WorldWideScience

Sample records for cercla characterization activities

  1. Threatened and endangered wildlife species of the Hanford Site related to CERCLA characterization activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fitzner, R.E. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Weiss, S.G.; Stegen, J.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1994-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Hanford Site has been placed on the National Priorities List, which requires that it be remediated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund. Potentially contaminated areas of the Hanford Site were grouped into operable units, and detailed characterization and investigation plans were formulated. The DOE Richland Operations Office requested Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) to conduct a biological assessment of the potential impact of these characterization activities on the threatened, endangered, and sensitive wildlife species of the Hanford Site. Additional direction for WHC compliances with wildlife protection can be found in the Environmental Compliance Manual. This document is intended to meet these requirements, in part, for the CERCLA characterization activities, as well as for other work comparable in scope. This report documents the biological assessment and describes the pertinent components of the Hanford Site as well as the planned characterization activities. Also provided are accounts of endangered, threatened, and federal candidate wildlife species on the Hanford Site and information as to how human disturbances can affect these species. Potential effects of the characterization activities are described with recommendations for mitigation measures.

  2. Biological assessment for rare and endangered plant species: Related to CERCLA characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackschewsky, M.R.

    1992-04-01

    Environmental characterization in support of hazardous, radioactive, and mixed waste cleanup (in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980) can involve a large number of both nonintrusive and intrusive activities. Many of these activities could have a detrimental impact on listed plant species. These impacts can be minimized by following simple conservation policies while conducting the various field activities. For instance, frequent off-road vehicular traffic and have a severe impact on native habitats and, therefore, should be kept to a minimum. Personnel performing the field activities should be trained to preserve, respect, and minimize their impact on native habitat while performing work in the field. In addition, areas where sampling is planned should be surveyed for the presence of listed plant species before the initiation of the field activities. Extremely distributed areas could be exempted from this requirement provided adequate habitat assessments have been performed by qualified personnel. Twelve special status plant species are known to survive on or very near the Hanford Site. None of these species currently are listed as Federal Threatened or Endangered Species. However, four local species currently are candidates for federal protection. These species are the Northern Wormwood (Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var. wormskioldii), Persistantsepal Yellowcress (Rorippa columbiae), Hoover's Desert Parsley (Lomatium tuberosum), and Columbia Milkvetch (Astragalus columbianus)

  3. RCRA and CERCLA requirements affecting cleanup activities at a federal facility superfund site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.J.

    1994-01-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) achieved success on an integrated groundwater monitoring program which addressed both RCRA and CERCLA requirements. The integrated plan resulted in a cost savings of approximately $2.6 million. At present, the FEMP is also working on an integrated closure process to address Hazardous Waste Management Units (HWMUs) at the site. To date, Ohio EPA seems willing to discuss an integrated program with some stipulations. If an integrated program is implemented, a cost savings of several million dollars will be realized since the CERCLA documents can be used in place of a RCRA closure plan. The success of an integrated program at the FEMP is impossible without the support of DOE and the regulators. Since DOE is an owner/operator of the facility and Ohio EPA regulates hazardous waste management activities at the FEMP, both parties must be satisfied with the proposed integration activities. Similarly, US EPA retains CERCLA authority over the site along with a signed consent agreement with DOE, which dictates the schedule of the CERCLA activities. Another federal facility used RCRA closure plans to satisfy CERCLA activities. This federal facility was in a different US EPA Region than the FEMP. While this approach was successful for this site, an integrated approach was required at the FEMP because of the signed Consent Agreement and Consent Decree. For federal facilities which have a large number of HWMUs along with OUs, an integrated approach may result in a timely and cost-effective cleanup

  4. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ``baseline`` risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site.

  5. Reference manual for toxicity and exposure assessment and risk characterization. CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-03-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA, 1980) (CERCLA or Superfund) was enacted to provide a program for identifying and responding to releases of hazardous substances into the environment. The Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA, 1986) was enacted to strengthen CERCLA by requiring that site clean-ups be permanent, and that they use treatments that significantly reduce the volume, toxicity, or mobility of hazardous pollutants. The National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP) (USEPA, 1985; USEPA, 1990) implements the CERCLA statute, presenting a process for (1) identifying and prioritizing sites requiring remediation and (2) assessing the extent of remedial action required at each site. The process includes performing two studies: a Remedial Investigation (RI) to evaluate the nature, extent, and expected consequences of site contamination, and a Feasibility Study (FS) to select an appropriate remedial alternative adequate to reduce such risks to acceptable levels. An integral part of the RI is the evaluation of human health risks posed by hazardous substance releases. This risk evaluation serves a number of purposes within the overall context of the RI/FS process, the most essential of which is to provide an understanding of ''baseline'' risks posed by a given site. Baseline risks are those risks that would exist if no remediation or institutional controls are applied at a site. This document was written to (1) guide risk assessors through the process of interpreting EPA BRA policy and (2) help risk assessors to discuss EPA policy with regulators, decision makers, and stakeholders as it relates to conditions at a particular DOE site

  6. CERCLA site assessment workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This contains comments for each chapter of exercises (in Vol. 1) which illustrate how to conduct site assessments for CERCLA regulation. A through analysis of the exercises is provided so that work and solutions from Vol 1 can be critiqued and comments are also included on the strategy of site assessment whereas the exercises illustrate the principles involved. Covered exercises include the following: A preliminary assessment of a ground water site; waste characteristics and characterization of sources; documentation of observed releases and actual contamination of targets; the strategy of an SI at a surface water site; the soil exposure pathway; the air pathway

  7. Petroleum exclusion under CERCLA: A defense to liability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landreth, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    When CERCLA was originally passed in 1980, the petroleum industry lobbied successfully to exclude the term open-quotes petroleumclose quotes from the definition of a CERCLA section 101 (14) hazardous substance. Under CERCLA section 101 (33), petroleum is also excluded from the definition of a open-quotes pollutant or contaminant.close quotes Exclusion from the designation as a defined hazardous substance has provided a defense to liability under CERCLA section 107 when the release of petroleum occurs. The scope of the petroleum exclusion under CERCLA has been a critical and recurring issue arising in the context of Superfund response activities. Specifically, oil that is contaminated by hazardous substances during the refining process is considered open-quotes petroleumclose quotes under CERCLA and thus excluded from CERCLA response authority and liability unless specifically listed under RCRA or some other statute. The U.S. EPAs position is that contaminants present in used oil, or any other petroleum substance, do not fall within the petroleum exclusion. open-quotes Contaminants,close quotes as discussed here, are substances not normally found in refined petroleum fractions or present at levels which exceed those normally found in such fractions. If these contaminants are CERCLA hazardous substances, they are subject to CERCLA response authority and liability. This paper discusses the parameters of the CERCLA open-quotes Petroleum Exclusion.close quotes It briefly examines selected state laws, RCRA, the Clean Water Act (CWA) and the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) for treatment of petroleum and petroleum products. And, finally, this paper discusses new legislation regarding oil pollution liability and compensation

  8. CERCLA integration with site operations the Fernald experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, S.W.; Shirley, R.S.; Varchol, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A major transition in the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site mission has occurred over the past few years. The production capabilities formally provided by the FEMP are being transferred to private industry through a vendor qualification program. Environmental compliance and site cleanup are now the primary focus. In line with this program, the production of uranium products at the site was suspended in July 1989 in order to concentrate resources on the environmental mission. Formal termination of the FEMP production mission was accomplished on June 19, 1991. Environmental issues such as stored inventories of process residues materials and equipment are being addressed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The diversity of these hazards complicates the strategic planning for an integrated site cleanup program. The FEMP is one of the first Department of Energy (DOE) facilities to transition from an active production mission guided by Defense Programs (DP) to an environmental mission guided by Environmental Management (EM) under Leo Duffy. Westinghouse Environmental Management Company of Ohio (WEMCO) has been charged with integrating all site activities to carry out the cleanup. A new management structure has been formulated, and an integration approach initiated. Analyses are under way to evaluate all site activities such as waste management, safe shutdown, product material disposition and routine environmental monitoring in view of CERCLA requirements. Site activities are being broken down into three categories: (a) CERCLA driven - restoration work required under CERCLA, (b) CERCLA covered - other environmental requirements which must be integrated with CERCLA, and (c) CERCLA exempt (if any). The approach to comply with these categorized activities must be negotiated with state and federal regulatory agencies

  9. Glossary of CERCLA-related terms and acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA-related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, related federal rulemakings (e.g., 40 CFR 300, National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan), assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and DOE Order 5400.4. The source of each term is noted after the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before June 1, 1991. 20 refs

  10. Determinations of TSD facility acceptability under the CERCLA Off-Site Rule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    On September 22, 1993, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published the ''Off-Site Rule'' to implement section 121(d)(3) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). CERCLA section 121(d)(3) requires that wastes generated as a result of remediation activities taken under CERCLA authority and transferred off-site be managed only at facilities that comply with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. In 1994, the DOE's Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance (OEPA), RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413) published a CERCLA Information Brief titled ''The Off-Site Rule'' which describes the content of the Off-Site Rule and clarifies some of its implications for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. Additionally, EH-413 published the Guide on Selecting Compliant Off-Site Hazardous Waste Treatment, Storage and Disposal Facilities which provides a regulatory roadmap for accomplishing off-site transfers of environmental restoration and process hazardous waste at DOE facilities in a manner compliant with the Off-Site Rule and other relevant Federal regulations. Those guidance documents concentrate primarily on DOE's perspective as a hazardous waste generator. The purpose of this Information Brief is to address the implications of the Off-Site Rule for DOE-owned hazardous waste treatment, storage or disposal facilities that accept CERCLA remediation wastes from off-site locations

  11. Strategy for integrated CERCLA/NEPA risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Haroun, L.A.; Peterson, J.M.; Blunt, D.A.; Fingleton, D.J.; Picel, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has established a policy whereby, for remedial actions, the procedural and documentational requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) are integrated with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended. However, the objectives of risk assessment under NEPA and CERCLA differ somewhat. Until its recent application at contaminated sites, NEPA analysis has typically been applied to impacts from taking actions at clean sites (e.g., for construction activities), and a somewhat loosely structured process has historically been used to estimate relative risks for NEPA analyses. Decisions such as cleanup levels were not made on the basis of the risk estimates, and they therefore tended to be conservative and were not discussed in detail. In contrast, risks estimated for Superfund (CERCLA) sites are used to focus the decision-making process for those sites and support national prioritization for cleanup, and the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has developed a detailed framework for preparing baseline health risk assessments for these sites. The purpose of this paper is to discuss issues related to intergrating the CERCLA and NEPA approaches into the risk assessments that have been prepared for a DOE remedial action project at the Weldon Spring site near St. Charles, Missouri. These issues are grouped into three basic categories: general assumptions for the impact evaluation, data management, and presentation of the methodology and results. This paper is not intended to represent DOE policy and guidance, nor does it represent the only approach that can be used for integrated risk assessments. It merely discusses the process that was used for the Weldon Spring project, articulating the issues that were encountered and how they were addressed

  12. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993

  13. NEPA/CERCLA integration at Rocky Flats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schassburger, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Integration of two laws, the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was mandated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) with issuance of DOE Order 5400.4 in October 6, 1989. NEPA documentation is required for all federal actions to thereby consider the impacts of such actions prior to the action taking place. On the other hand, CERCLA actions taken by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) at non-federal and federal sites do not normally take NEPA into consideration, although it is not exempted at federal sites. EPA claims that CERCLA is functionally equivalent to N-EPA and therefore NEPA is not required. Although EPA maintains the functional equivalency of the two laws and formerly resisted to recognize NEPA even in Inter-Agency Agreements (IAGs), Rocky Flats has been integrating the two laws within documents to avoid duplication of information and effort

  14. Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site (U)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W.; Phifer, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    Environmental Restoration (ER) activities at the Savannah River Site (SRS) begin with the characterization of inactive hazardous, radioactive and mixed waste disposal areas by a combined Resource Conservation Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI)/Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) Remedial Investigation (Rl) followed by evaluation of remedial alternatives in a RCRA Corrective Measures Study (CMS)/CERCLA Feasibility Study (FS). A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed during the RFVRI characterization to determine if there are any potential risks to human health or the environment from the waste unit. If it is determined that there is need for remedial action, a Risk Evaluation of Remedial Alternatives (RERA) is performed as part of the CMS/FS to provide a basis for selecting a remedy that is protective of human health and the environment. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFI/RI and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the seeping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using

  15. Guidance for performing site inspections under CERCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This guidance presents EPA`s site inspection (SI) strategy. The strategy discusses procedural guidelines to investigate potential Superfund (CERCLA) sites for evaluation pursuant to the Hazard Ranking System (HRS), revised in accordance with the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986. The HRS is the primary means by which EPA evaluates sites for superfund`s National Priorities List (NPL).

  16. Catalog of CERCLA applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) - fact sheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-07-01

    Section 121(d) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA), requires attainment of federal and state applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs). Subpart E, Section 300.400(g) {open_quotes}Identification of applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements{close_quotes} of the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP)(55 FR 8666, March 8, 1990) describes the process for attaining ARARs. The purpose of this catalog is to provide DOE Program Offices and Field Organizations with all of the {open_quotes}Quick Reference Fact Sheets{close_quotes} on attaining ARARS. These fact sheets provide overviews of ARARs for CERCLA cleanup actions pertinent to DOE environmental restoration activities. All of the fact sheets in this catalog were prepared by the Environmental Protection Agency`s Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response. Fact sheets 1-7 discuss land disposal restrictions (LDRs) and their applicability. LDRs may pertain to a number of CERCLA response actions at DOE facilities. Fact Sheets 8-13 are based on the CERCLA Compliance with Other Laws Manual: Parts I and II and provide an overview of many other CERCLA ARARs. Overview of ARARs-Focus on ARAR Waivers (fact sheet 11), provides a good introduction to ARARS. The last two fact sheets, 14 and 15, are periodic reports that describe additional fact sheets and clarify issues.

  17. Unique issues concerning ''placement'' vs ''movement'' of contaminated soils at ORNL's CERCLA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greer, J.K. Jr.; Schrof, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    At Oak Ridge National Laboratory, which is owned and operated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), there are several areas where hazardous wastes and/or radioactive materials have been placed in shallow land burial trenches or ''auger'' holes for disposal. Since Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) has been placed on the National Priority List (NPL) by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) applies to waste disposal sites at ORNL. Under CERCLA, the RCRA regulations, pertaining to the LDRs, apply to CERCLA activities if the regulations are deemed ''applicable or relevant and appropriate'' (ARARS) by the lead agency or by the EPA. This report discusses the following issue: Under what conditions will contaminated soil and debris generated at a Superfund site be subject to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) land disposal restrictions (LDRs) treatment standards?

  18. CERCLA integration with site operations the Fernald experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coyle, S.W.; Shirley, R.S.; Varchol, B.D.

    1991-01-01

    A major transition in the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) site mission has occurred over the past few years. The production capabilities formally provided by the FEMP are being transferred to private industry through a vendor qualification program. Environmental compliance and site cleanup are now the primary focus. In line with this program, the production of uranium products at the site was suspended in July 1989 in order to concentrate resources on the environmental mission. Formal termination of the FEMP production mission was accomplished on June 19, 1991. Environmental issues such as stored inventories of process residues materials and equipment are being addressed under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). The diversity of these hazards complicates the strategic planning for an integrated site cleanup program. This paper will discuss the programmatic approach which is being implemented to ensure activities such as waste management, site utility and support services, health and safety programs, and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) programs are being integrated with CERCLA. 6 figs., 3 tabs

  19. What's an ARAR?exclamation point: Regulatory requirements for CERCLA remedial activities at D ampersand D sites on the Oak Ridge Reservation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houlberg, L.M.; Etnier, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    Many government-owned facilities that supported early nuclear energy research and defense programs have no current use and have been retired. Some of these facilities have residual radioactive or chemical contamination that require remediation. The Department of Energy (DOE) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Program is responsible for managing these surplus facilities. Remedial activities for contaminated environs and inactive land-based units (e.g., landfills, surface impoundments) at the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) are conducted under the direction of the Environmental Restoration (ER) Program

  20. CERCLA site assessment workbook, Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-08-01

    This workbook provides instructions for planning, implementing, and reporting site assessments under CERCLA, commonly referred to as Superfund. Site assessment consists of two information-gathering steps: the remedial preliminary assessment (PA) and the site inspection (SI). The information obtained is then used to estimate, or score, a site's relative risk to public health and the environment. The score is derived via the hazard ranking system (HRS). Although the workbook and its exercises can be adapted to group study, it is designed primarily for use by an individual

  1. Reporting continuous releases of hazardous and extremely hazardous substances under CERCLA and EPCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    This guidance is designed to provide basic instruction to US DOE and DOE operations contractor personnel on how to characterize CERCLA and EPCRA hazardous substance releases as continuous and how to prepare and deliver continuousreleasee reports to Federal, State, and local authorities. DOE staff should use this guidance as an overview of the continuous release requirements, a quick ready reference guide for specific topics concerning continuous releases and a step-by-step guide for the process of identifying and reporting continuous releases

  2. CERCLA and RCRA requirements affecting cleanup of a hazardous waste management unit at a Superfund site: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, T.J.

    1995-03-01

    The Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP) attempted to address both RCRA and CERCLA requirements at the fire training facility (FTF) by integrating a CERCLA removal action work plan with a RCRA closure plan. While the regulatory agencies involved with the FTF cleanup agreed the integrated document was a good idea, implementation proved complicated, owing to disposition of clean debris from a Superfund site, treatment of contaminated media, duration of cleanup activities, and cleanup certification. While all the complications have not been resolved, solutions to all have been proposed to Ohio EPA and U.S. EPA. Both agencies have worked closely with FEMP to find the most effective fulfillment of RCRA and CERCLA requirements

  3. Direct liability of corporations and their personnel under CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landreth, L.W.

    1991-01-01

    The prevailing liability theory applied to those persons who have caused, through their action or inaction, the release of a hazardous substance is that CERCLA provides a statutory basis for direct personal liability This direct avenue to liability is in conflict with well-settled principles of corporate limited liability. This paper discusses the impact CERCLA has had on the common law concepts of liability for corporations and their members

  4. Analysis of abandoned potential CERCLA hazardous waste sites using historic aerial photographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosowitz, D.W.; Franzen, P.A.; Green, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Aerial photographs of varying scale from federal agencies and commercial aerial service companies covering the years 1938, 1942, 1948, 1952, 1957, 1960, 1970, 1971, 1977, and 1986 of the Edgewood Area of Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG), Maryland, (Gunpowder Neck 7.5 Minute United States Geological Survey Topographic Quadrangle Map) were evaluated for identification of potential Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) hazardous waste sites and land use changes for approximately 1500 acres (610 hectares) used in the testing of military-related chemicals and munitions on Carroll Island and Graces Quarters. Detailed testing records exist only for July 1964 to December 1971, thus making the interpretation of aerial photographs a valuable tool in reconstructing past activities from the late 1930s to June 1964 and guiding future sampling locations in the multiphased CERCLA process. Many potential test sites were activated by either clear-cutting tracks of vegetation or using existing cleared land until final abandonment of the site(s) circa 1974-1975. Ground inspection of open-quotes land scarringclose quotes at either known or suspected sites was essential for verifying the existence, location, and subsequent sampling of potential CERCLA sites. Photomorphic mapping techniques are described to delineate and compare different land use changes in past chemical and munitions handling and testing. Delineation of features was based on photographic characteristics of tone, pattern, texture, shape, shadow, size, and proximity to known features. 7 refs., 9 figs

  5. Glossary of CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms and acronyms. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This glossary contains CERCLA, RCRA and TSCA related terms that are most often encountered in the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Emergency Preparedness activities. Detailed definitions are included for key terms. The CERCLA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended and related federal rulemakings. The RCRA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and related federal rulemakings. The TSCA definitions included in this glossary are taken from the Toxic Substances and Control Act (TSCA) and related federal rulemakings. Definitions related to TSCA are limited to those sections in the statute and regulations concerning PCBs and asbestos.Other sources for definitions include additional federal rulemakings, assorted guidance documents prepared by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), guidance and informational documents prepared by the US Department of Energy (DOE), and DOE Orders. The source of each term is noted beside the term. Terms presented in this document reflect revised and new definitions published before July 1, 1993.

  6. CERCLA document flow: Compressing the schedule, saving costs, and expediting review at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to convey the logic of the CERCLA document flow including Work Plans, Characterization Studies, Risk Assessments, Remedial Investigations, Feasibility Studies, proposed plans, and Records of Decision. The intent is to show how schedules at the Savannah River Site are being formulated to accomplish work using an observational approach where carefully planned tasks can be initiated early and carried out in parallel. This paper will share specific proactive experience in working with the EPA to expedite projects, begin removal actions, take interim actions, speed document flow, and eliminate unnecessary documents from the review cycle

  7. The National Historic Preservation Act is Not Your Problem, But How You are Addressing it for Your CERCLA Project May Be - 12344

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cusick, Lesley T. [Restoration Services, Inc. (RSI), Oak Ridge, Tennessee (United States)

    2012-07-01

    The 1995 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) joint 'Policy on Decommissioning of Department of Energy Facilities Under CERCLA was developed so that decommissioning could occur in a manner that ensures protection of worker and public health and the environment, that is consistent with Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), that provides for stakeholder involvement, and that achieves risk reduction without unnecessary delay'. The source of the 'unnecessary delays' the joint policy intended to avert could be attributed to numerous factors such as obtaining permits, conducting administrative activities, or implementing regulatory processes that could yield, among other things, differing preferred alternatives. Why, you might ask, more than fifteen years later, does DOE continue to struggle through CERCLA projects with unnecessary delays? From problem identification, to determination of nature and extent, to alternative analysis and ultimately remedy selection and implementation, reaching a compliant and effective clean-up end-point can be a process that seems to mimic geologic timescales. The source of these delays is often the failure to use all of the tools the CERCLA process offers. As one example, renewed commitment to follow the CERCLA process to address the regulatory reviews pursuant to the National Historic Preservation Act (NHPA) is called for. Project managers implementing CERCLA actions in any agency, not only DOE, do not need to be apprehensive about using the CERCLA process for NHPA review but should welcome it. It is critical that methods are used that address substantive NHPA requirements clearly and consistently, and that they are shared and communicated as frequently as needed to interested and questioning stakeholders. (author)

  8. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU ZP-1 Wells 299-W11-43, 299-W15-50, and 299-W18-16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2010-06-21

    The following report presents test descriptions and analysis results for multiple, stress level slug tests that were performed at selected test/depth intervals within three Operable Unit (OU) ZP-1 wells: 299-W11-43 (C4694/Well H), 299-W15-50 (C4302/Well E), and 299-W18-16 (C4303/Well D). These wells are located within south-central region of the Hanford Site 200-West Area (Figure 1.1). The test intervals were characterized as the individual boreholes were advanced to their final drill depths. The primary objective of the hydrologic tests was to provide information pertaining to the areal variability and vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth at these locations within the OU ZP-1 area. This type of characterization information is important for predicting/simulating contaminant migration (i.e., numerical flow/transport modeling) and designing proper monitor well strategies for OU and Waste Management Area locations.

  9. Slug Test Characterization Results for Multi-Test/Depth Intervals Conducted During the Drilling of CERCLA Operable Unit OU UP-1 Wells 299-W19-48, 699-30-66, and 699-36-70B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spane, Frank A.; Newcomer, Darrell R.

    2010-06-15

    This report presents test descriptions and analysis results for multiple, stress-level slug tests that were performed at selected test/depth intervals within three Operable Unit (OU) UP-1 wells: 299-W19-48 (C4300/Well K), 699-30-66 (C4298/Well R), and 699-36-70B (C4299/Well P). These wells are located within, adjacent to, and to the southeast of the Hanford Site 200-West Area. The test intervals were characterized as the individual boreholes were advanced to their final drill depths. The primary objective of the hydrologic tests was to provide information pertaining to the areal variability and vertical distribution of hydraulic conductivity with depth at these locations within the OU UP-1 area. This type of characterization information is important for predicting/simulating contaminant migration (i.e., numerical flow/transport modeling) and designing proper monitor well strategies for OU and Waste Management Area locations.

  10. Application of Clean Water (CWA) Section 404 compensatory wetland mitigation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, D.J.; Straub, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Pursuant to Section 404 of the Clean Water Act (CWA), activities resulting in the discharge of dredge or fill material into waters of the US, including wetlands, require permit authorization from the US Army Corps of Engineers (ACOE). As part of the Section 404 permitting process, compensatory wetland mitigation in the form of wetland enhancement, restoration, or construction may be required to off-set impacts sustained under a Section 404 permit. Under normal circumstances, compensatory mitigation is a relatively straight forward process; however, issues associated with mitigation become more complex at sites undergoing remediation under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), because on-site response/remedial actions involving dredged and fill material are not subject to the formal Section 404 permitting process. These actions are conducted in accordance with the substantive permitting requirements of the ACOE's Nationwide and individual permitting programs. Wetland mitigatory requirements are determined through application of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (USEPA's) 040(b) (1) Guidelines promulgated in 40 CFR Part 230 and are implemented through compliance with substantive permitting requirements during the conduct of response/remedial actions. A programmatic approach for implementing wetland mitigatory requirements is being developed at a former US Department of Energy (DOE) uranium refinery undergoing CERCLA remediation in southwestern Ohio. The approach is designed to define the regulatory mechanism that will be used to integrate CWA driven wetland mitigatory requirements into the CERCLA process

  11. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs

  12. Hazard Ranking System evaluation of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) inactive waste sites at Hanford: Volume 1, Evaluation methods and results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenner, R.D.; Cramer, K.H.; Higley, K.A.; Jette, S.J.; Lamar, D.A.; McLaughlin, T.J.; Sherwood, D.R.; Van Houten, N.C.

    1988-10-01

    The purpose of this report is to formally document the individual site Hazard Ranking System (HRS) evaluations conducted as part of the preliminary assessment/site inspection (PA/SI) activities at the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site. These activities were carried out pursuant to the DOE orders that describe the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Program addressing the cleanup of inactive waste sites. These orders incorporate the US Environmental Protection Agency methodology, which is based on the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act of 1986 (SARA). The methodology includes six parts: PA/SI, remedial investigation/feasibility study, record of decision, design and implementation of remedial action, operation and monitoring, and verification monitoring. Volume 1 of this report discusses the CERCLA inactive waste-site evaluation process, assumptions, and results of the HRS methodology employed. Volume 2 presents the data on the individual CERCLA engineered-facility sites at Hanford, as contained in the Hanford Inactive Site Surveillance (HISS) Data Base. Volume 3 presents the data on the individual CERCLA unplanned-release sites at Hanford, as contained in the HISS Data Base. 34 refs., 43 figs., 47 tabs.

  13. Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund, Section 104(k); and CERCLA Section 104(d); ‘‘ ‘Discounted Loans’ Under Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund Grants’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund, Section 104(k); and CERCLA Section 104(d); ‘‘ ‘Discounted Loans’ Under Brownfields Revolving Loan Fund Grants’`

  14. An analysis of the CERCLA response program and the RCRA corrective action program in determining cleanup strategies for federal facilities which have been proposed for listing on the National Priorities List

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, P.; Vinson, R.

    1994-01-01

    This document was prepared as an issue paper for the Department of Energy to serve in the decision-making process for environmental restoration activities. The paper compares cleanup requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and those currently proposed under Subpart S of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The history and regulatory framework for both laws is discussed, and the process for environmental restoration actions under both regulatory programs is compared and contrasted. Contaminants regulated under CERCLA and RCRA differ significantly in that radioactive contaminants are subject to Environmental Protection Agency jurisdiction only under CERCLA. The DOE has the jurisdiction to implement radioactive waste management and cleanup levels under the Atomic Energy Act (AEA) at nuclear weapons facilities. For sites with significant amounts of contaminants which are radioactive only, cleanup under RCRA can present significant advantages, since the DOE can then manage restoration activities under its own authority. There are, conversely several significant advantages for a remedial action being conducted at a CERCLA site recognized on the National Priorities List (NPL). Other provisions in the CERCLA remediation and the RCRA corrective action process offer both advantages and disadvantages related to DOE environmental restoration programs. This paper presents a discussion of significant issues which should be considered in such negotiations

  15. Potential CERCLA reauthorization issues relevant to US DOE's Environmental Restoration Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, M.R.; McKinney, M.D.; Jaksch, J.A.; Dailey, R.L.

    1993-02-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) is currently scheduled to be reauthorized in 1994. The US Department of Energy (DOE) has a significant stake in CERCLA reauthorization. CERCLA, along with its implementing regulation, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), is the principal legal authority governing DOE's environmental restoration program. The manner in which CERCLA-related issues are identified, evaluated, and dispatched may have a substantial impact on DOE's ability to conduct its environmental restoration program. A number of issues that impact DOE's environmental restoration program could be addressed through CERCLA reauthorization. These issues include the need to (1) address how the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) should be integrated into DOE CERCLA actions, (2) facilitate the streamlining of the Superfund process at DOE sites, (3) address the conflicts between the requirements of CERCLA and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) that are especially relevant to DOE, (4) examine the criteria for waiving applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) at DOE sites, and (5) delineate the appropriate use of institutional controls at DOE sites

  16. Production, optimization, characterization and antifungal activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... the present study, the antifungal activity of crude A. terrus chitinase was investigated against Apergillus niger, Aspergillus oryzae .... Chitinase activity was determined spectrophotometrically by estimating the amount of ..... characterization of two. Bifunctional chitinases lysozyme extracellularly produced by.

  17. RCRA corrective action ampersand CERCLA remedial action reference guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-07-01

    This reference guide provides a side-by-side comparison of RCRA corrective action and CERCLA Remedial Action, focusing on the statutory and regulatory requirements under each program, criterial and other factors that govern a site's progress, and the ways in which authorities or requirements under each program overlap and/or differ. Topics include the following: Intent of regulation; administration; types of sites and/or facilities; definition of site and/or facility; constituents of concern; exclusions; provisions for short-term remedies; triggers for initial site investigation; short term response actions; site investigations; remedial investigations; remedial alternatives; clean up criterial; final remedy; implementing remedy; on-site waste management; completion of remedial process

  18. Reporting releases of hazardous substances under CERCLA and EPCRA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dailey, R.

    1990-04-01

    Several federal environmental laws requires that ''release of hazardous substances to the environment'' above certain threshold amounts -- Reportable Quantities or RQs -- be reported. Current and proposed regulations under these statutes are unclear and make full compliance difficult. Nevertheless, failure to comply could result in civil or criminal penalties. In response to questions raised by several DOE Field Elements, this Information Brief is part of a series that will provide updated information on this and other CERCLA issues. The Environmental Guidance Division (EH-231) has responded to those questions relating the reporting of releases for which EPA has a clearly articulated position. EPA's position on other questions raised by Field Elements has been equivocal; DOE is working with EPA to resolve these outstanding issues. Additional information briefs on reporting releases will be issued as a clear position is defined

  19. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. Mahlon Heileson

    2006-10-01

    The Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) has been designed to accept CERCLA waste generated within the Idaho National Laboratory. Hazardous, mixed, low-level, and Toxic Substance Control Act waste will be accepted for disposal at the ICDF. The purpose of this document is to provide criteria for the quantities of radioactive and/or hazardous constituents allowable in waste streams designated for disposal at ICDF. This ICDF Complex Waste Acceptance Criteria is divided into four section: (1) ICDF Complex; (2) Landfill; (3) Evaporation Pond: and (4) Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility (SSSTF). The ICDF Complex section contains the compliance details, which are the same for all areas of the ICDF. Corresponding sections contain details specific to the landfill, evaporation pond, and the SSSTF. This document specifies chemical and radiological constituent acceptance criteria for waste that will be disposed of at ICDF. Compliance with the requirements of this document ensures protection of human health and the environment, including the Snake River Plain Aquifer. Waste placed in the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond must not cause groundwater in the Snake River Plain Aquifer to exceed maximum contaminant levels, a hazard index of 1, or 10-4 cumulative risk levels. The defined waste acceptance criteria concentrations are compared to the design inventory concentrations. The purpose of this comparison is to show that there is an acceptable uncertainty margin based on the actual constituent concentrations anticipated for disposal at the ICDF. Implementation of this Waste Acceptance Criteria document will ensure compliance with the Final Report of Decision for the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center, Operable Unit 3-13. For waste to be received, it must meet the waste acceptance criteria for the specific disposal/treatment unit (on-Site or off-Site) for which it is destined.

  20. Taking interim actions: Integrating CERCLA and NEPA to move ahead with site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Valett, G.L.; McCracken, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The cleanup of contaminated sites can be expedited by using interim response actions in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). In fact, a major portion of some Superfund sites can be cleaned up using interim actions. For CERCLA sites being remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), such actions must also comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) because the DOE has established a policy for integrating CERCLA and NEPA requirements. A strategy for the integrated documentation with implementation of interim actions has been applied successfully at the Weldon Spring site, and major cleanup projects are currently underway. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with integrating CERCLA and NEPA for interim actions and summarizes those actions that have been identified for the Weldon Spring site

  1. Taking interim actions: Integrating CERCLA and NEPA to move ahead with site cleanup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonell, M.M.; Peterson, J.M.; Valett, G.L.; McCracken, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    The cleanup of contaminated sites can be expedited by using interim response actions in accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, and the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). In fact, a major portion of some Superfund sites can be cleaned up using interim actions. For CERCLA sites being remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE), such actions must also comply with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) because the DOE has established a policy for integrating CERCLA and NEPA requirements. A strategy for the integrated documentation and implementation of interim actions has been applied successfully at the Weldon Spring site, and major cleanup projects are currently underway. This paper discusses some of the issues associated with integrating CERCLA and NEPA for interim actions and summarizes those actions that have been identified for the Weldon Spring site

  2. 76 FR 73622 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    ... tribe'' is defined in this document as it is defined in CERCLA section 101(36). Intertribal consortia... print at libraries, or other community gathering places. \\7\\ For further information on latitude and...

  3. 77 FR 69827 - Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) or Superfund...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... defined in CERCLA section 101(36). Intertribal consortia, as defined in the Federal Register Notice at 67... record including making it available on-line, in print at libraries, or other community gathering places...

  4. Characterization and distribution of esterase activity in activated sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boczar, BA; Forney, LJ; Begley, WM; Larson, RJ; Federle, TW

    2001-01-01

    The location and activity of esterase enzymes in activated Sludge from three Municipal wastewater treatment plants were characterized using model Substrate, and denaturing and nondenaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) Of particulate, freeze thaw (primarily periplasmic enzymes and those

  5. Isolation, characterization and antimicrobial activity of Streptomyces ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR TONUKARI

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Available online at http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB ... Key words: Characterization, streptomyces, antimicrobial activity, hot ... MATERIALS AND METHODS ..... chain reaction (PCR) which is currently used as a sen-.

  6. Remedying CERCLA's natural resource damages provision: Incorporation of the public trust doctrine into natural resource damage actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chase, A.R.

    1992-01-01

    When Congress enacted the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), it ushered in a sweeping approach to controlling the environmental effects of improper hazardous waste disposal. CERCLA's cleanup provisions, which focus on removal and remediation of hazardous substances from inactive hazardous waste sites, have progressed through more than a decade of litigation and a great deal of public debate. However, CERCLA's natural resource damage provisions have not shared this same degree of progress

  7. Mercury issues related to NPDES and the CERCLA watershed project at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-11-01

    The purpose of this document is to present the current understanding of the issues and options surrounding compliance with the current National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit conditions. This is a complicated issue that directly impacts, and will be directly impacted by, ongoing CERCLA activities in Lower East Fork Poplar Creek and the Clinch River/Poplar Creek. It may be necessary to reconstitute the whole and combine actions and decisions regarding the entire creek (origin to confluence with the Clinch River) to develop a viable long-term strategy that meets regulatory goals and requirements as well as those of DOE's 10-Year Plan and the new watershed management permitting approach. This document presents background information on the Reduction of Mercury in Plant Effluents (RMPE) and NPDES programs insofar as it is needed to understand the issues and options. A tremendous amount of data has been collected to support the NPDES/RMPE and CERCLA programs. These data are not presented, although they may be referenced and conclusions based on them may be presented, as necessary, to support discussion of the options

  8. Cost estimating for CERCLA remedial alternatives a unit cost methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brettin, R.W.; Carr, D.J.; Janke, R.J.

    1995-06-01

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Conducting Remedial Investigations and Feasibility Studies Under CERCLA, Interim Final, dated October 1988 (EPA 1988) requires a detailed analysis be conducted of the most promising remedial alternatives against several evaluation criteria, including cost. To complete the detailed analysis, order-of-magnitude cost estimates (having an accuracy of +50 percent to -30 percent) must be developed for each remedial alternative. This paper presents a methodology for developing cost estimates of remedial alternatives comprised of various technology and process options with a wide range of estimated contaminated media quantities. In addition, the cost estimating methodology provides flexibility for incorporating revisions to remedial alternatives and achieves the desired range of accuracy. It is important to note that the cost estimating methodology presented here was developed as a concurrent path to the development of contaminated media quantity estimates. This methodology can be initiated before contaminated media quantities are estimated. As a result, this methodology is useful in developing cost estimates for use in screening and evaluating remedial technologies and process options. However, remedial alternative cost estimates cannot be prepared without the contaminated media quantity estimates. In the conduct of the feasibility study for Operable Unit 5 at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), fourteen remedial alternatives were retained for detailed analysis. Each remedial alternative was composed of combinations of remedial technologies and processes which were earlier determined to be best suited for addressing the media-specific contaminants found at the FEMP site, and achieving desired remedial action objectives

  9. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ascorbic acid - nicotinamide metal complexes. ... The result of the antimicrobial studies showed that the mixed complexes have higher inhibitory activity than the original ligands against the tested bacteria and fungi species. KEY WORDS: Ascorbic acid, ...

  10. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T.

    2000-01-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  11. Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis, characterization, antimicrobial activity and molecular docking studies of combined pyrazol-barbituric acid pharmacophores. Assem Barakat, Bandar M. Al-Qahtani, Abdullah M. Al-Majid, M. Ali Mohammed Rafi Shaik, Mohamed H.M. Al-Agamy, Abdul Wadood ...

  12. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MBI

    2015-12-08

    Dec 8, 2015 ... Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity and Antioxidant. Studies of ... Transition metal complexes of Co(II) and Ni(II) with Schiff base ligand (HL) derived from condensation of 2- ..... 2-((5mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-.

  13. Identification and evaluation of areas of interest (AOIs): A screening tool for CERCLA preliminary assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autry, A.R.; Allen, K.L.; Smith, L.A.; Schumacher, J.; McDermott, M.

    1994-01-01

    A cost-effective alternative to the traditional Preliminary Assessment (PA) procedure is to identify and evaluate potential Areas of Interest (AOIs) that may become Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability and Compensation Act of 1980 (CERCLA) sites prior to entry into Comprehensive Environmental Response, Liability Information System (CERCLIS) and the execution of a PA. AOIs would be identified by using much of the same methodology as would be used for site discovery in a CERCLA investigation, including aerial photograph review, reviews of building drawings, a limited review of historical records, and limited interviews and site visits. Once AOIs have been identified in this manner, decision criteria can be used to ascertain the regulatory status of the AOI and, based on regulatory guidance, whether the site should be considered for further investigation under CERCLA. This approach was used at Griffiss Air Force Base to identify 463 AOIs, where the primary problem was petroleum spills

  14. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonds, J.

    2007-11-06

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, administration facility, weigh scale, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facility for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams.

  15. Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States); Phifer, M.A. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering

    1992-12-31

    A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed to determine if there are any potential risks to human health and the environment from waste unit at SRS. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFMU and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the scoping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using factors such as EPA Standard Default Exposure Scenarios (OSWER Directive 9285.6-03) that are based on upper-bound exposures that tend to reflect worst case conditions. The use of site-specific information for developing risk assessment exposure scenarios will result in a more realistic estimate of Reasonable Maximum Exposure for SRS waste units.

  16. Development of exposure scenarios for CERCLA risk assessments at the Savannah River Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nix, D.W.; Immel, J.W.; Phifer, M.A.

    1992-01-01

    A CERCLA Baseline Risk Assessment (BRA) is performed to determine if there are any potential risks to human health and the environment from waste unit at SRS. The SRS has numerous waste units to evaluate in the RFMU and CMS/FS programs and, in order to provide a consistent approach, four standard exposure scenarios were developed for exposure assessments to be used in human health risk assessments. The standard exposure scenarios are divided into two temporal categories: (a) Current Land Use in the BRA, and (b) Future Land Use in the RERA. The Current Land Use scenarios consist of the evaluation of human health risk for Industrial Exposure (of a worker not involved in waste unit characterization or remediation), a Trespasser, a hypothetical current On-site Resident, and an Off-site Resident. The Future Land Use scenario considers exposure to an On-site Resident following termination of institutional control in the absence of any remedial action (No Action Alternative), as well as evaluating potential remedial alternatives against the four scenarios from the BRA. A critical facet in the development of a BRA or RERA is the scoping of exposure scenarios that reflect actual conditions at a waste unit, rather than using factors such as EPA Standard Default Exposure Scenarios (OSWER Directive 9285.6-03) that are based on upper-bound exposures that tend to reflect worst case conditions. The use of site-specific information for developing risk assessment exposure scenarios will result in a more realistic estimate of Reasonable Maximum Exposure for SRS waste units

  17. Complying with Land Disposal Restrictions (LDR) for CERCLA remedial actions involving contaminated soil and debris

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bascietto, J.

    1991-01-01

    CERCLA Sect. 121(e) requires that remedial actions must comply with at least the minimum standards of all ''applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements'' (ARARs) of federal and state laws. EPA has determined that RCRA land disposal restrictions may be ARAR for certain CERCLA remedial actions involving soil and debris. This means that soil and debris contaminated with prohibited or restricted wastes cannot be land disposed if (1) these wastes have not attained the treatment standards set by EPA for a specified waste or (2) have been the subject of a case-by-case extension, national capacity variance, or successful ''no migration'' petition. RCRA LDR treatment standards are based on ''Best Demonstrated Available Technology'' (BDAT), not on health-based concentrations. Because the treatment of the soil and debris matrix presents technological difficulties not yet addressed by EPA (BDAT standards are generally set for industrial process wastes), compliance options such as obtaining a Treatability Variance, are available and will generally be necessary for soil and debris wastes. In the recently promulgated revisions to the National Contingency Plan (NCP) for CERCLA implementation, EPA provides important information for CERCLA project managers regarding LDR compliance, particularly for obtaining a treatability variance for land disposal of contaminated soil and debris

  18. 75 FR 8346 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Settlement; Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-24

    ...-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site, Leadpoint, WA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). ACTION: Notice...-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site in Leadpoint, Washington, with settling party Blue Tee Corporation. The... Anderson-Calhoun Mine and Mill Site in Leadpoint, Washington, EPA Docket No. CERCLA-10-2010-0105 and should...

  19. 78 FR 76143 - Proposed CERCLA Settlement Relating to the Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... Paul's Tank Cleaning Service Superfund Site, Burlington County, New Jersey AGENCY: Environmental.... (``Settling Party''). The Settling Party is a potentially responsible party, pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, and thus is potentially liable for response costs incurred at or in connection Paul's Tank...

  20. 78 FR 5801 - Operating Industries, Inc. Superfund Site, Monterey Park, CA; Notice of Proposed CERCLA...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... Metals Corporation, R.R. Kellogg, Inc., Ralphs Grocery Company, RCG Electronics Corp., dba Washington... (CERCLA), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i) and Section 7003(d) of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as amended (RCRA), 42 U.S.C. 6973, notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement with 47 de...

  1. 40 CFR 35.6340 - Disposal of CERCLA-funded property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... has stopped supporting the project. (b) Supplies. (1) If supplies have an aggregate fair market value.... (2) If the supplies remaining at the end of the project period have an aggregate fair market value of... actions at the direction of EPA: (i) Use the supplies on another CERCLA project and reimburse the original...

  2. Characterizing gamma fields using isomeric activation ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Ramkumar; Fleming, Ronald F.

    1994-12-01

    Isomeric activities were induced in indium by gamma irradiation in three different gamma fields, through the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn. The irradiation fields were (i) the 15 kCi 60Co source available in the University, (ii) the spent fuel gamma irradiator in the pool of the University's Ford Nuclear Reactor (FNR) and (iii) south face of the core of the FNR during routine shut downs. Isomeric activation ratios can serve to characterize gamma fields, provided the response functions of the two (γ, γ') reactions sample different energy regimes of the gamma spectrum present in the irradiation fields. The response of an isomeric activation detector, in turn, depends on the number of activation energy levels of the nuclide and the probabilities with which the activation levels de-populate to the isomeric level. The reaction rate ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m was measured in the three gamma fields. The measured ratios were (i) 1.210 ± 0.011 in the 60Co source, (ii) 1.314 ± 0.060 in the spent fuel gamma irradiator and (iii) 1.298 ± 0.039 in a location alongside the FNR core during routine shut downs. The measured reaction rate ratios are not only close to each other, but close to unity as well. This indicates that the excitation functions for the reactions 115In(γ, γ') 115mIn and 113In(γ, γ') 113mIn have similar shapes and that for the nuclides 115In and 113In, the number of activation energy levels and the probabilities with which they populate the isomeric levels are very similar to each other. Thus, the ratio RIn115m/ RIn113m will not yield any information regarding the shape of gamma spectrum in the field of measurement. However by choosing (γ, γ') reactions with different shapes for the excitation functions one can measure a set of isomeric activation ratios that characterize a given gamma field.

  3. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Alumina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Activated alumina is a high surface area and highly porous form of aluminum oxide that can be employed for contaminant species adsorb from ether gases or liquids without changing its form. The research in getting this material has generated huge interested. Thus, this paper presented preparation of activated alumina from chemical process. Pure aluminum (99.9% pure) reacted at room temperature with an aqueous NaOH in a reactor to produce a solution of sodium aluminate (NaAlO2). This solution was passed through filter paper and the clear filtrate was neutralized with H2SO4, to pH 6, 7 or 8, resulting in the precipitation of a white gel, Al(OH)3·XH2O. The washed gel for sulfate ions were dried at 80 °C for 6 h, a 60 mesh sieve was to separate and sort them into different sizes. The samples were then calcined (burn) for 3h in a muffle furnace, in air, at a heating rate of 2 °C min-1. The prepared activated alumina was further characterized for better understanding of its physical properties in order to predict its chemical mechanism.

  4. Fabrication and characterization of active nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opondo, Noah F.

    Three different nanostructure active devices have been designed, fabricated and characterized. Junctionless transistors based on highly-doped silicon nanowires fabricated using a bottom-up fabrication approach are first discussed. The fabrication avoids the ion implantation step since silicon nanowires are doped in-situ during growth. Germanium junctionless transistors fabricated with a top down approach starting from a germanium on insulator substrate and using a gate stack of high-k dielectrics and GeO2 are also presented. The levels and origin of low-frequency noise in junctionless transistor devices fabricated from silicon nanowires and also from GeOI devices are reported. Low-frequency noise is an indicator of the quality of the material, hence its characterization can reveal the quality and perhaps reliability of fabricated transistors. A novel method based on low-frequency noise measurement to envisage trap density in the semiconductor bandgap near the semiconductor/oxide interface of nanoscale silicon junctionless transistors (JLTs) is presented. Low-frequency noise characterization of JLTs biased in saturation is conducted at different gate biases. The noise spectrum indicates either a Lorentzian or 1/f. A simple analysis of the low-frequency noise data leads to the density of traps and their energy within the semiconductor bandgap. The level of noise in silicon JLT devices is lower than reported values on transistors fabricated using a top-down approach. This noise level can be significantly improved by improving the quality of dielectric and the channel interface. A micro-vacuum electron device based on silicon field emitters for cold cathode emission is also presented. The presented work utilizes vertical Si nanowires fabricated by means of self-assembly, standard lithography and etching techniques as field emitters in this dissertation. To obtain a high nanowire density, hence a high current density, a simple and inexpensive Langmuir Blodgett technique

  5. Integrating NRDA and CERCLA environmental evaluations at the Rocky Flats Plant: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knudsen, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to briefly review cleanup regulations in reference to natural resource liability, protection, and restoration; to present a case study on the Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) showing how this DOE facility is approaching the task of integrating the ecological assessment/impact portion of three major regulatory mandates: Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA), and the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with the Natural Resource Damage Assessment (NRDA) regulations using a flow chart depicting RCRA/CERCLA interim and final actions; to present what has and has not worked at the RFP; and, finally to suggest some technical strategies when planning for remediation and restoration in the NRD process that should be considered

  6. Guide to ground water remediation at CERCLA response action and RCRA corrective action sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-10-01

    This Guide contains the regulatory and policy requirements governing remediation of ground water contaminated with hazardous waste [including radioactive mixed waste (RMW)], hazardous substances, or pollutants/contaminants that present (or may present) an imminent and substantial danger. It was prepared by the Office of Environmental Policy and Assistance, RCRA/CERCLA Division (EH-413), to assist Environmental Program Managers (ERPMs) who often encounter contaminated ground water during the performance of either response actions under CERCLA or corrective actions under Subtitle C of RCRA. The Guide begins with coverage of the regulatory and technical issues that are encountered by ERPM's after a CERCLA Preliminary Assessment/Site Investigation (PA/SI) or the RCRA Facility Assessment (RFA) have been completed and releases into the environment have been confirmed. It is based on the assumption that ground water contamination is present at the site, operable unit, solid waste management unit, or facility. The Guide's scope concludes with completion of the final RAs/corrective measures and a determination by the appropriate regulatory agencies that no further response action is necessary

  7. Petroleum refining and the national priorities list: The preemption of CERCLA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, D.G.

    1991-01-01

    The petroleum refining industry has preempted aspects of the implementation of CERCLA through a clause in the original legislation that makes the listing of petroleum refining sites on the NPL more difficult than it would be otherwise. The NPL, which was mandated in CERCLA, is a list of sites open-quotes where a hazardous substance has been deposited, stored, disposed of, placed, or otherwise come to be located. The petroleum exclusion clause, Section 101(14)(F) of CERCLA, states that the term hazardous substance open-quotes does not include petroleum, including crude oil or any fraction thereof which is not otherwise specifically listed or designated as a hazardous substance.close quotes This clause has been interpreted to mean that a site where petroleum products are found may not be listed on the NPL on the basis of the petroleum products; a hazardous substance that is not a normal constituent of petroleum products also must be found at the site. Regression analysis shows that the petroleum refining industry is significantly positively correlated with discovered sites (where a possibility exists that hazardous substances may be present) and significantly negatively correlated with sites that are proposed to the NPL. These, findings suggest that sites that meet the technical criteria for NPL listing are not proposed because of the petroleum exclusion clause. Although the chemical industry also produces substances that are considered hazardous, it is significantly correlated only with proposed sites, and that correlation is positive. The purpose of this paper is to present evidence suggesting that this clause was a response by Congress to an organized interest-the petroleum refining industry, which possessed a political power not available to the less-focused chemical industry

  8. Site Safety Plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bainer, R.; Duarte, J.

    1993-07-01

    The safety policy of LLNL is to take every reasonable precaution in the performance of work to protect the environment and the health and safety of employees and the public, and to prevent property damage. With respect to hazardous agents, this protection is provided by limiting human exposures, releases to the environment, and contamination of property to levels that are as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA). It is the intent of this Plan to supply the broad outline for completing environmental investigations within ALARA guidelines. It may not be possible to determine actual working conditions in advance of the work; therefore, planning must allow the opportunity to provide a range of protection based upon actual working conditions. Requirements will be the least restrictive possible for a given set of circumstances, such that work can be completed in an efficient and timely fashion. Due to the relatively large size of the LLNL Site and the different types of activities underway, site-specific Operational Safety Procedures (OSPs) will be prepared to supplement activities not covered by this Plan. These site-specific OSPs provide the detailed information for each specific activity and act as an addendum to this Plan, which provides the general plan for LLNL Main Site operation.

  9. Applicability of Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) to releases of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, S.R.

    1987-01-01

    The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), commonly called Superfund, provided a $1.6 billion fund (financed by a tax on petrochemical feedstocks and crude oil and by general revenues) for the cleanup of releases of hazardous substances, including source, special nuclear or byproduct material, and other radioactive substances, from mostly inactive facilities. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is authorized to require private responsible parties to clean up releases of hazardous substances, or EPA, at its option, may undertake the cleanup with monies from the Fund and recover the monies through civil actions brought against responsible parties. CERCLA imposes criminal penalties for noncompliance with its reporting requirements. This paper will overview the key provisions of CERCLA which apply to the cleanup of radioactive materials

  10. Synthesis, physical characterization, antibacterial activity and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some five-coordinated cobalt(III) complexes were synthesized and characterized using elemental analysis, 1H NMR and IR spectra. The formation constants and the thermodynamic parameters were measured spectrophotometrically for the 1:1 adduct formation of [Co(Chel)(PBu3)]ClO4.H2O where Chel = cd3OMesalen, ...

  11. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new series of Mn(II), Fe(II), Co(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligands-metal complexes derived from salicylic acid (SA) and 1,10-phenanthroline (PHEN) have been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic studies. The coordination of the two ligands towards central metal ions has been proposed in the light of ...

  12. Partial purification, characterization and hydrolytic activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    α-Amylase and amyloglucosidase produced by amylolytic Bacillus licheniformis and Aspergillus niger isolated from plantain and yam peels media were partially purified and characterized. Following cultivation of the microbial isolates on the agricultural residue media, crude enzyme solutions were obtained by filtration and ...

  13. Characterization of low and medium active wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saas, A.

    1993-01-01

    For several years now, research on raw or packaged waste characterization has been carried out in France. Qualitative or quantitative analysis are given of radionuclides present in already packaged waste (including badly packaged waste) or in unpackaged waste; as far as possible, evaluation of the main physico-mechanical and confinement characteristics

  14. Counting systems characterization for air activity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumar, B.; Balamurugan, M.; Ravi, P.M.

    2018-01-01

    Air activity measurements are carried out continuously at all the nuclear power plant (NPP) sites both during pre-operational phase and also during operation of nuclear facility. These measurements provide a trend line for the background air activity in the surrounding environments of an operating NPP. Any increase in air activity over the benchmark level becomes very handy to investigate the releases from the station and to give feedback to the operators of NPP about the prevailing air activity levels and their correlation to the plant releases. This paper compiles the results obtained for air filter samples using different counters operating in GM region and also plastic scintillators

  15. 76 FR 77528 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling parties: Pick-Your-Part Auto Wrecking; Hayward Associates, LLC; and PNM Properties, LLC. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling parties pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  16. 76 FR 79678 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling parties: Pick-Your-Part Auto Wrecking; Hayward Associates, LLC; and PNM Properties, LLC. The settlement requires the settling parties to pay a total of $102,161 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling parties pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles, CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  17. 77 FR 123 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...In accordance with Section 122(i) of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act, as amended (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(i), notice is hereby given of a proposed administrative settlement for recovery of response costs concerning the North Hollywood Operable Unit of the San Fernando Valley Area 1 Superfund Site, located in the vicinity of Los Angeles, California, with the following settling party: Waste Management Recycling & Disposal Services of California, Inc., dba Bradley Landfill & Recycling Center. The settlement requires the settling party to pay a total of $185,734 to the North Hollywood Operable Unit Special Account within the Hazardous Substance Superfund. The settlement also includes a covenant not to sue the settling party pursuant to Section 107(a) of CERCLA, 42 U.S.C. 9607(a). For thirty (30) days following the date of publication of this notice, the Agency will receive written comments relating to the settlement. The Agency will consider all comments received and may modify or withdraw its consent to the settlement if comments received disclose facts or considerations which indicate that the settlement is inappropriate, improper, or inadequate. The Agency's response to any comments received will be available for public inspection at the City of Los Angeles Central Library, Science and Technology Department, 630 West 5th Street, Los Angeles CA 90071 and at the EPA Region 9 Superfund Records Center, Mail Stop SFD-7C, 95 Hawthorne Street, Room 403, San Francisco, CA 94105.

  18. Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex Compliance Demonstration for DOE Order 435.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Simonds

    2006-09-01

    This compliance demonstration document provides an analysis of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex compliance with DOE Order 435.1. The ICDF Complex includes the disposal facility (landfill), evaporation pond, admin facility, weigh scale, decon building, treatment systems, and various staging/storage areas. These facilities were designed and are being constructed to be compliant with DOE Order 435.1, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle C, and Toxic Substances Control Act polychlorinated biphenyl design and construction standards. The ICDF Complex is designated as the central Idaho National Laboratory (INL) facilityyy for the receipt, staging/storage, treatment, and disposal of INL Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) waste streams. This compliance demonstration document discusses the conceptual site model for the ICDF Complex area. Within this conceptual site model, the selection of the area for the ICDF Complex is discussed. Also, the subsurface stratigraphy in the ICDF Complex area is discussed along with the existing contamination beneath the ICDF Complex area. The designs for the various ICDF Complex facilities are also included in this compliance demonstration document. These design discussions are a summary of the design as presented in the Remedial Design/Construction Work Plans for the ICDF landfill and evaporation pond and the Staging, Storage, Sizing, and Treatment Facility. Each of the major facilities or systems is described including the design criteria.

  19. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Primo Tomasini, Enrico

    2013-09-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin.

  20. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE N ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR. AMINU

    2013-12-02

    Dec 2, 2013 ... Gibbs free energy of the complex compound are 3.1x1011 and -64.15 KJmol-1, respectively, suggesting ... Schiff base and its iron(II) complex showed good activity. Keywords: ... maximum solubility in DMF and DMSO at room.

  1. Muscle activity characterization by laser Doppler Myography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Casaccia, Sara; Marchionni, Paolo; Ercoli, Ilaria; Tomasini, Enrico Primo

    2013-01-01

    Electromiography (EMG) is the gold-standard technique used for the evaluation of muscle activity. This technique is used in biomechanics, sport medicine, neurology and rehabilitation therapy and it provides the electrical activity produced by skeletal muscles. Among the parameters measured with EMG, two very important quantities are: signal amplitude and duration of muscle contraction, muscle fatigue and maximum muscle power. Recently, a new measurement procedure, named Laser Doppler Myography (LDMi), for the non contact assessment of muscle activity has been proposed to measure the vibro-mechanical behaviour of the muscle. The aim of this study is to present the LDMi technique and to evaluate its capacity to measure some characteristic features proper of the muscle. In this paper LDMi is compared with standard superficial EMG (sEMG) requiring the application of sensors on the skin of each patient. sEMG and LDMi signals have been simultaneously acquired and processed to test correlations. Three parameters has been analyzed to compare these techniques: Muscle activation timing, signal amplitude and muscle fatigue. LDMi appears to be a reliable and promising measurement technique allowing the measurements without contact with the patient skin

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thermogravimetric analyses were also carried out. The data obtained agree with the proposed structures and show that the complexes decomposed to the corresponding metal oxide. The ligand and their metal complexes were screened for their antimicrobial activities by the agar-well diffusion technique using DMSO as a ...

