Rafael; Rodríguez, Rosmari; Morier, Luis; Guillén, Gerardo; Guzmán, María G.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of this study was to compare the immune response and the protection capacity induced by the dengue virus 2 (DENV-2) American and Asian genotypes in Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Animals were infected with American or Asian DENV-2 strains and challenged 1 year later with a DENV-2 Asian genotype strain. The viremia and monkey antibody levels were similar for the different strains after primary and secondary infection; however, the functionality of the antibody response was different. A ...

  20. Lrrk2 Localization in the Primate Basal ganglia and Thalamus: A Light and Electron Microscopic Analysis in Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, H; Melrose, H. L.; Yu, M.; Pare, Jean-Francois; Farrer, M.J.; Smith, Y.

    2010-01-01

    The Leucine Rich Repeat Kinase-2 (LRRK2) gene is a common mutation target in Parkinson’s disease (PD), but the cellular mechanisms by which such mutations underlie the pathophysiology of PD remain poorly understood. Thus, to better characterize the neuronal target sites of LRRK2 mutations in the primate brain, we studied the cellular and ultrastructural localization of Lrrk2 immunoreactivity in the monkey basal ganglia. As previously described, the monkey striatum was the most enriched basal ...

  1. Similarity analysis between chromosomes of Homo sapiens and monkeys with correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures

    OpenAIRE

    Chinta Someswara Rao; S. Viswanadha Raju

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we consider correlation coefficient, rank correlation coefficient and cosine similarity measures for evaluating similarity between Homo sapiens and monkeys. We used DNA chromosomes of genome wide genes to determine the correlation between the chromosomal content and evolutionary relationship. The similarity among the H. sapiens and monkeys is measured for a total of 210 chromosomes related to 10 species. The similarity measures of these different species show the relationship b...

  2. Inhalation anesthetic-induced neuronal damage in the developing rhesus monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Xiaoju; Liu, Fang; Zhang, Xuan; Patterson, Tucker A; Callicott, Ralph; Liu, Shuliang; Hanig, Joseph P; Paule, Merle G; Slikker, William; Wang, Cheng

    2011-01-01

    The combination of nitrous oxide gas (N(2)O) and isoflurane (ISO) vapor is commonly used in pediatric surgical procedures for human infants and children to produce unconsciousness and analgesia. Because of obvious limitations it is difficult to thoroughly explore the effects of pediatric anesthetic agents on neurons in human infants or children. Due to the complexity of the primate brain, the monkey is often the animal model of choice for developmental neurotoxicology experiments, and it is in the rhesus monkey that the phenomenon of interest (anesthetic-induced neuronal cell death in the brain) has been previously reported. Recent reports indicate that exposure of the developing brain to general anesthetics that block N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-type glutamate receptors or potentiate gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors can trigger widespread apoptotic cell death in rodents. The present study was performed to determine whether prolonged exposure of developing nonhuman primates to a clinically relevant combination of nitrous oxide and isoflurane produces neuronal damage. Postnatal day (PND) 5-6 rhesus monkeys were exposed to N(2)O (70%) or ISO (1.0%) alone, or N(2)O plus ISO for 8 h. Inhalation of the combination of 70% N(2)O+1% ISO produces a surgical plane of anesthesia. Six hours after completion of anesthetic administration the monkeys were examined for neurotoxic effects. No significant neurotoxic effects were observed for the monkeys exposed to N(2)O or ISO alone. However, neuronal damage was apparent when N(2)O was combined with ISO as indicated by increased numbers of caspase-3-, Silver staining- and Fluoro-Jade C-positive cells in the frontal cortex, temporal gyrus and hippocampus. Electron micrographs indicated typical swelling of the cytoplasm and nuclear condensation in the frontal cortex. These data suggest that prolonged exposure to inhaled anesthetics (a combination of N(2)O and ISO) in the developing rhesus monkey results in neuronal damage, and

  3. Immunization of Macaca fascicularis (Macaca irus) monkeys with Streptococcus mutans: specificity of antibody responses in saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmings, F G; Evans, R T; Genco, R J

