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Sample records for cerastoderma edule east

  1. Erodibility of a mixed mudflat dominated by microphytobenthos and Cerastoderma edule, East Frisian Wadden Sea, Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thorbjørn Joest; Lanuru, Mahatma; van Bernem, Carlo;

    2010-01-01

    erodibility and the temporal variation. The study site was a mixed mudflat situated in the mesotidal Baltrum-Langeoog tidal basin at the East Frisian barrier coast. The mud content at the site was about 35% and the filter-feeding cockle Cerastoderma edule was the dominating macrozoobenthic species (by biomass...

  2. Factors involved in the (near) anoxic survival time of Cerastoderma edule: associated bacteria vs. endogenous fuel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Babarro, J.M.F.; De Zwaan, A.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of several antibiotics, molybdate and hydrogen sulfide was tested on anoxic tolerance of the cockle Cerastoderma edule, as well as utilisation of glycogen. The aim was to evaluate the role of fuel depletion and growth of bacteria as a cause of mortality. The exponential increase of sulfid

  3. Biogeographic patterns of the marine bivalve Cerastoderma edule along the European coasts

    OpenAIRE

    Krakau, Manuela

    2008-01-01

    The cockle Cerastoderma edule is a common bivalve that inhabits the marine soft-bottom intertidal along European shores. This invertebrate plays a key role in coastal food webs of the Northeast Atlantic coasts due of its high abundances. I studied cockles from 19 sites along the distribution range with the aim to describe the variation of geographic population structures on different analytical levels. Cockles from the Barents Sea to the African Atlantic coast were analysed with respect to th...

  4. Genetic diversity and population differentiation in the cockle Cerastoderma edule estimated by microsatellite markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, L.; Méndez, J.; Insua, A.; Arias-Pérez, A.; Freire, R.

    2013-03-01

    The edible cockle Cerastoderma edule is a marine bivalve commercially fished in several European countries that have lately suffered a significant decrease in production. Despite its commercial importance, genetic studies in this species are scarce. In this work, genetic diversity and population differentiation of C. edule has been assessed using 11 microsatellite markers in eight locations from the European Atlantic coast. All localities showed similar observed and expected heterozygosity values, but displayed differences in allelic richness, with lowest values obtained for localities situated farther north. Global Fst value revealed the existence of significant genetic structure; all but one locality from the Iberian Peninsula were genetically homogeneous, while more remote localities from France, The Netherlands, and Scotland were significantly different from all other localities. A combined effect of isolation by distance and the existence of barriers that limit gene flow may explain the differentiation observed.

  5. The effect of macrofaunal disturbance on Cerastoderma edule post-larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitton, Timothy Andrew; Jenkins, Stuart Rees; Richardson, Christopher Allan; Hiddink, Jan Geert

    2016-06-01

    Populations of the Common European cockle (Cerastoderma edule) often have highly patchy distributions and variable recruitment success. One of the proposed reasons is that high densities of filter feeders and/or bioturbators are thought to reduce the success of larval settlement and post-settlement survival, but the direct causal processes driving these observations are not clearly identified and validated. Through combined field and laboratory experiments, we test the hypothesis that macrofauna cause decreases in post-larval density through feeding and movement activities. The effect of excluding the bioturbating lugworm Arenicola marina and filter-feeding adult cockles on post-larval cockle densities was estimated in separate field experiments at two locations from the time of initial larval settlement in May 2012 to late summer August 2012. Lugworm exclusion led to a significant increase in cockle post-larval densities whereas the opposite was true for adult cockles, where exclusion led to a reduction in C. edule post-larval density. Although clear effects were observed in the field, experiments conducted in the laboratory failed to detect changes in mortality or byssus drifting of post-larvae as a consequence of macrofaunal activity. This study demonstrates that the presence of macrofauna can have both positive and negative effects on post-settlement density of C. edule post-larvae. Thus the density, distribution and identity of macrofauna have significant effects on the density and spatial distribution of C. edule post-larvae during the post-settlement period. These observations have implications for conservation and fishery management of this species.

  6. Interactive effects of metal contamination and pathogenic organisms on the marine bivalve Cerastoderma edule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study evaluated the interactive effects of cadmium contamination and pathogenic organisms (trematodes Himasthla elongata and bacteria Vibrio tapetis) singularly and in combination during 7 days on the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. Some defense-related activities were analyzed such as genetic expression, metallothionein and immune responses. Trematode metacercarial infection, similar whatever the treatment, induced the strongest responses of immune parameters. Particularly, the interaction between cadmium and parasite exposures induced unusual responses on gene expression and immune responses. No effect of bacterial challenge appeared on bivalve responses, nevertheless a strong mortality of V. tapetis infected cockles occured between 7 and 14 days. Cadmium bioaccumulation was significantly modulated by both pathogenic organisms. Furthermore, an antagonistic effect of trematodes and bacteria was shown on metal bioaccumulation of co-infected cockles. These results highlighted the importance of considering the multiplicity of perturbation sources in coastal ecosystems to assess the health status of organisms.

  7. Infection of the cockle Cerastoderma edule in the baie des veys (France) by the microsporidian parasite Steinhausia sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Comtet, T.; Garcia, Celine; Le Coguic, Yvette; Joly, Jean-Pierre

    2003-01-01

    We report the occurrence of the microsporidian parasite Steinhausia sp. in the oocytes of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule in a natural population in France, where high mortalities occurred. Steinhausia sp. appeared primarily as sporocysts containing many small spores, and putative earlier developmental stages were also observed. Both its prevalence and infection intensity were low, and no host defence reaction was recognized, suggesting that Steinhausia sp. had no detrimental effect on C...

  8. Impact of high pCO2 on shell structure of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milano, Stefania; Schöne, Bernd R; Wang, Schunfeng; Müller, Werner E

    2016-08-01

    Raised atmospheric emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) result in an increased ocean pCO2 level and decreased carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification potentially represents a major threat to calcifying organisms, specifically mollusks. The present study focuses on the impact of elevated pCO2 on shell microstructural and mechanical properties of the bivalve Cerastoderma edule. The mollusks were collected from the Baltic Sea and kept in flow-through systems at six different pCO2 levels from 900 μatm (control) to 24,400 μatm. Extreme pCO2 levels were used to determine the effects of potential leaks from the carbon capture and sequestration sites where CO2 is stored in sub-seabed geological formations. Two approaches were combined to determine the effects of the acidified conditions: (1) Shell microstructures and dissolution damage were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and (2) shell hardness was tested using nanoindentation. Microstructures of specimens reared at different pCO2 levels do not show significant changes in their size and shape. Likewise, the increase of pCO2 does not affect shell hardness. However, dissolution of ontogenetically younger portions of the shell becomes more severe with the increase of pCO2. Irrespective of pCO2, strong negative correlations exist between microstructure size and shell mechanics. An additional sample from the North Sea revealed the same microstructural-mechanical interdependency as the shells from the Baltic Sea. Our findings suggest that the skeletal structure of C. edule is not intensely influenced by pCO2 variations. Furthermore, our study indicates that naturally occurring shell mechanical property depends on the shell architecture at μm-scale. PMID:27285613

  9. Supernumerary chromosomes on Southern European populations of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: Consequence of environmental pollution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitão, Alexandra; Chaves, Raquel; Joaquim, Sandra; Matias, Domitília; Ruano, Francisco; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique

    2008-08-01

    Cerastoderma edule (Cardiidae) has a diploid chromosome number of 2 n = 38, its karyotype consisting of 12 submetacentric, 4 subtelocentric and 3 telocentric chromosome pairs. Hyperdiploid cells had previously been observed in two populations of the Northern Galician coasts (northwest of Spain). The supernumerary chromosomes being easily distinguished by their reduced differentiated size and by their intra- and inter-individual variability. After the recent observation of 35% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the Southern Galician coasts (Vigo) and 15% of cells with supernumerary chromosomes in a population of the south of Portugal (Ria Formosa, Algarve), we attempted, in this paper, an elucidation of the nature of these supernumerary chromosomes, by differential banding technique with restriction enzymes on these hyperdiploid cells. Analysis of the restriction enzyme banding of the 2 n > 38 karyotypes led us to propose the occurrence of a chromosomal fission event involving the largest submetacentric chromosome pair. This study represents the first description of the occurrence of a possible chromosomal fission in marine bivalves. Different levels of environmental pollution are suggested as possible explanation for the differences observed on the proportion of hyperdiploid cells between the Southern Portugal population and the three Galician ones.

  10. Strontium/lithium ratios in shells of Cerastoderma edule - A potential temperature proxy for brackish environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllenbach, Christoph S.; Schöne, Bernd R.; Mertz-Kraus, Regina

    2015-04-01

    Bivalve shells provide high-resolution records of climate variability. However, the number of suitable proxies to quantify environmental variables is still limited. The most frequently used and well-accepted tool for environmental reconstructions from shell carbonate, δ18Oshell, is a dual proxy that simultaneously informs about water temperature and the oxygen isotope signature of the water. Reconstruction of water temperature requires knowledge of δ18Owater and reconstruction of the latter requires knowledge of salinity. Element-to-calcium ratios that are frequently used in other biological carbonates as tools for temperature reconstructions such as Sr/Cashell or Mg/Cashell are strongly biologically controlled in bivalves and show only a weak correlation to temperature. Here, we present Sr/Lishell ratios as a new temperature proxy that can complement δ18Oshell-based environmental reconstructions. In seawater, strontium and lithium have long residence times of 1.5Ma and 2Ma, respectively. Furthermore, salinity changes do not appear to affect the incorporation of Sr2+ and Li+ into the shells. Sr and Li concentrations were determined via LA-ICP-MS (line-scan method) in aragonitic shells of four Cerastoderma edule specimens collected alive from the intertidal zone of the North Sea. Geochemical data from the ontogenetic year three (growing season: April - September) were placed in precise temporal context by using tidal growth patterns and then compared to instrumental water temperature and water chemistry data. Sr/Lishell values (15 to 287 mmol/mmol) are significantly above Sr/Liwater (1.9 to 3.3 mmol/mmol) suggesting the presence of vital effects. However, all shells revealed similar Sr/Lishell patterns that are strongly negatively correlated to water temperature (r2 = 0.65 to 0.74; p perfectly resembled with an average absolute difference of 1.9°C. Considering that Sr2+ and Li+ can substitute Ca2+ in the crystal lattice of aragonite, the Sr/Lishell ratio is a

  11. Role of two contrasting ecosystem engineers ( Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa) on the food intake rate of Cerastoderma edule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brun, Fernando G.; van Zetten, Elleke; Cacabelos, Eva; Bouma, Tjeerd J.

    2009-03-01

    Seagrasses are well known ecosystem engineers that can significantly influence local hydrodynamics and the abundance and biodiversity of macrobenthic organisms. This study focuses on the potential role of the seagrass canopy structure in altering the abundance of filter-feeding organisms by modifying the hydrodynamic driven food supply. We quantified the effect of two ecosystem engineers with contrasting canopy properties (i.e. Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa) on the food intake rate of a suspension-feeding bivalve Cerastoderma edule living in these seagrass meadows. Field experiments were carried out in two seagrass beds ( Z. noltii and C. nodosa) and bare sediment, located on sandflat characterised by a relatively high hydrodynamic energy from waves and currents. Results demonstrated that the filter-feeding rate was almost twofold increased when C. edule was inhabiting Z. noltii meadows (1.10 ± 0.24 μg Chl g Fresh Weight-1) when compared to cockles living on the bare sediment (0.65 ± 0.14 μg Chl g FW-1). Intermediate values were found within C. nodosa canopy (0.97 ± 0.24 μg Chl g FW-1), but filter feeding rate showed no significant differences with values for Z. noltii meadows. There were no apparent correlations between canopy properties and filter-feeding rates. Our results imply that food refreshment within the seagrass canopies was enough to avoid food depletion. We therefore expect that the ameliorated environmental conditions within vegetated areas (i.e. lower hydrodynamic conditions, higher sediment stability, lower predation pressure…) in combination with sufficient food supply to prevent depletion within both canopies are the main factors underlying our observations.

  12. Ingestion and absorption of particles derived from different macrophyta in the cockle Cerastoderma edule: effects of food ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambalza, U; Ibarrola, I; Navarro, E; Urrutia, M B

    2014-02-01

    We analyzed the capacity of the common cockle Cerastoderma edule to utilize detrital food particles obtained from three different macrophytes: the vascular plant Juncus maritimus and two green macroalgae (Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp.). We measured feeding and digestive parameters at three concentrations of detritus (0.5, 1.0 and 3.0 mm(3) l(-1)), so that functional relationships between ingestive and digestive processes could be assessed. Increasing concentrations of detritus (food) resulted in a reduction in filtering activity (clearance rate l h(-1)), but an increase in ingestion rate. Consequently, gut content also increased with increasing food concentration, irrespective of food type. In contrast, the trend followed by absorption efficiency with increasing ingestion rate was determined by food type, being significantly reduced (from 0.63 to 0.11) with Juncus but remaining almost constant with the green macroalgae (0.58 ± 0.07 with Ulva) or only minimally reduced (from 0.66 to 0.48 with Enteromorpha). This differential response had clear consequences for energy uptake: absorption rate increased with increasing particulate organic matter with Enteromorpha but decreased with Juncus. We discuss the possible role of digestive parameters such as digestibility, gut content and gut-residence time in the differential utilization of detrital matter from different vegetal origins by cockles. PMID:24178188

  13. Uptake of curium (244Cm) by five benthic marine species (Arenicola marina, Cerastoderma edule, Corophium volutator, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana): comparison with americium and plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curium (244Cm) uptake from contaminated sea water was studied in five benthic marine species: two bivalve molluscs (Scrobicularia plana and Cerastoderma edule), two polychaete annelids (Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor) and one amphidpod crustacean (Corophium volutator). The concentrations in the whole organisms relative to the concentration in the sea water (concentration factors) were: 700 for the amphipods (after 11 d of accumulation), 140 for the cockles (after 28 d), 80 for the scrobicularia (after 23d) and approx. 30 for the two annelids (after > 20 d). All species except S. plana accumulated americium and curium similarly; S. plana accumulated similar amounts of curium and plutonium. (author)

  14. Uptake of curium (/sup 244/Cm) by five benthic marine species (Arenicola marina, Cerastoderma edule, Corophium volutator, Nereis diversicolor and Scrobicularia plana): comparison with americium and plutonium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miramand, P.; Germain, P.; Arzur, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Curium (/sup 244/Cm) uptake from contaminated sea water was studied in five benthic marine species: two bivalve molluscs (Scrobicularia plana and Cerastoderma edule), two polychaete annelids (Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor) and one amphidpod crustacean (Corophium volutator). The concentrations in the whole organisms relative to the concentration in the sea water (concentration factors) were: 700 for the amphipods (after 11 d of accumulation), 140 for the cockles (after 28 d), 80 for the scrobicularia (after 23d) and approx. 30 for the two annelids (after > 20 d). All species except S. plana accumulated americium and curium similarly; S. plana accumulated similar amounts of curium and plutonium.

  15. Propensity to metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses of two benthic species (Cerastoderma edule and Nephtys hombergii): are tolerance processes limiting their responsiveness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Ana; Piló, David; Araújo, Olinda; Pereira, Fábio; Guilherme, Sofia; Carvalho, Susana; Santos, Maria Ana; Pacheco, Mário; Pereira, Patrícia

    2016-05-01

    The chronic exposure of benthic organisms to metals in sediments can lead to the development of tolerance mechanisms, thus diminishing their responsiveness. This study aims to evaluate the accumulation profiles of V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and antioxidant system responses of two benthic organisms (Cerastoderma edule, Bivalvia; Nephtys hombergii, Polychaeta). This approach will provide clarifications about the ability of each species to signalise metal contamination. Organisms of both species were collected at the Tagus estuary, in two sites with distinct contamination degrees (ALC, slightly contaminated; BAR, highly contaminated). Accordingly, C. edule accumulated higher concentrations of As, Pb and Hg at BAR compared to ALC. However, antioxidant responses of C. edule were almost unaltered at BAR and no peroxidative damage occurred, suggesting adjustment mechanisms to the presence of metals. In contrast, N. hombergii showed a minor propensity to metal accumulation, only signalising spatial differences for As and Pb and accumulating lower concentrations of metals than C. edule. The differences in metal accumulation observed between species might be due to their distinctive foraging behaviour and/or the ability of N. hombergii to minimise the metal uptake. Despite that, the accumulation of As and Pb was on the basis of the polychaete antioxidant defences inhibition at BAR, including CAT, SOD, GR and GPx. The integrated biomarker response index (IBRv2) confirmed that N. hombergii was more affected by metal exposure than C. edule. In the light of current findings, in field-based studies, the information of C. edule as a bioindicator should be complemented by that provided by another benthic species, since tolerance mechanisms to metals can hinder a correct diagnosis of sediment contamination and of the system's health. Overall, the present study contributed to improve the lack of fundamental knowledge of two widespread and common estuarine species, providing

  16. Propensity to metal accumulation and oxidative stress responses of two benthic species (Cerastoderma edule and Nephtys hombergii): are tolerance processes limiting their responsiveness?

    KAUST Repository

    Marques, Ana

    2016-02-24

    The chronic exposure of benthic organisms to metals in sediments can lead to the development of tolerance mechanisms, thus diminishing their responsiveness. This study aims to evaluate the accumulation profiles of V, Cr, Co, Ni, As, Cd, Pb and Hg and antioxidant system responses of two benthic organisms (Cerastoderma edule, Bivalvia; Nephtys hombergii, Polychaeta). This approach will provide clarifications about the ability of each species to signalise metal contamination. Organisms of both species were collected at the Tagus estuary, in two sites with distinct contamination degrees (ALC, slightly contaminated; BAR, highly contaminated). Accordingly, C. edule accumulated higher concentrations of As, Pb and Hg at BAR compared to ALC. However, antioxidant responses of C. edule were almost unaltered at BAR and no peroxidative damage occurred, suggesting adjustment mechanisms to the presence of metals. In contrast, N. hombergii showed a minor propensity to metal accumulation, only signalising spatial differences for As and Pb and accumulating lower concentrations of metals than C. edule. The differences in metal accumulation observed between species might be due to their distinctive foraging behaviour and/or the ability of N. hombergii to minimise the metal uptake. Despite that, the accumulation of As and Pb was on the basis of the polychaete antioxidant defences inhibition at BAR, including CAT, SOD, GR and GPx. The integrated biomarker response index (IBRv2) confirmed that N. hombergii was more affected by metal exposure than C. edule. In the light of current findings, in field-based studies, the information of C. edule as a bioindicator should be complemented by that provided by another benthic species, since tolerance mechanisms to metals can hinder a correct diagnosis of sediment contamination and of the system’s health. Overall, the present study contributed to improve the lack of fundamental knowledge of two widespread and common estuarine species, providing

  17. Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particles derived from different vegetal sources by the cockle Cerastoderma edule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arambalza, U.; Urrutia, M. B.; Navarro, E.; Ibarrola, I.

    2010-10-01

    Ingestion, enzymatic digestion and absorption of particulate detrital matter derived from six different vegetal sources by the common cockle Cerastoderma edule was analyzed in a series of seasonal experiments performed in March, May and October 2005. Two green macroalgae: Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha sp; two vascular plants: Spartina maritima and Juncus maritimus, the red macroalgae Gracilaria gracilis; and the microalgae Isochrysis galbana were used in experiments. Detrital matter was elaborated by freeze-drying, grinding and sieving (vegetal tissues. Mono-specific detrital diets of similar organic content (≈ 60-70%) were elaborated by mixing detritus with ashed silt. We measured i) the biochemical composition of different detritus, ii) physiological components of the absorptive balance (i.e. clearance, ingestion, rejection and absorption rate and absorption efficiency), iii) the capability of the digestive gland to hydrolyze carbohydrates from different detritus (digestibility), as well as iv) glandular cellulase and xylanase activities. Detritus type, season and the interaction detritus-season exerted significant effects upon all the physiological components of absorptive balance. Effects were light at the pre-absorptive level, however, huge variations associated to absorption efficiency promoted large significant differences in absorption rates (AR) of different kind of detritus: irrespective of season, highest values corresponded to cockles fed the green macroalgae ( Ulva and Enteromorpha) and lowest to those fed the vascular plant Juncus maritimus. Recorded significant differences in enzymatic digestibility among detritus were found to explain ≈ 40% of differences recorded in AR, and the following regression could be fitted: AR = 0.232 (± 0.032) * Digestibility + 0,072 (± 0.015); r 2 = 0.415; F = 51.036; p < 0.001. Digestibility of Ulva and Enteromorpha was found to be significantly correlated with cellulase activity in the digestive gland, whereas

  18. Changes of paralytic shellfish toxins in gills and digestive glands of the cockle Cerastoderma edule under post-bloom natural conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Sara T; Vale, Carlos; Raimundo, Joana; Matias, Domitília; Botelho, Maria João

    2016-04-01

    Concentrations of the paralytic shellfish toxins C1+2, C3+4, GTX5, GTX6, dcGTX2+3, dcSTX, dcNEO, GTX2+3, GTX1+4, STX and NEO were determined by LC-FLD in composite samples of digestive glands and gills of Cerastoderma edule cockle. The specimens were sampled in Aveiro lagoon, Portugal, under natural depuration conditions (days 0, 8, 12, 14, 19, 21 and 25) after exposure to a bloom of Gymnodinium catenatum. Individual paralytic shellfish toxins indicated different pathways of elimination and biotransformation in digestive gland and gills. Toxin concentrations in gills were lower than in digestive gland. Most of the quantified toxins in digestive gland decreased during the 25 days of observation according to negative exponential curves, and only GTX5, GTX6 and NEO showed slight irregularities with time. Concentrations of C1+2, C3+4 and dcGTX2+3 in gills decreased progressively, however GTX5, GTX6 and dcSTX showed pronounced increases. Higher concentrations of those toxins in days 8 and 12 in comparison to the initial value (day 0) indicate conversion of other toxins into GTX5, GTX6 and dcSTX during those periods. It appears that inter-conversion of toxins occurs as G. catenatum cells are retained in gills before being transferred to other compartments. PMID:26874623

  19. Short-term metallothionein inductions in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure: Discrepancy between mRNA and protein responses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul-Pont, Ika, E-mail: i.paulpont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Gonzalez, Patrice, E-mail: p.gonzalez@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Baudrimont, Magalie, E-mail: m.baudrimont@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Nili, Hanane, E-mail: h.nili@etu.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France); Montaudouin, Xavier de, E-mail: x.de-montaudouin@epoc.u-bordeaux1.fr [Universite Bordeaux 1 - CNRS, UMR 5805 EPOC, CNRS, Station Marine d' Arcachon, Place du Dr. Peyneau, Arcachon 33120 (France)

    2010-05-05

    Metallothioneins (MT) are essential metal binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Numerous studies have focused on MT response to metal exposure and showed an important variability according to species, metal, concentration and time of exposure. In this study, the expression of one isoform of MT gene (Cemt1) and associated MT protein synthesis were determined after 1, 3, 9, 24, 72 and 168 h of cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures in gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. This experiment, carried out in laboratory conditions, revealed that in Cd-exposed cockles, induction of Cemt1 is time-dependent following a 'pulse-scheme' with significant upregulation at 24 h and 168 h intersected by time point (72 h) with significant downregulation. MT protein concentration increases with time in gills of exposed cockles in relation with the progressive accumulation of Cd in soluble fraction. On contrary, Hg exposure does not lead to any induction of Cemt1 mRNA expression or MT protein synthesis compared to control, despite a higher accumulation of this metal in gills of cockles compared to Cd. The localization of Hg (85-90%) is in insoluble fraction, whereas MT was located in the cytoplasm of cells. This gives us a first clue to understand the inability of Hg to activate MT synthesis. However, other biochemical processes probably occur in gills of C. edule since the remaining soluble fraction of Hg exceeds MT sequestration ability. Finally, since one of the first main targets of metal toxicity in cells was the mitochondria, some genes involved in mitochondria metabolism were also analyzed in order to assess potential differences in cellular damages between two metal exposures. Indeed, until T{sub 168}, no impact on mitochondrial genes was shown following Hg exposure, despite the complete lack of MT response. This result indicated the presence of other effective cellular ligands which sequester the cytosolic fraction of

  20. Short-term metallothionein inductions in the edible cockle Cerastoderma edule after cadmium or mercury exposure: Discrepancy between mRNA and protein responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metallothioneins (MT) are essential metal binding proteins involved in metal homeostasis and detoxification in living organisms. Numerous studies have focused on MT response to metal exposure and showed an important variability according to species, metal, concentration and time of exposure. In this study, the expression of one isoform of MT gene (Cemt1) and associated MT protein synthesis were determined after 1, 3, 9, 24, 72 and 168 h of cadmium (Cd) or mercury (Hg) exposures in gills of the cockle Cerastoderma edule. This experiment, carried out in laboratory conditions, revealed that in Cd-exposed cockles, induction of Cemt1 is time-dependent following a 'pulse-scheme' with significant upregulation at 24 h and 168 h intersected by time point (72 h) with significant downregulation. MT protein concentration increases with time in gills of exposed cockles in relation with the progressive accumulation of Cd in soluble fraction. On contrary, Hg exposure does not lead to any induction of Cemt1 mRNA expression or MT protein synthesis compared to control, despite a higher accumulation of this metal in gills of cockles compared to Cd. The localization of Hg (85-90%) is in insoluble fraction, whereas MT was located in the cytoplasm of cells. This gives us a first clue to understand the inability of Hg to activate MT synthesis. However, other biochemical processes probably occur in gills of C. edule since the remaining soluble fraction of Hg exceeds MT sequestration ability. Finally, since one of the first main targets of metal toxicity in cells was the mitochondria, some genes involved in mitochondria metabolism were also analyzed in order to assess potential differences in cellular damages between two metal exposures. Indeed, until T168, no impact on mitochondrial genes was shown following Hg exposure, despite the complete lack of MT response. This result indicated the presence of other effective cellular ligands which sequester the cytosolic fraction of this metal and

  1. Dynamics and growth of the cockle, Cerastoderma edule, on an intertidal mud-flat in the Danish Wadden sea: Effects of submersion time and density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Jensen, K.

    A descriptive study was conducted on a dense intertidal population of the infaunal bivalve Cerastoderma edule in the Danish Wadden Sea to investigate effects of submersion time and intraspecific density on recruitment and shell growth. Following a severe winter (1981/1982), a successful settlement occurred in June-July 1982. Spat numbers varied along the tidal gradient. At the end of July they reached a maximum density of about 60 000 ind·m -2 in the lower intertidal zone. Their abundance declined rapidly during the following two months. After that the mortality rate was low and in the lower intertidal zone 2500 ind·m -2 survived to the age of 2. Recruitment was insignificant both in 1983 and 1984, probably due to the high standing stock of cockles born in 1982. The distribution pattern of cockles along the tidal transect established during settlement in July 1982 existed until the population vanished in the severe winter of 1984/85. The spat grew from settlement until mid-September and resumed growth during the following spring and early summer. The mean length attained by the cockles after 3 growing seasons at the station with the largest cockles was only 18.4 mm, which is far below lengths recorded elsewhere. Annual growth rates of individual cockles generally showed an increase with increasing submersion time, in particular during their second growing season. In their third year, however, growth rate was extremely low at the station with the highest density. Intraspecific competition among cockles is suspected to be a major cause of such growth rates exhibited by cockles at high densities (>2000·m -2) both during the present study and an earlier (1932-34) study in this area by Thamdrup. Cockles in nearby low-density populations showed higher growth rates, reaching mean lengths of more than 26 mm after 2 or 3 growing seasons.

  2. Population dynamics and secondary production of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: A comparison between Merja Zerga (Moroccan Atlantic Coast) and Arcachon Bay (French Atlantic Coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gam, Mériame; de Montaudouin, Xavier; Bazairi, Hocein

    2010-04-01

    Cockle ( Cerastoderma edule) population dynamics were studied at the southern limit of the distribution of this marine bivalve in Merja Zerga, Morocco. Parameters such as growth, mortality, and production were compared with those of a population at Arcachon Bay (France) a site in the center of the cockle's range. At each sampling period between two and three cohorts were simultaneously observed at each site and the average total abundance was usually higher at Merja Zerga. Recruitment occurred at both sites in spring when temperature rose above 19 °C, independently of the month. In Merja Zerga, winter recruitment was also observed at one occasion, following high sediment disturbance. The first year (2005-06) at Merja Zerga, the mortality rate was close to nil for juveniles and was Z = 1.5 yr - 1 for adults, providing a high production (64 g dry weight m - 2 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon during the same period, the juvenile mortality rate was Z = 10.9 yr - 1 , the adult mortality rate was 3.4 yr - 1 and production was 26 gDW m -2 yr - 1 . The second year (2006-07), mortality after recruitment was much higher ( Z = 8.6 yr - 1 , for juveniles) and similar to what was observed at Arcachon ( Z = 8.4 yr - 1 ). Mortality rate of adults was higher at Merja Zerga ( Z = 3.0 yr - 1 ) than at Arcachon ( Z = 1.5 yr - 1 ). Production was lower at Arcachon than at Merja Zerga although growth performances were higher at Arcachon. The higher growth performance at Arcachon ( Φ' = 3.3) was mainly due to high asymptotic length ( L∞ = 38 mm) and was related to low intraspecific competition compared to Merja Zerga where cockle abundance was higher ( Φ' = 3.1, L∞ = 31 mm). P/B was low in both sites and slightly higher at Arcachon (1.1-1.5 against 1.0-1.1 yr - 1 ). At Arcachon, recruitment was correlated with temperature, a peak occurring when temperature rose above 19 °C (June-July). At Merja Zerga, recruitment was already 2-3 months earlier but was not significantly correlated to

  3. Geochemical survey and metal bioaccumulation of three bivalve species (Crassostrea gigas, Cerastoderma edule and Ruditapes philippinarum) in the Nord Medoc salt marshes (Gironde estuary, France)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 15-month experiment combining a geochemical survey of Cd, Cu, Zn and Hg with a bioaccumulation study for three filter-feeding bivalve species (oysters, Crassostrea gigas; cockles, Cerastoderma edule; and clams, Ruditapes philippinarum) was conducted in a breeding basin of the Nord Medoc salt marshes connected to the Gironde estuary, which is affected by historic polymetallic pollution. Regular manual surface measurements of temperature, salinity, pH and dissolved O2 concentration and hourly multiprobe in situ measurements throughout several periods for 6-8 weeks were performed. The geochemical behavior of metals in water, suspended particulate matter and sediment and their ecotoxicological impact on the three bivalve species were evaluated by in situ exposure of juvenile oysters (water column) and adult cockles and clams (sediment surface). The physico-chemical parameters reflected seasonal variations and basin management. A distinct daily periodicity (except salinity) indicated intense photosynthesis and respiration. In summer, low dissolved O2 saturations (∼40-50%) occurred in the early morning at 30 cm above the sediment, whereas in depressions, the water column near the sediment surface was suboxic. Cadmium, Zn and Cu concentrations in suspended particulate matter exceeded typical estuarine values and were much higher than the homogeneously distributed concentrations in different depth ranges of the basin sediment. Particles collected in sediment traps showed intermediate metal concentrations close to sediment values. These results suggest trace metal recycling due to reductive dissolution under suboxic conditions at the sediment surface resulting in trace metal release to the water column and adsorption onto suspended particles. Dissolved Cd, Zn and Hg concentrations (e.g. 13-136 ng l-1; 0.3-25.1 μg l-1 and 0.5-2.0 ng l-1, respectively) in the basin corresponded to the concentration range typically observed in the Gironde estuary, except for some maximum

  4. A preliminary threshold model of parasitism in the Cockle Cerastoderma edule using delayed exchange of stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, E. A.; Culloty, S. C.; Kelly, T. C.; O'Callaghan, M. J. A.; Rachinskii, D.

    2015-02-01

    Thresholds occur, and play an important role, in the dynamics of many biological communities. In this paper, we model a persistence type threshold which has been shown experimentally to exist in hyperparasitised flukes in the cockle, a shellfish. Our model consists of a periodically driven slow-fast host-parasite system of equations for a slow flukes population (host) and a fast Unikaryon hyperparasite population (parasite). The model exhibits two branches of the critical curve crossing in a transcritical bifurcation scenario. We discuss two thresholds due to immediate and delayed exchange of stability effects; and we derive algebraic relationships for parameters of the periodic solution in the limit of the infinite ratio of the time scales. Flukes, which are the host species in our model, parasitise cockles and in turn are hyperparasitised by the microsporidian Unikaryon legeri; the life cycle of flukes includes several life stages and a number of different hosts. That is, the flukes-hyperparasite system in a cockle is, naturally, part of a larger estuarine ecosystem of interacting species involving parasites, shellfish and birds which prey on shellfish. A population dynamics model which accounts for one system of such multi-species interactions and includes the fluke-hyperparasite model in a cockle as a subsystem is presented. We provide evidence that the threshold effect we observed in the flukes-hyperparasite subsystem remains apparent in the multi-species system. Assuming that flukes damage cockles, and taking into account that the hyperparasite is detrimental to flukes, it is natural to suggest that the hyperparasitism may support the abundance of cockles and, thereby, the persistence of the estuarine ecosystem, including shellfish and birds. We confirm the possibility of the existence of this scenario in our model, at least partially, by removing the hyperparasite and demonstrating that this may result in a substantial drop in cockle numbers. The result indicates a possible significant role for the microparasite in this estuarine ecosystem.

  5. Microalgae diets for landbased aquaculture of the cockle Cerastoderma edule: impacts of dietary fatty acids on growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis Batista, dos I.C.

    2015-01-01

    Land-based shellfish culture as a part of a multi-trophic aquaculture systems has yet to be implemented in Europe. Recently the pilot project Zeeuwse Tong (The Netherlands) evaluated the feasibility of a system of fish (Dover sole), ragworms, phytoplankton and bivalves. This thesis focused on the di

  6. Role of two contrasting ecosystem engineers ( Zostera noltii and Cymodocea nodosa ) on the food intake rate of Cerastoderma edule

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brun, F.G.; van Zetten, E.; Cacabelos-Reyes, E.; Bouma, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    Seagrasses are well known ecosystem engineers that can significantly influence local hydrodynamics and the abundance and biodiversity of macrobenthic organisms. This study focuses on the potential role of the seagrass canopy structure in altering the abundance of filter-feeding organisms by modifyin

  7. Estudio biodirigido de Sechium edule (JACQ.) Sw. (Cucurbitaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy Vázquez, María Elena

    2012-01-01

    Sechium edule (chayote) es una especie neotropical con amplia variación biológica, la cual se aprecia principalmente en la forma, color y sabor de los frutos, los cuales han sido utilizados como fuente de alimento y medicina. En esta investigación se usaron frutos de S. edule var. nigrum spinosum con el objetivo de evaluar la actividad antiproliferativa y citotóxica en dos líneas tumorales (L-929 y HeLa); además, para aislar y caracterizar los componentes de mayor activida...

  8. The inhibitory effect of Mesembryanthemum edule (L.) bolus essential oil on some pathogenic fungal isolates

    OpenAIRE

    Omoruyi, Beauty E; Afolayan, Anthony J.; Bradley, Graeme

    2014-01-01

    Background Mesembryanthemum edule is a medicinal plant which has been indicated by Xhosa traditional healers in the treatment HIV associated diseases such as tuberculosis, dysentery, diabetic mellitus, laryngitis, mouth infections, ringworm eczema and vaginal infections. The investigation of the essential oil of this plant could help to verify the rationale behind the use of the plant as a cure for these illnesses. Methods The essential oil from M. edule was analysed by GC/MS. Concentration r...

  9. Memecylon edule leaf extract mediated green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles

    OpenAIRE

    Elavazhagan T; Arunachalam KD

    2011-01-01

    Tamizhamudu Elavazhagan, Kantha D ArunachalamCentre for Interdisciplinary Research, Directorate of Research, SRM University, Kattankulathur-603203, Tamilnadu, IndiaAbstract: We used an aqueous leaf extract of Memecylon edule (Melastomataceae) to synthesize silver and gold nanoparticles. To our knowledge, this is the first report where M. edule leaf broth was found to be a suitable plant source for the green synthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles. On treatment of aqueous solutions of silve...

  10. ESTUDIO BIODIRIGIDO DE UN EXTRACTO ALCOHÓLICO DE FRUTOS DE Sechium edule (Jacq.) Swartz

    OpenAIRE

    M. Elena Monroy-Vázquez; Marcos Soto-Hernández; Jorge Cadena-Iñiguez; Edelmiro Santiago-Osorio; Lucero del Mar Ruiz-Posadas; Hortensia Rosas-Acevedo

    2009-01-01

    Sechium edule (chayote) es una especie neotropical con amplia variación biológica en forma, color y sabor de los frutos, los cuales han sido utilizados como fuente de alimento y medicina. En esta investigación se usaron frutos de S. edule var. nigrum spinosum para evaluar la actividad antiproliferativa y citotóxica en dos líneas tumorales (L-929 y HeLa); además, de aislar y caracterizar los componentes de mayor actividad a partir de un extracto alcohólico. El extracto se fraccionó por cromato...

  11. Properties of cast films made of chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) tuber starch reinforced with cellulose nanocrystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, cellulose (C) and cellulose nanocrystals (CN) were blended with chayote tuber (Sechium edule Sw.) starch (CS) in formulations cast into films. The films were conditioned at different storage temperatures and relative humidity (RH), and analyzed by mechanical tests, X-ray diffraction, ...

  12. Propuesta de ubicación taxonómica para los chayotes silvestres ( Sechium edule, Cucurbitaceae de México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lira

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se propone una clasificación taxonómica para el chayote, Sechium edule (Jacq. Swartz, que incluye dos subespecies: S. edule ssp. edule y S. edule ssp. sylvestre. Adicionalmente, se documentan por primera vez poblaciones silvestres de la especie para los estados de Querétaro y Puebla, México, y se proporcionan datos sobre la distribución de todas las poblaciones similares hasta ahora registradas en el país.

  13. Effect of picung (Pangium edule plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed and leaves of picung (Pangium edule as an botanical insecticide for CBB. This research used a complete random design. There were 8 treatments with the concentration of the extract from leaves and seed of picung, one positive control treatment (Carbaril 0,02% formulation and one negative control treatment (aquades. The treatment was repeated four times and carried out observation on every day until six days. The concentrations leaf and seed extracts were 1.0%, 2.5% and 5.0%. The result of the research show that between concentration applied the were no significant different and at observation six days after application the mortality of CBB only around 35 -40% on both extracts (ewater and methanol. The result of the research also show that there were no real differentiation between leaves and seed of picung. LT-50 values were 1.25% and 0.96%, for leaves and seed extract in water for six day observation. From this observation could be concluded that picung tree (Pangium edule is not effective in the controlling CBB in the interval concentration applied and extraction method used. Key words: Botanical pesticide, picung tree, Pangium edule, mortality, Hypothenemus hampei, water extraction, methanol extraction.