  3. Enzymatic characterization of a human acyltransferase activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akihiko Ozawa

    Full Text Available Non-histone protein acylation is increasingly recognized as an important posttranslational modification, but little is known as to the biochemical properties of protein serine acylating enzymes.We here report that we have identified a metal-stimulated serine octanoyltransferase activity in microsomes from human erythroleukemic (HEL cells. The HEL acylating enzyme was linear with respect to time and protein, exhibited a neutral pH optimum (stimulated by cobalt and zinc, and inhibited by chelating reagents. Hydroxylamine treatment removed most, but not all, of the attached radioactivity. A salt extract of microsomal membranes contained the major portion of enzyme activity, indicating that this acyltransferase is not an integral membrane protein. Sucrose density fractionation showed that the acyltransferase activity is concentrated in the endoplasmic reticulum. In competition experiments, the acyltransferase was well inhibited by activated forms of fatty acids containing at least eight to fourteen carbons, but not by acetyl CoA. The zinc-stimulated HEL acyltransferase did not octanoylate proenkephalin, proopiomelanocortin, His-tagged proghrelin, or proghrelin lacking the amino-terminal His-tag stub of Gly-Ala-Met. The peptides des-acyl ghrelin and ACTH were also not acylated; however, des-acyl ghrelin containing the N-terminal tripeptide Gly-Ala-Met was acylated. Mutagenesis studies indicated a requirement for serine five residues from the amino terminus, reminiscent of myristoyl transferase, but not of ghrelin acylation. However, recombinant myristoyl transferase could not recapitulate the hydroxylamine sensitivity, zinc-stimulation, nor EDTA inhibition obtained with HEL acyltransferase, properties preserved in the HEL cell enzyme purified through four sequential chromatographic steps.In conclusion, our data demonstrate the presence of a zinc-stimulated acyltransferase activity concentrated in the endoplasmic reticulum in HEL cells which is likely

  4. Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Green synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of copper nanoparticles using L -ascorbic ... Journal Home > Vol 10, No 3 (2017) > ... In this study, simple, economical, convenient and environmentally-friendly chemical reduction ...

  5. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Technology and Reliability Characterization Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Guertin, Steven M.; Pain, Bedabrata; Kayaii, Sammy

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the technology, design features and reliability characterization methodology of a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor. Both overall chip reliability and pixel reliability are projected for the imagers.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of new optically active poly(amide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Synthesis and characterization of new optically active poly(amide-imide)s based on N -trimellitimido- ... Bulletin of the Chemical Society of Ethiopia ... (DMAc), dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) at room temperature.

  7. Synthesis, characterization, x-ray structure and antimicrobial activity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: Pyridine-based thiosemicarbazide was synthesized, characterized and evaluated for antimicrobial activity. ... homogeneity of the compounds was checked by. TLC performed ..... properties of novel N-methyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol-2- amine.

  8. 77 FR 58989 - Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement for the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... paid $150,000 attributable to the costs of marketing and selling the Properties; (b) The Bank will pay... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [FRL-9720-7] Proposed CERCLA Administrative Cost Recovery... costs concerning the Buckbee-Mears Co. Superfund Site located in Cortland, Cortland County, New York...

  9. A Cercla-Based Decision Model to Support Remedy Selection for an Uncertain Volume of Contaminants at a DOE Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christine E. Kerschus

    1999-03-31

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) operated by the Department of Energy is challenged with selecting the appropriate remediation technology to cleanup contaminants at Waste Area Group (WAG) 6. This research utilizes value-focused thinking and multiattribute preference theory concepts to produce a decision analysis model designed to aid the decision makers in their selection process. The model is based on CERCLA's five primary balancing criteria, tailored specifically to WAG 6 and the contaminants of concern, utilizes expert opinion and the best available engineering, cost, and performance data, and accounts for uncertainty in contaminant volume. The model ranks 23 remediation technologies (trains) in their ability to achieve the CERCLA criteria at various contaminant volumes. A sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effects of changes in expert opinion and uncertainty in volume. Further analysis reveals how volume uncertainty is expected to affect technology cost, time and ability to meet the CERCLA criteria. The model provides the decision makers with a CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology that is objective, traceable, and robust to support the WAG 6 Feasibility Study. In addition, the model can be adjusted to address other DOE contaminated sites.

  10. A Cercla-Based Decision Model to Support Remedy Selection for an Uncertain Volume of Contaminants at a DOE Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christine E. Kerschus

    1999-01-01

    The Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) operated by the Department of Energy is challenged with selecting the appropriate remediation technology to cleanup contaminants at Waste Area Group (WAG) 6. This research utilizes value-focused thinking and multiattribute preference theory concepts to produce a decision analysis model designed to aid the decision makers in their selection process. The model is based on CERCLA's five primary balancing criteria, tailored specifically to WAG 6 and the contaminants of concern, utilizes expert opinion and the best available engineering, cost, and performance data, and accounts for uncertainty in contaminant volume. The model ranks 23 remediation technologies (trains) in their ability to achieve the CERCLA criteria at various contaminant volumes. A sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the effects of changes in expert opinion and uncertainty in volume. Further analysis reveals how volume uncertainty is expected to affect technology cost, time and ability to meet the CERCLA criteria. The model provides the decision makers with a CERCLA-based decision analysis methodology that is objective, traceable, and robust to support the WAG 6 Feasibility Study. In addition, the model can be adjusted to address other DOE contaminated sites

  11. 75 FR 7591 - Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-22

    ... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY [EPA-HQ-SFUND-2009-0907; FRL-9114-6] RIN 2050-ZA05 Guidance on Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and RCRA Sites; Extension of... Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at Comprehensive Environmental Response...

  12. Production and characterization of granular activated carbon from activated sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Al-Qodah

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated sludge was used as a precursor to prepare activated carbon using sulfuric acid as a chemical activation agent. The effect of preparation conditions on the produced activated carbon characteristics as an adsorbent was investigated. The results indicate that the produced activated carbon has a highly porous structure and a specific surface area of 580 m²/g. The FT-IR analysis depicts the presence of a variety of functional groups which explain its improved adsorption behavior against pesticides. The XRD analysis reveals that the produced activated carbon has low content of inorganic constituents compared with the precursor. The adsorption isotherm data were fitted to three adsorption isotherm models and found to closely fit the BET model with R² equal 0.948 at pH 3, indicating a multilayer of pesticide adsorption. The maximum loading capacity of the produced activated carbon was 110 mg pesticides/g adsorbent and was obtained at this pH value. This maximum loading was found experimentally to steeply decrease as the solution pH increases. The obtained results show that activated sludge is a promising low cost precursor for the production of activated carbon.

  13. Data sharing report characterization of population 7: Personal protective equipment, dry active waste, and miscellaneous debris, surveillance and maintenance project Oak Ridge National Laboratory Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpenau, Evan M. [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2013-10-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Office of Environmental Management (EM-OR) requested that Oak Ridge Associated Universities (ORAU), working under the Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education (ORISE) contract, provide technical and independent waste management planning support under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA). Specifically, DOE EM-OR requested that ORAU plan and implement a sampling and analysis campaign targeting certain URS|CH2M Oak Ridge, LLC (UCOR) surveillance and maintenance (S&M) process inventory waste. Eight populations of historical and reoccurring S&M waste at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have been identified in the Waste Handling Plan for Surveillance and Maintenance Activities at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, DOE/OR/01-2565&D2 (WHP) (DOE 2012) for evaluation and processing to determine a final pathway for disposal. Population 7 (POP 7) consists of 56 containers of aged, low-level and potentially mixed S&M waste that has been staged in various locations around ORNL. Several of these POP 7 containers primarily contain personal protective equipment (PPE) and dry active waste (DAW), but may contain other miscellaneous debris. This data sharing report addresses the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA) specified waste in a 13-container subpopulation (including eight steel boxes, three 55-gal drums, one sealand, and one intermodal) that lacked sufficient characterization data for possible disposal at the Environmental Management Waste Management Facility (EMWMF) using the approved Waste Lot (WL) 108.1 profile.

  14. The marriage of RCRA and CERCLA at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shelton, D.C.; Brooks, L.M.

    1998-01-01

    A key goal of the Rocky Flats Cleanup Agreement (RFCA) signed in July of 1996 was to provide a seamless marriage of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) (and other media specific programs) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the implementing agencies of each. This paper examines the two years since the signing of RFCA and identifies the successes, failures, and stresses of the marriage. RFCA has provided an excellent vehicle for regulatory and substantive progress at the Department of Energy's Rocky Flats facility. The key for a fully successful marriage is to build on the accomplishments to date and to continually improve the internal and external systems and relationships. To date, the parties can be proud of both the substantial accomplishment of substantive environmental work and the regulatory systems that have enabled the work

  15. Plutonium recycle test reactor characterization activities and results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornwell, B.C.

    1997-01-01

    Report contains results of PRTR core and associated structures characterization performed in January and February of 1997. Radiation survey data are presented, along with recommendations for stabilization activities before transitioning to a decontamination and decommissioning function. Recommendations are also made about handling the waste generated by the stabilization activities, and actions suggested by the Decontamination and Decommissioning organization

  16. Characterization and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characterization and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic Acid-Lecithin Complex. C Liu, C Chen, H Ma, E Yuan, Q Li. Abstract. Purpose: To investigate the physicochemical properties and DPPH radical scavenging activity of gallic acid–lecithin complex. Methods: The complex of gallic acid with lecithin was prepared ...

  17. Production and characterization of activated carbon using indigenous waste materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, M.; Ibrahim, F.

    2011-01-01

    Activated carbon was produced from shisham wood and coconut shell through chemical activation, using phosphoric acid and low temperature carbonization. Proximate analysis and characterization of the product were carried out and Brunauer Emmett Teller (BET) surface area, total ash content, moisture content, pH value and iodine number were determined. The product characteristics were well comparable with those of the commercially available activated carbon. (author)

  18. Integrating NEPA (National Environmental Policy Act) and CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs.

  19. Integrating NEPA [National Environmental Policy Act] and CERCLA [Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act] requirements during remedial responses at DOE facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, M.B.; Smith, E.D.; Sharples, F.E.; Eddlemon, G.K.

    1990-07-01

    US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.4, issued October 6, 1989, calls for integrating the requirements of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) with those of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) for DOE remedial actions under CERCLA. CERCLA requires that decisions on site remediation be made through a formal process called a Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS). According to the DOE order, integration is to be accomplished by conducting the NEPA and CERCLA environmental planning and review procedures concurrently. The primary instrument for integrating the processes is to be the RI/FS process, which will be supplemented as needed to meet the procedural and documentational requirements of NEPA. The final product of the integrated process will be a single, integrated set of documents; namely, an RI report and an FS-EIS that satisfy the requirements of both NEPA and CERCLA. The contents of the report include (1) an overview and comparison of the requirements of the two processes; (2) descriptions of the major tasks included in the integrated RI/FS-EIS process; (3) recommended contents for integrated RI/FS-EIS documents; and (4)a discussion of some potential problems in integrating NEPA and CERCLA that fall outisde the scope of the RI/FS-EIS process, with suggestions for resolving some of these problems. 15 refs

  20. Characterization of active CMOS sensors for capacitively coupled pixel detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Gonella, Laura; Janssen, Jens; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Wermes, Norbert [Institute of Physics, University of Bonn (Germany); Peric, Ivan [Institut fuer Prozessdatenverarbeitung und Elektronik, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensor is one of the most attractive candidates for detectors of upcoming particle physics experiments. In contrast to conventional sensors of hybrid detectors, signal processing circuit can be integrated in the active CMOS sensor. The characterization and optimization of the pixel circuit are indispensable to obtain a good performance from the sensors. The prototype chips of the active CMOS sensor were fabricated in the AMS 180nm and L-Foundry 150 nm CMOS processes, respectively a high voltage and high resistivity technology. Both chips have a charge sensitive amplifier and a comparator in each pixel. The chips are designed to be glued to the FEI4 pixel readout chip. The signals from 3 pixels of the prototype chips are capacitively coupled to the FEI4 input pads. We have performed lab tests and test beams to characterize the prototypes. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  1. Quality Assurance Plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-12-01

    This quality assurance plan summarizes requirements for conducting work on the Upper East 9 Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA). The reader is referred to the Expanded Task Work Agreement for Upper East Fork Poplar Creek Characterization Area, Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) for details regarding the activities, roles, and responsibilities summarized here. UEFPC is designated a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) site and thus requires a remedial investigation (RI) and a feasibility study (FS). The RI objectives are to evaluate the nature and extent of known and suspected contaminates, to provide data to perform baseline ecological and human health risk assessments, and to support development and evaluation of remedial alternatives for the FS,. Existing data will be used as much as possible. Additional sampling may be required to fill data gaps. The goal of the RI is to prioritize the major sources of contaminants to exit pathways and to understand their characteristics for risk characterization and development of remedial alternatives. The FS objectives are to investigate technologies and develop and evaluate alternatives based on 2031 CERCLA guidance

  2. Controversial constitutive TSHR activity: patients, physiology, and in vitro characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huth, S; Jaeschke, H; Schaarschmidt, J; Paschke, R

    2014-06-01

    G protein-coupled receptors constitute a large family of transmembrane receptors, which activate cellular responses by signal transmission and regulation of second messenger metabolism after ligand binding. For several of these receptors it is known that they also signal ligand-independently. The G protein-coupled thyroid stimulating hormone receptor (TSHR) is characterized by a high level of constitutive activity in the wild type state. However, little is known yet concerning the physiological relevance of the constitutive wild type TSHR activity. Certainly, knowledge of the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type receptor activity is necessary to better understand thyroid physiology and it is a prerequisite for the development of better therapies for nonautoimmune hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. Based on a literature search regarding all published TSHR mutations, this review covers several mutations which are clearly associated with a hyperthyroidism-phenotype, but interestingly show a lack of constitutive activity determined by in vitro characterization. Possible reasons for the observed discrepancies between clinical phenotypes and in vitro characterization results for constitutive TSHR activity are reviewed. All current in vitro characterization methods for constitutive TSHR mutations are "preliminary attempts" and may well be revised by more comprehensive and even better approaches. However, a standardized approach for the determination of constitutive activity can help to identify TSHR mutations for which the investigation of additional signaling mechanisms would be most interesting to find explanations for the current clinical phenotype/in vitro discrepancies and thereby also define suitable methods to explore the physiological relevance of constitutive wild type TSHR activity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Characterization of newly isolated lytic bacteriophages active against Acinetobacter baumannii.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Merabishvili

    Full Text Available Based on genotyping and host range, two newly isolated lytic bacteriophages, myovirus vB_AbaM_Acibel004 and podovirus vB_AbaP_Acibel007, active against Acinetobacter baumannii clinical strains, were selected from a new phage library for further characterization. The complete genomes of the two phages were analyzed. Both phages are characterized by broad host range and essential features of potential therapeutic phages, such as short latent period (27 and 21 min, respectively, high burst size (125 and 145, respectively, stability of activity in liquid culture and low frequency of occurrence of phage-resistant mutant bacterial cells. Genomic analysis showed that while Acibel004 represents a novel bacteriophage with resemblance to some unclassified Pseudomonas aeruginosa phages, Acibel007 belongs to the well-characterized genus of the Phikmvlikevirus. The newly isolated phages can serve as potential candidates for phage cocktails to control A. baumannii infections.

  4. Leachate characterization of active and closed dump sites in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study characterizes the leachate quality of both active and closed dump sites in Port Harcourt City. Leachates were sampled from the base of the dum psites and analysed, pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), electrical conductivity and total dissolved solids were determined on the samples in-situ. While chloride, sulphate ...

  5. Nuclear waste: Status of DOE's nuclear waste site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Three potential nuclear waste repository sites have been selected to carry out characterization activities-the detailed geological testing to determine the suitability of each site as a repository. The sites are Hanford in south-central Washington State, Yucca Mountain in southern Nevada, and Deaf Smith in the Texas Panhandle. Two key issues affecting the total program are the estimations of the site characterization completion data and costs and DOE's relationship with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission which has been limited and its relations with affected states and Indian tribes which continue to be difficult

  6. Risks to humans and wildlife from metal contamination in soils/sediments at CERCLA sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitch, J.P.; Hovatter, P.S.; Opresko, D.M.; Sample, B.; Young, R.A.

    1994-01-01

    A common problem that occurs at DOD and DOE CERCLA sites is metal contamination in soils and aquatic sediments and the protection of humans and wildlife from potential exposure to this contamination. Consequently, the authors have developed a site-specific reference dose for mercury in sediments at the Oak Ridge Reservation and site-specific cleanup levels for certain metals, including arsenic and nickel, in soils at an Army ammunition plant. Another concern during remediation of these sites is that limited data are available to determine the direct risks to indigenous wildlife. Therefore, the authors have developed toxicological benchmarks for certain metals and metal compounds to be used as screening tools to determine the potential hazard of a contaminant to representative mammalian and avian wildlife species. These values should enable the Army and DOE to more accurately determine the risks to humans and wildlife associated with exposure to these contaminated media at their sites in order to achieve a more effective remediation. This effort is ongoing at ORNL with toxicological benchmarks also being developed for metal compounds and other chemicals of concern to DOD and DOE in order to address the potential hazard to

  7. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS; ANTONIO, RAFAELA PRISCILA; ASSIS, JOSÉ GERALDO DE AQUINO; MOREIRA, JOSÉ NILTON; LIRA, IRLANE CRISTINE DE SOUZA ANDRADE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi-Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty-five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterizatio...

  8. Buffel grass morphoagronomic characterization from cenchrus germplasm active bank.

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, L. R. G. P.; ANTONIO, R. P.; ASSIS, J. G. de A.; MOREIRA, J. N.; LIRA, I. C. de S. A.

    2017-01-01

    his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each ...

  9. Characterization of active paper packaging incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiastuti, T.; Khasanah, L. U.; Atmaka Kawiji, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Utilization of ginger pulp waste from herbal medicine and instant drinks industry in Indonesia currently used for fertilizer and fuel, whereas the ginger pulp still contains high oleoresin. Active paper packaging were developed incorporated with ginger pulp oleoresin (0%, 2%, 4%, and 6% w/w). Physical (thickness, tensile strength, and folding endurance, moisture content), sensory characteristics and antimicrobial activity of the active paper were evaluated. Selected active paper then were chemically characterized (functional groups). The additional of ginger pulp oleoresin levels are reduced tensile strength, folding endurance and sensory characteristic (color, texture and overall) and increased antimicrobial activity. Due to physical, sensory characteristic and antimicrobial activity, active paper with 2% ginger pulp oleoresin incorporation was selected. Characteristics of selected paper were 9.93% of water content; 0.81 mm of thickness; 0.54 N / mm of tensile strength; 0.30 of folding endurance; 8.43 mm inhibits the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescence and 27.86 mm inhibits the growth of Aspergillus niger (antimicrobial activity) and neutral preference response for sensory properties. For chemical characteristic, selected paper had OH functional group of ginger in 3422.83 cm-1 of wave number and indicated contain red ginger active compounds.

  10. Definitive characterization of human thymine glycol N-glycosylase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higgins, S.A.; Frenkel, K.; Cummings, A.; Teebor, G.W.

    1987-01-01

    An N-glycosylase activity that released cis-[ 3 H]-5,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydrothymine (thymine glycol, TG) from chemically oxidized poly(dA-[ 3 H]dT) was unambiguously characterized both in extracts of HeLa cells and in purified Escherichia coli endonuclease III. This was accomplished by use of a microderivatization procedure that quantitatively converted cis-TG to 5-hydroxy-5-methylhydantoin (HMH). The reaction products were analyzed by high-pressure liquid chromatography before and after derivation by using cis-[ 14 C]TG and [ 14 C]HMH, which had been independently synthesized, as reference compounds. This technique facilitated construction of a v/[E]/sub t/ plot for the enzyme activity in HeLa cells, permitting estimation of its specific activity. The results obtained prove the existence of both human and bacterial N-glycosylase activities that effect removal of TG from DNA

  11. Characterization of Carbohydrate Active Enzymes Involved in Arabinogalactan Protein Metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoch, Eva

    and tissues, their functions and synthesis are still poorly understood. The aim of the research presented in the thesis was to characterize carbohydrate active enzymes involved in AGP biosynthesis and modification to gain insights into the biosynthesis of the glycoproteins in plants. Candidate...... glycosyltransferases and glycoside hydrolases were selected based on co-expression profiles from a transcriptomics analysis. Reverse genetics approach on a novel glucuronosyltransferase involved in AGP biosynthesis has revealed that the enzyme activity is required for normal cell elongation in etiolated seedlings....... The enzymatic activity of a hydrolase from GH family 17 was investigated, without successful determination of the activity. Members of hydrolase family 43 appeared to be localized in the Golgi-apparatus, which is also the compartment for glycan biosynthesis. The localization of these glycoside hydrolases...

  12. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Gani Haji

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The difficulties to decompose organic waste can be handled naturally by pyrolisis so it can  decomposes quickly that produces charcoal as the product. This study aims to investigate the characteristics of activated carbon from urban organic waste. Charcoal results of pyrolysis of organic waste activated with KOH 1.0 M at a temperature of 700 and 800oC for 60 to 120 minutes. Characteristics of activated carbon were identified by Furrier Transform Infra Red (FTIR, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD. However, their quality is determined yield, moisture content, ash, fly substances, fixed carbon, and the power of adsorption of iodine and benzene. The identified functional groups on activated carbon, such as OH (3448,5-3436,9 cm-1, and C=O (1639,4 cm-1. In general, the degree and distance between the layers of active carbon crystallites produced activation in all treatments showed no significant difference. The pattern of activated carbon surface topography structure shows that the greater the pore formation in accordance with the temperature increase the more activation time needed. The yield of activated carbon obtained ranged from 72.04 to 82.75%. The results of characterization properties of activated carbon was obtained from 1.11 to 5.41% water, 13.68 to 17.27% substance fly, 20.36 to 26.59% ash, and 56.14 to 62.31% of fixed carbon . Absorption of activated carbon was good enough at 800oC and 120 minutes of activation time, that was equal to 409.52 mg/g of iodine and 14.03% of benzene. Activated carbon produced has less good quality, because only the water content and flying substances that meet the standards.Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94 [How to cite this article: Haji, A.G., Pari, G., Nazar, M., and Habibati.  (2013. Characterization of activated carbon produced from urban organic waste . International Journal of Science and Engineering, 5(2,89-94. Doi: 10.12777/ijse.5.2.89-94

  13. Site characterization techniques used in environmental remediation activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostelnik, K.M.

    2000-01-01

    As a result of decades of nuclear energy research, weapons production, as well as ongoing operations, a significant amount of radioactive contamination has occurred throughout the United States Department of Energy (DOE) complex. DOE facility are in the process of assessing and potentially remediating various sites according to the regulations imposed by a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent order (FFA/CO) between DOE, the state in which the facility is located, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). In support of these active site remediation efforts, the DOE has devoted considerable resources towards the development of innovative site characterization techniques that support environmental restoration activities. These resources and efforts have focused on various aspects of this complex problem. Research and technology development conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has resulted in the ability and state-of-the-art equipment required to obtain real-time, densely spaced, in situ characterization data (i.e. detection, speciation, and location) of various radionuclides and contaminants. The Remedial Action Monitoring System (RAMS), developed by the INEEL, consists of enhanced sensor technology, measurement modeling and interpretation techniques, and a suite of deployment platforms which can be interchanged to directly support remedial cleanup and site verification operations. In situ characterization techniques have advanced to the point where they are being actively deployed in support of remedial operations. The INEEL has deployed its system at various DOE and international sites. The deployment of in situ characterization systems during environmental restoration operations has shown that this approach results in several significant benefits versus conventional sampling techniques. A flexible characterization system permits rapid modification to satisfy physical site conditions, available site resources

  14. Characterization plan for the immobilized low-activity waste borehole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reidel, S.P.; Reynolds, K.D.

    1998-03-01

    The US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site has the most diverse and largest amounts of radioactive tank waste in the US. High-level radioactive waste has been stored at Hanford in large underground tanks since 1944. Approximately 209,000 m 3 (54 Mgal) of waste are currently stored in 177 tanks. Vitrification and onsite disposal of low activity tank waste (LAW) are embodied in the strategy described in the Tri-Party Agreement. The tank waste is to be retrieved, separated into low- and high-level fractions, and then immobilized by private vendors. The DOE will receive the vitrified waste from private vendors and dispose of the low-activity fraction in the Hanford Site 200 East Area. The Immobilized Low-Activity Waste Disposal Complex (ILAWDC) is part of the disposal complex. This report is a plan to drill the first characterization borehole and collect data at the ILAWDC. This plan updates and revises the deep borehole portion of the characterization plan for the ILAWDC by Reidel and others (1995). It describes data collection activities for determining the physical and chemical properties of the vadose zone and the saturated zone at and in the immediate vicinity of the proposed ILAWDC. These properties then will be used to develop a conceptual geohydrologic model of the ILAWDC site in support of the Hanford ILAW Performance Assessment

  15. Electro-active bio-films: formation, characterization and mechanisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parot, Sandrine

    2007-01-01

    Some bacteria, which are able to exchange electrons with a conductive material without mediator form on conductive surfaces electro-active bio-films. This bacterial property has been recently discovered (2001). Objectives of this work are to develop electro-active bio-films in various natural environments from indigenous flora, then through complementary electrochemical techniques (chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry), to evaluate electro-activity of isolates coming from so-formed bio-films and to characterize mechanisms of electron transfer between bacteria and materials. First, electro-active bio-films have been developed under chrono-amperometry in garden compost and in water coming from Guyana mangrove. These bio-films were respectively able to use an electrode as electron acceptor (oxidation) or as electron donor (reduction). In compost, results obtained in chrono-amperometry and cyclic voltammetry suggest a two-step electron transfer: slow substrate consumption, then rapid electron transfer between bacteria and the electrode. Thereafter, the ability to reduce oxygen was demonstrated with cyclic voltammetry for facultative aerobic isolates from compost bio-films (Enterobacter spp. and Pseudomonas spp.) and for aerobic isolates obtained from marine electro-active bio-films (Roseobacter spp. in majority). Finally, bio-films inducing current increase in chrono-amperometry were developed in bioreactor with synthetic medium from a pure culture of isolates. Hence, for the first time, electro-activity of several anaerobic strains of Geobacter bremensis isolated from compost bio-films was highlighted. (author) [fr

  16. Characterizing electrostatic turbulence in tokamak plasmas with high MHD activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes-Filho, Z O; Santos Lima, G Z dos; Caldas, I L; Nascimento, I C; Kuznetsov, Yu K [Instituto de Fisica, Universidade de Sao Paulo, Caixa Postal 66316, 05315-970, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Viana, R L, E-mail: viana@fisica.ufpr.b [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Parana, Caixa Postal 19044, 81531-990, Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2010-09-01

    One of the challenges in obtaining long lasting magnetic confinement of fusion plasmas in tokamaks is to control electrostatic turbulence near the vessel wall. A necessary step towards achieving this goal is to characterize the turbulence level and so as to quantify its effect on the transport of energy and particles of the plasma. In this paper we present experimental results on the characterization of electrostatic turbulence in Tokamak Chauffage Alfven Bresilien (TCABR), operating in the Institute of Physics of University of Sao Paulo, Brazil. In particular, we investigate the effect of certain magnetic field fluctuations, due to magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) instabilities activity, on the spectral properties of electrostatic turbulence at plasma edge. In some TCABR discharges we observe that this MHD activity may increase spontaneously, following changes in the edge safety factor, or after changes in the radial electric field achieved by electrode biasing. During the high MHD activity, the magnetic oscillations and the plasma edge electrostatic turbulence present several common linear spectral features with a noticeable dominant peak in the same frequency. In this article, dynamical analyses were applied to find other alterations on turbulence characteristics due to the MHD activity and turbulence enhancement. A recurrence quantification analysis shows that the turbulence determinism radial profile is substantially changed, becoming more radially uniform, during the high MHD activity. Moreover, the bicoherence spectra of these two kinds of fluctuations are similar and present high bicoherence levels associated with the MHD frequency. In contrast with the bicoherence spectral changes, that are radially localized at the plasma edge, the turbulence recurrence is broadly altered at the plasma edge and the scrape-off layer.

  17. Characterization of the volcanic eruption emissions using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla, Rita R.; Tafuri, Victoria V.

    1997-01-01

    Characterization of the volcanic particulate material has been performed by analyzing aerosols and ashes with instrumental neutron activation analysis. Crustal enrichment factors were calculated using the elemental concentration and clustering techniques, and multivariate analysis were done. The analytical and data treatment methodologies allowed the sample differentiation from their geographical origin viewpoint, based on their chemical composition patterns, which are related to the deposit formation processes, which consist of direct deposition from the volcanic cloud, and removal by wind action after the end of the eruption, and and finally the deposition. (author). 8 refs., 5 figs

  18. Tensor analysis methods for activity characterization in spatiotemporal data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haass, Michael Joseph; Van Benthem, Mark Hilary; Ochoa, Edward M

    2014-03-01

    Tensor (multiway array) factorization and decomposition offers unique advantages for activity characterization in spatio-temporal datasets because these methods are compatible with sparse matrices and maintain multiway structure that is otherwise lost in collapsing for regular matrix factorization. This report describes our research as part of the PANTHER LDRD Grand Challenge to develop a foundational basis of mathematical techniques and visualizations that enable unsophisticated users (e.g. users who are not steeped in the mathematical details of matrix algebra and mulitway computations) to discover hidden patterns in large spatiotemporal data sets.

  19. Characterization and antioxidant activity of gallic acid derivative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinda, Krissan; Sutanto, Hery; Darmawan, Akhmad

    2017-11-01

    Peroxidase enzyme was used to catalyze the dimerization process of gallic acid. The structure of the dimerization product was characterized by 1H NMR and LC-MS-MS. The mechanism of gallic acid dimerization was also discussed. It was proposed that ellagic acid was formed through an oxidative coupling mechanism that lead to the formation of a C-C bond and followed by an intramolecular Fischer esterification mechanism that lead to the formation of two C-O bonds. Moreover, the antioxidant activity of gallic acid and ellagic acid were also studied. Gallic acid and ellagic acid exhibited the DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 13.2 μM and 15.9 μM, respectively.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of activated lithium fluoride with silver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Encarnacion E, E. K.; Guerrero S, Z.; Reyes A, J.

    2017-10-01

    The present work shows part of the results obtained in the development of the research that has been carried out since 2015 entitled -Synthesis and characterization of new thermoluminescent materials for the radiation dosimetry and its applications in health-. In the development of this research, the synthesis of crystals of pure lithium fluoride (LiF) and activated with different concentrations of silver (LiF:Ag); synthesized samples are also presented using different temperatures, as well as varying the concentration of the solvent (water-ethanol). The synthesized materials were characterized through different techniques: scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Specifically, the results of the calculation of the size of the LiF crystals are presented using the Scherrer equation. Within the results, a dependence on the size of the crystals is highlighted by means of the following factors: the amount of activator in the sample, the temperature at which the sample was synthesized, as well as the amount of solvent in the synthesis. The samples have a simple cubic crystalline phase. (Author)

  1. Tiger team findings related to DOE environmental restoration activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levitan, W.M.

    1991-01-01

    Tiger Team Assessments were implemented in June 1989 as part of a strategy to ensure that DOE facilities fully comply with Federal, state, local and DOE environment, safety, and health (ES ampersand H) requirements. The Tiger Teams provide the Secretary of Energy with information on current ES ampersand H compliance status of each DOE facility and causes for noncompliance. To date, Tiger Team Assessments have been completed at 25 DOE facilities. With regard to assessments of environmental restoration activities, the performance of DOE facilities was evaluated against the requirements of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, the National Contingency Plan (NCP), and DOE Order 5400.4, CERCLA Requirements, among others. Five major categories of environmental restoration-related findings were identified: (1) environmental restoration program planning and management (found at 60 percent of the sites assessed); (2) community relations/administrative record (60 percent); (3) characterization of extent of contamination (56 percent); (4) identification and evaluation of inactive waste sites (56 percent); and (5) DOE and NCP requirements for response action studies (44 percent). Primary causal factors for these findings were inadequate procedures, resources, supervision, and policy implementation

  2. Novel Activated Carbons from Agricultural Wastes and their Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Karthikeyan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid waste disposal has become a major problem in India, Either it has to be disposed safely or used for the recovery of valuable materials as agricultural wastes like turmeric waste, ferronia shell waste, jatropha curcus seed shell waste, delonix shell waste and ipomea carnia stem. Therefore these wastes have been explored for the preparation of activated carbon employing various techniques. Activated carbons prepared from agricultural solid wastes by chemical activation processes shows excellent improvement in the surface characteristics. Their characterization studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, matter soluble in water, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourising power, phenol number, ion exchange capacity, ion content and surface area have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as absorbents in the water and wastewater. For anionic dyes (reactive, direct, acid a close relationship between the surface area and surface chemical groups of the modified activated carbon and percentage of dye removal by adsorption can be observed. Cationic dyes large amount of surface chemical groups present in the sample (mainly carboxylic, anhydrides, lactones and phenols etc. are good anchoring sites for adsorption. The present study reveals the recovery of valuable adsorbents from readily and cheaply available agriculture wastes.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of redox-active ferric nontronite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilgen, A. G.; Kukkadapu, R. K.; Dunphy, D. R.; Artyushkova, K.; Cerrato, J. M.; Kruichak, J. N.; Janish, M. T.; Sun, C. J.; Argo, J. M.; Washington, R. E.

    2017-10-01

    Heterogeneous redox reactions on clay mineral surfaces control mobility and bioavailability of redox-sensitive nutrients and contaminants. Iron (Fe) residing in clay mineral structures can either catalyze or directly participate in redox reactions; however, chemical controls over its reactivity are not fully understood. In our previous work we demonstrated that converting a minor portion of Fe(III) to Fe(II) (partial reduction) in the octahedral sheet of natural Fe-rich clay mineral nontronite (NAu-1) activates its surface, making it redox-active. In this study we produced and characterized synthetic ferric nontronite (SIP), highlighting structural and chemical similarities and differences between this synthetic nontronite and its natural counterpart NAu-1, and probed whether mineral surface is redox-active by reacting it with arsenic As(III) under oxic and anoxic conditions. We demonstrate that synthetic nontronite SIP undergoes the same activation as natural nontronite NAu-1 following the partial reduction treatment. Similar to NAu-1, SIP oxidized As(III) to As(V) under both oxic (catalytic pathway) and anoxic (direct oxidation) conditions. The similar reactivity trends observed for synthetic nontronite and its natural counterpart make SIP an appropriate analog for laboratory studies. The development of chemically pure analogs for ubiquitous soil minerals will allow for systematic research of the fundamental properties of these minerals.

  4. Flavonoids: hemisynthesis, reactivity, characterization and free radical scavenging activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Es-Safi, Nour-Eddine; Ghidouche, Souhila; Ducrot, Paul Henri

    2007-09-26

    Phenolic compounds form one of the main classes of secondary metabolites. They display a large range of structures and they are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived-foods and beverages, particularly color and taste properties and they also contribute to the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables. Phenolic compounds are also highly unstable compounds which undergo numerous enzymatic and chemical reactions during postharvest food storage and processing thus adding to the complexity of plant polyphenol composition. Among these compounds flavonoids constitute one of the most ubiquitous groups of all plant phenolics. Owing to their importance in food organoleptic properties and in human health, a better understanding of their structures, their reactivity and chemical properties in addition to the mechanisms generating them appears essential to predict and control food quality. The purpose of this work is an overview of our findings concerning the hemisynthesis, the reactivity and the enzymatic oxidation of some flavonoids and shed light on the mechanisms involved in some of these processes and the structures of the resulting products. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds is also presented and a structure-activity relationship is discussed. The first part of this review concerns the synthesis and structural characterization of modified monomeric flavanols. The use of these compounds as precursor for the preparation of natural and modified dimeric procyanidin derivatives was then explored through different coupling reactions. The full characterization of the synthesized compounds was achieved by concerted use of NMR and ESI-MS techniques. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds was investigated. The second part of this review concerns the enzymatic oxidation of several flavonols by Trametes versicolor laccase. Most of the major oxidation products have been

  5. Flavonoids: Hemisynthesis, Reactivity, Characterization and Free Radical Scavenging Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Henri Ducrot

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds form one of the main classes of secondary metabolites. They display a large range of structures and they are responsible for the major organoleptic characteristics of plant-derived-foods and beverages, particularly color and taste properties and they also contribute to the nutritional qualities of fruits and vegetables. Phenolic compounds are also highly unstable compounds which undergo numerous enzymatic and chemical reactions during postharvest food storage and processing thus adding to the complexity of plant polyphenol composition. Among these compounds flavonoids constitute one of the most ubiquitous groups of all plant phenolics. Owing to their importance in food organoleptic properties and in human health, a better understanding of their structures, their reactivity and chemical properties in addition to the mechanisms generating them appears essential to predict and control food quality. The purpose of this work is an overview of our findings concerning the hemisynthesis, the reactivity and the enzymatic oxidation of some flavonoids and shed light on the mechanisms involved in some of these processes and the structures of the resulting products. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds is also presented and a structure-activity relationship is discussed. The first part of this review concerns the synthesis and structural characterization of modified monomeric flavanols. The use of these compounds as precursor for the preparation of natural and modified dimeric procyanidin derivatives was then explored through different coupling reactions. The full characterization of the synthesized compounds was achieved by concerted use of NMR and ESI-MS techniques. The free radical scavenging activity of some of the synthesized compounds was investigated. The second part of this review concerns the enzymatic oxidation of several flavonols by Trametes versicolor laccase. Most of the major oxidation

  6. Characterizing interactive engagement activities in a flipped introductory physics class

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna K. Wood

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of how they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in practice is needed. Our aim in this paper is to present a characterization of the type and duration of interactions, as experienced by students, that took place during two introductory physics courses (1A and 1B at a university in the United Kingdom. Through this work, a simple framework for analyzing lectures—the framework for interactive learning in lectures (FILL, which focuses on student interactions (with the lecturer, with each other, and with the material is proposed. The pedagogical approach is based on Peer Instruction (PI and both courses are taught by the same lecturer. We find lecture activities can be categorized into three types: interactive (25%, vicarious interactive (20% (involving questions to and from the lecturer, and noninteractive (55%. As expected, the majority of both interactive and vicarious interactive activities took place during PI. However, the way that interactive activities were used during non-PI sections of the lecture varied significantly between the two courses. Differences were also found in the average time spent on lecturer-student interactions (28% for 1A and 12% for 1B, although not on student-student interactions (12% and 12% or on individual learning (10% and 7%. These results are explored in detail and the implications for future research are discussed.

  7. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS BRUNO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterization was based on 15 quantitative and qualitative morphoagronomic descriptors. Quantitative descriptors were subjected to individual and joint univariate analysis of variance, followed by the Scott - Knott’s test at 5% significance. Yet qualitative descriptors were submitted to descriptive analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative descriptors were grouped based on the Gower algorithm for divergence analysis. A dendrogram and calculations of the characters relative importance for divergence were established. Genotype and cutting effects were significant for almost all descriptors in the joint analysis. This result indicates a genetic variability between genotypes and, regarding the cut, it indicates mainly differences in growth rate of each genotype in each cutting season. Genotypes were separated into three groups, which showed good genotype variation. The number of tillers per clump, followed by number of inflorescence and color of seeds, were the most relevant characters in genotype separation.

  8. Fungal phytotoxins with potential herbicidal activity: chemical and biological characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cimmino, Alessio; Masi, Marco; Evidente, Marco; Superchi, Stefano; Evidente, Antonio

    2015-12-19

    Covering: 2007 to 2015 Fungal phytotoxins are secondary metabolites playing an important role in the induction of disease symptoms interfering with host plant physiological processes. Although fungal pathogens represent a heavy constraint for agrarian production and for forest and environmental heritage, they can also represent an ecofriendly alternative to manage weeds. Indeed, the phytotoxins produced by weed pathogenic fungi are an efficient tool to design natural, safe bioherbicides. Their use could avoid that of synthetic pesticides causing resistance in the host plants and the long term impact of residues in agricultural products with a risk to human and animal health. The isolation and structural and biological characterization of phytotoxins produced by pathogenic fungi for weeds, including parasitic plants, are described. Structure activity relationships and mode of action studies for some phytotoxins are also reported to elucidate the herbicide potential of these promising fungal metabolites.

  9. BiVO4 nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkataraman Sivakumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bismuth vanadate (BiVO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by a simple thermal decomposition method. The synthesized bismuth vanadate nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis, it is found that the synthesized sample belongs to monoclinic BiVO4. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy confirms the formation of Bi-O bond in the sample. Ultraviolet–Visible (DRS-UV–Visible spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal the optical property of the BiVO4 nanoparticles. The morphology was identified by both scanning electron microscopy and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Further, the photocatalytic activity of BiVO4 nanoparticles was investigated by photodegradation of methylene blue as a model organic pollutant.

  10. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: NiWO 4 nanoparticles were prepared via precipitation technique. Experimental parameters of procedure were optimized statistically. Highlights: ► NiWO 4 spherical nanoparticles were synthesized via direct precipitation method. ► Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of synthesis reaction parameters. ► Composition and structural properties of NiWO 4 nanoparticles were characterized. ► EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV–vis and photoluminescence techniques were employed. ► Catalytic activity of the product in a cyclo-addition reaction was investigated. - Abstract: Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO 4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO 4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO 4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  11. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi, E-mail: pourmortazavi@yahoo.com [Faculty of Material and Manufacturing Technologies, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi, E-mail: rahiminasrabadi@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh [Islamic Azad University, Varamin Pishva Branch, Varamin (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Omrani, Ismail [Department of Chemistry, Imam Hossein University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    Graphical abstract: NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were prepared via precipitation technique. Experimental parameters of procedure were optimized statistically. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NiWO{sub 4} spherical nanoparticles were synthesized via direct precipitation method. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Taguchi robust design was used for optimization of synthesis reaction parameters. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Composition and structural properties of NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were characterized. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR, UV-vis and photoluminescence techniques were employed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Catalytic activity of the product in a cyclo-addition reaction was investigated. - Abstract: Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO{sub 4} nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO{sub 4} particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO{sub 4} were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV

  12. Synthesis, characterization and physiological activity of some novel isoxazoles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NITIN G. GHODILE

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Hushare VJ, Rajput PR, Malpani MO, Ghodile NG. 2012. Synthesis, characterization and physiological activity of some novel isoxazoles. Nusantara Bioscience 4: 81-85. A series of chlorosubstituted 4-aroylisoxazoles have been synthesized by refluxing chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and 3-alkoylchromone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride in dioxane medium containing 0.5 mL piperidine. Chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavones and chlorosubstituted-3-alkoylchromone were prepared by refluxing them separately with iodine crystal in ethanol. Initially chlorosubstituted-3-aroylflavanones and 3-alkoylchromanone were prepared by the interaction of different aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes with 1-(2’-hydroxy-3’,5’-dichlorophenyl-3-phenyl-1,3-propanedione. Constitutions of synthesized compounds were confirmed on the basis of elemental analysis, molecular weight determination, UV-Visible, I.R. and 1H-NMR spectral data. The titled compounds were evaluated for their growth promoting activity on some flowering plants viz. Papaver rhoeas, Calendula officinalise, Gladiola tristis, Gaillardia aristata, Dianthus chinensis, and Iberis sp. (candytuft. The results indicate that applicated plants had higher shoots and more number of leaves.

  13. Extraction, Characterization and Immunological Activity of Polysaccharides from Rhizoma gastrodiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juncheng Chen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A response surface and Box-Behnken design approach was applied to augment polysaccharide extraction from the residue of Rhizoma gastrodiae. Statistical analysis revealed that the linear and quadratic terms for three variables during extraction exhibited obvious effects on extraction yield. The optimum conditions were determined to be a liquid-to-solid ratio of 54 mL/g, an extraction temperature of 74 °C, an extraction time of 66 min, and three extractions. These conditions resulted in a maximum Rhizoma gastrodiae polysaccharide (RGP extraction yield of 6.11% ± 0.13%. Two homogeneous polysaccharides (RGP-1a and RGP-1b were obtained using DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephadex G-100 columns. The preliminary characterization of RGP-1a and RGP-1b was performed using HPLC-RID, HPGPC, and FTIR. Tests of the immunological activity in vitro showed that the two polysaccharides could significantly stimulate macrophages to release NO and enhance phagocytosis in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, RGP-1b (200 μg/mL and LPS (2 μg/mL had almost the same influence on the NO production and phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 macrophages (p > 0.05. All the data obtained indicate that RGP-1a and RGP-1b have the potential to be developed as a health food.

  14. Characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides derived from Dendrobium tosaense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li-Chan; Lu, Ting-Jang; Hsieh, Chang-Chi; Lin, Wen-Chuan

    2014-10-13

    Dendrobium tosaense is a medicinal Dendrobium species widely used in traditional medicine. This study demonstrated some structural characterizations and immunomodulatory activity of the water-soluble polysaccharides derived from the stem of D. tosaense (DTP). DTP was fractioned using DEAE-650 M anion-exchange gel filtration chromatography, producing one neutral polysaccharide fraction (DTP-N), which was investigated for its structural characteristics, using HPAEC-PAD, HP-SEC, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. DTP and DTP-N consisted of galactose, glucose, and mannose in ratios of 1:9.1:150.7 and 1:12.2:262.5, respectively. DTP-N comprised (1 → 4)Man as its main backbone, and its average molecular weight was 220 kDa. We also investigated the immunomodulatory effects of DTP administered orally to BALB/c mice for 3 weeks. DTP substantially boosted the population of splenic natural killer (NK) cells, NK cytotoxicity, macrophage phagocytosis, and cytokine induction in splenocytes. This is the first study to demonstrate the structural characteristics of an active polysaccharide derived from D. tosaense and its immunopharmacological effects in vivo. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of an Actively Controlled Three-Dimensional Turret Wake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shea, Patrick; Glauser, Mark

    2012-11-01

    Three-dimensional turrets are commonly used for housing optical systems on airborne platforms. As bluff bodies, these geometries generate highly turbulent wakes that decrease the performance of the optical systems and the aircraft. The current experimental study looked to use dynamic suction in both open and closed-loop control configurations to actively control the turret wake. The flow field was characterized using dynamic pressure and stereoscopic PIV measurements in the wake of the turret. Results showed that the suction system was able to manipulate the wake region of the turret and could alter not only the spatial structure of the wake, but also the temporal behavior of the wake flow field. Closed-loop, feedback control techniques were used to determine a more optimal control input for the flow control. Similar control effects were seen for both the steady open-loop control case and the closed-loop feedback control configuration with a 45% reduction in the suction levels when comparing the closed-loop to the open-loop case. These results provide unique information regarding the development of the baseline three-dimensional wake and the wake with three different active flow control configurations.

  16. Characterization and Trypanocidal Activity of a Novel Pyranaphthoquinone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elen Diana Dantas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is an endemic parasitic infection that occurs in 21 Latin American countries. New therapies for this disease are urgently needed, as the only two drugs available (nifurtimox and benznidazol have high toxicity and variable efficacy in the disease’s chronic phase. Recently, a new chemical entity (NCE named Pyranaphthoquinone (IVS320 was synthesized from lawsone. We report herein, a detailed study of the physicochemical properties and in vitro trypanocidal activity of IVS320. A series of assays were performed for characterization, where thermal, diffractometric, and morphological analysis were performed. In addition, the solubility, permeability, and hygroscopicity of IVS320 were determined. The results show that its poor solubility and low permeability may be due to its high degree of crystallinity (99.19%, which might require the use of proper techniques to increase the IVS320’s aqueous solubility and permeability. The trypanocidal activity study demonstrated that IVS320 is more potent than the reference drug benznidazole, with IC50/24 h of 1.49 ± 0.1 μM, which indicates that IVS320 has potential as a new drug candidate for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  17. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from rubber-seed shell by physical activation with steam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Kang; Jiang, Jian chun

    2010-01-01

    The use of rubber-seed shell as a raw material for the production of activated carbon with physical activation was investigated. The produced activated carbons were characterized by Nitrogen adsorption isotherms, Scanning electron microscope, Thermo-gravimetric and Differential scanning calorimetric in order to understand the rubber-seed shell activated carbon. The results showed that rubber-seed shell is a good precursor for activated carbon. The optimal activation condition is: temperature 880 o C, steam flow 6 kg h -1 , residence time 60 min. Characteristics of activated carbon with a high yield (30.5%) are: specific surface area (S BET ) 948 m 2 g -1 , total volume 0.988 m 3 kg -1 , iodine number of adsorbent (q iodine ) 1.326 g g -1 , amount of methylene blue adsorption of adsorbent (q mb ) 265 mg g -1 , hardness 94.7%. It is demonstrated that rubber-seed shell is an attractive source of raw material for producing high capacity activated carbon by physical activation with steam.

  18. Preparation and characterization of new biologically active polyurethane foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyev, Yuri; Veselov, Vitali; Markovskaya, Ludmila; Savelyeva, Olga; Akhranovich, Elena; Galatenko, Natalya; Robota, Ludmila; Travinskaya, Tamara

    2014-12-01

    Biologically active polyurethane foams are the fast-developed alternative to many applications of biomedical materials. Due to the polyurethane structure features and foam technology it is possible to incorporate into their structure the biologically active compounds of target purpose via structural-chemical modification of macromolecule. A series of new biologically active polyurethane foams (PUFs) was synthesized with polyethers (MM 2500-5000), polyesters MM (500-2200), 2,4(2,6) toluene diisocyanate, water as a foaming agent, catalysts, foam stabilizers and functional compounds. Different functional compounds: 1,4-di-N-oxy-2,3-bis-(oxymethyl)-quinoxaline (DOMQ), partial sodium salt of poly(acrylic acid) and 2,6-dimethyl-N,N-diethyl aminoacetatanilide hydrochloride were incorporated into the polymer structure/composition due to the chemical and/or physical bonding. Structural peculiarities of PUFs were studied by FTIR spectroscopy and X-ray scattering. Self-adhesion properties of PUFs were estimated by measuring of tensile strength at break of adhesive junction. The optical microscopy method was performed for the PUF morphology studies. Toxicological estimation of the PUFs was carried out in vitro and in vivo. The antibacterial action towards the Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli ATC 25922, E. coli ATC 2150, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6447, Staphylococcus aureus 180, Pseudomonas aeruginosa 8180, Proteus mirabilis F 403, P. mirabilis 6054, and Proteus vulgaris 8718) was studied by the disc method on the solid nutrient. Physic-chemical properties of the PUFs (density, tensile strength and elongation at break, water absorption and vapor permeability) showed that all studied PUFs are within the operational requirements for such materials and represent fine-cellular foams. Spectral studies confirmed the incorporation of DOMQ into the PUF's macrochain. PUFs are characterized by microheterogeneous structure. They are antibacterially active, non

  19. 75 FR 984 - Draft Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at CERCLA and RCRA Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-07

    ...The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or the Agency) is announcing a 50-day public comment period for draft recommended interim preliminary remediation goals (PRGs) developed in the Draft Recommended Interim Preliminary Remediation Goals for Dioxin in Soil at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Sites. EPA's Office of Solid Waste and Emergency and Emergency Response (OSWER) has developed the draft recommended interim PRGs for dioxin in soil. These draft recommended interim PRGs were calculated using existing, peer- reviewed toxicity values and current EPA equations and default exposure assumptions. This Federal Register notice is intended to provide an opportunity for public comment on the draft recommended interim PRGs. EPA will consider any public comments submitted in accordance with this notice and may revise the draft recommended interim PRGs thereafter.

  20. Exopolysaccharides from Pleurotus pulmonarius: Fermentation Optimization, Characterization and Antioxidant Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Wen Shen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Culture conditions for exopolysaccharide (EPS production by Pleurotus pulmonarius in submerged culture are optimized. The suggested medium composition was as follows: 60 g/L of xylose, 6 g/L of soy extract, 5 mM of KH2PO4 and 5 mM of MgSO4. Under the optimized culture conditions in a 5-litre stirred tank fermentor, the maximum concentration of EPS was 6.36 g/L. Furthermore, the morphological parameters (i.e. average diameter, circularity, roughness and compactness of the pellets and the broth viscosity are characterized. It has been proven that mycelial morphology and broth viscosity may be the critical parameters affecting the EPS yield. After deproteinization using Sevag method, a group of EPS (designated as fraction was obtained from the culture filtrates by gel filtration chromatography. FT-IR analysis of the purified EPS revealed prominent characteristic groups corresponding to polyhydric alcohols. GC analysis showed that the purified EPS were mainly composed of galactose and glucose. Furthermore, thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the degradation temperature of the purified EPS was 217 °C. Finally, the antioxidant activity of the EPS fraction was investigated and the relationship with molecular properties was discussed as well.

  1. Phenolic characterization of aging wine lees: Correlation with antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Díez, R; Rodríguez-Rojo, S; Cocero, M J; Duarte, C M M; Matias, A A; Bronze, M R

    2018-09-01

    Aging wine lees are water-wastes produced during the wine aging inside wood barrels that can be considered as alternative sources of bioactive compounds. Phenolic characterization and antioxidant activity (AA) measurements of wines lees solid-liquid extracts have been undertaken on a dry extract (DE) basis. Solvents with different polarities (water, methanol, ethanol, two hydroalcoholic mixtures and acetone) were used. Total phenolic (TPC) and total flavonoid contents (TFC) were determined. The mixture of 75:25(v/v) EtOH:H 2 O showed the highest values with 254 mg GAE /g DE and 146 mg CATE /g DE respectively. HORAC, HOSC and FRAP were used to determine the AA of the extracts being also highest for the mixture of 75:25(v/v) EtOH:H 2 O (4690 µmol CAE /g DE , 4527 µmol TE /g DE and 2197 µmol TE /g DE , respectively). For ORAC method, methanol extract showed the best value with 2771 µmol TE /g DE . Correlations between TPC, TFC, phenolic compounds and AA were determined. Most relevant compounds contributing to AA were identified using data from mass spectrometry, being mainly anthocyanins. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Synthesis, structure characterization and catalytic activity of nickel tungstate nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourmortazavi, Seied Mahdi; Rahimi-Nasrabadi, Mehdi; Khalilian-Shalamzari, Morteza; Zahedi, Mir Mahdi; Hajimirsadeghi, Seiedeh Somayyeh; Omrani, Ismail

    2012-12-01

    Taguchi robust design was applied to optimize experimental parameters for controllable, simple and fast synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles. NiWO4 nanoparticles were synthesized by precipitation reaction involving addition of nickel ion solution to the tungstate aqueous reagent and then formation of nickel tungstate nucleolus which are insoluble in aqueous media. Effects of various parameters such as nickel and tungstate concentrations, flow rate of reagent addition and reactor temperature on diameter of synthesized nickel tungstate nanoparticles were investigated experimentally by the aid of orthogonal array design. The results for analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that particle size of nickel tungstate can be effectively tuned by controlling significant variables involving nickel and tungstate concentrations and flow rate; while, temperature of the reactor has a no considerable effect on the size of NiWO4 particles. The ANOVA results proposed the optimum conditions for synthesis of nickel tungstate nanoparticles via this technique. Also, under optimum condition nanoparticles of NiWO4 were prepared and their structure and chemical composition were characterized by means of EDAX, XRD, SEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy, and photoluminescence. Finally, catalytic activity of the nanoparticles in a cycloaddition reaction was examined.

  3. Characterizing Motif Dynamics of Electric Brain Activity Using Symbolic Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimiliano Zanin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Motifs are small recurring circuits of interactions which constitute the backbone of networked systems. Characterizing motif dynamics is therefore key to understanding the functioning of such systems. Here we propose a method to define and quantify the temporal variability and time scales of electroencephalogram (EEG motifs of resting brain activity. Given a triplet of EEG sensors, links between them are calculated by means of linear correlation; each pattern of links (i.e., each motif is then associated to a symbol, and its appearance frequency is analyzed by means of Shannon entropy. Our results show that each motif becomes observable with different coupling thresholds and evolves at its own time scale, with fronto-temporal sensors emerging at high thresholds and changing at fast time scales, and parietal ones at low thresholds and changing at slower rates. Finally, while motif dynamics differed across individuals, for each subject, it showed robustness across experimental conditions, indicating that it could represent an individual dynamical signature.

  4. Characterization of Active Site Residues of Nitroalkane Oxidase†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P.; Fenny, Nana S.; Ali, Shah R.; Fitzpatrick, Paul F.

    2010-01-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitrolkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Serl71 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by ~5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of ~2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. PMID:20056514

  5. Characterization of active site residues of nitroalkane oxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valley, Michael P; Fenny, Nana S; Ali, Shah R; Fitzpatrick, Paul F

    2010-06-01

    The flavoenzyme nitroalkane oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of primary and secondary nitroalkanes to the corresponding aldehydes and ketones plus nitrite. The structure of the enzyme shows that Ser171 forms a hydrogen bond to the flavin N5, suggesting that it plays a role in catalysis. Cys397 and Tyr398 were previously identified by chemical modification as potential active site residues. To more directly probe the roles of these residues, the S171A, S171V, S171T, C397S, and Y398F enzymes have been characterized with nitroethane as substrate. The C397S and Y398 enzymes were less stable than the wild-type enzyme, and the C397S enzyme routinely contained a substoichiometric amount of FAD. Analysis of the steady-state kinetic parameters for the mutant enzymes, including deuterium isotope effects, establishes that all of the mutations result in decreases in the rate constants for removal of the substrate proton by approximately 5-fold and decreases in the rate constant for product release of approximately 2-fold. Only the S171V and S171T mutations alter the rate constant for flavin oxidation. These results establish that these residues are not involved in catalysis, but rather are required for maintaining the protein structure. 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Site characterization activities at Stripa and other Swedish projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstroehm, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    The Swedish research programme concerning spent nuclear fuel disposal aims for submitting a siting license application around the year 2000. An important step towards that goal will be the detailed characterization of at least two potential sites in late 1990s. In preparation for such characterization several research projects are conducted. One is the international Stripa Project that includes a site characterization and validation project for a small size granite rock body. The Stripa work also includes further development of instrumentation and measurement techniques. Another project is the Finnsjoen Fracture Zone Project, which is characterizing a subhorizontal zone at depths from 100 to 350 meters. The third project is the new Swedish Hard Rock Laboratory planned at the site of the Oskarshamn nuclear power plant. The preinvestigations and construction of this laboratory include major efforts in development, application and validation of site characterization methodology. (author) 6 figs., 9 refs

  7. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Fibers from Liquefied Wood by ZnCl2 Activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhigao Liu

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, activated carbon fibers (ACFs were prepared from liquefied wood by chemical activation with ZnCl2, with a particular focus on the effects of temperature and ZnCl2: liquefied wood-based fiber (LWF ratio on yield, porous texture, and surface chemistry. The characterization and properties of these ACFs were investigated by nitrogen adsorption/desorption, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS. When using a 6:1 impregnation ratio, the specific surface area (SBET of the resultant ACFs was as high as 1423 m2/g. The effect of an increase in impregnation ratio on the porosity of ACFs was stronger than that of an increase in the activation temperature. However, the former had a weaker impact on the surface chemistry and structure. It was also found that the yields of ACFs obtained by ZnCl2 activation were higher than those obtained by physical activation. Besides, the prepared ACFs presented higher adsorption than other raw materials in the adsorption test, indicating that ACFs prepared from LWF by ZnCl2 activation could be used as an adsorbent for the adsorption of medium size organic compounds.