    1976-04-01

    M fascicularis monkeys were immunized subcutaneously in the vicinity of the major salivary glands and by retrograde infusion into the parotid duct, with a vaccine containing Formalin-killed S mutans strain 6715 cells and culture-fluid antigens. Indirect immunofluorescent staining was used to titrate and classify antibodies. Subcutaneous immunization induced only a serum response, whereas intraductal infusion stimulated both an IgA antibody response in the parotid fluid and a serum response. Immunized and nonimmunized control groups were orally infected with S mutans strain 6715. The establishment in dental plaque was quantitated by recovery of the infecting organism on selective media and by immunofluorescent staining of plaque smears taken from individual tooth surfaces. The establishment of S mutans strain 6715 was noticeably inhibited in immune monkeys. Immunofluorescent assays for antibody also showed that serum and parotid fluid containing serum IgA antibodies cross reacted with other d serotype and a serotype strains but not representative b and c strains. Immune and control groups were then orally infected with S mutans strain GS-5, a c serotype strain, and no inhibition in establishment was detected of the non-cross-reacting type c organism in the immune group. A latter series of booster immunizations via the intraductal route resulted in a significant decrease in parotid fluid flow. Histological investigations showed inflammatory cell infiltration and replacement of epithelium by connective tissue in the glands from immunized monkeys. A separate group of monkeys, younger than the first, was immunized with the same vaccine via the duct only. In this group, immunizations were given at shorter intervals, but the immunization response was similar to that observed in the first group. The investigations reviewed here and new experiments reported show that immunization of monkeys with S mutan strain 6715 via the parotid duct elicited a reproducible IgA antibody

  4. Molecularly engineered live-attenuated chimeric West Nile/dengue virus vaccines protect rhesus monkeys from West Nile virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two molecularly engineered, live-attenuated West Nile virus (WN) vaccine candidates were highly attenuated and protective in rhesus monkeys. The vaccine candidates are chimeric viruses (designated WN/DEN4) bearing the membrane precursor and envelope protein genes of WN on a backbone of dengue 4 virus (DEN4) with or without a deletion of 30 nucleotides (Δ30) in the 3' noncoding region of DEN4. Viremia in WN/DEN4- infected monkeys was reduced 100-fold compared to that in WN- or DEN4-infected monkeys. WN/DEN4-3'Δ30 did not cause detectable viremia, indicating that it is even more attenuated for monkeys. These findings indicate that chimerization itself and the presence of the Δ30 mutation independently contribute to the attenuation phenotype for nonhuman primates. Despite their high level of attenuation in monkeys, the chimeras induced a moderate-to-high titer of neutralizing antibodies and prevented viremia in monkeys challenged with WN. The more attenuated vaccine candidate, WN/DEN4-3'Δ30, will be evaluated first in our initial clinical studies

  5. Effects of heated hydrotherapy on muscle HSP70 and glucose metabolism in old and young vervet monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanagh, Kylie; Davis, Ashely T; Jenkins, Kurt A; Flynn, D Mickey

    2016-07-01

    Increasing heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in aged and/or insulin-resistant animal models confers benefits to healthspan and lifespan. Heat application to increase core temperature induces HSPs in metabolically important tissues, and preliminary human and animal data suggest that heated hydrotherapy is an effective method to achieve increased HSPs. However, safety concerns exist, particularly in geriatric medicine where organ and cardiovascular disease commonly will preexist. We evaluated young vervet monkeys compared to old, insulin-resistant vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) in their core temperatures, glucose tolerance, muscle HSP70 level, and selected safety biomarkers after 10 sessions of hot water immersions administered twice weekly. Hot water immersion robustly induced the heat shock response in muscles. We observed that heat-treated old and young monkeys have significantly higher muscle HSP70 than control monkeys and treatment was without significant adverse effects on organ or cardiovascular health. Heat therapy improved pancreatic responses to glucose challenge and tended to normalize glucose excursions. A trend for worsened blood pressure and glucose values in the control monkeys and improved values in heat-treated monkeys were seen to support further investigation into the safety and efficacy of this intervention for metabolic syndrome or diabetes in young or old persons unable to exercise. PMID:27188431

  6. Development of a rhesus monkey lung geometry model and application to particle deposition in comparison to humans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; McClellan, Gene; Corley, Rick; Einstein, Daniel R.; Jacob, Richard E.; Harkema, Jack; Carey, Stephan A.; Schelegle, Edward; Hyde, Dallas; Kimbell, Julia S.; Miller, Frederick J.