  14. Effect of picung (Pangium edule) plant extracts as a botanical pesticide on mortality of coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei)

    OpenAIRE

    soekadar wiryadiputra

    2014-01-01

    Coffee pests known as coffe berry borer (CBB, Hypothenemus hampei) were main pests which decreasing the productivity of Indonesian coffee. One of pests controlling was done by insecticides. Generally, plant uses for insecticide show high security level, because the breaking molecule was easy as not dangerous compound. Pangium edule contains of flavanoide, cyanide acid and saponin had potential as an botanical insecticide. The purpose of this research was to prove the potential extract of seed...

  15. The polyphenol extract from Sechium edule shoots inhibits lipogenesis and stimulates lipolysis via activation of AMPK signals in HepG2 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Ou, Ting-Tsz; Chang, Chun-Hua; Chang, Xiao-Zong; Yang, Mon-Yuan; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2014-01-22

    Fatty liver may have implications for metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. Therefore, the development of pharmacological or natural agents to reduce fat accumulation in the liver is an important effort. The Sechium edule shoots have already been verified to decrease serum lipids and cholesterol and prevent atherosclerosis. However, how Sechium edule shoots modulate hepatic lipid metabolism is unclear. This study was designed to investigate the effects and mechanisms of polyphenol extracts (SPE) of Sechium edule shoots in reducing lipid accumulation in oleic acid-treated HepG2 cells. We found that water extracts (SWE) of Sechium edule shoots could decrease serum and hepatic lipid contents (e.g., triacylglycerol and cholesterol). Furthermore, SWE and SPE through the AMPK (AMP-activating protein kinase) signaling pathway could decrease lipogenic relative enzymes, such as FAS (fatty acid synthase), HMGCoR (HMG-CoA reductase), and SREBPs (sterol regulatory element binding proteins), and increase the expression of CPT-I (carnitine palmitoyltransferase I) and PPARα (peroxisome proliferators activated receptor α), which are critical regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. These observations suggested that Sechium edule shoots have potential for developing health foods for preventing and remedying fatty liver. PMID:24377368

  16. In vivo gibberellin biosynthesis in endosperm of Sechium edule Sw. seeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceccarelli, N.; Lorenzi, R. (Universita degli Studi, Pisa (Italy))

    1990-07-01

    Biosynthesis of gibberellins (GAs) was studied in vivo in endosperms of Sechium edule Sw. Exogenous ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene was metabolized into four major products: GA{sub 12}, GA{sub 4}, GA{sub 7} and 16,17-dihydro-16-hydroxy-GA{sub 15} alcohol glucoside. Other minor metabolites were also observed including ent-kaurenol and ent-kaurenal. Conversion of ent-({sup 14}C)kaurene to ent-karuenol glucoside by endosperm cell-free preparations in the presence of UDPG was observed. However, the finding was not confirmed in in vivo studies and is probably artifactual. Overall evidence coming from the analysis of endogenous GAs and in vitro and in vivo biosynthetic studies are discussed in relation to the possible existence in the Sechium seeds of a different route, along with the known pathway, branching from ent-kaurene or ent-7-{alpha}-hydroxykaurenoic acid and this also leading to biologically active GAs.

  17. Extracts and Fractions from Edible Roots of Sechium edule (Jacq. Sw. with Antihypertensive Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galia Lombardo-Earl

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sechium edule is traditionally used in Mexico as a therapeutic resource against renal diseases and to control high blood pressure. The purpose of this work is to evaluate the antihypertensive effect of the hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the roots of this plant, including its fractions and subfractions, on different hypertension models induced with angiotensin II (AG II. The hydroalcoholic extract was tested on an in vitro study of isolated aorta rings denuded of endothelial cells, using AG II as the agonist; this assay proved the vasorelaxant effect of this extract. Vagotomized rats were administered different doses of AG II as well as the Hydroalcoholic extract, which reduced blood pressure in 30 mmHg approximately; subsequently this extract was separated into two fractions (acetone and methanol which were evaluated in the acute hypertension mouse model induced with AG II, where the acetone fraction was identified as the most effective one and was subsequently subfractioned using an open chromatographic column packed with silica gel. The subfractions were also evaluated in the acute hypertension model. Finally, the extract, fraction, and active subfraction were analyzed by MS-PDA-HPLC, identifying cinnamic derivative compounds like cinnamic acid methyl ester.

  18. Purification and Partial Characterization of β-Glucosidase in Chayote (Sechium edule

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Espíndola Mateos

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available β-Glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.21 is a prominent member of the GH1 family of glycoside hydrolases. The properties of this β-glucosidase appear to include resistance to temperature, urea, and iodoacetamide, and it is activated by 2-ME, similar to other members. β-Glucosidase from chayote (Sechium edule was purified by ionic-interchange chromatography and molecular exclusion chromatography. Peptides detected by LC-ESI-MS/MS were compared with other β-glucosidases using the BLAST program. This enzyme is a 116 kDa protein composed of two sub-units of 58 kDa and shows homology with Cucumis sativus β-glucosidase (NCBI reference sequence XP_004154617.1, in which seven peptides were found with relative masses ranging from 874.3643 to 1587.8297. The stability of β-glucosidase depends on an initial concentration of 0.2 mg/mL of protein at pH 5.0 which decreases by 33% in a period of 30 h, and then stabilizes and is active for the next 5 days (pH 4.0 gives similar results. One hundred μg/mL β-D-glucose inhibited β-glucosidase activity by more than 50%. The enzyme had a Km of 4.88 mM with p-NPG and a Kcat of 10,000 min−1. The optimal conditions for the enzyme require a pH of 4.0 and a temperature of 50 °C.

  19. Traditional spices of Dayak Kenyah society in East Kalimantan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SITI SUSIARTI

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The diversity of plant in Indonesia is high, including variety of spices, which have been known by Indonesian society since long time ago. Several very popular plants are clove (Syzygium aromaticum, pepper (Piper nigrum, cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii, and nutmeg (Myristica fragrans. Variety of spices has connection with cultures. In each region and society, they have a special spices in their traditional food. The research was conducted in villages in Pujungan district and other places in East Kalimantan Province and commonly Dayak Kenyah society. The methods used for this study was by interviewing of local society and direct observation in the fields where plant spices occurred. The results indicated that traditional Dayak in East Kalimantan used bekai (Albertisia papuana Becc., payang aka (Hodgsonia macrocarpa (Bl. Cogn., payang kurek (Aleurites moluccana (L. Willd., payang kayu (Pangium edule Reinw., payang lengu (Ricinus communis L., and payang salap (Sumbaviopsis albicans (Blume J.J.Sm. for preparing their food with certain method.

  20. Comparative studies on the morphometry and physiology of European populations of the lagoon specialist Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Tarnowska

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Seasonal changes in the morphometric and physiological parameters of the cockle Cerastoderma glaucum (Bivalvia from the Baltic Sea (GD, the North Sea (LV, and the Mediterranean Sea (BL were investigated. The cockles from GD were much smaller than those from other populations due to osmotic stress. The female to male ratios did not differ significantly from 1:1. The northern populations (GD, LV had a monocyclic reproductive pattern, whereas the southern population (BL seemed to reproduce throughout the year. Seasonal changes in the contents of biochemical components appeared to be correlated with changes in trophic conditions and the reproductive cycle. Protein content was the highest in spring for all the populations. The highest lipid contents and lowest carbohydrate contents were noted in GD and BL in spring, while no marked differences were noted among seasons in LV (probably because the data from both sexes were pooled. Respiration rates in GD were the highest among the populations, which could have been due to osmotic stress. High metabolic rates expressed by high respiration rates in GD and LV in spring and autumn could have resulted from gamete development (in spring and phytoplankton blooms (in spring and autumn.

  1. Effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal on growth performance and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig (Zovawk of Mizoram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lalthansanga

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was planned to investigate the effect of feeding different levels of chayote (Sechium edule meal by replacing standard concentrate mixture (CM on the growth parameters such as feed intake, body weight gain, average daily gain (ADG and feed conversion ratio (FCR, and nutrient utilization in indigenous pig of Mizoram. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four growing indigenous pigs (Zovawk were used to study the effect of feeding chayote (Sechium edule meal (fruits and leaves at the ratio 4:1 on growth performance and nutrient utilization. They were allocated randomly into 4 treatment groups (G1, G2, G3, and G4. Chayote meal was used to replace standard CM (pig grower ration at 0% (G1, 20% (G2, 30% (G3, and 40% (G4. Results: During the feeding trial of 90 days, it was found that the dry matter (DM intake decreased as the level of chayote meal increased. For G1, G2, G3, and G4, the ADG (kg was 0.24±0.04, 0.23±0.03, 0.18±0.02, and 0.18±0.02, respectively, and the feed conversion efficiency was 5.42±0.44, 4.93±0.17, 5.38±0.05, and 5.74±0.53, respectively. However, there was no significant difference (p>0.05 among the different treatment groups in respect to ADG and FCR. At the end of the feeding trial, digestibility trial was conducted to study the effect of feeding chayote meal in the digestibility of the different nutrients by the experimental animals. From the digestibility trial, it was revealed that the digestibility coefficient of DM, crude protein, and crude fiber were also similar (p>0.05, although the ether extract digestibility in G1 was significantly low (p<0.01 as compared to G2, G3, and G4. Conclusion: Chayote meal could safely replace the standard grower ration up to 40% in the diet of growing local pigs without causing any adverse effects on growth and nutrient utilization.

  2. CRITERIOS DE MANEJO LOCAL DEL CULTIVO DE CHAYOTE (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw EN ZONAS RURALES DE CHIAPAS, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guevara-Hernández

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A partir de un análisis socioantropológico fundamentado en la etnoagronomía y la etnobotánica, se describen los criterios de productores para el manejo del cultivo de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores en el estado de Chiapas, México. A través de entrevistas estructuradas realizadas a 30 productores en cada municipio para recopilar y sistematizar el conocimiento tradicional, se obtuvieron criterios sobre actividades clave para lograr una buena producción, tales como realización de podas, riego, conducción de la planta a través de tutores y la fertilización. Los resultados muestran que el 40 % del total de productores de ambos municipios podan sus plantas y para ello, los provenientes de Villa Corzo usan machetes mientras que los de Villaflores usan tijeras de podar. El 91 % del total de los productores conduce la planta con tutores elaborados con recursos locales, como son varas y ramas de otros árboles, lo cual demuestra que tienen incorporado a sus saberes locales la realización consciente de esta actividad. La tendencia al uso de fertilizantes, ya sea químico u orgánico es incipiente en ambas localidades, siendo ligeramente superior el uso de fertilizantes químicos en Villaflores, donde casi la tercera parte los productores entrevistados los aplica. En ambos municipios la proporción de productores que usan abonos orgánicos es baja y representan solo el 11,5 y 18 % en Villa Corzo y Villaflores, respectivamente. Se confirma la validez de los estudios socioagronómicos, para entender el conocimiento tradicional y el uso de los recursos locales para el manejo del cultivo de chayote.

  3. Sechium edule Shoot Extracts and Active Components Improve Obesity and a Fatty Liver That Involved Reducing Hepatic Lipogenesis and Adipogenesis in High-Fat-Diet-Fed Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mon-Yuan; Chan, Kuei-Chuan; Lee, Yi-Ju; Chang, Xiao-Zong; Wu, Cheng-Hsun; Wang, Chau-Jong

    2015-05-13

    Excess fat accumulation in the liver increases the risk of developing progressive liver injuries ranging from a fatty liver to hepatocarcinoma. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the polyphenol components of Sechium edule shoots attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation in vitro. Therefore, we investigated the effects and mechanisms of the extract of S. edule shoots (SWE) to modulate fat accumulation in a high-fat-diet (HFD)-induced animal model. In this study, we found that the SWE can reduce the body weight, adipose tissue fat, and regulate hepatic lipid contents (e.g., triglyceride and cholesterol). Additionally, treatment of caffeic acid (CA) and hesperetin (HPT), the main ingredients of SWE, also inhibited oleic acid (OA)-induced lipid accumulation in HepG2 cells. SWE enhanced the activation of AMP-activating protein kinase (AMPK) and decreased numerous lipogenic-related enzymes, such as sterol regulator element-binding proteins (SREBPs), e.g., SREBP-1 and SREBP-2, and HMG-CoA reductase (HMGCoR) proteins, which are critical regulators of hepatic lipid metabolism. Taken together, the results demonstrated that SWE can prevent a fatty liver and attenuate adipose tissue fat by inhibiting lipogenic enzymes and stimulating lipolysis via upregulating AMPK. It was also demonstrated that the main activation components of SWE are both CA and HPT. PMID:25912298

  4. Study on Preserved Fruit Foods Series of Sechium Edule%佛手瓜果脯系列食品的研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴云; 董学畅

    2001-01-01

    Sechium edule, abundant and cheap in south provinces was used as a new material to be processed into the sechium edlile foods series, suchas fruit.jam,jelly,juice, cake and softsweets. Anew saccharifing and dying technological process was researched and adopted.%要以南方丰产而价廉的蔬果-佛手瓜为果脯加工的理想新材料,采用混合糖渍蜜化和串味引色新工艺,生产具有天然水果色、香、味的佛手瓜果脯、果酱、果糕和水晶软糖等系列食品。

  5. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of cucurbit fruit vegetables and identification of active and major constituents from phenolic-rich extracts of Lagenaria siceraria and Sechium edule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong; Supriatno

    2013-10-23

    Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities and total phenolic contents (TPC) in sequential extracts of dried pulps from seven cucurbit fruit vegetables were determined for the first time. The highest TPC and metal chelating activity were obtained from the chloroform extracts of Luffa acutangula (28.04 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g extract) and Benincasa hispida (EC50 = 0.44 ± 0.03 mg/mL), respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Sechium edule showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (951.73 ± 29.14 mM TE/g extract). The highest reducing and anti-α-glucosidase activities were shown by the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia (692.56 ± 43.38 mM AscAE/g extract; 66.64 ± 2.94%, respectively). The highest correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between the TPC and DPPH values of S. edule. Although caffeic acid was quantified as the major constituent in the methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria , isoquercetin was found to be the main contributor to the activities. Gallic acid was identified as both the main and most active antioxidant constituent in the ethyl acetate extract of S. edule. PMID:24059845

  6. Determining the Similarities between Stations using the Haplotypes of the Species Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789 from the Romanian Black Sea Infralittoral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragomir-Cosmin DAVID

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Cerastoderma glaucum (Poiret, 1789 represents one of the marine mollusk species found on the Romanian Black Sea soft bottom infralittoral. This species had been investigated in the past by morphological methods. Some problems concerning its biological, ecological and even behavioral aspects have remained unresolved. At the moment, molecular technique studies allow the completion of these gaps. In the present article we are aiming to identify this species by molecular methods and to perform a statistical analysis of the obtained data in order to determine the distribution of this species’ haplotypes on the littoral. With the aid of the Nucleospin® Tissue kits, through the PCR technique, the extraction and amplification of DNA has been performed to obtain the necessary data. The obtained sequences have been compared to the sequences from databases such as National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI to establish similarities. After the identification of the similar sequences, we have interpreted their distribution in different stations using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient. A number of 12 haplotypes which belong to 32 individuals from 5 stations have been identified. Using the Kendall rank correlation coefficient the identified haplotypes show different degrees of concordance with the standard haplotypes of this species. A significant statistical similarity appears in 81.14% out of the total 493 compared haplotype pairs. Out of these, 18% present perfect similarity, 76.25% good and 5.75% acceptable. The stations are similar regarding haplotypes, with some exceptions that are commented in the paper, similarities established by calculating the Kendall rank correlation coefficient.

  7. Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document summarizes in a series of tables and graphs the energy profile of Middle East: production, imports, exports, stock change and consumption of crude oil and LNG, oil products, natural gas, coal and lignite, electricity, global primary consumption and energy balance. (J.S.)

  8. Baltic leaders who returned from West to East

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2006-01-01

    Artiklis tutvustatakse kolme Balti riigi presidentide sarnast minevikku eksiilis ning nenditakse, et varasem demokraatlikus riigis elamise kogemus on kindlasti kaasa aidanud Eesti, Läti ja Leedu majanduslikule ning välispoliitilisele edule

  9. Criterios locales para selección de semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de Chiapas, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Guevara Hernández

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available En el estudio se identificaron y analizaron los criterios socio-antropológicos fundamentados en etnoagronomía y etnobotánica de los productores para seleccionar semillas de chayote (Sechium edule Jacq. Sw. en zonas rurales de los municipios Villa Corzo y Villaflores (Chiapas, México. En entrevistas semi-estructuradas realizadas a 60 productores se describieron los criterios locales para seleccionar las semillas de esta hortaliza, considerando características de color, tamaño y presencia de espinas en los frutos, así como la obtención de variedades y recomendaciones para la siembra. Sin considerar la procedencia de los productores, el cultivo del chayote se realiza independientemente del tamaño, el color o la presencia de espinas en los frutos. Más de 60% de los productores entrevistados compra las semillas y prefieren aquellas variedades que posean frutos con espinas debido a su sabor agradable. Se confirmó la validez de los estudios socio-antropológicos en sistemas agrícolas tradicionales en la zona, particularmente en etnobotánica, para entender las relaciones sociales y productivas a nivel local, y para definir sistemas productivos sostenibles a partir de los criterios propios de las familias campesinas, lo que permite documentar, analizar, validar y entender multi-criterios relacionados con la producción familiar de chayote y su posible mejoramiento.

  10. Effects of a Chayotte (Sechium edule Extract (Macerated on the Biochemistry of Blood of Wistar Rats and on the Action Against the Stannous Chloride Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.F. Dire

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of natural products as medicines has been growing in the entire world. There are concerns that these products may contain potentially toxic ingredients and contaminants such as heavy metals. The labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m has been influenced by the presence of natural extracts. We evaluated the influence of a chayotte (Sechium edule extract (100%v/v macerated on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. The animals were treated with the extract during 15 days. Samples of blood were carried out with specific blood biochemistry kits. The present study analyzed the influence of chayotte in the survival of the strain of Escherichia coli AB1157 submitted to reactive oxygen species induced by stannous chloride. There was a reduction of the lethal effect induced by stannous chloride on the survival of the E. coli culture in the presence of chayotte. The results indicated a decrease in the level of glucose and globulin The effect of the extract could be explained by its metabolic transformation inducing the generation of oxidant metabolites. The culture of bacteria when was treated with stannous chloride and chayotte simultaneously, the extract could be reacting with stannous chloride ions, protecting them against the oxidation avoiding the generation of reactive oxygen species.

  11. Influence of the level of oxygenation in sediment and water on copper bioavailability to marine bivalves: Laboratory experiments and translocation experiments in the field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hummel, H.; Magni, P.; Amiard-Triquet, C.; Rainglet, F.; Modderman, R.; Van Duijn, Y.; Herssevoort, M.; De Jong, J.H.; Snitsevorg, L.; Ytsma, M.; Bogaards, R.H.; De Wolf, L.

    1998-01-01

    The effects of differences in the level of oxygenation of sediment or water on the condition and copper content of two bivalves, the Baltic clam Macoma balthica and the cockle Cerastoderma edule, were assessed. Specimens from four intertidal flats in the Netherlands and France were compared, translo

  12. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møhlenberg, Flemming; Kiørboe, Thomas

    1983-01-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis dive...

  13. The effect of polluted sediment on the gonadal development and embryogenesis of bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, B.M.H.; Hummel, H.; Bogaards, R.H.

    1996-01-01

    Cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and Baltic clams (Macoma balthica) were kept on polluted sediment from the harbour of Rotterdam, and on clean sediment from the Wadden Sea (control). Their gametogenesis was then followed. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) experiments were carried out and larvae were cultured

  14. The influence of sediment, food and organic ligands on the uptake of copper by sediment-dwelling bivalves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Absil, M.C.P.; Berntssen, M.; Gerringa, L.J.A.

    1996-01-01

    The sediment-dwelling bivalve Macoma balthica was exposed to dissolved copper ina flow-through system in long-term experiments. Unlike another sediment-dwelling bivalve, the suspension feeder Cerastoderma edule (cockle), M. balthica accumulated copper from the sediment, while the cockles did not. Wh

  15. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-07-07

    This podcast discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome, or MERS, a viral respiratory illness caused by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus—MERS-CoV.  Created: 7/7/2014 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 7/7/2014.

  16. Recovery in the East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    As robust as the economic recovery in East Asia has been in recent months,attention must now be turned to managing emerging risks challenging macroeconomic stability,said World Bank’s latest East Asia and Pacific Economic Update released on October 19.Edited excerpts follow

  17. IEA studies Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oil production policy in most of the major producing countries of the Middle East looks likely to change as a result of financial constraints and pressures on demand. This -implicitly rather than explicitly - is perhaps the main conclusion to be drawn from the International Energy Agency's (IEA) magisterial study on Middle East oil and gas, in which the production capacities, energy development policies and the structural economic problems of six major oil and gas producers in the region are examined. ''Middle East Oil and Gas'' is available from the IEA/OECD Publications Service. (author)

  18. East African odontopygid millipedes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.

    2013-01-01

    Two new genera and three new species in the millipede family Odontopygidae are described; Lamelloramus rhombiformis, L. triangularis and Aquattuor denticulatus. All three species are found in the East Usambara Mountains. Copyright © 2013 Magnolia Press....

  19. Fluxus East / Petra Stegmann

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Stegmann, Petra

    2008-01-01

    Näitusest "Fluxus East" Kumu Kunstimuuseumis. Fluxuse liikumisest leedu kunstniku George Maciunase (1931-1978) eestvedamisel. Liikumise ilmingutest Eestis (happeningid, muusikaaktsioonid, visuaalne poeesia, mail art). Kuraator Petra Stegmann, kujundaja Andrea Pichl

  20. East Asia's Security System

    OpenAIRE

    Hojzáková, Věra

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the master thesis is to characterize and evaluate the current security system in East Asia, to show the security strategies of the system actors and the existing friction points, and to assess the future development of the security system in place. For this purpose the author first defines the East Asia's security system using the conceptual tools of three international relations theories, namely neo-realism, neo-liberalism, and constructivism. In the following section, the securit...

  1. Leukaemia in East Suffolk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation was conducted by the East Suffolk Health Authority to determine whether there were any geographical variations in the incidence of leukaemia over the last fifteen years in East Suffolk suggesting an environmental hazard, e.g. Sizewell Power Station. No areas were found to have a statistically significant increased incidence of leukaemia cases although there did appear to be a cluster of cases in the Leiston area. (U.K.)

  2. World review: Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The article gives information on contracts announced (and to whom) and recently completed in some parts of the Middle East in the petroleum, natural gas and petrochemicals industries. Areas specifically mentioned are Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Libya, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria and the United Arab Emirates. The prospects for the petrochemical industry in particular are good and continued growth is expected. Gas is likely to make an increasingly important contribution to the prosperity of the Middle East and is expected to carry a higher priority than expansion of crude oil production

  3. East African institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    For the past decade security in East Africa has gained focus internationally. However there is a growing ambition among African states to handle such issues by themselves, sometimes through regional institutions. This has been supported by many Western states but potential risks are often forgotten....

  4. Middle East Reform Halts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The chaos in Iraq poses a great threat to the U.S. plan in the Middle East While the fighting between Israel and Lebanon-based Hezbollah becomes fiercer, security in Iraq also keeps deteriorating, making the region a petrol can that may blow up anytime.

  5. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus; MERS-CoV; Novel coronavirus; nCoV ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Middle East ... 2, 2015. www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/mers/faq.html . Accessed April ...

  6. Taxonomic diversity and structure of the molluscan fauna in Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast).

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Asri, F; Zidane, H; Maanan, M; Tamsouri, M; Errhif, A

    2015-08-01

    The spatial distribution of the molluscan fauna of Oualidia lagoon (Moroccan Atlantic coast) was studied during winter 2013. Samples were collected from 43 stations over the whole of the lagoon. Twenty-eight taxa (19 species of gastropods, 7 species of bivalves, 1 species of polyplacophora, and 1 species of cephalopod) were listed, 21 of which are newly reported for Oualidia lagoon. Four taxa, Hydrobia sp. (78.29%), followed by Abra alba (13.99 ), Nassarius pfeifferi (5.07%), and Cerastoderma edule (1.32%), were accounted for 98% of the total abundance. A classification analysis used to characterize the lagoon on the basis of molluscs showed the existence of three main clusters from downstream to upstream: a Nassarius pfeifferi community, a Hydrobia sp.-Abra alba community and a Hydrobia sp.-Cerastoderma edule community. PMID:26231976

  7. Shift to the East

    OpenAIRE

    Gabor Hunya; Monika Schwarzhappel

    2007-01-01

    The FDI inflow to Central, East and Southeast Europe reached a new high in 2006, EUR 77 billion, 30% more than in the previous year. But the FDI inflow and its growth were unevenly distributed. The inflow was stagnating in the NMS-5 but increasing in Southeast Europe and the European CIS. This publication provides an analysis of recent developments and prospects of FDI. It tackles all major issues brought forward by the latest statistics FDI inflows and outflows, inward and outward stocks, fo...

  8. Serbia in the East

    OpenAIRE

    Marković, Svetozar

    2013-01-01

    Title: Srbija na istoku (Serbia in the East) Originally published: Novi Sad, Srpska narodna zadružna Štamparija, 1872 Language: SerbianThe excerpts used are from Svetozar Marković, Srbija na istoku (NiŠ: Gradina, 1972), pp. 172–173. About the author Svetozar Marković [1846, Jagodina (present-day central Serbia) – 1875, Trieste]: the founder of the socialist movement in Serbia. As an exceptional student of the Velika Škola, the first high school and later university in Serbia, he won a state s...

  9. East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Places where the earth's crust has formed deep fissures and the plates have begun to move apart develop rift structures in which elongate blocks have subsided relative to the blocks on either side. The East African Rift is a world-famous example of such rifting. It is characterized by 1) topographic deep valleys in the rift zone, 2) sheer escarpments along the faulted walls of the rift zone, 3) a chain of lakes within the rift, most of the lakes highly saline due to evaporation in the hot temperatures characteristic of climates near the equator, 4) voluminous amounts of volcanic rocks that have flowed from faults along the sides of the rift, and 5) volcanic cones where magma flow was most intense. This example in Kenya displays most of these features near Lake Begoria. The image was acquired December 18, 2002, covers an area of 40.5 x 32 km, and is located at 0.1 degrees north latitude, 36.1 degrees east longitude. The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

  10. Modelling shellfish growth with dynamic energy budget models: an application for cockles and mussels in the Oosterschelde (southwest Netherlands)

    OpenAIRE

    Troost, T. A.; Wijsman, J.W.M.; Saraiva, S.; de Freitas, V.

    2010-01-01

    Dynamic energy budget models for growth of individual cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) are adjusted and calibrated to the Oosterschelde by formulating and parametrizing their functional responses using an extensive set of field observations. The resulting model predictions fit the observations satisfactorily. Results indicate that food quality and the importance of detritus as a food source are site-specific as well as species-specific. Despite these differences in th...

  11. Bioaccumulation surveillance in Milford Haven Waterway

    OpenAIRE

    Langston, W.J.; O'Hara, S.; Pope, N.D.; Davey, M; Shortridge, E.; IMAMURA, M; Harino, H.; Kim, A.; Vane, C.

    2012-01-01

    Biomonitoring of contaminants (metals, organotins, PAHs, PCBs) was carried out along the Milford Haven Waterway (MHW) and at a reference site in the Tywi Estuary during 2007-2008. The species used as bioindicators encompass a variety of uptake routes - Fucus vesiculosus (dissolved contaminants); Littorina littorea (grazer); Mytilus edulis and Cerastoderma edule (suspension feeders); and Nereis diversicolor (omnivore which often reflects contaminants in sediment). Differences...

  12. Macrobenthos recruitment success in a tidal flat: feeding trait dependent effects of disturbance history

    OpenAIRE

    Van Colen, C.; Montserrat, F.; Vincx, M.; Herman, P.M.J.; Ysebaert, T.J.; Degraer, S.

    2010-01-01

    Juvenile growth rate and production of the bivalves Macoma balthica and Cerastoderma edule and the polychaeteNereis diversicolor were investigated on two contrasting tidal flat sediments that represented different recovery stages following disturbance. Juvenile M. balthica and N. diversicolor grew faster and yielded a higher production in the early succession community where fresh microalgal food supply was higher and physical stress was lower in comparison with the mature community, while C....

  13. Diopatra neapolitana (Polychaeta: Onuphidae) as a Second Intermediate Host of Gymnophallus choledochus (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) in the Aveiro Estuary (Portugal): Distribution Within the Host and Histopathology

    OpenAIRE

    Rangel, LF; Santos, MJ

    2009-01-01

    This is the first host record of Gymnophallus choledochus metacercariae infecting the polychaete Diopatra neapolitana in the Aveiro estuary (Portugal). The metacercariae were round unencysted, and their morphology is similar to that presented by metacercariae harbored by Nereis diversicolor and Cerastoderma edule, although they are larger in size. In D. neapolitana, the prevalence and mean intensity of the infection was very high, at 100% and 202 +/- 139 metacercariae per host, respectively, ...

  14. Middle East gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despite the significant contribution of the Middle East countries of Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates in the Arabia Gulf to the world's oil output, they are placing increasing emphasis on natural gas as a source of exports and to fuel domestic economic growth. The region accounts for 35% of the world's proven gas resource base, with Iran and Qatar holding major reserves. The region is becoming increasingly important in global liquefied natural gas (LNG) trade and details of key LNG projects and the major players in this area are given; a key advantage is the region's position between the two main markets - the Asia Pacific and the Atlantic Basin. Brief details are also given of gas pipeline projects and gas-to-liquid (GTL) projects in the region

  15. The Danish East India Company

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karsten Engsig

    2005-01-01

    The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la......The article analysis the first Danish East India Company incorporated in 1616, which was the first Danish Stock Company and which has impacts even on modern Danish company la...

  16. Mass Media in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlin, Antje

    This paper focuses on media politics, guidance and control mechanisms, journalism education, various modes of media in use, and coverage of important news in East Germany. The paper gives special consideration to the influence of West German broadcasting in East Germany. The need for such information is that it will give insight into Eastern bloc…

  17. Luxury consumption moves East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Omera

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... novel insights to transformations in global supply chain strategy as luxury consumption is moving towards the east, which creates new challenges and demands for European manufacturers to respond, to sustaining a competitive advantage.......Purpose – The literature contains relatively little prescriptive guidance for establishing supply chain strategies in the luxury fashion marketplace. The focus has been on fashion rather than luxury fashion and the purpose of this paper is to identify and explore the critical supply chain success...... success factors to consider when developing a business strategy to enter the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Practical implications – The findings could guide managers that are developing a business case for entering the Chinese luxury fashion marketplace. Originality/value – This case study provides...

  18. Project Radiation Protection - East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Government has allocated SEK 37.1 million for cooperation projects in radiation protection with countries in Central and Eastern Europe, particularly the Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania) and Russia. The Swedish Radiation Protection Inst. (SSI) is in charge of this program, which is often referred to as Radiation Protection - East. The general background of this cooperation program, its objectives, practical organization of the work etc. have been presented in the following reports: SSI Report No.93-08: Projekt Straalskydd Oest - Laegesrapport (March 1993); SSI Report No.93-29: Swedish Cooperation Program for Radiation Protection in Eastern and Central Europe (November 1993). The present report summarizes the work carried out up to and including September 1994. The more than 70 cooperation projects have been divided into the following categories: Upgrading of national authorities; Emergency preparedness, early warning; Nuclear power and research reactors; Instrumentation; Decommissioning, waste, environmental control; General radiation protection; Other projects; Project management and administrative support. Project criteria and a simple program for quality assurance and follow-up are presented briefly. A status report, including an economic overview, is given for all ongoing or already finished projects, together with future plans and a suggested budget for the next fiscal year

  19. Petroleum products in East countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a study about petroleum and natural gas reserves in East countries (former USSR, Middle Europe). Statistical data about petroleum production and petroleum products consumption are also given. 10 figs

  20. East of Eden / M. A.

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    M. A.

    2005-01-01

    Palmses toimub sel nädalal rahvusvahelise stsenaariumikoolituse East of Eden seminar. Koolituse koordinatsioonikeskus tegutseb alates 2005.aastast Eesti Filmi Sihtasutuse juures, Eesti--poolseks koordinaatoriks Anu Ernits

  1. East India Company Logbooks - Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection consists of images of 1,235 ship logbooks created during British East India Company voyages. Period of record 1786-1834, peaking in 1804. The...

  2. Social Protection in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Cook, Sarah; Kwon, Huck-Ju

    2007-01-01

    Social Protection in East Asia (Cook, Sarah) (Kwon, Huck-Ju) University of Sussex - UNITED KINGDOM (Cook, Sarah) Sung Kyun Kwan University - KOREA, REPUBLIC OF (Kwon, Huck-Ju) KOREA, REPUBLIC OF UNITED KINGDOM

  3. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  4. Influence of environmental gradients on the distribution of benthic resources available for shorebirds on intertidal mudflats of Yves Bay, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Anne S.; Pinaud, David; Cayatte, Marie-Laure; Goulevant, Cyril; Lachaussée, Nicolas; Pineau, Philippe; Karpytchev, Mikhail; Bocher, Pierrick

    2016-06-01

    The case study of Yves Bay (Pertuis Charentais, France) highlighted links between environmental gradients (i.e. sediment characteristics and emersion time) and prey distribution and availability for the two most numerous shorebird species overwintering in Yves Bay: the red knot Calidris canutus and the dunlin Calidris alpina. Two hundred and fifty-two stations were sampled on a predetermined 250 m regular grid covering the intertidal mudflats of this major wintering site in France for east-Atlantic migratory shorebirds. The distribution of principal benthic species abundance and biomass was modelled along two environmental gradients: sediment structure (particularly pronounced north-south sand-mud gradient) and emersion time. The effect of emersion time combined with sedimentary structure strongly explained abundances and biomasses of the main prey for C. canutus and C. alpina in the bay (Cerastoderma edule, Hydrobia ulvae, Macoma balthica, Scrobicularia plana, and Nephtys hombergii). This study highlighted prey species-specific spatial segregation/overlapping as well as spatial interferences in the trophic niche of the two shorebirds.

  5. Comparative phylogeography of two sister (congeneric) species of cardiid bivalve: Strong influence of habitat, life history and post-glacial history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarnowska, Katarzyna; Krakau, Manuela; Jacobsen, Sabine; Wołowicz, Maciej; Féral, Jean-Pierre; Chenuil, Anne

    2012-07-01

    Sister (congeneric) species may exhibit disparate patterns of biogeographic genetic structures due to different life histories and habitat preferences. The common cockle Cerastoderma edule and the lagoon cockle Cerastoderma glaucum probably diverged from their common ancestor in the present territory of Sahara around 5 million years ago. Although it is difficult to separate both species morphologically, various genetic markers, both mitochondrial and nuclear, clearly distinguish them. Furthermore, their lifestyles are different, as C. edule has a much less fragmented coastal habitat and a longer duration of pelagic larval stage than C. glaucum. A comparative genetic analysis was conducted on 17 populations of C. edule and 13 populations of C. glaucum using a 506 bp fragment of mitochondrial DNA (COI). We tested the hypothesis that differences in habitat types and life history are reflected in the genetic structure patterns of these two cockles. Indeed substantial differences in population genetic structures between them are revealed. Genetic diversity within C. glaucum populations decreases northwards as a consequence of post-glacial (re)colonization from southern refugia, while C. edule displays an opposite pattern indicating survival in glacial refuges in the northern Atlantic. Among populations within geographic groups, genetic differentiation is low in C. edule, probably as a result of larval dispersal with coastal currents, while it is extremely high in C. glaucum, best explained by the fragmented habitats. Interestingly, long distance divergence is less expressed in C. glaucum than in C. edule, which supports the speculation that migrating birds (frequently observed in lagoons) may occasionally transport the former more often or more efficiently than the latter. The approach applied in this study (e.g., rarefaction procedure, selection of samples of both species from the same regions) enabled a new and reliable comparative analysis of the existing raw

  6. East articulated maintenance arm for East and West

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A project to upgrade the Articulated Inspection Arm (AIA) into a fully operational robot EAMA (EAST Articulated Maintenance Arm) has been set between IRFM and ASIPP in an associated laboratory. EAMA consists of an articulated serial arm with 7 degrees of freedom (DOF) and a 3-DOF gripper. The total length is 8.867 meters. As planned, it will work in Experimental Advanced Superconductor Tokamak (EAST) and W/Tungsten Environment in Steady-state Tokamak (WEST) vacuum vessel (VV) to perform a remote inspection and maintenance tasks after plasma shutting down. The EAMA system will be demonstrated under EAST conditioning, namely ultra-high vacuum and temperature conditions. The aim of this paper is to detail the architecture of the EAMA system and present the obtained results of the test campaign

  7. Lessons Learned from EAST's Failures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Significant progresses have been obtained on EAST tokamak partially based on lessons from its failures marked by more than 20 times leakages from PFC and 1.6 ton water inside of vacuum chamber. Lessons learned from major failures in EAST have been summarized in this paper. Major failures came from design, construction, commissioning and operation phases have been described which have been classified as imperfect design, QA control, failure of components and lack of understanding. Predictions for further risks and possible ways to mitigating these risks have been given in this paper. (author)

  8. Criswell Leads FEMA IMAT East

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The Naval Postgraduate School & The U.S. Department of Homeland Security, Center for Homeland Defense and Security. Since the end of December 2013, the Center for Homeland Defense and Security master’s degree and Executive Leaders Program alumnae has held the job of Team Leader with the Federal Emergency Management Agency’s National Incident Management Assistance Team (IMAT) East.

  9. East African odontopygid millipedes 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Sara B.; Enghoff, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Five new species of the endemic East African genus Xystopyge are described: X. pelecys, X. frontieri, X. proplicatus, X. biacanthus, and X. zanzibarensis. Three are from the Eastern Arc Mountains, Tanzania, two are from the Usambara Mtns. and one is from the Uluguru Mtns. One further species is...