  8. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perry, F.; Youngs, B.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M and O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M and O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M and O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M and O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M and O 2000b). The calculations for both footprints are presented in this AMR. In

  9. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; B. Youngs

    2000-11-06

    The purpose of this Analysis/Model (AMR) report is twofold. (1) The first is to present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the Probabilistic Volcanic Hazard Analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and extended in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) The second purpose of the AMR is to present probability calculations based on PVHA outputs. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers located within the repository footprint (conditional on the dike intersecting the repository). The probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint was calculated in the AMR ''Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada'' (CRWMS M&O 2000g) based on the repository footprint known as the Enhanced Design Alternative [EDA II, Design B (CRWMS M&O 1999a; Wilkins and Heath 1999)]. Then, the ''Site Recommendation Design Baseline'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a) initiated a change in the repository design, which is described in the ''Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Consequently, the probability of intersection of a basaltic dike within the repository footprint has also been calculated for the current repository footprint, which is called the 70,000 Metric Tons of Uranium (MTU) No-Backfill Layout (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The calculations for both

  10. Radioisotope Characterization of HB Line Low Activity Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide a physical, chemical, hazardous and radiological characterization of Low-Level Waste (LLW) generated in HB-Line as required by the 1S Manual, Savannah River Site Waste Acceptance Criteria Manual

  11. An activity canyon characterization of the pharmacological topography

    OpenAIRE

    Kulkarni, Varsha S.; Wild, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Highly chemically similar drugs usually possess similar biological activities, but sometimes, small changes in chemistry can result in a large difference in biological effects. Chemically similar drug pairs that show extreme deviations in activity represent distinctive drug interactions having important implications. These associations between chemical and biological similarity are studied as discontinuities in activity landscapes. Particularly, activity cliffs are quantified by th...

  12. 78 FR 48868 - Proposed Cercla Administrative Cost Recovery Settlement; MassDOT, MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-12

    ... Settlement; MassDOT, MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way Site, Chelsea, MA AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency... (``CERCLA''), 42 U.S.C. 9622(h)(1), concerning the MassDOT Route 1 Right-of-Way Site in Chelsea... (OES04-3), Boston, MA 02109-3912 (Telephone No. 617-918-1886) and should refer to: In re: MassDOT Route 1...

  13. Characterization and DPPH Radical Scavenging Activity of Gallic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antioxidant activity was examined by 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl. (DPPH) radical ... antifungal, antiviral, anticancer activities [1-3]. Due to its .... Caesalpinia mimosoides Lamk. Food Chem ... rich extract of Hypericum perforatum L. in vitro. J Agr.

  14. Production and characterization of activated carbon from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the use of a bituminous coal for the production of activated carbons with chemical activation was investigated. The effects of process variables such as chemical reagents, activation temperature, impregnation ratio and carbonization temperature were investigated to optimize these parameters. The resultant ...

  15. Preparation and characterization of active carbon using palm kernel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbons were prepared from Palm kernel shells. Carbonization temperature was 6000C, at a residence time of 5 min for each process. Chemical activation was done by heating a mixture of carbonized material and the activating agents at a temperature of 700C to form a paste, followed by subsequent cooling and ...

  16. Synthesis and characterization and antibacterial activity of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some new transition metal complexes of ciprofloxacin-imine derived from ciprofloxacin and o-phenylenediamine were synthesized and characterized on the basis of melting point, magnetic moment, conductance measurements, elemental analysis, infrared, UV/Vis, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectra ...

  17. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To synthesize, characterize and investigate the antimicrobial properties of pure and manganese-doped zinc oxide nanoparticles. Method: Un-doped and manganese-doped zinc oxide (Mn-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared using co-precipitation method. The synthesized Mn-doped ZnO nanoparticles were ...

  18. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity studies of mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The complexes were characterized using some physical techniques such as melting point, solubility, conductivity measurement and spectroscopic analyses such as UV-Visible spectroscopy, Atomic absorption spectroscopy, and Infrared spectroscopy. Based on the physical and spectroscopic results, the coordination of the ...

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of aspirin and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr J. T. Ekanem

    Novel complexes of Co (11), Ni (11) and Fe (111) with aspirin and paracetamol have synthesized and characterized using infrared, electronic and Hnmr spectral, melting point and conductivity measurements. The two ligands have been found to act as bidentate chelating agents. Aspirin complexes coordinate through the ...

  20. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activities of a Schiff ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Mn(II) with a Schiff base derived from condensation reaction of phenylalanine and acetylacetone have been synthesized and characterized analytically and spectroscopically. Melting point of the Schiff base was 188oC and the complexes decompose within a temperature range of 210-242oC.

  1. Activated alumina preparation and characterization: The review on recent advancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabia, A. R.; Ibrahim, A. H.; Zulkepli, N. N.

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum and aluminum based material are significant industrial materials synthesis because of their abandonment, low weight and high-quality corrosion resistance. The most advances in aluminum processing are the ability to synthesize it's under suitable chemical composition and conditions, a porous structure can be formed on the surface. Activated alumina particles (AAP) synthesized by the electrochemically process from aluminum have gained serious attention, inexpensive material that can be employed for water filtration due to its active surface. Thus, the paper present a review study based on recent progress and advances in synthesizing activated alumina, various techniques currently being used in preparing activated alumina and its characteristics are studied and summarized

  2. Surface spectroscopic characterization of a model methane-activation catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.G.; Weisel, M.D.; Hoffmann, F.M.; Hall, R.B.

    1992-01-01

    In an effort to understand the details concerning the alkali-promoted selectivity for the oxidative coupling of methane, the authors have carried out a detailed characterization of a model K/NiO/Ni(100) catalyst under well-controlled, ultrahigh vacuum conditions. The authors' systematic approach involved the following procedures: detailed investigation of the formation and structure of NiO on a clean Ni(100) surface; spectroscopic characterization of K-doped NiO by in situ deposition of potassium onto well-characterized NiO/Ni(100) substrate; and determination of the reactivities of NiO/Ni(100) and K/NiO/Ni(100) towards H 2 and CH 4 . In this paper, the authors will use the model K/NiO/Ni(100) system as an example to demonstrate that a detailed, complementary characterization of the model catalyst could best be achieved by using a combination of a variety of surface techniques: The methods of HREELS, LEED, XPS and AES could be applied to obtain properties on and near the surface regions; the technique of FYNES, being a photon-in/photon-out method could be utilized to investigate the bulk properties up to 2000 Angstrom below the surface; the method of FTIR using CO as a probing molecule is, on the other hand, sensitive only to the properties of the top-most surface layer. The result is to be presented in this paper will be mainly those obtained by using the two vibrational spectroscopies (HREELS and FTIR). Results from other surface techniques will also be discussed or presented when they provide additional information to the vibrational data

  3. Characterizing Interactive Engagement Activities in a Flipped Introductory Physics Class

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Anna K.; Galloway, Ross K.; Donnelly, Robyn; Hardy, Judy

    2016-01-01

    Interactive engagement activities are increasingly common in undergraduate physics teaching. As research efforts move beyond simply showing that interactive engagement pedagogies work towards developing an understanding of "how" they lead to improved learning outcomes, a detailed analysis of the way in which these activities are used in…

  4. Immobilization of lysozyme on cotton fabrics; synthesis, characterication, and activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The antimicrobial activity of lysozyme derives from the hydrolysis of the bacterial cell wall polysaccharide at the glycosidic bond that links N-acetyl-glucosamine and N-acetyl-muramic acid. Maintaining the activity of lysozyme while bound to a cellulose substrate is a goal toward developing enzyme...

  5. A change in strategy for a CERCLA Removal Action Demolition Project in progress results in overall project enhancements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albertin, M.; Nichols, R.M.; Edwards, D.T.

    1995-01-01

    This paper discusses changes made in a demolition project at the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), a site on the National Priorities list (NPL), owned by the Department of Energy. The project, to demolish fourteen uranium ore silos and their structure, was based on a Removal Action Work Plan, submitted and approved by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), that integrated Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) requirements to remove the source of contamination and threat to public health and the environment. After the demolition contractor defaulted at 30% complete, completion of the project by the USEPA deadline was threatened. The recovery plan included re-evaluation of project documents in addition to the schedule. It was determined that re-interpretation of the removal action criteria, including design and Removal Action Work Plan, would eliminate road-blocks, and optimize resources, resulting in project completion by the original deadline even after lost-time in mobilizing another contractor. This presentation will discuss the open-quotes lessons learnedclose quotes by the project team and illustrate how simplification of construction methods resulted in enhancements to the environmental controls, improved material handing, and created a safer work environment

  6. Characterization and remediation of highly radioactive contaminated soil at Hanford

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buckmaster, M.A.; Erickson, J.K.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site, Richland, Washington, contains over 1,500 identified waste sites and numerous groundwater plumes that will be characterized and remediated over the next 30 years. As a result of the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has initiated a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) at the 200-BP-1 operable unit. The 200-BP-1 RI/FS is the first Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) investigation on the Hanford Site that involves highly radioactive and chemically contaminated soils. The initial phase of site characterization was designed to assess the nature and extent of contamination associated with the source waste sites within the 200-BP-1 operable unit. Characterization activities consisted of drilling and sampling, chemical and physical analysis of samples, and development of a conceptual vadose zone model. These data were then used. to develop remedial alternatives during the FS evaluation. The preferred alternative resulting from the RI/FS process for the 200-BP-1 operable unit is to construct a surface isolation barrier. The multi-layered earthen barrier will be designed to prevent migration of contaminants resulting from water infiltration, biointrusion, and wind and water erosion

  7. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol [Kyonggi University, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kwang Won [Chungju University, Chungju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-15

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  8. Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of activity and popularity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhang

    Full Text Available Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks.

  9. Characterizing and modeling the dynamics of activity and popularity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Li, Menghui; Gao, Liang; Fan, Ying; Di, Zengru

    2014-01-01

    Social media, regarded as two-layer networks consisting of users and items, turn out to be the most important channels for access to massive information in the era of Web 2.0. The dynamics of human activity and item popularity is a crucial issue in social media networks. In this paper, by analyzing the growth of user activity and item popularity in four empirical social media networks, i.e., Amazon, Flickr, Delicious and Wikipedia, it is found that cross links between users and items are more likely to be created by active users and to be acquired by popular items, where user activity and item popularity are measured by the number of cross links associated with users and items. This indicates that users generally trace popular items, overall. However, it is found that the inactive users more severely trace popular items than the active users. Inspired by empirical analysis, we propose an evolving model for such networks, in which the evolution is driven only by two-step random walk. Numerical experiments verified that the model can qualitatively reproduce the distributions of user activity and item popularity observed in empirical networks. These results might shed light on the understandings of micro dynamics of activity and popularity in social media networks.

  10. Characterization and antimicrobial activity of lectins from Penicillium sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R S; Jain, P; Kaur, H P

    2013-11-01

    Ten Penicillium sp. were screened for lectin activity for occurrence of lectins. Mycelial extracts from submerged cultures of P. corylophilum, P. expansum and P. purpurogenum showed agglutination against human (A, B, AB and O), goat, sheep, pig and rabbit erythrocytes. Neuraminidase treatment to human blood- type O erythrocytes substantially increased their agglutinability by all the lectins as compared to untreated erythrocytes. Modification of erythrocyte surfaces by protease increased the lectin titre only of P. corylophilum with no effect on other two lectins. P. corylophilum and P. expansum displayed relatively lower titres in mycelial extracts prepared from agar plate cultures as compared to broth cultures. A panel of sugars was tested for inhibition of lectin activity. All the lectins were found to be specific for asialofetuin, bovine submaxillary mucin, porcine stomach mucin, chondroitin-6-sulphate, D-sucrose and D-glucose. P. corylophilum lectin was expressed (Titre 8) by 5 day old cultures, reaching its maximum level (Titre 32) upon 8 days of cultivation, thereafter declin in lectin activity was observed. P. purpurogenum lectin was expressed by 7-10 days old cultures, while in P. expansum maximum lectin activity was elaborated by 5-8 days old cultures. Lectin extracts from all the three species were found to possess antimicrobial activities. Lectin extracts from the three Penicillium species displayed antifungal activity and antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacterial strains.

  11. Characterization of active polysaccharides of HemoHIM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Kwang Sun; Shin, Myeong Suk; Bae, Beom Seon; Hwang, Yong Cheol; Ryu, Kwang Won

    2007-07-01

    In this study, we aimed to elucidate the detailed structure and active moiety of polysaccharide, one of the active constituents of immune and hematopoietic modulating activities of HemoHIM. We first isolated the polysaccharide fractions from the hot water extracts of the each ingredient herbs (A. gigas, P. janonica, C. officinale) of HemoHIM and their mixture. These polysaccharides were composed of neutral (85.32-92.73%) and acidic (4.25-7.88%) saccharides, proteins (0.16-4.02%), and polyphenols (2.09-5.37%). The hydrolytic analysis of polysaccharide fractions showed that they commonly showed higher arabinose, galactose, and galacturonic acid contents. These result suggested that these polysaccharides may have higher contents of rhamnogalacturonan among pectic substances and the main active moiety is composed of polysaccharides. The anion exchange chromatography of HemoHIM and each ingredient herb extract using DEAE-Sepharose FF (Cl- form) column resulted in 1 non-adsorption and 8 adsorption fractions. The analysis of immune activity (lymphocyte proliferation) on these fractions showed that the fractions obtained by higher salt concentration carried the higher activity, but all fractions showed considerable immune activity

  12. Measurement and characterization of cellulase activity in sclerophyllous forest litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criquet, Stéven

    2002-07-01

    Cellulases are enzymatic proteins which hydrolyze cellulose polymers to smaller oligosaccharides, cellobiose and glucose. They consist in three major types of enzymes: endoglucanases (EC 3.2.1.4), cellobiohydrolases (EC 3.2.1.91) and beta-glucosidases (EC 3.2.1.21) which play an essential role in carbon turnover of forest ecosystem. The aim of this study was firstly to determine the parameters (i.e. buffer type, pH, temperature, quantity of litter, incubation time and reagent type) which affect the measurement of cellulase activity in a sclerophyllous forest litter, and secondly to compare two methods for measuring cellulase activity: a direct method and an extraction method. In the direct method, the litter was directly incubated with a buffered solution containing the enzyme substrate, whereas in the extraction method, the cellulases were firstly extracted before measuring their activity. The results were compared with other studies about soil cellulase activity, and it appeared that several parameters (buffer type, pH, temperature and sample quantity) which influence the measurement of cellulase activity differ according to whether a soil or a litter is considered. Concerning the procedure used for the measurement of cellulase activity, results showed that the activity values were higher when using an extraction procedure than when using a direct procedure. The extraction procedure, combined with a concentration stage of the extract, also allowed electrophoretic analysis (PAGE) of the cellulases extracted from the litter. The electrophoretic pattern revealed two cellulase isoenzymes which may be related to the occurrence of two pH-activity peaks of these enzymes when citrate buffer was used for the measurement of cellulase activity in the litter.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Activity of New Thiadiazole Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullick, Pooja; Khan, Suroor A.; Verma, Surajpal; Alam, Ozair [Hamdard University, New Delhi (India)

    2010-08-15

    A series of thiadiazole derivatives were synthesized with differently substituted benzoic acids which were cyclized to give differently substituted thiazolidin-4-one. Elemental analysis, IR, {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR and mass spectral data confirmed the structure of the newly synthesized compounds. The derivatives of these moieties were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. Most of the synthesized compounds showed good antimicrobial activity at 200 and 100 μg/mL. Compounds showed most significant antibacterial activity against gram negative test organism Escherichia coli and most significant antifungal activity against test organisms Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. It was observed that compounds with OCH{sub 3} at 3, 4 position of phenyl ring [5(a-l)] were more potent against microbes as compared to compounds having unsubstituted phenyl ring [4(a-l)].

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of new fluorescent chitosan derivatives

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přichystalová, H.; Almonasy, N.; Abdel-Mohsen, A. M.; Abdel-Rahman, R. M.; Fouda, M. M. G.; Vojtova, L.; Kobera, Libor; Spotz, Z.; Burgert, L.; Jancar, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, April (2014), s. 234-240 ISSN 0141-8130 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : chitosan derivatives * fluorescence * antibacterial activity Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 2.858, year: 2014

  15. Synthesis, characterization and in vitro antibacterial activity of novel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MARZIEH ABBASI

    The prepared compounds were screened for antibacterial activity against. Escherichia coli (E. ..... HCl in the presence of phenol phthalein as an indicator. The number of H. + ... correspond to the symmetric and asymmetric SO2 and also C-S ...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION ADN BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITY OF SECONDARY METABOLITES FROM ARMILLARIA TABESCENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethyl acetate extracts from liquid cultures of Armillaria tabescens showed good antimicrobial activity against Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analyses of extract constituents led to the isolation and identification of two new co...

  17. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    doped zinc oxide (Mn-doped ZnO) nanoparticles were prepared ... The antimicrobial activities of the nanoparticles against different bacterial strains were determined using agar diffusion ...... Importance of Clerodendrum Genus: A Current Review.

  18. production and characterization of activated carbon from leather

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dell

    Powdered activated carbon (PAC) was prepared from leather buffing waste, sawdust and lignite by ... soil, air or water. (Baksi et al., 2006; ... anthracite and bituminous coal, lignite, lignocellulosic materials ..... waste water treatment: A review.

  19. Antioxidant, antibacterial activity, and phytochemical characterization of Melaleuca cajuputi extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abd, Nazeh M; Mohamed Nor, Zurainee; Mansor, Marzida; Azhar, Fadzly; Hasan, M S; Kassim, Mustafa

    2015-10-24

    The threat posed by drug-resistant pathogens has resulted in the increasing momentum in research and development for effective alternative medications. The antioxidant and antibacterial properties of phytochemical extracts makes them attractive alternative complementary medicines. Therefore, this study evaluated the phytochemical constituents of Melaleuca cajuputi flower and leaf (GF and GL, respectively) extracts and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Radical scavenging capacity of the extracts was estimated using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and Fe(2+)-chelating activity. Total antioxidant activity was determined using ferric reducing antioxidant power assay. Well diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration, and minimum bactericidal concentration assays were used to determine antibacterial activity against eight pathogens, namely Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Bacillus cereus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Salmonella typhimurium, Klebsiella pneumonia, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Pasteurella multocida. We identified and quantified the phytochemical constituents in methanol extracts using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) and gas chromatography (GC)/MS. This study reports the antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of M. cajuputi methanolic extracts. The GF extract showed better efficacy than that of the GL extract. The total phenolic contents were higher in the flower extract than they were in the leaf extract (0.55 ± 0.05 and 0.37 ± 0.05 gallic acid equivalent per mg extract dry weight, respectively). As expected, the percentage radical inhibition by GF was higher than that by the GL extract (81 and 75 %, respectively). A similar trend was observed in Fe(2+)-chelating activity and β-carotene bleaching tests. The antibacterial assay of the extracts revealed no inhibition zones with the Gram-negative bacteria tested. However, the extracts demonstrated activity against B. cereus, S. aureus, and S. epidermidis. In

  20. Porous Materials from Thermally Activated Kaolinite: Preparation, Characterization and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Luo

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, porous alumina/silica materials were prepared by selective leaching of silicon/aluminum constituents from thermal-activated kaolinite in inorganic acid or alkali liquor. The correlations between the characteristics of the prepared porous materials and the dissolution properties of activated kaolinite were also investigated. The results show that the specific surface area (SSA of porous alumina/silica increases with silica/alumina dissolution, but without marked change of the BJH pore size. Furthermore, change in pore volume is more dependent on activation temperature. The porous alumina and silica obtained from alkali leaching of kaolinite activated at 1150 °C for 15 min and acid leaching of kaolinite activated at 850 °C for 15 min are mesoporous, with SSAs, BJH pore sizes and pore volumes of 55.8 m2/g and 280.3 m2/g, 6.06 nm and 3.06 nm, 0.1455 mL/g and 0.1945 mL/g, respectively. According to the adsorption tests, porous alumina has superior adsorption capacities for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ compared with porous silica and activated carbon. The maximum capacities of porous alumina for Cu2+, Pb2+ and Cd2+ are 134 mg/g, 183 mg/g and 195 mg/g, respectively, at 30 °C.

  1. Characterizing root activity of guava trees by radiotracer technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purohit, A.G.; Mukherjee, S.K.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution pattern of root activity of 12-year-old trees of guava (Psidium guajava L.) was determined by radiotracer technique. 32 P soloution was injected into the soil at lateral distances of 120, 240 and 360 cm from the tree trunk at depths of 15,30,60 and 90 cm. The 32 P uptake by the tree was determined by leaf analysis. In the rainy season the root activity or 32 P uptake was greater near the soil surface and midway between the trunk and the drip-line. The root activity decreased with an increase in the depth and distance from trunk. These results compared well with the actual distribution of feeder roots as determined by the soil-auger method. In summer the roots near the surface become less active in 32 P absorption with a drcrease in surface soil moisture. A decrease in the root activity in the surface soil was accompanied by an increase in 32 P uptake from lower depths. (author)

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN DIFFERENT MODELS FOR RHEOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. H. Khalili Garakani

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Activated sludge flow rheology is a very complicated phenomenon. Studies related to activated sludge tend to classify sludge as non-Newtonian fluid. Until now, several theories have been built to describe the complex behavior of activated sludge with varying degrees of success. In this article, seven different models for viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids (i.e., Power law, Bingham plastic, Herschel-Bulkley, Casson, Sisko, Carreau and Cross were considered to evaluate their predictive capability of apparent viscosity of activated sludge. Results showed that although evaluating the constants in the four-parameter models is difficult, they provide the best prediction of viscosity in the whole range of shear rates for activated sludge. For easier prediction of viscosity at different mixed liquor suspended solids (2.74-31g/L, temperature (15-25°C and shear rate (1-1000/s, simple correlations were proposed. Comparing the results with the experimental data revealed that the proposed correlations are in good agreement with real apparent viscosities.

  3. Characterization of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) lectin for biological activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Ajay Kumar; Gupta, Neha; Narvekar, Dakshita T; Bhadkariya, Rajni; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2018-05-01

    Lectins are proteins that are subject of intense investigations. Information on lectin from chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L.) with respect to its biological activities are very limited. In this study, we purified lectin from the seeds of chickpea employing DEAE-cellulose and SP-Sephadex ion exchange chromatography and identified its molecular subunit mass as 35 kDa. The free radical scavenging activity of lectin measured by the DPPH assay has IC 50 of 0.88 µg/mL. Lectin exerted antifungal activity against Candida krusei , Fusarium oxysporium oxysporium , Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida albicans , while antibacterial activity against E. coli , B. subtilis , S. marcescens and P. aeruginosa. The minimum inhibitory concentrations were 200, 240, 160 and 140 µg for C. krusei, F. oxysporium , S. cerevisiae and C. albicans respectively. Lectin was further examined for its antiproliferative potential against cancerous cell line. The cell viability assay indicated a high inhibition activity on Ishikawa, HepG2, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 with IC 50 value of 46.67, 44.20, 53.58 and 37.46 µg/mL respectively. These results can provide a background for future research into the benefits of chickpea lectin to pharmacological perspective.

  4. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    OpenAIRE

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R.; Schmidt, Martin C.

    2006-01-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerpr...

  5. Characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from thirteen boletus mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lan; Hu, Yu; Duan, Xiaoyu; Tang, Tingting; Shen, Yingbin; Hu, Bin; Liu, Aiping; Chen, Hong; Li, Cheng; Liu, Yuntao

    2018-07-01

    Water-soluble polysaccharides were extracted from the caps and stipes of thirteen boletus mushrooms representing five different species collected in Southwest China. Investigations of their structures and antioxidant activities allowed an evaluation of structure-function relationships. The polysaccharides were composed mainly of the monosaccharides arabinose, xylose, mannose, glucose and galactose. Most samples displayed a broad molecular weight range, with significant differences observed between the molecular weight ranges of the polysaccharides from the caps and the stipes. FT-IR spectral analysis of the polysaccharides revealed that most of polysaccharides from boletus mushrooms (except Boletus edulis) contained a pyranose ring. The antioxidant activities of the polysaccharides in stipes showed a significant correlation with their monosaccharide composition, and were also related to their molecular weight and anomeric configuration. Suillellus luridus collected in Pingwu, Mianyang, Sichuan, China had remarkably superior antioxidant activity and might be developed as a natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. An activity canyon characterization of the pharmacological topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Varsha S; Wild, David J

    2016-01-01

    Highly chemically similar drugs usually possess similar biological activities, but sometimes, small changes in chemistry can result in a large difference in biological effects. Chemically similar drug pairs that show extreme deviations in activity represent distinctive drug interactions having important implications. These associations between chemical and biological similarity are studied as discontinuities in activity landscapes. Particularly, activity cliffs are quantified by the drop in similar activity of chemically similar drugs. In this paper, we construct a landscape using a large drug-target network and consider the rises in similarity and variation in activity along the chemical space. Detailed analysis of structure and activity gives a rigorous quantification of distinctive pairs and the probability of their occurrence. We analyze pairwise similarity (s) and variation (d) in activity of drugs on proteins. Interactions between drugs are quantified by considering pairwise s and d weights jointly with corresponding chemical similarity (c) weights. Similarity and variation in activity are measured as the number of common and uncommon targets of two drugs respectively. Distinctive interactions occur between drugs having high c and above (below) average d (s). Computation of predicted probability of distinctiveness employs joint probability of c, s and of c, d assuming independence of structure and activity. Predictions conform with the observations at different levels of distinctiveness. Results are validated on the data used and another drug ensemble. In the landscape, while s and d decrease as c increases, d maintains value more than s. c ∈ [0.3, 0.64] is the transitional region where rises in d are significantly greater than drops in s. It is fascinating that distinctive interactions filtered with high d and low s are different in nature. It is crucial that high c interactions are more probable of having above average d than s. Identification of

  7. Characterization of innate immune activity in Phrynops geoffroanus (Testudines: Chelidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno O. Ferronato

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The innate immune activity of the freshwater turtle Phrynops geoffroanus (Schweigger, 1812 was investigated, using a sheep-red-blood cell hemolysis assay. The time- and concentration-dependent hemolytic activity of the turtle plasma was low compared to that reported for other reptiles. However the plasma of P. geoffroanus exhibited higher activity at elevated temperatures, resulting in temperature-dependent hemolysis. The sensitivity of turtle plasma to temperature could be interpreted as a mechanism by which freshwater turtles use basking behavior to elevate body temperature, thus enhancing the innate immune response. However, we cannot discard the possibility that environmental contaminants could be affecting the turtle's immune response, since the animals in this investigation were captured in a polluted watercourse.

  8. Partial characterization, antioxidant and antitumor activities of polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Rongjun; Ye, Jiaming; Zhao, Yuejun; Su, Weike

    2014-04-01

    Four polysaccharides (PBP60-A, PBP60-B, PBP60-C and PBP60-D) were purified from slug (Philomycusbilineatus) by ion-exchange chromatography. The antioxidant activities were studied by ABTS, DPPH, hydroxyl radical, superoxide radical and reducing power assay. In vitro antitumor activities were evaluated by MTT assay. Results demonstrated that PBP60-A was mainly composed of Man, Rha, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 6.13:3.08:8.97:5.22:2.46:1.13. PBP60-B was composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl and Fuc in a mole ratio of 0.90:0.31:1.15:0.37:0.24:1.02:3.84:0.93:1.99. PBP60-C and PBP60-D were composed of Man, GlcN, Rha, GalN, GlcU, Glc, Gal, Xyl, Fuc and an unknown monosaccharide. Antioxidant tests indicated that four polysaccharides exhibited significant antioxidant activities in a dose-dependent manner. PBP60-D presented relative stronger antioxidant activity. PBP60-C showed higher antitumor activity against A549 and MCF-7 cells in vitro. At concentration of500 μg/mL, the antitumor activities of PBP60-C on theA549 and MCF-7 cells were 65.30% and 42.45%, respectively. These results indicated that polysaccharides from Philomycusbilineatus could be explored as potential natural antioxidants and cancer prevention agents. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of indoor and outdoor pool fires with active calorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koski, J.A.; Gill, W.; Gritzo, L.A.; Kent, L.A.; Wix, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    A water cooled, 1 m x 1 m, vertical calorimeter panel has been used in conjunction with other fire diagnostics to characterize a 6 m x 6 m outdoor and three 3 m x 3 m indoor JP-4 pool fires. Measurements reported include calorimeter surface heat flux and surface temperatures, flame temperatures, and gas flow velocities in the fire. From the data, effective radiative absorption coefficients for various zones in the fires have been estimated. The outdoor test was conducted at Sandia's Coyote Canyon test facility, while indoor tests were conducted at the indoor SMokE Reduction Facility (SMERF) at the same location. The measurements provide data useful in calibrating simple analytic fire models intended for the analysis of packages containing hazardous materials

  10. Characterization of Organic and Conventional Coffee Using Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. A. De Nadai Fernandes; P. Bode; F. S. Tagliaferro

    2000-01-01

    Countries importing organic coffee are facing the difficulty of assessing the quality of the product to distinguish original organic coffee from other coffees, thereby eliminating possible fraud. Many analytical methods are matrix sensitive and require matrix-matching reference materials for validation, which are currently nonexistent. This work aims to establish the trace element characterization of organic and conventional Brazilian coffees and to establish correlations with the related soil and the type of fertilizer and agrochemicals applied. It was observed that the variability in element concentrations between the various types of coffee is not so large, which emphasizes the need for analytical methods of high accuracy, reproducibility, and a well-known uncertainty. Moreover, the analyses indicate that sometimes the coffee packages may contain some soil remnants

  11. Radiological characterization of a uranium mine with no mining activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lozano, J.C.; Vera Tome, F.; Gomez Escobar, V.; Blanco Rodriguez, P.

    2000-01-01

    We report a radiological study of a uranium mine located in Extremadura, in the south-west of Spain, in which mining work had ceased. One interest in the work is that the results can be used as a reference for the future evaluation of the effects produced by the restoration program. The radiological parameters selected to estimate the impact of the inactive mine were: 222 Rn in air and water, 222 Rn exhalation, effective 226 Ra in soils and sediments, and natural uranium and 226 Ra in water. Chemical analyses of water samples and measurements of meteorological variables were also made. Average values of these radiological parameters are presented. We characterize the zone radiologically and estimate the influence of the mine on the basis of some of these parameters, while others are used to reflect the status of the installation, information which could be very useful in the near future when restoration is complete

  12. Preparation and characterization of activated carbons from albizia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Activated carbon was prepared from the pods of Albizia saman for the purpose of converting the waste to wealth. The pods were thoroughly washed with water to remove any dirt, air- dried and cut into sizes of 2-4 cm. The prepared pods were then carbonised in a muffle furnace at temperatures of 4000C, 5000C, 6000C ...

  13. A biotemplated nickel nanostructure: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashtari, Khadijeh [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Fasihi, Javad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mollania, Nasrin [Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khajeh, Khosro, E-mail: khajeh@modares.ac.ir [Department of Nanobiotechnology, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Biological Science, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-175, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    Highlights: • Nickel nanostructure-encapsulated bacteria were prepared using electroless deposition. • Bacterium surface was activated by red-ox reaction of its surface amino acids. • Interfacial changes at cell surfaces were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. • TEM and AFM depicted morphological changes. • Antibacterial activity of nanostructure was examined against different bacteria strains. - Abstract: Nickel nanostructure-encapsulated bacteria were prepared using the electroless deposition procedure and activation of bacterium cell surface by red-ox reaction of surface amino acids. The electroless deposition step occurred in the presence of Ni(II) and dimethyl amine boran (DMAB). Interfacial changes at bacteria cell surfaces during the coating process were investigated using fluorescence spectroscopy. Fluorescence of tryptophan residues was completely quenched after the deposition of nickel onto bacteria surfaces. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) depicted morphological changes on the surface of the bacterium. It was found that the Ni coated nanostructure was mechanically stable after ultrasonication for 20 min. Significant increase in surface roughness of bacteria was also observed after deposition of Ni clusters. The amount of coated Ni on the bacteria surface was calculated as 36% w/w. The antibacterial activity of fabricated nanostructure in culture media was examined against three different bacteria strains; Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis and Xantomonas campestris. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined as 500 mg/L, 350 mg/L and 200 mg/L against bacteria, respectively.

  14. Structural characterization and immunomodulating activity of polysaccharide from Dendrobium officinale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Tao-Bin; Huang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Liu; Liu, Ti-Ti; Gong, Wan-Ying; Wang, Xuan-Jun; Sheng, Jun; Hu, Jiang-Miao

    2016-02-01

    A neutral heteropolysaccharide (DOP-1-1) consisted by mannose and glucose (5.9:1) with an average molecular weight at about 1.78×10(5) Da was purified from Dendrobium officinale. Based on Fourier transform infrared spectrum (FT-IR) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, it suggested that partial structure of DOP-1-1 is an O-acetylated glucomannan with β-d configuration in pyranose sugar forms. The immunomodulatory activity of DOP-1-1 was evaluated by secretion level of cytokine (interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in vitro. Our results suggested that DOP-1-1 could stimulate cytokine production (TNF-α, IL-1β) in cells. These findings demonstrated that the purified polysaccharide from D. officinale presented significant immune-modulating activities. Furthermore, by Western-blot we can found that the signaling pathways of DOP-1-1 induced immune activities involving ERK1/2 and NF-кB. As to antioxidant activity, DOP-1-1 hadn't showed remarkable scavenging capacity of 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in contrast with other studies of polysaccharides from D. officinale. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterization of active CMOS pixel sensors on high resistive substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirono, Toko; Hemperek, Tomasz; Huegging, Fabian; Krueger, Hans; Rymaszewski, Piotr; Wermes, Norbert [Physikalisches Institut, Universitaet Bonn, Bonn (Germany)

    2016-07-01

    Active CMOS pixel sensors are very attractive as radiation imaging pixel detector because they do not need cost-intensive fine pitch bump bonding. High radiation tolerance and time resolution are required to apply those sensors to upcoming particle physics experiments. To achieve these requirements, the active CMOS pixel sensors were developed on high resistive substrates. Signal charges are collected faster by drift in high resistive substrates than in standard low resistive substrates yielding also a higher radiation tolerance. A prototype of the active CMOS pixel sensor has been fabricated in the LFoundry 150 nm CMOS process on 2 kΩcm substrate. This prototype chip was thinned down to 300 μm and the backside has been processed and can contacted by an aluminum contact. The breakdown voltage is around -115 V, and the depletion width has been measured to be as large as 180 μm at a bias voltage of -110 V. Gain and noise of the readout circuitry agree with the designed values. Performance tests in the lab and test beam have been done before and after irradiation with X-rays and neutrons. In this presentation, the measurement results of the active CMOS prototype sensors are shown.

  16. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Barkin-Ladi ilmenite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Photocatalysis is an advanced oxidation process that can be carried out at room temperature under atmospheric pressure using atmospheric oxygen as the oxidant and the sun as the source of energy. This work focuses on the composition and photocatalytic activity of the raw and calcined samples of ilmenite ore obtained ...

  17. CNS active ergot alkaloid dihydro derivatives. Tritium labelling and characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egan, J.A.; Nugent, R.P.; Filer, C.N.

    2016-01-01

    The ergot alkaloids are an important class of medicinally useful substances and this report describes the high specific activity tritium labelling of two dihydro derivatives; namely, dihydroergotamine and dihydrobromocriptine. The former was prepared by the direct tritiation of ergotamine itself. However, efforts to perform an analogous direct tritiation on bromocriptine were unsuccessful and a multistep synthesis was required. (author)

  18. Expression, Purification, Characterization and In Vitro Activity of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    Activity of Recombinant Mouse Cu/Zn-Binding Superoxide. Dismutase .... of different ions concentration (concentration of ion: 0.05, 0.5, 5 and 50 mM, respectively). mSOD1 .... Ni-exchange chromatography was digested with trypsin and the ...

  19. Relationship between water activity, deformation speed, and crispness characterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castro Prada, E.M.; Primo Martin, C.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2009-01-01

    Very little is known on the rate dependency of the fracture behavior of crispy products as a function of water activity (Aw). Therefore, the effect of deformation speed on instrumental and sensory crispness was studied as a function of Aw. Deformation speed clearly affects the transition Aw range

  20. Synthesis, characterization, and antiplasmodial activity of polymer-incorporated aminoquinolines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Aderibigbe, BA

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available for in vitro antiplasmodial activity in triplet test against chloroquine sensitive strain of Plasmodium falciparum and chloroquine drug was used as a reference drug in all the experiments. A full dose response was performed to determine the concentration...

  1. Synthesis and characterization of new optically active poly(amide

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    Six new optically active poly(amide-imide)s (8a-f) were synthesized through the direct ... polyimides are widely used in the semiconductor and electronic packaging ... chiral polymers is of particular interest from the viewpoint of material science ...

  2. Characterizing preventive activity in Camagüey province

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández, María

    2012-01-01

    The article describes the characteristic features of preventive activities within the System of Education at Camaguey province. This information herein gathers results from a research investigation project and might be of interest for teachers, principals and investigators as a professional tool.

  3. Analytical Characterization of Volatile Active Principles from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    After the extraction of volatile active principles in water, analytical separation and quantitative determination using a GC/MS technique was performed. The compounds detected, are belonging to the following classes: aldehydes, ketones, aromatic hydrocarbons and alcohols. South African Journal of Chemistry Vol.55 2002: ...

  4. Production and characterization of cellulolytic activities produced by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hind

    2013-01-30

    Jan 30, 2013 ... These activities were stable at 50°C after 5 h incubation in a pH ... chemical methods for environmental reasons. ... components in a complex in which the product of one ... high yielding parent strain of many commercially strains .... variance (ANOVA) and expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD).

  5. The characterization of activities associated with irradiated fuel element claddings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkins, I.L.; Bolus, D.J.; Glover, K.M.; Haynes, J.W.; Mapper, D.; Marwick, A.D.; Waterman, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    The object of the present work was to characterise the natures and amounts of the various α and βγ activities associated with cladding hulls. The claddings studied were stainless steel from a Fast Reactor and from an Advanced Gas Reactor and Zircaloy from a Boiling Water Reactor, from a Pressurized Water Reactor and from a Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor. The hulls were examined by the following methods: alpha spectrometry to identify and quantify the α emitters and to estimate their depths of penetration, partial and complete dissolution of hulls followed by gross α counting, α spectrometry and γ spectrometry, fission track autoradiography to determine the distribution of fissile material associated with hulls, neutron activation to determine the total fissile content of the hulls, chemical separations followed by β counting and chemical treatment with various reagents to examine the ease of decontamination

  6. Characterizing Nanoparticles Reactivity: Structure-Photocatalytic Activity Relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piella, J; Bastús, N G; Casals, E; Puntes, V

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticles are reactive, and their final interactions with the surrounding media are ultimately determined by their reactivity, which in turns depends on the nanoparticles morphology, surface chemistry and environment in which they are embedded. One simple and informative approach for the study of the reactivity of nanoparticles is the determination of their photocatalytic activity. In the present work, we briefly summarize the importance of different parameters such as the size, shape and agglomeration state on the photocatalytic activity of colloidal inorganic nanoparticles. The study of the use of nanoparticles as photocatalyts is relevant not only for its potential applications in environmental remediation issues but also it can provide relevant information about the role of these parameters at the nanoscale.

  7. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Prabodh; Jones, Tyler H; Lopez, Elizabeth M; McFeeters, Robert L; Ali, Nasser A Awadh; Mansi, Iman; Al-Kaf, Ali G; Setzer, William N

    2017-03-05

    Rosemary ( Rosmarinus officinalis L.) is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia), Alabama (USA), Western Cape (South Africa), Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+)-α-pinene (13.5%-37.7%), 1,8-cineole (16.1%-29.3%), (+)-verbenone (0.8%-16.9%), (-)-borneol (2.1%-6.9%), (-)-camphor (0.7%-7.0%), and racemic limonene (1.6%-4.4%). Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  8. Characterization of selected waste tanks from the active LLLW system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, J.M.; Giaquinto, J.M.; Griest, W.H.

    1996-08-01

    From September 1989 through January of 1990, there was a major effort to sample and analyze the Active Liquid-Low Level Waste (LLLW) tanks at ORNL which include the Melton Valley Storage Tanks (MVST) and the Bethel Valley Evaporator Service Tanks (BVEST). The purpose of this report is to summarize additional analytical data collected from some of the active waste tanks from November 1993 through February 1996. The analytical data for this report was collected for several unrelated projects which had different data requirements. The overall analyte list was similar for these projects and the level of quality assurance was the same for all work reported. the new data includes isotopic ratios for uranium and plutonium and an evaluation of the denature ratios to address criticality concerns. Also, radionuclides not previously measured in these waste tanks, including 99Tc and 237Np, are provided in this report

  9. Obsidian sources characterized by neutron-activation analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordus, A A; Wright, G A; Griffin, J B

    1968-07-26

    Concentrations of elements such as manganese, scandium, lanthanum, rubidium, samarium, barium, and zirconium in obsidian samples from different flows show ranges of 1000 percent or more, whereas the variation in element content in obsidian samples from a single flow appears to be less than 40 percent. Neutron-activation analysis of these elements, as well as of sodium and iron, provides a means of identifying the geologic source of an archeological artifact of obsidian.

  10. Nonlinear PCA: characterizing interactions between modes of brain activity.

    OpenAIRE

    Friston, K; Phillips, J; Chawla, D; Büchel, C

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a nonlinear principal component analysis (PCA) that identifies underlying sources causing the expression of spatial modes or patterns of activity in neuroimaging time-series. The critical aspect of this technique is that, in relation to conventional PCA, the sources can interact to produce (second-order) spatial modes that represent the modulation of one (first-order) spatial mode by another. This nonlinear PCA uses a simple neural network architecture that embodies a spec...

  11. Physiological characterization of Enterococcus faecalis during azoreductase activity

    OpenAIRE

    Punj, Sumit; John, Gilbert H.

    2011-01-01

    Azo dyes are widely used in the food, pharmaceutical, paper, and textile industries. Some azo dyes are known to produce carcinogenic compounds upon reductive cleavage of the azo bond (N=N) by intestinal flora. There is not much information available on the effect of these dyes on the physiology of the gut microflora as well as their kinetics of reduction in different environments. The azoreductase activity of Enterococcus faecalis, an important opportunistic intestinal pathogen, was tested us...

  12. Characterization of silicoaluminates for low and medium activity wastes packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivoallan, A.; Berson, X.

    1996-01-01

    Studies are done in order to demonstrate many advantages (as an important volume reduction and a greater chemical stability) of packaging low and medium activity wastes in crystal structures compared with concrete and bitumen. In order to understand the consequences of hazardous chemical composition (especially anions) in the waste on the characteristics of the mineral packaging, a simulation study is developed with inactive concentrates. It leads to well crystallized structures which have not the same major crystallized phase. (authors)

  13. Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical characterization of Carya illinoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottari, Nathieli Bianchin; Lopes, Leonardo Quintana Soares; Pizzuti, Kauana; Filippi Dos Santos Alves, Camilla; Corrêa, Marcos Saldanha; Bolzan, Leandro Perger; Zago, Adriana; de Almeida Vaucher, Rodrigo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Giongo, Janice Luehring; Baldissera, Matheus Dellaméa; Santos, Roberto Christ Vianna

    2017-03-01

    Carya illinoensis is a widespread species, belonging to the Juglandaceae family, commonly known as Pecan. Popularly, the leaves have been used in the treatment of smoking as a hypoglycemic, cleansing, astringent, keratolytic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial agent. The following research aimed to identify for the first time the phytochemical compounds present in the leaves of C. illinoensis and carry out the determination of antimicrobial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts. The antimicrobial activity was tested against 20 microorganisms by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Phenolic acids (gallic acid and ellagic acid), flavonoids (rutin), and tannins (catechins and epicatechins) were identified by HPLC-DAD and may be partially responsible for the antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, and yeast. The results showed MIC values between 25 mg/mL and 0.78 mg/mL. The extracts were also able to inhibit the production of germ tubes by Candida albicans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Preparation and characterization of polyhydroxyalkanoate bioplastics with antibacterial activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Qiuli; Ma, Yiming; Che, Xuemei; Zhong, Jin; Sun, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Haoqian

    2016-08-25

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs), as a novel class of biopolymer, are attracting more attention due to their diverse material properties and environment-independent biodegradability. Here we report the preparation of PHA exhibiting efficient antibacterial activity by embedding Nisin, a food additive generally recognized as safe, into poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyhexanoate) (PHBHHx), a type of PHA with high biocompatibility. We first prepared Nisin-containing PHBHHx films using solvent casting method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis showed that a well-mixed integrated structure of the films with an even distribution of the Nisin particles in the PHBHHx matrices. Then the antimicrobial activity of PHBHHx/Nisin films against Micrococcus luteus was quantified on agar plate by measuring the size of inhibition zone. Cultivation in liquid media further confirmed the releasing of Nisin from the films and the long-time antibacterial activity. Results showed that the threshold of Nisin concentration for long-time and effective inhibition against bacteria growth is 25 μg/g. These results altogether establish a technological foundation for the application of PHA in biomedicine and food industry.

  15. Purification, Characterization and Biological Activity of Polysaccharides from Dendrobium officinale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiwei Huang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Polysaccharide (DOPA from the stem of D. officinale, as well as two fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 of it, were isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography, and their structural characteristics and bioactivities were investigated. The average molecular weights of DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were 394 kDa and 362 kDa, respectively. They were mainly composed of d-mannose, d-glucose, and had a backbone consisting of 1,4-linked β-d-Manp and 1,4-linked β-d-Glcp with O-acetyl groups. Bioactivity studies indicated that both DOPA and its purified fractions (DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 could activate splenocytes and macrophages. The D. officinale polysaccharides had stimulatory effects on splenocytes, T-lymphocytes and B-lymphocytes, promoting the cell viability and NO production of RAW 264.7 macrophages. Furthermore, DOPA, DOPA-1 and DOPA-2 were found to protect RAW 264.7 macrophages against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2-induced oxidative injury by promoting cell viability, suppressing apoptosis and ameliorating oxidative lesions. These results suggested that D. officinale polysaccharides possessed antioxidant activity and mild immunostimulatory activity.

  16. Purification, characterization and immunomodulatory activity of polysaccharides from stem lettuce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Chenzhipeng; Zhu, Peilei; Ma, Shuping; Wang, Mingchun; Hu, Youdong

    2018-05-15

    Stem lettuce has a long history of cultivation in China and possesses high nutritional and medicinal value. In our previous studies, extraction optimization, characterization, and bioactivities of stem lettuce polysaccharides (SLP) were investigated. In this study, SLP were further separated into two purified polysaccharides, SLP-1 and SLP-2, by anion exchange chromatography followed by size exclusion chromatography. SLP-1, with a molecular weight of 90 KDa, was mainly composed of galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 17.6:41.7:33.9. SLP-2, with a molecular weight of 44 KDa, was mainly composed of mannose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose in a molar ratio of 11.5:69.5:9.3:8.2. In addition, both purified polysaccharides contain sulphate radicals, have triple helical structures and can promote macrophage proliferation without cytotoxicity. SLP-2 was better able to stimulate phagocytic and nitric oxide production than SLP-1. The results suggest that polysaccharides from stem lettuce could be explored as immunomodulatory agents in the field of pharmaceuticals and functional foods. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of important heterocyclic acrylic copolymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The acrylate monomer, 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC has been synthesized by reacting 7-hydroxy-4-methyl coumarin, with acryloyl chloride in the presence of NaOH at 0–5°C. Copolymers of 7-acryloyloxy-4-methyl coumarin (AMC with vinyl acetate (VAc were synthesized in DMF (dimethyl formamide solution at 70±1°C using 2,2′-azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN as an initiator with different monomer-to-monomer ratios in the feed. The copolymers were characterized by Fourier transform infra red (FTIR spectroscopy. The copolymer composition was evaluated by 1H-NMR (proton nuclear magnetic resonance and was further used to determine reactivity ratios. The monomer reactivity ratios for AMC (M1-VAc (M2 pair were determined by the application of conventional linearization methods such as Fineman-Ross (r1 = 0.6924; r2 = 0.6431, Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6776; r2 = 0.6374 and extended Kelen-Tüdõs (r1 = 0.6657; r2 = 0.6256. Thermo gravimetric analysis showed that thermal decomposition of the copolymers occurred in single stage in the temperature range of 263–458°C. The molecular weights of the polymers were determined using gel permeation chromatography. The homo and copolymers were tested for their antimicrobial properties against selected microorganisms.

  18. The status of Yucca Mountain site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gertz, Carl P.; Larkin, Erin L.; Hamner, Melissa

    1992-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is continuing its studies to determine if Yucca Mountain, Nevada, can safely isolate high-level nuclear waste for the next ten thousand years. As mandated by Congress in 1987, DOE is studying the rocks, the climate, and the water table at Yucca Mountain to ensure that the site is suitable before building a repository adopt 305 meters below the surface. Yucca Mountain, located 160.9 kilometers northwest of Las Vegas, lies on the western edge of the Nevada Test Site. Nevada and DOE have been in litigation over environmental permits needed to conduct studies, but recent court decisions have allowed limited new work to begin. This paper will examine progress made on the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) during 1991 and continuing into 1992, discuss the complex legal issues and describe new site drilling work. Design work on the underground exploratory studies facility (ESF) will also be discussed. (author)

  19. Chemical Characterization, Antioxidant and Enzymatic Activity of Brines from Scandinavian Marinated Herring Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gringer, Nina; Osman, Ali; Nielsen, Henrik Hauch

    2014-01-01

    Brines generated during the last marination step in the production of marinated herring (Clupea harengus) were chemically characterized and analyzed for antioxidant and enzyme activities. The end-products were vinegar cured, spice cured and traditional barrel-salted herring with either salt...... or spices. The chemical characterization encompassed pH, dry matter, ash, salt, fatty acids, protein, polypeptide pattern, iron and nitrogen. The antioxidant activity was tested with three assays measuring: iron chelation, reducing power and radical scavenging activity. The enzymatic activity for peroxidase...

  20. Elemental characterization of Brazilian beans using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lilian Seiko Kato; Nadai Fernandes, E.A. De; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Gabriel Adrian Sarries; Andres Enrique Lai Reyes

    2015-01-01

    Beans are important for many developing countries as a source of protein and mineral nutrients. Here, ten commercial types of Brazilian beans, from the species Phaseolus vulgaris (common beans) and Vigna unguiculata (cowpeas), were analyzed by neutron activation analysis for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Mo, Na, Rb, Sc and Zn. There were statistical differences (p/0.05) amongst the commercial types, except for Br, Rb and Sc. In general, non-essential elements showed high variability, indicating that the origin of beans had a strong influence on the mass fraction of such elements. (author)

  1. Characterization of Wastewater for Modelling of Activated Sludge Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henze, Mogens

    1992-01-01

    The fractionation of organic matter in the various parts which are used for mathematical modelling is discussed. The fractions include inert soluble, readily biodegradable, rapidly hydrolyzable, slowly hydrolyzable, biomass and inert suspended material. Methods for measuring are also discussed....... Fractionation of biomass in wastewater and in activated sludge is difficult at present, as methods are only partly developed. Nitrogen fractions in wastewater are mainly inorganic. The organic nitrogen fractions are coupled to the organic COD fractions. The fractions of COD, biomass and nitrogen found...

  2. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of new salicylhydrazide containing azopyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhupendra P. Patel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Various ethyl-2-substituted phenyl hydrazono-3-oxobutyrate (2a-h condensation with 2-hydroxy benzoic acid hydrazide (3 to afford 1-(2-hydroxybenzoyl-3-methyl-4-(2- substituted phenyl hydrazono-1H-pyrazol-5(4H-one (4a-h. The structures of all these compounds (4a-h were recognized on basis of analytical and spectral data. The newly synthesized compounds were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against various bacteria and fungi.

  3. Characterization of breakpoint cluster region kinase and SH2-binding activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afar, D E; Witte, O N

    1995-01-01

    BCR is an interesting signaling protein, whose cellular function is currently unknown. Its biochemical properties include serine kinase activity, SH2-binding activity, and a GTPase-activating activity. The SH2-binding activity is particularly interesting because it may link BCR to signaling pathways involving SH2-containing molecules. Since tyrosine phosphorylation of BCR has been detected in CML-derived cell lines and since tyrosine-phosphorylated BCR shows increased affinity toward certain SH2 domains, it seems particularly important to further characterize this activity. This chapter described a simple purification scheme for partial purification of BCR, which can be used to assess in vitro kinase and SH2-binding activities.

  4. Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingjin; Ge, Liming; Lyu, Yongbo; Zi, Yaxin; Li, Xinying; Li, Defu; Mu, Changdao

    2017-10-15

    The oxidized κ-carrageenans with different oxidation levels were prepared through the hydrogen peroxide and copper sulfate redox system. The oxidation level of oxidized κ-carrageenan was successfully controlled by adjusting the dosage of hydrogen peroxide. The results showed that the microtopography of oxidized κ-carrageenan changed from rough granules to smooth flakes, mainly resulting from the easily melting property of oxidized κ-carrageenan induced by introduced carboxyl and aldehyde groups. Especially, the antibacterial activity of oxidized κ-carrageenans against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) was systematically investigated. The results showed that the oxidized κ-carrageenan could damage the bacterial cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane and suppress the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The oxidized κ-carrageenan possessed broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, which may be used as a new antibacterial agent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Chemotypic Characterization and Biological Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prabodh Satyal

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. is a popular herb in cooking, traditional healing, and aromatherapy. The essential oils of R. officinalis were obtained from plants growing in Victoria (Australia, Alabama (USA, Western Cape (South Africa, Kenya, Nepal, and Yemen. Chemical compositions of the rosemary oils were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry as well as chiral gas chromatography. The oils were dominated by (+-α-pinene (13.5%–37.7%, 1,8-cineole (16.1%–29.3%, (+-verbenone (0.8%–16.9%, (−-borneol (2.1%–6.9%, (−-camphor (0.7%–7.0%, and racemic limonene (1.6%–4.4%. Hierarchical cluster analysis, based on the compositions of these essential oils in addition to 72 compositions reported in the literature, revealed at least five different chemotypes of rosemary oil. Antifungal, cytotoxicity, xanthine oxidase inhibitory, and tyrosinase inhibitory activity screenings were carried out, but showed only marginal activities.

  6. Cadmium Sulphide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and their Photocatalytic Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Vijayaraj, Arunachalam; Prabu, Raju; Narayanan, Vengidusamy

    2012-01-01

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanorods were prepared by a single precursor thermal decomposition (SPTD) method. The formation of CdS nanorods and their structure, morphology and elemental composition were studied by means of FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and EDAX analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime measurements were recorded to study the luminescence properties of the material. The PL spectrum of the CdS nanorods showed one broad peak and four shoulders and the cause for this emission was discussed. The PL emissions from the band edge and deep trap state of the CdS nanorods were studied by lifetime measurements. Further, the synthesized CdS nanorods showed an increase in efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The increase in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the mixed phase of the CdS nanorods

  7. Cadmium Sulphide Nanorods: Synthesis, Characterization and their Photocatalytic Activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giribabu, Krishnamoorthy; Suresh, Ranganathan; Manigandan, Ramadoss; Vijayaraj, Arunachalam; Prabu, Raju; Narayanan, Vengidusamy [Univ. of Madras, Madras (India)

    2012-09-15

    Cadmium sulphide (CdS) nanorods were prepared by a single precursor thermal decomposition (SPTD) method. The formation of CdS nanorods and their structure, morphology and elemental composition were studied by means of FT-IR, XRD, FE-SEM, HR-TEM and EDAX analysis. Photoluminescence (PL) and lifetime measurements were recorded to study the luminescence properties of the material. The PL spectrum of the CdS nanorods showed one broad peak and four shoulders and the cause for this emission was discussed. The PL emissions from the band edge and deep trap state of the CdS nanorods were studied by lifetime measurements. Further, the synthesized CdS nanorods showed an increase in efficiency of photocatalytic degradation of methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (RhB). The increase in the photocatalytic activity was attributed to the mixed phase of the CdS nanorods.

  8. Characterization and Antiproliferative Activity of Nobiletin-Loaded Chitosan Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana G. Luque-Alcaraz

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nobiletin is a polymethoxyflavonoid with a remarkable antiproliferative effect. In order to overcome its low aqueous solubility and chemical instability, the use of nanoparticles as carriers has been proposed. This study explores the possibility of binding nobiletin to chitosan nanoparticles, as well as to evaluate their antiproliferative activity. The association and loading efficiencies are 69.1% and 7.0%, respectively. The formation of an imine bond between chitosan amine groups and the carbonyl group of nobiletin, via Schiff-base, is proposed. Nobiletin-loaded chitosan nanoparticles exhibit considerable inhibition (IC50=8 μg/mL of cancerous cells, revealing their great potential for applications in cancer chemotherapy.

  9. Synthesis, characterization and SERS activity of biosynthesized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bindhu, M. R.; Sathe, V.; Umadevi, M.

    2013-11-01

    Silver nanoparticles were rapidly synthesized using Moringa oleifera flower extract as the reducing agent shows surface plasmon resonance peak at 439 nm. The size and shape of the nanoparticles controlled by varying the concentration of M. oleifera flower extract in the reaction medium. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were well-dispersed spherical nanoparticles with the average size of 14 nm. The retinoic acid present in M. oleifera flower extract used as reducing agent and proteins was responsible for capping of the bioreduced silver nanoparticles. The obtained nanoparticle shows size-dependent SERS activity. The SERS spectrum indicates that the pyridine adsorbed on the silver surface in a stand-on orientation via its nitrogen lone pair electrons.