    2012-11-01

    The exposure-dose-response characterization of an inhalation hazard established in an animal species needs to be translated to an equivalent characterization in humans relative to comparable doses or exposure scenarios. Here, the first geometry model of the conducting airways for rhesus monkeys is developed based upon CT images of the conducting airways of a 6-month-old male, rhesus monkey. An algorithm was developed for adding the alveolar region airways using published rhesus morphometric data. The resultant lung geometry model can be used in mechanistic particle or gaseous dosimetry models. Such dosimetry models require estimates of the upper respiratory tract volume of the animal and the functional residual capacity, as well as of the tidal volume and breathing frequency of the animal. The relationship of these variables to rhesus monkeys of differing body weights was established by synthesizing and modeling published data as well as modeling pulmonary function measurements on 121 rhesus control animals. Deposition patterns of particles up to 10 µm in size were examined for endotracheal and and up to 5 µm for spontaneous breathing in infant and young adult monkeys and compared to those for humans. Deposition fraction of respirable size particles was found to be higher in the conducting airways of infant and young adult rhesus monkeys compared to humans. Due to the filtering effect of the conducting airways, pulmonary deposition in rhesus monkeys was lower than that in humans. Finally, future research areas are identified that would either allow replacing assumptions or improving the newly developed lung model.

  7. Habitat selection of Guizhou golden monkey (Phinopithecus roxellanae brelichi)in Fanjing Mountain Biosphere Reserve, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WUGang; WANGHong-chang; FUHai-wei; ZHAOJing-zhu; YANGYe-qin

    2004-01-01

    Guizhou golden monkey (Phinopithecus roxellanae brelichi) is a peculiar, rare and endangered species. It is distributed most narrowly and requires a rigorous habitat. In this study the habitats of Guizhou Golden Monkey were divided into three habitats: most suitable habitats, suitable habitats and marginally suitable habitats. The characteristics of the vegetation community, environmental factors and extreme environmental factors in the three habitats were systematically analyzed. The seasonal activity rule, activity area and the food characteristic of Guizhou golden monkey were also study at the same time. The results indicate that the evergreen and deciduous broadleaf mixed forest is the optimal living vegetation community for Guizhoug olden Monkey, and the suitable annual temperature is 8-15℃, the extremely lowest temperature is -2.5℃, the extremely highest temperature is 25℃, and the optimal living altitude is 1500-1700 m. In the same area, the higher the vegetation diversitythe more suitable it is for the life of Guizhou golden monkey. Temperature and food are the main habitat factors in determining the activity scope of the guizhou golden monkey community. The Altitude, temperature and the characteristics of the vegetation community are the main limitina factors for habitat selection.

  8. Dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography for dopamine and serotonin transporters in normal and parkinsonian monkey brains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, I-H. [Graduate Institute of Medical Sciences, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Huang, W.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Yeh, C.-B. [Department of Psychiatry, Tri-Service General Hospital, Taipei, 114, Taiwan (China); Liao, M.-H.; Chen, C.-C.; Shen, L.-H. [Division of Isotope Application, Institute of Nuclear Energy Research, Taoyaun, 325 Taiwan (China); Liu, J.-C. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China); Ma, K.-H. [Department of Biology and Anatomy, National Defense Medical Center, Taipei 114, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: kuohsing91@yahoo.com.tw

    2009-08-15

    Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) affects both dopaminergic and serotonergic systems. In this study, we simultaneously evaluated dopamine and serotonin transporters in primates using dual-isotope single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging and compared the results with traditional single-isotope imaging. Methods: Four healthy and one 6-OHDA-induced PD monkeys were used for this study. SPECT was performed over 4 h after individual or simultaneous injection of [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 (a dopamine transporter imaging agent) and [{sup 123}I]ADAM (a serotonin transporter imaging agent). Results: The results showed that the image quality and uptake ratios in different brain regions were comparable between single- and dual-isotope studies. The striatal [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 uptake in the PD monkey was markedly lower than that in normal monkeys. The uptake of [{sup 123}I]ADAM in the midbrain of the PD monkey was comparable to that in the normal monkeys, but there were decreased uptakes in the thalamus and striatum of the PD monkey. Conclusions: Our results suggest that dual-isotope SPECT using [{sup 99m}Tc]TRODAT-1 and [{sup 123}I]ADAM can simultaneously evaluate changes in dopaminergic and serotonergic systems in a PD model.

  9. The Physiological Effect of Human Grooming on the Heart Rate and the Heart Rate Variability of Laboratory Non-Human Primates: A Pilot Study in Male Rhesus Monkeys

    OpenAIRE

    Grandi, Laura Clara; Ishida, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Grooming is a widespread, essential, and complex behavior with social and affiliative valence in the non-human primate world. Its impact at the autonomous nervous system level has been studied during allogrooming among monkeys living in a semi-naturalistic environment. For the first time, we investigated the effect of human grooming to monkey in a typical experimental situation inside laboratory. We analyzed the autonomic response of male monkeys groomed by a familiar human (experimenter), in...