  10. Middle East and North African Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quazzaz, Ayad

    1981-01-01

    Traces the history of oil and natural gas in the Middle East and relates the importance of the Middle East's current stores of oil to economic development. Information is presented on the relationship of major oil companies and local governments, OPEC, rate of production, and the impact of oil on the societies of the Middle East and North Africa.…

  11. Funding problems threaten Middle East's synchrotron

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Scientists will tour the Middle East to try to raise support for the Synchrotron radiation for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East project. The plan is to dismantle and move a decommissioned synchrotron from Berlin to the Middle East where scientists of any nationality would be able to use it (3 paragraphs).

  12. East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival - 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Marina Tkacheva

    2012-01-01

    Catalogue East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival 2012Chronicle of the East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival 2012Our Guest, Totan KuzembaevThe List of Participants of the East-Siberian Zodchestvo Festival XIIBuilt ProjectsUn-built ProjectsPropaganda of Architecture Creation of Young Architects and StudentsChildren’s Architectural and Artistic Creation

  13. The influence of four macrozoobenthic species on the abundance of the amphipod Corophium volutator on tidal flats of the Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flach, E. C.

    On the tidal flats of the Wadden Sea, a zonation pattern can be found with Corophium volutator and Nereis diversicolor as the dominating species of the upper intertidal zone and Arenicola marina and Cerastoderma edule as the dominating species of the lower zone. As C. volutator can live under a great variety of physical conditions, its restriction to higher areas might result from biotic interactions. This was investigated by field experiments on a tidal flat in the westernmost part of the Wadden Sea. Within large depopulated areas, small plots were recolonized with different densities of N. diversicolor, A. marina, C. edule and Macoma balthica and the subsequent settlement and dynamics of C. volutator were studied. In addition, A. marina and/or C. edule were added to or removed from small plots within a natural benthic community. Neither the presence of M. balthica not that of N. diversicolor significantly affected the abundance of C. volutator. A strongly negative effect was found of C. edule when present in high densities, whereas A. marina negatively affected C. volutator abundance already at relatively low densities. Local removals of A. marina and C. edule from their own zone resulted in increases of Corophium numbers at these locations and local additions of these species within the Corophium zone resulted in decreases of Corophium numbers at these locations. It is suggested that the major species to restrict C. volutator effectively to the upper tidal zone is A. marina.

  14. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, Louise C

    2016-05-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is an emerging infectious disease that can present with flu-like symptoms. In individuals with comorbidities or who are immunosuppressed, it can be deadly. The disease is transmitted through contact with someone who has MERS-CoV. The occupational health nurse must be cognizant of and educate the workforce about MERS-CoV transmission, prevention, and treatment. PMID:26407596

  15. The Middle East population puzzle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omran, A R; Roudi, F

    1993-07-01

    An overview is provided of Middle Eastern countries on the following topics; population change, epidemiological transition theory and 4 patterns of transition in the middle East, transition in causes of death, infant mortality declines, war mortality, fertility, family planning, age and sex composition, ethnicity, educational status, urbanization, labor force, international labor migration, refugees, Jewish immigration, families, marriage patterns, and future growth. The Middle East is geographically defined as Bahrain, Egypt, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syria, United Arab Emirates, Yemen, Gaza and the West Bank, Iran, Turkey, and Israel. The Middle East's population grew very little until 1990 when the population was 43 million. Population was about doubled in the mid-1950s at 80 million. Rapid growth occurred after 1950 with declines in mortality due to widespread disease control and sanitation efforts. Countries are grouped in the following ways: persistent high fertility and declining mortality with low to medium socioeconomic conditions (Jordan, Oman, Syria, Yemen, and the West Bank and Gaza), declining fertility and mortality in intermediate socioeconomic development (Egypt, Lebanon, Turkey, and Iran), high fertility and declining mortality in high socioeconomic conditions (Bahrain, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates), and low fertility and mortality in average socioeconomic conditions (Israel). As birth and death rates decline, there is an accompanying shift from communicable diseases to degenerative diseases and increases in life expectancy; this pattern is reflected in the available data from Egypt, Kuwait, and Israel. High infant and child mortality tends to remain a problem throughout the Middle East, with the exception of Israel and the Gulf States. War casualties are undetermined, yet have not impeded the fastest growing population growth rate in the world. The average fertility is 5 births

  16. East Indians in the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen M. Schnepel

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Transients to Settlers: The Experience of Indians in Jamaica 1845-J950. VERENE SHEPHERD. Leeds, U.K.: Peepal Tree Books, 1993. 281 pp. (Paper £12.95 Survivors of Another Crossing: A History of East Indians in Trinidad, 1880-1946. MARIANNE D. SOARES RAMESAR. St. Augustine, Trinidad and Tobago: U.W.I. School of Continuing Education, 1994. xiii + 190 pp. (Paper n.p. Les Indes Antillaises: Presence et situation des communautes indiennes en milieu caribeen. ROGER TOUMSON (ed.. Paris: L'Harmattan, 1994. 264 pp. (Paper 140.00 FF Nation and Migration: The Politics of Space in the South Asian Diaspora. PETER VAN DER VEER (ed.. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. vi + 256 pp. (Cloth US$ 39.95, Paper US$ 17.95 In the decade since 1988, Caribbean nations with Indian communities have commemorated the 150th anniversary of the arrival of East Indians to the West Indies. These celebrations are part of local revitalization movements of Indian culture and identity stretching from the French departement of Guadeloupe in the Windward Islands to Trinidad and Guyana in the south. Political changes have mirrored the cultural revival in the region. While the debate so often in the past centered on the legitimacy of East Indian claims to local nationality in these societies where African or Creole cultures dominate, in the 1990s leaders of Indian descent were elected heads of government in the two Caribbean nations with the most populous East Indian communities: Cheddi Jagan as President of Guyana in October 1992 (after a 28-year hiatus and Basdeo Panday as Prime Minister of Trinidad in November 1995. Both men have long been associated with their respective countries' struggles for economic, political, and social equality. Outside the region during the summer of 1997, fiftieth-anniversary celebrations marking the independence of India and Pakistan from Britain confirmed that Indo chic — or "Indofrenzy" as anthropologist

  17. China reshapes the East Asian production network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐海燕; 张会清

    2009-01-01

    From the perspective of intra-product specialization and with in-depth analysis of trade statistics,this paper investigates the influence of China’s rise on the East Asian production network.Our conclusions suggest that in integrating into the East Asian production network,China has gradually emerged as the manufacturing center of East Asia,weakening the regional influence of the Four Asian Tigers.Meanwhile,the competitive effect of China’s rise has helped promote the specialization levels of the network’s members and even the network as a whole.With cooperation in various processes of intra-product specialization,internal connections of the East Asian production network were further strengthened.In addition,China became an export platform of East Asia,transforming the export pattern of the East Asian production network to world markets from "bilateral trade" into "triangular trade," trade via China.

  18. Wage Mobility in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Regina T. Riphahn; Schnitzlein, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    This article studies the long run patterns and explanations of wage mobility as a characteristic of regional labor markets. Using German administrative data we describe wage mobility since 1975 in West and since 1992 in East Germany. Wage mobility declined substantially in East Germany in the 1990s and moderately in East and West Germany since the late 1990s. Therefore, wage mobility does not balance recent increases in cross-sectional wage inequality. We apply RIF (recentered influence funct...

  19. How international economic links affect East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Nehru, Vikram

    1993-01-01

    The author applies the theme of the last two papers in the Global Economic Prospects series, written by the International Economics Department, to the case of one developing region: East Asia. He documents the rapid integration of the East Asian economies into the world economy through trade and foreign direct investment, and suggests that this has helped create a relatively well-diversified structure of production and of external markets. As a result, East Asia was relatively unaffected by t...

  20. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    OpenAIRE

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA) for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and are...

  1. Swell prediction for the East Korean coast

    OpenAIRE

    J. H. Yuk; Kim, K. O.; Choi, B. H.; K. T. Jung

    2013-01-01

    Long-period abnormally high swell waves have been generated in the East Sea near Hokkaido, Japan, in winter during the atmospheric depression. These waves, named Yorimawari in Japanese, occasionally attack the coasts of both Korea and Japan. Waves significantly higher than normal years were recorded along the east Korean coast in 2006. In 2008, the swell caused considerable damages in Toyama and the Niigata coastal area of Japan and in Anmok east coast of Korea. This paper attempts to hindcas...

  2. Middle East oil and gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study is intended to shed light on structural changes occurring in six Middle East countries (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates) that can be expected to have a significant impact on their oil and gas industry. These six countries provide 42% of the world's traded crude oil, on which Member countries of the International Energy Agency (IEA) are increasingly dependent. They also contain about 65% and 30% of the world's proven oil and natural gas reserves, respectively, and command a strategic location between Europe and Asia. The Middle East has been one of the most volatile parts of the world where war, revolution and embargoes have caused major upheavals that have led to oil supply disruptions. The oil resources of all six countries were initially developed by international oil companies and all are members of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC). In 1994, their crude oil production capacity was about 23 million barrels per day (mbd) and is planned to expand to about 28 mbd by the year 2000. Revenue from the sale of oil accounts for more than 80% of each nation's total exports and about 75% of each government's income. The objectives of this study are: to detail their announced oil and gas development plans, to describe the major trends occurring in these countries, to outline the government responses to the trends, and to analyse the impact of government policies on oil and gas development. (J.S.). 121 refs., 136 figs., 212 tabs

  3. 2008 East Asia Investment Forum Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 2008 East Asia Investment Forum was held from May 10 to May 11 in Beijing with the theme of"Investment Cooperation in East Asia Facing Global Financial Fluctuations".It shed light on investment challenges and opportunities in Vietnam,Lao,Cambodia and Burma which are the four emerging markets in East Asia,and investment hotspots in Vietnam as well as the potential for investment cooperation in East Asia.

  4. PETROCHINA WEST EAST GAS PIPELINE & SALES COMPANY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ PetroChina West East Gas Pipeline & Sales Company, a regional company directly under PetroChina Company Limited (PetroChina), is responsible for the construction and operation of the West-East Gas Pipeline Project, and the gas marketing and sales of the natural gas market in China.

  5. Transforming Higher Education in East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rudder, Helmut

    1993-01-01

    A discussion of higher education in the former German Democratic Republic looks at the common historical roots of central European universities, the different directions higher education took in East and West Germany after 1945, and the current turbulent transformation of higher education in East Germany during German unification. (Author/MSE)

  6. Massive job cuts threaten East German science

    CERN Multimedia

    Hamer, M

    1990-01-01

    German reunification could result in thousands of scientists losing their jobs. At the end of this year the East German state budget for science will run out. Scientists in the East are keen to find Western support to protect their research (1 page).

  7. Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Allen

    2011-01-01

    Providing a gateway into the real literature emerging from the Middle East, this book shows teachers how to make the topic authentic, powerful, and relevant. "Teaching the Literature of Today's Middle East": (1) Introduces teachers to this literature and how to teach it; (2) Brings to the reader a tremendous diversity of teachable texts and…

  8. East Capital suunab investorid Venemaale / Gert Tiivas ; interv. Raivo Sormunen

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Tiivas, Gert, 1973-

    2007-01-01

    Rootsi investeerimispanga East Capitali Balti regiooni juht Gert Tiivas soovitab investeerida Baltimaadest suurema potentsiaaliga riikide börsidele. Vt. samas: CV: Gert Tiivas; East Capitali fondid. Diagramm: East Capitali Venemaa fondis on enim raha

  9. East Asian perspective on global environmental problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has been conducting active global warming research programs focusing on development of a method to forecast climate change accompanying global warming both globally and in East Asia. A regional climate change forecasting method is being developed and researches are conducted on impacts of climate change on the natural and social environment in East Asia. Researches are also conducted focusing on the relationship between emissions and deposition of acid substances and assessment of the environmental impacts of acid rain in East Asia. 4 figs

  10. Volcanic caves of East Africa - an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jim W. Simons

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerous Tertiary to recent volcanoes are located in East Africa. Thus, much of the region is made up volcanic rock, which hosts the largest and greatest variety of East Africas caves. Exploration of volcanic caves has preoccupied members of Cave Exploration Group of East Africa (CEGEA for the past 30 years. The various publications edited by CEGEA are in this respect a treasure troves of speleological information. In the present paper an overview on the most important volcanic caves and areas are shortly reported.

  11. Networks model of the East Turkistan terrorism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ben-xian; Zhu, Jun-fang; Wang, Shun-guo

    2015-02-01

    The presence of the East Turkistan terrorist network in China can be traced back to the rebellions on the BAREN region in Xinjiang in April 1990. This article intends to research the East Turkistan networks in China and offer a panoramic view. The events, terrorists and their relationship are described using matrices. Then social network analysis is adopted to reveal the network type and the network structure characteristics. We also find the crucial terrorist leader. Ultimately, some results show that the East Turkistan network has big hub nodes and small shortest path, and that the network follows a pattern of small world network with hierarchical structure.

  12. Simulation Analysis of Divertor Performance in EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Sizheng; Zha Xuejun

    2005-01-01

    A detailed study of the divertor performance in the EAST has been conducted for both its double null and single null configurations. The results of the application of the SOLPS (B2/Eirene) code package to the analysis of the EAST divertor are summarized. Here we concentrate on the effects of the increased geometrical closure and variation in the magnetic topology on the behavior of divertor plasmas. The results of numerical predictions for the EAST divertor's operational window are also described in this paper.

  13. East African English. Linguistic Features and Background

    OpenAIRE

    Hermann Ingi Ragnarsson 1983

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to describe the most notable features and background of English in East Africa. That is: Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda. For this to be possible, English as a second language has to be discussed, since English is the second, third, or even fourth language of East Africa’s inhabitants. The development and characteristics of English in Africa generally will thus be discussed before the discussion turns to East African English with a special emphasis on Kenya. One of the ...

  14. Makroinfaunal biodiversitet og mikrobiel olienedbrydning

    OpenAIRE

    Ibdah, Sana; Buck, Sine; Prehn, Jonas; Enggaard, Mattias

    2006-01-01

    Gennem opstilling af enkelt-, dobbelt- og trippelartssammensætninger af henholdsvis Arinicola marina, Nereis diversicolor og Cerastoderma edule undersøger projektet sammenhængen mellem biodiversitet af bioturberende infauna og mikrobiel nedbrydning samt fjernelse for alkaner og methylphenantrener (MP) i sedimentet ved en nominel koncentration på 700 ppm råolie. Forsøget forløb over 4 uger. Ud fra ekstraktioner af sedimentet i 3 dybder ved forsøgets afslutning, hvorfra udvalgte oliekompone...

  15. Differential reproductive strategies of two bivalves in the Dutch Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Witte, Johannes IJ.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2009-08-01

    Cerastoderma edule and Mya arenaria are two common bivalve species in European waters. Longevity and maximum size are much greater in the latter species. Because comparison of species life-history strategies states that a long life span (i.e. high annual survival) generally goes with lower fecundity, we hypothesise that reproductive output would be lower in M. arenaria than in C. edule. In the present paper, we studied the reproductive strategies of these two species in an intertidal and a subtidal area of the western Dutch Wadden Sea, by following seasonal changes in absolute and relative weights of somatic and gonadal tissues in these bivalves. Starting of spawning was similar in the two species, around May, except for intertidal M. arenaria, which initiated spawning in August. Individual energy investment in reproduction was similar for the two species but, unlike M. arenaria, C. edule spawned completely, releasing all energy of gonadal mass in the form of gametes. Mya arenaria used the gonad not only for reproduction but also for storage. In the intertidal area, we found a trade-off between longevity and reproduction, i.e. maximum reproductive output (expressed as a proportion of body mass) was higher in C. edule than in M. arenaria. However, since body size is larger and life span longer in M. arenaria than in C. edule, mean lifetime reproductive output per individual must be higher in the first than in the latter. Based on the differences in reproductive strategies of these two species, we hypothesise that the negative effects of warming climate on bivalve population dynamics in the Wadden Sea will be stronger in C. edule than in M. arenaria.

  16. Lots, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset depicts the polygon boundaries of the parcels of land within the Parish of East Baton Rouge, with the exception of those parcels that fall within the...

  17. Parish Boundary, 2004, East Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This dataset depicts polygon boundary of East Baton Rouge Parish. This dataset was derived from many data sources such as aerial photographs and mylars and conveys...

  18. Hydrography, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — The Hydrography layer is an area geometry depicting the various water features that include the rivers, streams, creeks, lakes, etc of East Baton Rouge Parish.

  19. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The workshop is part of the project: `Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa` sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  20. Zoning, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the zoning boundaries of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. Zoning can be defined as the range of...

  1. Biogas - Bioenergy potential in East Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop is part of the project: 'Energy production from Sisal Waste in East Africa' sponsored by the Danish Energy Agency, an agency under the Danish Ministry of Environment and Energy. This project has been carried out in close cooperation between the Danish Technological Institute and University of Dar es Salaam, Applied Microbiology Unit, who has also taken care of the practical arrangement. The main objectives of the workshop was: To present the ongoing research in East Africa on biogas production from organic residues; To get an overview of political and administrative issues related to promotion and implementation of renewable energy facilities in East Africa; To discuss appropriate set-ups for bioenergy facilities in East Africa. (au)

  2. EAST OJAI HYDROLOGY, VENTURA COUNTY, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The basis of the hydrologic data for East Ojai FIS is the HSPF study for Ventura River watershed documented in a report entitled...

  3. Queerness and Chinese modernity : the politics of reading between East and East

    OpenAIRE

    Wong, Alvin Ka Hin

    2012-01-01

    Queerness and Chinese Modernity examines the explosion of alternative sexuality in the People's Republic of China (PRC), Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Drawing on methodologies in Chinese cultural studies, East Asian and area studies, and queer theory, I propose an inter-regional, East-East transnational approach that juxtaposes queer literature, films, new media, and cultural politics in the PRC alongside cultural productions in post-Martial Law (post- 1987) Taiwan, and Hong Kong before and after th...

  4. Equality of opportunity: East vs. West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Peichl, Andreas; Ungerer, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The case of German reunification has been subject to extensive research on earnings inequality and labor market integration. however, little is known about the development of equality of opportunity (EOp) in East and West Germany after 1990.Using German micro data, we empirically analyze how circumstances beyond the sphere of individual control explain inequality in East and West Germany. Our results suggest that equal opportunities in Germany have grown since reunification. Interestingly, EO...

  5. New Turbulence in the Middle East

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Shaoxian

    2006-01-01

    @@ Americans often say that September 11 has transformed the world, but in fact, it has primarily changed the U. S. itself. The Middle East, as well, due to a shift in U.S. policies and strategies,has gone through significant changes. This in turn has exerted substantial influence on future development of the international situation.What kind of change has taken place in the Middle East? We might find some answers from historical and realistic perspectives.

  6. Cultures of the east (1984-1992)

    OpenAIRE

    Pajin Dušan

    2013-01-01

    The quarterly journal, Cultures of the East (1984-92), was founded with the intention of presenting Near and Far East cultures to academics, as well as a wider audience, and illuminate some of its rich cultural heritage. The subtitle defined the journal as a “journal for Eastern philosophy, literature and art”. However it also contained other issues, such as religion. Some issues had a comparative approach, compiling studies (on philosophy, religion, etc.) of Eastern as well as Western ...

  7. Coinfections in East African Shorthorn Zebu

    OpenAIRE

    Callaby, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The Infectious Diseases of East African Livestock (IDEAL) project followed 548 East African Shorthorn Zebu (EASZ) calves in Western Kenya for the first year of life and monitored the sequelae of infections by multiple parasites. More than 50 different parasites were identified during this time. The IDEAL project also gathered environmental information about the farm and collected phenotypic data on the calf and its dam. Calves were also genotyped for 55,777 single nucleotide po...

  8. Is East Africa an Optimum Currency Area?

    OpenAIRE

    Mkenda, Beatrice Kalinda

    2001-01-01

    The paper investigates whether the East African Community, comprising of Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda, constitutes an optimum currency area or not. The East African Community has been revived, and one of the long-term objectives of the Community is to have a common currency. The paper employs the Generalised Purchasing Power Parity method, and various criteria suggested by the theory of Optimum Currency Areas to investigate the optimality of the Community as a currency area. While the various ...

  9. The East African rift system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2005-10-01

    This overview paper considers the East African rift system (EARS) as an intra-continental ridge system, comprising an axial rift. It describes the structural organization in three branches, the overall morphology, lithospheric cross-sections, the morphotectonics, the main tectonic features—with emphasis on the tension fractures—and volcanism in its relationships with the tectonics. The most characteristic features in the EARS are narrow elongate zones of thinned continental lithosphere related to asthenospheric intrusions in the upper mantle. This hidden part of the rift structure is expressed on the surface by thermal uplift of the rift shoulders. The graben valleys and basins are organized over a major failure in the lithospheric mantle, and in the crust comprise a major border fault, linked in depth to a low angle detachment fault, inducing asymmetric roll-over pattern, eventually accompanied by smaller normal faulting and tilted blocks. Considering the kinematics, divergent movements caused the continent to split along lines of preexisting lithospheric weaknesses marked by ancient tectonic patterns that focus the extensional strain. The hypothesis favored here is SE-ward relative divergent drifting of a not yet well individualized Somalian plate, a model in agreement with the existence of NW-striking transform and transfer zones. The East African rift system comprises a unique succession of graben basins linked and segmented by intracontinental transform, transfer and accommodation zones. In an attempt to make a point on the rift system evolution through time and space, it is clear that the role of plume impacts is determinant. The main phenomenon is formation of domes related to plume effect, weakening the lithosphere and, long after, failure inducing focused upper mantle thinning, asthenospheric intrusion and related thermal uplift of shoulders. The plume that had formed first at around 30 Ma was not in the Afar but likely in Lake Tana region (Ethiopia

  10. Pathways to an East Asian Higher Education Area: A Comparative Analysis of East Asian and European Regionalization Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Roger Y., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    The Author argues that historical regional developments in Europe and East Asia greatly influence the formation of an East Asian Higher Education Area. As such, this article compares European and East Asian regionalization and higher education regionalization processes to show this path dependency in East Asian regionalization of higher education…

  11. The great East Japan earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    'Full text:' More formally called the Tohoku-Chihou-Taiheiyo-Oki Earthquake of March 11, 2011, it was the ensuing tsunami that caused the most death and destruction to the north-east coastal region of Japan. It is also what caused the multiple meltdowns at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Reactor Unit 1, ironically, was scheduled to be permanently shut down for decommissioning just two weeks later. The Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant has a tsunami protection barrier designed for the worst recorded tsunami in that area since 1896 - to a height of 5.7 m. The plant itself is on an elevated grade of about 10 m. The tsunami, reported to be 14-15 m, caused inundation of the entire site with at least four metres of seawater. The seawater flooded the turbine building and damaged electrical equipment including the emergency diesel generators, leaving the entire six-unit nuclear power plan without any source of AC power, known as the 'station blackout scenario'. There are numerous reports available on-line at various sites. The Japanese Government report is frank and forthcoming on the causes and the lessons learned, and the lAEA Mission report is in-depth and well presented, not only as a factual account of the events but as a unified source of the conclusions and lessons learned. Photos of the catastrophe are available at the TEPCO web site: http://www.tepco.co.jp/en/index-e.html. In this edition of the Bulletin there is a 'layman's' description of CANDU and BWR design in terms of the fundamental safety principles - Control, Cool and Contain as well as a description of how these principles were met, or not met at Fukushima Dai-ichi. Also, an excerpt from the IAEA Expert Mission is included. We 'technocrats' sometimes forget about the human aspects of a nuclear disaster. An essay by Dr. Michael Edwards is included entitled 'Psychology, Philosophy and Nuclear Science'. Other references to the events appear throughout this edition.(author)

  12. Progress of the EAST project in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) project is one of the National Mega-Projects of Science Research (MPSR) in China, which was approved by Chinese government in 1997. The name of the project was changed from HT-7U ( Hefei Tokamak 7 Upgrade) to EAST last October. EAST is a full superconducting tokamak with the elongated cross-section.The main parameters of EAST tokamak (for the first phase) are Bt = 3.5T, R0 = 1.75m,Ip = 1MA, a = 0.4m, κ(b/a) = 1 ∼ 2 with double and single null divertor, PLHCD = 3.5 - 4MW, PICRH = 3 - 4MW, PECRH = 0.5MW and the maximum pulse long will be 1000 seconds. If the working temperature can achieve at 3.8 K the second phase will be with Bt 4.0T and Ip = 1.5MA. The mission of EAST project is to investigate both the physics and technology for the steady-state and advanced tokamak as well as the power and particle handling under the steady-state operation condition. Since the EAST project was approved in 1998 the significant progress has been achieved including: the physical and engineering design; the most of R and D activities; cabling and jacking of CICC; vacuum vessel, thermal shield and cryostat; most of TF, CS and PF magnet and their testing; most of other subsystem. The final assembly of EAST is under way. It is plane to get the first plasma around end of 2005. The detail information of design and the testing results of TF, CS and large PF magnets as well as the experimental plane will be given in this paper. (author)

  13. Oil resource wealth of the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economics of the Middle East oil industry are examined. The inexhaustible nature of oil resources, ultimate recovery, inventory turnover in 1960-1990, growth in oil fields, the balance between oil price rises due to continued extraction and lowering costs due to technology improvement, recent investment requirements in five areas, myths about cost, price and investment, the unbalance in the world industry, objectives of the Middle East nations, economic aspects of the Gulf War, and the impact of Middle East factors on the price of oil are discussed. Resource extraction has little, if any impact on oil costs and prices. Oil production costs have exhibited a falling long run trend, and the cost to produce oil in the Middle East is much lower than elsewhere. Having defended very high prices in the early 1980s, Middle East producers experienced a sharp reduction in their sales. To improve their ability to manage the oil market and control prices, the producers must expand their market share. This presupposes a period of prices that are even lower than in the late 1980s, which producers seem unwilling to accept. 28 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  14. Middle East gas: a brighter outlook?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past year, the prospects for both oil and gas producing countries in the Middle East have greatly improved. Apart from the increase in the price of oil, a long term strategy for better exploitation of gas reserves is enhancing the prospects for growth throughout the Middle East. The effect of the fall in oil prices hit Qatar particularly hard: the knock-on effect was felt throughout the whole of Qatar. The current objectives in Qatar are to develop the export market and make better use of the gas reserves at home: developments toward this aim are discussed. Developments in Oman, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Iran and Egypt are discussed. Some speculative intra-regional and export pipeline projects are discussed. The main markets for middle east gas are mentioned

  15. Modelling of First Discharge in EAST Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chengyue; WU Bin; XIAO Bingjia; SHU Shuangbao

    2008-01-01

    An 1.5D equilibrium evolution code was used to model the time evolution of the first ohmic discharges in the EAST experiment. Good agreement between the simulation and the experimental results was obtained in the plasma current, major radius, electron temperature, loop voltage and poloidal field (PF) current for the entire duration of the discharge, which indicates that the code is highly reliable and will allow to further study the EAST discharge. At the same time, the code also simulates some important plasma parameters without experimental measured data yet, such as the plasma minor radius, central and edge safety factors, elongation and triangilarity, which are important in the analysis of EAST data.

  16. The Middle East, OPEC and oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of the Middle East to the oil industry, was discussed. The unresolved Arab-Israeli dispute and the ongoing conflicts in the Gulf are the two main reasons for political instability in the Middle East. This in turn, shapes the security of the region and its oil supplies. The factors which will shape the future of OPEC, including the Arab-Israeli conflict, the issue of the return of Iraqi crude to the market, and production decisions by Saudi Arabia were discussed in the context of their impact on OPEC's role as a coordinator of oil policies and of market stabilisation through price control

  17. Education Quality in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-07-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest challenges facing education and government leaders across the region. This paper summarises recent evidence regarding student learning in the MENA region and draws on Galal's model of policy formulation in considering ways that governments across the Middle East might address this problem.

  18. Huntington Disease (Chorea) in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Scrimgeour, Euan M.

    2009-01-01

    Huntington disease (HD) has been reported in Arab families in several Middle East countries including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Syria, Lebanon, and Egypt and in non-Arab populations in other countries in the region. It is probably under-reported, and until now, has not been recorded in Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, Jordan or in Iraq. The Middle East has always been on the crossroads of trade and travel, and HD was probably introduced to some of these countries in previous times. The prevalence r...

  19. African Muslim Youth and the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ihle, Annette Haaber

    express as their expectations that they will through Islamic studies get an opportunity to move upwards socially and materially. Therefore, they dream of going abroad to study in the Middle East. For the time being, religious study grants to the Middle East seem to be one of the few ways for them to gain...... part in the adventures and experiences of globalization in a socially and religiously acceptable way. With its high reputation the al-Azhar in Cairo, Egypt, has played a central role for the establishment of this tradition of religious study trips in an African context. On the basis of 10 months of...

  20. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis o...

  1. Middle East Chronic Water Problems: Solution Prospects

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein Al-Rimmawi

    2012-01-01

    Water shortages have been for a long time a serious problem in the Middle East as well as other parts of the world. The large and arid land of the Middle East has also been dependant on water which is provided by few rivers. This issue has been tackled by researchers, orientalists and exploration associations (Palestine Exploration Fund 1882, and Oliphant, 1880). The aim of this paper is to tackle ways of managing and solving chromic water shortages and hydropolitical tensions in the Middle E...

  2. Near east growth potential of poultry

    OpenAIRE

    Soliman, Ibrahim; EL Issawi, Hussein

    1981-01-01

    T h e r e is considerable evidences f or increasing the number of eggs and poultry projects in the near east countries during the next 20 years. A development program f o r 1 8 Near East countries has been drawn up by H. F. El-Issawi and I. Soliman which aims at raising average annual per caput consumption from current 4.4kg of poultry-meat and 56 table-eggs to 12.8kg and 128 eggs by the year 2000. Three regional projects are proposed to support the overall development program, which, bein...

  3. Educational Transition of East Malaysian Distance Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saw, K. G.; Awang, M. N.; Idrus, R. M.; Atan, H.; Azli, N. A.; Jaafar, I.; Rahman, Z. A.; Latiff, Z. A.

    1999-01-01

    Describes results of a study of the changing perceptions of East Malaysian distance learners studying at the Universiti Sains Malaysia. Highlights include students' perceptions of their study skills; and the impact of their studies on other areas of their life, including social obligations, recreation, families, health, finances, work, and…

  4. Five bid to host Middle East synchroton

    CERN Multimedia

    McCabe, H

    1999-01-01

    Germany is willing to donate a synchrotron to a research centre to be built somewhere in the Middle East. Bids to host the centre were submitted by Turkey, Cyprus, Iran, the Palestinian Authority and Egypt. Funding of at least 30 million US dollars still needs to be found (1 page).

  5. Evolution of pigs in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The research into the origins of domestic animals is of significance not only for understanding their development per se, but also for making clear the human society evolution. Although there are evidences to show that pigs were independently domesticated in a variety of places throughout the world, the detailed scenario of the origin and dispersal of domestic pigs in East Asia remains unclear.

  6. Progress of the EAST project in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) project is one of the National Mega-Projects of Science Research of China, which was approved by Chinese government in 1998. EAST is a full superconducting tokamak with an elongated plasma cross-section. The mission of the project is to widely investigate both of the physics and the technologies of advanced tokamak operations, especially the mechanism of power and particle handling for steady-state operations. The basic requirements for the EAST tokamak are full superconducting coils, suitable inductive current system, continuous working non-inductive current driven and heating systems, flexible operation scenarios, flexible J(r) and P(r) control, reliable and fast plasma positioning and shaping control, changeable plasma facing components, advanced divertor and diagnostics. Significant progress of the EAST project has been achieved during last two years. The R and D programs, mainly focused on the superconducting magnets, have processed successfully. The prototypes of main parts have been fabricated and qualified. Most of the key parts of the machine have been delivered to the assembly site. The assembly of the device has begun. It is planned to obtain the first plasma in 2005. The detail information of the testing results of superconducting magnets will be given in this paper. The assembly plan and the experimental plan will be introduced, too. (author)

  7. Observatories in East and Central Europe

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hejda, Pavel

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2007 - (Gubbins, D.; Herrero-Bervera, E.), s. 728-729. (Encyclopedia of Earth sciences series). ISBN 978-1-4020-3992-8 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : magnetic observatory * East and Central Europe * INTERMAGNET network Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  8. Academic Freedom and Middle East Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colla, Elliott

    2007-01-01

    When the author and his colleague Marsha Pripstein Posusney of Bryant College organized a workshop, entitled "The Study of the Middle East and Islam: Challenges after 9-11," at the Watson Institute for International Studies at Brown University, he naively assumed it would come off without friction. After all, he thought, they were not even talking…

  9. Education Quality in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, David W.; Miric, Suzanne L.

    2009-01-01

    Some of the most dramatic growth in the provision of primary and secondary education over the last decade has occurred across countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA). Yet student achievement across MENA is lagging compared to many other parts of the world. Low quality of education is a primary concern and one of the greatest…

  10. East-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements made in 1974-1975 at the Aarne Karjalainen Observatory do not show any east-west asymmetry of Saturn's rings. Combining the photometric data available for 1913-1975, one finds that the asymmetry varies in an irregular manner without correlating with Saturn's orbital period. (Auth.)

  11. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental
    health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008).
    This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emerg

  12. The pollution of East Lake,Wuhan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yi xiGu; Mialy Rakotondravah

    2009-01-01

    @@ 1.The history East Lake was an open lake:she connected Yangtze River through Qlngshan Channel.The water level was controlled by Yangtze River:rising in summer,and decreasing in winter.After building Wufeng Gate in 1957,changing the Qingshan harbor as water supply channel,the East Lake is completely isolated from Yangtze River and then East Lake changes from a natural lake to a closed lake by human control.The watar level is related with rainfall,evaporation,surface runoff,pumping off by the factories along the lake,agricultural and domestic sewage water.East Lake is a typical shallow lake in the northeast of Wuhan city.When the water level is 20.5m,the area is 28km2, volume is 62 million m3,and catchment area is 186 km2.The deepest position:4.75m,average depth is 2.21m2,And also it is a multi-function:water-sport entertainments.drinking water source,fishing,industrial water and famous scene.

  13. East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Meghan; Lehmann, Joel; Rucogoza, Aniceth; Kayobotsi, Claver; Das, Ashis; Schneidman, Miriam

    2016-01-01

    This report summarizes the main findings from the application of performance based incentives linked to progress on a standardized, globally recognized metric - the stepwise laboratory improvement process towards accreditation (SLIPTA) checklist - under the East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP) in Rwanda. The lab performance-based financing (PBF) pilot was intro...

  14. Lessons learned in developing community mental health care in East and South East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Ito, Hiroto; SETOYA, YUTARO; Suzuki, Yuriko

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarizes the findings for the East and South East Asia Region of the WPA Task Force on Steps, Obstacles and Mistakes to Avoid in the Im-plementation of Community Mental Health Care. The paper presents a description of the region, an overview of mental health policies, a critical ap-praisal of community mental health services developed, and a discussion of the key obstacles and challenges. The main recommendations address the needs to campaign to reduce stigma, i...

  15. RAND's Impact in the Middle East. Corporate Publication

    Science.gov (United States)

    RAND Corporation, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The RAND Corporation works throughout the Middle East to analyze complex policy problems and help policymakers create enduring solutions. RAND's work in the Middle East focuses on the issues that drive economic development. This brief report provides an overview of RAND's impact in the Middle East in the areas of supporting youth, health and…

  16. Biological impact of eutrophication in the bay of somme and the induction and impact of anoxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desprez, M.; Rybarczyk, H.; Wilson, J. G.; Ducrotoy, J. P.; Sueur, F.; Olivesi, R.; Elkaim, B.

    The first effects of eutrophication in the Bay of Somme became apparent in the years 1982-1985, when the cockle population collapsed. Areas of high mortality were mapped. Following exceptionally high summer temperatures, other effects were seen in 1982, 1983 and 1989, notably a mass mortality of the benthos. It appeared that the mortality of the benthos was a direct result of anoxia in the water promoted by phytoplankton blooms which were due to high nitrogen levels (nitrates from river and land runoff; ammonium from estuarine bivalve populations). Effects from the change in the benthic community (the disappearance of Cerastoderma edule and the proliferation of Pygospio elegans) were also apparent higher up in the food chain, viz. changes in the diet of the two main predators of the bivalve, the oystercatcher ( Haematopus ostralegus) and the common gull ( Larus canus). Following respirometry measurements of the water, sediment and the major macrobenthic species ( Cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica, Nereis diversicolor, Hydrobia ulvae), a model for anoxia was constructed.

  17. Assessing the contributions of East African and West Pacific warming to the 2014 boreal spring East African drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shraddhanand; Hoell, Andrew; Livneh, Ben

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic warming contributed to the 2014 East African drought by increasing East African and west Pacific temperatures, and increasing the gradient between standardized western and central Pacific SST causing reduced rainfall, evapotranspiration, and soil moisture.

  18. Excerpt from East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Kuo

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Excerpted from Karen Kuo, East Is West and West Is East: Gender, Culture, and Interwar Encounters between Asia and America (Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Reprinted with permission from Temple University Press.

  19. Plastitootja edule aitas kaasa tollinõuete lihtsustumine / Teeli Remmelg

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Remmelg, Teeli

    2005-01-01

    Hiiumaa TOP-i võitja M ja P Nurst AS-i juhataja Mati Nurst ettevõtte loomisest ja tegevusest. Diagramm: Käive on aastaga kahekordistunud. Vt. samas: Endel Lepitso: Esimene plastitööstuse lend sai Hiiumaalt tuule tiibadesse

  20. Tallinki edule jättis pleki suuromanik / Hindrek Riikoja

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Riikoja, Hindrek

    2005-01-01

    2005. aasta oli Eesti laevafirmale Tallink edukas: laevafirma ostis aasta jooksul kolm uut laeva, firma suudab pakkuda konkurentsi tervel Läänemerel ning ettevõtte aktsiaid omandas börsil üks protsent Eesti elanikest. Lisa, graafik: Uued tulijad börsil

  1. The Middle East in the year 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Middle East in the year 2000 provides all insight into the political and economic changes taking place in the region and explains what they mean for the oil and gas industry. This comprehensive report combines published forecasts with expert comment and analysis, making it a highly practical business guide. With oil and gas at the heart of its discussion it looks in detail at: the likely shape of the Middle East into the next century, with a country-by-country review; the declared aspirations of Middle Eastern countries, with likely economic trends including oil production; the complete political and economic picture and what the future may hold; the long- and short-term future for oil; how oil prices will change over the coming years; the impact of non-Opec production on the region; the opportunities and competitive advantages for companies wanting to do business in the region; fundamentalism versus democracy; and various political scenarios. (author)

  2. The post-war Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Middle East remains today the global energy fulcrum. One year after the Persian Gulf war, the region is in greater turmoil and political uncertainty than it has known in modern times. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait and subsequent external military intervention forced neighboring states to question the need for a foreign military presence in the future. The rift between the secular revolutionary states in the region led by Iraq, Libya, Yemen, Algeria, and Syria and the traditional monarchy of Saudi Arabia and the emirates of the gulf has widened. Egypt provides, at present, an uncomfortable bridge. The balance of political forces may be shifting. This paper attempts to answer the following questions: Where will we see the new leadership in the Middle East? Will it again play a role through the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries and determination of the oil price in shaping the structure of global energy supply and demand?