  10. Characterization of Brazilian commercial milks by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, L.G.C.; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Tagliaferro, F.S.; Bacchi, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at the determination of toxic and essential elements in Brazilian commercial bovine milk, 25 ultra high temperature (UHT) milk samples were acquired in the local market of Piracicaba, SP. The samples were freeze-dried and analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) allowing the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn. When the results were expressed as concentration (mg x l -1 ) no significant differences were found. However, considering the dry matter, results showed a clear difference between the mass fractions (mg x kg -1 d.w.) of skim milk and whole milk for the elements Br, Ca, K, Na, Rb and Zn, indicating that the removal of fat caused a concentration effect in the dry matter of skim milks. Discrepancies were found between the concentrations of Ca and Na measured by INAA and the values informed in the labels. Ca showed variations within 30% for most samples, while concentrations of Na were up to 190% higher than informed values. The sample preparation and the INAA procedure were appropriate for the determination of Br, Ca, Co, Cs, Fe, K, Na, Rb and Zn in milk samples. (author)

  11. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal, E-mail: ana_allves2008@hotmail.co [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10{sup 11}ncm{sup -2}s{sup -1}. The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000mug.g{sup -1}. Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  12. Cosmetics chemical composition characterization by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alves, Ana Paula; Pereira, Gustavo Jose; Amaral, Angela Maria; Ferreira, Andrea Vidal

    2009-01-01

    Brazil is in the third position in the world's cosmetics market. It is an expanding and growing market where new products and manufacturing processes are in a constant and steady expansion. Therefore, it is mandatory that the composition of the products is well known in order to guarantee safety and quality of daily used cosmetics. The Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (ANVISA) has issued a resolution, RDC No. 48, March 16, 2006, which defines a 'List of Substances which can not be used in personal hygiene products, cosmetics and perfumes'. In this work, samples of locally manufactured and imported cosmetics (lipsticks, eye shadows, etc.) were analyzed using the Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis technique. The samples were irradiated in the TRIGA IPR-R1 reactor of the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN), on a 100kW thermal power, with a thermal neutron fluence rate about 8x10 11 ncm -2 s -1 . The analysis has detected the chemical elements Br, Ba, Ga, Na, K, Sc, Fe, Cr, Zn, Sm, W, La, Rb, Cs, Ta, Ge, Co, U, Ti, V, Cl, Al, Mn and Cu. The concentrations of these elements are on a range from 5 to 3000μg.g -1 . Some chemical elements observed in samples (Cl, Br, Cr, U) are included at ANVISA prohibitive list. (author)

  13. Preparation and characterization of alkali-activated white belite cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahir, Mohammed

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Activated white cement clinkers with a theoretical 60% (wt belite (dicalcium silicate content were prepared at a temperature 100 ºC lower than used to manufacture conventional white Portland cement clinkers. Activation was achieved by adding variable amounts of K2CO 3 or Na2CO 3 to the raw mixes. Rietveld quantitative analysis of X-ray diffraction findings showed that adding the alkalis stabilized the high temperature belite polymorphs. When 2.0% (wt of Na2O was added, the composition (by wt found was 16.4(4% alpha-C2S, 16.7(8% alpha’-H-C2S, 23.2(6% beta-C2S, 32.7(7% total C3S, 9.5(2% orthorhombic C3A and 1.50(5% free lime. Due to the high volatilization rate of K2O under the experimental conditions, it stabilized the alpha-type C2S less effectively than Na2O. A calorimetric study was likewise performed to correlate the phase composition with early age hydration (behaviour.Se han preparado clínkeres blancos activados con un porcentaje en peso teórico de belita (silicato dicálcico del 60%, a una temperatura 100 ºC menor que los clínkeres Portland blancos convencionales. El proceso de activación se ha llevado a cabo añadiendo a las mezclas crudas cantidades variables de K2CO3 o Na2CO 3. Utilizando la difracción de rayos-X y la metodología de Rietveld se ha comprobado la estabilización a temperatura ambiente de porcentajes variables de los polimorfos de alta temperatura de la belita por la adición de alcalinos. De hecho, al añadir 2,0% en peso de Na2O se ha obtenido 16,4(4% de alfa-C2S, 16,7(8% de alfa’-H-C2S, 23,2(6% de beta-C2S, 32,7(7% de C3S total, 9,5(2% de C3A ortorrómbico y 1,50(5% de cal libre, porcentajes en peso. Se ha comprobado que el grado de volatilización de los alcalinos, en estas condiciones de preparación, ha sido muy acusado para el K2O, lo que ha provocado una menor estabilización de los polimorfos tipo-alfa-C2S. Además, se ha realizado un estudio calorimétrico para correlacionar el ensamblaje de fases con

  14. Characterization of antiproliferative activity constituents from Artocarpus heterophyllus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Zong-Ping; Xu, Yang; Qin, Chuan; Zhang, Shuang; Gu, Xiaohong; Lin, Yingying; Xie, Guobin; Wang, Mingfu; Chen, Jie

    2014-06-18

    Artocarpus heterophyllus is an evergreen fruit tree cultivated in many tropical regions. Previous studies have shown that some of its compositions exhibited potential tyrosinase inhibition activities. This study indentified 8 new phenolic compounds, artoheterophyllins E-J (1-6), 4-geranyl-2',3,4',5-tetrahydroxy-cis-stilbene (7), and 5-methoxymorican M (8) and 2 new natural compounds (9 and 10), 2,3-dihydro-5,7-dihydroxy-2-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-4H-benzopyran-4-one and 6-[(1S,2S)-1,2-dihydroxy-3-methylbutyl]-2-(2,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-5-hydroxy-7-methoxy-3-(3-methyl-2-buten-1-yl)-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one, together with 23 known compounds (11-33), from the ethanol extract of the wood of A. heterophyllus. The structures of the eight new compounds (1-8) and two new natural compounds were established by extensive 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments. The anticancer effects of the isolated compounds were examined in MCF-7, H460, and SMMC-7721 human cancer cell lines by MTT assay. Compounds 5, 11, 12, and 30 significantly reduced the cell viabilities of these cell lines. Especially, compounds 11 and 30 resulted in more potent cytotoxicity than the positive control, 5-fluorouracil (5-Fu), in SMMC-7721 cell line, with IC50 values of 15.85 and 12.06 μM, whereas compound 30 exhibited more potent cytotoxicity than 5-Fu in NCI-H460 cell line, with an IC50 value of 5.19 μM. In addition, this study suggests that compounds 11 and 30 from the wood of A. heterophyllus have anticancer potential via MAPK pathways.

  15. Characterization and biological activity of Solidago canadensis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šutovská, M; Capek, P; Kocmálová, M; Fraňová, S; Pawlaczyk, I; Gancarz, R

    2013-01-01

    Polyphenolic-polysaccharide-protein complex has been isolated from flowers of Solidago canadensis L. by hot alkaline extraction procedure. Compositional analyses of S canadensis complex revealed the presence of carbohydrates (43 wt%), protein (27 wt%), phenolics (12 wt%), uronic acids (10 wt%) and inorganic material (8 wt%). The carbohydrate part was rich in neutral sugars (81 wt%) while uronids were determined in lower amount (19 wt%). Monosaccharide analysis of carbohydrate part revealed the presence of five main sugar components, i.e. rhamnose (~23 wt%), arabinose (~20 wt%), uronic acids (~19 wt%), galactose (~17 wt%) and glucose (~14 wt%), and indicated thus the presence of rhamnogalacturonan and arabinogalactan in S. canadensis complex. HPLC analysis of complex showed one single peak of molecule mass at 11.2 kDa. Antitussive activity tests, performed in three doses of Solidago complex, showed the reduction of the number of cough efforts in the dose-dependent manner. Higher doses (50 and 75 mg/kg b.w.) were shown to be by 15 and 20% more effective than that of lower one (25mg/kg b.w.). However, the antitussive effect of the highest dose (75 mg/kg b.w.) was by 10% lower in comparison with that of codeine, the strongest antitussive agent. Besides, the highest dose of the complex (75 mg/kg b.w.) significantly decreased values of specific airways resistance and their effect remained longer as that of salbutamol, a representative of classic antiasthmatic drugs. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-10-14

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M&O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance.

  17. Characterize Framework for Igneous Activity at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Perry; R. Youngs

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this scientific analysis report is threefold: (1) Present a conceptual framework of igneous activity in the Yucca Mountain region (YMR) consistent with the volcanic and tectonic history of this region and the assessment of this history by experts who participated in the probabilistic volcanic hazard analysis (PVHA) (CRWMS M and O 1996 [DIRS 100116]). Conceptual models presented in the PVHA are summarized and applied in areas in which new information has been presented. Alternative conceptual models are discussed, as well as their impact on probability models. The relationship between volcanic source zones defined in the PVHA and structural features of the YMR are described based on discussions in the PVHA and studies presented since the PVHA. (2) Present revised probability calculations based on PVHA outputs for a repository footprint proposed in 2003 (BSC 2003 [DIRS 162289]), rather than the footprint used at the time of the PVHA. This analysis report also calculates the probability of an eruptive center(s) forming within the repository footprint using information developed in the PVHA. Probability distributions are presented for the length and orientation of volcanic dikes located within the repository footprint and for the number of eruptive centers (conditional on a dike intersecting the repository) located within the repository footprint. (3) Document sensitivity studies that analyze how the presence of potentially buried basaltic volcanoes may affect the computed frequency of intersection of the repository footprint by a basaltic dike. These sensitivity studies are prompted by aeromagnetic data collected in 1999, indicating the possible presence of previously unrecognized buried volcanoes in the YMR (Blakely et al. 2000 [DIRS 151881]; O'Leary et al. 2002 [DIRS 158468]). The results of the sensitivity studies are for informational purposes only and are not to be used for purposes of assessing repository performance

  18. 76 FR 51391 - Commercial Wind Lease Issuance and Site Characterization Activities on the Atlantic Outer...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-18

    ... coordinated environmental studies, large-scale planning processes, and expedited review processes within these... successful lessee proposes development activity, the specific proposal will be given full review at that time... characterization activities (i.e., geological and geophysical surveys and core samples), a lessee must submit the...

  19. Characterization of CCN and IN activity of bacterial isolates collected in Atlanta, GA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue, Sara; Waters, Samantha; Karthikeyan, Smruthi; Konstantinidis, Kostas; Nenes, Athanasios

    2016-04-01

    Characterization of CCN activity of bacteria, other than a few select types such as Pseudomonas syringae, is limited, especially when looked at in conjunction with corresponding IN activity. The link between these two points is especially important for bacteria as those that have high CCN activity are likely to form an aqueous phase required for immersion freezing. Given the high ice nucleation temperature of bacterial cells, especially in immersion mode, it is important to characterize the CCN and IN activity of many different bacterial strains. To this effect, we developed a droplet freezing assay (DFA) which consists of an aluminum cold plate, cooled by a continuous flow of an ethylene glycol-water mixture, in order to observe immersion freezing of the collected bacteria. Here, we present the initial results on the CCN and IN activities of bacterial samples we have collected in Atlanta, GA. Bacterial strains were collected and isolated from rainwater samples taken from different storms throughout the year. We then characterized the CCN activity of each strain using a DMT Continuous Flow Streamwise Thermal Gradient CCN Counter by exposing the aerosolized bacteria to supersaturations ranging from 0.05% to 0.6%. Additionally, using our new DFA, we characterized the IN activity of each bacterial strain at temperatures ranging from -20oC to 0oC. The combined CCN and IN activity gives us valuable information on how some uncharacterized bacteria contribute to warm and mixed-phase cloud formation in the atmosphere.

  20. Characterization of silver nanoparticles synthesized using an endophytic fungus, Penicillium oxalicum having potential antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Sukla; Debnath, Gopal; Das, Aparajita Roy; Krishna Saha, Ajay; Das, Panna

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the efficacy of the extracellular mycelium extract of Penicillium oxalicum isolated from Phlogacanthus thyrsiflorus to biosynthesize silver nanoparticles. It was characterized using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and Fourier transforms infrared spectroscopy. The silver nanoparticles were evaluated for antimicrobial activity. The characterization confirms the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. Both silver nanoparticles and combination of silver nanoparticles with streptomycin showed activity against the four bacteria. The results suggested that P. oxalicum offers eco-friendly production of silver nanoparticles and the antibacterial activity may find application in biomedicine.

  1. Early Subretinal Allograft Rejection Is Characterized by Innate Immune Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Kevin P; Holmes, Toby M; Wallace, Deborah M; O'Farrelly, Cliona; Keegan, David J

    2017-06-09

    Successful subretinal transplantation is limited by considerable early graft loss despite pharmacological suppression of adaptive immunity. We postulated that early innate immune activity is a dominant factor in determining graft survival and chose a nonimmunosuppressed mouse model of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell transplantation to explore this. Expression of almost all measured cytokines by DH01 RPE cells increased significantly following graft preparation, and the neutrophil chemoattractant KC/GRO/CINC was most significantly increased. Subretinal allografts of DH01 cells (C57BL/10 origin) into healthy, nonimmunosuppressed C57BL/6 murine eyes were harvested and fixed at 1, 3, 7, and 28 days postoperatively and subsequently cryosectioned and stained. Graft cells were detected using SV40 large T antigen (SV40T) immunolabeling and apoptosis/necrosis by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL). Sections were also immunolabeled for macrophage (CD11b and F4/80), neutrophil (Gr1 Ly-6G), and T-lymphocyte (CD3-ɛ) infiltration. Images captured with an Olympus FV1000 confocal microscope were analyzed using the Imaris software. The proportion of the subretinal bolus comprising graft cells (SV40T+) was significantly (p < 0.001) reduced between postoperative day (POD) 3 (90 ± 4%) and POD 7 (20 ± 7%). CD11b+, F4/80+, and Gr1 Ly-6G+ cells increased significantly (p < 0.05) from POD 1 and predominated over SV40T+ cells by POD 7. Colabeling confocal microscopic analysis demonstrated graft engulfment by neutrophils and macrophages at POD 7, and reconstruction of z-stacked confocal images confirmed SV40T inside Gr1 Ly-6G+ cells. Expression of CD3-ɛ was low and did not differ significantly between time points. By POD 28, no graft cells were detectable and few inflammatory cells remained. These studies reveal, for the first time, a critical role for innate immune mechanisms early in subretinal graft rejection. The future success

  2. Site safety plan for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory CERCLA investigations at site 300. Revision 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilmer, J.

    1997-08-01

    Various Department of Energy Orders incorporate by reference, health and safety regulations promulgated by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). One of the OSHA regulations, 29 CFR 1910.120, Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency Response, requires that site safety plans are written for activities such as those covered by work plans for Site 300 environmental investigations. Based upon available data, this Site Safety Plan (Plan) for environmental restoration has been prepared specifically for the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Site 300, located approximately 15 miles east of Livermore, California. As additional facts, monitoring data, or analytical data on hazards are provided, this Plan may need to be modified. It is the responsibility of the Environmental Restoration Program and Division (ERD) Site Safety Officer (SSO), with the assistance of Hazards Control, to evaluate data which may impact health and safety during these activities and to modify the Plan as appropriate. This Plan is not `cast-in-concrete.` The SSO shall have the authority, with the concurrence of Hazards Control, to institute any change to maintain health and safety protection for workers at Site 300.

  3. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Ka-Ngo Leung; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity. (author)

  4. Prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) and short-lived neutron activation analysis (NAA) applied to the characterization of legacy materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firestone, Richard B; English, G.A.; Firestone, R.B.; Perry, D.L.; Reijonen, J.P.; Leung, Ka-Ngo; Garabedian, G.F.; Molnar, G.L.; Revay, Zs.

    2008-01-01

    Without quality historical records that provide the composition of legacy materials, the elemental and/or chemical characterization of such materials requires a manual analytical strategy that may expose the analyst to unknown toxicological hazards. In addition, much of the existing legacy inventory also incorporates radioactivity, and, although radiological composition may be determined by various nuclear-analytical methods, most importantly, gamma-spectroscopy, current methods of chemical characterization still require direct sample manipulation, thereby presenting special problems with broad implications for both the analyst and the environment. Alternately, prompt gamma activation analysis (PGAA) provides a 'single-shot' in-situ, non-destructive method that provides a complete assay of all major entrained elemental constituents.1-3. Additionally, neutron activation analysis (NAA) using short-lived activation products complements PGAA and is especially useful when NAA activation surpasses the PGAA in elemental sensitivity

  5. Recent progress in volcanism studies: Site characterization activities for the Yucca Mountain site characterization project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crowe, B.M.; Valentine, G.; Morley, R.; Perry, F.V.

    1992-01-01

    Significant progress has been made on volcanism studies over the past calendar year. There are a number of major highlights from this work. Geochronology data have been obtained for the Lathrop Wells center using a range of isotopic, radiogenic, and age-calibrated methods. Initial work is encouraging but still insufficient to resolve the age of the center with confidence. Geologic mapping of the Sleeping Butte volcanic centers was completed and a report issued on the geology and chronology data. Twenty shallow trenches have been constructed in volcanic units of the Lathrop Wells volcanic center. Results of detailed studies of the trenches support a polycyclic eruptive history. New soil data from the trenches continue to support a late Pleistocene or Holocene age for many of the volcanic units at the center. Geochemical data (trace element and isotopic analysis) show that the volcanic units of the Lathrop Wells center cannot be related to one another by fractional crystallization of a single magma batch, supporting a polycyclic model of volcanism. Structural models using existing data are used to evaluate the probability of magmatic disruption of a potential repository. Several permissive models have been developed but none lead to significant differences in calculating the disruption ratio. Work was initiated on the eruptive and subsurface effects of magmatic activity on a repository. (author)

  6. Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coal and Its Application as Adsorbent on Mine Acid Water Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Hardianti; Susila Arita Rachman; Harminuke E.H.

    2017-01-01

    Anthracite and Sub-bituminous as activated carbon raw material had been utilized especially in mining field as adsorbent of dangerous heavy metal compound resulted in mining activity. Carbon from coal was activated physically and chemically in various temperature and particle sizes. Characterization was carried out in order to determine the adsorbent specification produced hence can be used and applied accordingly. Proximate and ultimate analysis concluded anthracite has fixed carbon 88.91% w...

  7. Immersion Calorimetry for the Characterization of PD Catalysts Supported on Activated Carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Giraldo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons obtained from coconut peel were oxidized using hydrogen peroxide. Superficial characteristics of these carbons were determined through N2 and CO2 isotherms and functional groups were characterized by TPD. Finally, the microcalorimetry technique was used in order to obtain the immersion enthalpies in diverse liquids and established the relation between them and the results obtained by the other characterization techniques. The results suggested that the immersion calorimetry allow establishing the difference between the supports and the catalysts.

  8. CERCLA-linked environmental impact and benefit analysis: Evaluating remedial alternatives for the Portland Harbor Superfund Site, Portland, Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNally, Amanda D; Fitzpatrick, Anne G; Mirchandani, Sera; Salmon, Matthew; Edwards, Deborah A

    2018-01-01

    This analysis focused on evaluating the environmental consequences of remediation, providing indicators for the environmental quality pillar of 3 "pillars" of the Portland Harbor Sustainability Project (PHSP) framework (the other 2 pillars are economic viability and social equity). The project an environmental impact and benefit analysis (EIBA) and an EIBA-based cost-benefit analysis. Metrics developed in the EIBA were used to quantify and compare remedial alternatives' environmental benefits and impacts in the human and ecological domains, as a result of remedial actions (relative to no action). The cost-benefit results were used to evaluate whether remediation costs were proportionate or disproportionate to the environmental benefits. Alternatives B and D had the highest overall benefit scores, and Alternative F was disproportionately costly relative to its achieved benefits when compared to the other remedial alternatives. Indeed, the costlier alternatives with larger remedial footprints had lower overall EIBA benefit scores-because of substantially more air emissions, noise, and light impacts, and more disturbance to business, recreational access, and habitat during construction-compared to the less costly and smaller alternatives. Put another way, the adverse effects during construction tended to outweigh the long-term benefits, and the net environmental impacts of the larger remedial alternatives far outweighed their small incremental improvements in risk reduction. Results of this Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA)-linked environmental analysis were integrated with indicators of economic and social impacts of remediation in a stakeholder values-based sustainability framework. These tools (EIBA, EIBA-based cost-benefit analysis, economic impact assessment, and the stakeholder values-based integration) provide transparent and quantitative evaluations of the benefits and impacts associated with remedial alternatives

  9. Preparation And Characterization Of Cr/Activated Carbon Catalyst From Palm Empty Fruit Bunch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zainal Fanani

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Preparation and characterization of Cr/activated carbon catalyst from palm empty fruit bunch had been done. The research were to determine the effect of carbonization temperature towards adsorption of ammonia, iodine number, metilen blue number, and porosity of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst. The determination of porosity include surface area, micropore volume and total pore volume. The results showed the best carbonization temperature activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst at 700°C. The adsorption ammonia of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 6.379 mmol/g and 8.1624 mmol/g. The iodine number of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 1520.16 mg/g and 1535.67 mg/g. The metilen blue number of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 281.71 mg/g and 319.18 mg/g. The surface area of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 1527.80 m2/g and 1652.58 m2/g. The micropore volume of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 0.7460 cm3/g and 0.8670 cm3/g. The total pore volume of activated carbon and Cr/activated carbon catalyst as 0.8243 cm3/g and 0.8970 cm3/g.

  10. Hazardous Substance Release Reporting Under CERCLA, EPCR {section}304 and DOE Emergency Management System (EMS) and DOE Occurrence Reporting Requirements. Environmental Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traceski, T.T.

    1994-06-01

    Releases of various substances from DOE facilities may be subject to reporting requirements under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (EPCRA), as well as DOE`s internal ``Occurrence Reporting and Processing of Operations Information`` and the ``Emergency Management System`` (EMS). CERCLA and EPCPA are Federal laws that require immediate reporting of a release of a Hazardous Substance (HS) and an Extremely Hazardous Substance (EHS), respectively, in a Reportable Quantity (RQ) or more within a 24-hour period. This guidance uses a flowchart, supplemental information, and tables to provide an overview of the process to be followed, and more detailed explanations of the actions that must be performed, when chemical releases of HSs, EHSs, pollutants, or contaminants occur at DOE facilities. This guidance should be used in conjunction with, rather than in lieu of, applicable laws, regulations, and DOE Orders. Relevant laws, regulations, and DOE Orders are referenced throughout this guidance.

  11. Integration of CERCLA and RCRA requirements at the Radioactive Waste Burial Grounds, Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, W.D.; Wyatt, D.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this paper to is present the comprehensive approach being taken at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to consolidate regulatory documents, characterization and assessment activities for 3 contiguous waste management facilities. These facilities cover 7.12 x 10 5 m 2 (194 acres) and include an Old Radioactive Waste Burial Ground, a Low Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Facility, and a closed Mixed Waste Management Facility. Each of these facilities include one or more operable units including solvent tanks, transuranic waste storage pads, research lysimeters and experimental confinement disposal vaults. All of these facilities have differing submittal dates for regulatory documents but similar and continuous environmental problems. The characterization and risk assessment require simultaneous efforts for all facilities to adequately define the nature and extent of past, present and future environmental impact. Current data indicates that contaminant plumes in both soil and water are comingled, interspersed and possibly exist internally within the contiguous facilities, requiring a combined investigative effort. This paper describes the combination of regulatory documents leading to this comprehensive and integrative approach for burial ground characterization at the Savannah River Site

  12. Characterization of Old Nuclear Waste Packages Coupling Photon Activation Analysis and Complementary Non-Destructive Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrel, Frederick; Coulon, Romain; Laine, Frederic; Normand, Stephane; Sari, Adrien; Charbonnier, Bruno; Salmon, Corine

    2013-06-01

    Radiological characterization of nuclear waste packages is an industrial issue in order to select the best mode of storage. The characterization becomes crucial particularly for waste packages produced at the beginning of the French nuclear industry. For the latter, available information is often incomplete and some key parameters are sometimes missing (content of the package, alpha-activity, fissile mass...) In this case, the use of non-destructive methods, both passive and active, is an appropriate solution to characterize nuclear waste packages and to obtain all the information of interest. In this article, we present the results of a complete characterization carried out on the TE 1060 block, which is a nuclear waste package produced during the 1960's in Saclay. This characterization is part of the DEMSAC (Dismantling of Saclay's facilities) project (ICPE part). It has been carried out in the SAPHIR facility, located in Saclay and housing a linear electron accelerator. This work enables to show the great interest of active methods (photon activation analysis and high-energy imaging) as soon as passive techniques encounter severe limitations. (authors)

  13. Activation and characterization of waste coffee grounds as bio-sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariana; Marwan; Mulana, F.; Yunardi; Ismail, T. A.; Hafdiansyah, M. F.

    2018-03-01

    As the city well known for its culture of coffee drinkers, modern and traditional coffee shops are found everywhere in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. High number of coffee shops in the city generates large quantities of spent coffee grounds as waste without any effort to convert them as other valuable products. In an attempt to reduce environmental problems caused by used coffee grounds, this research was conducted to utilize waste coffee grounds as an activated carbon bio-sorbent. The specific purpose of this research is to improve the performance of coffee grounds bio-sorbent through chemical and physical activation, and to characterize the produced bio-sorbent. Following physical activation by carbonization, a chemical activation was achieved by soaking the carbonized waste coffee grounds in HCl solvent and carbonization process. The activated bio-sorbent was characterized for its morphological properties using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), its functional groups by Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectrophotometer (FTIR), and its material characteristics using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Characterization of the activated carbon prepared from waste coffee grounds shows that it meets standard quality requirement in accordance with Indonesian National Standard, SNI 06-3730-1995. Activation process has modified the functional groups of the waste coffee grounds. Comparing to natural waste coffee grounds, the resulted bio-sorbent demonstrated a more porous surface morphology following activation process. Consequently, such bio-sorbent is a potential source to be used as an adsorbent for various applications.

  14. Characterization of Activated Carbons from Oil-Palm Shell by CO2 Activation with No Holding Carbonization Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Herawan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbons can be produced from different precursors, including coals of different ranks, and lignocellulosic materials, by physical or chemical activation processes. The objective of this paper is to characterize oil-palm shells, as a biomass byproduct from palm-oil mills which were converted into activated carbons by nitrogen pyrolysis followed by CO2 activation. The effects of no holding peak pyrolysis temperature on the physical characteristics of the activated carbons are studied. The BET surface area of the activated carbon is investigated using N2 adsorption at 77 K with selected temperatures of 500, 600, and 700°C. These pyrolysis conditions for preparing the activated carbons are found to yield higher BET surface area at a pyrolysis temperature of 700°C compared to selected commercial activated carbon. The activated carbons thus result in well-developed porosities and predominantly microporosities. By using this activation method, significant improvement can be obtained in the surface characteristics of the activated carbons. Thus this study shows that the preparation time can be shortened while better results of activated carbon can be produced.

  15. Characterization of Activated Carbon from Coal and Its Application as Adsorbent on Mine Acid Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Hardianti

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Anthracite and Sub-bituminous as activated carbon raw material had been utilized especially in mining field as adsorbent of dangerous heavy metal compound resulted in mining activity. Carbon from coal was activated physically and chemically in various temperature and particle sizes. Characterization was carried out in order to determine the adsorbent specification produced hence can be used and applied accordingly. Proximate and ultimate analysis concluded anthracite has fixed carbon 88.91% while sub-bituminous 49.05%. NaOH was used in chemical activation while heated at 400-500°C whereas physical activation was conducted at 800-1000°C. Activated carbon has high activity in adsorbing indicated by high iodine number resulted from analysis. SEM-EDS result confirmed that activated carbon made from coal has the quality in accordance to SNI and can be used as adsorbent in acid water treatment.

  16. Production and characterization of activated carbon from indigenous coal (lakhra coal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sattar, H.; Hussain, S.N.; Asghar, A.; Butt, A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study, indigenous coal has been exploited for the preparation of activated carbon by physical. activation and characterization of if was done by using available techniques. Physical activation involved two steps; Carbonization and CO; activation. For different temperatures, carbonization was carried out for 4 hours in an oven and it was observed that percent yield and iodine number was maximum at 600 degree C. The carbonized material of 600 C was activated at different intervals of time and different temperatures for constant flow of CO/sub 2/; (activating gas). The optimum temperature and time for CO/sub 2/; activation was observed to be 750 C and 3 hours respectively, which gave lower percent yield of active carbon but of higher iodine number and methylene blue values. (author)

  17. Preparation, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of MoCo/USY Catalyst on Hydrodeoxygenation Reaction of Anisole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugrahaningtyas, K. D.; Suharbiansah, R. S. R.; Rahmawati, F.

    2018-03-01

    This research aims to prepare, characterize, and study the catalytic activity of Molybdenum (Mo) and Cobalt (Co) metal with supporting material Ultra Stable Y-Zeolite (USY), to produce catalysts with activity in hydrotreatment reaction and in order to eliminate impurities compounds that containing unwanted groups heteroatoms. The bimetallic catalysts MoCo/USY were prepared by wet impregnation method with weight variation of Co metal 0%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, and Mo metal 8% (w/w), respectively. Activation method of the catalyst included calcination, oxidation, reduction and the crystallinity was characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), the acidity of the catalyst was analyzed using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and gravimetry method, minerals present in the catalyst was analyzed using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF), and surface of the catalyst was analyzed using Surface Area Analyzer (SAA). Catalytic activity test (benzene yield product) of MoCo/USY on hydrodeoxigenation reaction of anisole aimed to determine the effect of Mo-Co/USY for catalytic activity in the reaction hydrodeoxigenation (HDO) anisole. Based on characterization and test of catalytic activity, it is known that catalytic of MoCo/USY 2% (catalyst B) shows best activities with acidity of 10.209 mmol/g, specific area of catalyst of 426.295 m2/g, pore average of 14.135 Å, total pore volume 0.318 cc/g, and total yield of HDO products 6.06%.

  18. Active film of poly(vinyl chloride)/silver: synthesis, characterization and evaluation as antimicrobial active packaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braga, Lilian R.; Rangel, Ellen T.; Machado, Fabricio

    2015-01-01

    The antimicrobial films based on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) mediated silver (1, 2, 4 and 8 wt%) were evaluated as antimicrobial active packaging using the casting method. The structure of the active films was characterized by SEM, EDX-XRF, XRD, FTIR and TG. FTIR spectra confirmed the PVC-Ag interaction due to the presence of new bands at 1745 cm"-"1 and 1165 cm"-"1 bands, which are absent in the PVC control. The FRX-EDX spectrum confirmed the presence of silver ions in all the films. TG and SEM results showed that the increased concentration of silver provided an improved thermal stability and presence of pores in the active films, respectively. Antimicrobial activity was evaluated by disk diffusion method for Bacillus subtilis, Fusarium solani and Apergillus niger, which proved the efficiency of the films active. (author)

  19. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activities of Schiff bases are of cholesterol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madasamy Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of new cholesterol based Schiff base derivatives, namely cholesteryl-n-(4-((E-(4′-cyanobiphenyl-4-yliminomethylphenoxyalkanoate (3a–j have been synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral studies. In vitro antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated against super oxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide and were compared with standard natural antioxidant, ascorbic acid. Our results reveal that these compounds exhibit excellent radical scavenging activities.

  20. Volumetric and superficial characterization of carbon activated; Caracterizacion volumetrica y superficial de carbon activado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrera G, L.M.; Garcia S, I.; Jimenez B, J.; Solache R, M.; Lopez M, B.; Bulbulian G, S.; Olguin G, M.T. [Departamento de Quimica, Gerencia de Ciencias Basicas, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The activated carbon is the resultant material of the calcination process of natural carbonated materials as coconut shells or olive little bones. It is an excellent adsorbent of diluted substances, so much in colloidal form, as in particles form. Those substances are attracted and retained by the carbon surface. In this work is make the volumetric and superficial characterization of activated carbon treated thermically (300 Centigrade) in function of the grain size average. (Author)

  1. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foo, K.Y.; Hameed, B.H.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m 2 g -1 , 1038.78 m 2 g -1 and 0.375 m 3 g -1 , respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g -1 . The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: → Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. → The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. → BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m 2 /g. → Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  2. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from pistachio nut shells via microwave-induced chemical activation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foo, K. Y. [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia); Hameed, B.H., E-mail: chbassim@eng.usm.my [School of Chemical Engineering, Engineering Campus, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 14300 Nibong Tebal, Penang (Malaysia)

    2011-07-15

    In this work, pistachio nut shell, a biomass residue abundantly available from the pistachio nut processing industries, was utilized as a feedstock for the preparation of activated carbon (PSAC) via microwave assisted KOH activation. The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. The porosity, functional and surface chemistry were featured by means of low temperature nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Result showed that the BET surface area, Langmuir surface area, and total pore volume of PSAC were 700.53 m{sup 2} g{sup -1}, 1038.78 m{sup 2} g{sup -1} and 0.375 m{sup 3} g{sup -1}, respectively. The adsorptive property of PSAC was tested using methylene blue dye as the targeted adsorbate. Equilibrium data was best fitted by the Langmuir isotherm model, showing a monolayer adsorption capacity of 296.57 mg g{sup -1}. The study revealed the potentiality of microwave-induced activation as a viable activation method. -- Highlights: {yields} Pistachio nut shell activated carbon (PSAC) was prepared via microwave assisted KOH activation. {yields} The activation step was performed at the microwave input power of 600 W and irradiation time of 7 min. {yields} BET surface area of PSAC was 700.53 m{sup 2}/g. {yields} Monolayer adsorption capacity of PSAC for MB was 296.57 mg/g.

  3. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon produced from pomegranate seeds by ZnCl 2 activation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uçar, Suat; Erdem, Murat; Tay, Turgay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2009-08-01

    In this study, pomegranate seeds, a by-product of fruit juice industry, were used as precursor for the preparation of activated carbon by chemical activation with ZnCl 2. The influence of process variables such as the carbonization temperature and the impregnation ratio on textural and chemical-surface properties of the activated carbons was studied. When using the 2.0 impregnation ratio at the carbonization temperature of 600 °C, the specific surface area of the resultant carbon is as high as 978.8 m 2 g -1. The results showed that the surface area and total pore volume of the activated carbons at the lowest impregnation ratio and the carbonization temperature were achieved as high as 709.4 m 2 g -1 and 0.329 cm 3 g -1. The surface area was strongly influenced by the impregnation ratio of activation reagent and the subsequent carbonization temperature.

  4. Characterizing the spatial and temporal activities of free-ranging cows from GPS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Electronic tracking provides a unique way to document animal behavior on a continuous basis. This manuscript describes how uncorrected 1 s GPS fixes can be used to characterize the rate of cow travel (m·s-1) into stationary, foraging and walking activities. Cows instrumented with GPS devices were ...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION AND EVALUATION OF TIME-DRIVEN ACTIVITY BASED COSTING BASED ON ABC’S DEVELOPMENT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Poul; Kristensen, Thomas Borup

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides a description of the development of Activity Based Costing (ABC) in four variants. This is used to characterize and evaluated the changes made in Time-Driven ABC (TDABC). It is found that TDABC in some cases reaches back to cost calculations prior to ABC (e.g. homogenous...

  6. Characterization of biotransformation enzyme activities in primary rat proximal tubular cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schaaf, G.; de Groene, E.M.; Maas, R.; Commandeur, J.N.M.; Fink-Gremmels, J.

    2001-01-01

    The proximal tubule is a frequent target for nephrotoxic compounds due to it's ability to transport and accumulate xenobiotics and their metabolites, as well as by the presence of an organ-selective set of biotransformation enzymes. The aim of the present study was to characterize the activities of

  7. Characterization of airborne particulate matter in Santiago, Chile. Part 6: elemental determination by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cassorla, V.; Rojas, X.; Andonie, O.; Gras, N.

    1995-01-01

    Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the chemical characterization of airborne particulate matter from some locations in the city of Santiago, Chile. The following elements were determined: Al, As, Br, Ca, Cl, Co, Cu, Cr, Fe, Mn, Na, Sb, Sc, V y Zn. The accuracy of the experimental procedure was evaluated using a standard reference material. (author). 3 refs, 3 figs, 4 tabs

  8. Principles of the neutron activation analysis and its application on ceramics characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, I.

    1991-01-01

    The basic principles of the neutron activation analysis, its utilization in a nuclear reactor, the qualities of the technique, and the processes which appears in an analysis are described. Discussion of the method to characterize shards from the determination of the trace elements is also given. (author). 15 refs., 1 tab

  9. Application of QA grading to Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project items and activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murthy, R.B.; Smith, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Grading is the act of selecting the quality assurance (QA) measures necessary to develop and maintain confidence in the quality of an item or activity. The list of QA measures from which this selection is made are the 20 criteria of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Quality Assurance Requirements Document

  10. Neutron activation analysis for chemical characterization of Brazilian oxo-biodegradable plastics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mateus Eugenio Boscaro; De Nadai Fernandes, E.A.; Marcio Arruda Bacchi; Luis Gustavo Cofani dos Santos; Cofani dos Santos, S.N.S.; Sandra Mara Martins-Franchetti

    2015-01-01

    The chemical characterization of oxo-biodegradable plastic bags was performed by neutron activation analysis. The presence of several chemical elements (As, Br, Ca, Co, Cr, Fe, Hf, K, La, Na, Sb, Sc, Ta and Zn) with large variability of mass fractions amongst samples indicates that these plastics receive additives and may have been contaminated during manufacturing process thereby becoming potential environmental pollutants. (author)

  11. Characterization of elements in trace amounts in imperial topaz through neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Ester Figueiredo de; Sabioni, Antonio C. S.; Ferreira, Cesar M.

    2000-01-01

    This work deals with the mineral characterization of the elements in trace amounts of imperial topaz, original form Mina Capao da Lama, Ouro Preto, MG, Brazil, through the neutron activation analysis. Recent results have permitted to quantify Cr, Cs, Mn, Na, Ga, Sb and Au. The main goal of this study is the contribution to the mineral and gemological research of the imperial topaz

  12. Activity-Centered Domain Characterization for Problem-Driven Scientific Visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marai, G Elisabeta

    2018-01-01

    Although visualization design models exist in the literature in the form of higher-level methodological frameworks, these models do not present a clear methodological prescription for the domain characterization step. This work presents a framework and end-to-end model for requirements engineering in problem-driven visualization application design. The framework and model are based on the activity-centered design paradigm, which is an enhancement of human-centered design. The proposed activity-centered approach focuses on user tasks and activities, and allows an explicit link between the requirements engineering process with the abstraction stage-and its evaluation-of existing, higher-level visualization design models. In a departure from existing visualization design models, the resulting model: assigns value to a visualization based on user activities; ranks user tasks before the user data; partitions requirements in activity-related capabilities and nonfunctional characteristics and constraints; and explicitly incorporates the user workflows into the requirements process. A further merit of this model is its explicit integration of functional specifications, a concept this work adapts from the software engineering literature, into the visualization design nested model. A quantitative evaluation using two sets of interdisciplinary projects supports the merits of the activity-centered model. The result is a practical roadmap to the domain characterization step of visualization design for problem-driven data visualization. Following this domain characterization model can help remove a number of pitfalls that have been identified multiple times in the visualization design literature.

  13. Remedial investigation work plan for the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-09-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, located within the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR), is owned by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and managed by Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, Inc. The entire ORR was placed on the National Priorities List (NPL) of CERCLA sites in November 1989. Following CERCLA guidelines, sites under investigation require a remedial investigation (RI) to define the nature and extent of contamination, evaluate the risks to public health and the environment, and determine the goals for a feasibility study (FS) of potential remedial actions. The need to complete RIs in a timely manner resulted in the establishment of the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) Characterization Area (CA) and the Bear Creek CA. The CA approach considers the entire watershed and examines all appropriate media within it. The UEFPC CA, which includes the main Y-12 Plant area, is an operationally and hydrogeologically complex area that contains numerous contaminants and containment sources, as well as ongoing industrial and defense-related activities. The UEFPC CA also is the suspected point of origin for off-site groundwater and surface-water contamination. The UEFPC CA RI also will address a carbon-tetrachloride/chloroform-dominated groundwater plume that extends east of the DOE property line into Union Valley, which appears to be connected with springs in the valley. In addition, surface water in UEFPC to the Lower East Fork Poplar Creek CA boundary will be addressed. Through investigation of the entire watershed as one ''site,'' data gaps and contaminated areas will be identified and prioritized more efficiently than through separate investigations of many discrete units.

  14. Synthesis and characterization of chemically activated carbon derived from arecanut shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Jadhav

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon (AC was prepared from areca-nut shell (AS by chemical activation using phosphoric acid (PA. Activated carbon was prepared in three batches using phosphoric acid of 50 gm, 100 gm, and 300 gm with varying impregnation ratios by weight of 1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, 4:1 each. Characterization of the prepared activated carbon was done by methylene blue number (MBN, iodine number (IN, acid adsorption test (AAT, and elemental composition. Activation was carried out at 400 C. It was found that activated carbon derived from areca-nut shell shown improved results for methylene blue number (MBN, iodine number (IN, and acid adsorption test(AAT. Thermal analysis was carried out to know the weight loss and SEM was performed to know the morphology of AC.

  15. Microwave Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Some Novel Isatin Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman El-Faham

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Three series of isatin derivatives [3-hydrazino, 3-thiosemicarbazino, and 3-imino carboxylic acid derivatives] were synthesized employing microwave irradiation. The prepared compounds were characterized by FT-IR, NMR, elemental analysis, and X-ray crystallography for derivatives 5b. The synthesized compounds were screened for antimicrobial activity against selected bacteria and fungi. The results revealed that the N-alkyl isatin derivatives were biologically active with different spectrums activity. Most of the 3-hydrazino and 3-thiosemicarbazino isatin derivatives were biologically inactive and generally the active derivatives showed weak to moderate activity mainly against Gram-positive bacteria. The imino isatin carboxylic acid derivatives (2-[4-(1-benzyl-5-bromo-2-oxoindolin-3-ylideneamino phenyl]acetic acid, 5d showed promising activity against all tested Gram-positive bacteria and against fungal pathogens.

  16. Synthesis, spectral characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of some new azopyridine derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuo-Melha, Hanaa; Fadda, A. A.

    2012-04-01

    A series of arylpicolino and/or isonicotinohydrazonyl cyanide 2a-d and 4a-f were prepared by coupling the approprite aryl diazonium salt with 2-cyanomethyl and/or 4-cyanomethyl-pyridine, respectively. These compounds were characterized by analytical and spectral analyses and screened for their antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and antifungal activity. Among the synthesized compounds, N'-(4-phenyldiazenyl)phenylisonicotinohydrazonyl cyanide 4f showed a significant activity toward both Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacteria and exhibit the most potent in vitro antifungal with MIC's (625 μg/mL) against Aspergillus nieger.

  17. Thermal activation and characterization of clay Brasgel aiming your application as adsorbent in removal of nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, P.N.M.; Sousa, A.B.; Sousa, A.K.F.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Laborde, H.M.

    2012-01-01

    The clays exhibit interesting properties in adsorption of heavy metals in wastewater. This property can be modified by thermal activation. In this work, the characterization of clay Brasgel before and after thermal activation (200 deg C 300 deg C 400 deg C and 500 deg C) is performed by cation exchange capacity (CEC), X-ray Spectroscopy for Energy Dispersion (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Differential Thermal Analysis and Gravimetric (DTA / TG). The main differences between natural and activated clays are the structural changes observed by XRD and DTA / TG. (author)

  18. Human exonuclease 1 (EXO1) activity characterization and its function on FLAP structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keijzers, Guido; Bohr, Vilhelm A; Juel Rasmussen, Lene

    2015-01-01

    structures, we determined factors essential for the thermodynamic stability of EXO1. We show that enzymatic activity and stability of EXO1 on DNA is modulated by temperature. By characterization of EXO1 flap activity using various DNA flap substrates, we show that EXO1 has a strong capacity for degrading...... double stranded DNA and has a modest endonuclease or 5' flap activity. Furthermore, we report novel mechanistic insights into the processing of flap structures, showing that EXO1 preferentially cleaves one nucleotide inwards in a double stranded region of a forked and nicked DNA flap substrates...

  19. Thermal activation and characterization of chocolate clay for using as adsorbent in nickel removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villar, W.C.T.; Brito, A.L.F.; Laborde, H.M.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Ferreira, H.S.

    2009-01-01

    Clays present interesting properties as adsorbing material for the removal of heavy metals from effluents. This property is clearly modified by thermal activation. In this work, the characterization of chocolate clay before and after thermal activation (from 300 to 500 deg C) is realized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential thermal analysis and thermogravimetric analysis (DTA/TG), infrared spectroscopy (IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and cation exchange capacity (CEC). The main differences between the activated and natural clays are structural modifications of the clay, as shown by XRD and DTA/TG, but also a modification of its cation exchange capacity as shown by the methylene blue method. (author)

  20. Characterization of fasted human gastric fluid for relevant rheological parameters and gastric lipase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Pernille Barbre; Vilmann, Peter; Bar-Shalom, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    be considered important during development of gastric simulated media. Further, the activity of the HGL is active even under fasted gastric conditions and might contribute to the digestion and emulsification of lipid-based drug delivery systems in the entire gastrointestinal tract. HGL should therefore......PURPOSE: To characterize human gastric fluid with regard to rheological properties and gastric lipase activity. In addition, traditional physicochemical properties were determined. METHODS: Fasted HGA were collected from 19 healthy volunteers during a gastroscopic examination. Rheological...... be considered in gastric evaluation of lipid-based drug delivery systems....

  1. Performance characterization of active fiber-composite actuators for helicopter rotor blade applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Viresh K.; Hagood, Nesbitt W.

    2002-07-01

    The primary objective of this work was to characterize the performance of the Active Fiber Composite (AFC) actuator material system for the Boeing Active Material Rotor (AMR) blade application. The AFCs were a new structural actuator system consisting of piezoceramic fibers embedded in an epoxy matrix and sandwiched between interdigitated electrodes to orient the driving electric field in the fiber direction to use the primary piezoelectric effect. These actuators were integrated directly into the blade spar laminate as active plies within the composite structure to perform structural actuation for vibration control in helicopters. Therefore, it was necessary to conduct extensive electromechanical material characterization to evaluate AFCs both as actuators and as structural components of the rotor blade. The characterization tests designed to extract important electromechanical properties under simulated blade operating conditions included stress-strain tests, free strain tests and actuation under tensile load tests. This paper presents the test results as well as the comprehensive testing process developed to evaluate the relevant AFC material properties. The results from this comprehensive performance characterization of the AFC material system supported the design and operation of the Boeing AMR blade scheduled for hover and forward flight wind tunnel tests.

  2. Quantitative radiological characterization of waste. Integration of gamma spectrometry and passive/active neutron assay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simone, Gianluca; Mauro, Egidio; Gagliardi, Filippo; Gorello, Edoardo [Nucleco S.p.A., Rome (Italy)

    2016-06-15

    The radiological characterization of drums through Non-Destructive Assay (NDA) techniques commonly relies on gamma spectrometry. This paper introduces the procedure developed in Nucleco for the NDA radiological characterization of drums when the presence of Special Nuclear Material (SNM) is expected/observed. The procedure is based on the integration of a gamma spectrometry in SGS mode (Segmented Gamma Scanner) and a passive/active neutron assay. The application of this procedure is discussed on a real case of drums. The extension of the integration procedure to other gamma spectrometry systems is also discussed.

  3. Activated Carbon-Fly Ash-Nanometal Oxide Composite Materials: Preparation, Characterization, and Tributyltin Removal Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olushola S. Ayanda

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The physicochemical properties, nature, and morphology of composite materials involving activated carbon, fly ash, nFe3O4, nSiO2, and nZnO were investigated and compared. Nature and morphology characterizations were carried out by means of scanning electron and transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Other physicochemical characterizations undertaken were CNH analysis, ash content, pH, point of zero charge, and surface area and porosity determination by BET. Experimental results obtained revealed that activated carbon, nSiO2, activated carbon-fly ash, activated carbon-fly ash-nFe3O4, activated carbon-fly ash-nSiO2, and activated carbon-fly ash-nZnO composite materials exhibited net negative charge on their surfaces while fly ash, nFe3O4, and nZnO possessed net positive charge on their surfaces. Relatively higher removal efficiency (>99% of TBT was obtained for all the composite materials compared to their respective precursors except for activated carbon. These composite materials therefore offer great potential for the remediation of TBT in wastewaters.

  4. Biochemical characterization and antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of different Ganoderma collections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltarelli, Roberta; Ceccaroli, Paola; Buffalini, Michele; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Zambonelli, Alessandra; Iotti, Mirco; Badalyan, Susanna; Stocchi, Vilberto

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to conduct a molecular and biochemical characterization and to compare the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of four Ganoderma isolates belonging to Ganoderma lucidum (Gl-4, Gl-5) and Ganoderma resinaceum (F-1, F-2) species. The molecular identification was performed by ITS and IGS sequence analyses and the biochemical characterization by enzymatic and proteomic approaches. The antioxidant activity of the ethanolic extracts was compared by three different methods and their flavonoid contents were also analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The antiproliferative effect on U937 cells was determined by MTT assay. The studied mycelia differ both in the enzymatic activities and protein content. The highest content in total phenol and the highest antioxidant activity for DPPH free radical scavenging and chelating activity on Fe(2+) were observed with the Gl-4 isolate of G. lucidum. The presence of quercetin, rutin, myricetin, and morin as major flavonoids with effective antioxidant activity was detected. The ethanolic extracts from mycelia of G. lucidum isolates possess a substantial antiproliferative activity against U937 cells in contrast to G. resinaceum in which the antiproliferative effects were insignificant. This study provides a comparison between G. lucidum and G. resinaceum mycelial strains, and shows that G. resinaceum could be utilized to obtain several bioactive compounds. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from castor de-oiled cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviana M. Ospina-Guarín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass residues have been used to produce activated carbons. On this process, the activation method and the raw composition determine the properties as porosity and surface area of the charcoal. After the extraction of castor oil, there is a solid byproduct (cake of low added value, which was used in the production of activated carbon to add value to this waste. For this purpose two traditional methods were used, first, physical activation using as activating agents steam, CO2 and mixture of both, and additionally chemical activation using K2CO3 as the activating agent. Some activated carbons were characterized using N2 adsorption isotherms, BET surface areas varied between 255.98 (m2/g and 1218.43 (m2/g. By SEM and EDS analysis was possible to observe that materials obtained by the two types of activation are principally amorphous and morphological characteristics of the carbon obtained by physical activation are very different from those obtained by chemical activation. Finally, through impregnation of inorganic phases of Ni and Mo was revealed that the high dispersion characteristics, these carbonaceous materials will have potential to be used as catalyst support.

  6. Characterizing human activity induced impulse and slip-pulse excitations through structural vibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shijia; Mirshekari, Mostafa; Fagert, Jonathon; Ramirez, Ceferino Gabriel; Chung, Albert Jin; Hu, Chih Chi; Shen, John Paul; Zhang, Pei; Noh, Hae Young

    2018-02-01

    Many human activities induce excitations on ambient structures with various objects, causing the structures to vibrate. Accurate vibration excitation source detection and characterization enable human activity information inference, hence allowing human activity monitoring for various smart building applications. By utilizing structural vibrations, we can achieve sparse and non-intrusive sensing, unlike pressure- and vision-based methods. Many approaches have been presented on vibration-based source characterization, and they often either focus on one excitation type or have limited performance due to the dispersion and attenuation effects of the structures. In this paper, we present our method to characterize two main types of excitations induced by human activities (impulse and slip-pulse) on multiple structures. By understanding the physical properties of waves and their propagation, the system can achieve accurate excitation tracking on different structures without large-scale labeled training data. Specifically, our algorithm takes properties of surface waves generated by impulse and of body waves generated by slip-pulse into account to handle the dispersion and attenuation effects when different types of excitations happen on various structures. We then evaluate the algorithm through multiple scenarios. Our method achieves up to a six times improvement in impulse localization accuracy and a three times improvement in slip-pulse trajectory length estimation compared to existing methods that do not take wave properties into account.

  7. IAEA Activities on Application of Nuclear Techniques in Development and Characterization of Materials for Hydrogen Economy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salame, P.; Zeman, A.; Mulhauser, F.

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen and fuel cells can greatly contribute to a more sustainable less carbon-dependent global energy system. An effective and safe method for storage of hydrogen in solid materials is one of the greatest technologically challenging barriers of widespread introduction of hydrogen in global energy systems. However, aspects related to the development of effective materials for hydrogen storage and fuel cells are facing considerable technological challenges. To reach these goals, research efforts using a combination of advanced modeling, synthesis methods and characterization tools are required. Nuclear methods can play an effective role in the development and characterization of materials for hydrogen storage. Therefore, the IAEA initiated a coordinated research project to promote the application of nuclear techniques for investigation and characterization of new/improved materials relevant to hydrogen and fuel cell technologies. This paper gives an overview of the IAEA activities in this subject. (author)

  8. Development and characterization of activated hydrochars from orange peels as potential adsorbents for emerging organic contaminants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M E; Ledesma, B; Román, S; Bonelli, P R; Cukierman, A L

    2015-05-01

    Activated hydrochars obtained from the hydrothermal carbonization of orange peels (Citrus sinensis) followed by various thermochemical processing were assessed as adsorbents for emerging contaminants in water. Thermal activation under flows of CO2 or air as well as chemical activation with phosphoric acid were applied to the hydrochars. Their characteristics were analyzed and related to their ability to uptake three pharmaceuticals (diclofenac sodium, salicylic acid and flurbiprofen) considered as emerging contaminants. The hydrothermal carbonization and subsequent activations promoted substantial chemical transformations which affected the surface properties of the activated hydrochars; they exhibited specific surface areas ranging from 300 to ∼620 m(2)/g. Morphological characterization showed the development of coral-like microspheres dominating the surface of most hydrochars. Their ability to adsorb the three pharmaceuticals selected was found largely dependent on whether the molecules were ionized or in their neutral form and on the porosity developed by the new adsorbents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Mechanical characterization of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel of spanish production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, D.; Serrano, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper shows the first results concerning the characterization of two heats of a reduced activation 9 Cr ferritic/martensitic steel (RAFM) made in Spain, called AF1B and AF2A. The results of this characterization are compared with their European counterparts, EUROFER97-2, which was chosen as reference material. All activities described were performed in the Structural Materials Unit of CIEMAT, within the national project TECNO-FUS CONSOLIDER INGENIO.The two Spanish heats have the same production process and heat treatment. Both heats have a similar tensile behaviour similar to EUROFER97-2, but on the other hand impact properties are lower. The microstructure of AF1B reveals large biphasic inclusions that affecting its mechanical properties, especially the impact properties. AF2A casting was free of these inclusions. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Isolation, Purification, and Characterization of Five Active Diketopiperazine Derivatives from Endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 with Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaibani, Muhanna; Zin, Noraziah; Jalil, Juriyati; Sidik, Nik; Ahmad, Siti Junaidah; Kamal, Nurkhalida; Edrada-Ebel, Ruangelie

    2017-07-28

    In our search for new sources of bioactive secondary metabolites from Streptomyces sp., the ethyl acetate extracts from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 afforded five active diketopiperazine (DKP) compounds. The aim of this study was to characterize the bioactive compounds isolated from endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 and evaluate their bioactivity against multiple drug resistance (MDR) bacteria such as Enterococcus raffinosus, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumanii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp., and their cytotoxic activities against the human hepatoma (HepaRG) cell line. The production of secondary metabolites by this strain was optimized through Thornton's medium. Isolation, purification, and identification of the bioactive compounds were carried out using high-performance liquid chromatography, high-resolution mass liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and nuclear magnetic resonance, and cryopreserved HepaRG cells were selected to test the cytotoxicity. The results showed that endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 produces four active DKP compounds and an acetamide derivative, which were elucidated as cyclo -( L -Val- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Leu- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Phe- L -Pro), cyclo -( L -Val- L -Phe), and N -(7-hydroxy-6-methyl-octyl)-acetamide. These active compounds exhibited activity against methicillin-resistant S. aureus ATCC 43300 and Enterococcus raffinosus , with low toxicity against human hepatoma HepaRG cells. Endophytic Streptomyces SUK 25 has the ability to produce DKP derivatives biologically active against some MDR bacteria with relatively low toxicity against HepaRG cells line.

  11. Characterization of 'kayam churan', an ayurvedic medicine using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swain, Kallola K.; Kayasth, Satish

    2004-01-01

    'Kayam Churan', a typical ayurvedic medicine, is used with specific compositions in various human body-disorders like, purgative in case of problems associated with constipation, acidity, headache, eye burning, hand and leg burning and other skin diseases. In the present work, this matrix has been characterized for possible inorganic elements using Neutron activation analysis (NAA). The possible effect of the different elements and its correlation for medicinal use of this matrix has been discussed in this paper. (author)

  12. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Joselena M.; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C.; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica (“mandaguari”) in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high con...

  13. Functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges using laser and X-ray beam scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Povoli, M.; Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M.; Dalla Betta, G.-F.; Giacomini, G.; Hasi, J.; Oh, A.; Zorzi, N.

    2013-01-01

    We report on the functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. The measurements here reported were performed by means of laser and X-ray beam scans mainly focusing on the signal efficiency of the edge region of the devices. Results are very encouraging and show very good sensitivity up to few microns away from the device physical edge

  14. Functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges using laser and X-ray beam scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Povoli, M., E-mail: povoli@disi.unitn.it [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Bagolini, A.; Boscardin, M. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Dalla Betta, G.-F. [Dipartimento di Ingegneria e Scienza dell' Informazione, Università di Trento, Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Padova (Gruppo Collegato di Trento),Via Sommarive, 14, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Giacomini, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy); Hasi, J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, CA 94025-7015 (United States); Oh, A. [The University of Manchester, Oxford Road, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Zorzi, N. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler, Centro per i Materiali e i Microsistemi (FBK-CMM), Via Sommarive, 18, I-38123 Povo di Trento (Italy)

    2013-08-01

    We report on the functional characterization of planar sensors with active edges fabricated at Fondazione Bruno Kessler (FBK), Trento, Italy. The measurements here reported were performed by means of laser and X-ray beam scans mainly focusing on the signal efficiency of the edge region of the devices. Results are very encouraging and show very good sensitivity up to few microns away from the device physical edge.

  15. Investigation of elements enabling the characterization of archeological ceramics by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebolt, J.; Ricq, J.

    1976-01-01

    Twelve samples of about 100mg each, taken in an ancient ceramics at different depths were irradiated in the high flux Grenoble reactor (1.6x10 3 n.cm -2 .s -1 ). The results obtained show that activation analysis enables the characterization of archeological ceramics by the determination of elements such as Hf, Sc, Cr and Sc or Ti and V [fr

  16. Synthesis, characterization and antioxidant activities of Schiff bases are of cholesterol

    OpenAIRE

    Madasamy Kumar; Tamilenthi Padmini; Kandasamy Ponnuvel

    2017-01-01

    A series of new cholesterol based Schiff base derivatives, namely cholesteryl-n-(4-((E)-(4′-cyanobiphenyl-4-ylimino)methyl)phenoxy)alkanoate (3a–j) have been synthesized and characterized by IR, NMR and mass spectral studies. In vitro antioxidant activities of these compounds were evaluated against super oxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, DPPH radical and hydrogen peroxide and were compared with standard natural antioxidant, ascorbic acid. Our results reveal that these compounds exhib...

  17. Characterization of obsidian devices come from San Miguel Ixtapan, Estado de Mexico by Neutron Activation Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almazan T, M.G.; Jimenez R, M.; Monroy G, F.; Tenorio C, D.

    2002-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) is an efficient multielemental technique for determination of elements in low concentration (ppm), what has been result useful in the study of origin of archaeological material. In this work that technique was used for characterizing obsidian devices coming from the San Miguel Ixtapan site, Estado de Mexico and it was found that these come from three important beds which are: Sierra de Pachuca, Hidalgo, Zinapecuaro and Zinaparo-Varal in the Michoacan state. (Author)

  18. Purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, Karin; McCartney, Rhonda R; Schmidt, Martin C

    2006-02-01

    Members of the Snf1/AMPK family of protein kinases are activated by distinct upstream kinases that phosphorylate a conserved threonine residue in the Snf1/AMPK activation loop. Recently, the identities of the Snf1- and AMPK-activating kinases have been determined. Here we describe the purification and characterization of the three Snf1-activating kinases of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The identities of proteins associated with the Snf1-activating kinases were determined by peptide mass fingerprinting. These kinases, Sak1, Tos3 and Elm2 do not appear to require the presence of additional subunits for activity. Sak1 and Snf1 co-purify and co-elute in size exclusion chromatography, demonstrating that these two proteins form a stable complex. The Snf1-activating kinases phosphorylate the activation loop threonine of Snf1 in vitro with great specificity and are able to do so in the absence of beta and gamma subunits of the Snf1 heterotrimer. Finally, we showed that the Snf1 kinase domain isolated from bacteria as a GST fusion protein can be activated in vitro and shows substrate specificity in the absence of its beta and gamma subunits.

  19. Characterization and biological activities of extracellular melanin produced by Schizophyllum commune (Fries).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, G; Eyini, M; Gunasekaran, P

    2015-06-01

    Melanins are enigmatic pigments produced by a wide variety of microorganisms including bacteria and fungi. Here, we have isolated and characterized extracellular melanin from mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune. The extracellular dark pigment produced by the broth culture of S. commune, after 21 days of incubation was recovered by hot acid-alkali treatment. The melanin nature of the pigment was characterized by biochemical tests and further, confirmed by UV, IR, EPR, NMR and MALDI-TOF Mass Spectra. Extracellular melanin, at 100 μg/ml, showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas fluorescens and antifungal activity against Trichophyton simii and T. rubrum. At a concentration of 50 μg/ml, melanin showed high free radical scavenging activity of DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) indicating its antioxidant potential. It showed concentration dependent inhibition of cell proliferation of Human Epidermoid Larynx Carcinoma Cell Line (HEP-2). This study has demonstrated characterization of melanin from basidiomycetes mushroom fungus, Schizophyllum commune and its applications.