  10. Modeling vocalization with ECoG cortical activity recorded during vocal production in the macaque monkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Saunders, Richard C; Fujii, Naotaka; Averbeck, Bruno B; Mishkin, Mortimer

    2014-01-01

    Vocal production is an example of controlled motor behavior with high temporal precision. Previous studies have decoded auditory evoked cortical activity while monkeys listened to vocalization sounds. On the other hand, there have been few attempts at decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. Here we recorded cortical activity during vocal production in the macaque with a chronically implanted electrocorticographic (ECoG) electrode array. The array detected robust activity in motor cortex during vocal production. We used a nonlinear dynamical model of the vocal organ to reduce the dimensionality of `Coo' calls produced by the monkey. We then used linear regression to evaluate the information in motor cortical activity for this reduced representation of calls. This simple linear model accounted for circa 65% of the variance in the reduced sound representations, supporting the feasibility of using the dynamical model of the vocal organ for decoding motor cortical activity during vocal production. PMID:25571556

  11. Pharmacodynamic model of interleukin-21 effects on red blood cells in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Karlsson, M.; Ingwersen, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    of treatment. The present analysis investigates the observed pharmacodynamics effects on red blood cells following various treatment schedules of human IL-21 administrated to cynomolgus monkeys. These effects are described by a novel non-linear mixed-effects model that enabled separation of drug effects...... and sampling effects, the latter believed to be due partly to blood loss and partly to stress induced haemolysis in connection with blood sampling. Two different studies with a total of 9 different treatment groups of cynomolgus monkeys were used for model development. In conclusion, the model describes the IL......-21 induced drop in red blood cells to be (1) caused by removal rather than suppression of production, consistent with increased reticulocyte concentration, and (2) considerably delayed compared to dosing, i.e. not related to the drop in red blood cells observed immediately post dose. It is believed...

  12. Slow negative evoked potentials in the rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta): myogenic versus neurogenic influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fria, T J; Saad, M M; Doyle, W J; Cantekin, E I

    1984-02-01

    The influence of myogenic activity on the generation of slow negative evoked potentials (SN10) to octave, toneburst stimuli (0.5-2 Hz) was investigated in 5 rhesus monkeys (M. mulatta) by comparing responses obtained prior to and during total paralysis induced with curare. The SN10 could be easily elicited during paralysis, regardless of stimulus intensity, rate, or frequency. During paralysis, there were no systematic changes in either response latency or amplitude; variability in latency was less than 10% and changes in response amplitude were within 30%. These findings suggest that the myogenic contribution to the SN10 response is negligible and that this response is of neurogenic origin in the rhesus monkey. PMID:6198169

  13. [Germination of Ficus insipida (Moraceae) seeds from toucan (Ramphastos sulfuratus) and spider monkey (Ateles geoffroyi) feces].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Domínguez, Laura E; Morales-Mávil, Jorge E; Alba-Landa, Juan

    2006-06-01

    To test the null hypothesis that two vertebrate fructivores, toucans (Ramphastos sulfuratus) and spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi), are equally specialized in germinating Ficus insipida seeds after these have passed through their digestive tracts, we fed fruits to captive individuals. We extracted seeds from feces and placed them on filter paper in petri dishes under controled light, temperature and humidity. Control seeds had not passed through a digestive tract. We found that a greater proportion of seeds from A. geofroyi (65%) germinated (R. sulfuratus: 4%). The germinative value was also greater in seeds from monkey feces (rate=13.76; toucan 0.046; control group 0.172). If, despite individual variability of seeds and dispersers, future studies continue to show that A. geoffroyi favors germination more (maybe because of a longer digestion time), this would indicate that diet specialization is not necessarily related to dispersal efficiency. PMID:18494309

  14. 31P saturation transfer and phosphocreatine imaging in the monkey brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    31P magnetic resonance imaging with chemical-shift discrimination by selective excitation has been employed to determine the phosphocreatine (PCr) distribution in the brains of three juvenile macaque monkeys. PCr images were also obtained while saturating the resonance of the γ-phosphate of ATP, which allowed the investigation of the chemical exchange between PCr and the γ-phosphate of ATP catalyzed by creatine kinase. Superposition of the PCr images over the proton image of the same monkey brain revealed topological variations in the distribution of PCr and creatine kinase activity. PCr images were also obtained with and without visual stimulation. In two out of four experiments, an apparently localized decrease in PCr concentration was noted in visual cortex upon visual stimulation. This result is interpreted in terms of a possible role for the local ADP concentration in stimulating the accompanying metabolic response

  15. In Vitro Interleukin-1 and 2 Production and Interleukin 2 Receptor Expression in the Rhesus Monkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Didier A.; Sonnenfeld, Gerald; Husson, David; Tkaczuk, Jean; Andre, Eric; Schaffar, Laurance

    1996-01-01

    Anti-human monoclonal antibodies were used to detect and quantify interleukins-1 and 2 and interleukin-2 receptor expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from a rhesus monkey. Interleukin-1 production could be induced by phorbol esters (PMA) and was potentiated by phytohemagglutinin (PHA). Interleukin-2 secretion could also be induced by the combination of PHA and PMA, but only weakly with PHA alone. Interleukin-2 receptor expression was present in a subpopulation of unstimulated lymphocytes and could be enhanced by PHA or PMA. These data show once again that the rhesus monkey immune system is cross-reactive with the human one and that rhesus macaque could be a good model to study interleukin therapy.