  3. Measurement of Radiated Power Loss on EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段艳敏; 王亮; 胡立群; 毛松涛; 许平; 陈开云; 林士耀; 钟国强; 张继宗; 张凌

    2011-01-01

    A type of silicon detector known as AXUV (absolute extreme ultraviolet) photodiodes is successfully used to measure the radiated power in EAST. The detector is characterized by compact structure, fast temporal response (〈0.5 s) and flat spectral sensitivity in the range from ultra-violet to X-ray. Two 16-channel AXUV arrays are installed in EAST to view the whole poloidal cross-section of plasma. Based on the diagnostic system, typical radiation distributions for both limiter and divertor plasma are obtained and compared. As divertor detachment occurs, the radiation distribution in X-point region is observed to vary distinctly. The total radiation power losses in discharges with different plasma parameters are briefly analyzed.

  4. The nuclear age in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The book analyses, clarifies and summarises, from various aspects, some of the many questions concerning the motivation, the meaning, the economics, the dangers and the risks of introducing nuclear technology into the Middle East area following the recent agreements between some Mid Eastern countries and the United States, France, Germany and the U.S.S.R. about the supply of nuclear power reactors and nuclear fuel to the Middle East. The recent strong nuclear prgrams of countries such as India and Iran, who have wide-ranging ties with the Mid-Eastern countries, coupled with the huge revenues of petrodollars by the Arab countries of the area, together with the dangers of another 1973-type oil embargo are discussed and the triple crises of energy, ecology and nuclear weapons proliferation are considered. (B.G.)

  5. The Procedure for Assembling the EAST Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Songtao

    2005-01-01

    Due to the complicated constitution and high precision requirements of the EAST superconducting tokamak, a meticulous assembling procedure and measurement scheme must be established. The big size and mass of the EAST machine's components and complicated configuration with tight installation tolerances call for a highly careful assembling procedure. The assembling procedure consists of three main sub-procedures for the assembling of the base, of the tori of the VV, the vacuum vessel TS and the TF, and of the peripheral parts respectively. Before the assembly, a reference framework has been set up by means of an industrial measurement system with reference fiducial targets fixed on the wall of the test hall. In this paper, the assembling procedure is described in detail, the survey control system of the assembly is discussed, and progress in the assembly work is also reported.

  6. DIVIMP Modeling of Impurity Transport in EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simulations of carbon impurity transport in SOL/divertor plasmas with Ohmic heating on EAST tokamak were performed using the two-dimensional (2D) Monte Carlo impurity transport code DIVIMP. The background plasmas for DIVIMP simulations were externally taken from B2.5/Eirene calculation. Besides the basic output of DIVIMP, the 2D density distributions of the carbon impurity with different ionization states and neutral carbon atoms were obtained, the 2D distributions of CII and CIII emissivities from C+1 and C+2 radiation respectively were also calculated. Comparison between the measured and calculated CIII emissivities showed favorable agreement, indicating that the impurity physics transport models, as implemented in the DIVIMP code, are suitable for the EAST tokamak plasma condition. (magnetically confined plasma)

  7. DIVIMP Modeling of Impurity Transport in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fuqiong; Chen, Yiping; Hu, Liqun

    2014-07-01

    Simulations of carbon impurity transport in SOL/divertor plasmas with Ohmic heating on EAST tokamak were performed using the two-dimensional (2D) Monte Carlo impurity transport code DIVIMP. The background plasmas for DIVIMP simulations were externally taken from B2.5/Eirene calculation. Besides the basic output of DIVIMP, the 2D density distributions of the carbon impurity with different ionization states and neutral carbon atoms were obtained, the 2D distributions of CII and CIII emissivities from C+1 and C+2 radiation respectively were also calculated. Comparison between the measured and calculated CIII emissivities showed favorable agreement, indicating that the impurity physics transport models, as implemented in the DIVIMP code, are suitable for the EAST tokamak plasma condition.

  8. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deola, R.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Air Quality Dept.

    1996-09-01

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM{sub 10}) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted.

  9. Cultures of the east (1984-1992

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Dušan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The quarterly journal, Cultures of the East (1984-92, was founded with the intention of presenting Near and Far East cultures to academics, as well as a wider audience, and illuminate some of its rich cultural heritage. The subtitle defined the journal as a “journal for Eastern philosophy, literature and art”. However it also contained other issues, such as religion. Some issues had a comparative approach, compiling studies (on philosophy, religion, etc. of Eastern as well as Western origin on a given topic. Recently two digital internet presentations of the journal issues have been posted to the following site: http://yu-budizam.com/knjige/#kulture. In this text we will present relevant texts dedicated to philosophy and topics related to philosophy, like meditation, mysticism, ethics, or psychology.

  10. East Mountain Area 1995 air sampling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ambient air samples were taken at two locations in the East Mountain Area in conjunction with thermal testing at the Lurance Canyon Burn Site (LCBS). The samples were taken to provide measurements of particulate matter with a diameter less than or equal to 10 micrometers (PM10) and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). This report summarizes the results of the sampling performed in 1995. The results from small-scale testing performed to determine the potentially produced air pollutants in the thermal tests are included in this report. Analytical results indicate few samples produced measurable concentrations of pollutants believed to be produced by thermal testing. Recommendations for future air sampling in the East Mountain Area are also noted

  11. Chitinozoan diversity in the East Baltic Silurian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestor, Viiu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Data on the diversity of the East Baltic Silurian chitinozoans have been compared to global chitinozoan biozones that are approximately correlated with the graptolite scale. The total diversity and balanced total diversity curves have three main positive peaks in the Wenlock and Ludlow and diversity lowstands in most of the Llandovery and Pridoli. The turnover ratio and species origination curves are lowest and species extinction is highest in the lower Wenlock, correlating partly with the Ireviken Event. Chitinozoan diversity is related to the transgression–regression phases of the Silurian Baltic basin, water chemistry and temperature, and evolutionary processes of the faunal group. At the level of the Silurian standard stages the trends in the East Baltic and Swedish chitinozoan diversity curves are in general outline similar to the global diversity curve.

  12. East Asian oil markets and refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview of the changes taking place and about to take place in China, Japan, South Korea and Taiwan in the oil business is presented. The focus is mainly on product demand, quality of product, refining and trade balances. Charts show (i) demand for oil products to 2005, (ii) oil demand to 2005, (iii) the demand barrel by country, (iv) CDU capacity to 2005, (v) cracking to distillation ratios to 2005, (vi) fuel oil's share in demand barrel and (vii) net product trade. It was concluded that despite recent economic difficulties in East Asia, the oil market is large and dynamic and China in particular is a major oil producer with a fast growing oil demand. Overall, East Asia is a growth market for petroleum with an expected addition of some 2.4 million bpd of extra demand between 1998 and 2005. (UK)

  13. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.;

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The...... expected angular momentum density change is about 3.8 N/m2, nearly 10 times larger than the calculation. Previous work on EAST has suggested that there is a mechanism at the edge that breaks the rotation, while the core rotation change is mostly likely related with momentum transport to the edge. In other...

  14. Ion cyclotron resonance heating system on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating (ICRH) system which can provide no less than 10 MW radio frequency (RF) heating power (frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz) is being set up for the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST) in the institute of plasma physics. System includes High-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, liquid phase shifter and resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. Now one ICRH system unit whose ultimate output is 2.5 MW has been set up and employed for RF heating experiment and maximum of the injected RF power reached to 200 kW in 2008 EAST tokamak experiment. The results of ICRH heating are satisfying. (author)

  15. Unocal schedules field development off East Kalimantan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-07

    Unocal Indonesia Ltd. has let a turnkey contract to PT Gema SemBrown (GSB) to build a platform to set in the deepest water yet off Indonesia. This paper reports on the contract, which is worth more than $40 million, and calls for GSB to engineer, procure, fabricate, install, and hook up Unocal's SA drilling and production platform in 335 ft of water in Serang field. Site is in Makassar Strait, about 25 miles off East Kalimantan. GSB in October began fabricating the Serang SA platform at its Sunda Strait fabrication yard in West Java, Indonesia. GSB is to complete the platform on a fast track schedule in time for installation in July 1993. The project includes two export trunk lines connecting Serang field with Unocal's Melahin field. Production will come ashore at Santan on East Kalimantan.

  16. IDEAL Symposium on the East African Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T. C.; Kelts, K.; Lehman, J. T.; Wuest, A.

    A vast array of interdisciplinary problems presented by the African Great Lakes were highlighted at the International Symposium on the Limnology, Climatology and Paleoclimatology of the East African Lakes, organized by the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) February 17-21 in Jinja, Uganda. Approximately 125 scientists attended from North America, Europe, Africa, and New Zealand. Jinja is located on the northern shore of Lake Victoria at the head-waters of the Nile and is the site of the host institution for the symposium, the Uganda Freshwater Fisheries Research Organization (UFFRO). The conveners of the symposium were Tom Johnson of Duke University, George Kitaka of UNESCO-ROSTA, and Eric Odada of the University of Nairobi.

  17. Characterisation of Quaternary sediments from East Anglia

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell, C J; Bloodworth, A.J.; Evans, E. J.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes the mineralogical investigations of Quaternary sediments,mainly Cromer Till, collected from East Anglia. The main aim of the work was to characterise the mineralogical and physical properties of the till samples to facilitate correlation between tills from different localities. The clast composition of the samples was determined using a binocular microscope and the mineralogy of the matrix was determined using X-ray diffraction and thermogravimetry. Calibration charts we...

  18. Heart Failure in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Al-Shamiri, Mostafa Q

    2013-01-01

    The clinical syndrome of heart failure is the final pathway for a myriad of diseases that affect the heart, and is a leading and growing cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Evidence-based guidelines have provided clinicians with valuable data for better applying diagnostic and therapeutic tools, particularly the overwhelming new imaging technology and other, often expensive, therapies and devices, in heart failure patients. In the Middle East, progress has recently been made with the ...

  19. Will East Germany Become a New Mezzogiorno?

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Boltho; Wendy Carlin; Pasquale Scaramozzino

    1996-01-01

    Despite massive regional policy efforts, GDP per capita in Southern Italy has only briefly converged on Northern Italian levels (during the 1960s). Failure since then is associated with a policy switch from investment towards income maintenance, with reduced wage sensitivity to regional labour market conditions and with increases in rent-seeking opportunities and corruption. East Germany’s early experience of rapid wage and income, but not productivity, convergence raised fears that a Mezzogi...

  20. Lessons from East Asia's Crisis and Recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Bacha, Obiyathulla I.

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an empirical analysis of the currency crisis and recovery in three East Asian countries, Malaysia, Thailand and South Korea. Using macro economic data for the three countries over a 13 year period, 1990 – 2002, the paper examines the factors leading to the crisis, the policy response to the crisis, an evaluation of their recovery and the lessons that can be learnt. During the seven year period prior to the crisis, all three countries experienced very rapid GDP growth. C...

  1. Isotopic heterogeneity of East Antarctic mantle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotopic heterogeneity of deep garnet-bearing mantle xenolytes of East Antarctics is studied to analyze the mechanisms of geochemical heterogeneity occurrence in the Earth mantle. Analysis of isotope data for the system 143Nd/144Nd - Sm/Nd permitted ascertaining the time of the last thermal impact on the mantle material (108-35 bill. years) for certain nodules, which is close to the age of ultra base alkali magmatism intrusion

  2. A putative East Asian business model

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Low

    2006-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to distill from both the Asian “miracle” and the “meltdown” since the Asian crisis, a generic East Asian business model which is changing in the context of globalisation, information communication technology, knowledge-based economy, deregulation and emerging new competition. Design/methodology/approach – The generic business model considers the creative and innovative nature of intellectual capital in a qualitative macroeconomic development model rather than a quant...

  3. Media and Teaching about the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaviani, Khodadad

    2009-01-01

    This qualitative study was conducted in 2006-2007 and found that teachers relied on a variety of readily available media to stay informed about the Middle East and used some of them in their teaching. Teachers tried to explain to their students that every Middle Eastern Muslim is not a terrorist and Iraq was not behind the 9/11 terrorist attacks.…

  4. Clontuskert Augustinian Priory, east window, mullion

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, Danielle

    2003-01-01

    Mullion of curvilinear east window. Mullion is moulded at both inner and outer faces. Inner face comprises: frontal fillet flanked at either side by hollow chamfer, quadrant, hollow chamfer. The moulding of the outer face comprises: frontal fillet flanked at either side by hollow chamfer, right-angled rebate and hollow chamfer. The sides of the mullion have glass grooves, closer to the outer face.

  5. Assessing sanitary mixtures in East African cities

    OpenAIRE

    Letema, S.C.

    2012-01-01

    The urbanisation of poverty and informality in East African cities poses a threat to environmental health, perpetuates social exclusion and inequalities, and creates service gaps (UN-Habitat, 2008). This makes conventional sanitation provision untenable citywide, giving rise to the emergence of sanitation mixtures. Sanitation mixtures have different scales, institutional arrangements, user groups, and rationalities for their establishment, location, and management. For assessing the performan...

  6. Population and Inequality in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Harry Oshima; Andrew Mason

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the inequality experience of East Asia beginning around 1960 and explores whether that experience is consistent with alternative theories about the determinants of income inequality. Particular emphasis is placed on the implications of rapid economic growth and rapid demographic change that characterized the region. Simple models do not capture the enormous complexity that is characteristic of the region. The differences and the trends in inequality reflect a variety of h...

  7. Embedded data acquisition system for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embedded data acquisition system for the Experimental Advanced Super- conducting Tokamak (EAST) was designed. This system is based on the FPGA and ARM technology, integrates signal conditioning, data acquisition and processing into the single board, and provides a high integration and portability level architecture. At the same time, the 'time sliced' technology is introduced into the software system for providing a continuous acquisition and quasi real-time data transferring capability. (authors)

  8. Growth with Equity in East Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Jomo K.S.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid growth and structural change have reduced poverty in East Asian economies. Income inequality has been low in Korea and Taiwan, but has risen in recent years with economic liberalization. In the Southeast Asian economies of Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia, poverty has declined, while income inequality trends have varied, rising most clearly in Thailand. With its strengthened (private) property rights, market liberalization and sustained rapid growth, China has also experienced increased...

  9. MPGShipyard docks into the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Rita Isabel Paiva da

    2011-01-01

    MPG is a metalworking production company that recently refocused to the shipbuilding activity, particularly hulls for offshore support vessel (OSV) for staff and equipment transport to oil platforms. As offshore oil platforms increase, so does the demand for OSV, particularly in the Middle East - one of world’s leaders in the offshore investment. Since the Portuguese market doesn’t present itself as solution and the European market is highly competitive, it is necessary to deve...

  10. Cardiovascular Disease in Central and East Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdalena Kozela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD contributes greatly to inequalities in health in Europe. The CVD death rate in Ukraine (the highest is seven fold higher than in France (the lowest. There is also a striking difference in CVD mortality between European Union (EU members before the enlargement in 2004 and Central and East European (CEE countries that joined the EU in 2004 and non-EU countries. The difference in CVD mortality between West and East Europe grew during the 1970s and 1980s when rates declined in the West and either remained the same or rose in the CEE countries. Political reforms at the beginning of the 1990s, which were followed by great socio-economic changes coincided with further diversification in CVD mortality in CEE countries. Diverse trends in CVD mortality were followed by larger gaps in life expectancy between West and East Europe and within the CEE.Rapid development of high technology treatment procedures, which followed the economic recovery of the CEE countries, would have only limited influence on the overall control of CVD. Exposure to classic risk factors might largely explain the longitudinal trend in falling CVD mortality in some countries, but it is unlikely that it could explain rapid changes in the others. Still, large potential to control the disease lies in developing effective preventive policies with targets to lower exposure to the classic CVD risk factors. The recent history of CVD in CEE countries makes the “alcohol hypothesis” less convincing as an explanation for CVD mortality trends and differences between East and West Europe. The hypothesis that dynamic changes in CVD mortality in CEE countries are triggered and explained largely by psychosocial factors is attractive. However, if confirmed, transforming such knowledge into a practical health policy would be a great challenge.

  11. Water resource conflicts in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, C

    1997-01-01

    This article discusses the causes and sources of water resource conflict in the 3 major international river basins of the Middle East: the Tigris-Euphrates, the Nile, and the Jordan-Yarmuk. The physical geography of the Middle East is arid due to descending air, northeast trade winds, the southerly location, and high evaporation rates. Only Turkey, Iran, and Lebanon have adequate rainfall for population needs. Their mountainous geography and more northerly locations intercept rain and snow bearing westerly winds in winter. Parts of every other country are vulnerable to water shortages. Rainfall is irregular. Water resource conflicts are due to growing populations, economic development, rising standards of living, technological developments, political fragmentation, and poor water management. Immigration to the Jordan-Yarmuk watershed has added to population growth in this location. Over 50% of the population in the Middle East lives in urban areas where populations consume 10-12 times more water than those in rural areas. Water is wasted in irrigation schemes and huge dams with reservoirs where increased evaporation occurs. Technology results in greater water extraction of shallow groundwater and pollution of rivers and aquifers. British colonial government control led to reduced friction in most of the Nile basin. Now all ethnic groups have become more competitive and nationalistic. The Cold War restrained some of the conflict. Israel obtains 40% of its water from aquifers beneath the West Bank and Gaza. Geopolitical factors determine the mutual goodwill in managing international water. The 3 major water basins in the Middle East pose the greatest risk of water disputes. Possible solutions include conservation, better management, prioritizing uses, technological solutions, increased cooperation among co-riparians, developing better and enforceable international water laws, and reducing population growth rates. PMID:12178551

  12. Credit policies : lessons from East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Vittas, Dimitri; Yoon Je Cho

    1995-01-01

    Directed credit programs were a major tool of development in the 1960s and 1970s. In the 1980s, their usefulness was reconsidered. Experience in most countries showed that they stimulated capital-intensive projects, that preferential funds were often (mis)used for nonpriority purposes, that a decline in financial discipline led to low repayment rates, and that budget deficits swelled. Moreover, the programs were hard to remove. But Japan and other East Asian countries have long touted the mer...

  13. Middle East and North Africa Regional Brief

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    The process of political change and transition across much of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region continued into 2013, with a great degree of heterogeneity across countries. The crisis in Syria has escalated and caused massive impact on the inflow of refugees to Lebanon, Jordan, and Iraq. Creating the right environment for growth will be critical as only growth can drive job cre...

  14. Economic Development in the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Yochanan Shachmurove

    2004-01-01

    The economic and financial development are examined in Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Morocco, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, and Yemen, representing the Middle East and North Africa region. Lengthy bureaucratic procedures, unclear regulations, corruption, and heavy reliance on oil exports pose major obstacles to economic development and integration into global markets. These controlled economies directly affect foreign and domestic i...

  15. Expropriation of Minority Shareholders in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Claessens, Stijn; Djankov, Simeon; Fan, Joseph P.H.; Lang, Larry H. P.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the evidence on expropriation of minority shareholders by the controlling shareholder in publicly traded companies in nine East Asian countries. Higher cash-flow rights are associated with higher market valuation. In contrast, higher control rights have an insignificant or negative effect on corporate valuation. Deviations of voting from cash-flow rights through the use of pyramiding, cross-holdings, and dual-class shares, are associated with lower market values. Results are robust...

  16. Health Perceptions - where the East meets West

    OpenAIRE

    Postelnicu, Irina; Hedegaard, Kathrine M. Christensen; Fiktus, Magdalena Katarzyna; Buhler, Susanne; Kristensen, Johannes; Møller, Felix Quist

    2012-01-01

    This project investigates where the eastern and western understandings of yoga meet, and how underlying health perceptions separate or unite the East and the West. Our empirical data is conducted through a comparative analysis of six eastern and western yoga websites using grounded theory and mixed methodology. Our theoretical background consists of western philosophical literature and Indian philosophical literature on yoga. We have chosen these to obtain an understanding of yoga and health....

  17. Political Change in the Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck, Martin; Hueser, Simone

    This article deals with the Arab Spring as a process of deep political change in the Arab world, previously the only major world area where authoritarianism persisted unchallenged for decades. While in various countries of the Arab world mass protests in 2011 forced rulers to resign, other author...... of stability is presented and discussed. Although the analysis draws heavily on rent theory, it also applies findings from transition theory and revolution theory to illuminate the current political dynamics in the Middle East....

  18. The Mousterian Populations of the Near East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Condemi

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Localization of Middle Palaeolithic sites in Israel with human remains This article deals with the contribution of archeological excavations in Israel, as well as of studies of human fossils in the Near East. Over the last thirty years, discoveries of human fossil remains in Israel have given rise to a major debate concerning the status of Neanderthals in this region and their relationship to modern Man. After describing these discoveries of human fossil remains in Israel, I will present the...

  19. Cause of East-West Earth Asymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Scalera, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on the basis of the irrelevance of the tidal forces with respect to viscous friction. Instead, it is possible to show that in a different framework, in which sudden extrusions of mantle materials occur by local phase change toward a more unpacked lattice, the value of the Coriolis fictitious force can rise of several magnitude orders, becoming the main cause of the east-west asymmetry of the Wadati-Benioff zones, which might be ascribed entirely to internal causes of the planet (its rotation and geodynamics) and not to external causes ...

  20. Comparison of East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Hui

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Four East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM indices are compared in this paper. In the research periods, all the indices show similar interannual and decadal-interdecadal variations, with predominant periods centering in 3–4 years, 6.5 years and 9–15 years, respectively. Besides, all the indices show remarkable weakening trends since the 1980s. The correlation coefficient of each two indices is positive with a significance level of 99%. Both the correlation analyses and the composites indicate that in stronger EAWM years, the Siberian high and the higher-level subtropical westerly jet are stronger, and the Aleutian low and the East Asia trough are deeper. This circulation pattern is favorable for much stronger northwesterly wind and lower air temperature in the subtropical regions of East Asia, while it is on the opposite in weaker EAWM years. Besides, EAWM can also exert a remarkable leading effect on the summer monsoon. After stronger (weaker EAWM, less (more summer precipitation is seen over the regions from the Yangtze River valley of China to southern Japan, while more (less from South China Sea to the tropical western Pacific.

  1. The East-Asian VLBI Network

    CERN Document Server

    Wajima, Kiyoaki; An, Tao; Baan, Willem A; Fujisawa, Kenta; Hao, Longfei; Jiang, Wu; Jung, Taehyun; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kim, Jongsoo; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Wang, Min; Wu, Yuanwei; Xia, Bo; Zhang, Ming

    2015-01-01

    The East-Asian VLBI Network (EAVN) is the international VLBI facility in East Asia and is conducted in collaboration with China, Japan, and Korea. The EAVN consists of VLBI arrays operated in each East Asian country, containing 21 radio telescopes and three correlators. The EAVN will be mainly operated at 6.7 (C-band), 8 (X-band), 22 (K-band), and 43 GHz (Q-band), although the EAVN has an ability to conduct observations at 1.6 - 129 GHz. We have conducted fringe test observations eight times to date at 8 and 22 GHz and fringes have been successfully detected at both frequencies. We have also conducted science commissioning observations of 6.7 GHz methanol masers in massive star-forming regions. The EAVN will be operational from the second half of 2017, providing complementary results with the FAST on AGNs, massive star-forming regions, and evolved stars with high angular resolution at cm- to mm-wavelengths.

  2. Middle East gas utilization and export potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is huge gas supply potential in the Middle East, which possesses over one third of the world's natural gas reserves. However, marketed production represents only 6% of the world total, demonstrating that gas resources in the Middle East are under utilized. The value of these resources will be realized only if the gas finds a commercial outlet that guarantees proper return on investments for gas producers and the best possible use of this nonrenewable resource for governments. Apart from the chemical sector, which has provided a good outlet for natural gas, the development of natural gas resources in the region has been very limited historically, inhibited by many factors linked to the resource itself and to the characteristics of the region. However, natural gas in the Middle East is now at a crossroads, facing both major challenges and significant opportunities. The region, which currently plays only a marginal role on the world gas market, has the potential to become a leading world supplier, provided a number of political and economic conditions are fulfilled. This paper discusses some of the challenges that Middle Eastern countries face in trying to develop their natural gas resources. It reviews development potential for Middle Eastern gas reserves, whether for local use and/or exports, and it highlights future opportunities. (Author)

  3. Social anxiety among East Asians in North America: East Asian socialization or the challenge of acculturation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Lorena; Woody, Sheila R; Lee, Hoon-Jin; Peng, Yunshi; Zhou, Xiaolu; Ryder, Andrew G

    2012-04-01

    North American research has consistently reported higher social anxiety among people of Asian heritage compared to people of Western heritage. The present study used a cross-national sample of 692 university students to explore explanatory hypotheses using planned contrasts of group differences in social anxiety and related variables. The East Asian socialization hypothesis proposed social anxiety would show a linear relation corresponding to the degree of exposure to East Asian cultural norms. This hypothesis was not supported. The cultural discrepancy hypothesis examined whether bicultural East Asian participants (residing in Canada) would endorse higher social anxiety in comparison to unicultural participants (Western-heritage Canadians and native Koreans and Chinese). Compared to unicultural participants, bicultural East Asian participants reported higher social anxiety and depression, a relation that was partially mediated by bicultural participants' reports of lower self-efficacy about initiating social relationships and lower perceived social status. Overall, the results suggest higher reports of social anxiety among bicultural East Asians may be conceptualized within the context of cultural discrepancy with the mainstream culture. PMID:22506821

  4. Middle East Transformation from the Perspective of U.S. Middle East Policy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Rong; Tang Zhichao; Tian Wenlin

    2008-01-01

    The Middle East, one of the most turbulent regions in the world, has embarked on another round of chaos since America waged the Iraq war in 2003, new players vying to fill the power vacuum, entrenched hatred multiplying with new wounds. Ecstasy turned into agony as Americans watched the war unfold. U.S. think tank researchers and politicians, reflecting on the war and U.S. Middle East policy, urged the Bush administration to adjust the policy and break the strategic impasse. Under grave pressure from home and abroad, the White House finally began to respond. Against this backdrop, the year 2007 witnessed the most intensive and extensive shift of U.S. Middle East policy in recent years and a drastic return of realism in America's foreign policy. These policy changes rippled in the Middle East, precipitating policy changes of other powers and transformation of the geopolitical landscape. The Middle East, as we can see, is heading toward a new age of pain and growth.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Kemal Çelen

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  6. Spiral patterns on the Neolithic pottery of East Asia and the Far East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Zhushchikhovskaya

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the investigation of East Asian and Far East Neolithic spiral patterns, with the application of some mathematical principles. The basis of the research is published data on pottery assemblages from Japan, Eastern China, and the Amur River basin from the 6th to the beginning of the 1st mil. BC. We suggest a descriptive order of spiral patterns based on the typology of spiral figures used in geometry. This approach permits us to see the regional and cultural diversity of Neolithic spiral patterns within the research area.

  7. Middle east gas: supply source of Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The evolution of gas demand, the decreasing of reserves leads to the question of European future needs satisfaction. The european market can call on the russian production or middle east production. Iran has the most important reserves but the needs of the population can limit the gas supply. Yemen and Oman which have less important reserves but also less important needs to satisfy can be a serious alternative; Abu dhabi reserves are destined to asia market. The qatar has the most important gas offshore field in the world. The LNG (liquefied natural gas) seems to have a better position than gas pipeline to dispatch gas towards Europe

  8. Middle East: major opportunities for gas producers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article addresses the increase in demand for natural gas in the face of the threat of global warming, and the opportunities that this presents for Middle East gas producers. The use of natural gas to reduce the consumption of petroleum, market opportunities in the European Community as demand outstrips supply, worldwide demand for LNG, and the need for foreign investment are discussed. A brief overview is given of the situations in Turkey, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Egypt, Jordan, Syria, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Saudia Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Abu Dhabi and Yemen. (UK)

  9. Gender Inequality in North East India

    OpenAIRE

    Mahanta, Bidisha; Nayak, Purusottam

    2013-01-01

    The present paper is an attempt to analyze the status of gender inequality in North East India using various indicators based on secondary data. The study reveals that the northeast is better off than that of the nation as a whole in terms of gender equality. However inequality between women and men exists in the region in spite of the predominance of various ethnic groups who by and large do not believe in sex discrimination. The study reveals that women are relatively disempowered and enjoy...

  10. The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorovoy, P.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The genus Rhaponticum in East Asia has always been a taxon for discussion. Rhaponticum carthamoides from East Siberia comprises three subspecies: carthamoides, chamarensis and orientale. Even though they differ in morphology, they do not have isolated areas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii was recently described and its author pointed out its affinity with Rh. uniflorum. Plant height, stem indumentum, and radical and stem leaf dissection were signaled as the diagnostic characters. Our present study on living and herbarium specimens of Rh. satzyperovii shows that the diagnostic characters are not consistent. The species area was also claimed to be an argument for considering Rh. satzyperovii a distinct species. This area covers the south of the Primorye Province in the Far East of Russia with some locations in the adjacent Jewish Autonomous Region and in China. In our study, the area of Rh. satzyperovii is found to be within the area of Rh. uniflorum and thereafter they turned out to have no disjunction. In East Asia, Rh. uniflorum is characterized by a wide range of morphological variability. We suggest that Rh. satzyperovii should be included within Rh. uniflorum without any taxonomic rank.El género Rhaponticum en el Este de Asia ha sido siempre un taxón discutido. Rhaponticum carthamoides del Este de Siberia incluye tres subespecies: carthamoides, chamarensis y orientale. Aunque difieren en su morfología, sus áreas no están aisladas. Rhaponticum satzyperovii fue descrito recientemente y su autor señaló su afinidad con Rh. uniflorum. Los caracteres diagnósticos fueron la altura de la planta, el indumento del tallo y las divisiones de las hojas basales y caulinares. Nuestro estudio de plantas vivas y muestras de herbario de Rh. satzyperovii muestra que los caracteres diagnósticos no son consistentes. El área de distribución también se argumentó para considerar Rh. satzyperovii una especie diferente. El área cubre el sur de la provincia de

  11. The terrorists of the Middle East.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takis Fotopoulos

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In the last few days in the Middle East the world has, once again, seen the implementation of pure Nazi methods, which everybody had thought to have been forever condemned to the rubbish bin of History. The capture of a single Israeli soldier by Palestinian guerillas in a battle with the Israeli army (following the killing of scores of Palestinian women and children over the previous days by the same army, for which Israel refused to accept an independent inquiry is now being paid for through the collective punishment of the entire Gaza population.

  12. Application of MDSplus on EAST Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EAST is a fully superconducting Tokamak in China used for controlled fusion research. MDSplus, a special software package for fusion research, has been used successfully as a central repository for analysed data and PCS (Plasma Control System) data since the debugging experiment in the spring of 2006. In this paper, the reasons for choosing MDSplus as the analysis database and the way to use it are presented in detail, along with the solution to the problem that part of the MDSplus library does not work in the multithread mode. The experiment showed that the data system based on MDSplus operated stably and it could provide a better performance especially for remote users

  13. Credit Crunch in East Asia: A Retrospective

    OpenAIRE

    Masahiro Enya; Akira Kohsaka; Mervin Pobre

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the issue on credit crunch from a comparative perspective. Utilizing longer time series data, we investigate the existence of credit crunch in selected crisis-hit economies in East Asia over the period 1980-2002. We detected some episodes of credit crunch both before and after the Asian economic crisis. These episodes after the Crisis are somewhat different from those detected by previous studies on the issue. We, then, review the credit-crunch episodes in the broad ...

  14. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei

    2009-08-01

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008.

  15. Ion Cyclotron Resonance Heating System on EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH) system which will provide at least than 10 MW heating power, with a frequency range from 25 MHz to 100 MHz, is being built up for the EAST. The system includes high-power and wide-frequency radio amplifier, transmission line as well as resonant double loop (RDL) antenna. As a part of this system a sub-ICRH system unit with a ultimate output power of 2.5 MW was set up and employed for heating experiment. The maximum of the launched power reached 200 kW in 2008. (magnetically confined plasma)

  16. Real Estate Investment in Sabah, East Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Chok, Vui Shung

    2008-01-01

    Executive Summary Investing in real estate is one of the best means of maximizing ones wealth. An individual can use a property as leverage and hedge it against inflation. Most people invest in this asset class as it is a norm for a property to appreciate at the rate of 5-6% annually, and some even more in places where housing in short supply. This dissertation will evaluate specifically on real estate investment in the state of Sabah, East Malaysia. The chapters begin by providi...

  17. Ice age plant refugia in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby

    1979-01-01

    From the distribution of plants it has been inferred by some botanists that ice-free areas existed in East Greenland accommodating a flora which survived one or several ice ages in the area. Comparing this evidence with recent information on the chronology of glaciations and post-glacial vegetation...... of Greenland. 14 C dating and amino-acid age estimates of marine sediments show that lowland areas near the outer coast have been ice-free for at least 40,000 years. The vegetation history, as reflected in pollen diagrams extending back to ca. 10,000 yr. B.P., has shown that many of the extant species...

  18. Miscellaneous South East Asian cucurbit news

    OpenAIRE

    W.J.J.O. - De Wilde; Duyfjes, Brigitta E.E.

    2008-01-01

    DE WILDE, W.J.J.O. & DUYFES, B.E.E. 2008. Miscellaneous South East Asian cucurbit news. Reinwardtia 12(4):267 – 274. –– This paper contains corrections, additions, and name changes in several genera, which became apparentsince previous publications by the authors in these genera.(1) Baijiania A.M. Lu & J.Q. Li: a range-extension(2) Benincasa Savi: a name change(3) Diplocyclos (Endl.) T. Post & Kuntze: lectotypification of the synonym Ilocania pedata Merr.(4) Gymnopetalum Arn.: a n...

  19. Application of MDSplus on EAST Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Lianzheng; LUO Jiarong; LI lingling; ZHANG Mingxing; WANG Yong

    2007-01-01

    EAST is a fully superconducting Tokamak in China used for controlled fusion research. MDSplus, a special software package for fusion research, has been used successfully as a central repository for analysed data and PCS (Plasma Control System) data since the debugging experiment in the spring of 2006 . In this paper, the reasons for choosing MDSplus as the analysis database and the way to use it are presented in detail, along with the solution to the problem that part of the MDSplus library does not work in the multithread mode. The experiment showed that the data system based on MDSplus operated stably and it could provide a better performance especially for remote users.

  20. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in children

    OpenAIRE

    Thabet, Farah; Chehab, May; Bafaqih, Hind; AlMohaimeed, Sulaiman

    2015-01-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) is a new human disease caused by a novel coronavirus (CoV). The disease is reported mainly in adults. Data in children are scarce. The disease caused by MERS-CoV in children presents with a wide range of clinical manifestations, and it is associated with a lower mortality rate compared with adults. Poor outcome is observed mainly in admitted patients with medical comorbidities. We report a new case of MERS-CoV infection in a 9-month-old child compli...

  1. East Greenland Caledonides: stratigraphy, structure and geochronology: Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith, M. Paul

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The Lower Palaeozoic stratigraphy of the East Greenland Caledonides, from the fjord region of North-East Greenland northwards to Kronprins Christian Land, is reviewed and a number of new lithostratigraphical units are proposed. The Slottet Formation (new is a Lower Cambrian quartzite unit, containing Skolithos burrows, that is present in the Målebjerg and Eleonore Sø tectonic windows, in the nunatak region of North-East Greenland. The unit is the source of common and often-reported glacial erratic boulders containing Skolithos that are distributed throughout the fjord region. The Målebjerg Formation (new overlies the Slottet Formation in the tectonic windows, and comprises limestones and dolostones of assumed Cambrian–Ordovician age. The Lower Palaeozoic succession of the fjord region of East Greenland (dominantly limestones and dolostones is formally placed in the Kong Oscar Fjord Group (new. Amendments are proposed for several existing units in the Kronprins Christian Land and Lambert Land areas, where they occur in autochthonous, parautochthonous and allochthonous settings.

  2. East African Running: Toward a Cross-Disciplinary Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Yannis Pitsiladis; John Bale; Craig Sharp; Timothy Noakes

    2007-01-01

    DESCRIPTION "East African Running: Toward a Cross-disciplinary Perspective" examines the secret of those runners in being the top athletes of middle and long distance running. PURPOSE This book aims to discuss the anatomical, physiological, biomechanical, genomic, psychological and sociological conditions which lead East African runners to success. AUDIENCE This all-inclusive book about favoured East African runners is a remarkable source for all sports and social sciences professionals as we...

  3. Skills, Wages, and Employment in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Funke; Felix FitzRoy

    1995-01-01

    Disaggregated data from 30 two-digit manufacturing industries in the east and west parts of unified Germany are used to estimate employment for three skill categories of blue collar workers. Employment elasticities are uniformly higher in the east, and for unskilled labor. The former result contradicts union claims that wages had little relevance for east German job losses, while the latter confirms the capital-skill complementarity hypothesis.

  4. INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT IN EAST JAVA: A SPECIAL CASE?

    OpenAIRE

    Bambang-Heru Santosa; Heath McMichael

    2004-01-01

    This paper examines the development of manufacturing in East Java in comparison with other major industrial provinces in Indonesia, with a focus on employment, output and investment in the pre-and-post crisis periods. East Java's 'winner' and 'loser' industries and the geographical distribution of manufacturing in the province are described. The paper attempts to account for manufacturing patterns in East Java in terms of infrastructure constraints, the investment climate, access to finance a...

  5. Gender, Literature, and Film in Contemporary East Central European Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Imre, Anikó

    2001-01-01

    In her article, "Gender, Literature, and Film in Contemporary East Central European Culture," Anikó Imre discusses gender, literature, and film in Hungary in the context of East Central European national cultures of the 1980s and 1990s. Anikó Imre analyzes the analogous gender structures that underlie both nation and literature in these transitional cultures. She challenges both social science studies of post-communist transitions and studies of East Central European literatures and cultures ...