  20. Molecular characterization of circulating plasma cells in patients with active systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia L Lugar

    Full Text Available Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE is a generalized autoimmune disease characterized by abnormal B cell activation and the occurrence of increased frequencies of circulating plasma cells (PC. The molecular characteristics and nature of circulating PC and B cells in SLE have not been completely characterized. Microarray analysis of gene expression was used to characterize circulating PC in subjects with active SLE. Flow cytometry was used to sort PC and comparator B cell populations from active SLE blood, normal blood and normal tonsil. The gene expression profiles of the sorted B cell populations were then compared. SLE PC exhibited a similar gene expression signature as tonsil PC. The differences in gene expression between SLE PC and normal tonsil PC and tonsil plasmablasts (PB suggest a mature Ig secreting cell phenotype in the former population. Despite this, SLE PC differed in expression of about half the genes from previously published gene expression profiles of normal bone marrow PC, indicating that these cells had not achieved a fully mature status. Abnormal expression of several genes, including CXCR4 and S1P(1, suggests a mechanism for the persistence of SLE PC in the circulation. All SLE B cell populations revealed an interferon (IFN gene signature previously only reported in unseparated SLE peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These data indicate that SLE PC are a unique population of Ig secreting cells with a gene expression profile indicative of a mature, but not fully differentiated phenotype.

  1. Synthesis, Physical Characterization and Biological Activity of Some Schiff Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rajavel

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Structural modification of organic molecule has considerable biological relevance. Further, coordination of a biomolecules to the metal ions significantly alters the effectiveness of the biomolecules. In view of the antimicrobial activity ligand [bis-(2-aminobenzaldehyde] malonoyl dihydrazone], metal complexes with Cu(II, Ni(II, Zn(II and oxovanadium(IV have been synthesized and found to be potential antimicrobial agents. An attempt is also made to correlate the biological activities with geometry of the complexes. The complexes have been characterized by elemental analysis, molar conductance, spectra and cyclicvoltammetric measurements. The structural assessment of the complexes has been carried out based on electronic, infrared and molar conductivity values.

  2. Characterization of the corrosion resistance of biologically active solutions: The effects of anodizing and welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Daniel W.

    1991-01-01

    An understanding of fabrication processes, metallurgy, electrochemistry, and microbiology is crucial to the resolution of microbiologically influenced corrosion (MIC) problems. The object of this effort was to use AC impedance spectroscopy to characterize the corrosion resistance of Type II anodized aluminum alloy 2219-T87 in sterile and biologically active media and to examine the corrosion resistance of 316L, alloy 2219-T87, and titanium alloy 6-4 in the welded and unwelded conditions. The latter materials were immersed in sterile and biologically active media and corrosion currents were measured using the polarization resistance (DC) technique.

  3. Amino acid linked bromobenzoyl thiourea derivatives: syntheses, characterization and antimicrobial activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raheel, A.; Din, I.U.; Badshah, A.; Rauf, M.K.; Andleeb, S.

    2016-01-01

    Five new bromobenzoyl thiourea derivatives (1-5) linked with different amino acids were synthesized via the reaction of bromobenzoyl chloride with potassium thiocyanide and the corresponding amines. The synthetic compounds were characterized by single crystal XRD, IR and NMR (/sup 1/H- and /sup 13/C-) spectroscopy in addition to elemental analysis and melting point determinations. These compounds were also preliminary analyzed for antifungal and antibacterial activity against different strains of fungi and bacteria, respectively. The data suggest that the compounds exhibited promising antimicrobial activity and may prove potential lead compounds as antimicrobial agent. (author)

  4. Recent Experience Using Active Love Wave Techniques to Characterize Seismographic Station Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, A. J.; Yong, A.; Salomone, L.

    2014-12-01

    Active-source Love waves recorded by the multi-channel analysis of surface wave (MASLW) technique were recently analyzed in two site characterization projects. Between 2010 and 2011, the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funded GEOVision to conduct geophysical investigations at 189 seismographic stations—185 in California and 4 in the Central Eastern U.S. (CEUS). The original project plan was to utilize active and passive Rayleigh wave-based techniques to obtain shear-wave velocity (VS) profiles to a minimum depth of 30 m and the time-averaged VS of the upper 30 meters (VS30). Early in the investigation it became evident that Rayleigh wave techniques, such as multi-channel analysis of surface waves (MASRW), were not effective at characterizing all sites. Shear-wave seismic refraction and MASLW techniques were therefore applied. The MASLW technique was deployed at a total of 38 sites, in addition to other methods, and used as the primary technique to characterize 22 sites, 5 of which were also characterized using Rayleigh wave techniques. In 2012, the Electric Power Research Institute funded characterization of 33 CEUS station sites. Based on experience from the ARRA investigation, both MASRW and MASLW data were acquired by GEOVision at 24 CEUS sites—the remaining 9 sites and 2 overlapping sites were characterized by University of Texas, Austin. Of the 24 sites characterized by GEOVision, 16 were characterized using MASLW data, 4 using both MASLW and MASRW data and 4 using MASRW data. Love wave techniques were often found to perform better, or at least yield phase velocity data that could be more readily modeled using the fundamental mode assumption, at shallow rock sites, sites with steep velocity gradients, and, sites with a thin, low velocity, surficial soil layer overlying stiffer sediments. These types of velocity structure often excite dominant higher modes in Rayleigh wave data, but not in Love wave data. At such sites, it may be possible

  5. Synthesis, characterization and DNA cleavage activity of nickel(II adducts with aromatic heterocyclic bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. H. PHILIP

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Mixed ligand complexes of nickel(II with 2,4-dihydroxyaceto-phenone oxime (DAPO and 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone oxime (DBPO as primary ligands, and pyridine (Py and imidazole (Im as secondary ligands were synthesized and characterized by molar conductivity, magnetic moments measurements, as well as by electronic, IR, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Electrochemical studies were performed by cyclic voltammetry. The active signals are assignable to the NiIII/II and NiII/I redox couples. The binding interactions between the metal complexes and calf thymus DNA were investigated by absorption and thermal denaturation. The cleavage activity of the complexes was determined using double-stranded pBR322 circular plasmid DNA by gel electrophoresis. All complexes showed increased nuclease activity in the presence of the oxidant H2O2. The nuclease activities of mixed ligand complexes were compared with those of the parent copper(II complexes.

  6. Surface modification, characterization and adsorptive properties of a coconut activated carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu Xincheng [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Jiang Jianchun, E-mail: lhs_ac2011@yahoo.cn [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China); Sun Kang; Xie Xinping; Hu Yiming [Institute of Chemical Industry of Forest Products, CAF, National Engineering Lab. for Biomass Chemical Utilization, Key and Open Lab. of Forest Chemical Engineering, SFA, Key Lab. of Biomass Energy and Material, Jiangsu Province, Suojin wucun 16, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2012-08-01

    A coconut activated carbon was modified using chemical methods. Different concentration of nitric acid oxidation of the conventional sample produced samples with weakly acidic functional groups. The oxidized samples were characterized by scanning electron micrograph, nitrogen absorption-desorption, Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy, Bothem method, pH titration, adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and the adsorption mechanism of activated carbons was investigated. The results showed that BET surface area and pore volume of activated carbons were decreased after oxidization process, while acidic functional groups were increased. The surface morphology of oxidized carbons looked clean and eroded which was caused by oxidization of nitric acid. The oxidized carbons showed high adsorption capacity of sodium and formaldehyde, and chemical properties of activated carbon played an important role in adsorption of metal ions and organic pollutants.

  7. Electroencephalographic characterization of seizure activity in the synapsin I/II double knockout mouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Etholm, Lars; Lindén, Henrik; Eken, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    We present a detailed comparison of the behavioral and electrophysiological development of seizure activity in mice genetically depleted of synapsin I and synapsin II (SynDKO mice), based on combined video and surface EEG recordings. SynDKO mice develop handling-induced epileptic seizures...... at the age of 2months. The seizures show a very regular behavioral pattern, where activity is initially dominated by truncal muscle contractions followed by various myoclonic elements. Whereas seizure behavior goes through clearly defined transitions, cortical activity as reflected by EEG recordings shows...... a more gradual development with respect to the emergence of different EEG components and the frequency of these components. No EEG pattern was seen to define a particular seizure behavior. However, myoclonic activity was characterized by more regular patterns of combined sharp waves and spikes. Where...

  8. Preparation of Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF) and its structural characterization and biological activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, Saharuddin Bin; Nagasawa, Hideko; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Gc protein has been reported to be a precursor of Gc protein-derived macrophage activation factor (GcMAF) in the inflammation-primed macrophage activation cascade. An inducible beta-galactosidase of B cells and neuraminidase of T cells convert Gc protein to GcMAF. Gc protein from human serum was purified using 25(OH)D3 affinity column chromatography and modified to GcMAF using immobilized glycosidases (beta-galactosidase and neuraminidase) The sugar moiety structure of GcMAF was characterized by lectin blotting by Helix pomatia agglutinin. The biological activities of GcMAF were evaluated by a superoxide generation assay and a phagocytosis assay. We successfully purified Gc protein from human serum. GcMAF was detected by lectin blotting and showed a high biological activity. Our results support the importance of the terminal N-acetylgalactosamine moiety in the GcMAF-mediated macrophage activation cascade, and the existence of constitutive GcMAF in human serum. These preliminary data are important for designing small molecular GcMAF mimics.

  9. Dynamic adsorption properties of xenon on activated carbons and their structure characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Suiqing; Liu Jing; Qian Yuan; Zeng Youshi; Du Lin; Pi Li; Liu Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background: In recent years, adsorption of radioactive xenon by activated carbon has been increasingly applied to the treatment of off-gas in nuclear power project. Though pore structure of activated carbon has a great impact on its dynamic adsorption coefficients for xenon, the concerned research is rare. Purpose: It is very necessary to figure out the relationship between the pore structure and the dynamic adsorption coefficients for the purpose of the selection and development of activated carbon. Methods: In this study, the dynamic adsorption coefficients of xenon on four kinds of activated carbons were measured on a dynamic adsorption platform under the condition of 25℃, OMPa (gauge pressure). And these four kinds of activated carbons were characterized by nitrogen adsorption and SEM. Results: The results show that the activated carbon of JH12-16 with the specific surface area of 991.9 m 2 ·g -1 has the largest xenon dynamic adsorption coefficient among these activated carbons. Conclusions: The dynamic adsorption coefficient of xenon on activated carbon doesn't increase with the specific surface area or the pore volume. The mesopore and macropore only play the role of passageway for xenon adsorption. The most suitable pore for xenon adsorption is the pore with the pore size ranged from 0.55 to 0.6 nm. (authors)

  10. Evaluation, partial characterization and purification of acetylcholine esterase enzyme and antiangiogenic activity from marine sponges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maushmi Shailesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test three marine sponges Halichondria glabrata Keller, 1891; Spirastrella pachyspira (S. pachyspira Levi, 1958 and Cliona lobata Hancock, 1849 for the presence of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE in both young and developed samples from western coastal area of India. S. pachyspira methanolic extract was selected for anti/pro angiogenic activity. Methods: They were evaluated for AChE activity using Ellman’s assay based on production of yellow colored 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoate. Purification of the enzyme was planned using ammonium sulphate precipitation and characterization by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Chorioallantoic membrane (ChAM assay model was used for angiogenic/ antiangiogenic testing. Results: All the three sponges showed good specific enzyme activity and S. pachyspira contained maximum specific enzyme activity. Sixty percent of ammonium sulphate precipitation of crude protein sample gave single band at 66 kDa corresponding to the true AChE. ChAM assay was performed at 62.5, 125.0 and 250.0 µg/mL. Dosage beyond 250 µg/mL extract showed toxic response with anti angiogenic activity at all the concentrations. Conclusions: AChE activity was detected in all samples. Extract showed good anti-angiogenic response at 62.5 µg/mL. Extract was highly toxic affecting microvasculature of ChAM as well as normal growth and development of the embryo at 500 µg/mL. With further characterization of bioactive compounds from the extract of S. pachyspira, the compounds can be developed for anti tumor activity.

  11. Characterization and Activation of Indonesian Natural Zeolite from Southwest Aceh District-Aceh Province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yulianis, Y.; Muhammad, S.; Pontas, K.; Mariana, M.; Mahidin, M.

    2018-05-01

    This study aims to identify the effect of activation processes of Indonesian zeolite from Southwest Aceh District, Aceh Province on the physical characteristics and chemical contents changes. The work was conducted by downsizing of natural zeolite into nano particle size, treating it physically (heated up to 105˚C) and chemically (soaked with 0.5 M HCl for 1 hour), and finally calcining it at the temperature of 350° C for 2 hours. The natural and activated nano zeolites were then characterized by using SEM, BET, XRD, XRF and FTIR in order to examine their characters and chemical contents. The characterization results showed that the activated nano zeolite has better appearances than the natural one. The XRD analysis showed that the main minerals of zeolite are quartz and calcite clinochlore. Further, the XRF analysis showed that there are elements of magnesium, calcium and potassium which can be as a cation exchange with other metal elements. Based on the identified properties, this zeolite showed a good performance to be used as an adsorbent in waste water treatment process, especially after activated.

  12. Structural characterization and antimicrobial activities of transition metal complexes of a hydrazone ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakale, Raghavendra P.; Naik, Ganesh N.; Machakanur, Shrinath S.; Mangannavar, Chandrashekhar V.; Muchchandi, Iranna S.; Gudasi, Kalagouda B.

    2018-02-01

    A hydrazone ligand has been synthesized by the condensation of 2-nitrobenzaldehyde and hydralazine, and its Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have been reported. Structural characterization of the ligand and its metal complexes has been performed by various spectroscopic [IR, NMR, UV-Vis, Mass], thermal and other physicochemical methods. The structure of the ligand and its Ni(II) complex has been characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. All the synthesized compounds have been screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity. The antibacterial activity is tested against Gram-positive strains Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus mutans and Staphylococcus aureus and Gram-negative strains Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumoniae using ciprofloxacin as the reference standard. Antifungal activity is tested against Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger using ketoconazole as the reference standard. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined for test compounds as well as for reference standard. Ligand, Cu(II) and Zn(II) complexes have shown excellent activity against Candida albicans.

  13. Sucrase Activity and Exopolysaccharide Partial Characterization From Three Weissella confusa Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amarila Malik

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Exopolysaccharides (EPSs produced by lactic acid bacteria have been well known for their important economic value in food, pharmaceutical and health industries. Large extracellular enzyme sucrases are used by lactic acid bacteria to polymerize EPS, i.e. fructansucrase and glucansucrase. This study aimed to characterize sucrase activity of three Weissella confusa strains MBF8-1, MBF8-2 and MBFCNC-2(1, which were isolated previously from local beverages and their EPS products as well. All strains showed ability to form mucoid and slimy colonies by visual inspection on agar plate using raffinose as substrate suggesting that they possessed fructansucrase activity besides glucansucrase. Obtained EPS products were characterized by HPLC analysis after hydrolysis using 3% TCA at 100 °C for 1 hour, and by viscosity as well. All strains exhibited similar peak patterns, assuming that all of them possessed fructan EPS product. Supernatant and cell pellet were also analyzed by in situ activity assay performing periodic acid Schiff staining after polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis; only cell pellet showed sucrase activity. Viscosity observation showed that EPS products from all strains were able to increase the viscosity slightly.

  14. Natural clinoptilolite exchanged with iron: characterization and catalytic activity in nitrogen monoxide reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Tito-Ferro

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to characterize the natural clinoptilolite from Tasajeras deposit, Cuba, modified by hydrothermal ion-exchange with solutions of iron (II sulfate and iron (III nitrate in acid medium. Besides this, its catalytic activity to reduce nitrogen monoxide with carbon monoxide/propene in the presence of oxygen was evaluated. The characterization was performed by Mössbauer and UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopies and adsorption measurements. The obtained results lead to conclude that in exchanged samples, incorporated divalent and trivalent irons are found in octahedral coordination. Both irons should be mainly in cationic extra-framework positions inside clinoptilolite channels as charge compensating cations, and also as iron oxy-hydroxides resulting from limited hydrolysis of these cations. The iron (III exchanged samples has a larger amount of iron oxy-hydroxides agglomerates. The iron (II exchanged samples have additionally iron (II sulfate adsorbed. The catalytic activity in the nitrogen monoxide reduction is higher in the exchanged zeolites than starting. Among all samples, those exchanged of iron (II has the higher catalytic activity. This lead to outline that, main catalytically active centers are associated with divalent iron.

  15. Processing, characterization, and bactericidal activity of undoped and silver-doped vanadium oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tousley, M.E.; Wren, A.W.; Towler, M.R. [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States); Mellott, N.P., E-mail: mellott@alfred.edu [Inamori School of Engineering, Alfred University, Alfred, NY 14803 (United States)

    2012-12-14

    Vanadium oxide (V) and silver-doped vanadium oxide (Ag-V) powders were prepared via sol-gel processing. Structural evolution and bactericidal activity was examined as a function of temperature ranging from 250, 350, 450 and 550 Degree-Sign C. Powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Raman spectroscopy. Results from all techniques showed vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) is the predominant phase regardless of heat treatment temperature or the addition of silver (Ag). XRD analysis suggests Ag is present as AgCl in samples heat treated to 250, 350, and 450 Degree-Sign C and as AgV{sub 6}O{sub 15} at 550 Degree-Sign C. Bactericidal activity was evaluated against Escherichia coli using the agar disk diffusion method considering both Ag-V and undoped, V powders. While the addition of Ag significantly increased bactericidal properties, the specific Ag valency, or crystal structure and morphology formed at higher temperatures, had little effect on functionality. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vanadium and silver-doped vanadium oxide powders were prepared via sol-gel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powders were characterized using advanced, complementary structural techniques. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bactericidal activity was evaluated against E. coli. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both vanadium and silver doped vanadium oxide show bactericidal activity.

  16. Characterization and lytic activity of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus(MRSA phages isolated from NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golnar Rahimzadeh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is a well-known pathogen that causes serious diseases in humans. As part of the efforts to control this pathogen, an isolated bacteriophage, Siphoviridae, which specifically targets Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA, was characterized. Aims The objective of this study was to characterize of a virulent bacteriophage (Siphoviridae isolated from a NICU bathroom sink. Methods The MRSA strain was isolated from patient blood. The isolated strain was confirmed as MRSA using conventional methods. Phages were isolated from a NICU bathroom sink and activity was lytic as determined by spot test. Titer phage lysate was measured by the Double Layer Agar (DLA technique. The morphology was found with electron microscopy. The single-step growth curve was plotted. Results Electron microscopy showed the phage as a member of the family Siphoviridae, serogroup A and F. The isolated phage was capable of lytic activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA strain as shown by spot test. By DLA, the titre of the phages was determined to be 10×108PFU/ml. The single-step growth curve showed that the latent period of the isolated bacteriophage was 30 min and the total number of viable progeny per infected host, burst size, was 2600 PFU/infected host. Conclusion In this study, two phages were isolated and characterized from a NICU bathroom sink, from the Siphoviridae family, which specifically targetsmethicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA.

  17. Obtention and characterization of activated carbons from seeds of Macuna sp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas, Jaime E; Giraldo, Liliana; Moreno, Juan C

    2008-01-01

    A series of activated carbons from a lignocellulosic material is obtained by a physical activation with water vapor. Mucuna sp is the scientific name of the seed used as a lignoocellulosic precursor. In this work the seeds are crushed and sieved before carbonizing them to obtain granular activated carbon. The effect of temperature (600-900 Celsius degrade) and time of activation (1-10 h) was studied as well as the relationship with the textural properties of the carbon. The activated carbons obtained with different percentages of Burn-off were characterized by physical adsorption of N 2 at 77K. We evaluated the ability of an adsorption in solution of the activated carbons by iodine index and the methylene blue index. We found a correlation between burn-off and the apparent surface area calculated by the BET method with values close to 1000 m 2 g -1 as well as microspore volumes between 0.060 and 0.400 cm 3 g -1 calculated by the DR method and the method alpha. The adsorption capacity in solution gives good results, because the results show good correlation with the porosity data. This is very important when determining the possible applications of the activated carbons

  18. Characterization of pectinase activity for enology from yeasts occurring in Argentine Bonarda grape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merín, María Gabriela; Martín, María Carolina; Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Cocolin, Luca; de Ambrosini, Vilma Inés Morata

    2015-01-01

    Pectinolytic enzymes are greatly important in winemaking due to their ability to degrade pectic polymers from grape, contributing to enhance process efficiency and wine quality. This study aimed to analyze the occurrence of pectinolytic yeasts during spontaneous fermentation of Argentine Bonarda grape, to select yeasts that produce extracellular pectinases and to characterize their pectinolytic activity under wine-like conditions. Isolated yeasts were grouped using PCR-DGGE and identified by partial sequencing of 26S rRNA gene. Isolates comprised 7 genera, with Aureobasidium pullulans as the most predominant pectinolytic species, followed by Rhodotorula dairenensis and Cryptococcus saitoi. No pectinolytic activity was detected among ascomycetous yeasts isolated on grapes and during fermentation, suggesting a low occurrence of pectinolytic yeast species in wine fermentation ecosystem. This is the first study reporting R. dairenensis and Cr. saitoi species with pectinolytic activity. R. dairenensis GM-15 produced pectinases that proved to be highly active at grape pH, at 12 °C, and under ethanol and SO2 concentrations usually found in vinifications (pectinase activity around 1.1 U/mL). This strain also produced cellulase activity at 12 °C and pH 3.5, but did not produce β-glucosidase activity under these conditions. The strain showed encouraging enological properties for its potential use in low-temperature winemaking. PMID:26413065

  19. Characterization of a plasminogen activator from human melanoma cells cultured in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heussen, C.

    1982-08-01

    This thesis describes the work that have been done on the isolation and characterization of a plasminogen activator, Mel-PA, that is released by human melanoma cells cultured in vitro. This enzyme was compared to the urinary plasminogen activator, urokinase. The human melanoma cell line released large amounts of Mel-PA into the surrounding medium when cultured under serum-free conditions. These cells released only one type of plasminogen activator. A technique was developed in which plasminogen activators were seperated electrophoretically and detected in polyacrylamide gel slabs. Mel-PA was concentrated and partially purified by affinity chromatography on benzamidine-sepharose. A study of the distribution of plasminogen activators in tissues and body fluids showed that all mammals examined had two immunochemically distinct plasminogen activators that corresponded, in their distribution, to the urokinase-like and Mel-PA like enzymes of man. A comparitive study of the kinetic behaviour of Mel-PA and urokinase showed numerous differences between the catalytic activities of these two enzymes

  20. Characterization of Co-Cultivation of Cyanobacteria on Growth, Productions of Polysaccharides and Extracellular Proteins, Nitrogenase Activity, and Photosynthetic Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Chuizhao; Wang, Libo; Wu, Tong; Zhang, Shiping; Tang, Tao; Wang, Liang; Zhao, Quanyu; Sun, Yuhan

    2017-01-01

    Cyanobacteria as biofertilizers are benefit to reduce the use of chemical fertilizers and reestablish the ecological system in soil. In general, several strains of cyanobacteria were involved in the biofertilizers. The co-cultivation of cyanobacteria were characterized on growth profile, production of polysaccharides and extracellular proteins, nitrogenase activity, and photosynthetic activity for three selected N 2 -fixing cyanobacteria, Anabaena cylindrica (B1611 and F243) and Nostoc sp. (F280). After eight-day culture, the highest dry weights were obtained in F280 pure culture and co-cultivation of B1611 and F280. Higher production of extracellular proteins and cell-bonding polysaccharides (CPS) were observed in co-cultivations compared with pure culture. The highest released polysaccharides (RPS) contents were obtained in pure culture of F280 and co-cultivation of F280 and F243. Galactose and glucose were major components of CPS and RPS in all samples. Trehalose was a specific component of RPS in F280 pure culture. Based on the monosaccharide contents of CPS and RPS, F280 was the dominant species in the related treatments of co-cultivation. The nitrogenase activities in all treatments exhibited a sharp rise at the late stage while a significant decrease existed when three cyanobacteria strains were mixed. Photosynthetic activities for all treatments were determined with rapid light curve, and the related parameters were estimated.

  1. Cloning and characterization of a G protein-activated human phosphoinositide-3 kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanov, B; Volinia, S; Hanck, T; Rubio, I; Loubtchenkov, M; Malek, D; Stoyanova, S; Vanhaesebroeck, B; Dhand, R; Nürnberg, B

    1995-08-04

    Phosphoinositide-3 kinase activity is implicated in diverse cellular responses triggered by mammalian cell surface receptors and in the regulation of protein sorting in yeast. Receptors with intrinsic and associated tyrosine kinase activity recruit heterodimeric phosphoinositide-3 kinases that consist of p110 catalytic subunits and p85 adaptor molecules containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains. A phosphoinositide-3 kinase isotype, p110 gamma, was cloned and characterized. The p110 gamma enzyme was activated in vitro by both the alpha and beta gamma subunits of heterotrimeric guanosine triphosphate (GTP)-binding proteins (G proteins) and did not interact with p85. A potential pleckstrin homology domain is located near its amino terminus. The p110 gamma isotype may link signaling through G protein-coupled receptors to the generation of phosphoinositide second messengers phosphorylated in the D-3 position.

  2. Isolation and characterization of aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity in the gut of endogeic earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Katsuhiko; Ikeda, Kana; Yoshida, Seo

    2012-09-01

    The ability of earthworms to decompose lignocellulose involves the assistance of microorganisms in their digestive system. While many studies have revealed a diverse microbiota in the earthworm gut, including aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, it remains unclear which of these species contribute to lignocellulose digestion. In this study, aerobic microorganisms with cellulolytic activity isolated from the gut of two endogeic earthworms, Amynthas heteropoda (Megascolecidae) and Eisenia fetida (Lumbricidae) were isolated by solid culture of gut homogenates using filter paper as a carbon source. A total of 48 strains, including four bacterial and four fungal genera, were isolated from two earthworm species. Characterization of these strains using enzyme assays showed that the most representative ones had exocellulase and xylanase activities, while some had weak laccase activity. These findings suggest that earthworms digest lignocellulose by exploiting microbial exocellulase and xylanase besides their own endocellulase. Phylogenetic analysis showed that among the cellulolytic isolates in both earthworm species Burkholderia and Chaetomium were the dominant bacterial and fungal members.

  3. Characterizing and improving passive-active shufflers for assays of 208-Liter waste drums

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rinard, P.M.; Adams, E.L.; Menlove, H.O.; Sprinkle, J.K. Jr.

    1992-01-01

    A passive and active neutron shuffler for 208-L waste drums has been used to perform over 1500 active and 500 passive measurements on uranium and plutonium samples in 28 different matrices. The shuffler is now better characterized and improvements have been implemented or suggested. An improved correction for the effects of the matrix material was devised from flux-monitor responses. The most important cause of inaccuracies in assays is a localized instead of a uniform distribution of fissile material in a drum; a technique for deducing the distribution from the assay data and then applying a correction is suggested and will be developed further. A technique is given to detect excessive amounts of moderator that could make hundreds of grams of 235 U assay as zero grams. Sensitivities (minimum detectable masses) for 235 U with active assays and for 240 Pu eff with passive assays are presented and the effects of moderators and absorbers on sensitivities noted

  4. Synthesis, characterizations and antimicrobial activities of well dispersed ultra-long CdO nanowires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumeet Kumar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We present a simple, efficient, low cost and template free method for preparation of well dispersed ultra-long (1 μm CdO nanowires. The CdO nanowires were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, UV-visible spectroscopy and Raman measurements. The direct and indirect band gaps were calculated to be 3.5 eV and 2.6 eV, respectively. In the Raman spectra only second order features were observed. The CdO nanowires were used to study antimicrobial activities against B.subtilis and E.coli microbes. It shows antimicrobial activity against B.subtilis and E.coli. However, the antimicrobial activities are better against B.subtilis than that of E.coli.

  5. Synthesis, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activities of Coordination Compounds of Aspartic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. O. Aiyelabola

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coordination compounds of aspartic acid were synthesized in basic and acidic media, with metal ligand M : L stoichiometric ratio 1 : 2. The complexes were characterized using infrared, electronic and magnetic susceptibility measurements, and mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial activity of the compounds was determined against three Gram-positive and three Gram-negative bacteria and one fungus. The results obtained indicated that the availability of donor atoms used for coordination was a function of the pH of the solution in which the reaction was carried out. This resulted in varying geometrical structures for the complexes. The compounds exhibited a broad spectrum of activity and in some cases better activity than the standard.

  6. Synthesis, characterization, antiplasmodial and antitrypanosomal activity of some metal(III complexes of sulfadiazine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.A. Ajibade

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Fe(III, Ru(III, Rh(III, and Cr(III complexes of 4-amino-N-(2-pyrimidinylbenzene sulfonamide (sulfadiazine have been synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, electronic and IR spectroscopy, conductance and room temperature magnetic susceptibility measurements. Sulfadiazine acts as a bidentate ligand through the sulfonamido and the pyrimidinic N-atoms. The compounds are non-electrolytes and the electronic spectra are consistent with the proposed octahedral geometry around the metal ions. The complexes were tested for in vitro activity against cultures of the resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, tripamastigotes T. b. rhodesiense and amastigotes L. donovani to determine their antiprotozoal activities. The Fe(III complex is more active than the other complexes against the parasitic protozoa.

  7. Transition metal complexes of some biologically active ligands; synthesis characterization and bioactivities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, S.; Ali, N.; Nisar, M.

    2009-01-01

    Transition/representative transition metals complexes of biologically active chelating agent 1,2-dipyrolodinoethane were synthesized and characterized through spectral and analytical data. The complexes are of the formula (M(L)X/sub 2/). Where (M = Co (II), Ni (II), Cu (II), Zn (II), Hg (II) and Cd (II) and X = CI, Br, NO/sub 3/). Tetrahedral geometry has been proposed to these-metal complexes with the help of magnetic measurements, elemental analysis, chemical stoichiometry and spectroscopic data Antibacterial activity of the ligand and its metal complexes were screened against Eschereschi coli, Klebsiello pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulhari, Streptococcus pneumonia, Salmonella Iyphi, Bacilh,s anthrax, Streptococcus fecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Complexes were found to be active against Eschereschi coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, Proteus mirabilis and Proteus vulharis. (author)

  8. Characterization of an active dosemeter according to IEC 61526:2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, J.; Santos, L.; Santos, J.A.M.; Alves, J.G.; Oliveira, C.

    2016-01-01

    The active personal dosemeter, RaySafe i2, allows the measurement and record of Hp(10) in real time, every second, via wireless technology for real-time display on a portable computer and/or a local network. The system seems particularly attractive for individual monitoring at clinical facilities where high intensity and varying radiation fields may occur, as it enables the user to acknowledge and optimize the dose and dose rate values in real time for each procedure. Prior to its use, the system was characterized at the Metrology Laboratory of Ionizing Radiation of IST-LPSR aiming at the metrological characterization of the system in accordance with IEC 61526:2010 for metrological control purposes and to verify the technical specifications stated by the manufacturer. (authors)

  9. Three dimensional visualization in support of Yucca Mountain Site characterization activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brickey, D.W.

    1992-01-01

    An understanding of the geologic and hydrologic environment for the proposed high-level nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, NV is a critical component of site characterization activities. Conventional methods allow visualization of geologic data in only two or two and a half dimensions. Recent advances in computer workstation hardware and software now make it possible to create interactive three dimensional visualizations. Visualization software has been used to create preliminary two-, two-and-a-half-, and three-dimensional visualizations of Yucca Mountain structure and stratigraphy. The three dimensional models can also display lithologically dependent or independent parametric data. Yucca Mountain site characterization studies that will be supported by this capability include structural, lithologic, and hydrologic modeling, and repository design

  10. Characterizing the active opening of the eustachian tube in a hypobaric/hyperbaric pressure chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikolajczak, Stefanie; Meyer, Moritz Friedo; Hahn, Moritz; Korthäuer, Christine; Jumah, Masen Dirk; Hüttenbrink, Karl-Bernd; Grosheva, Maria; Luers, Jan Christoffer; Beutner, Dirk

    2015-01-01

    Active and passive opening of the Eustachian tube (ET) enables direct aeration of the middle ear and a pressure balance between middle ear and the ambient pressure. The aim of this study was to characterize standard values for the opening pressure (ETOP), the opening frequency (ETOF), and the opening duration (ETOD) for active tubal openings (Valsalva maneuver, swallowing) in healthy participants. In a hypobaric/hyperbaric pressure chamber, 30 healthy participants (19 women, 11 men; mean age, 25.57 ± 3.33 years) were exposed to a standardized profile of compression and decompression. The pressure values were recorded via continuous impedance measurement during the Valsalva maneuver and swallowing. Based on the data, standard curves were identified and the ETOP, ETOD, and ETOF were determined. Recurring patterns of the pressure curve during active tube opening for the Valsalva maneuver and for active swallowing were characterized. The mean value for the Valsalva maneuver for ETOP was 41.21 ± 17.38 mbar; for the ETOD, it was 2.65 ± 1.87 seconds. In the active pressure compensation by swallowing, the mean value for the ETOP was 29.91 ± 13.07 mbar; and for the ETOD, it was 0.82 ± 0.53 seconds. Standard values for the opening pressure of the tube and the tube opening duration for active tubal openings (Valsalva maneuver, swallowing) were described, and typical curve gradients for healthy subjects could be shown. This is another step toward analyzing the function of the tube in compression and decompression.

  11. AmTAR2: Functional characterization of a honeybee tyramine receptor stimulating adenylyl cyclase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reim, Tina; Balfanz, Sabine; Baumann, Arnd; Blenau, Wolfgang; Thamm, Markus; Scheiner, Ricarda

    2017-01-01

    The biogenic monoamines norepinephrine and epinephrine regulate important physiological functions in vertebrates. Insects such as honeybees do not synthesize these neuroactive substances. Instead, they employ octopamine and tyramine for comparable physiological functions. These biogenic amines activate specific guanine nucleotide-binding (G) protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). Based on pharmacological data obtained on heterologously expressed receptors, α- and β-adrenergic-like octopamine receptors are better activated by octopamine than by tyramine. Conversely, GPCRs forming the type 1 tyramine receptor clade (synonymous to octopamine/tyramine receptors) are better activated by tyramine than by octopamine. More recently, receptors were characterized which are almost exclusively activated by tyramine, thus forming an independent type 2 tyramine receptor clade. Functionally, type 1 tyramine receptors inhibit adenylyl cyclase activity, leading to a decrease in intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP] i ). Type 2 tyramine receptors can mediate Ca 2+ signals or both Ca 2+ signals and effects on [cAMP] i . We here provide evidence that the honeybee tyramine receptor 2 (AmTAR2), when heterologously expressed in flpTM cells, exclusively causes an increase in [cAMP] i . The receptor displays a pronounced preference for tyramine over octopamine. Its activity can be blocked by a series of established antagonists, of which mianserin and yohimbine are most efficient. The functional characterization of two tyramine receptors from the honeybee, AmTAR1 (previously named AmTYR1) and AmTAR2, which respond to tyramine by changing cAMP levels in opposite direction, is an important step towards understanding the actions of tyramine in honeybee behavior and physiology, particularly in comparison to the effects of octopamine. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative characterization of protease activity in cultured spotted rose snapper juveniles (Lutjanus guttatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emyr Peña

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Partial characterizations of digestive proteases were studied in three life stages of spotted rose snapper: early (EJ, middle (MJ and late juvenile (LJ with corresponding average weights of 21.3 ± 2.6 g (3 months after hatching, MAH, 190 ± 4.4 g (7 MAH, and 400 ± 11.5 g (12 MAH. At sampling points, the digestive tract was dissected into the stomach (St, pyloric caeca (PC, and the intestine in three sections (proximal (PI, middle (MI and distal intestine (DI. The effect of pH and temperature and specific inhibitors were evaluated for acid and alkaline proteases. Total acid and alkaline protease activity showed a tendency to increase with juvenile life stage of fish while trypsin activity decreased. Differences were found in acid and alkaline protease activities at different pH and temperatures during juvenile stages. Pepstatin A inhibited total activity in the stomach extract in all juvenile stages. Activity in total alkaline protease inhibition was significantly higher in EJ using TLCK, PMSF, SBTI, Phen and Ovo than in MJ and LJ, while no significant differences were found with TPCK inhibition. Therefore increases in protease activities with fish growth through juvenile stages in which a substitution or diversification in the type of alkaline enzymes exist. These results lead a better comprehension of changes in digestive potential of Lutjanidae fish.

  13. Preparation and Characterization of Activated Carbon Obtained from Plantain (Musa paradisiaca Fruit Stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Ekpete

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbonization of carbon obtained from plantain (Musa paradisiaca stem was achieved at a temperature of 400°C for one hour. The carbonized carbon was divided into two parts to be activated separately. The activated carbon CPPAC (carbonized plantain phosphoric acid activated carbon and CPZAC (carbonized plantain zinc chloride activated carbon were produced via the chemical activation process using H3PO4 and ZnCl2. Characterization of pH, bulk density, moisture content, ash content, volatile matter, iodine number, and oxygen functional group was conducted. When comparing the surface properties of both CPPAC and CPZAC with the untreated plantain carbon (UPC, it was observed that there existed significant differences in all properties with the exemption of carboxylic group for CPPAC and phenolic group for both CPPAC and CPZAC, thus signifying that a chemical transformation did occur. When comparing the results obtained from CPPAC to that of CPZAC, CPPAC was more preferable for adsorption due to its low bulk density, low ash content, and high iodine value, signifying thus that the activating agents both reacted differently with the plantain stem.

  14. Synthesis, characterization, and antibacterial activity of N,O-quaternary ammonium chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Xin, Meihua; Li, Mingchun; Huang, Huili; Zhou, Shengquan; Liu, Juezhao

    2011-11-08

    N,N,N-Trimethyl O-(2-hydroxy-3-trimethylammonium propyl) chitosans (TMHTMAPC) with different degrees of O-substitution were synthesized by reacting O-methyl-free N,N,N-trimethyl chitosan (TMC) with 3-chloro-2-hydroxy-propyl trimethyl ammonium chloride (CHPTMAC). The products were characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR and TGA, and investigated for antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli under weakly acidic (pH 5.5) and weakly basic (pH 7.2) conditions. TMHTMAPC exhibited enhanced antibacterial activity compared with TMC, and the activity of TMHTMAPC increased with an increase in the degree of substitution. Divalent cations (Ba(2+) and Ca(2+)) strongly reduced the antibacterial activity of chitosan, O-carboxymethyl chitosan and N,N,N-trimethyl-O-carboxymethyl chitosan, but the repression on the antibacterial activity of TMC and TMHTMAPC was weaker. This indicates that the free amino group on chitosan backbone is the main functional group interacting with divalent cations. The existence of 100 mM Na(+) slightly reduced the antibacterial activity of both chitosan and its derivatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Characterizing context-dependent differential firing activity in the hippocampus and entorhinal cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prerau, Michael J; Lipton, Paul A; Eichenbaum, Howard B; Eden, Uri T

    2014-04-01

    The rat hippocampus and entorhinal cortex have been shown to possess neurons with place fields that modulate their firing properties under different behavioral contexts. Such context-dependent changes in neural activity are commonly studied through electrophysiological experiments in which a rat performs a continuous spatial alternation task on a T-maze. Previous research has analyzed context-based differential firing during this task by describing differences in the mean firing activity between left-turn and right-turn experimental trials. In this article, we develop qualitative and quantitative methods to characterize and compare changes in trial-to-trial firing rate variability for sets of experimental contexts. We apply these methods to cells in the CA1 region of hippocampus and in the dorsocaudal medial entorhinal cortex (dcMEC), characterizing the context-dependent differences in spiking activity during spatial alternation. We identify a subset of cells with context-dependent changes in firing rate variability. Additionally, we show that dcMEC populations encode turn direction uniformly throughout the T-maze stem, whereas CA1 populations encode context at major waypoints in the spatial trajectory. Our results suggest scenarios in which individual cells that sparsely provide information on turn direction might combine in the aggregate to produce a robust population encoding. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Isolation and characterization of an Antarctic Flavobacterium strain with agarase and alginate lyase activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lavín Paris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Several bacteria that are associated with macroalgae can use phycocolloids as a carbon source. Strain INACH002, isolated from decomposing Porphyra (Rhodophyta, in King George Island, Antarctica, was screened and characterized for the ability to produce agarase and alginate-lyase enzymatic activities. Our strain INACH002 was identified as a member of the genus Flavobacterium, closely related to Flavobacterium faecale, using 16S rRNA gene analysis. The INACH002 strain was characterized as psychrotrophic due to its optimal temperature (17ºC and maximum temperature (20°C of growth. Agarase and alginate-lyase displayed enzymatic activities within a range of 10°C to 50°C, with differences in the optimal temperature to hydrolyze agar (50°C, agarose (50°C and alginate (30°C during the first 30 min of activity. Strain Flavobacterium INACH002 is a promising Antarctic biotechnological resource; however, further research is required to illustrate the structural and functional bases of the enzymatic performance observed during the degradation of different substrates at different temperatures.

  17. X-ray imaging characterization of active edge silicon pixel sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponchut, C; Ruat, M; Kalliopuska, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this work was the experimental characterization of edge effects in active-edge silicon pixel sensors, in the frame of X-ray pixel detectors developments for synchrotron experiments. We produced a set of active edge pixel sensors with 300 to 500 μm thickness, edge widths ranging from 100 μm to 150 μm, and n or p pixel contact types. The sensors with 256 × 256 pixels and 55 × 55 μm 2 pixel pitch were then bump-bonded to Timepix readout chips for X-ray imaging measurements. The reduced edge widths makes the edge pixels more sensitive to the electrical field distribution at the sensor boundaries. We characterized this effect by mapping the spatial response of the sensor edges with a finely focused X-ray synchrotron beam. One of the samples showed a distortion-free response on all four edges, whereas others showed variable degrees of distortions extending at maximum to 300 micron from the sensor edge. An application of active edge pixel sensors to coherent diffraction imaging with synchrotron beams is described

  18. Spectroscopic characterization of metal complexes of novel Schiff base. Synthesis, thermal and biological activity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, M. M.; Mohamed, Gehad G.; Ibrahim, Amr A.

    2009-07-01

    Novel Schiff base (HL) ligand is prepared via condensation of 4-aminoantipyrine and 2-aminobenzoic acid. The ligand is characterized based on elemental analysis, mass, IR and 1H NMR spectra. Metal complexes are reported and characterized based on elemental analyses, IR, 1H NMR, solid reflectance, magnetic moment, molar conductance and thermal analyses (TGA, DrTGA and DTA). The molar conductance data reveal that all the metal chelates are non-electrolytes. IR spectra show that HL is coordinated to the metal ions in a uninegatively tridentate manner with NNO donor sites of the azomethine N, amino N and deprotonated caroxylic-O. From the magnetic and solid reflectance spectra, it is found that the geometrical structures of these complexes are octahedral. The thermal behaviour of these chelates shows that the hydrated complexes losses water molecules of hydration in the first step followed immediately by decomposition of the anions and ligand molecules in the subsequent steps. The activation thermodynamic parameters, such as, E*, ΔH*, ΔS* and ΔG* are calculated from the DrTG curves using Coats-Redfern method. The synthesized ligands, in comparison to their metal complexes also were screened for their antibacterial activity against bacterial species, Escherichia Coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus Pyogones and Fungi (Candida). The activity data show that the metal complexes to be more potent/antibacterial than the parent Shciff base ligand against one or more bacterial species.

  19. Characterization and Activation Study of Black Chars Derived from Cellulosic Biomass Pyrolyzed at Very High Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contescu, Cristian I. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Gallego, Nidia C. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-03-01

    The State of Tennessee, in partnership with the University of Tennessee (UT) and the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has created the RevV! Manufacturing voucher program to help Tennessee manufacturers gain access to the world-class resources at ORNL. As a part of this program, ORNL was working with Proton Power, Inc. (PPI), a rapidly growing company located in Lenoir City, Tennessee. PPI has developed a patented renewable energy system that uses biomass and waste sources to produce inexpensive hydrogen gas or synthetic fuels which are economically competitive with fossil fuels. The pyrolysis process used by PPI in their manufacturing chain generates significant amounts of black carbon char as by-product. The scope of ORNL collaboration with PPI was assessing the black carbon char as a potential feedstock for activated carbon production, as this could be a potentially new revenue stream. During 2015-2016 ORNL received eight char samples from PPI and characterized their initial properties, simulated their physical activation by carbon dioxide, prepared gram-size samples of physically activated carbons, and characterized their surface and porosity properties. This report presents a summary of the work methods employed and the results obtained in the collaborative project between ORNL and PPI.

  20. Cocrystal of Ibuprofen–Nicotinamide: Solid-State Characterization and In Vivo Analgesic Activity Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yori Yuliandra

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Ibuprofen is classified as a BCS class II drug which has low solubility and high permeability. We conducted the formation of the cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen with coformer nicotinamide to increase its solubility. The purpose of this study was to characterize the solid state of cocrystalline phase of ibuprofen-nicotinamide, determine the solubility, and evaluate its in vivo analgesic activity. The cocrystal of ibuprofen-nicotinamide was prepared by a slow evaporation method. The solid-state characterization was conducted by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD analysis, differential thermal analysis (DTA, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. To investigate the in vivo analgesic activity, 28 male Swiss-Webster mice were injected with acetic acid 0.5% following oral administration of intact ibuprofen, physical mixture, and its cocrystalline phase with nicotinamide (equivalent to 26 mg/kg ibuprofen. The number of writhes was counted, and pain inhibition was calculated. All data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA followed by Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (95% confidence interval. The results revealed that a new cocrystalline phase was successfully formed. The solubility testing showed that the cocrystal formation enhanced the solubility significantly as compared with the physical mixture and intact ibuprofen. A significant increase in the analgesic activity of cocrystal ibuprofen-nicotinamide was also confirmed.

  1. Production, characterization, and antifungal activity of a biosurfactant produced by Rhodotorula babjevae YS3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Suparna; Borah, Siddhartha Narayan; Bora, Arijit; Deka, Suresh

    2017-05-30

    Sophorolipids are one of the most promising glycolipid biosurfactants and have been successfully employed in bioremediation and various other industrial sectors. They have also been described to exhibit antimicrobial activity against different bacterial species. Nevertheless, previous literature pertaining to the antifungal activity of sophorolipids are limited indicating the need for further research to explore novel strains with wide antimicrobial activity. A novel yeast strain, Rhodotorula babjevae YS3, was recently isolated from an agricultural field in Assam, Northeast India. This study was primarily emphasized at the characterization and subsequent evaluation of antifungal activity of the sophorolipid biosurfactant produced by R. babjevae YS3. The growth kinetics and biosurfactant production by R. babjevae YS3 was evaluated by cultivation in Bushnell-Haas medium containing glucose (10% w/v) as the sole carbon source. A reduction in the surface tension of the culture medium from 70 to 32.6 mN/m was observed after 24 h. The yield of crude biosurfactant was recorded to be 19.0 g/l which might further increase after optimization of the growth parameters. The biosurfactant was characterized to be a heterogeneous sophorolipid (SL) with both lactonic and acidic forms after TLC, FTIR and LC-MS analyses. The SL exhibited excellent oil spreading and emulsifying activity against crude oil at 38.46 mm 2 and 100% respectively. The CMC was observed to be 130 mg/l. The stability of the SL was evaluated over a wide range of pH (2-10), salinity (2-10% NaCl) and temperature (at 120 °C for time intervals of 30 up to 120 min). The SL was found to retain surface-active properties under the extreme conditions. Additionally, the SL exhibited promising antifungal activity against a considerably broad group of pathogenic fungi viz. Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Fusarium verticilliodes, Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. pisi, Corynespora cassiicola, and Trichophyton rubrum. The

  2. Assessing impacts on biological resources from Site Characterization Activities of the Yucca Mountain Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Green, R.A.; Cox, M.K.; Doerr, T.B.; O'Farrell, T.P.; Ostler, W.K.; Rautenstrauch, K.R.; Wills, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    An integrated impact assessment program was developed to monitor the possible effects of Site Characterization Activities (SCA) on the biological resources of the Yucca Mountain area. The program uses control and treatment sites incorporating both spatial and temporal controls. The selection of biotic variables for monitoring was based on their relative importance in the ecosystem and their ability to provide information on potential impacts. All measures of biotic and abiotic variables will be made on the same sample plots to permit linking changes in variables to each other

  3. Synthesis, characterization and evaluation of biological activities of some 2,3-diaryl bicyclo methanones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thirunarayanan Ganesamoorthy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen (3,4-dichlorophenyl-3-(substituted phenylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2-yl methanone derivatives have been synthesized by an aqueous phase fly-ash catalyzed [4+2] cycloaddition Diels-Alder reaction of cyclopentadiene and 3,4-dichloro phenyl chalcones. The yields of the methanones were greater than 60%. The synthesized methanones were characterized by their physical constants and spectral data. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the synthesized methanones were evaluated using a variety of bacterial and fungal species and DPPH radical scavenging methods.

  4. Design, Engineering, and Characterization of Prokaryotic Ligand-Binding Transcriptional Activators as Biosensors in Yeast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambri, Francesca; Snoek, Tim; Skjødt, Mette Louise

    2018-01-01

    process. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, implementation of allosterically regulated transcription factors from prokaryotes as metabolite biosensors has proven a valuable strategy to alleviate this screening bottleneck. Here, we present a protocol to select and incorporate prokaryotic...... transcriptional activators as metabolite biosensors in S. cerevisiae. As an example, we outline the engineering and characterization of the LysR-type transcriptional regulator (LTTR) family member BenM from Acetinobacter sp. ADP1 for monitoring accumulation of cis,cis-muconic acid, a bioplast precursor, in yeast...

  5. Electrical and mechanical characterization of nanoscale-layered cellulose-based electro-active paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gyu-Young; Yun, Ki-Ju; Kim, Joo-Hyung; Kim, Jaehwan

    2011-01-01

    In order to understand the electro-mechanical behavior of piezoelectric electro active paper (EAPap), the converse and direct piezoelectric characterization of cellulose EAPap was studied and compared. A delay between the electrical field and the induced strain of EAPap was observed due to the inner nano-voids or the localized amorphous regions in layer-by-layered structure to capture or hold the electrical charges and remnant ions. The linear relation between electric field and induced strain is also observed. The electro-mechanical performance of EAPap is discussed in detail in this paper.

  6. Characterizing Interference in Radio Astronomy Observations through Active and Unsupervised Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doran, G.

    2013-01-01

    In the process of observing signals from astronomical sources, radio astronomers must mitigate the effects of manmade radio sources such as cell phones, satellites, aircraft, and observatory equipment. Radio frequency interference (RFI) often occurs as short bursts (active learning approach in which an astronomer labels events that are most confusing to a classifier, minimizing the human effort required for classification. We also explore the use of unsupervised clustering techniques, which automatically group events into classes without user input. We apply these techniques to data from the Parkes Multibeam Pulsar Survey to characterize several million detected RFI events from over a thousand hours of observation.

  7. Characterization of a chitinase with antifungal activity from a native Serratia marcescens B4A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandana Zarei

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Chitinases have the ability of chitin digestion that constitutes a main compound of the cell wall in many of the phytopathogens such as fungi. In the following investigation, a novel chitinase with antifungal activity was characterized from a native Serratia marcescens B4A. Partially purified enzyme had an apparent molecular mass of 54 kDa. It indicated an optimum activity in pH 5 at 45ºC. Enzyme was stable in 55ºC for 20 min and at a pH range of 3-9 for 90 min at 25ºC. When the temperature was raised to 60ºC, it might affect the structure of enzymes lead to reduction of chitinase activity. Moreover, the Km and Vmax values for chitin were 8.3 mg/ml and 2.4 mmol/min, respectively. Additionally, the effect of some cations and chemical compounds were found to stimulate the chitinase activity. In addition, Iodoacetamide and Idoacetic acid did not inhibit enzyme activity, indicating that cysteine residues are not part of the catalytic site of chitinase. Finally, chitinase activity was further monitored by scanning electronic microscopy data in which progressive changes in chitin porosity appeared upon treatment with chitinase. This enzyme exhibited antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani, Bipolaris sp, Alternaria raphani, Alternaria brassicicola, revealing a potential application for the industry with potentially exploitable significance. Fungal chitin shows some special features, in particular with respect to chemical structure. Difference in chitinolytic ability must result from the subsite structure in the enzyme binding cleft. This implies that why the enzyme didn't have significant antifungal activity against other Fungi.

  8. Isolation and characterization of Bacillus thuringiensis strains active against Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaina Zorzetti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Elasmopalpus lignosellus (Zeller, 1848 (Lepidoptera, Pyralidae is an insect pest of 60 economically important crops, including sugarcane, wheat, soybean, rice, beans, sorghum, peanuts, and cotton. The aim of this work was to select and characterize Bacillus thuringiensis isolates with insecticidal activity against E. Lignosellus that could be used as an alternative method of control. Selective bioassays were done to evaluate the toxicity of 47 isolates against first instar larvae of E. lignosellus. For the most toxic bacterial strains, the lethal concentration (LC50 was estimated and morphological, biochemical and molecular methods were used to characterize the isolates. Among the 47 isolates tested, 12 caused mortality above 85% and showed LC50 values from 0.038E+8 to 0.855E+8 spores mL-1. Isolates BR83, BR145, BR09, BR78, S1534, and S1302 had the lowest LC50 values and did not differ from the standard HD-1 strain; the exception was BR83.The protein profiles produced bands with molecular masses of 60-130 kDa. The genes cry1, cry2, cry3, and cry11 were identified in the molecular characterization. The morphological analysis identified three different crystal inclusions: bipyramidal, spherical and cuboidal. Among the tested isolates, 12 isolates have potential for biotechnological control of E. Lignosellus by development of new biopesticides or genetically modified plants.

  9. Preparation and Characterizations of Chitosan/Citral Nanoemulsions and their Antimicrobial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan I. Kh. Marei

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: The antimicrobial activity of essential oils has been long recognized, however, they easily evaporate and/or decompose during preparation, owing to direct exposure to heat, pressure and light. The current study deals with the formulation and characterization of bio-based oil in water nanoemulsions and their antimicrobial activity against plant pathogens.Material and Methods: Citral oil and low molecular weight chitosan were used for preparation of nanoemulsions in the presence of sodium tripolyphosphate. Nanoemulsions were prepared by adding dropwise citral at different ratios into an aqueous solution containing chitosan, sodium tripolyphosphate and surfactant with continuous stirring and then ultrasonication. The success of formulation was confirmed by dynamic light scattering and scanning electron microscopy techniques. Physical stability and viscosity were investigated in details. The antimicrobial activity was evaluated against Erwinia carotovora, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer. Results and Conclusion: The nanoemulsions had a polydispersity index ranged from 0.508 to 0.614 and particle size from 27 to 1283 nm. The highest antimicrobial activity was observed with F1 formulation (EC50 = 23, 278 and 221 mg L-1, against Erwinia carotovora, Aspergillus niger and Rhizopus stolonifer, respectively. Based on the antimicrobial activity, the prepared chitosan/citral nanoemulsions can be a cost-effective way to protect crops from microbial pathogens. Because such formulations contain bioactive products, the development of resistant pathogens can be delayed.Conflict of Interest: The authors declare no conflict of interest. 

  10. Synthesis and characterization of Ag nanoparticles decorated mesoporous sintered activated carbon with antibacterial and adsorptive properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Wenxia; Xiao, Kaijun, E-mail: fekjxiao@scut.edu.cn; He, Tinglin; Zhu, Liang, E-mail: zhuliang@scut.edu.cn

    2015-10-25

    In this study, the sliver nanoparticles (AgNPs) immobilized on the sintered activated carbon (Ag/SAC) were synthesized by the ultrasonic-assisted impregnation method and were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen adsorption. SEM showed that the AgNPs were well embedded in the SAC and immersion time had an important influence on final morphologies of AgNPs. Longer immersing duration caused significant aggregation of the AgNPs. The XRD data revealed that the successful synthesis of AgNPs on the SAC and immobilizing AgNPs on sintered active carbon did not change the crystalline degree of SAC. Texture characteristics were determined by analysis of the N{sub 2}/77 K isotherms. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Ag/SAC against Escherichia coli (DH5α) and Staphyloccocus aureus (ATCC 29213) was evaluated by a broth dilution method. MICs such as 5 mg/L (against E. coli) and 10 mg/L (against S. aureus) suggest that Ag/SAC have predominant antibacterial activity compared to active carbon. - Highlights: • Sintered active carbon (SAC) was coated with Ag via a facile approach. • The Ag/SAC exhibit good adsorption properties and excellent antibacterial effects. • The Ag/SAC was durable and stable in the application of water purification.

  11. Biochemical and Functional Characterization of Parawixia bistriata Spider Venom with Potential Proteolytic and Larvicidal Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimenez, Gizeli S.; Coutinho-Neto, Antonio; Kayano, Anderson M.; Simões-Silva, Rodrigo; Trindade, Frances; de Almeida e Silva, Alexandre; Marcussi, Silvana; da Silva, Saulo L.; Fernandes, Carla F. C.; Zuliani, Juliana P.; Calderon, Leonardo A.; Soares, Andreimar M.; Stábeli, Rodrigo G.

    2014-01-01

    Toxins purified from the venom of spiders have high potential to be studied pharmacologically and biochemically. These biomolecules may have biotechnological and therapeutic applications. This study aimed to evaluate the protein content of Parawixia bistriata venom and functionally characterize its proteins that have potential for biotechnological applications. The crude venom showed no phospholipase, hemorrhagic, or anti-Leishmania activities attesting to low genotoxicity and discrete antifungal activity for C. albicans. However the following activities were observed: anticoagulation, edema, myotoxicity and proteolysis on casein, azo-collagen, and fibrinogen. The chromatographic and electrophoretic profiles of the proteins revealed a predominance of acidic, neutral, and polar proteins, highlighting the presence of proteins with high molecular masses. Five fractions were collected using cation exchange chromatography, with the P4 fraction standing out as that of the highest purity. All fractions showed proteolytic activity. The crude venom and fractions P1, P2, and P3 showed larvicidal effects on A. aegypti. Fraction P4 showed the presence of a possible metalloprotease (60 kDa) that has high proteolytic activity on azo-collagen and was inhibited by EDTA. The results presented in this study demonstrate the presence of proteins in the venom of P. bistriata with potential for biotechnological applications. PMID:24895632

  12. Isolation and characterization of pigmented bacteria showing antimicrobial activity from Malaysian marine environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Natural products play a prominent role in the discovery of leads for the development of drugs in the treatment ofhuman diseases. Much of nature remains to be explored, especially marine and microbial environments.Methodology and results: Fifty-five pigmented marine bacteria were isolated from sponges, seawater, mangrovesediment, sea cucumber and mussel from different coastal area of Malaysia. The antimicrobial activities of thesebacteria were investigated by disk diffusion method against pathogenic bacteria. Out of 55 isolates, 18 isolates exhibitedantimicrobial activity, which based on morphological characterization, 53% of them were Gram positive and 47% wereGram negative. All active isolates were able to tolerate more than 4% NaCl in the nutrient agar medium that indicatedthey were autochthonous to marine environment and moderate salt tolerant in nature. Molecular identification of isolatesby the strong antimicrobial activities indicates that isolates WPRA3 (JX020764 and SM11-3j belong to genus Serratiaand isolate SDPM1 (JQ083392 belongs to genus Zooshikella.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The results of present study revealed that the active isolates arepotential producer of antimicrobial secondary metabolites and might be utilized as drug candidate.