  16. Absorption of topically applied hydrocortisone from the eye of the rhesus monkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood samples were collected from anaesthetized monkeys during one h a) afer topical application of an eyedrop of hydrocortisone acetate suspension, b) after topical application of a drop of the vehicle alone, and c) after no application at all. Radioimmunoassay (RIA) showed a rapid and similar increase of hydrocortisone plasma levels in all 3 kinds of experiments. RIA revealed that in monkeys the anaesthetic procedure alone was sufficient to cause a considerable increase of endogenous hydrocortisone levels overshadowing any systemic absorption of topical hydrocortisone. Using tritiated hydrocortisone instead a rapid increase of systemic absorption after topical application was found. A plasma concentration of 1% of the dose was found one min after topical instillation incresing to a maximum of 6-7% at 30 min. The half time of the slow phase of elimination was about 19 h. (author)

  17. Large-Scale Functional Reorganization in Adult Monkey Cortex after Peripheral Nerve Injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garraghty, Preston E.; Kaas, Jon H.

    1991-08-01

    In adult monkeys, peripheral nerve injuries induce dramatic examples of neural plasticity in somatosensory cortex. It has been suggested that a cortical distance limit exists and that the amount of plasticity that is possible after injury is constrained by this limit. We have investigated this possibility by depriving a relatively large expanse of cortex by transecting and ligating both the median and the ulnar nerves to the hand. Electrophysiological recording in cortical areas 3b and 1 in three adult squirrel monkeys no less than 2 months after nerve transection has revealed that cutaneous responsiveness is regained throughout the deprived cortex and that a roughly normal topographic order is reestablished for the reorganized cortex.

  18. Effects of competition on video-task performance in monkeys (Macaca mulatta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1990-01-01

    The effects of competition on performance of a video-formatted task were examined in a series of experiments. Two rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained to manipulate a joystick to shoot at moving targets on a computer screen. The task was made competitive by requiring both animals to shoot at the same target and by rewarding only the animal that hit the target first each trial. The competitive task produced a significant and robust speed-accuracy trade-off in performance. The monkeys hit the target in significantly less time on contested than on uncontested trials. However, they required significantly more shots to hit the target on contested trials in relation to uncontested trials. This effect was unchanged when various schedules of reinforcement were introduced in the uncontested trials. This supports the influence of competition qua competition on performance, a point further bolstered by other findings of behavioral contrast presented here.

  19. Perceived control in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) - Enhanced video-task performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washburn, David A.; Hopkins, William D.; Rumbaugh, Duane M.

    1991-01-01

    This investigation was designed to determine whether perceived control effects found in humans extend to rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta) tested in a video-task format, using a computer-generated menu program, SELECT. Choosing one of the options in SELECT resulted in presentation of five trials of a corresponding task and subsequent return to the menu. In Experiments 1-3, the animals exhibited stable, meaningful response patterns in this task (i.e., they made choices). In Experiment 4, performance on tasks that were selected by the animals significantly exceeded performance on identical tasks when assigned by the experimenter under comparable conditions (e.g., time of day, order, variety). The reliable and significant advantage for performance on selected tasks, typically found in humans, suggests that rhesus monkeys were able to perceive the availability of choices.

  20. Long-term optical imaging of intrinsic signals in anesthetized and awake monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roe, Anna W.

    2007-04-01

    Some exciting new efforts to use intrinsic signal optical imaging methods for long-term studies in anesthetized and awake monkeys are reviewed. The development of such methodologies opens the door for studying behavioral states such as attention, motivation, memory, emotion, and other higher-order cognitive functions. Long-term imaging is also ideal for studying changes in the brain that accompany development, plasticity, and learning. Although intrinsic imaging lacks the temporal resolution offered by dyes, it is a high spatial resolution imaging method that does not require application of any external agents to the brain. The bulk of procedures described here have been developed in the monkey but can be applied to the study of surface structures in any in vivo preparation.