  6. Financial Integration in East Asia: An Empirical Investigation

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Hyun-Hoo; Huh, Hyeon-seung; Park, Donghyun

    2011-01-01

    The central objective of this paper is to empirically evaluate the degree of linkages among East Asian equity and bond markets. The primary contribution of our paper to the empirical literature is that we use a financial gravity model grounded in economic theory. Using data from the International Monetary Fund's Coordinated Portfolio Investment Survey, we find that intra-East Asian financial asset holdings of four East Asian economies - Hong Kong, China; Japan; the Republic of Korea; and Sing...

  7. Two Essays on Regional Economic Integration in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Yap, Josef T.

    2004-01-01

    Regional economic integration in East Asia has gained momentum in the aftermath of the 1997 financial crisis and the escalation of international terrorism. In the first essay, the integration process in Europe and East Asia is compared briefly. This is followed by a discussion on the expansion process by the European Union and how East Asia can learn from this. In particular, the concern is how to integrate the CMLV countries in a meaningful way. Proposals deal with the impact of freer moveme...

  8. Developing regional financial markets – the case of East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerleano, Michael

    2008-01-01

    "The paper explores the extent and benefits of financial integration in East Asia. It presents evidence that the extent of financial integration in East Asia is less extensive than the aggregate data suggests. The paper then addresses why some countries are integrated more than others and discusses the obstacles to regional financial integration. The paper points out that East Asia’s growth strategy has shaped bank centric financial systems. An important thesis presented in the...

  9. Television and Politics in the Former East Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmar, Claudia

    2005-01-01

    In her paper, "Television and Politics in the Former East Germany," Claudia Dittmar analyzes how in the former East Germany (GDR) while television audience was restricted severly by government, at the same time West German broadcasts acquired a substantial audience and what the impact of these broadcasts had on the audience. West German television programs enjoyed a high level of popularity with the East German population, thereby posing the greatest competition to the GDR's own television st...

  10. India's Engagement With East Asia and The China Factor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Li

    2010-01-01

    @@ Introduction India's engagement with East Asia has enjoyed a long history.In ancient times,the Indian Civilization exerted substantial influence on Southeast and East Asia.Buddhism,originating on the Subcontinent more than two centuries ago,remains most popular in Southeast and East Asia.India also has centuries of economic bonds with the region.Under the colonial rule of the British,India was used to safeguard and promote British"interests"in the Pacific Ocean,as well as in the Middle East and Africa.

  11. Energy privatization in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The issue of energy privatization in the Middle East was discussed with particular examples from Kuwait. The development of Kuwait's domestic political institutions is unique in the Arab Gulf which makes privatization more complicated than in other Middle Eastern countries. The major issue in Kuwait is whether foreign investors and domestic private investors will be allowed equity participation in oil and gas production projects. It was suggested that the answer depends on general assessments of national financial and state security interests and on individual case judgements respecting each potential partnership. Historically, one of the main reasons for nationalization of private investment in oil and gas in the Middle East was the desire of governments to increase state revenues. Nationalization permitted states to set prices and production levels themselves and to keep the difference between costs and prices instead of sharing it with corporate owners. However, nationalization is not without its problems as indicated by the difficulties encountered by governments in trying to make the the OPEC-managed hydrocarbon regime work. The three main reasons for the current willingness of Middle Eastern governments to consider re-admitting private companies as equity participants in their energy industries, namely market share and terms of access, interstate disputes, and desire to minimize corruption, were also discussed. It was suggested that these are strong arguments that support taking another look at privatization as a strategy that is in the long-term interest of Middle Eastern oil producing states. 19 refs

  12. Phytoecdysteroids of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Novozhilova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Occurrence of integristerone A (1, 20-hydroxyecdysone (2, ecdysone (3, 2-deoxy-20-hydroxyecdysone (4 has been analyzed in 64 species of the East Asian Caryophyllaceae. Materials and Methods: Ecdysteroid content was determinate by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. HPLC with a high-resolution mass spectrometry was performed on Shimadzu LCMS-IT-TOF (Japan system equipped with a LC-20A Prominence liquid chromatograph, a photodiode array detector SPD-M20A and ion-trap/time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Results: New sources of phytoecdysteroids: Melandrium sachalinense and Melandrium firmum have been revealed. It is the 1 st time that two has been identified in M. sachalinense and M. firmum; 1 in the species: Lychnis fulgens, Silene repens, Silene foliosa, Silene stenophylla, Silene jenisseensis and M. sachalinense; 3 in Lychnis cognata; 4 in L. fulgens, S. stenophylla and S. jenisseensis (the tribe Lychnideae, the subfamily Caryophylloideae. Ecdysteroid-negative taxa are Spergularia rubra of the tribe Sperguleae; species of the genera Minuartia, Honckenya, Eremogone, Arenaria, Moehringia, Pseudostellaria, Fimbripetalum, Stellaria and Cerastium of the tribe Alsineae; Scleranthus annuus of the tribe Sclerantheae, as well as the East Asian representatives of the genera Gypsophila, Psammophiliela, Dianthus and Saponaria of the tribe Diantheae; Oberna and Agrostemma of the tribe Lychnideae. Conclusion: This investigation shows the most promising sources of ecdysteriods are species of genera Silene and Lychnis.

  13. Simulations of Reversed Shear Configuration in EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Xingping; WU Bin

    2007-01-01

    The reversed shear (RS) mode is one of the advanced configurations being considered in EAST.Predictive simulations of EAST reversed shear configuration are carried out using an 1.5D equilibrium evolution code.In order to have the desired monotonic q-profile during a tokamak discharge,a successful preparation phase is required.In our simulation,the plasma current is ramped up from 100 kA to a flat-top maximum of 1.0 MA for four seconds.An ICRH power of 1 MW is applied until the plasma shape is formed at the moment of 4 s,and then the power is raised to 3 MW.A LHCD power of 3.5 MW is applied from is to optimize the plasma current density profile.A series of simulations are performed to study the influence of the time of applying the auxiliary heating on the plasma parameters.Based on these simulations,a scheme is proposed and tested for the control of the safety factor profile,which is very useful in real time profile control in tokamak experiments.

  14. Yardie east-1: a directionally drilled wildcat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlin, G.F.; Dumbrell, R.; White, H.W.

    1983-03-01

    Under the terms of a farmout agreement a well to 4200 metres true vertical depth was required to test an offshore structure in the Indian Ocean 3.4 kilometres from the Cape Range landfall, Western Australia. Due to the structure being located in an offshore environmentally sensitive area and the proximity of the structure to the Ningaloo Reef, the decision was taken by the consortium to drill a directionally controlled wildcat well, Yardie East-1, from the nearest landfall point, in a designated National Park. With the co-operation of the regulatory authorities a drilling plan was approved which entailed a critical analysis and modifications to the drilling rig, Rig No. 15 contracted from Oil Drilling and Exploration Limited, to satisfy the loads associated with a directionally drilled well to a worst condition programmed measured depth of 5650 m. Utilising modern technology the wildcat well was drilled to the target at the top of the structure at 5110 m at a penetration angle of 50/sup 0/ and an azimuth of 308/sup 0/ in 142 days from spud. Earning conditions were satisfied with an eventual total drilled depth of 5593 m. Logging and an open hole drill stem test were conducted prior to abandoning the well 186 days after spud. It is believed that Yardie East-1 is the longest well, in terms of measured depth, drilled onshore or offshore Australia.

  15. Yardie East-1: a directionally drilled wildcat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlin, G.F.; White, H.W.

    1983-01-01

    Under the terms of a farmout agreement a well to 4200 metres true vertical depth was required to test an offshore structure in the Indian Ocean 3.4 kilometres from the Cape Range landfall, Western Australia. Due to the structure being located in an offshore environmentally sensitive area and the proximity of the structure to the Ningaloo Reef, the decision was taken by the consortium to drill a directionally controlled wildcat well, Yardie East-1, from the nearest landfall point, in a designated National Park. With the co-operation of the regulatory authorities a drilling plan was approved which entailed a critical analysis and modifications to the drilling rig, Rig No. 15 contracted from Oil Drilling and Exploration Limited, to satisfy the loads associated with a directionally drilled well to a worst condition programmed measured depth of 5650 m. Utilising modern technology the wildcat well was drilled to the target at the top of the structure at 5110 m at a penetration angle of 50/sup 0/ and an azimuth of 308/sup 0/ in 142 days from spud. Earning conditions were satisfied with an eventual total drilled depth of 5593 m. Logging and an open hole drill stem test were conducted prior to abandoning the well 186 days after spud. It is believed that Yardie East-1 is the longest well, in terms of measured depth, drilled onshore or offshore Australia.

  16. East Europe's energy trade takes new shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Often in the past, Western analysts of global energy demand have treated Eastern Europe as just part of a black box labeled Communist. Only the net flow of energy to the non-Communist world was of any consequence. The region, although primarily a major net importer of energy from the Soviet Union, was a very small net exporter of energy to non-Communist countries based Polish coal exports. Romanian refined petroleum product exports, and some minor exports of refined products by other East European countries. The political and economic configurations of Eastern Europe has changed dramatically over the past 2 years, however, and the way in which East European energy relationships are considered will have to change accordingly. With the sweeping transformation of these economies (for the most part, radically in the direction of a market orientation) and the breakup of their unique system of mutual trade, the patterns of energy production, consumption, and trade which have prevailed in the region during the post-war period will also change significantly. Forecasting the net-impact on energy demand in this region of offsetting trends due to economic reform (i.e., renewed economic dynamism vs. decreased energy intensity of aggregate economic output) is a very difficult task. Moreover, there are additional complications introduced by changes in the political system, such as the increased importance of environmental quality in the choice of fuel and production technology due to clearly enunciated concern of the popular political movements with these issues

  17. The East Greenland rifted volcanic margin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kent Brooks

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The Palaeogene North Atlantic Igneous Province is among the largest igneous provinces in the world and this review of the East Greenland sector includes large amounts of information amassed since previous reviews around 1990.The main area of igneous rocks extends from Kangerlussuaq (c. 67°N to Scoresby Sund (c. 70°N, where basalts extend over c. 65 000 km2, with a second area from Hold with Hope (c. 73°N to Shannon (c. 75°N. In addition, the Ocean Drilling Project penetrated basalt at five sites off South-East Greenland. Up to 7 km thickness of basaltic lavas have been stratigraphically and chemically described and their ages determined. A wide spectrum of intrusions are clustered around Kangerlussuaq, Kialeeq (c. 66°N and Mesters Vig (c. 72°N. Layered gabbros are numerous (e.g. the Skaergaard and Kap Edvard Holm intrusions, as are under- and oversaturated syenites, besides small amounts of nephelinite-derived products, such as the Gardiner complex (c. 69°N with carbonatites and silicate rocks rich in melilite, perovskite etc. Felsic extrusive rocks are sparse. A single, sanidine-bearing tuff found over an extensive area of the North Atlantic is thought to be sourced from the Gardiner complex.The province is famous for its coast-parallel dyke swarm, analogous to the sheeted dyke swarm of ophiolites, its associated coastal flexure, and many other dyke swarms, commonly related to central intrusive complexes as in Iceland. The dyke swarms provide time markers, tracers of magmatic evolution and evidence of extensional events. A set of dykes with harzburgite nodules gives unique insight into the Archaean subcontinental lithosphere.Radiometric dating indicates extrusion of huge volumes of basalt over a short time interval, but the overall life of the province was prolonged, beginning with basaltic magmas at c. 60 Ma and continuing to the quartz porphyry stock at Malmbjerg (c. 72°N at c. 26 Ma. Indeed, activity was renewed in the Miocene with

  18. Shallow core drilling and petroleum geology related field work in East and North-East Greenland 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojesen-Koefoed, J.A.; Bjerager, M.; Piasecki, S.

    2009-07-15

    In 2007/2008, the Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland (GEUS) launched a major petroleum industry-sponsored project with the objective of updating and expanding our current understanding of the petroleum geology of East and North-East Greenland. The project is planned to continue for the next four to five years, and includes compilation of relevant existing data in the form of a geographic information system (GIS) product, supplemented by new data obtained from shallow core drilling and new field work. Below we give a brief overview of a range of field activities that took place in East and North-East Greenland in the summer of 2008.

  19. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Virus Pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sunit K

    2016-08-01

    Coronaviruses (CoVs) are enveloped RNA viruses that infect birds, mammals, and humans. Infections caused by human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are mostly associated with the respiratory, enteric, and nervous systems. The hCoVs only occasionally induce lower respiratory tract disease, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, and pneumonia. In 2002 to 2003, a global outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) was the seminal detection of a novel CoV (SARS-CoV). A decade later (June 2012), another novel CoV was implicated as the cause of Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia. Although bats might serve as a reservoir of MERS-CoV, it is unlikely that they are the direct source for most human cases. Severe lines of evidence suggest that dromedary camels have been the major cause of transmission to humans. The emergence of MERS-CoV has triggered serious concerns about the potential for a widespread outbreak. All MERS cases were linked directly or indirectly to the Middle East region including Saudi Arabia, Jordan, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait, and UAE. MERS cases have also been reported in the later phases in the United Kingdom, France, Germany, Italy, Spain, and Tunisia. Most of these MERS cases were linked with the Middle East. The high mortality rates in family-based and hospital-based outbreaks were reported among patients with comorbidities such as diabetes and renal failure. MERS-CoV causes an acute, highly lethal pneumonia and renal dysfunction. The major complications reported in fatal cases are hyperkalemia with associated ventricular tachycardia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, pericarditis, and multiorgan failure. The case-fatality rate seems to be higher for MERS-CoV (around 30%) than for SARS-CoV (9.6%). The combination regimen of type 1 interferon + lopinavir/ritonavir is considered as the first-line therapy for MERS. Antiviral treatment is generally recommended for 10 to 14 days in patients with MERS-CoV infection. Convalescent plasma

  20. Sporadic aurorae observed in East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Willis

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available All the accessible auroral observations recorded in Chinese and Japanese histories during the interval AD 1840–1911 are investigated in detail. Most of these auroral records have never been translated into a Western language before. The East Asian auroral reports provide information on the date and approximate location of each auroral observation, together with limited scientific information on the characteristics of the auroral luminosity such as colour, duration, extent, position in the sky and approximate time of occurrence. The full translations of the original Chinese and Japanese auroral records are presented in an appendix, which contains bibliographic details of the various historical sources. (There are no known reliable Korean observations during this interval. A second appendix discusses a few implausible "auroral" records, which have been rejected. The salient scientific properties of all exactly dated and reliable East Asian auroral observations in the interval AD 1840–1911 are summarised succinctly. By comparing the relevant scientific information on exactly dated auroral observations with the lists of great geomagnetic storms compiled by the Royal Greenwich Observatory, and also the tabulated values of the Ak (Helsinki and aa (Greenwich and Melbourne magnetic indices, it is found that 5 of the great geomagnetic storms (aa>150 or Ak>50 during either the second half of the nineteenth century or the first decade of the twentieth century are clearly identified by extensive auroral displays observed in China or Japan. Indeed, two of these great storms produced auroral displays observed in both countries on the same night. Conversely, at least 29 (69% of the 42 Chinese and Japanese auroral observations occurred at times of weak-to-moderate geomagnetic activity (aa or Ak≤50. It is shown that these latter auroral displays are very similar to the more numerous (about 50 examples of sporadic

  1. Growing Typhoon Influence on East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Liguang; Wang, BIn; Geng, Shuqin

    2005-01-01

    Numerical model studies have suggested that the ongoing global warming will likely affect tropical cyclone activity. But so far little observed evidence has been detected to support the projected future changes. Using satellite-supported best-track data from 1965 to 2003, we show for the first time that over the past four decades the two prevailing typhoon tracks in the western North Pacific (WNP) have shifted westward significantly; the typhoon activity over the South China Sea has considerably decreased; and East Asia has experienced increasing typhoon influence. Our trajectory model simulation indicates that the long-term shifts in the typhoon tracks result primarily from the changes in the mean translation velocity of typhoons or the large-scale steering flow, which is associated with the westward expansion and strengthening of the WNP subtropical high.

  2. Perspective of decommissioning in East European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A regional co-operation was organized in 1986 between East European countries on problems connected with the last stage of the NPP unit life cycle. Closure of a nuclear power plant (NPP) unit is considered as a problem with influence upon the safety of the nuclear energetics. Bulgaria, the USSR and Czechoslovakia have united their efforts establishing the Joint Venture for Decommissioning NPP 'Decom' thus giving a possibility for a safe and effective NPP unit decommissioning. At present a preparatory work is being conducted at the Joint Venture on all aspects of the problem - ecological, social, technical and economic. A certain practical experience has been accumulated. Research performed previously has delivered certain scientific and technical results. (author) 1 tab

  3. UKRAINE AND THE EAST: CULTUROLOGICAL ASPECT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleh Pylypiuk

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern Oriental studies regard the East as the cradle of the world’s civilization, a web of unique cultural formations. Within the modern East–West paradigm, the research into the values of tradition should be underpinned by dominant axiological concepts in order to systematize contemporary ideas of the world, nature, the individual and mentality. In accordance with the central methodological principle of the research, archetypes are regarded as cultural universals. In the article, the typology of the cosmological and the spiritual elements (the Moon and the Word respectively in the Oriental and Ukrainian traditions are highlighted, the emphasis being laid on the analysis of the semantic and thematic fields of the two archetypes.

  4. Child Care in East Germany: A Visit after the Fall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Roger

    1990-01-01

    Describes contrasts in the author's visits to East and West Berlin in 1972 and 1990. Discusses visits to child care centers in East and West Germany in 1990 and concludes with speculation about the future of child care services in a reunited Germany. (DR)

  5. Cultural Translation and East Asia: Film, Literature and Religion

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor-Jones, K.; Yan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    This introduction offers a discussion of the aims and objectives of this JOMEC Journal special issue, which is devoted to Cultural Translation and East Asia: Creativity, Film, Literature and Religion. We debate why this topic is timely given the ever increasing visibility of East Asian Cultures in the West and focus on how the act of translation is important in any cultural interaction.

  6. The Business of Politics Commerce, and Culture in East Asia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ooi, Can-Seng

    2016-01-01

    Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp.......Review of: "Cultural Policies in East Asia: Dynamics Between the State, Arts and Creative Industries". Edited by Hye-Kyung Lee and Lorraine Lim. Basingstoke: Palgrave, Macmillan, 2014. 229 pp....

  7. Corporate Finance Lessons from the East Asian Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Pomerleano, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This Note examines the corporate roots of the financial crisis in East Asia. It summarizes the findings of a study of corporate financial performance in East Asian economies - Hong Kong, Indonesia, the Republic of Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan (China), and Thailand. To allow a consistent cross-border analysis of financial risk and performance, the study used as benchmarks key fi...

  8. The Political Economy of Distress in East Asian Financial Institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Bongini, Paola; Claessens, Constantijn A.; Ferri, Giovanni

    2000-01-01

    Politics and regulatory capture can play an important role in financial institutions distress. East Asia's financial crisis featured many distressed and closed financial intermediaries in an environment with many links between government, politicians, supervisors, and financial institutions. This makes the East Asian financial crisis a good event for studying how such connections affect the ...

  9. Crisis and Contagion in East Asia : Nine Lessons

    OpenAIRE

    Kawai, Masahiro; Newfarmer, Richard; Schmukler, Sergio

    2001-01-01

    The authors investigate the origins of the East Asian crisis and its contagion, examine the channels of contagion, and discuss policy recommendationsThey make detailed recommendations in the context of nine general lessons learned from the East Asian crisis. 1) Preventing crises and contagion: avoid large current account deficits financed through short-term private capital inflows. Aggress...

  10. Middle East Geopolitical Transformation: The Disappearance of a Shatterbelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Saul B.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the future of the Middle East in the wake of the end of the Cold War. Examines the ongoing political reorientation of the region. Suggests that the United States and Europe can foster a political balance in the Middle East by acting as competitive but allied stabilizers. (SG)

  11. The East European Press and Three-Mile Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Owen V.

    This report of the investigation into East European newspaper treatment of the accident at Pennsylvania's Three Mile Island nuclear power plant in the spring of 1979 focuses on the Czech and Slovak media, particularly on the Slovak Communist Party's daily newspaper, "Pravda." The response of the media of other East European countries to energy…

  12. The Challenge to the Peace and Security in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangYi; ChangJiuqing

    2004-01-01

    Today, there are three major economic communities in the contemporary world: North America, Europe and East Asia, among which the East Asian economic community distinguishes itself as the most dynamic and energetic one. The peace and stability in this region are not only of vital importance to the national security and economic development of both China and Japan,

  13. Geothermal structure of Australia's east coast basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danis, C. R.; O'Neill, C.

    2010-12-01

    The east coast sedimentary basins of Australia formed on an active margin of eastern Gondwana, and constitute an important hydrocarbon resource. The 1600km long Sydney-Gunnedah-Bowen Basin (SGBB) is largest east coast basin system, with thick Permian to Jurassic sedimentary successions overlying Palaeozoic basement rocks. The SGBB has been the focus of renewed geothermal exploration interest, however, the thermal state and geothermal potential of the system is largely unconstrained. Geothermal exploration programs require an accurate estimate of subsurface temperature information, in addition to favourable geology, to make informed decisions on potential targe developments. Primarily temperature information comes from downhole measurements, generally non-equilibrated, which are traditionally extrapolated to depth, however such extrapolation does not take into account variations in geological structure or thermal conductivity. Here we import deep 3D geological models into finite element conduction simulations, using the code Underworld, to calculate the deep thermal structure of the basin system. Underworld allows us to incorporate complex, detailed geological architecture models, incorporating different material properties for different layers, with variable temperature and depth-dependent properties. We adopt a fixed top boundary temperature on a variable topographic surface, and vary the bottom surface boundary condition, to converge of models which satisfy equilibrated downhole temperature measurement constraints. We find coal plays an important role in insulating sedimentary basins. Heat refracts around the coal interval and produces elevated temperatures beneath thick sediments, especially where thick coal intervals are present. This workflow has been formalized into an Underworld geothermal model library, enabling model centric computational workflows. Using the imported model architecture from the geology, data can be continuously updated and added to the

  14. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stott, J.; Arne, D. [University of Ballarat, VIC (Australia). Minerals Industry Research Institute]|[Posgold Ltd, Tennant Creek, NT (Australia); Waldron, H. [Becquerel Laboratories, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  15. Power Compensation for ICRF Heating in EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Gen; Qin, Chengming; Mao, Yuzhou; Zhao, Yanping; Yuan, Shuai; Zhang, Xinjun

    2016-08-01

    The source system covering a working frequency range of 24 MHz to 70 MHz with a total maximum output power of 12 MW has already been fabricated for Ion Cyclotron Range of Frequency (ICRF) heating in EAST from 2012. There are two continuous wave (CW) antennas consisting of four launching elements each fed by a separate 1.5 MW transmitter. Due to the strong mutual coupling among the launching elements, the injection power for launching elements should be imbalance to keep the k‖ (parallel wave number) spectrum of the launcher symmetric for ICRF heating. Cross power induced by the mutual coupling will also induce many significant issues, such as an uncontrollable phase of currents in launching elements, high voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR), and impedance mismatching. It is necessary to develop a power compensation system for antennas to keep the power balance between the feed points. The power balance system consists of two significant parts: a decoupler and phase control. The decoupler helps to achieve ports isolation to make the differential phase controllable and compensate partly cross power. After that, the differential phase of 0 or π will keep the power balance of two feed points completely. The first power compensation system consisting of four decouplers was assembled and tested for the port B antenna at the working frequency of 35 MHz. With the application of the power compensation system, the power balance, phase feedback control, and voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) had obviously been improved in the 2015 EAST campaign. supported by the National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China (No. 2015GB101001) and National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 11575237, 11375235, 11375236)

  16. DISTRIBUTIONS OF SULFUR POLLUTANTS IN EAST ASIA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A Eulerian sulfur deposition model is used to study the distributions of sulfur pollutants in East Asia, in which important physical and chemical processes such as transport, diffusion, dry and wet deposition, vertical transportation in cumulus cloud, gas phase chemistry, aqueous phase chemistry and heterogeneous aerosol chemistry are included.Two cases, the periods of 1987.07.02 GMT00-1987-07-03 GMT00(case 1) and 1989-04-20 GMT00-1989-04-21GMT00(case 2), are studied and the distributions of SO2 and SO24- in East Asia are shown. It is revealed that the patterns of distributions of SO2 and SO24- are different under different meteorological conditons. In the upper layer, the concentrations of SO2 and SO24- are 0.4 - 1.0 μg/m3 and 0.2 - 0.5 μg/m3, 4.0 - 10.0 μg/m3 and 2.0 - 6.0 μg/m3 in themiddle layer. In the surface layer, the levels of SO2 range from 4.0 to 30.0 μg/m3 and from 2.0 to 8.0 μg/m3 for SO24-Distributions of SOx are controlled by emissions in the surface layer, while in the upper layer it is mainly affected by precipitation. The distributions of SOx show the interaction of emissions, winds and precipitation in the middle layer.

  17. Biogeochemistry of the Ballarat East goldfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gold deposits along the crest of the Whitehorse Range were extensively worked last century, and the area was revegetated during the 1930s with Monterey Pine (P. radiata). P. Radiata of different ages were sampled at 25m intervals along two east-west traverses roughly perpendicular to the strike of the Ballarat East field. Sampling occurred during the winter of 1995 following heavy rains. Blackwood (Acacia melanoxylon) and Chinese scrub (Cassinia aculeata) were also sampled for comparative purposes. A third traverse through a belt of remnant eucalyptus (E. obliqua, E. dives, and E. macrorhyncha) was sampled to the south of the pine plantation in 1996. These samples were washed in de-ionised water. Sample material included either leaves or needles, the tips of twigs, and outer bark. The samples were dried, pulverized and analysed using instrumental neutron activation at Lucas Heights, NSW. Gold and As from Cassinia leaves and twigs, and Eucalyptus bark show a good correlation with extensions of known mineralized trends inferred from aerial photographs, as do Ce, Cr, La, Sm, Sc and Th. Samples of P. radiata needles and bark show only a moderate correlation with mineralized trends for Au and As. Repeat sampling to determine sampling variance has revealed probable contamination of Eucalyptus outer bark by dust. Sequential washing experiments indicate that the dust is difficult to remove from fibrous outer bark. Therefore, while application of biogeochemistry to exploration in the central Victorian Goldfields appears feasible, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of data from outer bark for some Eucalyptus species

  18. Progress of beam diagnosis system for EAST neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Y. J., E-mail: yjxu@ipp.ac.cn; Hu, C. D.; Yu, L.; Liang, L. Z.; Zhang, W. T.; Chen, Y.; Li, X. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Neutral beam injection has been recognized as one of the most effective means for plasma heating. According to the research plan of the EAST physics experiment, two sets of neutral beam injector (NBI) were built and operational in 2014. The paper presents the development of beam diagnosis system for EAST NBI and the latest experiment results obtained on the test-stand and EAST-NBI-1 and 2. The results show that the optimal divergence angle is (0.62°, 1.57°) and the full energy particle is up to 77%. They indicate that EAST NBI work properly and all targets reach or almost reach the design targets. All these lay a solid foundation for the achievement of high quality plasma heating for EAST.

  19. Regionalism in East Asia: The Role of North East Asian Nations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fithra F. Hastiadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: For the past few years, regionalism has been progressing in East Asia with the likes of China, Japan and Korea (CJK as the most prominent actors. Unfortunately, with the absence of trade arrangement amongst the CJK, the present regional trade scheme is not sufficient to reach sustainability. Thus, the study aims to give the solution to the problem. This study found the inefficient trade scheme through Engle-Granger Cointegration and Error Correction Mechanism. Two Stage Least Squares in a static panel fixed effect model were also employed to proof the spill-over effect. Conclusion/Recommendations: The study underlines the importance of triangular trade agreement for accelerating the phase of growth in CJK which eventually created a spillover effect to East Asia as a whole. Moreover, the study argued that the spillover effect would function as an impetus for creating region-wide FTA. Furthermore, the study also identified a number of economic and political factors that can support the formation of East Asian Regionalism.

  20. Proceedings of the French Senate conference 'Going Nuclear in the Middle East - In search of an European Middle East policy'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Middle East today is quite clearly one of the global hotspots of the world. It is also a big challenge for the international community. The interests are due to geography, history, economics and also to the fact that what takes place in the Middle East is important for the security of rest of the world. These two days of conference organised by the French Senate took stock of the Middle East question through 6 round tables dealing with: 1 - General overview Nuclear Islam in the Middle East; 2 - How likely is a successful dialogue with Iran? 3 - What Future for the Palestinian People? 4 - 2010, A Renaissance for Iraq? 5 - The Latest on Al Qaeda? 6 - In search of a European Union Policy for the Middle East. This document gathers the talks of the different experts and the questions and answers from the participants. (J.S.)

  1. The Possible Influence of Stratospheric Sudden Warming on East Asian Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Shumei; CHEN Yuejuan; LUO Tao; BI Yun; ZHOU Houfu

    2008-01-01

    By analyzing the linkage of the Northern Annular Mode(NAM)anomaly to the East Asian jet and the East Asian trough during Stratospheric Sudden Warming(ssw),the influence of SSW on East Asian weather is studied.The results show that the East Asian jet is strengthened and the East Asian trough is deepened during SSW.With the downward propagation of SSW,the strengthened East Asian jet and the East Asian trough would move southward,expand westward and gradually influence the area of north and northeastern China.This implies that the winter monsoon tends to be enhanced over East Asia during SSW.

  2. The Crustal Structure Character of East China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents actuality of investigation and study of the crustal structure characters of East China Sea at home and abroad. Based on lots of investigation and study achievements and the difference of the crustal velocity structure from west to east, the East China Sea is divided into three parts - East China Sea shelf zone, Okinawa Trough zone and Ryukyu arc-trench zone. The East China Sea sheff zone mostly has three velocity layers, i.e.,the sediment blanket layer (the velocity is 5.8-5.9 km/s), the basement layer (the velocity is 6.0-6.3 km/s), and the lower crustal layer (the velocity is 6.8-7.6 km/s). So the East China Sea shelf zone belongs to the typical continental crust. The Okinawa Trough zone is located at the transitional belt between the continental crust and the oceanic crust. It still has the structural characters of the continental crust, and no formation of the oceanic crust, but the crust of the central trough has become to thinning down. The Ryukyu arc-trench zone belongs to the transitional type crust as a whole, but the ocean side of the trench already belongs to the oceanic crust. And the northwest Philippine Basin to the east of the Ryukyu Trench absolutely belongs to the typical oceanic crust.

  3. Globalization, Ideology, and Narratives of the East Asian Financial Crisis

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Ezra Yoo-Hyeok

    2005-01-01

    In his paper, "Globalization, Ideology, and Narratives of the East Asian Financial Crisis," Ezra Yoo-Hyeok Lee analyzes the narratives of the East Asian financial "crisis" in 1997-98, arguing that it took place in the course of restructuring the world economy so that the first world would keep its hegemonic power. The East Asian financial crisis spread rapidly to the rest of the globe and in this urgent situation, the IMF: International Monetary Fund played its now typical role as a "savior o...

  4. Anthropogenic carbon in the East Greenland Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutterström, Sara; Jeansson, Emil

    2008-07-01

    Sections of dissolved inorganic anthropogenic carbon ( CTanthro) based on 2002 data in the East Greenland Current (EGC) are presented. The CTanthro has been estimated using a model based on optimum multiparameter analysis with predefined source water types. Values of CTanthro have been assigned to the source water types through age estimations based on the transit time distribution (TTD) technique. The validity of this approach is discussed and compared to other methods. The results indicated that the EGC had rather high levels of CTanthro in the whole water column, and the anthropogenic signal of the different source areas were detected along the southward transit. We estimated an annual transport of CTanthro with the Denmark Strait overflow ( σθ > 27.8 kg m -3) of ∼0.036 ± 0.005 Gt C y -1. The mean CTanthro concentration in this density range was ∼30 μmol kg -1. The main contribution was from Atlantic derived waters, the Polar Intermediate Water and the Greenland Sea Arctic Intermediate Water.

  5. The rabies situation in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seimenis, A

    2008-01-01

    Rabies is a public health problem of significant importance in the majority of Southern and Eastern Mediterranean and Middle Eastern countries. In some of these countries, there is a considerable death rate due to rabies. Dogs are the main source of human infection, while cats constitute the second most important group of domestic animals followed by cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys and then wild animals. There are around 300 reported human cases in these regions annually, with several hundred thousand post-exposure treatments. Laboratory confirmation of rabies cases is not always performed. In most countries, there is one central rabies diagnosis laboratory with trained staff and the diagnosis capability of district laboratories is weak. Animal rabies control consists of the vaccination of dogs and cats, the elimination of stray animals, health education for the public, etc. Mass vaccination of dogs is not implemented, and the effective coverage rate is not exactly known. The elimination of stray dogs and other animals by shooting and poisoning is still implemented in certain countries, however, this has a minimal effect on rabies transmission. Certain countries of the Middle East region are facing increasing problems due to wildlife rabies, including Saudi Arabia, Oman, Yemen, Israel, Iran and Turkey. The red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and golden jackal (Canis aureus) are usually involved. Coordinated actions to confront the serious rabies public health and economic problems should be undertaken by affected countries, with the assistance of international organisations, under conditions that are suitable for each country. PMID:18634465

  6. Orthopedic Injuries Following the East Azerbaijan Earthquake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Mohseni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluating demographic characteristics, distribution and types of orthopedic injuries following major earthquakes may be helpful in future planning for disasters.Objectives: This study aimed to analyze data from trauma patients with extremity injury resulting from the earthquakes of East Azerbaijan, Iran.Patients and Methods: Medical records of 686 patients admitted to Shohada hospital, Trauma Center of Tabriz University of Medical Sciences were reviewed. There were 200 patients with extremity injury assessed. Demographic characteristics and patterns of injuries in these patients were evaluated.Results: In this study, there were 105 females (52.5% and 95 males (47.5%, out of which, 6 (3% patients with associated severe head injuries died. The most common sites of injury were lower extremities (81 patients, 41.5% of total victims while 32 patients (16% suffered from both upper and lower extremity injuries. Open Fractures were seen in lower extremities of 26 (13% patients. Compartment syndrome was observed in 3 (1.5% patients with lower limb fractures. Also, 42 (21% patients living in Tabriz were injured while they were running away (falling down the stairs and jumping out of windows.Conclusions: Extremity injuries especially open fractures of lower limbs account for the majority of hospitalized victims. Compartment syndrome is one of the main problems that should be addressed. Our study demonstrates that people still need more education regarding earthquakes and the government should direct more attention to this issue.

  7. Equatorial electrojet in east Brazil longitudes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R G Rastogi; H Chandra; K Yumuto

    2010-08-01

    This paper describes the morphology of the equatorial electrojet (EEJ) along 45°W longitude in east Brazil, where the ground magnetic (dip) equator is associated with the largest declination in the world. Daily range of the horizontal field ( ), as expected, was largest at the station in the chain closest to the dip equator, Sao Luiz (inclination −0.25°S). was largest positive at Eusebio (inclination 9.34°S) and largest negative at Belem (inclination 7.06°N); both near the fringe of EEJ belt. at Sao Luiz during the daytime was unexpectedly large negative in-spite of a small dip and also located south of the dip equator where should be positive. Center of EEJ was found to be shifted southward of the dip equator by about 1° in latitude. During southern summer, started decreasing from 00 h and reached a minimum value in the afternoon, an abnormal feature not discussed for any station so far. The mid-day value of the direction of vector was 22°-24°W compared to the declination of 19°–21°W in the region.

  8. Developing the east coast gas industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a natural gas industry on Canada's east coast was discussed. The various stages of near-term and long-term development were outlined. Opportunities were identified in the areas of Grand Banks gas utilization, third party gas and natural gas liquids transportation and processing, cogeneration, petrochemicals and in energy marketing and services. As an example of this industry development, a corporate review of Novagas Canada Ltd., was presented. The company was formed in January 1994 and is wholly owned by Nova Gas International. Novagas Canada has ultimate resources of 62.9 Tcf of natural gas of which 48.9 Tcf remains to be discovered. The company focuses on non-regulated mid-stream operations of the natural gas/natural gas liquid value chain. Some 800 million dollars have been invested so far in gas processing, liquids and olefins businesses in Nova Scotia and the Grand Banks/Labrador area. The pending Nova/TCPL merger will combine Novagas Canada's and TransCanada Gas Services' midstream assets. The general conclusion was that the resource base is large enough to support development throughout the gas and natural gas liquids value chain, and that a critical mass is required to support development of the necessary gas infrastructure. A sizeable challenge remains in encouraging gas utilization, and in encouraging competition, open access and unbundling of energy services. 2 tabs., 2 figs

  9. COMPARATIVE POETICS: FROM WEST TO EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Стеван Б. Брадић

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Comparative poetics was formed as a concept in the mid-twentieth century, in the context of the French comparative literature theory, and has since gone through the process of numerous transformations and appropriations. While the French theorists understood it mainly as a way to overcome the semiotic borders in an attempt to relate literature to other forms of artistic expression, this essay focuses mainly on the anglicist-orientalist approach that has developed mainly within the framework of postcolonial studies. The essay offers an overview of central topics of this approach, such as constitution of literature as an autonomous discourse, the presence or absence of particular genres in different national literatures, the problems of imitation and expression, and the problem of fictionality of literature in East and West. It also deals with the methodological frame for comparing poetics, highlighting the usual misreadings of Western theorists, based on the projections of their own cultural categories on the rest of the world. Comparative poetics is therefore understood as a critique of cultural imperialism and an attempt at opening space for an authentic intercultural dialogue, with the full understanding of difficulties of such an endeavor.

  10. East Brentwood Gas Field: a paleotopographic trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyd, R.W.

    1982-05-01

    The E. Brentwood Gas Field is located ca. 45 miles east of San Francisco, California. The discovery well was drilled in 1978 by Depco, Inc. and completed in the Upper Cretaceous third massive sand at a depth of 8050 ft. The third massive sand is a progradational sequence of sands with thin shale interbeds, interpreted to have been deposited in a near-shore, open-sea environment. The reservoir sand is truncated dramatically by the Meganos Gorge, a shale-filled fossil channel of Paleocene age. Faunal assemblages indicate that the cutting and filling of the gorge were submarine rather than subaerial. The E. Brentwood Gas Field is controlled primarily by the truncation of the basal part of the third massive sand by the Meganos Gorge shale fill with lateral closure afforded by several normal faults which divide the field into at least 4 separate producing blocks. Nine wells presently are completed in the gas field in which the better wells have over 250 ft of net gas sand. The field has produced 19 billion cu ft of 1080 Btu gas and 50,000 bbl of 46 API gravity condensate since discovery.