  13. Isolation and characterization of biologically active venom protein from sea snake Enhydrina schistosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damotharan, Palani; Veeruraj, Anguchamy; Arumugam, Muthuvel; Balasubramanian, Thangavel

    2015-03-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the isolation and characterization of biological and biochemical active venom protein from sea snake, Enhydrina schistosa. The highest purification peaks in ion-exchange chromatography on DEAE-cellulose column were obtained for fraction numbers 39-49 when eluted with 0.35-0.45 M NaCl. Eighty per cent purity was obtained in the final stage of purification, and a single protein band of about 44 kDa was visualized in SDS-polyacrylamide gel under reducing condition. Purified venom protein expressed as haemolytic, cytotoxicity and proteolytic activities with lethal concentration (LC50 ) at 2.0 μg/mL. Venom protein exhibits enzymatic activity and hydrolyzed casein and gelatin. Gelatinolytic activity was optimal at pH 5-9. In conclusion, the present results suggested that the sea snake venom might be feasible sources for biologically active substances. Thus, this low molecular weight component of the venom protein could be used in potentially serve biological and pharmaceutical aspects. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Preliminary Characterization, Antioxidant and Hepatoprotective Activities of Polysaccharides from Taishan Pinus massoniana Pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changming Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to characterize the chemical composition, antioxidant activity and hepatoprotective effect of the polysaccharides from Taishan Pinus massoniana pollen (TPPPS. HPLC analysis showed that TPPPS was an acidic heteropolysaccharide with glucose and arabinose as the main component monosaccharides (79.6%, molar percentage. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR analysis indicated that the spectra of TPPPS displayed infrared absorption peaks characteristic of polysaccharides. In in vitro assays TPPPS exhibited different degrees of dose-dependent antioxidant activities , and this was further verified by suppression of CCl4-induced oxidative stress in the liver with three tested doses of TPPPS (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg bw in rats. Pretreatment with TPPPS significantly decreased the levels of alanine aminotransferase (AST, aspartate aminotransferase (ALT, alkaline phosphatase (ALP, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH and malondialdehyde (MDA against CCl4 injuries, and elevated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD as well as glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px. Histopathological observation further confirmed that TPPPS could protect the liver tissues from CCl4-induced histological alternation. These results suggest that TPPPS has strong antioxidant activities and significant protective effect against acute hepatotoxicity induced by CCl4. The hepatoprotective effect may partly be related to its free radical scavenging effect, increasing antioxidant activity and inhibiting lipid peroxidation.

  15. Identification and Characterization of Lipase Activity and Immunogenicity of LipL from Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Cao

    Full Text Available Lipids and lipid-metabolizing esterases/lipases are highly important for the mycobacterial life cycle and, possibly, for mycobacterial virulence. In this study, we expressed 10 members of the Lip family of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Among the 10 proteins, LipL displayed a significantly high enzymatic activity for the hydrolysis of long-chain lipids. The optimal temperature for the lipase activity of LipL was demonstrated to be 37°C, and the optimal pH was 8.0. The lipase active center was not the conserved motif G-x-S-x-G, but rather the S-x-x-K and GGG motifs, and the key catalytic amino acid residues were identified as G50, S88, and K91, as demonstrated through site-directed mutagenesis experiments. A three-dimensional modeling structure of LipL was constructed, which showed that the GGG motif was located in the surface of a pocket structure. Furthermore, the subcellular localization of LipL was demonstrated to be on the mycobacterial surface by Western blot analysis. Our results revealed that the LipL protein could induce a strong humoral immune response in humans and activate a CD8+ T cell-mediated response in mice. Overall, our study identified and characterized a novel lipase denoted LipL from M. tuberculosis, and demonstrated that LipL functions as an immunogen that activates both humoral and cell-mediated responses.

  16. Synthesis, Characterization, and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Methyl Salicylate Derivatives Bearing Piperazine Moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingfen; Yin, Yong; Wang, Lisheng; Liang, Pengyun; Li, Menghua; Liu, Xu; Wu, Lichuan; Yang, Hua

    2016-11-23

    In this study, a new series of 16 methyl salicylate derivatives bearing a piperazine moiety were synthesized and characterized. The in vivo anti-inflammatory activities of target compounds were investigated against xylol-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice. The results showed that all synthesized compounds exhibited potent anti-inflammatory activities. Especially, the anti-inflammatory activities of compounds M15 and M16 were higher than that of aspirin and even equal to that of indomethacin at the same dose. In addition, the in vitro cytotoxicity activities and anti-inflammatory activities of four target compounds were performed in RAW264.7 macrophages, and compound M16 was found to significantly inhibit the release of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, compound M16 was found to attenuate LPS induced cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 up-regulation. The current preliminary study may provide information for the development of new and safe anti-inflammatory agents.

  17. Structural characterization and evaluation of the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides extracted from Qingzhuan brick tea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xinhe; Huang, Mingjun; Qin, Caiqin; Lv, Bangyu; Mao, Qingli; Liu, Zhonghua

    2017-08-01

    The crude tea polysaccharides (CTPS) from Qingzhuan brick tea(QZBT) were extracted and fractionated to afford two fractions, namely TPS-1 and TPS-2. Analyses were conducted concerning the structural characterization and antioxidant activities of these samples. Component analysis revealed that the carbohydrate, uronic acid, protein and polyphenol contents of these samples differed significantly. Fourier transform infrared analysis showed that these samples showed similar characteristic absorption peaks for polysaccharides. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, circular dichroism, scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyses indicated that there were considerable differences in the presence of protein, surface features, conformational characteristics and thermodynamic behaviors. For antioxidant activities in vitro, CTPS, TPS-1 and TPS-2 exhibited concentration-dependent antioxidant activities, with TPS-2 showing significantly higher antioxidant activity than CTPS and TPS-1. These results provide a scientific and strong foundation for the use of tea polysaccharides(TPS) from QZBT and further research towards the relationships between the characteristics and antioxidant activities of TPS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: Synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D.; Kanimozhi, K.; Kavitha, L.

    2015-04-01

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization, and Catalytic Activity of Pd(II Salen-Functionalized Mesoporous Silica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotcharin Sawisai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salen ligand synthesized from 2-hydroxybenzaldehyde and 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde was used as a palladium chelating ligand for the immobilization of the catalytic site. Mesoporous silica supported palladium catalysts were prepared by immobilizing Pd(OAc2 onto a mesoporous silica gel through the coordination of the imine-functionalized mesoporous silica gel. The prepared catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, energy dispersive X-ray (EDX, inductivity couple plasma (ICP, nitrogen adsorption-desorption, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR spectroscopy. The solid catalysts showed higher activity for the hydroamination of C-(tetra-O-acetyl-β-D-galactopyranosylallene with aromatic amines compared with the corresponding homogenous catalyst. The heterogeneous catalytic system can be easily recovered by simple filtration and reused for up to five cycles with no significant loss of catalytic activity.

  20. Synthesis, spectral characterizations and antimicrobial activity of some Schiff bases of 4-chloro-2-aminophenol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seher Birteksöz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A series of 4-chloro-2-[(arylmethylideneamino]phenols (1–11 including methoxy group were synthesized using appropriate synthetic route. The structures of the Schiff bases were characterized by FT-IR, UV-Vis, ESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR spectroscopic techniques and analytical methods. A relation is observed between melting points and existence of intramolecular hydrogen bonding. IR spectra of the compounds including and not including hydrogen bonding were compared. The compounds 2 and 4 show the characteristic UV bands attributed to the NH-forms. According to the 1H-NMR spectral data the compound 2 has the strongest intramolecular hydrogen bonding and the compound 6 shows two isomeric structure. On the other hand, antibacterial and antifungal activities of the compounds were investigated. Most of the compounds show selective activity toward S. epidermidis and C. albicans.

  1. Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity of Nickel (II and Palladium (II Complex with Pyrrolidine Dithiocarbamate (PDTC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sk Imadul Islam

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The synthesis of square planar Ni(II and Pd(II complexes with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC was characterized by elemental, physiochemical, and spectroscopic methods. Two complexes were prepared by the reaction of nickel acetate and palladium acetate with pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC in 1 : 2 molar ratio. The bovine serum albumin (BSA interaction with complexes was examined by absorption and fluorescence spectroscopic techniques at pH 7.4. All the spectral data suggest that coordination of the pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (PDTC takes place through the two sulphur atoms in a symmetrical bidentate fashion. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity against some species of pathogenic bacteria (Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Bacillus cereus. It has been observed that complexes have higher activity than the free ligand.

  2. Novel derivatives of 6-mercaptopurine: synthesis, characterization and antiproliferative activities of S-allylthio-mercaptopurines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miron, T; Arditti, F; Konstantinovski, L; Rabinkov, A; Mirelman, D; Berrebi, A; Wilchek, M

    2009-02-01

    Biologically active S-allylthio derivatives of 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-mercaptopurine riboside (6-MPR) were synthesized. The products, S-allylthio-6-mercaptopurine (SA-6MP) and S-allylthio-6-mercaptopurine riboside (SA-6MPR) were characterized. The antiproliferative activity of the new prodrugs was tested on human leukemia and monolayer cell lines, and compared to that of their parent reactants. The new prodrugs acted by a concentration-dependent mechanism. They inhibited cell proliferation and induced-apoptosis more efficiently than the parent molecules. Leukemia cell lines were more sensitive to the new prodrugs than monolayer cell lines. Higher hydrophobicity of the derivatives improves their penetration into cells, where upon reaction with glutathione, S-allylthioglutathione (GSSA) is formed, and 6-MP or 6-MPR is released for further processing.

  3. A tubular dielectric elastomer actuator: Fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarban, R.; Jones, R. W.; Mace, B. R.

    2011-01-01

    This contribution reviews the fabrication, characterization and active vibration isolation performance of a core-free rolled tubular dielectric elastomer (DE) actuator, which has been designed and developed by Danfoss PolyPower A/S. PolyPower DE material, PolyPower (TM), is produced in thin sheets...... of 80 mu m thickness with corrugated metallic electrodes on both sides. Tubular actuators are manufactured by rolling the DE sheets in a cylindrical shape. The electromechanical characteristics of such actuators are modeled based on equilibrium pressure equation. The model is validated with experimental...... the dominant dynamic characteristics of the core-free tubular actuator. It has been observed that all actuators have similar dynamic characteristics in a frequency range up to 1 kHz. A tubular actuator is then used to provide active vibration isolation (AVI) of a 250 g mass subject to shaker generated 'ground...

  4. Metaproteomics: extracting and mining proteome information to characterize metabolic activities in microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Paul E; Giannone, Richard J; Xiong, Weili; Hettich, Robert L

    2014-06-17

    Contemporary microbial ecology studies usually employ one or more "omics" approaches to investigate the structure and function of microbial communities. Among these, metaproteomics aims to characterize the metabolic activities of the microbial membership, providing a direct link between the genetic potential and functional metabolism. The successful deployment of metaproteomics research depends on the integration of high-quality experimental and bioinformatic techniques for uncovering the metabolic activities of a microbial community in a way that is complementary to other "meta-omic" approaches. The essential, quality-defining informatics steps in metaproteomics investigations are: (1) construction of the metagenome, (2) functional annotation of predicted protein-coding genes, (3) protein database searching, (4) protein inference, and (5) extraction of metabolic information. In this article, we provide an overview of current bioinformatic approaches and software implementations in metaproteome studies in order to highlight the key considerations needed for successful implementation of this powerful community-biology tool. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  5. Ebola Virus Disease Is Characterized by Poor Activation and Reduced Levels of Circulating CD16+ Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdtke, Anja; Ruibal, Paula; Becker-Ziaja, Beate; Rottstegge, Monika; Wozniak, David M; Cabeza-Cabrerizo, Mar; Thorenz, Anja; Weller, Romy; Kerber, Romy; Idoyaga, Juliana; Magassouba, N'Faly; Gabriel, Martin; Günther, Stephan; Oestereich, Lisa; Muñoz-Fontela, César

    2016-10-15

    A number of previous studies have identified antigen-presenting cells (APCs) as key targets of Ebola virus (EBOV), but the role of APCs in human Ebola virus disease (EVD) is not known. We have evaluated the phenotype and kinetics of monocytes, neutrophils, and dendritic cells (DCs) in peripheral blood of patients for whom EVD was diagnosed by the European Mobile Laboratory in Guinea. Acute EVD was characterized by reduced levels of circulating nonclassical CD16 + monocytes with a poor activation profile. In survivors, CD16 + monocytes were activated during recovery, coincident with viral clearance, suggesting an important role of this cell subset in EVD pathophysiology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF 7-HYDROXY-3',4'-DIMETHOXYFLAVONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elfi Susanti VH

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Synthesis of flavones and their derivatives has attracted considerable attention due to their significant pharmaceutical effects. 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone has been synthesized and its antioxidant activity has been investigated. Flavone was synthesized by oxidative cyclization of chalcone. 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone was prepared by Claisen-Schmidt condensation of 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenones with 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehydes in the presence of aqueous solution of sodium hydroxide and ethanol at room temperature. Oxidative cyclization of 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-dimethoxychalcone was done by using I2 catalyst in DMSO to form 7-hydroxy-3',4'-dimethoxyflavone. The synthesized compounds were characterized by means of their UV-Vis, IR, 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR spectral data. The compound was tested for their antioxidant activities by DPPH method.

  7. Application of terahertz spectroscopy for characterization of biologically active organic molecules in natural environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaliūnas, Mindaugas; Jakštas, Vytautas; Nasser, Kinan E.; Venckevičius, Rimvydas; Urbanowicz, Andrzej; Kašalynas, Irmantas; Valušis, Gintaras

    2016-09-01

    In this work, a comparative research of biologically active organic molecules in its natural environment using the terahertz (THz) time domain spectroscopy (TDS) and Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) systems is carried out. Absorption coefficient and refractive index of Nicotiana tabacum L. leaves containing nicotine, Cannabis sativa L. leaves containing tetrahydrocannabinol, and Humulu lupulus L. leaves containing α-acids, active organic molecules that obtain in natural environment, were measured in broad frequency range from 0.1 to 13 THz at room temperature. In the spectra of absorption coefficient the features were found to be unique for N. tabacum, C. sativa and H. lupulus. Moreover, those features can be exploited for identification of C. sativa sex and N. tabacum origin. The refractive index can be also used to characterize different species.

  8. Passive characterization and active testing of epoxy bonded regenerators for room temperature magnetic refrigeration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lei, Tian; Navickaité, Kristina; Engelbrecht, Kurt

    2017-01-01

    -layer AMR based on spherical particles is tested actively in a small reciprocating magnetic refrigerator, achieving a no-load temperature span of 16.8 °C using about 143 g of epoxy-bonded La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy materials. Simulations based on a one-dimensional (1D) AMR model are also implemented to validate......Epoxy bonded regenerators of both spherical and irregular La(Fe,Mn,Si)13Hy particles have been developed aiming at increasing the mechanical strength of active magnetic regenerators (AMR) loaded with brittle magnetocaloric materials and improving the flexibility of shaping the regenerator geometry....... Although the magnetocaloric properties of these materials are well studied, the flow and heat transfer characteristics of the epoxy bonded regenerators have seldom been investigated. This paper presents a test apparatus that passively characterizes regenerators using a liquid heat transfer fluid...

  9. Synthesis and physicochemical characterizations and antimicrobial activity of ZnO nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Bhumika K.; Patel, Kinjal; Roy, Debesh R.

    2018-05-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit very interesting and useful physicochemical properties when they interact with substrates and goes through some physicochemical and/or biological processes. ZnO is known to be a highly demanding nanomaterial due to its discreet properties, shapes and sizes. A detail experimental study on the synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of ZnO nanoparticles (NPs) is performed. ZnO NPs are synthesized using chemical precipitation method. The understanding of crystal structure, morphology and elemental compositions are explained using Powder X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope (FE-SEM) respectively. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) is performed to achieve the information on the presence of various functional groups. The antibacterial activity of these ZnO NPs is investigated in terms of Zone of Inhibition (ZOI) against Escherichia coli (Gram negative) microorganisms.

  10. Hazard characterization and special considerations for environmental and decontamination and decommissioning activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, N.R.

    1993-08-01

    The mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has changed from defense production of special nuclear materials to cleanup of production facilities at the Hanford Site. The DOE contractors have formed the Energy Facility Contractors Group to support this change in mission. In addition, the Safety Analysis Working Subgroup for Environmental Restoration and Decontamination and Decommissioning (ER/D ampersand D) was formed to identify, develop, and share information that supports safety analyses and engineering of ER/D ampersand D activities. Safety analysis is in part the process of identifying and understanding the hazards that could result in exposures to radiological or chemical hazardous substances. The following paragraphs address the special considerations given to hazard characterization for ER/D ampersand D activities

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Badawy

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Copper/Copper oxide (Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were synthesized by modified chemical reduction method in an aqueous medium using hydrazine as reducing agent and copper sulfate pentahydrate as precursor. The Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray Diffraction (XRD, Energy Dispersive X-ray Fluorescence (EDXRF, Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM. The analysis revealed the pattern of face-centered cubic (fcc crystal structure of copper Cu metal and cubic cuprites structure for Cu2O. The SEM result showed monodispersed and agglomerated particles with two micron sizes of about 180 nm and 800 nm, respectively. The TEM result showed few single crystal particles of face-centered cubic structures with average particle size about 11-14 nm. The catalytic activity of Cu/Cu2O nanoparticles for the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide was investigated and compared with manganese oxide MnO2. The results showed that the second-order equation provides the best correlation for the catalytic decomposition of H2O2 on Cu/Cu2O. The catalytic activity of hydrogen peroxide by Cu/Cu2O is less than the catalytic activity of MnO2 due to the presence of copper metal Cu with cuprous oxide Cu2O. © 2015 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reservedReceived: 6th January 2015; Revised: 14th March 2015; Accepted: 15th March 2015How to Cite: Badawy, S.M., El-Khashab, R.A., Nayl, A.A. (2015. Synthesis, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Cu/Cu2O Nanoparticles Prepared in Aqueous Medium. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 10 (2: 169-174. (doi:10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7984.169-174 Permalink/DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.10.2.7984.169-174  

  12. Characterization of peripartum rumination and activity of cows diagnosed with metabolic and uterine diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liboreiro, Daniela N; Machado, Karine S; Silva, Paula R B; Maturana, Milton M; Nishimura, Thiago K; Brandão, Alice P; Endres, Márcia I; Chebel, Ricardo C

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of the current experiment were to characterize the correlation among total serum Ca, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBA), and haptoglobin concentrations and daily rumination time (DRT) and activity of periparturient cows and to determine the association between periparturient events and peripartum DRT and activity. Holstein animals (nulliparous = 77, parous = 219) were enrolled in the experiment approximately 21 d before expected calving date. Cows were fitted with individual Heat Rumination Long Distance collars (HRLD, SCR Engineers Ltd., Netanya, Israel) from enrollment until approximately 21 ± 3 d postpartum. Blood samples collected weekly from enrollment to 21 d postpartum were used to determine concentrations of NEFA, BHBA, and haptoglobin. Blood samples collected within 72 h after calving were used to determine total serum Ca concentration. Subclinical ketosis was characterized by BHBA > 1,000 µmol/L in any sample, and subclinical hypocalcemia was characterized by Ca Cows were examined 1, 7 ± 3, and 14 ± 3 d postpartum for diagnosis of retained fetal membrane and metritis. Total Ca (r = 0.15), NEFA (r = -0.27), and haptoglobin (r = -0.18) concentrations were weakly correlated with DRT. Concentration of BHBA (r = -0.14) was weakly correlated with activity. Postpartum DRT was reduced among cows that delivered twins compared with cows that delivered singletons (437.9 ± 4.8 vs. 385.9 ± 17.1 min/d). Prepartum (465.8 ± 4.1 vs 430.8 ± 14.9 arbitrary units) and postpartum (536.5 ± 5.5 vs. 480.3 ± 19.4 arbitrary units) activity were reduced among cows that delivered twins compared with cows that delivered singletons. Delivery of stillborn calves was associated with reduced DRT prepartum (478.0 ± 5.9 vs. 417.0 ± 23.4 min/d) and postpartum (437.2 ± 4.8 vs. 386.5 ± 19.3 min/d). On the other hand, cows delivering stillborn calves had increased activity prepartum compared with cows delivering live calves (499.3 ± 16

  13. Structural characterization and immunomodulatory activity of a pectic polysaccharide (CALB-4) from Fructus aurantii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zunpeng; Yang, Yanni; Xing, Na; Wang, Yi; Wang, Qiuhong; Kuang, Haixue

    2018-02-01

    A purified polysaccharide, designated CALB-4, was acquired from Fructus aurantii that is the traditional edible/medicina plant in China. The present study was performed to characterize the CALB-4 and to evaluate its immunomodulatory activities on human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The structure of CALB-4 was characterized by partial acid hydrolysis, periodate oxidation, Smith degradation, and methylation analysis combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results indicated that CALB-4 was elucidated as a pectic polysaccharide and its main chain is composed of Man, Gal UA and Gal, interspersed with Ara, Rha, Man and Gal. Furthermore, immunological tests showed that CALB-4 exhibits the immunoenhancement effects. The mechanism for this action might be attributed to the increase of the cytoplasmic concentration of pro-IL-1 via the up-regulation of several mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and the nuclear translocation of p65. This study clarified that CALB-4 could be as an efficacious biological response modifier in immunotherapy. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Joselena M; Fernandes-Silva, Caroline C; Salatino, Antonio; Message, Dejair; Negri, Giuseppina

    2017-01-01

    Geopropolis is a product containing wax, plant resin, and soil particles. It is elaborated by stingless bees of tribe Meliponini. Methanol extracts of sample of geopropolis produced by Scaptotrigona postica ("mandaguari") in the state of Rio Grande do Norte (RN, northeast Brazil) were analyzed for the determination of standard parameters (total phenols, total flavonoids, and radical scavenging activity) and chemical characterization by HPLC-DAD-MS/MS analysis. The sample analyzed has high contents of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as high antioxidant activity. The constituents characterized were mainly flavonols, such as quercetin methyl ethers, and methoxychalcones. Such chemical profile is similar to the composition of a green propolis from the same area of RN, which is produced by Africanized Apis mellifera , using shoot apices of Mimosa tenuiflora , popularly known as "jurema-preta." This finding provides evidence that "mandaguari" geopropolis and honeybee propolis have the same botanical origin in RN. The sharing of a plant resin source by phylogenetically distant bees (Apinae and Meliponinae) suggests that bee genetic factors play little role in the choice of plants for resin collection and that the availability of potential botanical sources plays a decisive role.

  15. Extraction optimization, preliminary characterization and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycine soja.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Changliang; Yuan, Yuan; Tang, Qi; Zou, Ping; Li, Yiqiang; Zhang, Chengsheng

    2017-10-01

    Single-factor experiment and Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to optimize the ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) conditions of polysaccharides from Glycine soja (CGPS), and a preliminary characterization of three polysaccharide fractions (CGPS, GPS-1, and GPS-2) and their antioxidant activities were investigated. Under the optimal conditions: ratio of liquid to solid 42.7mL/g, extraction power 293.7W, extraction temperature 68.9°C, and extraction time 34.7min, the experimental CGPS yield was 6.04mg/g. CGPS was further purified by DEAE-cellulose and Sephadex-100 chromatography to obtain two fractions (GPS-1 and GPS-2), and their monosaccharides compositions were characterized by HPLC. Fourier-transform infrared spectra (FT-IR) indicated the chemical structures of them. Moreover, they exhibited high antioxidant activities in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro. In summary, the present study suggested that UAE was a very effective method to extract polysaccharides from Glycine soja and the polysaccharides could be explored as potential antioxidant agents for medicine and function food. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tank 241-C-103 organic vapor and liquid characterization and supporting activities, Hanford Site, Richland, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    The action proposed is to sample the vapor space and liquid waste and perform other supporting activities in Tank 241-C-103 located in the 241-C Tank Farm on the Hanford Site. Operations at Tank 241-C-103 are curtailed because of an unreviewed safety question (USQ) concerning flammability issues of the organic waste in the tank. This USQ must be resolved before normal operation and surveillance of the tank can resume. In addition to the USQ, Tank 241-C-103 is thought to be involved in several cases of exposure of individuals to noxious vapors. This safety issue requires the use of supplied air for workers in the vicinity of the tank. Because of the USQ, the US Department of Energy proposes to characterize the waste in the vapor space and the organic and aqueous layers, to determine the volume of the organic layer. This action is needed to: (1) assess potential risks to workers, the public, and the environment from continued routine tank operations and (2) provide information on the waste material in the tank to facilitate a comprehensive safety analysis of this USQ. The information would be used to determine if a flammable condition within the tank is credible. This information would be used to prevent or mitigate an accident during continued waste storage and future waste characterization. Alternatives to the proposed activities have been considered in this analysis

  17. Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotube from coconut shells activated carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melati, A.; Hidayati, E.

    2016-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been explored in almost every single cancer treatment modality, including drug delivery, lymphatic targeted chemotherapy, photodynamic therapy, and gene therapy. They are considered as one of the most promising nanomaterial with the capability of both detecting the cancerous cells and delivering drugs or small therapeutic molecules to the cells. CNTs have unique physical and chemical properties such as high aspect ratio, ultralight weight, high mechanical strength, high electrical conductivity, and high thermal conductivity. Coconut Shell was researched as active carbon source on 500 - 600°C. These activated carbon was synthesized becomes carbon nanotube and have been proposed as a promising tool for detecting the expression of indicative biological molecules at early stage of cancer. Clinically, biomarkers cancer can be detected by CNT Biosensor. We are using pyrolysis methods combined with CVD process or Wet Chemical Process on 600°C. Our team has successfully obtained high purity, and aligned MWCNT (Multi Wall Nanotube) bundles on synthesis CNT based on coconut shells raw materials. CNTs can be used to cross the mammalian cell membrane by endocytosis or other mechanisms. SEM characterization of these materials have 179 nm bundles on phase 83° and their materials compound known by using FTIR characterization.

  18. Characterization of phenolic compounds and antinociceptive activity of Sempervivum tectorum L. leaf juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberti, Ágnes; Béni, Szabolcs; Lackó, Erzsébet; Riba, Pál; Al-Khrasani, Mahmoud; Kéry, Ágnes

    2012-11-01

    Sempervivum tectorum L. (houseleek) leaf juice has been known as a traditional herbal remedy. The aim of the present study was the chemical characterization of its phenolic compounds and to develop quantitation methods for its main flavonol glycoside, as well as to evaluate its antinociceptive activity. Lyophilized houseleek leaf juice was studied by HPLC-DAD coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) to identify flavonol glycosides, hydroxy-benzoic and hydroxy-cinnamic acids. Ten flavonol glycosides and sixteen phenolic acid compounds were identified or tentatively characterized. Structure of the main flavonol compound was identified by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Three characteristic kaempferol glycosides were isolated and determined by LC-ESI-MS/MS with external calibration method, using the isolated compounds as standard. The main flavonol glycoside was also determined by HPLC-DAD. Validated HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS methods were developed to quantify kaempferol-3-O-rhamnosyl-glucoside-7-O-rhamnoside and two other kaempferol glycosides. Antinociceptive activity of houseleek leaf juice was investigated by writhing test of mice. Sempervivum extract significantly reduced pain in the mouse writhing test. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Colloidally stable surface-modified iron oxide nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and anti-tumor activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Macková, Hana [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Horák, Daniel, E-mail: horak@imc.cas.cz [Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, AS CR, Heyrovsky Sq. 2, 162 06 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Donchenko, Georgiy Viktorovich; Andriyaka, Vadim Ivanovich; Palyvoda, Olga Mikhailovna; Chernishov, Vladimir Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine); Chekhun, Vasyl Fedorovich; Todor, Igor Nikolaevich [R. E. Kavetsky Institute of Experimental Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, NASU, 45 Vasylkivska St., 03022 Kiev (Ukraine); Kuzmenko, Oleksandr Ivanovich [Palladin Institute of Biochemistry, NASU, 9 Leontovich St., 01601 Kiev (Ukraine)

    2015-04-15

    Maghemite (γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles were obtained by co-precipitation of Fe(II) and Fe(III) chlorides and subsequent oxidation with sodium hypochlorite and coated with poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) [P(DMAAm-AA)]. They were characterized by a range of methods including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), elemental analysis, dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurements. The effect of superparamagnetic P(DMAAm-AA)-γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles on oxidation of blood lipids, glutathione and proteins in blood serum was detected using 2-thiobarbituric acid and the ThioGlo fluorophore. Finally, mice received magnetic nanoparticles administered per os and the antitumor activity of the particles was tested on Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) in male mice line C57BL/6 as an experimental in vivo metastatic tumor model; the tumor size was measured and the number of metastases in lungs was determined. Surface-modified γ-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles showed higher antitumor and antimetastatic activities than commercial CuFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} particles and the conventional antitumor agent cisplatin. - Highlights: • Maghemite nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. • Poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide-co-acrylic acid) coating was synthetized. • Blood lipid, glutathione and protein peroxidation/oxidation was determined. • Antitumor effect of coated particles on Lewis lung carcinoma in mice was observed.

  20. Characterization and screening of antimicrobial activity of Micromonospora strains from Thai soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songsumanus, A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Rare actinomycete strains were isolated from mountain soils and island soil collected in Thailand. They were screened for antimicrobial activity and characterized for their secondary metabolites.Methodology and results: The strains were isolated by the standard dilution technique using starch casein nitrate agar. They were identified and characterized based on the phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and genotypic characteristics. The chemotaxonomic characteristics of ten isolates coincided with those of the genus Micromonospora. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences and DNA-DNA relatedness, they were divided into 6 Groups, ASC19-2-1 (Group A was identified as Micromonospora marina; AL8-8 and AL10-3 (Group B were M. aurantiaca; AL7-5 (Group C was M. chalcea; AL3-16 and AL9-20 (Group D were identified as M. chokoriensis; AL9-13 and AL9-22 (Group E were M. tulbaghiae; and AL1-15-2 and AL1-16B (Group F were M. chersina. On the primary screening, only the isolate AL7-5 (Group C could inhibit Kocuria rhizophila ATCC 9341. This isolate produced rakicidin when cultivated on A3M, A11M and A16 media and produced compound BU4664L only on A16 medium.Conclusion, significance and impact of study: The isolation and characterization of the rare actinomycetes from Thai soils will be useful for the taxonomic study and for the discovery of bioactive metabolites that are active against microorganisms.

  1. Characterization of Amino Acid Profile and Enzymatic Activity in Adult Rat Astrocyte Cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Débora Guerini; Bellaver, Bruna; Hansel, Gisele; Arús, Bernardo Assein; Bellaver, Gabriela; Longoni, Aline; Kolling, Janaina; Wyse, Angela T S; Souza, Diogo Onofre; Quincozes-Santos, André

    2016-07-01

    Astrocytes are multitasking players in brain complexity, possessing several receptors and mechanisms to detect, participate and modulate neuronal communication. The functionality of astrocytes has been mainly unraveled through the study of primary astrocyte cultures, and recently our research group characterized a model of astrocyte cultures derived from adult Wistar rats. We, herein, aim to characterize other basal functions of these cells to explore the potential of this model for studying the adult brain. To characterize the astrocytic phenotype, we determined the presence of GFAP, GLAST and GLT 1 proteins in cells by immunofluorescence. Next, we determined the concentrations of thirteen amino acids, ATP, ADP, adenosine and calcium in astrocyte cultures, as well as the activities of Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and acetylcholine esterase. Furthermore, we assessed the presence of the GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1) and cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB 1) in the astrocytes. Cells demonstrated the presence of glutamine, consistent with their role in the glutamate-glutamine cycle, as well as glutamate and D-serine, amino acids classically known to act as gliotransmitters. ATP was produced and released by the cells and ADP was consumed. Calcium levels were in agreement with those reported in the literature, as were the enzymatic activities measured. The presence of GAT 1 was detected, but the presence of CB 1 was not, suggesting a decreased neuroprotective capacity in adult astrocytes under in vitro conditions. Taken together, our results show cellular functionality regarding the astrocytic role in gliotransmission and neurotransmitter management since they are able to produce and release gliotransmitters and to modulate the cholinergic and GABAergic systems.

  2. Isolation of Vaginal Lactobacilli and Characterization of Anti-Candida Activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carola Parolin

    Full Text Available Healthy vaginal microbiota is dominated by Lactobacillus spp., which form a critical line of defence against pathogens, including Candida spp. The present study aims to identify vaginal lactobacilli exerting in vitro activity against Candida spp. and to characterize their antifungal mechanisms of action. Lactobacillus strains were isolated from vaginal swabs of healthy premenopausal women. The isolates were taxonomically identified to species level (L. crispatus B1-BC8, L. gasseri BC9-BC14 and L. vaginalis BC15-BC17 by sequencing the 16S rRNA genes. All strains produced hydrogen peroxide and lactate. Fungistatic and fungicidal activities against C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. tropicalis, C. parapsilosis and C. lusitaniae were evaluated by broth micro-dilution method. The broadest spectrum of activity was observed for L. crispatus BC1, BC4, BC5 and L. vaginalis BC15, demonstrating fungicidal activity against all isolates of C. albicans and C. lusitaniae. Metabolic profiles of lactobacilli supernatants were studied by 1H-NMR analysis. Metabolome was found to be correlated with both taxonomy and activity score. Exclusion, competition and displacement experiments were carried out to investigate the interference exerted by lactobacilli toward the yeast adhesion to HeLa cells. Most Lactobacillus strains significantly reduced C. albicans adhesion through all mechanisms. In particular, L. crispatus BC2, L. gasseri BC10 and L. gasseri BC11 appeared to be the most active strains in reducing pathogen adhesion, as their effects were mediated by both cells and supernatants. Inhibition of histone deacetylases was hypothesised to support the antifungal activity of vaginal lactobacilli. Our results are prerequisites for the development of new therapeutic agents based on probiotics for prophylaxis and adjuvant therapy of Candida infection.

  3. Characterization of the structure and immunostimulatory activity of a vaccine adjuvant, de-O-acylated lipooligosaccharide.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Eun Han

    Full Text Available Lipopolysaccharide (LPS is a major component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria. LPS elicits strong immunopathological responses during bacterial infection, and the lipid A moiety of LPS is responsible for this immunostimulatory activity. Lipid A exerts its biological activity by sending signals via TLR4 present on immune cells, and TLR4 agonists have been a target for vaccine adjuvant. Previously, we demonstrated an adjuvant activity of deacylated lipooligosaccharide (dLOS to viral and bacterial antigens. In this study, we characterized the chemical structure of dLOS and evaluated its immunostimulatory activity on mouse and human immune cells in comparison with monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL. dLOS consists of the R3-type core, a glucosamine disaccharide with two phosphate groups, and two N-linked acyl groups [corrected], and two N-linked acyl groups. dLOS was similar to MPL in induction of cytokine production in mouse peritoneal macrophages, but was a more potent activator in human monocytes and dendritic cells (DCs. Results of an analysis of allogeneic T cell responses revealed that dLOS induces Th1, Th2, and Th17-type immune responses in a dose-dependent manner. The immunostimulatory activities of dLOS were completely abrogated in TLR4(-/- mice, which confirms its TLR4-dependency. These results suggest that in the presence of the core oligosaccharide, O-linked acyl groups of LPS are dispensable for activating the TLR4 signaling pathway. dLOS did not cause any pathological effects or death at 0.25, 0.5, or 1 mg per kg body weight in mice in the acute toxicity tests. This result suggests that dLOS has a low toxicity. dLOS should be considered for further development as a safe and effective adjuvant for human vaccines.

  4. Highly active engineered-enzyme oriented monolayers: formation, characterization and sensing applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patolsky Fernando

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The interest in introducing ecologically-clean, and efficient enzymes into modern industry has been growing steadily. However, difficulties associated with controlling their orientation, and maintaining their selectivity and reactivity is still a significant obstacle. We have developed precise immobilization of biomolecules, while retaining their native functionality, and report a new, fast, easy, and reliable procedure of protein immobilization, with the use of Adenylate kinase as a model system. Methods Self-assembled monolayers of hexane-1,6-dithiol were formed on gold surfaces. The monolayers were characterized by contact-angle measurements, Elman-reagent reaction, QCM, and XPS. A specifically designed, mutated Adenylate kinase, where cysteine was inserted at the 75 residue, and the cysteine at residue 77 was replaced by serine, was used for attachment to the SAM surface via spontaneously formed disulfide (S-S bonds. QCM, and XPS were used for characterization of the immobilized protein layer. Curve fitting in XPS measurements used a Gaussian-Lorentzian function. Results and Discussion Water contact angle (65-70°, as well as all characterization techniques used, confirmed the formation of self-assembled monolayer with surface SH groups. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy showed clearly the two types of sulfur atom, one attached to the gold (triolate and the other (SH/S-S at the ω-position for the hexane-1,6-dithiol SAMs. The formation of a protein monolayer was confirmed using XPS, and QCM, where the QCM-determined amount of protein on the surface was in agreement with a model that considered the surface area of a single protein molecule. Enzymatic activity tests of the immobilized protein confirmed that there is no change in enzymatic functionality, and reveal activity ~100 times that expected for the same amount of protein in solution. Conclusions To the best of our knowledge, immobilization of a protein by the method

  5. Determination of esterase activity and characterization of cholinesterases in the reef fish Haemulon plumieri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leticia, Alpuche-Gual; Gerardo, Gold-Bouchot

    2008-11-01

    White grunt (Haemulon plumieri) has been proposed by the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System (MBRS) Synoptic Monitoring Program as a bioindicator species. It is in this sense that the present study has a main goal to evaluate this organism's suitability as an indicator species. Individuals were captured during three seasons at the port of Sisal, Yucatan, Mexico which is located in an area that is considered to be weakly impacted by human activities such as agriculture or industry. Both cholinesterase (ChE) and carboxylesterase (CbE) activities were measured in brain, muscle, liver and eye of sampled individuals. Results indicated that ChE and CbE activities were greatest in the brain (256.3 ± 43) and in the liver (191 ± 21), respectively. Furthermore, ChEs detected in brain, liver and muscle were characterized, and results suggested that the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) type was more abundant relative to pseudocholinesterase (BChE) which was rare. In addition, K(m) and V(max) and IC(50) values were calculated from the Michaelis-Menten equation. Finally, an additional experiment in vitro showed a significant decrease in both ChE and CbE activities when different tissues were exposed to model xenobiotics, such as benzo[a]pyrene and Chlorpyrifos. In conclusion, findings from this study confirm the potential suitability of H. plumieri as an organic pollution bioindicator species, and thus of practical use for environmental biomonitoring purposes.

  6. Glycoside Hydrolases from a targeted Compost Metagenome, activity-screening and functional characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dougherty Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metagenomics approaches provide access to environmental genetic diversity for biotechnology applications, enabling the discovery of new enzymes and pathways for numerous catalytic processes. Discovery of new glycoside hydrolases with improved biocatalytic properties for the efficient conversion of lignocellulosic material to biofuels is a critical challenge in the development of economically viable routes from biomass to fuels and chemicals. Results Twenty-two putative ORFs (open reading frames were identified from a switchgrass-adapted compost community based on sequence homology to related gene families. These ORFs were expressed in E. coli and assayed for predicted activities. Seven of the ORFs were demonstrated to encode active enzymes, encompassing five classes of hemicellulases. Four enzymes were over expressed in vivo, purified to homogeneity and subjected to detailed biochemical characterization. Their pH optima ranged between 5.5 - 7.5 and they exhibit moderate thermostability up to ~60-70°C. Conclusions Seven active enzymes were identified from this set of ORFs comprising five different hemicellulose activities. These enzymes have been shown to have useful properties, such as moderate thermal stability and broad pH optima, and may serve as the starting points for future protein engineering towards the goal of developing efficient enzyme cocktails for biomass degradation under diverse process conditions.

  7. Angiotensin-converting enzyme in Spodoptera littoralis: molecular characterization, expression and activity profile during development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemeire, Els; Vanholme, Bartel; Van Leeuwen, Thomas; Van Camp, John; Smagghe, Guy

    2008-02-01

    The characterization of the full-length angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) cDNA sequence of the lepidopteran Spodoptera littoralis is reported in this study. The predicted open reading frame encodes a 647 amino acids long protein (SlACE) and shows 63.6% identity with the Bombyx mori ACE sequence. A 3D-model, consisting of 26 alpha-helices and three beta-sheets, was predicted for the sequence. SlACE expression was studied in the embryonic, larval and pupal stages of S. littoralis and in different tissues of the last larval stage by reverse-transcribed PCR. This revealed that the gene is expressed throughout the life cycle and especially in brain, gut and fat body tissue of the last stage. These results are in agreement with a role of ACE in the metabolism of neuropeptides and gut hormones. In addition, ACE activity has been studied in more detail during development, making use of a fluorescent assay. High ACE peptidase activity coincides with every transition state, from embryo to larva, from larva to larva and from larva to pupa. A peak value in activity occurs during the early pupal stage. These results indicate the importance of SlACE during metamorphosis and reveal the high correlation of ACE activity with the insect's development, which is regulated by growth and developmental hormones.

  8. Functional characterization of autophosphorylation sites of the activated insulin receptor-tyrosine kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Riveros, J.R.; Lane, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    Insulin receptor, solubilized from 3T3-L1 cellular membranes and then purified, was autophosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP in the absence or presence of insulin. Specific phosphopeptides generated by trypsin digestion of the 32 P-labeled β-subunit were identified and separated by reverse phase HPLC. In the absence of insulin, radioactivity of the phosphopeptides is evenly distributed among four major peaks designated as sites I, II, III and IV, according to their order of elution. This pattern is maintained for at least the first 30 min of autophosphorylation. When the reaction is carried out in the presence of insulin, > 50% of the total 32 P radioactivity is found in site I and the rate of 32 P incorporation into this site is markedly higher than into sites II, III and IV. Maximal activation of tyrosine kinase activity, as estimated by substrate phosphorylation, is coincident with the nearly complete phosphorylation of site I. Delayed activation of previously autophosphorylated receptor by insulin, but not by EGF or IGF-I, produced a similar pattern where phosphorylated site I predominates. These observations indicate that one major insulin-regulated autophosphorylation site in the β-subunit is responsible for activation of the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase. The isolation of this phosphopeptide on a preparative scale and its characterization are now in progress

  9. Chemical Characterization and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharide Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengenni Liang

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP is a biologically active substance reported to possess anti-tumor ability. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of GLP-stimulated apoptosis are still unclear. This study aims to determine the inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of GLP on HCT-116 cells. We found that GLP reduced cell viability on HCT-116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which in turn, induced cell apoptosis. The observed apoptosis was characterized by morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, S phase population increase, and caspase-3 and -9 activation. Furthermore, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK by SP600125 led to a dramatic decrease of the GLP-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis unveiled that GLP up-regulated the expression of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP. These results demonstrate that apoptosis stimulated by GLP in human colorectal cancer cells is associated with activation of mitochondrial and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathways.

  10. Characterization of the In Situ Ecophysiology of Novel Phylotypes in Nutrient Removal Activated Sludge Treatment Plants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jon McIlroy

    Full Text Available An in depth understanding of the ecology of activated sludge nutrient removal wastewater treatment systems requires detailed knowledge of the community composition and metabolic activities of individual members. Recent 16S rRNA gene amplicon surveys of activated sludge wastewater treatment plants with nutrient removal indicate the presence of a core set of bacterial genera. These organisms are likely responsible for the bulk of nutrient transformations underpinning the functions of these plants. While the basic activities of some of these genera in situ are known, there is little to no information for the majority. This study applied microautoradiography coupled with fluorescence in situ hybridization (MAR-FISH for the in situ characterization of selected genus-level-phylotypes for which limited physiological information is available. These included Sulfuritalea and A21b, both within the class Betaproteobacteria, as well as Kaga01, within sub-group 10 of the phylum Acidobacteria. While the Sulfuritalea spp. were observed to be metabolically versatile, the A21b and Kaga01 phylotypes appeared to be highly specialized.

  11. Homodinuclear lanthanide complexes of phenylthiopropionic acid: Synthesis, characterization, cytotoxicity, DNA cleavage, and antimicrobial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiju, C.; Arish, D.; Kumaresan, S.

    2013-03-01

    Lanthanide complexes of La(III), Pr(III), Nd(III), Sm(III), and Ho(III) with phenylthiopropionic acid were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, mass, IR, electronic spectra, molar conductance, TGA, and powder XRD. The results show that the lanthanide complexes are homodinuclear in nature. The two lanthanide ions are bridged by eight oxygen atoms from four carboxylate groups. Thermal decomposition profiles are consistent with the proposed formulations. Powder XRD studies show that all the complexes are amorphous in nature. Antimicrobial studies indicate that these complexes exhibit more activity than the ligand itself. The DNA cleavage activity of the ligand and its complexes were assayed on Escherichia coli DNA using gel electrophoresis in the presence of H2O2. The result shows that the Pr(III) and Nd(III) complexes have completely cleaved the DNA. The anticancer activities of the complexes have also been studied towards human cervical cancer cell line (HeLa) and colon cancer cells (HCT116) and it was found that the La(III) and Nd(III) complexes are more active than the corresponding Pr(III), Sm(III), Ho(III) complexes, and the free ligand on both the cancer cells.

  12. Chemical Characterization and Antitumor Activities of Polysaccharide Extracted from Ganoderma lucidum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Zengenni; Yi, Youjin; Guo, Yutong; Wang, Rencai; Hu, Qiulong; Xiong, Xingyao

    2014-01-01

    Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharide (GLP) is a biologically active substance reported to possess anti-tumor ability. Nonetheless, the mechanisms of GLP-stimulated apoptosis are still unclear. This study aims to determine the inhibitory and apoptosis-inducing effects of GLP on HCT-116 cells. We found that GLP reduced cell viability on HCT-116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner, which in turn, induced cell apoptosis. The observed apoptosis was characterized by morphological changes, DNA fragmentation, mitochondrial membrane potential decrease, S phase population increase, and caspase-3 and -9 activation. Furthermore, inhibition of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) by SP600125 led to a dramatic decrease of the GLP-induced apoptosis. Western blot analysis unveiled that GLP up-regulated the expression of Bax/Bcl-2, caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). These results demonstrate that apoptosis stimulated by GLP in human colorectal cancer cells is associated with activation of mitochondrial and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. PMID:24857920

  13. Isolation, Characterization and Activity of the Flowers of Rhododendron arboreum (Ericaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Sonar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The flowers of Rhododendron arboreum have been reported to possess certain polyphenolic compounds. Thus, this study was aimed at the anti-microbial and phytochemical screening of the flowers. Important bioactive agents like steroids, saponins and flavonoids were detected in the flowers. Quercetin (a flavonoid was isolated from the diethyl ether fraction of alcoholic extract by solvent-solvent extraction method. Isolated quercetin was identified and characterized by chemical tests, M.P., TLC, paper chromatography (with authentic marker and spectroscopic methods like UV-Visible, FT-IR, 1HNMR, 13CNMR and Mass spectroscopy. The anti-microbial activity of the alcoholic and aqueous extract and isolated quercetin were investigated against five bacterial and two fungal strains by agar well-diffusion method. The activity was found to be concentration dependent. Ethanolic extract was found to be more active in comparison to the aqueous extract. Hence, isolation was done with ethanolic extract. The lowest effective concentration of quercetin was found to be 12.5 mg/ml against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. Both extracts and isolated quercetin were found ineffective against fungal strains. Quercetin may be one of the components responsible for the observed anti-microbial activity of the plant.

  14. Characterization of the heterotrophic biomass and the endogenous residue of activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdani, Abdellah; Dold, Peter; Gadbois, Alain; Déléris, Stéphane; Houweling, Dwight; Comeau, Yves

    2012-03-01

    The activated sludge process generates an endogenous residue (X(E)) as a result of heterotrophic biomass decay (X(H)). A literature review yielded limited information on the differences between X(E) and X(H) in terms of chemical composition and content of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The objective of this project was to characterize the chemical composition (x, y, z, a, b and c in C(x)H(y)O(z)N(a)P(b)S(c)) of the endogenous and the active fractions and EPS of activated sludge from well designed experiments. To isolate X(H) and X(E) in this study, activated sludge was generated in a 200L pilot-scale aerobic membrane bioreactor (MBR) fed with a soluble and completely biodegradable synthetic influent of sodium acetate as the sole carbon source. This influent, which contained no influent unbiodegradable organic or inorganic particulate matter, allowed the generation of a sludge composed essentially of two fractions: heterotrophic biomass X(H) and an endogenous residue X(E), the nitrifying biomass being negligible. The endogenous decay rate and the active biomass fraction of the MBR sludge were determined in 21-day aerobic digestion batch tests by monitoring the VSS and OUR responses. Fractions of X(H) and X(E) were respectively 68% and 32% in run 1 (MBR at 5.2 day SRT) and 59% and 41% in run 2 (MBR at 10.4 day SRT). The endogenous residue was isolated by subjecting the MBR sludge to prolonged aerobic batch digestion for 3 weeks, and was characterized in terms of (a) elemental analysis for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulphur; and (b) content of EPS. The MBR sludge was characterized using the same procedures (a and b). Knowing the proportions of X(H) and X(E) in this sludge, it was possible to characterize X(H) by back calculation. Results from this investigation showed that the endogenous residue had a chemical composition different from that of the active biomass with a lower content of inorganic matter (1:4.2), of nitrogen (1:2.9), of phosphorus (1

  15. Preparation and Characterization of K2CO3-Activated Kraft Lignin Carbon

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    Xian-fa Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of activated carbons (ACs were prepared by K2CO3 activation from kraft lignin (KL that was recovered from papermaking black liquor. The effects of process parameters such as the activation temperature (AT, activated period, K2CO3 to KL mass ratio, and N2 flow rate on the characteristics of the final product were determined. The ACs were characterized using nitrogen adsorption, morphology, and fractal dimension analyses. The results showed that the AT was the main factor influencing the yield, surface area, and pore structure. The yield of ACs obviously decreased from 50.6% to 20.5% with increasing AT from 600 °C to 1000 °C, and decreased with increasing K2CO3/KL mass ratio. Activation time and N2 flow rate had slight effect on the yield of ACs. The surface area and total pore volume increased as the AT rose to 900 °C and then decreased with further increases in temperature. The maximum surface area and total pore volume were 1816.3 m2/g and 1.26 cm3/g, respectively, at a K2CO3 to KL mass ratio of 3:1, AT of 900 °C, activation time of 2 h, and N2 flow rate of 70 cm3/min. The pore structure of the ACs could be tailored by controlling the AT. As the AT was increased from 700 to 1000 °C, the mesoporosity increased from 11.6% to 95.9%. SEM images indicated that the morphology of ACs was modified by the AT. The K2CO3 was partially recycled.

  16. Antibacterial activity and characterization of secondary metabolites isolated from mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Valentin Bhimba B; J Meenupriya; Elsa Lycias Joel; D Edaya Naveena; Suman kumar; M Thangaraj

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore antibacterial activity and characterization of secondary metabolites isolated from mangrove plant Avicennia officinalis (A. officinalis). Methods:In the present study the leaf extracts of A. officinalis were examined for its antibacterial potential using five different solvents against some reference strains of human pathogenic bacteria for the crude extract. Maximum activity was observed for ethyl acetate and hence different concentrations like 15μL, 25μL, and 50μL of ethyl extracts was checked for its antibacterial activity. Partial purification of crude extract was carried by column chromatography and fractions were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to identify compounds. Results:The crude ethyl acetate extracts of A. officinalis showed remarkable antibacterial activity with zones of inhibition of 13 mm against Eschericia coli (E. coli) and 11 mm against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). Fraction 13 (ethyl acetate÷methanol=8÷2) as the most potent one against with the minimal inhibitory concentration of 30 mm against E. coli and 25 mm against S. aureus. The GC-MS resultsof active column fraction (F13) revealed that the active principals were a mixture of hydroxy-4 methoxybenzoic acid, diethyl phthalate, oleic acid. Conclusions:The leaf extracts with proven antibacterial effects can clearly be directed towards cancer treatment as to inhibiting cancer cell growth. The limited number of test organisms owes to a constraint of resource. So, the effect of strong bursts of leaf extracts on human pathogenic bacteria should further be tested on a wide range of test organisms.

  17. Extraction and characterization of essential discharge patterns from multisite recordings of spiking ongoing activity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Storchi

    Full Text Available Neural activation patterns proceed often by schemes or motifs distributed across the involved cortical networks. As neurons are correlated, the estimate of all possible dependencies quickly goes out of control. The complex nesting of different oscillation frequencies and their high non-stationariety further hamper any quantitative evaluation of spiking network activities. The problem is exacerbated by the intrinsic variability of neural patterns.Our technique introduces two important novelties and enables to insulate essential patterns on larger sets of spiking neurons and brain activity regimes. First, the sampling procedure over N units is based on a fixed spike number k in order to detect N-dimensional arrays (k-sequences, whose sum over all dimension is k. Then k-sequences variability is greatly reduced by a hierarchical separative clustering, that assigns large amounts of distinct k-sequences to few classes. Iterative separations are stopped when the dimension of each cluster comes to be smaller than a certain threshold. As threshold tuning critically impacts on the number of classes extracted, we developed an effective cost criterion to select the shortest possible description of our dataset. Finally we described three indexes (C,S,R to evaluate the average pattern complexity, the structure of essential classes and their stability in time.We validated this algorithm with four kinds of surrogated activity, ranging from random to very regular patterned. Then we characterized a selection of ongoing activity recordings. By the S index we identified unstable, moderatly and strongly stable patterns while by the C and the R indices we evidenced their non-random structure. Our algorithm seems able to extract interesting and non-trivial spatial dynamics from multisource neuronal recordings of ongoing and potentially stimulated activity. Combined with time-frequency analysis of LFPs could provide a powerful multiscale approach linking population

  18. New aminoporphyrins bearing urea derivative substituents: synthesis, characterization, antibacterial and antifungal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Karimipour

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the synthesis of 5,10,15-tris(4-aminophenyl-20-(N,N-dialkyl/diaryl-N-phenylurea porphyrins (P1-P4 with alkyl or aryl groups of Ph, iPr, Et and Me, respectively and also the preparation of their manganese (III and cobalt (II complexes (MnP and CoP. The P1-P4 ligands were characterized by different spectroscopic techniques (1H NMR, FTIR, UV-Vis and elemental analysis, and metalated with Mn and Co acetate salts. The antibacterial and antifungal activities of these compounds in vitro were investigated by agar-disc diffusion method against Escherichia coli (-, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (-, Staphylococcus aureus(+, Bacillus subtilis (+ and Aspergillus oryzae and Candida albicans. Results showed that antibacterial and antifungal activity of the test samples increased with increase of their concentrations and the highest activity was obtained when the concentration of porphyrin compounds was 100 µg/mL. The activity for the porphyrin ligands depended on the nature of the urea derivative substituents and increased in the order P1 > P2 > P3 >P4, which was consistent with the order of their liposolubility. MnP and CoP complexes exhibited much higher antibacterial and antifungal activity than P1-P4ligands. Further, the growth inhibitory effects of these compounds was generally in the order CoP complexes > MnP complexes > P1-P4 ligands. Among these porphyrin compounds, CoP1displayed the highest antibacterial and antifungal activity, especially with a concentration of 100 µg/mL, against all the four tested bacteria and two fungi, and therefore it could be potential to be used as drug.