  11. Recent plasma control progress on EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, B.J., E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Yuan, Q.P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Leuer, J.A.; Jackson, G.L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Penaflor, B.G.; Pigrowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Welander, A.S. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Zhang, R.R.; Luo, Z.P.; Guo, Y.; Xing, Z.; Zhang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China)

    2012-12-15

    In recent 2 years, various algorithms to control plasma shape, current and density have been implemented or improved for EAST tokamak. These plasma control performances have been verified by either simulated or actual experimental operation, and thus plasma control basis has been established for the long pulse operation and high performance H-mode plasma operation with low hybrid wave (LHW) and ion cyclotron resonance frequency (ICRF) heating. Startup simulation has been done by using TOKSYS code for the plasma breakdown in either 3.1 Wb or 4.5 Wb initial poloidal flux state and the scenarios proved to be robust and used for routine operation. Various shape configurations have been well feedback controlled by using ISOFLUX limited, double-null or single null algorithms based on RTEFIT equilibrium reconstruction. For the long pulse operation, strike point control and magnetics drift compensation have been implemented in the plasma control system (PCS). To improve the operation safety and efficiency, the verification of magnetic diagnostics before plasma breakdown has been demonstrated adequate to prevent a discharge in case of key sensor failure.

  12. Carpology of some East Asian Cardueae (Asteraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarembo, E. V.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the morphological, anatomical structure of achenes in the East Asian species of Rhaponticum, Klasea Serratula and Synurus. The structure of pericarp epidermal cells, mesocarp, has been described, as well as the structure of testa epidermal cells. The specific characters of the genera, as well as the identification characters of the species, are described.El presente artículo se refiere a las características morfológicas, la estructura anatómica de los aquenios en las especies de Rhaponticum, Klasea Serratula y Synurus en Asia oriental. Se han descrito la estructura de células epidérmicas del pericarpio, y el mesocarpio, así como la de la testa de las células epidérmicas. También quedan descritos los caracteres específicos de los géneros, así como los caracteres de identificación de las especies.

  13. Convergence of Real Per Capita GDP within East Asian and Middle East Countries: Panel Unit Root Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas Aminifard

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines convergence of real GDP per capita in the selected East Asian countries and this relationship with selected Middle East countries during the period 1950-2009. The reason behind this refers to the fact that East Asia countries (including China, Hong Kong, Singapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, Japan and South Korea have been involved in achieving success arising from regional cooperation. On the other hand, the Middle East region has been well-known in producing and exporting oil (Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. However, these countries have had strong relationship whit East Asian countries through trade and investment relations. Overall, the question is whether such strong relationship has led to a reduction in the real per capita gap between the selected countries of the both regions. To find the answer, income departures across countries are evaluated from several panel data unit root tests. We and no evidence supporting the existence of convergence process for the income in the East Asian and Middle East countries. But in each region, convergence within countries can not reject.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa Kemal elen; Mehmet Sinan Dal; Sevgi Kalkanl; Murat Sayan; Tuba Dal; Celal Ayaz; Alicem Tekin; Tuncer zekinci; Suda Tekin Koruk; Tunga Barcin; Recep Tekin

    2015-01-01

    To detect the subtype characterization and drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains after the refugee movement from Syria to Turkey between 2011 and 2014 in south east border lines. Methods: A total of 65 patients were included in this study, of which 57 (88%) patients were antiretroviral therapy-naive patients. HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantified by real-time PCR assay. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms (CRFs) were identified by phylogenetic analysis (neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed. Results: Three major HIV groups were indicated. Two of these groups were located in subtype B. The other group showed heterogeneity. Subtype B (48/65, 73.8%), followed by CRFs (12/65, 18.5%) was the most common strain. Subtype of CRFs consisted of CRF01_AE (9/65, 13.8%) and CRF02_AG (3/65, 4.6%). Subtype C (1/65, 1.5%), sub-subtypes A1 (2/65, 3.1%) and F1 (2/65, 3.1%) were also detected with low prevalence. The rate of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 4.9% (3/61). Drug-resistant rate for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4.9%. The thymidine analogue mutation rate was 13.1% (8/61). Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 strains in the south-east and east of Turkey

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mustafa; Kemal; ?elen; Murat; Sayan; Tuba; Dal; Celal; Ayaz; Alicem; Tekin; Tuncer; ?zekinci; Suda; Tekin; Koruk; Tunga; Barcin; Recep; Tekin; Mehmet; Sinan; Dal; Sevgi; Kalkanl?

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To detect the subtype characterization and drug-resistant mutations in HIV-1 strains after the refugee movement from Syria to Turkey between 2011 and 2014 in south east border lines. Methods: A total of 65 patients were included in this study, of which 57(88%) patients were antiretroviral therapy-naive patients. HIV-1 RNA was detected and quantii ed by realtime PCR assay. HIV-1 subtypes and circulating recombinant forms(CRFs) were identii ed by phylogenetic analysis(neighbor-joining method), and drug-resistant mutations were analyzed.Results: Three major HIV groups were indicated. Two of these groups were located in subtype B. The other group showed heterogeneity. Subtype B(48/65, 73.8%), followed by CRFs(12/65, 18.5%) was the most common strain. Subtype of CRFs consisted of CRF01_AE(9/65, 13.8%) and CRF02_AG(3/65, 4.6%). Subtype C(1/65, 1.5%), sub-subtypes A1(2/65, 3.1%) and F1(2/65, 3.1%) were also detected with low prevalence. The rate of overall primary antiretroviral resistance was 4.9%(3/61). Drug-resistant rate for non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors was 4.9%. The thymidine analogue mutation rate was 13.1%(8/61).Conclusions: HIV molecular epidemiology studies are necessary to determine transmission patterns and spread. Subtype B and CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG are the most prevalent strains in the south-east of Turkey. However, subtype C, sub-subtypes A1 and F1 are of low prevalence but persist in the south-east of Turkey. In the near future, changing of HIV epidemiology will be possible in Turkey due to migration movement in border lines and resistance testing will play an important role in HIV management.

  16. Simulated leakage of high pCO2 water negatively impacts bivalve dominated infaunal communities from the Western Baltic Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schade, Hanna; Mevenkamp, Lisa; Guilini, Katja; Meyer, Stefanie; Gorb, Stanislav N; Abele, Doris; Vanreusel, Ann; Melzner, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Carbon capture and storage is promoted as a mitigation method counteracting the increase of atmospheric CO2 levels. However, at this stage, environmental consequences of potential CO2 leakage from sub-seabed storage sites are still largely unknown. In a 3-month-long mesocosm experiment, this study assessed the impact of elevated pCO2 levels (1,500 to 24,400 μatm) on Cerastoderma edule dominated benthic communities from the Baltic Sea. Mortality of C. edule was significantly increased in the highest treatment (24,400 μatm) and exceeded 50%. Furthermore, mortality of small size classes (0-1 cm) was significantly increased in treatment levels ≥6,600 μatm. First signs of external shell dissolution became visible at ≥1,500 μatm, holes were observed at >6,600 μatm. C. edule body condition decreased significantly at all treatment levels (1,500-24,400 μatm). Dominant meiofauna taxa remained unaffected in abundance. Densities of calcifying meiofauna taxa (i.e. Gastropoda and Ostracoda) decreased in high CO2 treatments (>6,600 μatm), while the non - calcifying Gastrotricha significantly increased in abundance at 24,400 μatm. In addition, microbial community composition was altered at the highest pCO2 level. We conclude that strong CO2 leakage can alter benthic infauna community composition at multiple trophic levels, likely due to high mortality of the dominant macrofauna species C. edule. PMID:27538361

  17. Dynamics of the east India coastal current. 2. Numerical solutions

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    McCreary, J.P.; Han, W.; Shankar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    A linear, continuously stratified model is used to investigate the dynamics of the East India Coastal Current (EICC). Solutions are found numerically in a basin that resembles the Indian Ocean basin north of 29 degrees S, and they are forced...

  18. Construction of West-East Pipeline's Gansu Segment Kicked Off

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    @@ Commencement of full construction of the segment of the West-East gas transmission pipeline in Gansu Province was announced at an inception ceremony held in Jiayuguan City,Gansu Province on 28 March 2003.

  19. Census Tracts & Block Groups, 2004, East Baton Rouge, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of 107 semi-permanent census tracts and the census blocks within the Parish of East Baton...

  20. Climate Prediction Center (CPC) East Atlantic Teleconnection Pattern Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly tabulated index of the East Atlantic Teleconnection pattern. The data spans the period 1950 to present. The index is derived from a rotated principal...

  1. Stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The investigation of stable isotopic composition of East African lake waters was conducted by scientists from the Department of Geology, University of Nairobi, as part of the International Decade for the East African Lakes (IDEAL) project and in close collaboration with the scientists from Large Lakes Observatory of the University of Minnesota and the Isotope Hydrology Laboratory of the IAEA in Vienna. The Research Contract was part of the IAEA Co-ordinated Research Programme on Isotope Techniques in Lake Dynamics Investigations, and was sponsored by the Agency. Water and grab sediment samples were obtained from East African Lakes during the month of January and February 1994 and July/August 1995. Water samples were analysed for oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition at the IAEA Laboratories in Vienna, Austria. In this final paper we report the results of the study of oxygen and deuterium isotopic composition from the East African lake waters. (author)

  2. Hydraulic Analysis for East Ojai, Ventura County, CA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — East Ojai area experiences riverine flooding as well as alluvial fan flooding. A set of FEMA approved models including HES-RAS, FLO-2D, and FAN, are used to...

  3. Planning Districts, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the 16 Planning Districts of the East Baton Rouge Parish of the State of Louisiana. The...

  4. Unraveling the Mysteries of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-03-11

    Dr. Aron Hall, a CDC coronavirus epidemiologist, discusses Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus.  Created: 3/11/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/11/2014.

  5. Religious Diversity in the Middle East before Christianity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩宇

    2012-01-01

      The Middle East is so religiously diverse that the three major religions, Judaism, Christianity and Islam, are intercon⁃nected and each originated within the Middle East. Islam in its many forms is by far the most heavily represented religion in the region though many branches and sects diversify and segment it. In addition to the widely acknowledged religions, smaller, mi⁃nority religions such as Bahá’í, Druze, Yazidi, Mandean, Gnosticism, Yarsanism, Shabakism, Zoroastrianism are also prevalent throughout the Middle East. This article begins with Mideast civilization and attempts at outlining a religious map of the region. Finally, the study concludes that Hellenistic culture, Jewish religion system and Roman polity all had found their way into spread⁃ing the influence of Christianity before Christianity, the missionary religion established itself in the Middle East.

  6. Geologic Provinces of the Far East, 2000 (prv3al)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons and polygon labels that describe U.S. Geological Survey defined geologic provinces of the Far East (China, Mongolia, North and...

  7. Generalized Geology of the Far East (geo3al)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This coverage includes arcs, polygons, and polygon labels that describe the generalized geologic age and type of surface outcrops of bedrock of the Far East (China,...

  8. International Cooperation on Radioactive Source Security in South East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes international technical cooperation and assistance in South East Asia on the establishment, implementation, maintenance and sustainability of radioactive source security measures for the prevention of unauthorized acquisition of, or access to, high activity radioactive sources. (author)

  9. Improved density measurement by FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • In 2012, the water-cooling Mo wall was installed in EAST. • A schottky barrier diode detector is designed and used on EAST for the first time. • The three-channel far-infrared laser interferometer can measure the electron density. • The improved measurement and latest experiment results are reported. • The signal we get in this experiment campaign is much better than we got in 2010. -- Abstract: A three-channel far-infrared (FIR) hydrogen cyanide (HCN) laser interferometer is in operation since 2010 to measure the line averaged electron density on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST). The HCN laser signal is improved by means of a new schottky barrier diode (SBD) detector. The improved measurement and latest experiment results of the three-channel FIR laser interferometer on EAST tokamak are reported

  10. Cold war, quantum foundations, and East-West collaboration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is well-known that the cultural cold war changed the ideological line in the Soviet Union from the late 1940s and that this had serious implications for the autonomy of research in genetics and quantum foundations in the East bloc. However, besides the more narrow concern from the point of view of research in quantum foundations, I suggest that the ideological impact on quantum foundations also constituted an obstacle for attempts by Western physicists to bring about a rapprochement between physics in the east and west in general. In connection with re-establishing East-West co-operation between physicists after Stalin's death in 1953 this obstacle needed to be cleared away. In my talk I discuss these issues and how the Institute for Theoretical Physics in Copenhagen came to be an important meeting place for physicists from the East and West from the mid-1950s.

  11. Mineral Operations of Africa and the Middle East

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set consists of records for over 1,500 mineral facilities in Africa and the Middle East. The mineral facilities include mines, plants, mills , or...

  12. Metro Council Districts, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the twelve (12) Metropolitan Council Districts within the Parish of East Baton Rouge. The...

  13. City Limits, 2004, East Baton Rouge Parish, Louisiana

    Data.gov (United States)

    Louisiana Geographic Information Center — This is a graphical polygon dataset depicting the polygon boundaries of the incorporated city limits of Baton Rouge, Baker, and Zachary within East Baton Rouge...

  14. The high education of optical engineering in East China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Liu, Xiangdong; Wang, Xiaoping; Bai, Jian; Liu, Yuling

    2014-07-01

    The history and the development of the high education in the field of optical engineering in the area of East China will be presented in the paper. The overall situation of research and human resource training in optics and photonics will also be reviewed, it shows that China needs lots of talents and experts in this field to support the world optical industry in East China.

  15. Assessing financial integration: a comparison between Europe and East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Rossella Calvi

    2010-01-01

    Summary for non-specialistsTwo parallel analyses are carried out in order to assess the degree of integration of financial markets within Europe, within East Asia, between these two regions, and with the external financial community. The investigation is based on cointegration and Granger causality techniques, to detect the presence of short-run and long-run cross-country relationships in equity and bond markets.The empirical analysis performed for seven European and eleven East Asian financi...

  16. Timing of First Births in East Germany after Reunification

    OpenAIRE

    Kreyenfeld, Michaela

    2001-01-01

    When German reunification was accompanied by a rapid decline in aggregate fertility rates, researchers particularly assigned high unemployment rates a dominant role for changes in fertility behavior. The aim of this paper is twofold. First, we investigate changes in the timing of first birth in East Germany after reunification. Using data from the GSOEP, we show that even after reunification East Germans are younger at first birth than their West German counterparts. Second, we investigate th...

  17. East Germany: Transition With Unification - Experiments and Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Strauch, Rolf; von Hagen, Jürgen

    2000-01-01

    East Germany remains unique among the transition economies. Soon after the fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989, it became part of the Federal Republic of Germany. German Union meant the transplantation of West Germany's legal, administrative and economic infrastructure to the five new Länder. The paper traces the economic changes since 1989 and assesses the convergence between West and East Germany during the last decade. We reach three main conclusions: First, there has been significant converge...

  18. Wage convergence and inequality after unification : (East) Germany in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Gernandt, Johannes; Pfeiffer, Friedhelm

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the wage convergence between East German workers and their West German counterparts after reunification. Our research is based on a comparison of three groups of workers defined as stayers, migrants and commuters to West Germany, who lived in East Germany in 1989, with groups of West German statistical twin workers, all taken from the Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP). According to our findings, wage convergence for stayers is roughly 75 percent and for commuters 85 percent....

  19. Environmental monitoring in the Middle East. Special evaluation review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Chernobyl accident some Middles East countries approached the IAEA with their concerns about contamination. Therefore, a regional project (RER/9/003, Environmental Monitoring in the Middle East) was established in 1987. The present document is a progress report of this project. It discusses project design, project management, its implementation and achievements. Certain conclusions and recommendations are given based on the evaluation of the findings

  20. Turkey and the Middle East: threats and opportunities

    OpenAIRE

    Yilmaz, Hasan

    2001-01-01

    The end of the Cold War and the Second Gulf War affected the Middle East prodoundly. The role of regional countries changed when the end of the superpower competition transformed frozen animosities into new conflict areas. In this context, Turkey extremely involved in regional politics. During the 1989-2000 period Turkey's policy toward the Middle East in general centered on security issues while Turkey encouraged regional cooperation simultaneously. PKK terrorism and the prospect of a Kurdis...

  1. Participation Behaviour of East German Women After German Unification

    OpenAIRE

    Bonin, Holger; Euwals, Rob

    2002-01-01

    The Paper studies the determinants of labour force participation by East German women after unification. To isolate the role of preferences on labour force participation from individual characteristics, we develop a panel data model that simultaneously explains participation, employment and wages. The model, estimated for East and West Germany on the basis of the German Socio-Economic Panel, indicates that distinct preferences could explain the regional difference in participation rates at un...

  2. Design of geometric phase measurement in EAST Tokamak

    CERN Document Server

    Lan, T; Liu, J; Jie, Y X; Wang, Y L; Gao, X; Qin, H

    2016-01-01

    The optimum scheme for geometric phase measurement in EAST Tokamak is proposed in this paper. The theoretical values of geometric phase for the probe beams of EAST Polarimeter-Interferometer (POINT) system are calculated by path integration in parameter space. Meanwhile, the influences of some controllable parameters on geometric phase are evaluated. The feasibility and challenge of distinguishing geometric effect in the POINT signal are also assessed in detail.

  3. Antenatal Depression in East Asia: A Review of the Literature

    OpenAIRE

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-01-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature...

  4. Does Water Hyacinth on East African Lakes Promote Cholera Outbreaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Feikin, Daniel R.; Tabu, Collins W.; Gichuki, John

    2010-01-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7...

  5. Mitochondrial DNA variability in populations from East Timor (Timor Leste)

    OpenAIRE

    Souto, L.; Rocha, A. M.; Pires, A; E. Ferreira; Kayser, M; A. Amorim; Côrte-Real, F.; Vieira, D N

    2006-01-01

    In this study we continue the genetic characterization of human populations from East Timor, as previously started for autosomal STRs and Y STRs, with a preliminary report on mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) diversity. Individual samples (n = 133) collected from all the districts of East Timor and representing different linguistic groups were studied for the hypervariable region 1 (HVS1) sequence and the 9-bp deletion (intergenic region COII-tRNA lys).

  6. Economic Indicator Maps for Rural Development in the East

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service

    1996-01-01

    Legislation and social policy require the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service to help diversify the economies and improve the well-being of rural America. This document provides county-level information on 12 economic indicators, including economic diversity and recreation dependency, from both national and regional perspectives for States in the East, including all States east of Texas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Iowa, and Minnesota.

  7. Industrial Policy and the East German Productivity Puzzle

    OpenAIRE

    Klodt, Henning

    1999-01-01

    Catching-up of East German productivity to West German levels has completely faded out since the mid l990s. The remaining productivity gap cannot be attributed to an inferior capital endowment. Instead, it appears to be the result of an inappropriate design of industrial policy which fostered the specialization of East German industry on capital intensive smoke-stack industries. These industries are absorbing a large share of factor inputs, whereas their contribution to aggregate output is ra...

  8. Regionalism in South East Asia : a factor analysis approach

    OpenAIRE

    Egan, Michelle

    1988-01-01

    The concept of regionalism has been the subject of vast research. However, there have been few empirical studies of South East Asia. Although several authors have examined regionalism on a global scale (Russett 1967), the theoretical constructs have been primarily based on regionalism in Western Europe (Haas 1964). Few of these theories have been applied in the context of South East Asia. The current members of ASEAN were chosen for my research paper. (1) ASEAN includes Indonesia, Malaysia...

  9. The Evolving Integration in East Asia - Too many reservations?

    OpenAIRE

    Pape, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    East Asian economic integration is less well known in Europe than is desirable in the EU’s own enlightened self-interest. It is also badly understood, not least because a range of ‘soft’ cultural, historical and political aspects are insufficiently appreciated in Europe. This CEPS Essay offers a deeper personal reflection on the emergence and development of East Asian economic cooperation and market-driven integration. It attempts to address some of the lingering reservations on both sides an...

  10. The black Dutchmen: African soldiers in the Netherlands East Indies

    OpenAIRE

    Kessel, van, CGM

    2002-01-01

    Between 1831 and 1872 some 3000 African recruits sailed from Elmina (Gold Coast, now Ghana) to Batavia, the capital of the Netherlands East Indies. They had been recruited to serve in the Dutch colonial army, which throughout most of the 19th century experienced a chronic shortage of European manpower. The Africans counted as part of the European contingent of the army. After expiry of their contracts, some Africans returned to the Gold Coast, while others opted to settle in the East Indies. ...

  11. Do institutions matter for growth? Evidence from East Asian countries

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad, Mahyudin; Stephen G. Hall

    2012-01-01

    Utilizing neoclassical growth framework augmented with institutional controls and latest estimation technique in panel data analysis, this study identifies the crucial institutional qualities in East Asian and other developing countries and uncovers the channel of their effects toward economic growth. Furthermore, it extends the empirical evidence on the institutional importance toward economic growth in the developing countries particularly the East Asian countries which, apart from Rodrik (...

  12. Natural Product Studies of Selected East Pacific Gorgonians

    OpenAIRE

    Bandurraga, Maury M.

    1982-01-01

    Gorgonian corals commonly occur in great numbers and diversity inthe Caribbean, east Pacific and Indo-Pacific. Previous natural pro­duct investigations of Caribbean gorgonians have yielded a plethora of structurally and biologically unique compounds. These include diter­penes, sesquiterpenes, sterols and prostaglandins. Prior to this inves­tigation, very little was known about the natural products composition of the east Pacific Gorgonacea. This dissertation reports the isolation and structur...

  13. Fataluku medicinal ethnobotany and the East Timorese military resistance

    OpenAIRE

    Mitchell Andrew; Martins Xisto; Collins Sean WM; Teshome Awegechew; Arnason John T

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and poisonous plants used by the East Timor resistance was undertaken in the Lautem District of East Timor to study medicinal plant use in the region. Interviews were conducted with a single key consultant from the resistance army who belonged to the Fataluku culture. This study is of importance as a historical document and because no previous medicinal ethnobotanical studies on this region exist. Methods A rapid ethnobotanical survey o...

  14. Glasgow's new urban frontier: 'Civilising' the population of 'Glasgow East'

    OpenAIRE

    Gray, Neil; Mooney, Gerry

    2011-01-01

    Focusing on Glasgow's East End, home to the 2014 Commonwealth Games, this paper explores the ways in which narratives of decline, 'blight' and decay play a central role in stigmatising the local population. 'Glasgow East' represents the new urban frontier in a city that has been heralded in recent decades as a model of successful post-industrial transformation. Utilising Löic Wacquant's arguments about advanced marginality and territorial stigmatisation in the urban context, we argue that nar...

  15. Is Economic Development Promoting Monetary Integration in East Asia?

    OpenAIRE

    Kentaro Kawasaki; Zhi-Qian Wang

    2015-01-01

    This paper tries to investigate whether there exist international integrated markets among East Asian economies, by employing the Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP) model, then, it would help to suggest whether the East Asian region is the Optimum Currency Area (OCA) or not. The empirical results in this paper suggest that holding the G-PPP among nine Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam) becomes more applicable i...

  16. Patterns of Uveitis in the Middle East and Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Nashtaei, Ebrahim M.; Masoud Soheilian; Herbort, Carl P.; Mehdi Yaseri

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the patterns of uveitis, emphasizing similarities and discrepancies, in the Middle East and Europe. Methods: Six articles reporting uveitis patterns from the Middle East including a total of 2,693 cases, and seven articles with a sum of 4,379 cases from Europe were analyzed and patterns in each region were defined and compared. Results: In both regions, uveitis was most commonly seen in the fourth decade of life with anterior uveitis being the most common anatomical form. ...

  17. East China Market in Dire Need of Three Major Breakthroughs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xuehao

    2008-01-01

    @@ Since started as a pilot project of regional power marketin June, 2003, East China power market has been actively ndsteadily progressing, and has promulgated in succession amarket establishing program, market operating rules andspecifications for the functions of technical support systems.The technical support systems have been built up by stagesincluding the master station system in East China region andcompleting systems in provinces and cities. Also, monthlymarket simulation, integrated simulation and one-day-aheaddispatching test have been implemented successfully.

  18. Protected Areas: Mixed Success in Conserving East Africa's Evergreen Forests

    OpenAIRE

    Pfeifer, Marion; Neil D. Burgess; Swetnam, Ruth D.; Platts, Philip J; Willcock, Simon; Marchant, Robert

    2012-01-01

    In East Africa, human population growth and demands for natural resources cause forest loss contributing to increased carbon emissions and reduced biodiversity. Protected Areas (PAs) are intended to conserve habitats and species. Variability in PA effectiveness and 'leakage' (here defined as displacement of deforestation) may lead to different trends in forest loss within, and adjacent to, existing PAs. Here, we quantify spatial variation in trends of evergreen forest coverage in East Africa ...

  19. Security cooperation in East Asia: structures, trends and limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Wacker, Gudrun

    2015-01-01

    "The East Asia region is facing a plethora of traditional and nontraditional security problems: conventional and nuclear armament, territorial disputes, resource conflicts, major power rivalries, natural catastrophes, piracy and more. China plays a special role: The country's economic rise, its military modernization and its foreign policy stance have led various countries in the Asia-Pacific region to perceive it as a threat. East Asia is home to a complex web of multilateral organizations, ...

  20. Population policies vary in Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudi, N

    1993-04-01

    The Middle East's fast-growing population not only puts constraints on the environment and natural resources but also on governments by increasing the demand for education, housing, health care, and jobs. Cairo has 9 million inhabitants, Tehran, 7 million, and Istanbul, 7 million. These countries have 253 million people, and the number is expected to grow to 400 million by 2010. Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Syria, yemen, Oman, Jordan, and the West Bank and Gaza have an annual rate of growth of 3%. Iran has 60 million people, Iraq, 18 million, Saudi Arabia, 16 million, and Yemen, 10 million, totalling 126 million people. Egypt, Turkey, Lebanon, Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates comprise 123 million people growing at a rate of 2-3% per year. Only Israel with 5 million and Cyprus with less than 1 million people have a rate of natural increase of 1.5% and 1.1%, respectively. The total fertility rate (TFR) for the region is close to 5 children. In 1991/1992, women in rural Yemen averaged more than 8 children; in contrast, Cyprus has a TFR of 2.4, and Jewish women in Israel have a TFR of 2.7. About half of the people of the region are under 20. Egypt, Iran, Jordan, and Turkey have policies to lower fertility and subsidize family planning services. Yemen recently adopted a national population policy to reduce the TFR to 4.0 by 2018. Iraq, Kuwait, Israel, and Cyprus want to raise fertility by providing incentives to families, such as child allowances, greater access to housing, and tax breaks. Kuwait provides cash child allowances, maternity benefits, and subsidies to families of government workers. Israel has social welfare policies to increase the size of the Jewish population, although it provides contraceptive information. Saudi Arabia restrict access to contraceptives by banning their advertising. PMID:12318175

  1. Dynamic triggering of Lusi, East Java Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupi, Matteo; Saenger, Erik H.; Fuchs, Florian; Miller, Steve

    2016-04-01

    On the 27th of May 2006, a M6.3 strike slip earthquake struck beneath Yogyakarta, Java. Forty-seven hours later a mixture of mud, breccia, and gas reached the surface near Sidoarjo, 250 km far from the epicenter, creating several mud vents aligned along a NW-SE direction. The mud eruption reached a peak of 180.000 km3 of erupted material per day and it is still ongoing. The major eruption crater was named Lusi and represents the surface expression of a newborn sedimentary-hosted hydrothermal system. Lusi flooded several villages causing a loss of approximately 4 billions to Indonesia. Previous geochemical and geological data suggest that the Yogyakarta earthquake may have reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system, a strike slip structure upon which Lusi resides. The Watukosek fault systems connects the East Java basin to the volcanic arc, which may explain the presence of both biogenic and thermogenic fluids. To quantify the effects of incoming seismic energy at Lusi we conducted a seismic wave propagation study on a geological model of Lusi's structure. A key feature of our model is a low velocity shear zone in the Kalibeng formation caused by elevated pore pressures, which is often neglected in other studies. Our analysis highlights the importance of the overall geological structure that focused the seismic energy causing elevated strain rates at depth. In particular, we show that body waves generated by the Yogyakarta earthquake may have induced liquefaction of the Kalibeng formation. As consequence, the liquefied mud injected and reactivated parts of the Watukosek fault system. Our findings are in agreement with previous studies suggesting that Lusi was an unfortunate case of dynamic triggering promoted by the Yogyakarta earthquake.

  2. Lg Attenuation Modeling in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasyanos, M. E.; Matzel, E. M.; Walter, W. R.; Rodgers, A. J.

    2008-12-01

    We present a broadband tomographic model of Lg attenuation in the Middle East derived from source- and site-corrected amplitudes. The study region spans from Turkey through the Arabian Peninsula and Iran to Pakistan, Afghanistan, and northwest India. Absolute amplitude measurements are made on hand-selected and carefully windowed seismograms for tens of stations and thousands of crustal earthquakes resulting in excellent coverage of the region. We have modified the standard attenuation tomography technique to more explicitly define the earthquake source expression in terms of the seismic moment. This facilitates the use of the model to predict the expected amplitudes of new events, an important consideration for earthquake hazard or explosion monitoring applications. We will discuss the updated method and implications of this parameterization. A conjugate gradient method is used to tomographically invert the amplitude dataset of over 8000 paths. We solve for Q variation, as well as site and source terms, for a wide range of frequencies ranging from 0.5 -- 10 Hz. The attenuation results have a strong correlation to tectonics. Shields have low attenuation, while tectonic regions have high attenuation, with the highest attenuation at 1 Hz found in eastern Turkey. The results also compare favorably to other studies in the region made using Lg propagation efficiency, Lg/Pg amplitude ratios and two-station methods. We tomographically invert the amplitude measurements for each frequency independently. In doing so, it appears the frequency-dependence of attenuation is not compatible with the power law representation of Q(f). This research was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under contract number DE-AC52-07NA27344. This is LLNL contribution LLNL-ABS-406761.

  3. Desertification risk in Kakheti Region, East Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basialashvili, Tsisana; Matchavariani, Lia; Lagidze, Lamzira

    2015-01-01

    Desertification or land degradation in drylands is caused by various factors. The most important of these is climate change, a significant global ecological problem. Desertification, like erosion, as an environmental process of ecosystem degradation, is often caused by human activity. It is a common misconception that droughts cause desertification. Well-managed lands can recover from drought if the rains return. These practices help to control erosion and maintain productivity during periods when moisture is available. Traditionally, the most vulnerable territories considered under the threat of desertification in Georgia is Kakheti region (East Georgia), which has been selected as one of the priority investigation area. In Eastern Georgia, intervals of atmospheric precipitation do not coincide with the phases of water demand of plants. In recent decades as a result of more frequent droughts in Kakheti, the region has already lost hundreds, thousands of hectares of fertile land. Based on the contemporary climate warming projections, the temperature is expected to increase and precipitation to decrease. This will lead to an increase in evaporation and reduction of river flow. Under such conditions the danger of desertification is evident. To mitigate the negative effects of desertification, it is recommended to put forward set of adaptation activities through rehabilitation of water use systems, prevention of loss of water, reconstruction and expansion of irrigation canals, accumulation of unused autumn-winter river water and spring floods in reservoirs, developing an optimal scheme of distributing water resources among water users, device windbreaks and work on breeding of drought resistant varieties, preparation of water volume forecasts of rivers and their role in planning of water use; application of apply drip and sprinkler irrigation, using artificial precipitation following increase as a result of active influence on clouds. All these activities will provide

  4. Variations in Extratropical Cyclone Activity in Northern East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xinmin; ZHAI Panmao; WANG Cuicui

    2009-01-01

    Based on an improved objective cyclone detection and tracking algorithm, decadal variations in extratropical cyclones in northern East Asia are studied by using the ECMWF 40 Year Reanalysis (ERA-40) sea-level pressure data during 1958-2001. The results reveal that extratropical cyclone activity has displayed clear seasonal, interannual, and decadal variability in northern East Asia. Spring is the season when cyclones occur most frequently. The spatial distribution of extratropical cyclones shows that cyclones occur mainly within the 40°-50°N latitudinal band in northern East Asia, and the most frequent region of occurrence is in Mongolia. Furthermore, this study also reveals the fact that the frequency of extratropical cyclones has significantly decreased in the lower latitude region of northern East Asia during 1958-2001, but dccadal variability has dominated in higher latitude bands, with frequent cyclone genesis. The intensity of extratropical cyclones has decreased on an annual and seasonal basis. Variation of the annual number of cyclones in northern East Asia is associated with the mean intensity of the baroclinic frontal zone, which is influenced by climate warming in the higher latitudes. Moreover, the dipole structure of extratopical cyclone change, with increases in the north and decreases in the southern part of northern East Asia, is related to the northward movement of the baroclinic frontal zone on either side of 110°E.

  5. Second phase of the extension of ASEAN: East Timor case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maricela Reyes López

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available East Timor, the newly independent and small country of the Southeast Asia applies to join ASEAN. ASEAN members debate pro and con arguments on that admission. Vietnam, Lao and Cambodia are pro because they are beneficiary countries in economic terms trough ASEAN. Also, they ....the integration of all countries of the region, including East Timor, will be improve in a meaningful way the political and economic stability in the region. Today government officials, analysts and academics are debating on the Association of South East Asian Nations (ASEAN enlargement to admit East Timor as the eleventh member. East Timor recently declared independence and could benefit regionally just now as favorable factors are improving its economy and political position. Pro and con arguments of such membership represent more than an individual vote from the region’s friendly governments. A positive consensus will mean certain effects in the region and beyond it. This paper discusses arguments of several actors concerning the acceptance of East Timor into the ASEAN and its regional implications.

  6. East Asian Attitudes toward Death- A Search for the Ways to Help East Asian Elderly Dying in Contemporary America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sok K

    2009-01-01

    The art of dying well has been a quintessential subject of ethicoreligious matters among the people in the West and the East. Most of us wish to die at home; however, about 50% of Americans die in acute care hospitals. Furthermore, immigrants from East Asian cultures feel more uncomfortable near death, because their physicians are not familiar with their traditions.This article is written to help American physicians understand the unique aspects of East Asian Confucian Ethics for the better care of the dying elderly. Western attitudes toward death are briefly reviewed and the six East Asian concepts related to death are elaborated from Confucian Chinese philosophy. To widen the horizon of bioethics and to embrace the Confucian wisdom of dying well, three pearls of wisdom from classical Confucianism are proposed: the relational autonomy of family, Confucian creative self-transformation, and the unity of transcendence and the human being. PMID:20740092

  7. East Capitali fondid on pakkunud ülihäid tootlusi / Raigo Neudorf

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Neudorf, Raigo

    2007-01-01

    Varahaldusfirma East Capital Baltimaade tegevust juhtiv Gert Tiivas ettevõtte asutamisest kümme aastat tagasi. Erinevalt konkurentidest on East Capital võtnud sihikule just arenevad turud, sh Venemaa ja Baltimaad. Vt. samas: 100 töötaja seas esindatud 24 rahvust; East Capitali fondid on popid Rootsi pensionäride seas. Tabel: East Capitali fondide tootlused

  8. East Asia's Dynamic Development Model and the Republic of Korea's Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Ho-Chul LEE; McNulty, Mary P.

    2003-01-01

    No region has been more dynamic in recent years than East Asia. Despite its successful economic development, evaluations of the East Asian development model have often been capricious, shifting from "miracle" to "cronyism." How can we explain East Asia's ups and downs consistently? To respond to this challenge, it is necessary to study the progress of East Asian development and to trace th...

  9. Diseases and pests of sweet potato: south-east Asia, the Pacific and East Africa (NRI Bulletin No. 46)

    OpenAIRE

    Lenné, Jillian M.

    1991-01-01

    The bulletin reviews available information on biotic factors affecting sweet potato in eight countries in three important tropical production regions - south-east Asia, the Pacific, and east Africa. Information was obtained both from published reports, and directly from visits to key root and tuber-crop research institutions and discussions with many researchers in the Philippines, Indonesia, Thailand, Papua New Guinea, Uganda, Rwanda and Kenya. The most important diseases and pests are ident...

  10. “A very orderly retreat”: Democratic transition in East Germany, 1989-90

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, G

    2006-01-01

    East Germany's 1989-90 democratisation is among the best known of East European transitions, but does not lend itself to comparative analysis, due to the singular way in which political reform and democratic consolidation were subsumed by Germany's unification process. Yet aspects of East Germany's democratisation have proved amenable to comparative approaches. This article reviews the comparative literature that refers to East Germany, and finds a schism between those who designate East Germ...