  19. Superfund TIO videos. Set A. Regulatory overview - CERCLA's relationship to other programs: RCRA, Title III, UST, CWA, SDWA. Part 1. Audio-Visual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The videotape is divided into five sections. Section 1 provides definitions and historical information on both the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). The four types of RCRA regulatory programs - Subtitles C, D, I, and J - are described. Treatment, storage, and disposal (TSD) and recycling facilities are also discussed. Section 2 discusses the history behind the Emergency Planning and Community Right-to-Know Act (Title III). The four major provisions of Title III, which are emergency planning, emergency release notification, community right-to-know reporting, and the toxic chemical release inventory are covered. Section 3 outlines the UST program covering notification, record keeping, and the UST Trust Fund. Section 4 outlines the six major provisions of the Clean Water Act (CWA): water quality, pretreatment, prevention of oil and hazardous substance discharges, responses to oil and hazardous substance discharges, discharges of hazardous substances into the ocean, and dredge and fill. Section 5 explains the purpose, regulations, and standards of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Specific issues such as underground injection, sole source aquifers, and lead contamination are discussed

  20. Multisensor of Remotely Sensed Data for Characterizing Seismotectonic Activities in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Rabieahtul; Azahari Razak, Khamarrul; Anuar Jamaludin, Tajul; Tongkul, Felix; Mohamad, Zakaria; Ramli, Zamri; Abd Manap, Mohamad; Rahman, Muhammad Zulkarnain Abdul

    2015-04-01

    Seismically induced events pose serious hazards yet are difficult to predict. Despite remarkable efforts of mapping, monitoring and modelling of such great events at regional or local scales, the understanding of the processes in the Earth's dynamic system remains elusive. Although Malaysia is in a relatively low seismic hazard zone, the current trend and pattern of seismotectonic activities triggered a series of fundamental study to better understand the relationship between the earthquakes, recent tectonics and seismically active fault zones. Several conventional mapping techniques have been intensively used but shown some limitations. Remote sensing is the preferable mean to quantify the seismic activity accurately in a larger area within a short period. Still, only few of such studies have been carried out in this subduction region. Characterization of seismotectonic activities from space in a tropical environment is very challenging given the complexity of its physiographic, climatic, geologic conditions and anthropogenic activities. There are many factors controlling the success rate of the implementation mainly due to the lack of historical earthquakes, geomorphological evidence, and proper identification of regional tectonic patterns. In this study, we aim at providing better insight to extract and characterize seismotectonic activities by integrating passive and active remotely-sensed data, geodetic data, historical records, GIS-based data analysis and in-situ measurements as well quantify them based on field investigation and expert knowledge. It is crucial to perform spatiotemporal analysis of its activities in the most seismically induced region in North-Western Sabah. A comprehensive geodatabase of seismotectonic events are developed and allowed us to analyse the spatiotemporal activities. A novelty of object-based image method for extracting tropical seismically active faults and related seismotectonic features are introduced and evaluated. We aim to

  1. Functional and evolutionary characterization of Ohr proteins in eukaryotes reveals many active homologs among pathogenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.A. Meireles

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species. Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr, the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols, but not by β-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols, even in large excess; (ii MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH over hydrogen peroxide; (iii MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13×108 M−1 s−1. Both Cys87 and Cys154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pKa value of the Cysp residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria. Keywords: Ohr/OsmC, Thiol-dependent peroxidases, Phylogeny

  2. Functional and evolutionary characterization of Ohr proteins in eukaryotes reveals many active homologs among pathogenic fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meireles, D A; Domingos, R M; Gaiarsa, J W; Ragnoni, E G; Bannitz-Fernandes, R; da Silva Neto, J F; de Souza, R F; Netto, L E S

    2017-08-01

    Ohr and OsmC proteins comprise two subfamilies within a large group of proteins that display Cys-based, thiol dependent peroxidase activity. These proteins were previously thought to be restricted to prokaryotes, but we show here, using iterated sequence searches, that Ohr/OsmC homologs are also present in 217 species of eukaryotes with a massive presence in Fungi (186 species). Many of these eukaryotic Ohr proteins possess an N-terminal extension that is predicted to target them to mitochondria. We obtained recombinant proteins for four eukaryotic members of the Ohr/OsmC family and three of them displayed lipoyl peroxidase activity. Further functional and biochemical characterization of the Ohr homologs from the ascomycete fungus Mycosphaerella fijiensis Mf_1 (MfOhr), the causative agent of Black Sigatoka disease in banana plants, was pursued. Similarly to what has been observed for the bacterial proteins, we found that: (i) the peroxidase activity of MfOhr was supported by DTT or dihydrolipoamide (dithiols), but not by β-mercaptoethanol or GSH (monothiols), even in large excess; (ii) MfOhr displayed preference for organic hydroperoxides (CuOOH and tBOOH) over hydrogen peroxide; (iii) MfOhr presented extraordinary reactivity towards linoleic acid hydroperoxides (k=3.18 (±2.13)×10 8 M -1 s -1 ). Both Cys 87 and Cys 154 were essential to the peroxidase activity, since single mutants for each Cys residue presented no activity and no formation of intramolecular disulfide bond upon treatment with hydroperoxides. The pK a value of the Cys p residue was determined as 5.7±0.1 by a monobromobimane alkylation method. Therefore, eukaryotic Ohr peroxidases share several biochemical features with prokaryotic orthologues and are preferentially located in mitochondria. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Antimicrobial activity and physical characterization of silver nanoparticles green synthesized using nitrate reductase from Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholami-Shabani, Mohammadhassan; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Norouzian, Dariush; Amini, Abdolhossein; Gholami-Shabani, Zeynab; Imani, Afshin; Chiani, Mohsen; Riazi, Gholamhossein; Shams-Ghahfarokhi, Masoomeh; Razzaghi-Abyaneh, Mehdi

    2014-04-01

    Nanostructures from natural sources have received major attention due to wide array of biological activities and less toxicity for humans, animals, and the environment. In the present study, silver nanoparticles were successfully synthesized using a fungal nitrate reductase, and their biological activity was assessed against human pathogenic fungi and bacteria. The enzyme was isolated from Fusarium oxysporum IRAN 31C after culturing on malt extract-glucose-yeast extract-peptone (MGYP) medium. The enzyme was purified by a combination of ultrafiltration and ion exchange chromatography on DEAE Sephadex and its molecular weight was estimated by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300. The purified enzyme had a maximum yield of 50.84 % with a final purification of 70 folds. With a molecular weight of 214 KDa, it is composed of three subunits of 125, 60, and 25 KDa. The purified enzyme was successfully used for synthesis of silver nanoparticles in a way dependent upon NADPH using gelatin as a capping agent. The synthesized silver nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, dynamic light scattering spectroscopy, and transmission and scanning electron microscopy. These stable nonaggregating nanoparticles were spherical in shape with an average size of 50 nm and a zeta potential of -34.3. Evaluation of the antimicrobial effects of synthesized nanoparticles by disk diffusion method showed strong growth inhibitory activity against all tested human pathogenic fungi and bacteria as evident from inhibition zones that ranged from 14 to 25 mm. Successful green synthesis of biologically active silver nanoparticles by a nitrate reductase from F. oxysporum in the present work not only reduces laborious downstream steps such as purification of nanoparticle from interfering cellular components, but also provides a constant source of safe biologically-active nanomaterials with potential application in agriculture and medicine.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of ZnO-SnO2 nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamrouni, Abdessalem; Lachheb, Hinda; Houas, Ammar

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnO-SnO 2 photocatalysts were prepared successfully by the coprecipitation method. • The best conditions found are: calcination at 600 °C/2 h; molar ratio Zn/Sn = 1/0.05. • The lower tin content in the samples led to the higher photocatalytic activity. • Zn-Sn 0.05 photoactivity under solar light was better than visible lamps light. -- Abstract: Nanocomposites of coupled ZnO-SnO 2 photocatalysts were synthesized by the coprecipitation method and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, surface area analyzer and scanning electron microscopy. Their photocatalytic activity was investigated under UV, visible and solar light and evaluated using methylene blue (MB) as a model pollutant. The performance of the coupled ZnO-SnO 2 photocatalysts was found to be related to the Zn/Sn molar ratio and to the calcination conditions. The photocatalyst with a Zn/Sn molar ratio of 1:0.05 calcined at 600 °C for 2 h showed the maximum degradation rate of MB under different lights used. Its photocatalytic activity was found to be about two times that of ZnO and about 10 times that of SnO 2 which can be explained by the heterojunction effect. Charge separation mechanism has been studied

  5. AC/TiO2/Rubber Composite Sheet Catalysts; Fabrication, Characterization and Photocatalytic Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriwong Chaval

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The AC/TiO2/Rubber (ACTR composite sheets weresuccessfully fabricated by a simply mixing of fixed TiO2 suspension and natural rubber latex (60% HA contents withthe varyingamounts of activated carbon (AC suspension, followed by stirring, pouring into apetri dish mold, drying at room temperature (RT, after that taking out from a mold, reversing and drying again at RT. Then, the as-fabricated ACTR composite sheets were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD, attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and scanning electron microscopy (SEMtechniques. The photocatalytic efficiencies of all ACTR composite sheet samples were evaluated by photo degrading of methylene blue (MB dye solution under UV light irradiation. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity of ACTR sheet with10.0wt%AC loading has the highest efficiency for the photo degradation of MB dye than the other sheets. This is due to the fact that it is relatively with the synergistic effect of well-combined titanium dioxide catalyst and activated carbon adsorbent.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization, Antimicrobial Screening and Free-Radical Scavenging Activity of Some Novel Substituted Pyrazoles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagwa Mohamed Mahrous Hamada

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work deals with the synthesis of acetoxysulfonamide pyrazole derivatives, substituted 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carbothioamide and 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-isonicotinoyl derivatives starting from substituted vanillin chalcones. Acetoxysulfonamide pyrazole derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones with p-sulfamylphenylhydrazine followed by treatment with acetic anhydride. At the same time 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-carbothioamide and 4,5-dihydropyrazole-1-isonicotinoyl derivatives were prepared from the reaction of chalcones with either thiosemicarbazide or isonicotinic acid hydrazide, respectively. The synthesized compounds were structurally characterized on the basis of IR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR spectral data and microanalyses. All of the newly isolated compounds were tested for their antimicrobial activities. The antimicrobial screening using the agar well-diffusion method revealed that the chloro derivatives are the most active ones. Moreover, the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of these chloro derivatives are also studied using the DPPH radical scavenging and NO radical scavenging methods, respectively.

  7. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of LaMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaterian, Maryam, E-mail: shaterian@znu.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Zanjan, Zanjan 45371-38791, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Enhessari, Morteza [Department of Chemistry, Islamic Azad University, Naragh Branch, Naragh, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rabbani, Davarkhah [Department of Environmental Health Engineering, School of Health, Kashan University of Medical Sciences, Kashan, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Asghari, Morteza [Separation Processes Research Group (SPRG), Department of Engineering, University of Kashan, Kashan, PO Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Salavati-Niasari, Masoud [Institute of Nano Science and Nano Technology, University of Kashan, Kashan, PO Box 87317-51167, Islamic Republic of Iran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-11-01

    Highlights: • Visible-light sensitive LaMnO3 nanoparticles were synthesized via sol–gel process. • Structural and optical properties of photocatalysts have been investigated. • The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange as a model of pollutant. • The prepared nanocrystals showed good visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange. - Abstract: Visible-light sensitive LaMnO{sub 3} nanoparticles were synthesized via sol–gel process using stearic acid as complexing reagent. Characterizations of the resulting powders were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Further, the photocatalytic activity of LaMnO{sub 3} was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The prepared nanoparticles showed excellent visible-light photocatalytic ability for the degradation of methyl orange so that, 60 ppm of nanoparticles can decolorizes the methyl orange solution (6 ppm) up to 98% in 90 min.

  8. Protein corona between nanoparticles and bacterial proteins in activated sludge: Characterization and effect on nanoparticle aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peng; Xu, Xiao-Yan; Chen, You-Peng; Xiao, Meng-Qian; Feng, Bo; Tian, Kai-Xun; Chen, Yue-Hui; Dai, You-Zhi

    2018-02-01

    In this work, the protein coronas of activated sludge proteins on TiO 2 nanoparticles (TNPs) and ZnO nanoparticles (ZNPs) were characterized. The proteins with high affinity to TNPs and ZNPs were identified by shotgun proteomics, and their effects of on the distributions of TNPs and ZNPs in activated sludge were concluded. In addition, the effects of protein coronas on the aggregations of TNPs and ZNPs were evaluated. Thirty and nine proteins with high affinities to TNPs and ZNPs were identified, respectively. The proteomics and adsorption isotherms demonstrated that activated sludge had a higher affinity to TNPs than to ZNPs. The aggregation percentages of ZNPs at 35, 53, and 106 mg/L of proteins were 13%, 14%, and 18%, respectively, whereas those of TNPs were 21%, 30%, 41%, respectively. The proteins contributed to ZNPs aggregation by dissolved Zn ion-bridging, whereas the increasing protein concentrations enhanced the TNPs aggregation through macromolecule bridging flocculation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Activated sludge characterization through microscopy: A review on quantitative image analysis and chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mesquita, Daniela P. [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Amaral, A. Luís [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal); Instituto Politécnico de Coimbra, ISEC, DEQB, Rua Pedro Nunes, Quinta da Nora, 3030-199 Coimbra (Portugal); Ferreira, Eugénio C., E-mail: ecferreira@deb.uminho.pt [IBB-Institute for Biotechnology and Bioengineering, Centre of Biological Engineering, Universidade do Minho, Campus de Gualtar, 4710-057 Braga (Portugal)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Quantitative image analysis shows potential to monitor activated sludge systems. •Staining techniques increase the potential for detection of operational problems. •Chemometrics combined with quantitative image analysis is valuable for process monitoring. -- Abstract: In wastewater treatment processes, and particularly in activated sludge systems, efficiency is quite dependent on the operating conditions, and a number of problems may arise due to sludge structure and proliferation of specific microorganisms. In fact, bacterial communities and protozoa identification by microscopy inspection is already routinely employed in a considerable number of cases. Furthermore, quantitative image analysis techniques have been increasingly used throughout the years for the assessment of aggregates and filamentous bacteria properties. These procedures are able to provide an ever growing amount of data for wastewater treatment processes in which chemometric techniques can be a valuable tool. However, the determination of microbial communities’ properties remains a current challenge in spite of the great diversity of microscopy techniques applied. In this review, activated sludge characterization is discussed highlighting the aggregates structure and filamentous bacteria determination by image analysis on bright-field, phase-contrast, and fluorescence microscopy. An in-depth analysis is performed to summarize the many new findings that have been obtained, and future developments for these biological processes are further discussed.

  10. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi Feng

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Volatile compounds in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS. Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA. Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD factor range of 2–1024. Methional (cooked potato and geraniol (sweet, floral exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel, nerol (floral, sweet, dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS (preserved vegetable, sulfury, linalool (floral, (E,Z-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil. Furthermore, the flavor profile of ‘Sweetheart’ lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Keywords: AEDA, Aroma-active compounds, GC-MS/O, SAFE, Sensory analysis

  11. Preparation and Characterization of Various Activated Carbons Derived From Mixed Precursors Using Phosphoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daifullah, A.A.M.; Sharaf El-Deen, S.E.A.; Elkhalafawy, A.; Shehata, F.A.; Mahmoud, W.H.

    2008-01-01

    Rice straw (RS) and rice husk (RH), a low-cost agricultural by-products, have been used as a mixed precursor (i.e., RS mixed with RH in 1:1; 1:3 and 3:1 ratios) for the production of novel carbons using phosphoric acid as chemical activation. The raw materials were impregnated with 50% and 70% H 3 PO 4 followed by activation at 500 degree C. The latter proved to be the most effective in producing active carbon with good adsorptive capacity. The resulting carbons were characterized by elemental analysis, infrared spectroscopy, density, SEM and S BET . In general, the resulting carbons showed reasonable surface areas with mainly micropore structure. The adsorption capacity was demonstrated by the isotherms of methylene blue (MB), phenol and iodine from aqueous solution. The adsorption data was found to conform with the Langmuir equation with the concentration range studied, and the monolayer coverage was determined for each of the samples. It was found that surface area is mainly attributed to micropore volume so that phenol adsorption and iodine number correspond well with surface area determined by nitrogen adsorption

  12. Optimized Extraction, Preliminary Characterization, and In Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza Uralensis Fisch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Li, Wan-Chen; Gu, Xin-Li

    2017-04-13

    BACKGROUND This study performed optimized extraction, preliminary characterization, and in vitro antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch. MATERIAL AND METHODS Three parameters (extraction temperature, ratio of water to raw material, and extraction time) were optimized for yields of G. uralensis polysaccharides (GUP) using response surface methodology with Box-Behnken design (BBD). The GUP was purified using DEAE cellulose 32-column chromatography. The main fraction obtained from G. uralensis Fisch was GUP-II, which was composed of rhamnose, arabinose, galactose, and glucose monosaccharide, was screened for antioxidant properties using DP Hand hydroxyl radical scavenging assays. In addition, immunological activity of GUP-II was determined by nitric oxide and lymphocyte proliferation assays. RESULTS Optimization revealed maximum GUP yields with an extraction temperature of 99°C, water: raw material ratio of 15: 1, and extraction duration of 2 h. GUP-II purified from G. uralensis Fisch had good in vitro DPPH and hydroxyl radical scavenging abilities. Immunologically, GUP-II significantly stimulated NO production in RAW 264.7 macrophages, and significantly enhanced LPS-induced lymphocyte proliferation. CONCLUSIONS Extraction of GUP from G. uralensis Fisch can be optimized with respect to temperature, extraction period, and ratio of water to material, using response surface methodology. The purified product (GUP-II) possesses excellent antioxidant and immunological activities.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of transition metal complexes derived from some biologically active furoic acid hydrazones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Venkateswar Rao

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new physiologically active ligands, N’-2-[(E-1-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-oxo-2H-8-chromenyl ethylidene-2-furan carbohydrazide (HMCFCH and N’-2-[(Z-1-(4-hydroxy-6-methyl-2-oxo-2H-pyranyl ethylidene]-furan carbohydrazide (HMPFCH and their VO(II, Mn(II, Fe(II, Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes have been prepared. The ligands and the metal complexes have been characterized by elemental analyses, electrical conductance, magnetic susceptibility measurements, UV-Vis, IR, and ESR spectroscopic data. Basing on the above data, Fe(II and Co(II complexes of HMCFCH and HMPFCH have been assigned a dimeric octahedral geometry. VO(II complexes of HMCFCH and HMPFCH have been assigned sulfate bridged dimeric square pyramidal geometry. Mn(II complex of HMCFCH has been assigned a dimeric octahedral geometry, where as Mn(II complex of HMPFCH has been ascribed to monomeric octahedral geometry. Cu(II and Ni(II complexes of HMCFCH have been ascribed to a polymeric structure. Ni(II complex of HMPFCH has been assigned a dimeric square planar geometry. Cu(II complex of HMPFCH has been proposed an octahedral geometry. The ligands and their metal chelates were screened against S. aureus and P. aeruginosa. The ligands and the metal complexes have been found to be active against these microorganisms. The ligands show more activity than the metal complexes.

  14. Synthesis, characterization and antimicrobial activity of dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakić, Milorad; Glišić, Slobodan; Nikolić, Goran; Nikolić, Goran M.; Cakić, Katarina; Cvetinov, Miroslav

    2016-04-01

    Dextran sulphate stabilized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs - DS) were synthesized from aqueous solution of silver nitrate (AgNO3) and dextran sulphate sodium salt (DS). The characterization of AgNPs - DS was performed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-VIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and antimicrobial activity. The formation of AgNPs - DS was monitored by colour changes of the reaction mixture from yellowish to brown and by measuring the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak in UV-VIS spectra at 420 nm. The SEM analysis was used for size and shape determination of AgNPs - DS. The presence of elemental silver and its crystalline structure in AgNPs - DS were confirmed by EDX and XRD analyses. The possible functional groups of DS responsible for the reduction and stabilization of AgNPs were determinated by FTIR spectroscopy. The AgNPs - DS showed strong antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus cereus ATCC 11778, Bacillus luteus in haus strain, Bacillus subtilis ATTC 6633, Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 15313, Escherichia coli ATTC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATTC 27853, Klebsiella pneumoniae ATTC 700603, Proteus vulgaris ATTC 8427, and antifungal activity against Candida albicans ATTC 2091.

  15. Synthesis, characterization, and anticancer activity of new quinazoline derivatives against MCF-7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraj, Fadhil Lafta; Zahedifard, Maryam; Paydar, Mohammadjavad; Looi, Chung Yeng; Abdul Majid, Nazia; Ali, Hapipah Mohd; Ahmad, Noraini; Gwaram, Nura Suleiman; Abdulla, Mahmood Ameen

    2014-01-01

    Two new synthesized and characterized quinazoline Schiff bases 1 and 2 were investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Compounds 1 and 2 demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 6.246×10(-6) mol/L and 5.910×10(-6) mol/L, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with 1 and 2 subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release as well as increase in ROS formation. We also found activation of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9 in compounds 1 and 2. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB translocation in MCF-7 cells treated by compound 1 significantly exhibited the association of extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed significant activity towards MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway and are potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.

  16. TiO2 nanotubes supported NiW hydrodesulphurization catalysts: Characterization and activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palcheva, R.; Dimitrov, L.; Tyuliev, G.; Spojakina, A.; Jiratova, K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► NiW catalysts supported on TiO 2 nanotubes, titania and alumina. ► The best results are obtained with NiW/TiO 2 nanotubes in hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of thiophene. ► Active phase is Ni-WO x S y . ► Electronic promotion of W by Ti. - Abstract: High surface area TiO 2 nanotubes (Ti-NT) synthesized by alkali hydrothermal method were used as a support for NiW hydrodesulphurization catalyst. Nickel salt of 12-tungstophosphoric acid – Ni 3/2 PW 12 O 40 was applied as oxide precursor of the active components. The catalyst was characterized by S BET , XRD, UV–vis DRS, Raman spectroscopy, XPS, TPR and HRTEM. The results obtained were compared with those for the NiW catalysts prepared over high surface area titania and alumina supports. A polytungstate phase evidenced by Raman spectroscopy was observed indicating the destruction of the initial heteropolyanion. The catalytic experiments revealed two times higher thiophene conversion on NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT than those of catalysts supported on alumina and titania. Increased HDS activity of the NiW catalyst supported on Ti-NT could be related to a higher amount of W oxysulfide entities interacting with Ni sulfide particles as consequence of the electronic effects of the Ti-NT observed with XPS analysis.

  17. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of LaMnO3 nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaterian, Maryam; Enhessari, Morteza; Rabbani, Davarkhah; Asghari, Morteza; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Visible-light sensitive LaMnO3 nanoparticles were synthesized via sol–gel process. • Structural and optical properties of photocatalysts have been investigated. • The photocatalytic activity was evaluated by the degradation of methyl orange as a model of pollutant. • The prepared nanocrystals showed good visible-light photocatalytic activity for the degradation of methyl orange. - Abstract: Visible-light sensitive LaMnO 3 nanoparticles were synthesized via sol–gel process using stearic acid as complexing reagent. Characterizations of the resulting powders were carried out by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Further, the photocatalytic activity of LaMnO 3 was evaluated by degradation of methyl orange in aqueous solution under visible-light irradiation. The prepared nanoparticles showed excellent visible-light photocatalytic ability for the degradation of methyl orange so that, 60 ppm of nanoparticles can decolorizes the methyl orange solution (6 ppm) up to 98% in 90 min

  18. Characterization of biological activity of cigarette smoke using in vitro tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, A.L.; Chen, B.T.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    Studies were conducted to characterize the influence of exposure mode (whole-body continuous, nose only intermittent, nose-only continuous) on biological activity of cigarette smoke condensates. The mutagenic potency of the extracts was determined using Salmonella typhimurium tester strain TA-98 with and without the addition of S-9. The cytotoxicity of the cigarette smoke with and without the addition of S-9 was also determined using Chinese hamster ovary cells (CHO). Mutagenic activity was observed in the Ames test only after the addition of S-9. The optimum mutagenic activity was observed following addition of between 3 and 6% S-9. The average mutagenic potency, when cells were tested at the optimum level of S-9, was 1.5 revertants/mg extract. Cell killing by cigarette smoke extracts was the same for extracts derived from all three exposure modes. There was about 20% cell killing at concentrations of 300 mg extract/mL culture media. No differences were observed in either mutagenic or cytotoxic potency among the smoke extracts produced under different exposure conditions. (author)

  19. Antibiofilm Activity, Compound Characterization, and Acute Toxicity of Extract from a Novel Bacterial Species of Paenibacillus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saad Musbah Alasil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of many antimicrobial agents is currently decreasing; therefore, it is important to search for alternative therapeutics. Our study was carried out to assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity using microtiter plate assay, to characterize the bioactive compounds using Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography-Diode Array Detection and Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry and to test the oral acute toxicity on Sprague Dawley rats of extract derived from a novel bacterial species of Paenibacillus strain 139SI. Our results indicate that the crude extract and its three identified compounds exhibit strong antibiofilm activity against a broad range of clinically important pathogens. Three potential compounds were identified including an amino acid antibiotic C8H20N3O4P (MW 253.237, phospholipase A2 inhibitor C21H36O5 (MW 368.512, and an antibacterial agent C14H11N3O2 (MW 253.260. The acute toxicity test indicates that the mortality rate among all rats was low and that the biochemical parameters, hematological profile, and histopathology examination of liver and kidneys showed no significant differences between experimental groups P>0.05. Overall, our findings suggest that the extract and its purified compounds derived from novel Paenibacillus sp. are nontoxic exhibiting strong antibiofilm activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens that can be useful towards new therapeutic management of biofilm-associated infections.

  20. Anticoagulant Activity and Structural Characterization of Polysaccharide from Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai Ino Gonad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Zhao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we aimed at characterizing the structure and the anticoagulant activity of a polysaccharide fraction (AGP33 isolated from the gonads of Haliotis discus hannai Ino. AGP33 was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis and purified by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. The backbone fraction of AGP33 (BAGP33, which appeared to contain of mannose, glucose and galactose, was prepared by partial acid hydrolysis. According to methylation and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR spectroscopy, the backbone of AGP33 was identified as mainly consisting of 1→3-linked, 1→4-linked, and 1→6-linked monosaccharides. AGP33 is a sulfated polysaccharide with sulfates occur at 3-O- and 4-O-positions. It prolonged thromboplastin time (APTT, thrombin time (TT and prothrombin time (PT compared to a saline control solution in a dosage-dependent manner. AGP33 exhibited an extension (p < 0.01 of APTT compared to the saline group at concentrations higher than 5 μg/mL. AGP33 exhibited higher anticoagulant activity than its desulfated product (AGP33-des and BAGP33. The results showed that polysaccharide with higher molecular weight and sulfate content demonstrated greater anticoagulant activity.

  1. Microbial metaproteomics for characterizing the range of metabolic functions and activities of human gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Weili; Abraham, Paul E; Li, Zhou; Pan, Chongle; Hettich, Robert L

    2015-10-01

    The human gastrointestinal tract is a complex, dynamic ecosystem that consists of a carefully tuned balance of human host and microbiota membership. The microbiome is not merely a collection of opportunistic parasites, but rather provides important functions to the host that are absolutely critical to many aspects of health, including nutrient transformation and absorption, drug metabolism, pathogen defense, and immune system development. Microbial metaproteomics provides the ability to characterize the human gut microbiota functions and metabolic activities at a remarkably deep level, revealing information about microbiome development and stability as well as their interactions with their human host. Generally, microbial and human proteins can be extracted and then measured by high performance MS-based proteomics technology. Here, we review the field of human gut microbiome metaproteomics, with a focus on the experimental and informatics considerations involved in characterizing systems ranging from low-complexity model gut microbiota in gnotobiotic mice, to the emerging gut microbiome in the GI tract of newborn human infants, and finally to an established gut microbiota in human adults. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Novel Organotin(IV) Schiff Base Complexes with Histidine Derivatives: Synthesis, Characterization, and Biological Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garza-Ortiz, Ariadna; Camacho-Camacho, Carlos; Sainz-Espuñes, Teresita; Rojas-Oviedo, Irma; Gutiérrez-Lucas, Luis Raúl; Gutierrez Carrillo, Atilano; Vera Ramirez, Marco A.

    2013-01-01

    Five novel tin Schiff base complexes with histidine analogues (derived from the condensation reaction between L-histidine and 3,5-di-tert-butyl-2-hydroxybenzaldehyde) have been synthesized and characterized. Characterization has been completed by IR and high-resolution mass spectroscopy, 1D and 2D solution NMR (1H, 13C  and 119Sn), as well as solid state 119Sn NMR. The spectroscopic evidence shows two types of structures: a trigonal bipyramidal stereochemistry with the tin atom coordinated to five donating atoms (two oxygen atoms, one nitrogen atom, and two carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl moieties), where one molecule of ligand is coordinated in a three dentate fashion. The second structure is spectroscopically described as a tetrahedral tin complex with four donating atoms (one oxygen atom coordinated to the metal and three carbon atoms belonging to the alkyl or aryl substituents), with one molecule of ligand attached. The antimicrobial activity of the tin compounds has been tested against the growth of bacteria in vitro to assess their bactericidal properties. While pentacoordinated compounds 1, 2, and 3 are described as moderate effective to noneffective drugs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, tetracoordinated tin(IV) compounds 4 and 5 are considered as moderate effective and most effective compounds, respectively, against the methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strains (Gram-positive). PMID:23864839

  3. The role of toxicology to characterize biomarkers for agrochemicals with potential endocrine activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Alberto; Maranghi, Francesca; La Rocca, Cinzia; Tiboni, Gian Mario; Clementi, Maurizio

    2008-09-01

    The paper discusses current knowledge and possible research priorities on biomarkers of exposure, effect and susceptibility for potential endocrine activities of agrochemicals (dicarboximides, ethylene bisdithiocarbammates, triazoles, etc.). Possible widespread, multiple-pathway exposure to agrochemicals highlights the need to assess internal exposure of animals or humans, which is the most relevant exposure measure for hazard and risk estimation; however, exposure data should be integrated by early indicators predictive of possible health effects, particularly for vulnerable groups such as mother-child pairs. Research need include: non-invasive biomarkers for children biomonitoring; novel biomarkers of total exposure to measure whole endocrine disrupter-related burden; characterization of biomarkers of susceptibility, including the role of markers of nutritional status; anchoring early molecular markers to established toxicological endpoints to support their predictivity; integrating "omics"-based approaches in a system-toxicology framework. As biomonitoring becomes increasingly important in the environment-and-health scenario, toxicologists can substantially contribute both to the characterization of new biomarkers and to the predictivity assessment and improvement of the existing ones.

  4. Synthesis, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2 Microspheres Functionalized with Porphyrin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Hua Cai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize visible light more efficiently in the photocatalytic reaction, TiO2 microspheres sensitized by 5-(4-allyloxyphenyl-10,15,20-tri(4-methylphenylporphyrin (APTMPP were prepared and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS, nitrogen physisorption, scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, and so forth, The characterization results indicated that APTMPP-MPS-TiO2 was composed of the anatase crystal phase. The morphology of the composite materials was spheriform with size of 0.3–0.7 μm and the porphyrin was chemisorbed on the surface of TiO2 through a Si–O–Ti bond. The photooxidation of α-terpinene was employed as the model reaction to evaluate the photocatalytic activity of APTMPP-MPS-TiO2 microspheres under visible light. The results indicated that the photodegradation of α-terpinene was significantly enhanced in the presence of the APTMPP-MPS-TiO2 compared with the nonmodified TiO2 under visible light.

  5. Characterization of a humic gel synthesized from an activated epoxy silica gel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbot, C.; Pieri, J.; Durand, J.P.; Goudard, F.; Czerwinski, K.; Vial, M.; Buckau, G.; Kim, J.I.; Moulin, V.

    2002-01-01

    Purified humic acid has been covalently bound on activated epoxy silica gel particles. Determination of physical properties and chemical properties was conducted in order to characterize the material at different stages of the preparation. FTIR spectra and the PEC of the surface bound humic acid is very similar to that of humic acid starting material. This shows that the humic acid was not deteriorated during the surface binding process. This humic gel can be used as an analogue for sediment associated humic acid, with the advantage that covalently bound humic acid does not desorb, and thus allows for simple species separation between non-complexed and humic bound metal ions in batch and column experiments

  6. Preparation, Characterization and Catalytic Activity of Nickel Molybdate (NiMoO4 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicham Oudghiri-Hassani

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Nickel molybdate (NiMoO4 nanoparticles were synthesized via calcination of an oxalate complex in static air at 500 °C. The oxalate complex was analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR. The as-synthesized nickel molybdate was characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller technique (BET, X-ray diffraction (XRD, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM and its catalytic efficiency was tested in the reduction reaction of the three-nitrophenol isomers. The nickel molybdate displays a very high activity in the catalytic reduction of the nitro functional group to an amino. The reduction progress was controlled using Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis absorption.

  7. Modified Polyacrylic Acid-Zinc Composites: Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Rafi Shaik

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylic acid (PAA is an important industrial chemical, which has been extensively applied in various fields, including for several biomedical purposes. In this study, we report the synthesis and modification of this polymer with various phenol imides, such as succinimide, phthalimide and 1,8-naphthalimide. The as-synthesized derivatives were used to prepare polymer metal composites by the reaction with Zn+2. These composites were characterized by using various techniques, including NMR, FT-IR, TGA, SEM and DSC. The as-prepared PAA-based composites were further evaluated for their anti-microbial properties against various pathogens, which include both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and different fungal strains. The synthesized composites have displayed considerable biocidal properties, ranging from mild to moderate activities against different strains tested.

  8. Synthesis, structural characterization and cytotoxic activity of two new organoruthenium(II complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANJA GRGURIC-SIPKA

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Two new p-cymene ruthenium(II complexes containing as additional ligands N-methylpiperazine ([(η6-p-cymeneRuCl2(CH3NH(CH24NH]PF6, complex 1 or vitamin K3-thiosemicarbazone ([(η6-p-cymeneRuCl2(K3tsc], complex 2 were synthesized starting from [(η6-p-cymene2RuCl2]2 and the corresponding ligand. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, IR, electronic absorption and NMR spectroscopy. The X-ray crystal structure determination of complex 1 revealed “piano-stool” geometry. The differences in the cytotoxic activity of the two complexes are discussed in terms of the ligand present.

  9. Crystal habit, characterization and pharmacological activity of various crystal forms of arteether

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renu Chadha

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate and characterize different crystal forms of arteether, a rapidly acting, highly potent antimalarial drug for the treatment of acute Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Six different crystal forms were prepared utilizing various polar and non-polar solvents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM revealed differences in the surface characteristics of the six forms from those of a commercial sample. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC revealed the absence of a desolvation endotherm indicating that the forms were neither hydrates nor solvates. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD patterns of the forms showed much weaker major peaks than in the commercial sample indicating them to be less crystalline. Solubility and dissolution studies showed that the most amorphous form was the most soluble and possessed the highest antimalarial activity.

  10. Physico-chemical characterization studies of activated carbon derived from Sterculia Quadrifida seed shell waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shanthi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A carbonaceous adsorbent prepared from the Sterculia Quadrifida shell by various activation process, viz., Acid process, Chloride process, Carbonate process and Sulphate process are successfully reported. It shows excellent improvement in the surface characteristics. Their physico-chemical characterization studies such as bulk density, moisture content, ash content, fixed carbon content, matter, soluble in water, matter soluble in acid, pH, decolourizing power, porosity and specific gravity have been carried out to assess the suitability of these carbons as potential adsorbent for waste water treatment. The present study undertaken to evaluate the efficiency of a carbon adsorbent prepared from Sterculia Quadrifida seed shell waste for removal of dyes in aqueous solution.

  11. Preparation, Characterization, and Photocatalytic Activity of TiO2/ZnO Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanoparticles of the TiO2/ZnO composite photocatalysts were prepared via sol-gel process. The crystalline structure, morphology, thermal stability, and pore structure properties of the composite photocatalysts were characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TG-DTA, and N2 physical adsorption measurements. The photocatalytic activity of the composite catalysts was evaluated by photocatalytic degradation reaction of methyl orange (MO in aqueous solution. The best preparation parameters for the composite photocatalysts were obtained through systematical experiments. Furthermore, the photocatalytic degradation reaction of aqueous MO solution followed the first-order reaction kinetics; the relative equation can be described as ln(C0/C=0.5689t, and the calculated correlation constant (R2 is 0.9937 for the calibration curve.

  12. Preparation, Characterization and Performance Studies of Active PVDF Ultrafiltration-Surfactants Membranes Containing PVP as Additive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nur Izzah Md Fadilah; Abdul Rahman Hassan

    2016-01-01

    The role of surfactants in the formation of active Poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) ultrafiltration (AUF) membranes was studied. The effect combination of surfactants that are Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS)/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 formulations on performance and morphological structures were investigated for the first time. The influence of surfactants blends on the membrane pores was also examined. Experimental data showed that combination of Tween 80/ Triton X-100 give the highest BSA permeation flux with a value of 285.51 Lm -2 h -1 . With combination of SDS/ Tween 80, the AUF membrane showed the highest protein rejection up to 93 % and 79 % for Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA) and Egg Albumin (EA), respectively. Moreover, membranes characterization demonstrated that the addition of SDS/ Tween 80 and Tween 80/ Triton X-100 were found to affect the performance, surface morphologies and membrane pores of AUF PVDF membranes. (author)

  13. Synthesis, characterization and anticancer activities of two lanthanide(III) complexes with a nicotinohydrazone ligand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhou-Qin; Mao, Xian-Jie; Jia, Lei; Xu, Jun; Zhu, Tao-Feng; Cai, Hong-Xin; Bie, Hong-Yan; Chen, Ru-Hua; Ma, Tie-liang

    2015-12-01

    Two isostructural acylhydrazone based complexes, namely [Ce(penh)2(H2O)4](NO3)3·4H2O (1) and [Sm(penh)2(NO3)2](NO3)·C2H5OH (2) (penh = 2-acetylpyridine nicotinohydrazone), have been obtained and characterized by physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The ten-coordinated lanthanide metal ion in each complex is surrounded by two independent tridentate neutral acylhydrazones with two ON2 donor sets. The other four coordination oxygen atoms are from four water molecules and two bidentate nitrate anions for complexes 1 and 2, respectively, thus giving distorted bicapped square antiprism geometry. Both complexes have excellent antitumor activity towards human pancreatic cancer (PATU8988), human colorectal cancer (lovo) and human gastric cancer(SGC7901) cell line. Furthermore, the cell apoptosis of complex 1 is detected by AnnexinV/PI flow cytometry.

  14. Single and multi-frequency impedance characterization of symmetric activated carbon single capacitor cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Sopčić

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS technique is used for characterization of single cell symmetric capacitors having different mass loadings of activated carbon (AC. Relevant values of charge storage capacitance (CT and internal resistance (ESR were evaluated by the single frequency and multi-frequency analyses of measured impedance spectra. Curve fittings were based on the non-ideal R-C model that takes into account the parasitic inductance, contributions from electrode materials/contacts and the effects of AC porosity. Higher CT and lower ESR values were obtained not only for the cell with higher mass of AC, but also using the single vs. multi-frequency approach. Lower CT and higher values of ESR that are generally obtained using the multi-frequency method and curve fittings should be related to the not ideal capacitive response of porous AC material and too high frequency chosen in applying the single frequency analysis.

  15. Ag-doped CdO nanocatalysts: Preparation, characterization and catechol oxidase activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kemary, Maged; El-Mehasseb, Ibrahim; El-Shamy, Hany

    2018-06-01

    Silver doped cadmium oxide (Ag/CdO) nanoparticles with an average size of 41 nm have been successfully synthesized via thermal decomposition and liquid impregnation technique. The structural characterization has been performed by using several spectroscopic techniques, e.g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR). The catechol oxidase has been studied by UV-visible absorption spectroscopy and fourier-transform infrared as well as the mechanism has been assured by cyclic voltammetry and fluorescence spectroscopy. The results indicate that the oxidation does not occur in the presence of unsupported cadmium oxide particles by silver and in the same time, the catechol oxidase activity of silver doped CdO nanoparticles were improved by about three orders of magnitude than silver ions.

  16. Synthesis, characterization and anti-proliferative activity of heterocyclic hypervalent organoantimony compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Yu, Kun; Tan, Nian-Yuan; Qiu, Ren-Hua; Liu, Wei; Luo, Ning-Lin; Tong, Le; Au, Chak-Tong; Luo, Zi-Qiang; Yin, Shuang-Feng

    2014-05-22

    Three heterocyclic hypervalent organoantimony chlorides RN(CH2C6H4)2SbCl (2a R = t-Bu, 2b R = Cy, 2c R = Ph) and their chalcogenide derivatives [RN(CH2C6H4)2Sb]2O (3a R = t-Bu, 3b R = Cy, 3c R = Ph) were synthesized and characterized by techniques such as (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, X-ray diffraction, and elemental analysis. It is found that the anti-proliferative activity detected over these compounds can be attributed to the coordination bond between the antimony and nitrogen atoms of these compounds. Moreover, a preliminary study on mechanistic action suggests that the inhibition effect is ascribable to cell cycle arrest and cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Extraction and characterization of proteins from banana (Musa Sapientum L) flower and evaluation of antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthiya, Kewalee; Devkota, Lavaraj; Sadiq, Muhammad Bilal; Anal, Anil Kumar

    2018-02-01

    Ultrasonic assisted alkaline extraction of protein from banana flower was optimized using response surface methodology. The extracted proteins were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and molecular weight distribution was determined by gel electrophoresis. The maximum protein yield of 252.25 mg/g was obtained under optimized extraction conditions: temperature 50 °C, 30 min extraction time and 1 M NaOH concentration. The alkaline extraction produced a significantly high protein yield compared to enzymatic extraction of banana flower. Chemical finger printing of proteins showed the presence of tyrosine, tryptophan and amide bonds in extracted protein. Alkaline and pepsin assisted extracted banana flower proteins showed characteristic bands at 40 and 10 kDA, respectively. The extracted proteins showed antibacterial effects against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The high protein content and antimicrobial activity indicate the potential applications of banana flower in the food and feed industry.

  18. Partial structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a phenolic-xylan from Castanea sativa hardwood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Emmanuel; Barbat-Rogeon, Aline; Chaleix, Vincent; Calliste, Claude-Alain; Colas, Cyril; Gloaguen, Vincent

    2014-09-01

    4-O-Methylglucuronoxylans (MGX) were isolated from chestnut wood sawdust using two different procedures: chlorite delignification followed by the classical alkaline extraction step, and an unusual green chemistry process of delignification using phthalocyanine/H2O2 followed by a simple extraction with hot water. Antioxidant properties of both MGX were evaluated against the stable radical 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) by electronic spin resonance (ESR). IC50 of water-extracted MGX was found to be less than 225 μg mL(-1), in contrast with alkali-extracted MGX for which no radical scavenging was observed. Characterization of extracts by colorimetric assay, GC, LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy provided some clues to understanding structure-function relationships of MGX in connection with their antioxidant activity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. New porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials: synthesis, characterization and investigation of catalytic activity in acetylation reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araghi, Mehdi; Mirkhani, Valiollah; Moghadam, Majid; Tangestaninejad, Shahram; Mohammdpoor-Baltork, Iraj

    2012-10-14

    New hybrid complexes based on covalent interaction between 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatozinc(II) and 5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-aminophenyl)porphyrinatotin(IV) chloride, and a Lindqvist-type polyoxometalate, Mo(6)O(19)(2-), were prepared. These new porphyrin-polyoxometalate hybrid materials were characterized by (1)H NMR, FT IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic methods and cyclic voltammetry. These spectro- and electrochemical studies provided several spectral data for synthesis of these compounds. Cyclic voltammetry showed the influence of the polyoxometalate on the redox process of the porphyrin ring. The catalytic activity of tin(IV)porphyrin-hexamolybdate hybrid material was investigated in the acetylation of alcohols and phenols with acetic anhydride. The reusability of this catalyst was also investigated.

  20. Through-wall bio-radio location and characterization of human activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, Lei; Gui, Yong-Sheng; Hu, Can-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a through-the-wall life detection system has been developed by using a broadband microwave technique. This system can not only determine and characterize human movement behind an obstacle but also determine the person’s position by employing the Fourier transform technique. The effectiveness of this system is shown by the experimental results where the presence of stationary and moving person behind an obstacle can be identified upto a distance of 17 and 30 m respectively. Since the movement of a human body is continuous, an averaged background subtraction technique has been developed which allows real time detection of human activities without requiring any prior knowledge of the environment, thus making the system suitable for practical applications. (paper)

  1. Basic characterization of low-activated F82H-mod steel as compared to OPTIFER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirra, M.; Adelhelm, C.; Graf, P.; Heger, S.; Kempe, H.; Zimmermann, H.

    1997-12-01

    Low-activated F82H-model steel plate material was made available to the European laboratories by the Japanese side. Basic characterization work is being performed by FZK/IMF. In the present report, the results obtained shall be compared with the European OPTIFER types. The chemical composition and the state as delivered are controlled. In addition, transformation, hardness and tempering behaviors shall be described. Tensile strength and impact bending strength were determined in the ranges of RT to 700 C and -80 C to +80 C, respectively. Particular attention is paid to the creep strength behavior. The current tests cover the range of up to 15000 h at temperatures ranging from 450 to 700 C. It can be noticed that the results measured for some parameters are subject to considerable scattering. As compared to previous tests, the experimental scope therefore had to be increased significantly. (orig.) [de

  2. Synthesis, spectroscopic, biological activity and thermal characterization of ceftazidime with transition metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoud, Mamdouh S.; Ali, Alaa E.; Elasala, Gehan S.; Kolkaila, Sherif A.

    2018-03-01

    Synthesis, physicochemical characterization and thermal analysis of ceftazidime complexes with transition metals (Cr(III), Mn(II), Fe(III), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II)) were discussed. It's obtained that ceftazidime act as bidentate ligand. From magnetic measurement and spectral data, octahedral structures were proposed for all complexes except for cobalt, nickel and mercury had tetrahedral structural. Hyper chemistry program confirmed binding sites of ceftazidime. Ceftazidime complexes show higher activity than ceftazidime for some strains. From TG and DTA curves the thermal decomposition mechanisms of ceftazidime and their metal complexes were suggested. The thermal decomposition of the complexes ended with the formation of metal oxides as a final product except in case of Hg complex.

  3. Verification of a characterization method of the laser-induced selective activation based on industrial lasers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Tang, Peter T.

    2013-01-01

    In this article, laser-induced selective activation (LISA) for subsequent autocatalytic copper plating is performed by several types of industrial scale lasers, including a Nd:YAG laser, a UV laser, a fiber laser, a green laser, and a short pulsed laser. Based on analysis of all the laser......-machined surfaces, normalized bearing area curves and parameters are used to characterize the surface quantitatively. The range of normalized bearing area curve parameters for plate-able surface is suggested. PBT/PET with 40 % glass fiber was used as the substrate material. For all of the studied lasers......, the parameters were varied in a relatively large range, and matrixes of the laser-machined surface were obtained. The topography of those laser-machined surfaces was examined by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). For each sample examined by SEM, there was an identical workpiece plated by for 90 min...

  4. The role of neutron activation analysis for trace elements characterization, analysis and certification in atmospheric particulates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizzio, Enrico; Gallorini, Mario

    2002-01-01

    The Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) owns these requirements and is universally accepted as one of the most reliable analytical tools for trace and ultratrace elements determination. Its use in trace elements atmospheric pollution related studies has been and is still extensive as can be demonstrate by several specific works and detailed reviews. In this work, the application of this nuclear technique, in solving a series of different analytical problems related to trace elements in air pollution processes is reported. Examples and results are given on the following topics: characterization of urban and rural airborne particulate samples; particles size distribution in the different inhalable and respirable fractions (PM10 and PM 2.5); certification of related Standard Reference Materials for data quality assurance. (author)

  5. Synthesis, Characterization and Antibacterial Activity of BiVO4 Microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekthammathat, Nuengruethai; Phuruangrat, Anukorn; Thongtem, Somchai; Thongtem, Titipun

    2018-05-01

    Hyperbranched BiVO4 microstructure were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method. Upon characterization the products by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, selected area electron diffraction (SAED) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, pure monoclinic hyperbranched BiVO4 with dominant vibration peak at 810 cm-1 and strong photoemission peak at 360 nm was synthesized in the solution with pH 1. In the solution with pH 2, tetragonal BiVO4 phase was also detected. In this research, antibacterial activity against S. aureus and E. coli was investigated by counting the colony forming unit (CFU). At 37°C within 24 h, the monoclinic BiVO4 phase can play the role in inhibiting S. aureus growth (350 CFU/mL remaining bacteria) better than that against E. coli (a large number of remaining bacteria).

  6. Molecular Analysis, Biochemical Characterization, Antimicrobial Activity, and Immunological Analysis of Proteus mirabilis Isolated from Broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Hung-Yueh; Line, John E; Hinton, Arthur

    2018-03-01

    Proteus mirabilis, a Gram-negative bacterium, is ubiquitous in the environment and is considered as the normal microflora in the human gastrointestinal tract. However, this bacterium is an opportunistic pathogen in humans, often causing urinary tract infections. Moreover, Proteus has been frequently isolated from food animals, including poultry. Whether this bacterium contributes to the foodborne illness in humans is unclear. In this report, P. mirabilis isolates recovered from broilers during housing in the units were characterized, their antimicrobial activity was assayed, and broiler immune response to the soluble proteins was determined. Cecal contents and fecal droppings were treated according to the standard protocol for isolation. Speciation based on biochemical reactions and the antimicrobial activity of the isolates were carried out using commercial kits. Immunoblot was assayed to determine immune status of broilers against P. mirabilis. A total of 10 isolates of P. mirabilis were selected for further characterization. These isolates could grow in pH 6.0 and 1% NaCl conditions. They were resistant to sodium lactate, troleandomycin, rifamycin SV, vancomycin, but sensitive to nalidixic acid, cefotaxime and novobiocin. Moreover, the CTX, ACC, CMY-1, BIC, NDM, VEB, qnrB and qnrD genes were detected by PCR amplification in all isolates. Sera from broilers harboring this bacterium reacted to the P. mirabilis soluble proteins, but not from litter- and age-matched P. mirabilis negative and SPF chickens, indicating that this bacterium infected chickens that could have humoral immune response against P. mirabilis. This study provides a rationale for further monitoring P. mirabilis during poultry production to determine whether this bacterium poses potential threats to public health. Published 2018. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  7. Production and characterization of guinea pig recombinant gamma interferon and its effect on macrophage activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeevan, A; McFarland, C T; Yoshimura, T; Skwor, T; Cho, H; Lasco, T; McMurray, D N

    2006-01-01

    Gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) plays a critical role in the protective immune responses against mycobacteria. We previously cloned a cDNA coding for guinea pig IFN-gamma (gpIFN-gamma) and reported that BCG vaccination induced a significant increase in the IFN-gamma mRNA expression in guinea pig cells in response to living mycobacteria and that the virulent H37Rv strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulated less IFN-gamma mRNA than did the attenuated H37Ra strain. In this study, we successfully expressed and characterized recombinant gpIFN-gamma with a histidine tag at the N terminus (His-tagged rgpIFN-gamma) in Escherichia coli. rgpIFN-gamma was identified as an 18-kDa band in the insoluble fraction; therefore, the protein was purified under denaturing conditions and renatured. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the recombinant protein yielded the sequence corresponding to the N terminus of His-tagged gpIFN-gamma. The recombinant protein upregulated major histocompatibility complex class II expression in peritoneal macrophages. The antiviral activity of rgpIFN-gamma was demonstrated with a guinea pig fibroblast cell line (104C1) infected with encephalomyocarditis virus. Interestingly, peritoneal macrophages treated with rgpIFN-gamma did not produce any nitric oxide but did produce hydrogen peroxide and suppressed the intracellular growth of mycobacteria. Furthermore, rgpIFN-gamma induced morphological alterations in cultured macrophages. Thus, biologically active rgpIFN-gamma has been successfully produced and characterized in our laboratory. The study of rgpIFN-gamma will further increase our understanding of the cellular and molecular responses induced by BCG vaccination in the guinea pig model of pulmonary tuberculosis.

  8. Preparation, Characterization and Activity of a Peptide-Cellulosic Aerogel Protease Sensor from Cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vincent Edwards

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Nanocellulosic aerogels (NA provide a lightweight biocompatible material with structural properties, like interconnected high porosity and specific surface area, suitable for biosensor design. We report here the preparation, characterization and activity of peptide-nanocellulose aerogels (PepNA made from unprocessed cotton and designed with protease detection activity. Low-density cellulosic aerogels were prepared from greige cotton by employing calcium thiocyanate octahydrate/lithium chloride as a direct cellulose dissolving medium. Subsequent casting, coagulation, solvent exchange and supercritical carbon dioxide drying afforded homogeneous cellulose II aerogels of fibrous morphology. The cotton-based aerogel had a porosity of 99% largely dominated by mesopores (2–50 nm and an internal surface of 163 m2·g−1. A fluorescent tripeptide-substrate (succinyl-alanine-proline-alanine-4-amino-7-methyl-coumarin was tethered to NA by (1 esterification of cellulose C6 surface hydroxyl groups with glycidyl-fluorenylmethyloxycarbonyl (FMOC, (2 deprotection and (3 coupling of the immobilized glycine with the tripeptide. Characterization of the NA and PepNA included techniques, such as elemental analysis, mass spectral analysis, attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging, nitrogen adsorption, scanning electron microscopy and bioactivity studies. The degree of substitution of the peptide analog attached to the anhydroglucose units of PepNA was 0.015. The findings from mass spectral analysis and attenuated total reflectance infrared imaging indicated that the peptide substrate was immobilized on to the surface of the NA. Nitrogen adsorption revealed a high specific surface area and a highly porous system, which supports the open porous structure observed from scanning electron microscopy images. Bioactivity studies of PepNA revealed a detection sensitivity of 0.13 units/milliliter for human neutrophil elastase, a diagnostic biomarker for inflammatory

  9. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of porous manganese oxide doped titania for toluene decomposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jothiramalingam, R.; Wang, M.K.

    2007-01-01

    The present study describes the photocatalytic degradation of toluene in gas phase on different porous manganese oxide doped titanium dioxide. As synthesized birnessite and cryptomelane type porous manganese oxide were doped with titania and tested for photocatalytic decomposition of toluene in gas phase. The effects of the inlet concentration of toluene, flow rate (retention time) were examined and the relative humidity was maintained constantly. Thermal and textural characterization of manganese oxide doped titania materials were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravemetry (TG), BET and TEM-EDAX studies. The aim of the present study is to synthesize the porous manganese oxide doped titania and to study its photocatalytic activity for toluene degradation in gas phase. Cryptomelane doped titania catalyst prepared in water medium [K-OMS-2 (W)] is shown the good toluene degradation with lower catalysts loading compared to commercial bulk titania in annular type photo reactor. The higher photocatalytic activity due to various factors such as catalyst preparation method, experimental conditions, catalyst loading, surface area, etc. In the present study manganese oxide OMS doped titania materials prepared by both aqueous and non-aqueous medium, aqueous medium prepared catalyst shows the good efficiency due to the presence of OH bonded groups on the surface of catalyst. The linear forms of different kinetic equations were applied to the adsorption data and their goodness of fit was evaluated based on the R 2 and standard error. The goodness to the linear fit was observed for Elovich model with high R 2 (≥0.9477) value

  10. Synthesis, characterization, and antimicrobial activity of an ampicillin-conjugated magnetic nanoantibiotic for medical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussein-Al-Ali SH

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Samer Hasan Hussein-Al-Ali,1,2 Mohamed Ezzat El Zowalaty,3,4 Mohd Zobir Hussein,5 Benjamin M Geilich,6 Thomas J Webster6,7 1Laboratory of Molecular Biomedicine, 2Faculty of Pharmacy, Isra University, Amman, Kingdom of Jordan; 3Laboratory of Vaccines and Immunotherapeutics, Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 4Faculty of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Jazan University, Jazan, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; 5Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 6Department of Chemical Engineering and Program in Bioengineering, Northeastern University, Boston, MA, USA; 7Center of Excellence for Advanced Materials Research, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia Abstract: Because of their magnetic properties, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs have numerous diverse biomedical applications. In addition, because of their ability to penetrate bacteria and biofilms, nanoantimicrobial agents have become increasingly popular for the control of infectious diseases. Here, MNPs were prepared through an iron salt coprecipitation method in an alkaline medium, followed by a chitosan coating step (CS-coated MNPs; finally, the MNPs were loaded with ampicillin (amp to form an amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite. Both the MNPs and amp-CS-MNPs were subsequently characterized and evaluated for their antibacterial activity. X-ray diffraction results showed that the MNPs and nanocomposites were composed of pure magnetite. Fourier transform infrared spectra and thermogravimetric data for the MNPs, CS-coated MNPs, and amp-CS-MNP nanocomposite were compared, which confirmed the CS coating on the MNPs and the amp-loaded nanocomposite. Magnetization curves showed that both the MNPs and the amp-CS-MNP nanocomposites were superparamagnetic, with saturation magnetizations at 80.1 and 26.6 emu g-1, respectively. Amp was loaded at 8

  11. Identification and characterization of Ca2+-activated K+ channels in granulosa cells of the human ovary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berg Ulrike

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Granulosa cells (GCs represent a major endocrine compartment of the ovary producing sex steroid hormones. Recently, we identified in human GCs a Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa of big conductance (BKCa, which is involved in steroidogenesis. This channel is activated by intraovarian signalling molecules (e.g. acetylcholine via raised intracellular Ca2+ levels. In this study, we aimed at characterizing 1. expression and functions of KCa channels (including BKCa beta-subunits, and 2. biophysical properties of BKCa channels. Methods GCs were obtained from in vitro-fertilization patients and cultured. Expression of mRNA was determined by standard RT-PCR and protein expression in human ovarian slices was detected by immunohistochemistry. Progesterone production was measured in cell culture supernatants using ELISAs. Single channels were recorded in the inside-out configuration of the patch-clamp technique. Results We identified two KCa types in human GCs, the intermediate- (IK and the small-conductance KCa (SK. Their functionality was concluded from attenuation of human chorionic gonadotropin-stimulated progesterone production by KCa blockers (TRAM-34, apamin. Functional IK channels were also demonstrated by electrophysiological recording of single KCa channels with distinctive features. Both, IK and BKCa channels were found to be simultaneously active in individual GCs. In agreement with functional data, we identified mRNAs encoding IK, SK1, SK2 and SK3 in human GCs and proteins of IK and SK2 in corresponding human ovarian cells. Molecular characterization of the BKCa channel revealed the presence of mRNAs encoding several BKCa beta-subunits (beta2, beta3, beta4 in human GCs. The multitude of beta-subunits detected might contribute to variations in Ca2+ dependence of individual BKCa channels which we observed in electrophysiological recordings. Conclusion Functional and molecular studies indicate the presence of active IK and SK

  12. Functional characterization of neurotransmitter activation and modulation in a nematode model ligand-gated ion channel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heusser, Stephanie A; Yoluk, Özge; Klement, Göran; Riederer, Erika A; Lindahl, Erik; Howard, Rebecca J

    2016-07-01

    The superfamily of pentameric ligand-gated ion channels includes neurotransmitter receptors that mediate fast synaptic transmission in vertebrates, and are targets for drugs including alcohols, anesthetics, benzodiazepines, and anticonvulsants. However, the mechanisms of ion channel opening, gating, and modulation in these receptors leave many open questions, despite their pharmacological importance. Subtle conformational changes in both the extracellular and transmembrane domains are likely to influence channel opening, but have been difficult to characterize given the limited structural data available for human membrane proteins. Recent crystal structures of a modified Caenorhabditis elegans glutamate-gated chloride channel (GluCl) in multiple states offer an appealing model system for structure-function studies. However, the pharmacology of the crystallographic GluCl construct is not well established. To establish the functional relevance of this system, we used two-electrode voltage-clamp electrophysiology in Xenopus oocytes to characterize activation of crystallographic and native-like GluCl constructs by L-glutamate and ivermectin. We also tested modulation by ethanol and other anesthetic agents, and used site-directed mutagenesis to explore the role of a region of Loop F which was implicated in ligand gating by molecular dynamics simulations. Our findings indicate that the crystallographic construct functionally models concentration-dependent agonism and allosteric modulation of pharmacologically relevant receptors. Specific substitutions at residue Leu174 in loop F altered direct L-glutamate activation, consistent with computational evidence for this region's role in ligand binding. These insights demonstrate conservation of activation and modulation properties in this receptor family, and establish a framework for GluCl as a model system, including new possibilities for drug discovery. In this study, we elucidate the validity of a modified glutamate

  13. Polymeric Nanoparticles of Brazilian Red Propolis Extract: Preparation, Characterization, Antioxidant and Leishmanicidal Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Nascimento, Ticiano Gomes; da Silva, Priscilla Fonseca; Azevedo, Lais Farias; da Rocha, Louisianny Guerra; de Moraes Porto, Isabel Cristina Celerino; Lima e Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly; Basílio-Júnior, Irinaldo Diniz; Grillo, Luciano Aparecido Meireles; Dornelas, Camila Braga; Fonseca, Eduardo Jorge da Silva; de Jesus Oliveira, Eduardo; Zhang, Alex Tong; Watson, David G.