  11. Purdah and overpopulation in the Middle East.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misch, A

    1990-01-01

    The Middle East and North Africa constitute the Islamic world. From Morocco to Afghanistan the population is 340 million and growing at a rate of 3% annually and will double in 23 years. Currently food, water, and land resources are being taxed to their limit and continued growth will only cause larger scale problems for the region. To complicate the issue public policies and private practices and attitudes are leading to continued population growth. The rise of Islamic fundamentalism does not recognize the problem of over population. In fact the revision of family law by fundamentalist politicians has done a great deal of damage to the improvements in the status of women throughout the region. The revival of Purdah, the practice of keeping women out of the public eye and confined to home, is just one example or how the rise of Islamic fundamentalism is turning back the clock in terms of women's rights. The primary disadvantage is that since women are being returned to the home, their only source of values is as child bearers. Women cloistered at home are expected to be prolific child bearers, in fact their value as human beings is judged primarily on this basis. It is their ability to bear sons that is coveted. This of course will only compound the population problems being experienced in the region. Few countries have tried to institute state wide family planning programs, namely: Algeria, Egypt, Morocco, Tunisia and Yemen, but none of these programs has been very successful. In Iraq, Kuwait, Oman and Saudi Arabia, population growth is viewed as a positive event because it will help eliminate the need for foreign workers. Even in this region, educated people have a lower fertility rate. For example in Jordan 60% of illiterate males "did not believe in" contraception while only 15% of men educated past the secondary level felt the same way. If women are forced out of the labor force and into the home to have children, the population problem will only grow. PMID

  12. 'Bread Loaf' Mesa East of Phlegra Montes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] An isolated mesa east of the Phlegra Montes in northeastern Elysium Planitia has a cracked surface that, combined with its overall shape, gives the appearance of a giant loaf of bread. Other mesas with similar surfaces are found in the area, suggesting that at one time these mesas were part of a continuous layer of material. It is likely that at that time, some process caused the graben-like cracks to form. Later erosion of the cracked layer left only the isolated mesas seen in the THEMIS image. One clue that supports this scenario is the presence of many filled and eroded craters throughout the scene but no fresh ones. One way to produce this landscape begins with an ancient and heavily cratered surface that subsequently is buried by some other material. If this overburden was stripped off relatively recently, not enough time would have passed to allow for a new population of fresh craters to be produced. The result would be a landscape with isolated mesas of younger material on top of an ancient, cratered surface.Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey

  13. Impact of aerosol direct effect on East Asian air quality during the EAST-AIRE campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Allen, Dale J.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Li, Zhanqing; He, Hao

    2016-06-01

    WRF-Chem simulations were performed for the March 2005 East Asian Studies of Tropospheric Aerosols: an International Regional Experiment (EAST-AIRE) Intensive Observation Campaign (IOC) to investigate the direct effects of aerosols on surface radiation and air quality. Domain-wide, WRF-Chem showed a decrease of 20 W/m2 in surface shortwave (SW) radiation due to the aerosol direct effect (ADE), consistent with observational studies. The ADE caused 24 h surface PM2.5 (particulate matter with diameter Sichuan Basin (9.6%), due to different aerosol compositions in these four regions. Conversely, surface 1 h maximum ozone was reduced by 2.3% domain-wide and up to 12% in eastern China because less radiation reached the surface. We also investigated the impact of reducing SO2 and black carbon (BC) emissions by 80% on aerosol amounts via two sensitivity simulations. Reducing SO2 decreased surface PM2.5 concentrations in the Sichuan Basin and southern China by 5.4% and decreased ozone by up to 6 ppbv in the Sichuan Basin and Southern China. Reducing BC emissions decreased PM2.5 by 3% in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin but increased surface ozone by up to 3.6 ppbv in eastern China and the Sichuan Basin. This study indicates that the benefits of reducing PM2.5 associated with reducing absorbing aerosols may be partially offset by increases in ozone at least for a scenario when NOx and VOC emissions are unchanged.

  14. Recent Outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever in East Africa and the Middle East

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousif El Safi Himeidan

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Rift Valley fever (RVF is an important neglected, emerging, mosquito-borne disease with severe negative impact on human and animal health. Mosquitoes in the Aedes genus have been considered as the reservoir, as well as vectors, since their transovarially infected eggs with stand desiccation and larvae hatch when in contact with water. However, different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVF, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa. The recent RVFV outbreaks in Somalia (2006–2007, Kenya (2006–2007, Tanzania (2007, and Sudan (2007–2008 showed extension to districts which were not involved before. These outbreaks also demonstrated the changing epidemiology of the disease from being originally associated with livestock, to a seemingly highly virulent form infecting humans and causing considerably high fatality rates. The amount of rainfall is considered to be the main factor initiating RVF outbreaks. The interaction between rainfall and local environment i.e. type of soil, livestock, and human determine the space-time clustering of RVF outbreaks. Contact with animals or their products was the most dominant risk factor to transfer the infection to humans. Uncontrolled movement of livestock during an outbreak is responsible for introducing RVF to new areas. For example, the virus that caused the Saudi Arabia outbreak in 2000 was found to be the same strain that caused the 1997–98 outbreaks in East Africa. A strategy that involves active surveillance with effective case management and diagnosis for humans and identifying target areas for animal vaccination, restriction on animal movements outside the affected areas, identifying breeding sites and targeted intensive mosquito control programs has been shown to succeed in limiting the effect of RVF outbreak and curb the spread of the disease from the onset.

  15. The Alignment and Assembly for EAST Tokamak Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    EAST (HT-7U) is a large fusion experimental device. It is a full superconducting tokamak with 1 MA of plasma current, 1000 s of plasma duration, high elongation and triangularity. It mainly consists of superconducting magnets of poloidal and toroidal field (PF& TF),vacuum vessel (VV), thermal radiation shield (TRS) and cryostat vessel (CV). The significant difficulty for assembly of EAST is tight installation tolerances, which are in the order of several tenth of a millimeter. In particular, the alignment of plasma facing components to the magnetic axis of the device is less than ± 0.5 mm.At present, a reasonable assembly process of EAST has been defined, and based on it, the alignment method for EAST, including the survey control network, the location of the main components in different directions, the magnetic axis determination and the accurate positioning of the plasma facing components inside of the vacuum vessel and so on, has been defined by using the sophisticated optical metrology system (SOMS).This paper describes the assembly procedure of EAST and the installation tolerances associated with the main components. Meanwhile, how to establish the assembly survey control network,magnetic axis determination methods, are introduced in detail.

  16. East-West Couples: Distribution, Characteristics and Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Lois

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Der Originalbeitrag in deutscher Sprache ist verfügbar unter: Bd. 40 (2015: Ausgewählte deutsche Beiträge.SOEP data were used to examine relationships consisting of one partner socialised in West Germany and one in East Germany and who presently reside in the “old” (former West German or “new” (newly formed East German federal states. The estimated share of east-west couples among all marriages or cohabiting couples rises continuously within the observed period reaching approximately two and eleven percent respectively by 2009. The specific characteristics of east-west couples are that their employment-related division of labour is relatively egalitarian, above-average the partners are of different confessions and practice different religions, at least one of the partners is frequently divorced and there is also a strong tendency towards unmarried cohabitation. Besides the place of socialisation, the present place of residence has an independent impact on the economic situation, division of labour and marriage propensity. Analyses of relationship stability reveal that east-west couples exhibit a relatively high risk of separation. This is partly due to religious differences between the partners, but primarily to the low marriage propensity and the overrepresentation of divorced persons within this type of relationship.

  17. The implementation of virtualization technology in EAST data system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The server virtualization based on XenServer has been used in EAST data center for common servers and software development platform. • The application virtualization based on XenApp has been demonstrated in EAST to provide an easy and unified data browser method. • The desktop virtualization based on XenDesktop has been adopted for desktop virtualization in the new EAST central control room. - Abstract: The virtualization technology is very popular in many fields at present which has many advantages such as reducing costs, unified management, mobile applications, cross platform, etc. We have also implemented the virtualization technology in EAST control and data system. There are primarily four kinds of technology providers in virtualization technology including VMware, Citrix, Microsoft Hyper-V as well as open source solutions. We have chosen the Citrix solution to implement our virtualization system which mainly includes three aspects. Firstly, we adopt the XenServer technology to realize virtual server for EAST data management and service system. Secondly, we use XenApp technology to realize cross platform system for unify data access. Thirdly, in order to simplify the management of the client computers, we adopt the XenDesktop technology to realize virtual desktops for new central control room. The details of the implementation are described in this paper

  18. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  19. EAST ion cyclotron resonance heating system for long pulse operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y.P. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhang, X.J., E-mail: xjzhang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Mao, Y.Z.; Yuan, S.; Xue, D.Y.; Deng, X.; Wang, L.; Ju, S.Q.; Cheng, Y.; Qin, C.M.; Chen, G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Lin, Y. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Li, J.G.; Wan, B.N.; Song, Y.T. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Braun, F. [Max-Planck Institute for Plasma Physics, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Kumazawa, R. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Wukitch, S. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Radio frequency (RF) power in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) is one of the primary auxiliary heating techniques for Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST). The ICRF system for EAST has been developed to support long-pulse high-β advanced tokamak fusion physics experiments. The ICRF system is capable of delivering 12 MW 1000-s RF power to the plasma through two antennas. The phasing between current straps of the antennas can be adjusted to optimize the RF power spectrum. The main technical features of the ICRF system are described. Each of the 8 ICRF transmitters has been successfully tested to 1.5 MW for a wide range of frequency (25–70 MHz) on a dummy load. Part of the ICRF system was in operation during the EAST 2012 spring experimental campaign and a maximum power of 800 kW (at 27 MHz) lasting for 30 s has been coupled for long pulse H mode operation.

  20. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.

  1. Rise of China Offers Many Opportunities for East Asian Countries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

      As the sixth largest economic country and the third largest trading country in the world, China's rapid development inevitably influences all aspects of the world economy. Since the East Asian countries are adjacent to China, they are also affected by the transition and global change brought by the rise of China. In East Asia,both new industrialized countries and some of ASEAN countries have been seeking export-oriented industrialization earlier than China. Recently China has been catching up with these countries at a surprisingly rapid speed. Similar to the mode of Japanese economic development in the 1980s, China has been regarded as another important motive force for promoting economic transition in East Asia following Japan.……

  2. Does water hyacinth on East African lakes promote cholera outbreaks?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feikin, Daniel R; Tabu, Collins W; Gichuki, John

    2010-08-01

    Cholera outbreaks continue to occur regularly in Africa. Cholera has been associated with proximity to lakes in East Africa, and Vibrio cholerae has been found experimentally to concentrate on the floating aquatic plant, water hyacinth, which is periodically widespread in East African lakes since the late 1980s. From 1994 to 2008, Nyanza Province, which is the Kenyan province bordering Lake Victoria, accounted for a larger proportion of cholera cases than expected by its population size (38.7% of cholera cases versus 15.3% of national population). Yearly water-hyacinth coverage on the Kenyan section of Lake Victoria was positively associated with the number of cholera cases reported in Nyanza Province (r = 0.83; P = 0.0010). Water hyacinth on freshwater lakes might play a role in initiating cholera outbreaks and causing sporadic disease in East Africa. PMID:20682884

  3. Solid scintillator based neutron fluctuation measurement on EAST tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microsecond level fast temporal resolved neutron flux and its fluctuation measurement system based on three types of solid scintillator detectors has been successfully established on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) for energetic particle (EP) and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) instabilities relevant studies. The detector #1, where 50mm thick polyethylene is used for neutron thermalization, is mostly sensitive to thermal neutron. The detector #2 and #3 measure fast D-D neutrons directly with different gamma immunity. Design details together with detector test results with three types of radioisotope sources are presented. The system has been successfully implemented in EAST experiments for neutron and gamma identification. Typical fast MHD fluctuation related EAST experimental results from this system is also presented

  4. Disarmament and security measures in South-East Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The situation in South-East Asia is something of a paradox wrought by the end of the cold war and super Power rivalry. As a subregion and integral part of the great Pacific region in cannot be considered in isolation. On the other hand South-East Asia is one of great complexity in terms of its history, peoples and cultures, as well as in its political social and economic systems and orientation. Security picture in South-east Asia in the coming decades depends on a number of impoderables, mainly the situation in Indochina, notably Cambodia, the kind of relationship that will develop between the ASEAN member states and the Indochina countries, as well as with China, as nuclear owning regional Power

  5. Regional Initiatives in Support of Surveillance in East Africa: The East Africa Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurice Ope

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The East African Integrated Disease Surveillance Network (EAIDSNet was formed in response to a growing frequency of cross-border malaria outbreaks in the 1990s and a growing recognition that fragmented disease interventions, coupled with weak laboratory capacity, were making it difficult to respond in a timely manner to the outbreaks of malaria and other infectious diseases. The East Africa Community (EAC partner states, with financial support from the Rockefeller Foundation, established EAIDSNet in 2000 to develop and strengthen the communication channels necessary for integrated cross-border disease surveillance and control efforts. The objective of this paper is to review the regional EAIDSNet initiative and highlight achievements and challenges in its implementation. Major accomplishments of EAIDSNet include influencing the establishment of a Department of Health within the EAC Secretariat to support a regional health agenda; successfully completing a regional field simulation exercise in pandemic influenza preparedness; and piloting a web-based portal for linking animal and human health disease surveillance. The strategic direction of EAIDSNet was shaped, in part, by lessons learned following a visit to the more established Mekong Basin Disease Surveillance (MBDS regional network. Looking to the future, EAIDSNet is collaborating with the East, Central and Southern Africa Health Community (ECSA-HC, EAC partner states, and the World Health Organization to implement the World Bank-funded East Africa Public Health Laboratory Networking Project (EAPHLNP. The network has also begun lobbying East African countries for funding to support EAIDSNet activities.

  6. Energy market integration and regional institutions in east Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article assesses the case made for energy market integration in East Asia by comparing the role of institutions in South East Asia and North East Asia. The types and functions of institutions and their overall structure are examined in light of global energy market trends. In South East Asia, the shift attempted by ASEAN towards more competitive markets is hampered by the remaining statist variants of the trade institution and bilateral energy diplomacy, which, as regards transaction cost functions, are sub-optimal. As for institutions with order-creating functions, the unresolved status of sovereignty within ASEAN hampers regulatory harmonisation; the great power management institution has since ASEAN's establishment reduced conflicts without providing decisive leadership conducive to integration. North East Asia's dependence on global energy markets overshadows the regional integration potential of the diverse liberalisation efforts and interconnection projects. Bilateral energy diplomacies, new trilateral institutions combined with ‘Track Two’ institutions and remaining great power competition co-exist. In both regions the institutional structure allows for step-wise, technical infrastructure integration. The environmental stewardship institution co-exists with statist energy security and development objectives while it supports cooperation on green energy. The overall structure of informal institutions constrains deeper energy market integration in several ways. - Highlights: • The structures of institutions explain East Asian energy market integration. • Transaction costs are increased by statist trade institutions and bilateralism. • Order-creating institutions are sub-optimal for energy market integration. • Multi-level great power management offers limited leadership for integration. • The environmental stewardship institution supports cooperation on green energy

  7. Manufacture of EAST VS In-Vessel Coil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ITER like Stainless Steel Mineral Insulation Conductor (SSMIC) used for EAST Tokamak VS In-Vessel Coil manufacture first time. • Research on SSMIC fabrication was introduced in detail. • Two sets totally four single-turn VS coils were manufactured and installed in place symmetrically above and below the mid-plane in the vacuum vessel of EAST. • The manufacture and inspection of the EAST VS coil especially the joint for the SSMIC connection was described in detail. • The insulation resistances of all the VS coils have no significant reduction after endurance test. -- Abstract: In the ongoing latest update round of EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak), two sets of two single-turn Vertical Stabilization (VS) coils were manufactured and installed symmetrically above and below the mid-plane in the vacuum vessel of EAST. The Stainless Steel Mineral Insulated Conductor (SSMIC) developed for ITER In-Vessel Coils (IVCs) in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science (ASIPP) was used for the EAST VS coils manufacture. Each turn poloidal field VS coil includes three internal joints in the vacuum vessel. The middle joint connects two pieces of conductor which together form an R2.3 m arc segment inside the vacuum vessel. The other two joints connect the arc segment with the two feeders near the port along the toroidal direction to bear lower electromagnetic loads during operation. Main processes and tests include material performances checking, conductor fabrication, joint connection and testing, coil forming, insulation performances measurement were described herein

  8. Establishment of an east asian nuclear safety and liability regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, almost all of the countries which owned nuclear reactors soon reviewed the security of all their nuclear power plants(NPP) in operation and those under construction, and committed to pursue higher standards of nuclear power plant safety and performance of nuclear power plant. However, many countries still remain their nuclear development policies unchanged. In East Asian countries, China has 11 nuclear reactors in operation and another 24 units under construction. Korea has 21 nuclear reactors in operation, which represents approximately 31.1% of the whole country’s power output and the number of units will be 34 before 2024. In Japan, it also possesses 50 operating nuclear units. And Taiwan now has three nuclear power plants (NPP) including 6 operating units and 2 units still under construction. There will be more than 100 units of NPP in these 4 East Asia countries. Therefore nuclear safety is a matter of the utmost importance to the East Asia countries. This article is going to discuss nuclear safety and third party liability in the 4 East Asia countries, including China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan. In order to enhance the regulatory framework for nuclear safety in East Asia, we will focus on the following issues: A- An effective independence of the national regulatory authorities. B- How to enhance transparency on nuclear safety matters. C- From the viewpoint of the Precautionary Principle and Transparency to reinforce the monitoring and exchange of experiences. D- In nuclear liability regime, all 4 countries, China, Japan, Korea and Taiwan are not members of any nuclear liability regime (neither Paris Convention nor Vienna Convention and nor CSC regime). How to solve the nuclear damage problems? E- Is it necessary to establish an East Asian nuclear safety and liability regime? (author)

  9. Atmospheric Sulfur Deposition on Farmland in East China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Ti-Jian; YANG Hao-Ming; GAO Li-Jie; ZHANG Yan; HU Zheng-Yi; XU Cheng-Kai

    2005-01-01

    Atmospheric sulfur deposition onto typical farmland in East China was investigated using both field measurements and numerical modeling. The field measurements were conducted at the Experiment Station of Red Soil Ecology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 10 km from Yingtan, Jiangxi Province, East China, between November 1998 and October 1999, and at the Changshu Ecological Experiment Station, Chinese Academy of Sciences, in a rapidly developing region of Jiangsu Province, East China, between April 2001 and March 2002. The regional acid deposition model system (RegADMS), in which the dry deposition velocities of SO2 and sulfate aerosols (SO42-) were estimated using a big-leaf resistance analogy model, was applied to simulate air sulfur deposition over East China and sulfur deposition onto lands of different use types in East China. The wet scavenging coefficients were parameterized in terms of precipitation rate, and the effect of sub-grid processes due to inhomogeneous land use on dry deposition velocity was also included. Results of the field measurements showed that over 83% of the total sulfur deposition at the Yingtan site was dry deposition, while at the Changshu site42% was dry deposition. The total sulfur deposition was much larger at the Yingtan site than at the Changshu site, which suggested contrasting air pollution and meteorological situations. The modeling results revealed that the total annual sulfur deposition over East China was 1.88 Mt, of which 72.8% was deposited onto farmland, and dry deposition accounted for 43% of the total sulfur deposited. The modeling results were generally in agreement with those from the observations.Overall, this study suggested that atmospheric sulfur deposition played an important role in the soil sulfur balance, which could have a significant effect on agricultural ecosystems in the study region.

  10. Bioaccumulation of mycotoxins by shellfish: contamination of mussels by metabolites of a Trichoderma koningii strain isolated in the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenave, C; Pouchus, Y F; Bardouil, M; Lassus, P; Roquebert, M F; Verbist, J F

    1999-01-01

    To determine whether toxic metabolites produced by fungi could cause shellfish toxicities, mussels were contaminated in laboratory conditions by sterile filtrates of a liquid culture of a strain of the fungus Trichoderma koningii previously isolated from a shellfish, the cockle (Cerastoderma edule). Mussels were kept in aerated natural seawater and fed with a culture of the microalga Isochrysis galbana, to which a filtrate of liquid fungal culture was added. Mussels were exposed to contamination for 7 days at 16 or 20 degrees C and extractions were then performed and their activity tested on blowfly larvae. The same toxicity was found in the fungal filtrate and the shellfish, indicating bioaccumulation. The digestive gland was the most toxic part of the mussel, confirming contamination by filtration. Treated mussels produced a mucus which appeared to be a means of eliminating toxic metabolites. PMID:9920482

  11. Modelling shellfish growth with dynamic energy budget models: an application for cockles and mussels in the Oosterschelde (southwest Netherlands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troost, T A; Wijsman, J W M; Saraiva, S; Freitas, V

    2010-11-12

    Dynamic energy budget models for growth of individual cockles (Cerastoderma edule) and mussels (Mytilus edulis) are adjusted and calibrated to the Oosterschelde by formulating and parametrizing their functional responses using an extensive set of field observations. The resulting model predictions fit the observations satisfactorily. Results indicate that food quality and the importance of detritus as a food source are site-specific as well as species-specific. Despite these differences in their calibrated parameter values, both species show a very similar functional response. Compared with other systems, however, the functional responses of mussels in the present study are clearly higher than those of mussels in other systems. This may be explained by the absence of intra-specific competition in the measurement set-up that was used, and therefore supports the idea that the generally small functional response of M. edulis is caused by intra-specific competition. PMID:20921054

  12. Environmental effects of the growth rate of intertidal invertebrates and some implications for foraging waders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanink, Jan H.; Zwarts, Leo

    The paper describes effects of intertidal height and sediment type on growth rate of the bivalves Cerastoderma edule, Macoma balthica, Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis and Scrobicularia plana, and of the worms Arenicola marina, Nephtys hombergii and Nereis diversicolor in the eastern part of the Dutch Wadden Sea. In most species, exposure time was negatively correlated with length growth, although interfering effects of sediment type could not be ruled out. When controlled for the effects of exposure time, clay content of the sediment appeared to affect the growth of all species, but in different ways. The variation was related to the foraging methods of the invertebrates. Foraging waders may use the spatial variation in growth rate of the invertebrates to optimize the exploitation of individual cohorts.

  13. Burrowing and avoidance behaviour in marine organisms exposed to pesticide-contaminated sediment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohlenberg, F.; Kiorboe, T.

    1983-02-01

    Behavioural effects of marine sediment contaminated with pesticides (6000 ppm parathion, 200 ppm methyl parathion, 200 ppm malathion) were studied in a number of marine organisms in laboratory tests and in situ. The burrowing behaviour in Macoma baltica, Cerastoderma edule, Abra alba, Nereis diversicolor and Scoloplos armiger was impaired in the contaminated sediment compared to control. The impairment was most pronounced in the laboratory tests, where almost no burrowing occured. In a very simple laboratory set-up, highly significant avoidance of the contaminated sediment was demonstrated for Crangon crangon and Solea solea, but not for Carcinus maenas and Pomatoschistus minutus. The validity of both behavioural tests was supported by in situ observations and investigations on the distribution of the species. It is concluded that both tests are useful tools in the assessment of the impact of contaminated sediments.

  14. Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shehata, Mahmoud M; Gomaa, Mokhtar R; Ali, Mohamed A; Kayali, Ghazi

    2016-06-01

    The Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus was first identified in 2012 and has since then remained uncontrolled. Cases have been mostly reported in the Middle East, however travel-associated cases and outbreaks have also occurred. Nosocomial and zoonotic transmission of the virus appear to be the most important routes. The infection is severe and highly fatal thus necessitating rapid and efficacious interventions. Here, we performed a comprehensive review of published literature and summarized the epidemiology of the virus. In addition, we summarized the virological aspects of the infection and reviewed the animal models used as well as vaccination and antiviral tested against it. PMID:26791756

  15. II. GULF WAR, USA, GREAT MIDDLE EAST PROJECT AND TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    LEVENT GOKDEMIR

    2009-01-01

    Middle East has always been the region having the first priority in the cynosure of USA because of two reasons. The first and the most important reason is petroleum. 61.9 % of petroleum reserves on the Earth are located in Middle East region. Therefore, meeting the petroleum need of the USA and its allies with a reasonable price and providing the constant petroleum flow from this region have been two important factors in the policy that the USA developed for the region. The global petroleum n...

  16. Critical Review of East Asia – South America Trade

    OpenAIRE

    Hamanaka, Shintaro; Tafgar, Aiken

    2013-01-01

    There is a general consensus that trade between East Asia and South America is becoming increasingly important. However, we know little about the actual dynamic development of this inter-regional trade. This paper examines whether the trend of East Asia–South America trade is a general phenomena or a country- and commodity-specific issue, and whether the increase in trade values has a solid basis in terms of commodity diversification and/or price and quantity effects. While South America has ...

  17. Why Do People Still Live In East Germany?

    OpenAIRE

    Hunt, Jennifer

    2000-01-01

    In 1997 GDP per capita in East Germany was 57% of that of West Germany, wage rates were 75% of western levels, and the unemployment rate was at least double the western rate of 7.8%. One would expect that if capital flows and trade in goods failed to bring convergence, labour flows would respond, enhancing overall efficiency. Yet net emigration from East Germany has fallen from high levels in 1989-1990 to close to zero. Using state-level data for all of Germany, available from 1991-1996, I am...

  18. Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoof, van, Joris

    1987-01-01

    Mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize in East Java was studied by means of a survey of farming practice and by field experiments. The influence of different sowing times and plant density of maize on the development and yield of groundnuts and maize were the main topics in this thesis. Plant arrangement, light use efficiency, and economic aspects were also investigated.The normal farming practice in East Java for mixed cropping of groundnuts and maize was to sow the crops simultaneously at t...

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2013 East African Rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Jones, Eric S.; Stadler, Timothy J.; Barnhart, William D.; McNamara, Daniel E.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The East African Rift system (EARS) is a 3,000-km-long Cenozoic age continental rift extending from the Afar triple junction, between the horn of Africa and the Middle East, to western Mozambique. Sectors of active extension occur from the Indian Ocean, west to Botswana and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC). It is the only rift system in the world that is active on a continent-wide scale, providing geologists with a view of how continental rifts develop over time into oceanic spreading centers like the Mid-Atlantic Ridge.

  20. Petroleum and gas stakes in the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article is explained the policy situation in the Middle-East and how it has an influence upon the petroleum market. The different situations of Israel and Arab countries, Iran, Iraq and Turkey are reviewed and some speculations are made to understand how things can evolve and their impact on the economic life of this area( for example: if Turkey wants to play a role in the Middle-East policy). If it is obvious that changes can arise the direction of these changes is not clearly established. (N.C.)

  1. Denmark: Intervention Dilemma in South Harbour and Aalborg East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jesper Rohr; Engberg, Lars A.

    2014-01-01

    industrial, ill-reputed brownfield area; whereas in Aalborg East, this point of collective action is still open: will collaborators succeed in supporting a joint agenda? Is it possible for Aalborg Municipality to enable this sort of collaborative, flexible planning? Will one of the actors succeed in...... demonstrating a strategic leadership that will convince collaborators of the added value of the project, in order to change the status quo in the huge, fragmented suburban area of Aalborg East? For general background information concerning the context of the cases, the reader should consult the case...

  2. THE VIOLATION OF VOWEL HARMONIES IN THE EAST GROUP DIALECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih ÖZEK

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available We see vowel disharmonies in most of the Turkey-Turkish East Group dialects. A part of the vowel disharmonies seen in Turkey-Turkish East Group dialects are characteristic for this regional dialects, but some of the disharmonies can be explained with certain phonetical features and they are not characteristic. We can group these disharmonies as much: 1. Disharmonies sprung from spelling 2. Vowel disharmonies explanied by certain phonetical phomena. 3. Disordered vowel dishormonies In this study, we try to the explore the reasons of the disharmonies seen in this region under these heading.

  3. Coriolis effect as cause of East-West Earth's asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Scalera, G.; INGV (retired)

    2014-01-01

    The different slope of the Wadati-Benioff zones oriented towards east and west is considered a main asymmetry of the Earth's globe. Under the Americas they have angles of about 30o, while under the Pacific east coasts (Asia, Japan) the angles are steeper. In the framework of plate tectonics geodynamics the cause of this difference can be identified in the tidal drag that would cause a global shift of the lithosphere towards west. But this solution has been many times criticized on t...

  4. The development of Middle-East natural gas markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The economic, political and strategic environment under which plans to explore and develop gas fields in the Middle East have been drawn and implemented are reviewed. The topic is of particular importance in view of the fact that the Middle East holds more than one third of the world's proven reserves of natural gas, largely underdeveloped and under utilized as of the beginning of the second millennium. Particular attention is paid to Saudi Arabia, Iran and Israel, where despite serious challenges and political uncertainties, significant developments are underway to develop the region's natural gas potential. 27 refs., 1 tab

  5. CrossFit East Turun asiakastyytyväisyys

    OpenAIRE

    Viinanen, Mika

    2015-01-01

    Opinnäytetyön tavoitteena oli selvittää CrossFit East Turun asiakkaiden tyytyväisyyttä yrityksen palveluihin, toimipaikkaan ja henkilökuntaan. CrossFit East Turku on Itä-Turussa toimiva hyvinvointi- ja liikuntapalveluihin erikoistunut yritys. Tutkimuksen tarkoituksena oli tarjota toimeksiantajalle tietoa asiakastyytyväisyyden tasosta sekä tietojen pohjalta konkreettisia parannusehdotuksia palvelujen ja olosuhteiden kehittämiseksi. Tutkimuksen teoriaosuudessa käsitellään asiakastyytyväisyyt...

  6. [The development of nursing schools in East and West Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moses, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the various nursing schools in East and West Germany. In the 1980s and early 1990s the professionalization of nursing was still in its infancy there compared with Anglo-America. There were attempts to professionalize nursing that were meant to enhance the quality of nursing as well as lead to improved working conditions. As part of the political debates in the field after German reunification, the nursing schools in the former east were also affected by reform efforts. From the 1960s, diploma courses in nursing studies and in the teaching of medicine had been offered in the east and, up into the 1990s, these courses were repeatedly modified and adapted to educational requirements. The study also tries to establish the extent to which the academization of nursing in the reunified Germany was driven by the concurrence of the different training routes in West and East. It analyses above all the diverse study syllabi and lengths of training. What also emerged was that, despite all the positive impulses arising from the East German training models, the continuous changes in training in the GDR not only served to improve the nursing qualifications but also to promote identification with the socialist system and its political ideology. In addition, the teaching of theory was never prominent in East German nursing, while, in the west, theory was increasingly asked for and eventually also implemented. The possibility, in the former east, to study the teaching of medicine definitely made an impact on the nursing training in the west after the reunification and the subject is now offered at universities there, too. Despite all that, the concept of "professional nursing," which needs to be practised in a practical, patient-oriented way, and on a scientific basis, is again being discussed since the introduction of Bachelor and Master study courses. The process of professionalizing and academizing the nursing schools and further training courses clearly

  7. Long run Relationship among East Asian equity markets and KSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Ali Bhatti

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of various stock markets plays a vital role in diversification while selecting securities in an investor’s portfolio. This study examines interdependence among the East Asian stock markets in relation to the Karachi Stock Exchange. Monthly data ranging from 2000 to 2010 is included and tested in this paper. This relationship is tested by using descriptive statistics and correlation matrix. Data stationarity is ensured by Unit Root Test. Evidence from Granger Causality and Impulse Response Test prove no relationship between KSE and stock markets of the East Asian countries while there exists certain level of unidirectional relationship from Japan to China and from Japan to Pakistan.

  8. Psychiatry in the East African colonies: a background to confinement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, S

    2006-08-01

    This article is concerned with the discipline of psychiatry in colonial East Africa as it emerged out of the crime and disorder problem to become an intellectually significant 'East African School' of psychiatry. The process of lunacy certification, in particular, provides a snapshot of the medical and political tensions that existed among the medical establishment, the prison system and the colonial courts, all of whom sought to define collective African behaviour. This historical article utilises archaic terminology, such as 'lunatic' or 'lunacy', as these categories were in use at the time. PMID:16943144

  9. Winter climate changes over East Asian region under RCP scenarios using East Asian winter monsoon indices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ja-Young; Ahn, Joong-Bae; Jhun, Jong-Ghap

    2016-03-01

    The changes in the winter climatology and variability of the East Asian winter monsoon (EAWM) for the late 21st century (2070-2099) under the Representative Concentration Pathway (RCP) 4.5 and 8.5 scenarios are projected in terms of EAWM indices (EAWMIs). Firstly, the capability of the climate models participating in the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) in simulating the boreal winter climatology and the interannual variability of the EAWM for the late 20th century (1971-2000) is examined. Nine of twenty-three climate models are selected based on the pattern correlations with observation and a multi-model ensemble is applied to the nine model data. Three of twelve EAWMIs that show the most significant temporal correlations between the observation and CMIP5 surface air temperatures are utilized. The ensemble CMIP5 is capable of reproducing the overall features of the EAWM in spite of some biases in the region. The negative correlations between the EAWMIs and boreal winter temperature are well reproduced and 3-5 years of the major interannual variation observed in this region are also well simulated according to power spectral analyses of the simulated indices. The fields regressed onto the indices that resemble the composite strong winter monsoon pattern are simulated more or less weakly in CMIP5 compared to the observation. However, the regressed fields of sea level pressure, surface air temperature, 500-hPa geopotential height, and 300-hPa zonal wind are well established with pattern correlations above 0.83 between CMIP5 and observation data. The differences between RCPs and Historical indicate strong warming, which increases with latitude, ranging from 1 to 5 °C under RCP4.5 and from 3 to 7 °C under RCP8.5 in the East Asian region. The anomalous southerly winds generally become stronger, implying weaker EAWMs in both scenarios. These features are also identified with fields regressed onto the indices in RCPs. The future projections reveal

  10. After the Arab Spring: power shift in the Middle East?: conclusion: the Middle East after the Arab Spring

    OpenAIRE

    Dodge, Toby

    2012-01-01

    The title of this report, ‘After the Arab Spring: Power Shift in the Middle East?’, deliberately ends with a question mark. The events over the year and a half since the death of Mohamed Bouazizi in Tunisia, have left the politics of the Middle East in tumult. The Arab Spring has certainly resulted in a change of regime in Tunisia and then Egypt. The uprisings against Gaddafi’s regime triggered a military intervention by NATO that drove the Libyan leader and his entourage from power. Ali Abdu...

  11. Geochemistry of Crystalline Rocks from the East of the Upper East Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.B. Pelig-Ba

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Selected rock samples were collected from outcrops from the eastern part of the Upper East Region with the aim of determining their chemical composition and classification. Samples were obtained from granitoids and the Birrimian formation located in Bongo, Talensi-Nabdam, Bawku West and Garu-Tempane Districts. Rocks were identified mineralogically using hand lenses. The composition of the samples was determined using X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF after which several quantitative and qualitative techniques were employed to analyse the data. Some of these techniques included physical examination, Chemical Alteration Index (CIA, scatter plots, discrimination diagrams and Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI. The mineralogical analysis showed that the rocks generally contained K-feldspar, plagioclase, muscovite, hornblende, quartz and biotite as major minerals. Physical examination revealed that samples had undergone some alteration that was not evident at the time of sampling and this was confirmed by calculations using the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA. The CIA values of the fresh rocks ranged from 70 to 125 suggesting that the samples had undergone intensive alteration. Scatter plots and discrimination diagrams suggested that the samples were not of basaltic origin but were thoeleiitic in character. The Aluminium Saturation Index (ASI revealed that most samples were metaluminus and that the majority of samples were sub-alkaline and therefore basic in character.

  12. English Language Education in East Asia: Some Recent Developments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guangwei; McKay, Sandra Lee

    2012-01-01

    This article presents an overview of the perceived importance and accelerated spread of English language education, both formal and informal, in three East Asian countries (i.e. China, Japan and South Korea) against the backdrop of globalisation and emergent ideological, sociocultural and educational trends. It begins with a review of the recent…

  13. Proceedings of the 7th Middle East oil show

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains the November, 1991 proceedings of the 7th Middle East Oil Show. It includes the following topics: Horizontal drilling; Emergency pipeline repair; Geologic interpretation and digital processing of satellite images; Fracturing patterns; Oil and gas saturation monitoring; and The environmental impact of oil spills

  14. The Lebanon place on the Middle-East oil scene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebanon is the only country of the Middle-East without oil or natural gas production. Elements of the libanese policy are given in the fields of exploration, refining, transportation, petrochemistry, staff formation, environmental problems, safety, and oil importations weight on economy. The place of Lebanon in the the regional oil industry is shortly presented. (A.B.). 4 tabs

  15. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    Praha: CERGE-EI, 2011 - (Dušek, L.; Lízal, L.), s. 269-279 ISBN 978-80-7344-238-5 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cerge-ei.cz/pdf/books/cerge-ei-tackles-transition.pdf

  16. 'Open SESAME' for science in the Middle-East

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    A memorandum of understanding has just been signed between CERN, SESAME and Jordan. SESAME, the international centre for Synchrotron light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, is currently being built in Jordan. Its President of Council is no other than CERN's former Director-General, Herwig Schopper.

  17. Innovative tephra studies in the East African Rift System

    Science.gov (United States)

    WoldeGabriel, Giday; Hart, William K.; Heiken, Grant

    Geosciences investigations form the foundation for paleoanthropological research in the East African Rift System. However, innovative applications of tephra studies for constraining spatial and temporal relations of diverse geological processes, biostratigraphic records, and paleoenvironmental conditions within the East African Rift System were fueled by paleoanthropological investigations into the origin and evolution of hominids and material culture. Tephra is a collective, size-independent term used for any material ejected during an explosive volcanic eruption.The East African Rift System has become a magnet for paleoanthropological research ever since the discovery of the first hominids at Olduvai Gorge, in Tanzania, in the 1950s [Leakey et al., 1961]. Currently, numerous multidisciplinary scientific teams from academic institutions in the United States and Western Europe make annual pilgrimages for a couple of months to conduct paleoanthropological field research in the fossil-rich sedimentary deposits of the East African Rift System in Ethiopia, Kenya, and Tanzania. The field expedition consists of geological, paleontological, archaeological, and paleoenvironmental investigations.

  18. Physical Engineering Test and First Divertor Plasma Configuration in EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Baonian

    2007-01-01

    Physical engineering capability on the superconducting magnetic system of EAST was tested and first divertor plasma configuration in EAST was obtained.The extrapolation of the safety limit has verified the reliability of the system for long pulse operation.A stably controlled diverted plasmas configuration with an elongation κ in excess of 1.8 and plasma current of up to 500 kA,by using the (copper) internal coils to control the vertical displacement instability was obtained by an optimized plasma control algorithm.Highly shaped plasma at various configura-tions,which almost covers all designed configurations for EAST,was generated stably.A number of operational issues,such as plasma initiation,ramp up and configuration control with constraints of superconducting coils,were successfully investigated.All of the results obtained proved both the capability of the superconducting poloidal magnets for operation under steady-state condition and effectiveness of the plasma control algorithm for EAST.

  19. India's "Look East" Policy: Geopolitical,Historical and Perceptional Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fu Xiaoqiang

    2004-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made in the India-ASEAN relations since India advanced and implemented the "Look East" strategy after the Cold War. India became ASEAN's sectoral dialogue partner in January 1992 and full dialogue partner in 1995, and joined ARF in July 1996. With the establishment of India-ASEAN Summit regime in 2002, the fourth "Ten Plus One" formally kicked off.

  20. Cooperative monitoring workshop: Focus on the Middle East

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pregenzer, A.L.; Vannoni, M.; Biringer, K.; Dobranich, P.

    1995-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories and the Institute for Global Conflict and Cooperation hosted a workshop on the application of cooperative monitoring to the Middle East. The workshop, held in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from July 17 through 21, 1994, was sponsored by the US Department of Energy, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the US Department of State. The meeting, which focused on use of technical monitoring tools and sharing of collected information to facilitate regional agreements, included participants from five regional countries as well as from American universities, the US government, and US National Laboratories. Some attendees previously participated in meetings of the Arms Control and Regional Security working group of the Middle East Multilateral Peace Talks. The workshop combined presentations, demonstrations and hands-on experimentation with monitoring hardware and software. An exercise was conducted to evaluate and recommend cooperative monitoring options for a model agreement between two hypothetical countries. Historical precedents were reviewed and the role of environmental and natural resource conflicts explored. These activities were supplemented by roundtable discussions covering Middle East security issues, the relationship of ``national means`` to cooperative monitoring, and cooperative monitoring of ballistic missiles in the Middle East.