    2016-06-01

    The ever-increasing demand for natural products and biotechnology derived from bees and ultra-modernization of various analytical devices has facilitated the rational and planned development of biotechnology products with a focus on human health to treat chronic and neglected diseases. The aim of the present study was to prepare and characterize polymeric nanoparticles loaded with Brazilian red propolis extract and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of "multiple-constituent extract in co-delivery system" for antileishmanial therapies. The polymeric nanoparticles loaded with red propolis extract were prepared with a combination of poly-ɛ-caprolactone and pluronic using nanoprecipitation method and characterized by different analytical techniques, antioxidant and leishmanicidal assay. The red propolis nanoparticles in aqueous medium presented particle size (200-280 nm) in nanometric scale and zeta analysis (-20 to -26 mV) revealed stability of the nanoparticles without aggregation phenomenon during 1 month. After freeze-drying method using cryoprotectant (sodium starch glycolate), it was possible to observe particles with smooth and spherical shape and apparent size of 200 to 400 nm. Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and thermal analysis revealed the encapsulation of the flavonoids from the red propolis extract into the polymeric matrix. Ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled with diode array detector (UPLC-DAD) identified the flavonoids liquiritigenin, pinobanksin, isoliquiritigenin, formononetin and biochanin A in ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) and nanoparticles of red propolis extract (NRPE). The efficiency of encapsulation was determinate, and median values (75.0 %) were calculated using UPLC-DAD. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl method showed antioxidant activity to EEP and red propolis nanoparticles. Compared to negative control, EEP and NRPE exhibited leishmanicidal activity with an IC50 value of ≅38.0

  14. Characterization of the yam tuber storage proteins from Dioscorea batatas exhibiting unique lectin activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaidamashvili, Mariam; Ohizumi, Yuki; Iijima, Shinichiro; Takayama, Tomo; Ogawa, Tomohisa; Muramoto, Koji

    2004-06-18

    Four major proteins designated DB1, DB2, DB3, and DB4 were isolated and characterized from the yam tuber Dioscorea batatas. The ratios of their yields were 20:50:20:10. DB1 was a mannose-binding lectin (20 kDa) consisting of 10-kDa subunits and was classified as the monocot mannose-binding lectin family. DB2, accounting for 50% of the total protein, was the storage protein, commonly called dioscorins consisting of a 31-kDa subunit. On the basis of amino acid sequence, DB2 was classified to be dioscorin A. DB3 was a maltose-binding lectin, having an apparent molecular mass of 120 kDa and composed of a 66-kDa subunit and two 31-kDa subunits (DB3S). The 66-kDa subunit was further composed of two 31-kDa subunits (DB3L) cross-linked by disulfide bonds. DB3L and DB3S (242 and 241 amino acid residues, respectively) were homologous with each other with 72% sequence identity. They showed a sequence homology to dioscorin B and dioscorin A from Dioscorea alata, with 90 and 93% identity, respectively, and to carbonic anhydrase from Arabidopsis thaliana with about 45% identity. DB3S had one intrachain disulfide bond located at Cys(28)-Cys(187), whereas DB3L had one interchain disulfide bond (Cys(40)-Cys(40)') in addition to the intrachain disulfide bond (Cys(28)-Cys(188)) to form a 66-kDa subunit. DB1 and DB3 agglutinated rabbit erythrocytes at 2.7 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. Despite the structural homology between DB2 and DB3, DB2 had no lectin activity. The 66-kDa subunit itself revealed the full hemagglutinating activity of DB3, indicating that DB3L but not DB3S was responsible for the activity. The hemagglutinating activity of DB3 required Ca(2+) ions and was exclusively inhibited by maltose and oligomaltoses (e.g. maltopentaose and maltohexaose) but not by d-glucose. DB3 could not be classified into any known plant lectin family. DB4 was a chitinase, homologous to an acidic chitinase from Dioscorea japonica. DB1, DB2, and DB3 did not show any activity of carbonic

  15. Characterization of volatile constituents from Origanum onites and their antifungal and antibacterial activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altintas, Ayhan; Tabanca, Nurhayat; Tyihák, Erno; Ott, Peter G; Móricz, Agnes M; Mincsovics, Emil; Wedge, David E

    2013-01-01

    Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation (HD) and microwave-assisted HD (MWHD) of Origanum onites aerial parts were analyzed by GC and GCIMS. Thirty-one constituents representing 98.6% of the water-distilled oil and 52 constituents representing 99.6% of the microwave-distilled oil were identified. Carvacrol (76.8% HD and 79.2% MWHD) and thymol (4.7% HD and 4.4% MWHD) were characterized as major constituents in both essential oils. Separation of carvacrol and thymol was achieved by overpressured layer chromatography. HPTLC and TLC separations were also compared. Essential oils were evaluated for antifungal activity against the strawberry anthracnose-causing fungal plant pathogens Colletotrichum acutatum, C. fragariae, and C. gloeosporioides using a direct overlay bioautography assay. Furthermore, main oil components carvacrol and thymol were then evaluated for antifungal activity; only carvacrol demonstrated nonselective antifungal activity against the three Colletotrichum species. Thymol and carvacrol were subsequently evaluated in a 96-well microdilution broth assay against Phomopsis obscurans, Fusarium oxysporum, three Colletotrichum species, and Botrytis cinerea. No activity was observed against any of the three Colletotrichum species at or below 30 pM. However, thymol demonstrated antifungal activity and produced 31.7% growth inhibition of P. obscurans at 120 h and 0.3 pM, whereas carvacrol appeared inactive. Thymol and carvacrol at 30 pM showed 51.5 and 36.9% growth inhibition of B. cinerea at 72 h. The mechanism of antibacterial activity was studied in a bioautography-based BioArena system. Thymol and carvacrol showed similar inhibition/killing effect against Bacillus subtilis soil bacteria; the action could be enhanced by the formaldehyde generator and transporter copper (II) ions and could be decreased in the presence of L-arginine, a formaldehyde capturer. Results indicated that Origanum essential oils and its major components thymol and carvacrol

  16. The characterization of the antibacterial efficacy of an electrically activated silver ion-based surface system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirwaiker, Rohan A.

    There have been growing concerns in the global healthcare system about the eradication of pathogens in hospitals and other health-critical environments. The problem has been aggravated by the overuse of antibiotics and antimicrobial agents leading to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant superbugs such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) which are difficult to kill. Lower immunity of sick patients coupled with the escalating concurrent problem of antibiotic-resistant pathogens has resulted in increasing incidences of hospital acquired (nosocomial) infections. There is an immediate need to control the transmission of such infections, primarily in healthcare environments, by creating touch-contact and work surfaces (e.g., door knobs, push plates, countertops) that utilize alternative antibacterial materials like the heavy metal, silver. Recent research has shown that it is silver in its ionic (Ag+ ) and not elemental form that is antibacterial. Thus, silver-based antibacterial surfaces have to release silver ions directly into the pathogenic environment (generally, an aqueous media) in order to be effective. This dissertation presents the study and analysis of a new silver-based surface system that utilizes low intensity direct electric current (LIDC) for generation of silver ions to primarily inhibit indirect contact transmission of infections. The broader objective of this research is to understand the design, and characterization of the electrically activated silver ion-based antibacterial surface system. The specific objectives of this dissertation include: (1) Developing a comprehensive system design, and identifying and studying its critical design parameters and functional mechanisms. (2) Evaluating effects of the critical design parameters on the antibacterial efficacy of the proposed surface system. (3) Developing a response surface model for the surface system performance. These objectives are

  17. Synthesis, Characterization and Biological Activities of Creatinine Amides and Creatinine Schiff Bases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Amara; Zahoor, Fareeha; Zaib, Sumera; Nawaz, Muhammad Azhar H; Saeed, Aamer; Waseem, Amir; Khan, Afsar; Hussain, Izhar; Iqbal, Jamshed

    2017-01-30

    In spite of substantial progress in scientific cognizance and medical technology, still infectious diseases are among the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. Creatinine and Schiff bases are well known for their diverse range of biological activities and thought to be emerging and useful therapeutic target for the treatment of several diseases. The present work was aimed to illustrate the influence of substitution of amides and Schiff bases on creatinine and their antimicrobial, antioxidant and anti-urease effectiveness was determined. Creatinine substituted amides (1-2) and creatinine Schiff bases (3-7) were synthesized and characterized by NMR and IR spectral data in combination with elemental analysis. All the compounds (1-7) were investigated on Jack bean urease for their urease inhibitory potential. Investigation of antimicrobial activity of the compounds was made by the agar dilution method. Moreover, 1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method was used to determine their antioxidant potential. Molecular docking studies were also carried out to elucidate their relationship with the binding pockets of the enzyme. The compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of urease. The synthesized derivatives exhibited significant inhibition against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, as compared to standard, ciprofloxacin. Creatinine based derivatives exhibited potential antifungal activity when tested on infectious and pathogenic fungal strains. Similarly, most of the compounds exhibited good antioxidant activity. These derivatives may serve as a source of potential antioxidants and also help to retard microbial growth in food industry. Similarly, the studies provide a basis for further research to develop more potent urease inhibitory compounds of medicinal /agricultural interest. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Characterization of beta-adrenergic receptors and adenylate cyclase activity in rat brown fat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baresi, L.A.; Morley, J.E.; Scarpace, P.J.

    1986-01-01

    Catecholamines stimulate thermogenesis in rat brown fat through a mechanism which involves binding to the beta-adrenergic receptor (BAR), stimulation of adenylate cyclase (AC) and culminating with uncoupling of mitochondrial respiration from ATP synthesis. The authors characterized BAR, AC and cytochrome (cyt) c oxidase in CDF (F-344) interscapular brown fat. Scatchard analysis of [ 125 ]Iodopindolol binding yields a straight line consistent with a single class of antagonist binding sites with 41.8 +/- 12.0 fmol BAR/mg protein and a K/sub d/ of 118 +/- 15 pM. Binding was both specific and stereospecific. Competition with 1-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 6.7 nM) was 15 times more potent than d-propranolol (K/sub d/ = 103 nM). Competition with isoproterenol (K/sub d/ = 79 nM) was 10 times more potent than epinephrine (K/sub d/ = 820 nM) which was 35 times more potent than norepinephrine (K/sub d/ = 2.9 x 10 -5 M) suggesting predominate beta 2 -type BAR. Cyt c oxidase activity was assessed in brown fat mitochrondrial preparations. The ratio of BAR to cyt c activity was 959 +/- 275 nmol BAR/mol cyc c/min. Isoproterenol (0.1 mM) stimulated AC activity was 24 times GTP (0.1 mM) stimulated AC (98.5 vs 40.7 pmol cAMP/min/mg). NaF-stimulated AC was nine times basal activity (90.5 vs 11.3 pmol cAMP/min/mg). These data demonstrate the presence of a beta- 2 -type BAR coupled to adenylate cyclase in rat brown fat

  19. Characterization of active faulting beneath the Strait of Georgia, British Columbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, J.F.; Rogers, Gary C.; Waldhauser, F.

    2000-01-01

    Southwestern British Columbia and northwestern Washington State are subject to megathrust earthquakes, deep intraslab events, and earthquakes in the continental crust. Of the three types of earthquakes, the most poorly understood are the crustal events. Despite a high level of seismicity, there is no obvious correlation between the historical crustal earthquakes and the mapped surface faults of the region. On 24 June 1997, a ML = 4.6 earthquake occurred 3-4 km beneath the Strait of Georgia, 30 km to the west of Vancouver, British Columbia. This well-recorded earthquake was preceded by 11 days by a felt foreshock (ML = 3.4) and was followed by numerous small aftershocks. This earthquake sequence occurred in one of the few regions of persistent shallow seismic activity in southwestern British Columbia, thus providing an ideal opportunity to attempt to characterize an active near-surface fault. We have computed focal mechanisms and utilized a waveform cross-correlation and joint hypocentral determination routine to obtain accurate relative hypocenters of the mainshock, foreshock, and 53 small aftershocks in an attempt to image the active fault and the extent of rupture associated with this earthquake sequence. Both P-nodal and CMT focal mechanisms show thrust faulting for the mainshock and the foreshock. The relocated hypocenters delineate a north-dipping plane at 2-4 km depth, dipping at 53??, in good agreement with the focal mechanism nodal plane dipping to the north at 47??. The rupture area is estimated to be a 1.3-km-diameter circular area, comparable to that estimated using a Brune rupture model with the estimated seismic moment of 3.17 ?? 1015 N m and the stress drop of 45 bars. The temporal sequence indicates a downdip migration of the seismicity along the fault plane. The results of this study provide the first unambiguous evidence for the orientation and sense of motion for active faulting in the Georgia Strait area of British Columbia.

  20. Tungsten-doped ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, and highly active photocatalyst toward dye photodegradation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah, E-mail: Fallah.m@guilan.ac.ir [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Guilan, P.O. Box 1914, Rasht (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    A series of W-doped ZnO nanocomposite with different W contents were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and BET surface area measurement. The XRD results revealed that all the W-doped samples showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDS and XPS revealed that W was doped into ZnO structure. The particle size of doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of undoped ZnO and W-doped ZnO was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO and the optimum percentage of doped W is 4 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO samples may be related to the narrowing of the band gap, increase in the charge separation efficiency, particle size reduction and increase of the surface area. Highlights: ► W-doped ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The XRD results revealed that all the materials consisting of wurtzite structure. ► The sizes of the W-ZnO nanocomposite are 5–10 nm, obtained from TEM image. ► With W doping into ZnO photoinduced charge separation rate has been enhanced. ► Photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO.

  1. Tungsten-doped ZnO nanocomposite: Synthesis, characterization, and highly active photocatalyst toward dye photodegradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moafi, Hadi Fallah; Zanjanchi, Mohammad Ali; Shojaie, Abdollah Fallah

    2013-01-01

    A series of W-doped ZnO nanocomposite with different W contents were synthesized by sol–gel method and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), inductively coupled plasma (ICP) and BET surface area measurement. The XRD results revealed that all the W-doped samples showed a hexagonal wurtzite structure. The results of EDS and XPS revealed that W was doped into ZnO structure. The particle size of doped ZnO is much smaller as compared to that of pure ZnO. The photocatalytic activity of undoped ZnO and W-doped ZnO was evaluated by the photodegradation of methylene blue in aqueous solution. The results show that the photocatalytic activity of the W-doped ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO and the optimum percentage of doped W is 4 mol%. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO samples may be related to the narrowing of the band gap, increase in the charge separation efficiency, particle size reduction and increase of the surface area. Highlights: ► W-doped ZnO nanocomposites were synthesized by a sol–gel method. ► The XRD results revealed that all the materials consisting of wurtzite structure. ► The sizes of the W-ZnO nanocomposite are 5–10 nm, obtained from TEM image. ► With W doping into ZnO photoinduced charge separation rate has been enhanced. ► Photocatalytic activity of the W-ZnO is much higher than that of undoped ZnO

  2. Preparation, characterization and activity evaluation of CaZrTi2O7 photocatalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shifu; Ji Mingsong; Yuang Yunguang; Liu Wei

    2012-01-01

    CaZrTi 2 O 7 photocatalyst sample was prepared by a polymerizable complex method. The photocatalyst was characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, photoluminescence emission spectroscopy, Brunauer–Emmett–Teller analysis, N 2 adsorption measurements, and terephthalic acid probed fluorescence technique. The photocatalytic activity of the sample was evaluated by photocatalytic oxidation of methyl orange and photocatalytic reduction of Cr 2 O 7 2− and nitrobenzene. The results showed that when the reaction solution was illuminated by UV light for 50 min, the photooxidation efficiency of methyl orange and the photoreduction efficiency of Cr 2 O 7 2− were 83.1% and 87.9%, respectively. When methanol was used as the holes scavengers and the illumination time was 10 h in the photocatalytic reduction experiment of nitrobenzene, the production efficiency of aniline was 70.3%. The effect of the heat treatment conditions on the photocatalytic activity was also investigated. The optimum preparation condition for CaZrTi 2 O 7 sample is 800 °C for 12 h. The mechanisms of influence on the photocatalytic activity of the sample were also discussed with the valance band theory. - Highlights: ► CaZrTi 2 O 7 photocatalyst was prepared by a polymerizable complex method. ► The heat treatment has a significant influence on the photocatalytic activity. ► The optimal heat treatment condition is approximately 800 °C for 12 h. ► The CaZrTi 2 O 7 has the band bap of about 2.89 eV with particle size of about 80 nm.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and photocatalytic activity of porous WO3/TiO2 hollow microspheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liuyang; Si, Zhichun; Weng, Duan; Yao, Youwei

    2014-01-01

    Porous WO 3 /TiO 2 hollow microspheres were prepared by a spray drying method for photodegradation of methylene blue and phenol. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope, High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscope, N 2 adsorption–desorption measurements, Raman spectrometer, UV–Vis Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy and Zeta-Meter measurements. The results showed that the tungsten oxides mainly existed in highly dispersed amorphous form on anatase when the loading amount of tungsten oxide was below 3 mol%. The improved photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation of the WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst mainly arises from the enhanced charge separation efficiency rather than the improved light absorbance by highly dispersed amorphous tungsten oxides. Highly dispersed amorphous WO x can form a shallowly trapped site due to its similar band structure with TiO 2 . The strongly electron-withdrawing of tungsten oxide in highly dispersed state facilitates the electron transition between titanium and WO x , and consequently improves the charge separation. The enhanced acidity of catalyst by WO x in reactant environment also improved the charge separation efficiency due to the timely transition of holes and electrons accumulated on TiO 2 and WO x , respectively. However, the improved photocatalytic activity under visible light irradiation of the WO 3 /TiO 2 catalyst mainly arises from light harvest. TiO 2 containing 3 mol% WO 3 displayed the highest photocatalytic activity under UV light irradiation while that containing 4 mol% WO 3 present highest activity under visible light irradiation

  4. Cell-Free and In Vivo Characterization of Lux, Las, and Rpa Quorum Activation Systems in E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halleran, Andrew D; Murray, Richard M

    2018-02-16

    Synthetic biologists have turned toward quorum systems as a path for building sophisticated microbial consortia that exhibit group decision making. Currently, however, even the most complex consortium circuits rely on only one or two quorum sensing systems, greatly restricting the available design space. High-throughput characterization of available quorum sensing systems is useful for finding compatible sets of systems that are suitable for a defined circuit architecture. Recently, cell-free systems have gained popularity as a test-bed for rapid prototyping of genetic circuitry. We take advantage of the transcription-translation cell-free system to characterize three commonly used Lux-type quorum activators, Lux, Las, and Rpa. We then compare the cell-free characterization to results obtained in vivo. We find significant genetic crosstalk in both the Las and Rpa systems and substantial signal crosstalk in Lux activation. We show that cell-free characterization predicts crosstalk observed in vivo.

  5. Characterization of three bioenergetically active respiratory terminal oxidases in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. strain PCC 6803.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pils, D; Schmetterer, G

    2001-09-25

    Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 contains three respiratory terminal oxidases (RTOs): cytochrome c oxidase (Cox), quinol oxidase (Cyd), and alternate RTO (ARTO). Mutants lacking combinations of the RTOs were used to characterize these key enzymes of respiration. Pentachlorophenol and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxy-quinoline-N-oxide inhibited Cyd completely, but had little effect on electron transport to the other RTOs. KCN inhibited all three RTOs but the in vivo K(I) for Cox and Cyd was quite different (7 vs. 27 microM), as was their affinity for oxygen (K(M) 1.0 vs. 0.35 microM). ARTO has a very low respiratory activity. However, when uptake of 3-O-methylglucose, an active H+ co-transport, was used to monitor energization of the cytoplasmic membrane, ARTO was similarly effective as the other RTOs. As removal of the gene for cytochrome c(553) had the same effects as removal of ARTO genes, we propose that the ARTO might be a second Cox. The possible functions, localization and regulation of the RTOs are discussed.

  6. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of symmetric dinuclear complexes derived from a novel macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mruthyunjayaswamy, B.H.M.; Ijare, Omkar B.; Jadegoud, Y. [Gulbarga University (India). Dept. of Chemistry]. E-mail: bhmmswamy53@rediffmail.com

    2005-07-15

    A phenol based novel macrocyclic binucleating compartmental ligand N,N-bis(2,6-diiminomethyl-4-methyl-1-hydroxyphenyl)malonoyldicarboxamide was prepared. The complexes were prepared by template method by reacting 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, malonoyl dihydrazide and the metal chlorides of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) in methanol to get a series of dinuclear complexes. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility data, IR, UV-Vis, ESR, NMR and FAB mass spectral data. The dinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and FAB mass spectral data. The ligand as well as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal properties against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes reveal that these complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling behavior due to the presence of two metal ions in close proximity. FAB mass spectrum of the Cu(II) complex gave a clear evidence for the dinuclear nature. The ligand and the complexes were found to be less active against the tested bacteria, but the ligand alone was found active against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (author)

  7. Fabrication, Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity, Evaluation of Low Silver Concentrations in Silver-Doped Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Costescu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was the evaluation of (Ca10-xAgx(PO46(OH2 nanoparticles (Ag:HAp-NPs for their antibacterial and antifungal activity. Resistance to antimicrobial agents by pathogenic bacteria has emerged in the recent years as a major public health problem worldwide. In this paper, we report a comparison of the antimicrobial activity of low concentrations silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanoparticles. The silver-doped nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite powder was synthesized at 100°C in deionised water. The as-prepared Ag:Hap nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM, FT-IR, and FT-Raman spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction (XRD studies demonstrate that powders obtained by coprecipitation at 100°C exhibit the apatite characteristics with good crystal structure, without any new phase or impurities found. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopy revealed the presence of the various vibrational modes corresponding to phosphates and hydroxyl groups and the absence of any band characteristic to silver. The specific microbiological assays demonstrated that Ag:HAp-NPs exhibited antimicrobial features, but interacted differently with the Gram-positive, Gram-negative bacterial and fungal tested strains.

  8. Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of infrared emissivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong; Zhou, Yuming; Ge, Jianhua; Yang, Xiaoming

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silane coupling agent of KH550 was used to connect the ITO and polyurethanes. ► Infrared emissivity values of the hybrids were compared and analyzed. ► Interfacial synergistic action and orderly secondary structure were the key factors. -- Abstract: Optically active polyurethane@indium tin oxide and racemic polyurethane@indium tin oxide nanocomposites (LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO) were prepared by grafting the organics onto the surfaces of modified ITO nanoparticles. LPU@ITO and RPU@ITO composites based on the chiral and racemic tyrosine were characterized by FT-IR, UV–vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), SEM, TEM, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and the infrared emissivity values (8–14 μm) were investigated in addition. The results indicated that the polyurethanes had been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of ITO without destroying the crystalline structure. Both composites possessed the lower infrared emissivity values than the bare ITO nanoparticles, which indicated that the interfacial interaction had great effect on the infrared emissivity. Furthermore, LPU@ITO based on the optically active polyurethane had the virtue of regular secondary structure and more interfacial synergistic actions between organics and inorganics, thus it exhibited lower infrared emissivity value than RPU@ITO based on the racemic polyurethane.

  9. Helical polyurethane-attapulgite nanocomposite: Preparation, characterization and study of optical activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiqiang; Zhou Yuming; Sun Yanqing; Fan Kai; Guo Xingxing; Jiang Xiaolei

    2009-01-01

    Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) composite was prepared after the surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). BM-ATT was characterized by Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HTEM) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) spectroscopy. FT-IR and XRD analyses indicate that the helical polyurethane has been successfully grafted onto the surfaces of the modified ATT without destroying the original crystalline structure of ATT. BM-ATT exhibits the rod-like structure by SEM, TEM, and HTEM photographs. BM-ATT displays obvious Cotton effect for some absorbance in VCD spectrum, and its optical activity results from the singlehanded conformation of helical polyurethane. - Graphical Abstract: Helical polyurethane-attapulgite (BM-ATT) based on R-1,1'-binaphthyl-2',2-diol (R-BINOL) nanocomposite was prepared after surface modification of attapulgite (ATT). This rod-like composite is coated by the optically active polyurethane shell on the surfaces.

  10. Isolation, Characterization, and Genetic Diversity of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on Various Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ELIZABETH WATURANGI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation active (INA bacteria is a group of bacteria with the ability to catalyze the ice formation at temperature above -10 °C and causing frost injury in plants. Since, most of the literature on INA bacteria were from subtropical area, studies of INA bacteria from tropical area are needed. We sampled eight fruits and 36 leaves of 21 plant species, and then identified through biochemical and genetic analysis. INA bacteria were characterized for INA protein classification, pH stability, and optimization of heat endurance. We discovered 15 INA bacteria from seven plants species. Most of bacteria are oxidase and H2S negative, catalase and citrate positive, gram negative, and cocoid formed. These INA bacteria were classified in to three classes based on their freezing temperature. Most of the isolates were active in heat and pH stability assay. Some isolates were analysed for 16S rRNA gene. We observed that isolates from Morinda citrifolia shared 97% similiarity with Pseudomonas sp. Isolate from Piper betle shared 93% similarity with P. pseudoalcaligenes. Isolate from Carica papaya shared 94% similarity with Pseudomonas sp. While isolate from Fragaria vesca shared 90% similarity with Sphingomonas sp.

  11. Isolation, Characterization, and Genetic Diversity of Ice Nucleation Active Bacteria on Various Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DIANA ELIZABETH WATURANGI

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Ice nucleation active (INA bacteria is a group of bacteria with the ability to catalyze the ice formation at temperature above -10 oC and causing frost injury in plants. Since, most of the literature on INA bacteria were from subtropical area, studies of INA bacteria from tropical area are needed. We sampled eight fruits and 36 leaves of 21 plant species, and then identified through biochemical and genetic analysis. INA bacteria were characterized for INA protein classification, pH stability, and optimization of heat endurance. We discovered 15 INA bacteria from seven plants species. Most of bacteria are oxidase and H2S negative, catalase and citrate positive, gram negative, and cocoid formed. These INA bacteria were classified in to three classes based on their freezing temperature. Most of the isolates were active in heat and pH stability assay. Some isolates were analysed for 16S rRNA gene. We observed that isolates from Morinda citrifolia shared 97% similiarity with Pseudomonas sp. Isolate from Piper betle shared 93% similarity with P. pseudoalcaligenes. Isolate from Carica papaya shared 94% similarity with Pseudomonas sp. While isolate from Fragaria vesca shared 90% similarity with Sphingomonas sp.

  12. Synthesis, Spectral Characterization and Antioxidant Activity of Tin(II-Morin Complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahabuddin Memon

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study focuses on the interaction between morin and Tin(II and the resulting complex was characterized through various analytical techniques by comparing it with morin. The complexation was confirmed at first by UV-Vis study, which shows that addition of Tin(II to morin may produce bathochromic shifts indicative of complex formation. IR spectral studies indicated that carbonyl has involved in coordination with Tin(II. Moreover, 1H-NMR studies validated that in conjunction with carbonyl, 3-OH of morin is more appropriate to be involved in complexation by replacement of its proton. Scavenging activities of morin and its Tin(II complex on DPPH• radical showed the inhibitory rates of 65% and 49%, respectively. In addition, the reducing capacity of morin was outstanding at 0.5 and 2.0 mg/ml concentrations relative to Tin(II complex. Overall, the study potentially shows the strong impact in order to design the anticancer drugs jointly from its cytotoxic potential and antioxidant activities, thereby selectively targeting the cancerous cells in result increasing their therapeutic index as well as extra advantages over other anticancer drugs.

  13. Synthesis, Characterization, Luminescence and Biological Activity of Two Lanthanide Complexes Involving Mixed Ligands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Deyun; Guo, Haifu; Qin, Liang [Zhaoqing Univ., Zhaoqing (China); Xu, Jun [Jinan Univ., Guangzhou (China)

    2013-09-15

    Two new isostructural dinuclear complexes, Ln{sub 2}(4-cpa){sub 6}(bpy){sub 2} (Ln = Eu (1); Tb (2), 4-cpa = 4-chlorophenyl-acetate, bpy = 2,2'-bipyridine), have been hydrothermally synthesized and characterized by IR spectroscopy, elemental analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), powder X-ray diffraction and single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The lanthanide ions are bridged by two bidentate and two terdentate carboxylate groups to give centrosymmetric dimers with Ln···Ln separations of 3.967(2) and 3.956(3) A, respectively. Each metal atom is nine-coordinate and exhibits a distorted tricapped trigonal prismatic geometry. Three-dimensional fluorescence spectra show that both 1 and 2 emit bright red and green luminescence at room temperature, with long lifetimes of up to 0.369 ms (at 614 nm) and 0.432 ms (at 543 nm), respectively. Moreover, poor luminescence efficiency has been noted for complex 2. The 4-Hcpa ligand and complexes 1-2 have been screened for their phytogrowth-inhibitory activities against Brassica napus L. and Echinochloa crusgalli L., and the results are compared with the activity of quizalofop-P-ethyl.

  14. Characterization of a Bacillus subtilis surfactin synthetase knockout and antimicrobial activity analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongxia; Qu, Xiaoxu; Gao, Ling; Zhao, Shengming; Lu, Zhaoxin; Zhang, Chong; Bie, Xiaomei

    2016-11-10

    Gene knockout is an important approach to improve the production of antimicrobial compounds. B. subtilis PB2-LS10, derived from B. subtilis PB2-L by a surfactin synthetase (srf) genes knockout, exhibits stronger inhibitory action than its parental strain against all tested pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The antimicrobial extracts produced by B. subtilis PB2-L and B. subtilis PB2-LS10 respectively were characterized by the high-resolution LC-ESI-MS. To provide further insight into the distinct antimicrobial activities, we investigated the impact of the srf genes deletion on the growth and gene transcriptional profile of the strains. The mutant strain grew quickly and reached stationary phase 2h earlier than the wild-type. Prominent expression changes in the modified strain involved genes that were essential to metabolic pathways and processes. Genes related to amino acid transport, ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters and protein export were up-regulated in strain PB2-LS10. However, amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism and fatty acid metabolism were repressed. Because of its excellent antimicrobial activity, strain PB2-LS10 has potential for use in food preservation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Synthesis, physico-chemical characterization and biological activity of 2-aminobenzimidazole complexes with different metal ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Podunavac-Kuzmanović Sanja O.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Complexes of 2-aminobenzimidazole (L with nitrates of cobalt(II nickel(II, copper (II, zinc(II and silver(I were synthesized. The molar ratio metal:ligand in the reaction of the complex formation was 1:2. It should be noticed, that the reaction of all the metal salts yielded bis(ligand complexes of the general formula M(L2(NO32 × nH2O (M=Co, Ni Cu, Zn or Ag; n=0, 1, 2 or 6. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis of the metal, molar conductivity, magnetic susceptibility measurements and IR spectra. Co(II, Ni(II and Cu(II complexes behave as non-electrolytes, whilst Zn(II and Ag(I are 1:1 electrolytes. Cu(II complex has a square-planar stereochemistry, Ag(I complex is linear, whilst the Co(II, Ni(II and Zn(II complexes have a tetrahedral configuration. In all the complexes ligand is coordinated by participation of the pyridine nitrogen of the benzimidazole ring. The antimicrobial activity of the ligand and its complexes against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus sp. Staphylococcus aureus and Saccharomyces cerevisiae was investigated. The effect of metal on the ligand antimicrobial activity is discussed.

  16. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody that specifically inhibits triosephosphate isomerase activity of Taenia solium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Víctor, Sanabria-Ayala; Yolanda, Medina-Flores; Araceli, Zavala-Carballo; Lucía, Jiménez; Abraham, Landa

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, we obtained and characterized partially a monoclonal antibody (4H11D10B11 mAb) against triosephosphate isomerase from Taenia solium (TTPI). This antibody recognized the enzyme by both ELISA and western blot and was able to inhibit its enzymatic activity in 74%. Moreover, the antigen-binding fragments (Fabs), products of digestion of the monoclonal antibody with papain, retained almost the same inhibitory effect. We determined the binding site by ELISA; synthetic peptides containing sequences from different non-conserved regions of the TTPI were confronted to the 4H11D10B11 mAb. The epitope recognized by the monoclonal antibody was located on peptide TTPI-56 (ATPAQAQEVHKVVRDWIRKHVDAGIADKARI), and an analysis of mimotopes, obtained with the 4H11D10B11 mAb, suggests that the epitope spans the sequence WIRKHVDAGIAD, residues 193-204 of the enzyme. This epitope is located within helix 6, next to loop 6, an essential active loop during catalysis. The antibody did not recognize triosephosphate isomerase from man and pig, definitive and intermediary hosts of T. solium, respectively. Furthermore, it did not bind to the catalytic site, since kinetic analysis demonstrated that inhibition had a non-competitive profile. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Characterization of key aroma-active compounds in lychee (Litchi chinensis Sonn.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; Huang, Mingyang; Crane, Jonathan Henry; Wang, Yu

    2018-04-01

    Volatile compounds in 'Sweetheart' lychee were examined using gas chromatography-olfactometry/mass spectrometry (GC-O/MS). Solvent assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) technique was used to identify the aroma-active compounds in lychee. Further characterization of the most important odorants in 'Sweetheart' lychee was achieved using aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Thirty-one key aroma-active odorants were identified in the flavor dilution (FD) factor range of 2-1024. Methional (cooked potato) and geraniol (sweet, floral) exhibited the highest FD factors of 1024 and 512, respectively, these were followed by furaneol (sweet, caramel), nerol (floral, sweet), dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS) (preserved vegetable, sulfury), linalool (floral), (E,Z)-2,6 nonadienal (cucumber) and nerolidol (metalic, sesame oil). Furthermore, the flavor profile of 'Sweetheart' lychee was described by sensory analysis. Floral, tropical fruit, peach/apricot and honey were scored with relatively high scores for each aroma attribute. The sweetness rating was the highest score among all the attributes. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Green Synthesis, Characterization, and Antibacterial Activity of Silver/Polystyrene Nanocomposite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manal A. Awad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel, nontoxic, simple, cost-effective and ecofriendly technique was used to synthesize green silver nanoparticles (AgNPs. The AgNPs were synthesized using orange peel extract as a reducing agent for silver nitrate salt (AgNO3. The particle size distribution of AgNPs was determined by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS. The average size of silver nanoparticles was 98.43 nm. The stable dispersion of silver nanoparticles was added slowly to polystyrene solution in toluene maintaining the temperature at 70°C. The AgNPs/polystyrene (PS nanocomposite solution was cast in a petri dish. The silver nanoparticles encapsulated within polymer chains were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM equipped with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS in addition to Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM. The green AgNPs/PS nanocomposite film exhibited antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Salmonella, and Gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Thus, the key findings of the work include the use of a safe and simple AgNPs/PS nanocomposite which had a marked antibacterial activity which has a potential application in food packaging.

  19. Characterization and re-activation of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurata, Yuji; Abe, Yuji; Futakawa, Masatoshi; Oigawa, Hiroyuki

    2010-01-01

    Control of oxygen concentration in liquid lead-bismuth is one of the most important tasks to develop accelerator driven systems. In order to improve the reliability of oxygen sensors, re-activation treatments were investigated as well as characterization of oxygen sensors for use in liquid lead-bismuth. The oxygen sensor with a solid electrolyte of yttria-stabilized zirconia and a Pt/gas reference electrode showed almost the same electromotive force values in gas and liquid lead-bismuth, respectively, as the theoretical ones at temperatures above 400 deg. C or 450 deg. C. After long-term use of 6500 h, the outputs of the sensor became incorrect in liquid lead-bismuth. The state of the sensor that indicated incorrect outputs could not be recovered by cleaning with a nitric acid. However, it was found that the oxygen sensor became a correct sensor indicating theoretical values in liquid lead-bismuth after re-activation by the Pt-treatment of the outer surface of the sensor.

  20. Production and characterization of surface-active compounds from Gordonia amicalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ani Beatriz Jackisch-Matsuura

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Two methods were used to make crude preparations of surface-active compounds (SACs produced by Gordonia amicalis grown on the medium containing 1% diesel oil. Using a 2:1 (v/v solution of chloroform:methanol for extraction, Type I SACs were isolated and shown to produce oil in water (O/W emulsions. Type II SACs were isolated by precipitation with ammonium sulfate and produced predominantly water in oil emulsions (W/O. The crude Type I and II preparations were able to produce a significant reduction in the surface tension of water; however, the crude Type II preparation had 10-25 fold higher emulsification activity than the Type I preparation. Both SAC preparations were analyzed by the TLC and each produced two distinct bands with Rf 0.44 and 0.62 and Rf 0.52 and 0.62, respectively. The partially purified SACs were characterized by the ESI(+-MS, FT-IR and NMR. In each one of these fractions, a mixture of 10 oligomers was found consisting of a series of compounds, with masses from 502 to 899, differing in molecular mass by a repeating unit of 44 Daltons. The mass spectra of these compounds did not appear to match other known biosurfactants and could represent a novel class of these compounds.

  1. Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new palladium(II) complex with deoxyalliin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corbi, P.P.; Massabni, A.C. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept., Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil)]. E-mail: pedrocorbi@yahoo.com; Moreira, A.G. [Inst. de Quimica - UNESP, Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inoganica, Araraquara (Brazil); Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil); Medrano, F.J. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron - LNLS, Campinas (Brazil); Jasiulionis, M.G. [Escola Paulista de Medicina - UNIFESP, Dept. de Micro-Imuno-Parasitologia, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Costa-Neto, C.M. [Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirao Preto - USP, Dept. de Bioquimica e Imunologia, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2005-02-15

    Synthesis, characterization, and biological activity of a new water-soluble Pd(II)-deoxyalliin (S-allyl-L-cysteine) complex are described in this article. Elemental and thermal analysis for the complex are consistent with the formula [Pd(C{sub 6}H{sub 10}NO{sub 2}S){sub 2}]. {sup 13}C NMR, {sup 1}H NMR, and IR spectroscopy show coordination of the ligand to Pd(II) through S and N atoms in a square planar geometry. Final residue of the thermal treatment was identified as a mixture of PdO and metallic Pd. Antiproliferative assays using aqueous solutions of the complex against HeLa and TM5 tumor cells showed a pronounced activity of the complex even at low concentrations. After incubation for 24 h, the complex induced cytotoxic effect over HeLa cells when used at concentrations higher than 0.40 mmol/L. At lower concentrations, the complex was nontoxic, indicating its action is probably due to cell cycle arrest, rather than cell death. In agreement with these results, the flow cytometric analysis indicated that after incubation for 24 h at low concentrations of the complex cells are arrested in G0/G1. (author)

  2. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Qingxia; Xie, Yufeng; Wang, Wei; Yan, Yuhua; Ye, Hong; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong

    2015-09-05

    Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from mulberry leaves (MLP) were investigated in the present study. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 10.0 ± 0.5% for MLP were determined as follows: extraction temperature 92 °C, extraction time 3.5h and ratio (v/w, mL/g) of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 34. Two purified fractions, MLP-3a and MLP-3b with molecular weights of 80.99 and 3.64 kDa, respectively, were obtained from crude MLP by chromatography of DEAE-Cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100. Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy revealed that crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b were acidic polysaccharides. Furthermore, crude MLP and MLP-3a had more complicated monosaccharide compositions, while MLP-3b had a relatively higher content of uronic acid. Crude MLP, MLP-3a and MLP-3b exhibited potent Fe(2+) chelating power and scavenging activities on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, superoxide and 2,2'-azinobis-(3-ethyl-benzothiazolin-6-sulfonic acid) radicals. The results suggested that MLP could be explored as natural antioxidant. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of visible-active molybdenum disulfide (2H-MoS2) nanospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheah, A. J.; Chiu, W. S.; Khiew, P. S.; Radiman, S.; Hamid, M. A. A.

    2015-01-01

    In current study, a novel 2H-MoS 2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized and underwent structural- as well as optical-property characterizations. The MoS 2 were prepared by one pot hydrothermal approach through adopting L-cysteine as environmentally-benignchalcogenide precursor. TEM image shows that the as-synthesized MoS 2 appear to be spherical in shape with size distribution in the range of 120 nm – 180 nm. HRTEM lattice-fringes imaging further elucidate that the interlayer spacing at the edges is equal to be 0.62 nm that correspond to (002) plane stacking. Also, the HRTEM image clearly-illustrate that the internal microstructure of MoS 2 composed of randomly-arrayed alternating layers, which render the postulation that the formation of nanosphere is driven by self-assembly of individual layers into globular morphology. XRD diffractogram that appear to be broad and unresolved reveal the partially crystalline nature of the sample. Optical-absorption spectra depicts the sample is visible active with featureless absorption, which can attribute to indirect transition of the excitions generated. By using Tauc plot, the bandgap energy is determined to be 1.75 eV, which reflect the nanospheres are indeed visible-active nanostructures

  4. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefano, Bonacci; Ilaria, Corsi; Silvano, Focardi

    2008-01-01

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution

  5. Cholinesterase activities in the scallop Pecten jacobaeus: Characterization and effects of exposure to aquatic contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefano, Bonacci [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: bonacci@unisi.it; Ilaria, Corsi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: corsii@unisi.it; Silvano, Focardi [Department of Environmental Sciences ' G. Sarfatti' , University of Siena, Via P.A. Mattioli 4, I-53100 Siena (Italy)], E-mail: focardi@unisi.it

    2008-03-15

    Nearshore marine environments of industrialized countries are increasingly threatened by anthropogenic pollution. It is therefore a priority task to investigate the sensitivity of new ecotoxicological warning signals of the occurrence and effects of aquatic pollutants. The main aims of the present study were: 1) to characterize the biochemical properties of ChEs in tissues of the bivalve Pecten jacobaeus, using different specific substrates and selective inhibitors; 2) to measure sensitivity of ChE activities to in vitro exposure to the OPs azamethiphos and DFP and to the heavy metals cadmium and zinc. Our final aim was to carry out a preliminary evaluation of the suitability of ChEs measurement in tissues of the scallop for monitoring marine environmental quality and neurotoxic compounds contamination in the Mediterranean Sea. Responses to specific inhibitors have suggested that ChEs in adductor muscle share many characteristics with vertebrate acetylcholinesterase. Dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was observed in response to in vitro exposure to environmental contaminants such as cadmium and azamethiphos. Sensitivity to zinc and DFP was lower. ChEs in P. jacobaeus might therefore have potential as a sensitive biomarker for monitoring marine pollution. Results of the present study will be useful to focus further experiment of exposure to pollutants under in vivo conditions. Capsule: Cholinesterase activities in scallop Pecten jacobaeus were observed to be sensitive to contaminants in vitro and may therefore have potential as biomarkers for monitoring water pollution.

  6. Optimization of extraction, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharides from Brassica rapa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xiaoqing; Ye, Hong; Hu, Bing; Zhou, Li; Jabbar, Saqib; Zeng, Xiaoxiong; Shen, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The root of Brassica rapa L. has been traditionally used as a Uyghur folk medicine to cure cough and asthma by Uyghur nationality in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. In the present study, therefore, extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of polysaccharides from the root of B. rapa L. (BRP) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions with an extraction yield of 21.48 ± 0.41% for crude BRP were obtained as follows: extraction temperature 93°C, extraction time 4.3h and ratio of extraction solvent (water) to raw material 75 mL/g. The crude BRP was purified by chromatographic columns of DEAE-52 cellulose and Sephadex G-100, affording three purified fractions of BRP-1-1, BRP-2-1 and BRP-2-2 with average molecular weight of 1510, 1110 and 838 kDa, respectively. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that BRP-1-1 was composed of mannose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose, BRP-2-1 was composed of rhamnose, galacturonic acid, galactose and arabinose, and BRP-2-2 was composed of rhamnose and galacturonic acid in a molar ratio of 1.27: 54.92. Furthermore, the crude BRP exhibited relatively higher antioxidant activity in vitro than purified fractions; hence, it could be used as a natural antioxidant in functional foods or medicines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extraction optimization, characterization and antioxidant activity of polysaccharide from Gentiana scabra bge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Zhenyu; Zhang, Yuewei; Song, Haiyan; Zhou, Hongli; Zhong, Fangli; Hu, Haobin; Feng, Yu

    2016-12-01

    In this study, optimization of smashing tissue extraction (STE), preliminary chemical characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from Gentiana scabra bge (G. scabra) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: sample particle size of 80mesh, solid/liquid ratio of 1:34, extraction voltage of 157.09V and extraction time of 130.38s. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS had reached 15.03±0.14% (n=3). Chemical composition analysis indicated CPS was mainly composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glcose, galactose, arabinose and fucose in a molar ratio of 1.00:9.89:51.59:35.37:38.06:99.13:21.34, respectively. The average molecular weight of CPS was estimated to be 3.8×10 4 Da. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of CPS extracted by STE were demonstrated by DPPH radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Overall, this study provided an effective extraction technique for G. scabra polysaccharides which would be explored as a promising natural antioxidant agent applied in functional foods or medicines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Chemical characterization and insecticidal activity of Calotropis gigantea L. flower extract against Tribolium castaneum (Herbst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rowshanul Habib

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To test the insecticidal activity of ethyl acetate extract of Calotropis gigantea L. flower (designated as EECF against stored grain pest Tribolium castaneum (Herbst of different larval and adult stages. Methods: Residual film method was used here to study the toxicity of EECF against Tribolium castaneum and gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was also performed to characterize the chemicals of EECF. Results: In residual film bioassay, EECF showed lowest LD50 (0.134 mg/cm2 against 1st instar larvae of Tribolium castaneum and this finding ultimately revealed that the insect of initial stage was more susceptible than other stages. From the results of this study, it was found that with the increasing of age, Tribolium castaneum showed some extent of resistance against the toxicity of EECF. Moreover, chemical profiles of EECF identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis were also found to consistent with its insecticidal activity. Conclusions: So, the overall results suggested that extracts of Calotropis gigantea L. flower have potential insecticidal effect which might be used in pest control.

  9. Synthesis, structure characterization, and anticancer activity of a novel oxygen-bridged tricyclic Biginelli adduct

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M.; El-Sheshtawy, Hamdy S.; El-Kemary, Maged; Al-Juaid, Salih; Youssef, Mohamed; El-Azab, Islam H.

    2017-06-01

    Herein, we report the one-pot cyclization of Biginelli Adduct, ethyl 4-(2-hydroxyphenyl)-6-methyl-2-thioxo-1,2,3,4-tetrahydropyrimidine-5-carboxylate (I) to the oxygen-bridged adduct, ethyl 2-methyl-4-thioxo-3,4,5,6-tetrahydro-2H-2,6-methanobenzo[g] [1,3,5]oxadiazocine-11-carboxylate (II) in a high yield and purity under mild reaction condition using zinc(II) perchlorate hexahydrate as a highly efficient catalyst. The cyclic product (II) was characterized both in the solid state and in solution using FT-IR, 1H NMR, and UV-visible spectroscopy. Theoretical calculations using density functional theory with B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level were used to further investigate the structure properties. DFT calculations (gas phase) revealed the stability of cyclic compound II (3.45 kcal/mol) than compound I. In addition, the anticancer activity of II was investigated using MCF-7 human breast cell line. The results revealed a moderate activity with 223.55 μg/ml IC50 value.

  10. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of C6-Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruibo; Aotegen, Bayaer; Zhong, Zhimei

    2017-12-01

    C 6 -Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan were synthesized for the first time. C 2 -amino groups and C 3 -hydroxy groups were firstly protected by CuSO 4 ·5H 2 O, and the C 6 -hydroxy was then transformed into aldehyde, which then reacted with anilines through nucleophilic addition to introduce the CN group at C 6 -position in chitosan chain. Finally, C 6 -Schiff bases derivatives of chitosan were got by the deprotection of C 2 -NH 2 with cation exchange resin. The structures and properties of the new synthesized products were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 13 C NMR, SEM image, and elemental analysis. The antibacterial activities of derivatives were tested in the experiment, and the results showed that the prepared chitosan derivatives had significantly improved antibacterial activity toward Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The Cytotoxicity test showed that the prepared chitosan derivatives had low Cytotoxicity, compared with chitosan and C 2 -benzaldehyde Schiff bases of chitosan. This paper allowed a new method for the synthesis of Schiff bases of chitosan, which was enlightening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Preparation, characterization and in vitro antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Ieda Maria Sapateiro; Bento, Etiene Barbosa; Almeida, Larissa da Cunha; de Sá, Luisa Zaiden Carvalho Martins; Lima, Eliana Martins

    2012-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic microorganism with the ability to respond to a wide variety of environmental changes, exhibiting a high intrinsic resistance to a number of antimicrobial agents. This low susceptibility to antimicrobial substances is primarily due to the low permeability of its outer membrane, efflux mechanisms and the synthesis of enzymes that promote the degradation of these drugs. Cephalosporins, particularty ceftazidime and cefepime are effective against P. aeruginosa, however, its increasing resistance has limited the usage of these antibiotics. Encapsulating antimicrobial drugs into unilamellar liposomes is an approach that has been investigated in order to overcome microorganism resistance. In this study, antimicrobial activity of liposomal ceftazidime and cefepime against P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and P. aeruginosa SPM-1 was compared to that of the free drugs. Liposomal characterization included diameter, encapsulation efficiency and stability. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) was determined for free and liposomal forms of both drugs. Minimum Bactericidal Concentration (MBC) was determined at concentrations 1, 2 and 4 times MIC. Average diameter of liposomes was 131.88 nm and encapsulation efficiency for cefepime and ceftazidime were 2.29% end 5.77%, respectively. Improved stability was obtained when liposome formulations were prepared with a 50% molar ratio for cholesterol in relation to the phospholipid. MIC for liposomal antibiotics for both drugs were 50% lower than that of the free drug, demonstrating that liposomal drug delivery systems may contribute to increase the antibacterial activity of these drugs. PMID:24031917

  12. Synthesis, characterization and biological activity of symmetric dinuclear complexes derived from a novel macrocyclic compartmental ligand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mruthyunjayaswamy, B.H.M.; Ijare, Omkar B.; Jadegoud, Y.

    2005-01-01

    A phenol based novel macrocyclic binucleating compartmental ligand N,N-bis(2,6-diiminomethyl-4-methyl-1-hydroxyphenyl)malonoyldicarboxamide was prepared. The complexes were prepared by template method by reacting 2,6-diformyl-4-methylphenol, malonoyl dihydrazide and the metal chlorides of Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II), Cd(II), Zn(II) and Hg(II) in methanol to get a series of dinuclear complexes. The complexes were characterized by elemental analyses, conductivity measurements, magnetic susceptibility data, IR, UV-Vis, ESR, NMR and FAB mass spectral data. The dinuclear nature of the complexes was confirmed on the basis of elemental analyses, magnetic susceptibility, ESR and FAB mass spectral data. The ligand as well as Cu(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) complexes were tested for their antibacterial and antifungal properties against Escherichia coli, Staphyloccocus aureus, Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum. Magnetic susceptibility measurements of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) complexes reveal that these complexes exhibit antiferromagnetic coupling behavior due to the presence of two metal ions in close proximity. FAB mass spectrum of the Cu(II) complex gave a clear evidence for the dinuclear nature. The ligand and the complexes were found to be less active against the tested bacteria, but the ligand alone was found active against the fungus Fusarium oxysporum. (author)

  13. Synthesis, characterization and biocidal activities of heterobimetallic complexes having tin(IV) as a padlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husain, Ahmad; Nami, Shahab A. A.; Siddiqi, K. S.

    2010-04-01

    A mononuclear precursor complex, [(CH 3) 2Sn(tpdtc)] and several of its heterobimetallic derivatives of the type, [(CH 3) 2Sn(tpdtc)]MCl 2 have been synthesized by the simple addition reaction of transition metal chlorides, MCl 2· nH 2O where tpdtc = tetraethylenepentamine bis(dithiocarbamate) anion, M = Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). The synthesized complexes have been systematically characterized by the physicochemical and spectroscopic techniques. A square-pyramidal geometry has been proposed for all the transition metal atoms with chloride ions occupying the axial while the three nitrogen atoms occupying the equatorial positions. A symmetrical bidentate coordination has been observed for the dithiocarbamato moiety leading to the formation of 18 member cavity. The thermal studies reveal that the mononuclear complex decomposes in three stages while its heterobimetallic analog exhibits a simple two-stage profile. The conductivity measurement data (1 mmol solution) implies a non-electrolytic behavior for all the complexes as evident by their low conductivity values obtained at room temperature. The heterobimetallic complexes have also been tested against the bacterial ( Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa) and antifungal strains ( Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum). All the complexes were found to be active against the test organisms and maximum activity was found for [(CH 3) 2Sn(tpdtc)]CuCl 2 complex.

  14. Characterization of biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus spp. and their activity against oral streptococci biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciandrini, Eleonora; Campana, Raffaella; Casettari, Luca; Perinelli, Diego R; Fagioli, Laura; Manti, Anita; Palmieri, Giovanni Filippo; Papa, Stefano; Baffone, Wally

    2016-08-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can interfere with pathogens through different mechanisms; one is the production of biosurfactants, a group of surface-active molecules, which inhibit the growth of potential pathogens. In the present study, biosurfactants produced by Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Lactobacillus rhamnosus ATCC 53103, and Lactobacillus paracasei B21060 were dialyzed (1 and 6 kDa) and characterized in term of reduction of surface tension and emulsifying activity. Then, aliquots of the different dialyzed biosurfactants were added to Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175 and Streptococcus oralis ATCC 9811 in the culture medium during the formation of biofilm on titanium surface and the efficacy was determined by agar plate count, biomass analyses, and flow cytometry. Dialyzed biosurfactants showed abilities to reduce surface tension and to emulsifying paraffin oil. Moreover, they significantly inhibited the adhesion and biofilm formation on titanium surface of S. mutans and S. oralis in a dose-dependent way, as demonstrated by the remarkable decrease of cfu/ml values and biomass production. The antimicrobial properties observed for dialyzed biosurfactants produced by the tested lactobacilli opens future prospects for their use against microorganisms responsible of oral diseases.

  15. Synthesis, Characterization, and Thermal and Antimicrobial Activities of Some Novel Organotin(IV: Purine Base Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reena Jain

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A new series of organotin(IV complexes with purine bases theophylline (HL1 and theobromine (L2 of the types R3Sn(L1, R2Sn(L1Cl, R3Sn(L2Cl, and R2Sn(L2Cl2 (R = C6H5CH2–; p-ClC6H4CH2– have been synthesized in anhydrous THF. The complexes were characterized by elemental analysis, conductance measurements, molecular weight determinations, UV-vis, IR, 1H, 13C NMR, and mass spectral studies. Various kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of these complexes have also been determined using TG/DTA technique. The thermal decomposition techniques indicate the formation of SnO2 as a residue. The results show that the ligands act as bidentate, forming a five-member chelate ring. All the complexes are 1 : 1 metal-ligand complexes. In order to assess their antimicrobial activity, the ligands and their corresponding complexes have also been tested in vitro against bacteria (E. coli, S. aureus, and P. pyocyanea and fungi (Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus flavus. All the complexes exhibit remarkable activity, and the results provide evidence that the studied complexes might indeed be a potential source of antimicrobial agents.

  16. Opuntia ficus indica peel derived pectin mediated hydroxyapatite nanoparticles: synthesis, spectral characterization, biological and antimicrobial activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopi, D; Kanimozhi, K; Kavitha, L

    2015-04-15

    In the present study, we have adapted a facile and efficient green route for the synthesis of HAP nanoparticles using pectin as a template which was extracted from the peel of prickly pear (Opuntia ficus indica) fruits. The concentration of pectin plays a major role in the behavior of crystallinity, purity, morphology as well as biological property of the as-synthesized HAP nanoparticles. The extracted pectin and the as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by various analytical techniques. The in vitro apatite formation on the surface of the as-synthesized nanoparticles in simulated body fluid (SBF) for various days showed an enhanced bioactivity. Also, the antimicrobial activity was investigated using various microorganisms. All the results revealed the formation of pure, low crystalline and discrete granular like HAP nanoparticles of size around 25 nm with enhanced biological and antimicrobial activities. Hence the as-synthesized nanoparticles can act as a better bone regenerating material in the field of biomedicine. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phase Change Activation and Characterization of Spray-Deposited Poly(vinylidene) Fluoride Piezoelectric Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosbaas, Miranda Tiffany

    Structural safety and integrity continues to be an issue of utmost concern in our world today. Existing infrastructures in civil, commercial, and military applications are beginning to see issues associated with age and environmental conditions. In addition, new materials are being put to service that are not yet fully characterized and understood when it comes to long term behavior. In order to assess the structural health of both old and new materials, it is necessary to implement a technique for monitoring wear and tear. Current methods that are being used today typically depend on visual inspection techniques or handheld instruments. These methods are not always ideal for large structures as they become very tedious leading to a substantial amount of both time and money spent. More recently, composite materials have been introduced into applications that can benefit from high strength-to-weight ratio materials. However, the use of more complex materials (such as composites) leads to a high demand of structural health monitoring techniques, since the damage is often internal and not visible to the naked eye. The work performed in this thesis examines the methods that can be used for phase change activation and characterization of sprayable poly(vinylidene) fluoride (PVDF) thin films in order to exploit their piezoelectric characteristics for sensing applications. PVDF is widely accepted to exist in four phases: alpha, beta, gamma, and delta. Alpha phase PVDF is produced directly from the melt and exhibits no piezoelectric properties. The activation or transition from α phase to some combination of beta and/or gamma phase PVDF leads to a polarizable piezoelectric thin film to be used in sensing applications. The work herein presents the methods used to activate phase change in PVDF, such as mechanical stretching, annealing, and chemical composition, to be able to implement PVDF as an impact detection sensor. The results and analysis provided in this thesis will

  18. Active and passive infrared thermography applied to the detection and characterization of hidden defects in structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumoulin, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Infrared thermography for Non Destructive Testing (NDT) has encountered a wide spreading this last 2 decades, in particular thanks to emergence on the market of low cost uncooled infrared camera. So, infrared thermography is not anymore a measurement technique limited to laboratory application. It has been more and more involved in civil engineering and cultural heritage applications, but also in many other domains, as indicated by numerous papers in the literature. Nevertheless, laboratory, measurements are done as much as possible in quite ideal conditions (good atmosphere conditions, known properties of materials, etc.), while measurement on real site requires to consider the influence of not controlled environmental parameters and additional unknown thermal properties. So, dedicated protocol and additional sensors are required for measurement data correction. Furthermore, thermal excitation is required to enhance the signature of defects in materials. Post-processing of data requires to take into account the protocol used for the thermal excitation and sometimes its nature to avoid false detection. This analysis step is based on signal and image processing tool and allows to carry out the detection. Characterization of anomalies detected at the previous step can be done by additional signal processing in particular for manufactured objects. The use of thermal modelling and inverse method allows to determine properties of the defective area. The present paper will first address a review of some protocols currently in use for field measurement with passive and/or active infrared measurements. Illustrations in various experiments carried out on civil engineering structure will be shown and discussed. In a second part, different post-processing approaches will be presented and discussed. In particular, a review of the most standard processing methods like Fast Fourier Analysis, Principal Components Analysis, Polynomial Decomposition, defect characterization using

  19. Characterization of structure and activity of garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ichi, Sarra; Miodek, Anna; Sauriat-Dorizon, Hélène; Mahy, Jean-Pierre; Henry, Céline; Marzouki, Mohamed Nejib; Korri-Youssoufi, Hafsa

    2011-01-01

    Structural characterization and study of the activity of new POX(1B) protein from garlic which has a high peroxidase activity and can be used as a biosensor for the detection of hydrogen peroxide and phenolic compounds were performed and compared with the findings for other heme peroxidases. The structure-function relationship was investigated by analysis of the spectroscopic properties and correlated to the structure determined by a new generation of high-performance hybrid mass spectrometers. The reactivity of the enzyme was analyzed by studies of the redox activity toward various ligands and the reactivity with various substrates. We demonstrated that, in the case of garlic peroxidase, the heme group is pentacoordinated, and has an histidine as a proximal ligand. POX(1B) exhibited a high affinity for hydrogen peroxide as well as various reducing cosubstrates. In addition, high enzyme specificity was demonstrated. The k(cat) and K(M) values were 411 and 400 mM(-1) s(-1) for 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine and 2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), respectively. Furthermore, the reduction of nitro compounds in the presence of POX(1B) was demonstrated by iron(II) nitrosoalkane complex assay. In addition, POX(1B) showed a great potential for application for drug metabolism since its ability to react with 1-nitrohexane in the presence of sodium dithionite was demonstrated by the appearance of a characteristic Soret band at 411 nm. The high catalytic efficiency obtained in the case of the new garlic peroxidase (POX(1B)) is suitable for the monitoring of different analytes and biocatalysis.

  20. Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY: Preparation, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanim, Siti Aishah Mohd; Malek, Nik Ahmad Nizam Nik, E-mail: niknizam@fbb.utm.my; Ibrahim, Zaharah

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Functionalization of Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane APTES (ZSA) as antibacterial agent. • Antibacterial assay of ZSA was performed against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538. • Functionalization of Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY with APTES significantly increased the antibacterial agent. • Different mechanisms of bacterial death were suggested for each bacteria type by the functionalized Ag-exchanged zeolite NaY. - Abstract: Amine-functionalized, silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZSA) were prepared with three different concentrations of 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) (0.01, 0.20 and 0.40 M) and four different concentrations of silver ions (25%, 50%, 100% and 200% from zeolite cation exchange capacity (CEC)). The samples were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX), surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and zeta potential (ZP) analysis. The FTIR results indicated that the zeolite was functionalized by APTES and that the intensity of the peaks corresponding to APTES increased as the concentration of APTES used was increased. The antibacterial activities of the silver-exchanged zeolite NaY (ZS) and ZSA were studied against Escherichia coli ATCC11229 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC6538 using the disc diffusion technique (DDT) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The antibacterial activity of ZSA increased with the increase in APTES on ZS, and E. coli was more susceptible towards the sample compared to S. aureus. The FESEM micrographs of the bacteria after contact with the ZSA suggested different mechanisms of bacterial death for these two bacteria due to exposure to the studied sample. The functionalization of ZS with APTES improved the antibacterial activity of the silver-zeolite, depending on the concentration of silver