  1. Bathymetry (2011) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This image represents a LiDAR (Light Detection & Ranging) 0.3x0.3 meter resolution depth surface for the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the...

  2. Orthophoto Mosaic (2012) of the St. Thomas East End Reserve

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This 0.3x0.3 meter imagery mosaic of the St. Thomas East End Reserve (STEER), St. Thomas in the U.S. Virgin Islands was created by the National Oceanic and...

  3. Educational Responses to Reforms in East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Val D.

    1992-01-01

    In the former East Germany, Czechoslovakia, and Poland, striking educational changes have occurred, including elimination of communist-oriented curricula, textbooks, and instruction; reintroduction of religious studies, resurgence of private and alternative schools, elimination of Russian as a mandatory second language, decentralization of…

  4. Restructuring Schools for Democracy in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Wayne; Dumas, Alesia; Lee, William B.

    1996-01-01

    Discusses the contentious relationship between educators within the former East Germany and their West German cohorts following reunification. The problems have stemmed from conflicting ideologies and traditions (Marxist versus Christian Democrat and Social Democrat) as well as differences concerning school organization and educational objectives.…

  5. Teacher Union Blitz in the Former East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hildebrand, Robert F.

    1993-01-01

    Expansion of the powerful former West German teacher union (the Trade Union for Educators and Scholars) into the former East Germany is chronicled, and potential problems of the recruitment effort are examined. Declining teacher morale and unfulfilled promises of opportunity and freedom of speech are seen as serious threats to positive change.…

  6. Semantic Change in the German of East Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Richard E.

    The language of East Germany has undergone distinct semantic change since the arrival of the Soviet occupation forces in 1945, especially in the areas of politics, philosophy, and social organization. This is evident in governmental publications and in the shortwave transmissions of the official broadcasting station. Four sources of the change can…

  7. Special Education in East Germany under Communist Domination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sengstock, Wayne L.; Ruttgardt, Sieglind Ellger

    1995-01-01

    This article describes the development of special education in East Germany from the close of World War II through the cold war period, and examines the problems and challenges currently facing special education in a reunified Germany. These include a lack of infrastructure, economic needs, staffing problems, and needed curriculum changes. (DB)

  8. Age of the youngest Palaeogene flood basalts in East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heilmann-Clausen, C.; Piasecki, Stefan; Abrahamsen, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    results, this constrains the termination of the East Greenland Paleogene Igneous Province to the Early-Middle Eocene transition (nannoplankton chronozones NP13-NP14/earliest NP15). This is 6-8 Ma younger than according to previous biostratigraphic age assignments. The new data show that flood basalt...

  9. East Baton Rouge, School Desegregation, and White Flight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Stephen J.; Bankston, Carl L., III

    2001-01-01

    Used archival, interview, and demographic data to conduct a historical analysis of school desegregation and its consequences in East Baton Rouge, Louisiana from 1965 through 1997. Findings show the massive white flight to nonpublic schools and adjoining suburban districts and the failure of efforts to reverse this trend. (SLD)

  10. Teaching Matters: Promoting Quality Instruction in East Baton Rouge Parish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002

    This report describes challenges facing the East Baton Rouge Parish School System, Louisiana, highlighting teacher turnover and teacher preparation and support. Findings are based on national, state, and local studies that investigated the status of teachers and teaching in the community (preparation, recruitment, retention, certification,…

  11. Aspects of the Weichselian chronology In central East Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Funder, Svend Visby; Hjort, Christian

    1973-01-01

    From central East Greenland, CH ages between 19,500 - >40,000 years B.P. have been obtained for six samples of marine bivalve shells. The ages seem to be consistent with geological observations and form the basis for a tentative chronology for the vVeichselian ice age in the region. It appears that...

  12. Statistical characterization of turbulence in the boundary plasma of EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Ning; Nielsen, Anders Henry; Xu, G.S.;

    2013-01-01

    In Ohmic heated low confinement mode (L-mode) discharges, the intermittent statistical characteristics of turbulent fluctuations have been investigated in the edge and the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma on EAST (the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak) by fast reciprocating Langmuir probe...

  13. Education and Happiness: Perspectives of the East and the West

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jeong-Kyu

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relations between education and happiness from the perspectives of the West and the East, especially Buddhism and Christianity as well as classical Greek and Chinese great thinkers. In order to examine this study systematically, three research questions are addressed as follows: First, what are…

  14. Recent changes in the freshwater composition east of Greenland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Steur, L.; Pickart, R.S.; Torres, D.J.; Valdimarsson, H.

    2015-01-01

    Results from three hydrographic surveys across the East Greenland Current between 2011 and 2013 are presented with focus on the freshwater sources. End-member analysis using salinity, d18O, and nutrient data shows that while meteoric water dominated the freshwater content, a significant amount of Pa

  15. Can East Asia Compete : Innovation for Global Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf, Shahid; Evenett, Simon J.

    2002-01-01

    East Asian economies are at different stages of development, but to preserve-and to increase-their competitiveness through innovation and the opportunities presented by information and communication technologies (ICT), they need to move quickly to frame and implement policies in five areas. Reform and restructuring of the banking system are matters of priority: Second, corporate governance...

  16. Vitamin D status indicators in indigenous populations in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxwolda, Martine F.; Kuipers, Remko S.; Kema, Ido P.; van der Veer, E.; Dijck-Brouwer, D. A. Janneke; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2013-01-01

    Sufficient vitamin D status may be defined as the evolutionary established circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] matching our Paleolithic genome. We studied serum 25(OH)D [defined as 25(OH)D-2 + 25(OH)D-3] and its determinants in 5 East African ethnical groups across the life cycle: Maasai (MA)

  17. A Recovery Journey: Facing the East in Recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Blaine

    1998-01-01

    Describes the spiritual transformation of an Idaho State Penitentiary Cherokee inmate who worked with an Indian elder and an Alcoholics Anonymous elder to utilize the interrelated teachings of the American Indian Medicine Wheel (the East, new beginnings) and the first three steps (honesty, hope, and faith) of the 12 Steps of Alcoholics Anonymous.…

  18. History of the volcanology in the former Netherlands East Indies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neumann van Padang, M.

    1983-01-01

    The description of the volcanoes in the former Netherlands East Indies are analysed in order of their publication, grouping them into three parts. The first group consists of information from old Javanese sources and incidental communications in travel accounts and the like, dating from the 16th, 17

  19. A New Juno Iris from North-east Anatolia, Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNER, Adil; DUMAN, Hayri

    2007-01-01

    A new late flowering, reddish brown Iris L. species from the subgenus Scorpiris Spach, Iris nezahatiae Güner & H.Duman, is described and illustrated from north-east Turkey. Its distinguishing characters, affinities, and ecology are discussed and its threat category is assessed as 'Critically endangered (CR)'.

  20. East Asian Finance : The Road to Robust Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Swati R. Ghosh

    2006-01-01

    This study analyzes the key issues and constraints - in terms of efficiency, access and safety and soundness - faced by East Asian countries in developing their financial markets which are at different stages of development, drawing on global experience. The study takes stock of the initiatives being undertaken at the regional level to foster greater financial integration as a means of dee...

  1. Women at work - experiences and identity in rural East Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoven, B

    2001-01-01

    The economic restructuring since German unification has produced gender-differentiated patterns in the rural workplace. Most studies of East German labour market changes have illustrated the nature of such patterns in quantitative terms whilst neglecting their impact on everyday life. The relationsh

  2. Process Modeling and Dynamic Simulation for EAST Helium Refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaofei; Fu, Peng; Zhuang, Ming; Qiu, Lilong; Hu, Liangbing

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, the process modeling and dynamic simulation for the EAST helium refrigerator has been completed. The cryogenic process model is described and the main components are customized in detail. The process model is controlled by the PLC simulator, and the realtime communication between the process model and the controllers is achieved by a customized interface. Validation of the process model has been confirmed based on EAST experimental data during the cool down process of 300–80 K. Simulation results indicate that this process simulator is able to reproduce dynamic behaviors of the EAST helium refrigerator very well for the operation of long pulsed plasma discharge. The cryogenic process simulator based on control architecture is available for operation optimization and control design of EAST cryogenic systems to cope with the long pulsed heat loads in the future. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 51306195) and Key Laboratory of Cryogenics, Technical Institute of Physics and Chemistry, CAS (No. CRYO201408)

  3. Creative Non-Compliance in East Harlem Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleigel, Seymour

    This paper describes a program that has evolved in District No. 4 in the East Harlem area of Manhattan (New York). There, a system of "choice" at the junior high school level is possible due in part to the latitude afforded local school districts under the current decentralized system of authority. The program permits students and parents to…

  4. BP Announces Withdrawal from West-to-East Gas Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    @@ On August 31, 2001, BP announced that BP would not participate in the bidding launched by PetroChina for the West-to-East gas transmission project,China's landmark project for West Development that is valued billions of US dollars.

  5. Geographical patterning of Linear Pottery settlement in East Bohemia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Končelová, Markéta

    Zadar : University of Zadar, 2007. s. 325-325. ISBN 978-953-7237-25-7. [European Association of Archaeologists Annual Meeting /13./. 18.09.2007–23.09.2007, Zadar] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : Linear Pottery culture * East Bohemia Subject RIV: AC - Archeology, Anthropology, Ethnology

  6. Women in the Middle East, 1250-1920

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.Y. Shehada (Nahda)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMost of the studies on women in the Middle East between 1250 and 1920 depend on literary material, documents, court records, and, to some extent, accounts of European visitors. Although feminists are showing new interest in studying women’s lives during this period, the picture of Middle

  7. Managing International Migration for Development in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Adams, Richard H., Jr.; Ahsan, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this book is to analyze the economic and social impact of international migration on labor sending and labor receiving countries in the East Asia region. More specifically, the book seeks: (a) to examine the impact of international migration on key development indicators, including poverty, investment, labor force participation, labor productivity and wages; (b) to evaluate ...

  8. Education in the Broader Middle East: Borrowing a Baroque Arsenal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donn, Gari, Ed.; Al Manthri, Yahya, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    This book brings together academics and postgraduate students, practitioners and Ministry officials all of whom are wedded to developing an understanding of what is happening to education in the broader Middle East. They cover many countries whilst recognising that many more could have been included. In drawing attention to education in Pakistan,…

  9. Literature from the Modern Middle East: Making a Living Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Allen

    2009-01-01

    While the United States is deeply involved in the Middle East, most Americans, including students, lack knowledge about the region. Yet from Afghanistan to Palestine, from Morocco to Iraq, there is a vibrant and exciting literature by living authors that can bring the diverse experiences and perspectives of this vital part of the world to classes.…

  10. Chatty, Dawn: Displacement and Dispossession in the Modern Middle East

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohns, Erik

    2011-01-01

    resettlement with an anthropological account of life experiences of individual members of dispersed communities, Chatty allows the reader to inspect “how various peoples, forced to migrate into or within the Middle East, have survived, founded new communities, integrated, and generally exhibited remarkable...

  11. Humanistic Traditions, East and West: Convergence and Divergence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Morimichi

    2016-01-01

    The term "humanism" is Western in origin. It denotes the tradition that places special emphasis on cultivation of letters for education. In the West, this tradition was originated with sophists and Isocrates, established by Cicero, and was developed by Renaissance humanists. East Asia, however, also has its own humanistic traditions with…

  12. Studying Tones in North East India: Tai, Singpho and Tangsa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morey, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Drawing on nearly 20 years of study of a variety of languages in North East India, from the Tai and Tibeto-Burman families, this paper examines the issues involved in studying those languages, building on three well established principles: (a) tones are categories within a language, and the recognition of those categories is the key step in…

  13. Understanding growth of East Africa highland banana: experiments and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nyombi, K.

    2010-01-01

    Key words: leaf area; radiation interception; QUEFTS model; fertilizer recovery fractions; nutrient mass fractions; crop growth; calibration; validation; radiation use efficiency; sensitivity analysis East Africa Highland banana yields on smallholder farms in the Great Lakes region are small (11−2

  14. History Education and Reconciliation: Comparative Perspectives on East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Un-suk, Ed.; Kondo, Takahiro, Ed.; Yang, Biao, Ed.; Pingel, Falk, Ed.

    2012-01-01

    The legacy of crimes committed during the Second World War in East Asia is still a stumbling block for reconciliation and trustful cultural relations between South Korea, China and Japan. The presentation of this issue in history school books is in the focus of a heated public and academic debate. This book written by historians and pedagogues…

  15. Antenatal depression in East Asia: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schatz, David Beck; Hsiao, Mei-Chun; Liu, Chia-Yih

    2012-06-01

    This current study's goal is to summarize the literature regarding Antenatal Depression (AD) in the East Asian countries of Taiwan, China (including Hong Kong and Macau), Japan, and Korea. The main search utilized a Pub med Chinese Electronic Periodical Service (CEPS) literature review using keywords 'AD', and 'Prenatal Depression' with searches for 'Japan', 'Korea', 'Taiwan', 'Hong Kong' and Macau'. The rates of AD in East Asia appear to be relatively close to those in the Western literature, although certain studies showed slightly decreased rates. Many of the risk factors for AD were the same in the Eastern and Western literature. These risk factors included demographic factors such as younger age, smoking, low education and income, and unemployment. Other risk factors were physical symptoms such as menstrual pains and nausea. Finally, psychological factors such as a poor response to the pregnancy, poor spousal support, and poor family support were associated with AD. With regard to treatment, there were no studies examining the administration of psychotropic medications for AD. The literature from East Asia both confirmed many Western findings and made unique contributions to the literature on AD. The treatment of AD in East Asia appears to be an entity which, despite its morbidity, has not been adequately studied. PMID:22707960

  16. East Asian Cooperation:the Approach and Direction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangYunling

    2003-01-01

    The Leaders' Meeting of the East Asia held in Brunei in November 2001 has drawn a great attention mainly because an agreement was reached by 10 ASEAN country members together with China on a Free Trade Area(FTA) and other progress between China,Japan and the Republic of Korea(ROK).

  17. Integrated Forestry Development in the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2003-01-01

    This Policy Note discusses the status of Forestry in the Middle East and North Africa Region (MNA) of the Bank. The Policy Note is a product of the FAO Investment Center in Rome, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the Bank. Experience in natural resource management shows that to adequately address sustainable development, solutions must go beyond any single sector...

  18. Abrupt climate warming in East Antarctica during the early Holocene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cremer, H.; Heiri, O.; Wagner, B.; Wagner-Cremer, F.

    2007-01-01

    We report a centennial-scale warming event between 8600 and 8400 cal BP from Amery Oasis, East Antarctica, that is documented by the geochemical record in a lacustrine sediment sequence. The organic carbon content, the C/S ratio, and the sedimentation rate in this core have distinctly elevated value

  19. Danish Interests in Regional Security Institutions in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordby, Johannes Riber; Jacobsen, Katja

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade, peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues...

  20. Transnational Higher Education: Offshore Campuses in the Middle East

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Idriss, Cynthia; Hanauer, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    This paper maps the landscape of transnational higher education in the Middle East, focusing in particular on the recent expansion of satellite, branch, and offshore educational institutions and programs that foreign institutions have set up in the region. Of the estimated 100 branch campuses currently operating worldwide, over one-third are in…

  1. Geographical imagination and technological connectivity in East Africa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Mark; Andersen, Casper; Mann, Laura

    2015-01-01

    The paper analyses and compares two transformative moments of technologically-mediated change in East Africa, the construction of the Uganda railway between Mombasa and Lake Victoria (1896-1903) and the introduction of fibre-optic cables that landed into the ports of Dar Es Salaam and Mombasa in ...

  2. East Asian Collections and Organizational Transformation in Academic Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamada, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Discusses special aspects of East Asian collections and explores how organizational changes in academic libraries affect them, based on experiences at the University of Arizona. Considers total quality management; continuous quality improvement; teamwork; staffing changes; specialization versus generalization; budgetary restraints and cost…

  3. Collaboration in Cultural Heritage Digitisation in East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyuk-Jin

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of collaboration in cultural heritage preservation in East Asia, including digital projects, and to suggest practical improvements based on a cultural structuralism perspective. Design/methodology/approach: Through exploratory research, the paper addresses aspects for successful…

  4. Fataluku medicinal ethnobotany and the East Timorese military resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background An ethnobotanical study of medicinal and poisonous plants used by the East Timor resistance was undertaken in the Lautem District of East Timor to study medicinal plant use in the region. Interviews were conducted with a single key consultant from the resistance army who belonged to the Fataluku culture. This study is of importance as a historical document and because no previous medicinal ethnobotanical studies on this region exist. Methods A rapid ethnobotanical survey of medicinal and poisonous plants was conducted through the proposed Conis Santana National Park in the Lautem district of East Timor. Medicinal and poisonous plants were identified by a Consultant and data was collected by the authors using classical descriptive ethnobotanical techniques (i.e. no quantitative measures through an unstructured open ended interview. Results During the survey 40 medicinal and poisonous plants were identified by the Consultant and collected by the authors. Defining characteristics of the Consultant's knowledge include a high frequency use of trees, heavily forested habitats, leaves, decoctions and drinks for a range of conditions relevant to a resistance army. Conclusion Despite limitations of the study, important contributions of this study include preservation of a part of the cultural history of the resistance movement and traditional botanical knowledge of the Fataluku. Furthermore, initial findings may indicate that traditional botanical knowledge is unique amongst different East Timorese cultures in terms of plant selection.

  5. Gender segregation and wage gap: an East-West comparison

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurajda, Štěpán

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 3, 2-3 (2005), s. 598-607. ISSN 1542-4766 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA403/03/0340 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : gender segregation * wage differences * East-West comparison Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.jstor.org/stable/40005002

  6. An African Exploration of the East Asian Education Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Fredriksen, Birger; Tan, Jee Peng

    2008-01-01

    Contents of the report are as follows: East Asia education study tour: an overview of key insights by Birger Fredriksen, and Tan Jee Peng. Education in Africa: knowledge makes the difference by Mamadou Ndoye. Education in Singapore: developments since 1965 by Goh Chor Boon, and S. Gopinathan. Education in Vietnam: development history, challenges, and solutions by Nguyen Quang Kinh, and Nguyen ...

  7. Mass balance of the Lambert Glacier basin, East Antarctica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN; Jiawen(任贾文); Ian; Allison; XIAO; Cunde(效存德); QIN; Dahe(秦大河)

    2002-01-01

    Since it is the largest glacier system in Antarctica, the Lambert Glacier basin plays an important role in the mass balance of the overall Antarctic ice sheet. The observed data and shallow core studies from the inland traverse investigations in recent years show that there are noticeable differences in the distribution and variability of the snow accumulation rate between east and west sides. On the east side, the accumulation is higher on the average and has increased in the past decades, while on the west side it is contrary. The ice movement measurement and the ice flux calculation indicate that the ice velocity and the flux are larger in east than in west, meaning that the major part of mass supply for the glacier is from the east side. The mass budget estimate with the latest data gives that the integrated accumulation over the upstream area of the investigation traverse route is larger than the outflow ice flux by 13%, suggesting that the glacier basin is in a positive mass balance state and the ice thickness will increase if the present climate is keeping.

  8. East Greenland Ridge in the North Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Arne Døssing; Dahl-Jensen, T.; Thybo, Hans;

    2008-01-01

    -bottom seismometer and multichannel seismic (MCS) survey acquired two intersecting wide-angle reflection and coincident MCS profiles across and along the East Greenland Ridge. We present the results of integrated reflection seismic interpretation, first-arrival tomography, 2D kinematic raytracing, full...

  9. East Sichuan to Double Gas Production in 10 Years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Huachun

    2001-01-01

    @@ The general plan for annual 10-billion-cubic-meter productivity of natural gas in East Sichuan basin has recently passed appraisal by the expert group, indicating that China's current largest onshore natural gas field under production will double its output in a period of more than nine years from now to 2010.

  10. Multiscale perspectives of species richness in East Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Said, M.

    2003-01-01

    This dissertation describes and analyses animal species richness in East Africa from a multi-scale perspective. We studied diversity patterns at sub-continental, national and sub-national level. The study demonstrated that species diversity patterns were scale-dependent. Diversity patterns varied wi

  11. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Dan, E-mail: lidan@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xiao, B.J., E-mail: bjxiao@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); School of Nuclear Science and Technology, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui (China); Xia, J.Y., E-mail: jyxia@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Yang, Fei, E-mail: fyang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei, Anhui (China); Department of Computer Science, Anhui Medical University, Hefei, Anhui (China)

    2014-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  12. Real-time virtual EAST physical experiment system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • 3D model of experimental advanced superconducting tokamak is established. • Interaction behavior is created that the users can get information from database. • The system integrates data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and simulation. • Browser-oriented system is web-based and more interactive, immersive and convenient. • The system provides the framework for virtual physical experimental environment. - Abstract: As a large fusion reaction device, experimental advanced superconducting tokamak (EAST)’s internal structure is complicated and not easily accessible. Moreover, various diagnostic systems and complicated configuration bring about the inconveniency to the scientists who are unfamiliar with the system but interested in the data. We propose a virtual system to display the 3D model of EAST facility and enable people to view its inner structure and get access to the information of its components in various view sights. We would also provide most of the diagnostic configuration details together with their signal names and physical properties. Compared to the previous ways of viewing information by reference to collected drawings and videos, virtual EAST system is more interactive and immersive. We constructed the browser-oriented virtual EAST physical experiment system, integrated real-time experiment data acquisition, plasma shape visualization and experiment result simulation in order to reproduce physical experiments in a web browser. This system used B/S (Browser/Server) structure in combination with the technology of virtual reality – VRML (Virtual Reality Modeling Language) and Java 3D. In order to avoid the bandwidth limit across internet, we balanced the rendering speed and the precision of the virtual model components. Any registered user can view the experimental information visually and efficiently by logining the system through a web browser. The establishment of the system provides the

  13. Seroprevalence of Toxocariasis in Children in East- Azerbaijan Province, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagoob Garedaghi

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Toxocariasis is a zoonotic disease caused by the ascarid of dogs and cats, the main representative of which is a Toxocara canis. Distribution of the disease is world wide and is more prevalent in children. The present study was carried out in children of East Azerbaijan Province, Iran, to determine the toxocariasis seropositivity. Material and Methods: For the present seroepidemiological study, blood samples were collected at random from children of all the five districts of the East Azerbaijan Province. A total of 336 children, 187 males and 149 females in age group of 0-15 years were selected for the present study. ELISA was used for detection of IgG antibodies against Toxocara excretory secretary antigen. A questionnaire interview was conducted to obtain the data concerning their age, sex and habits. The particular points in the questionnaire asked were recorded on the format right on the spot. Results: Gender was found to be a significant risk factor for the Toxocara infection in children population. Male children were found more infected (41.71% as compared to females (24.16%. The total seroprevalence of T. canis antibodies in children of East Azerbaijan Province was 29.46 %. The risk factors that were found associated with the infection of toxocariasis in children population of East Azerbaijan Province include family back ground, status of living conditions, awareness, etc. Conclusion: The present study reveals high prevalence of T. canis infection in children of East Azerbaijan Province. It is important to raise the awareness of health professionals, public and educators to the fact that toxocariasis is a public health problem. Health promotion by means of a school based educational approach, diagnosis and continuous programme of treatment are necessary. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(4.000: 581-586

  14. Design, R&D and commissioning of EAST tungsten divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, D. M.; Luo, G. N.; Zhou, Z. B.; Cao, L.; Li, Q.; Wang, W. J.; Li, L.; Qin, S. G.; Shi, Y. L.; Liu, G. H.; Li, J. G.

    2016-02-01

    After commissioning in 2005, the EAST superconducting tokamak had been operated with its water cooled divertors for eight campaigns up to 2012, employing graphite as plasma facing material. With increase in heating power over 20 MW in recent years, the heat flux going to the divertors rises rapidly over 10 MW m-2 for steady state operation. To accommodate the rapid increasing heat load in EAST, the bolting graphite tile divertor must be upgraded. An ITER-like tungsten (W) divertor has been designed and developed; and firstly used for the upper divertor of EAST. The EAST upper W divertor is modular structure with 80 modules in total. Eighty sets of W/Cu plasma-facing components (PFC) with each set consisting of an outer vertical target (OVT), an inner vertical target (IVT) and a DOME, are attached to 80 stainless steel cassette bodies (CB) by pins. The monoblock W/Cu-PFCs have been developed for the strike points of both OVT and IVT, and the flat type W/Cu-PFCs for the DOME and the baffle parts of both OVT and IVT, employing so-called hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technology for tungsten to CuCrZr heat sink bonding, and electron beam welding for CuCrZr to CuCrZr and CuCrZr to other material bonding. Both monoblock and flat type PFC mockups passed high heat flux (HHF) testing by means of electron beam facilities. The 80 divertor modules were installed in EAST in 2014 and results of the first commissioning are presented in this paper.

  15. The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon: Recent progress

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jinhai; Liu, Boqi

    2016-04-01

    The East Asian subtropical summer monsoon (EASSM) is one component of the East Asian summer monsoon system, and its evolution determines the weather and climate over East China. In the present paper, we firstly demonstrate the formation and advancement of the EASSM rainbelt and its associated circulation and precipitation patterns through reviewing recent studies and our own analysis based on JRA-55 (Japanese 55-yr Reanalysis) data and CMAP (CPC Merged Analysis of Precipitation), GPCP (Global Precipitation Climatology Project), and TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) precipitation data. The results show that the rainy season of the EASSM starts over the region to the south of the Yangtze River in early April, with the establishment of strong southerly wind in situ. The EASSM rainfall, which is composed of dominant convective and minor stratiform precipitation, is always accompanied by a frontal system and separated from the tropical summer monsoon system. It moves northward following the onset of the South China Sea summer monsoon. Moreover, the role of the land-sea thermal contrast in the formation and maintenance of the EASSM is illustrated, including in particular the effect of the seasonal transition of the zonal land-sea thermal contrast and the influences from the Tibetan Plateau and midlatitudes. In addition, we reveal a possible reason for the subtropical climate difference between East Asia and East America. Finally, the multi-scale variability of the EASSM and its influential factors are summarized to uncover possible reasons for the intraseasonal, interannual, and interdecadal variability of the EASSM and their importance in climate prediction.

  16. Teaching East Asia in Middle Schools: Lesson Plans Contributed at the 1998 East Asian Studies Center Summer Workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indiana Univ., Bloomington. East Asian Studies Center.

    This document contains five middle school lesson plans that teach about East Asia, focusing on Japan, China, and Korea. Lessons deal with geography, history, cultural comparisons, and trade relations. Lesson plans include background information, materials needed, extension and enrichment ideas, a lesson script, a rubric, a list of resources, and…

  17. Innovation cooperation in East Germany - only a half-way success?

    OpenAIRE

    Günther, Jutta

    2003-01-01

    The paper focuses on the question whether enterprises that engage in innovation cooperation with external partners are more innovative and thus more productive than non-cooperating firms. A comparison between East and West Germany is being made. It shows that cooperating enterprises in East and West Germany are indeed more innovative than non-cooperating firms, but there remains a clear productivity gap between East and West German cooperating firms. Furthermore, in East Germany - different f...

  18. The Double German Transformation: Changing Male Employment Patterns in East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Julia Simonson; Laura Romeu Gordo; Nadiya Kelle

    2011-01-01

    Before the 90s, men's employment careers in East and West Germany were quite similar, despite their widely differing institutional settings. Before reunification, employment biographies were mainly dominated by full-time employment in both East and West. After 1989 the GDR was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany and almost all East German institutions were supplanted by adapted West German institutions. In the present paper we use SOEP data to analyse whether the East German lab...

  19. South East Asian Film & Cinema Studies at SOAS : The Role of the Library

    OpenAIRE

    Martland, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines South East Asian film and cinema studies at SOAS, and in the wider context of the academic study of world cinema in UK universities. The paper looks at the role of SOAS Library in supporting South East Asian film studies, particularly with reference to acquiring DVDs and VCDs of South East Asian film. SOAS Library holds several hundred South East Asian films, primarily from Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand.

  20. Intravenous drug abuse and tricuspid valve endocarditis: Growing trends in the Middle East Gulf region

    OpenAIRE

    Panduranga, Prashanth; Al-Abri, Seif; Al-Lawati, Jawad

    2013-01-01

    Traditionally, tricuspid valve endocarditis is uncommon in the Middle East region. However, recent global data indicate growing trends in the use of illicit drug abuse, specifically injectable heroin, in the Middle East Gulf region. The presence of many transit port services in the Middle East Gulf States has led to smuggling of substance abuse drugs in the region. The Middle East Gulf States, currently a transit market, are also becoming a growing consumer market in view of the increased sub...

  1. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-01-01

    Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries.The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians.Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference,this alone cannot fully explain the-lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries,nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States.Soy food consumption,more popular in Asian populations,is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer.Prostatespecific antigen(PSA) is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status.Other biomarkers,such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA,may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone.Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West,and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genomewide association studies.Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity.Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions,respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione Stransferase Pi (GSTP1); as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene.However,the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis,aggressiveness,and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown.Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned.In this review,the differences in PSA screening practice,reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer,and genetic factors between the populations in East and West factors are discussed.

  2. East meets West: ethnic differences in prostate cancer epidemiology between East Asians and Caucasians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomomi Kimura

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Prostate cancer is the most prevalent cancer in males in Western countries. The reported incidence in Asia is much lower than that in African Americans and European Caucasians. Although the lack of systematic prostate cancer screening system in Asian countries explains part of the difference, this alone cannot fully explain the lower incidence in Asian immigrants in the United States and west-European countries compared to the black and non-Hispanic white in those countries, nor the somewhat better prognosis in Asian immigrants with prostate cancer in the United States. Soy food consumption, more popular in Asian populations, is associated with a 25% to 30% reduced risk of prostate cancer. Prostate-specific antigen(PSA is the only established and routinely implemented clinical biomarker for prostate cancer detection and disease status. Other biomarkers, such as urinary prostate cancer antigen 3 RNA, may increase accuracy of prostate cancer screening compared to PSA alone. Several susceptible loci have been identified in genetic linkage analyses in populations of countries in the West, and approximately 30 genetic polymorphisms have been reported to modestly increase the prostate cancer risk in genome-wide association studies. Most of the identified polymorphisms are reproducible regardless of ethnicity. Somatic mutations in the genomes of prostate tumors have been repeatedly reported to include deletion and gain of the 8p and 8q chromosomal regions, respectively; epigenetic gene silencing of glutathione S-transferase Pi(GSTP1; as well as mutations in androgen receptor gene. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying carcinogenesis, aggressiveness, and prognosis of prostate cancer remain largely unknown. Gene-gene and/or gene-environment interactions still need to be learned. In this review, the differences in PSA screening practice, reported incidence and prognosis of prostate cancer, and genetic factors between the populations in East and

  3. THE REFINERY MAINTENANCE ACTIVITIES WHILE TREATING MIDDLE EAST CRUDE TO RUN THE PLANT DURING 4 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Middle East crude oil is known to be a higher sulfur and metal containing crude than Far East crude. To treat higher sulfur crude requires appropriate procedures on refinery maintenance since corrosion environment of equipment can be affected by sulfur content. This paper introduces our experiences and measures in running the plant while facing corrosion and degradation by Middle East crude.

  4. After the Wall: Parental Attitudes to Child Rearing in East and West Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlendorff, Harald

    2004-01-01

    In the years following German reunification, East and West German parents (282 mothers and 207 fathers) were interviewed about attitudes to the rearing of their 7- to 13-year-old children and about their social networks. Path analyses show that East German parents engage in more protective and less permissive parenting, and that East German…

  5. 75 FR 74008 - Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc., Wholesale Fireworks Enterprises LLC, Pacific...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-30

    ... COMMISSION Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc., Wholesale Fireworks Enterprises LLC, Pacific... Agreement with Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc., Wholesale Fireworks Enterprises LLC, Pacific... Agreement 1. In accordance with 16 CFR 1118.20, Jake's Fireworks, Inc., Far East Imports, Inc.,...

  6. America-Europe Contest on Middle East Democratization:Its Implications and Prospects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Despite the "nominal consensus" reached between the United States and the EU on the "Broader Middle East and North Africa Initiative" (BMENA) in June 2004, the two sides have not joined their hands to "democratically reform" the Middle East due to their divergent strategic calculations. The United States continued to pursue its "Greater Middle East

  7. 76 FR 55456 - The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... TRADE REPRESENTATIVE The Trade and Investment Partnership for the Middle East and North Africa AGENCY..., 2011, speech on recent developments in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region, the President... Middle East and North Africa Trade'' in the ``Type comment & Upload file:'' field on...

  8. From West to East and Back Again: Faith, Doubt and Education in Hermann Hesse's Later Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines Hermann Hesse's penultimate novel, "The Journey to the East", from an educational point of view. Hesse was a man of the West who turned to the idea of "the East" in seeking to understand himself and his society. While highly critical of elements of Western modernism, Hesse nonetheless viewed "the East" through Western lenses…

  9. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2015-10-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  10. Peak-summer East Asian rainfall predictability and prediction part II: extratropical East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, So-Young; Wang, Bin; Xing, Wen

    2016-07-01

    The part II of the present study focuses on northern East Asia (NEA: 26°N-50°N, 100°-140°E), exploring the source and limit of the predictability of the peak summer (July-August) rainfall. Prediction of NEA peak summer rainfall is extremely challenging because of the exposure of the NEA to midlatitude influence. By examining four coupled climate models' multi-model ensemble (MME) hindcast during 1979-2010, we found that the domain-averaged MME temporal correlation coefficient (TCC) skill is only 0.13. It is unclear whether the dynamical models' poor skills are due to limited predictability of the peak-summer NEA rainfall. In the present study we attempted to address this issue by applying predictable mode analysis method using 35-year observations (1979-2013). Four empirical orthogonal modes of variability and associated major potential sources of variability are identified: (a) an equatorial western Pacific (EWP)-NEA teleconnection driven by EWP sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, (b) a western Pacific subtropical high and Indo-Pacific dipole SST feedback mode, (c) a central Pacific-El Nino-Southern Oscillation mode, and (d) a Eurasian wave train pattern. Physically meaningful predictors for each principal component (PC) were selected based on analysis of the lead-lag correlations with the persistent and tendency fields of SST and sea-level pressure from March to June. A suite of physical-empirical (P-E) models is established to predict the four leading PCs. The peak summer rainfall anomaly pattern is then objectively predicted by using the predicted PCs and the corresponding observed spatial patterns. A 35-year cross-validated hindcast over the NEA yields a domain-averaged TCC skill of 0.36, which is significantly higher than the MME dynamical hindcast (0.13). The estimated maximum potential attainable TCC skill averaged over the entire domain is around 0.61, suggesting that the current dynamical prediction models may have large rooms to improve

  11. European Union Trading Bloc: Motivation for East Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available European Union is extremely integrated market with more than 500 million consumers searching for quality goods. EU trading bloc is largest exporter to more than 80 countries and 71 per cent imports enter in EU region at reduced or sometimes at zero tariffs. Still EU has having motivated agenda with other world for a number of trade agreements in the pipeline. Basic idea behind this research study is, whether EU trading bloc has improved the performance of member countries or not? Research study finds that EU trading bloc has increased the production and welfare of the peoples in EU region. Now, it is suggestion for East Asian countries to make East Asian Trading Bloc (EATB for improved performance and better wellbeing of the people in near future.

  12. Maghreb and Middle East, future leaders of the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The countries of Middle East and North Africa possess the most important resources in fossil energy and should play the first parts from now to about fifteen years, especially on the liquefied natural gas market. The famous peak oil will be the result of a lack of investments but not of a lack of resources says the president of the French Institute of petroleum. But the exporting countries have no interest to increase their production because the demand does not change in spite of high prices. Russian federation excepted, the world reserves are concentrated in the countries of Middle East and North Africa. Algeria will export 85 milliards of meters cube of natural gas in 2010 years 100 milliards in 2015; Qatar is said as the future world leader of liquefied natural gas. Europe will be dependant for its imports of gas for 80% in 2050. (N.C.)

  13. Welding technique studies on the "West-East" pipeline project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sui Yongli; Du Zeyu; Huang Fuxiang; Qi Lichun

    2006-01-01

    This paper described the work of welding process design for the "West-East" pipeline project, which is high pressure, large diameter and heavy wall thickness. According to the different geographical situation, climate, culture and the flexibility of the welding methods, this work recommended the semi-automatic process at the east and middle sections and automatic process at the west section of the pipeline project. The manual process is recommended on the tie-in joints and repairs. The double joint pipe and the 3 joint pipe are recommended at the water net place and some in-ditch welding place to reduce the welding volume. Also the special redesigned bevels are recommended for the automatic process and the semiautomatic process. Through all destructive tests, the results shows the welds are meet the requirements of related standards,specifications and design documents.

  14. Potential for economic solar desalination in the Middle East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fresh water forms only about 1% of the total water available on earth. Technologies for the desalination of seawater have considerably matured in the last decade. However, the energy required for the desalination is usually expensive in arid areas where fresh water is required. Renewable energy provides a clean, free, and low-maintenance source of energy for desalination, limited only by their initial cost, and the variability of the available energy. In this paper the potential use of solar energy for the desalination of seawater in the Middle East is evaluated. Multi-Stage Flash (MSF) desalination requires large amounts of energy, while Reverse Osmosis (RO) desalination is more energy efficient. Photovoltaics is another promising renewable energy source for seawater desalination in the Middle East. It is best suited for the RO and Electrodialysis (ED) methods. (author)

  15. Impact of the East Japan Earthquake on the KEKB tunnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KEKB completed its very successful operation on June 30, 2010. The dismantling of the KEKB main ring started in the fall of 2010 for the next project, called SuperKEKB. The East Japan Earthquake hit the area in the middle of construction on March 11, 2011. The tunnel, which will be used for SuperKEKB, received various types of damage from the earthquake. Most of the damage is concentrated around the tunnel joints. A survey of part of the tunnel indicates that the tunnel is deformed beyond the alignment tolerances for SuperKEKB. Therefore, resurvey and realignment of the existing survey network and the magnets are needed. Some parts of the tunnel continue to move even four months after the earthquake. The impact of the East Japan Earthquake on the KEKB tunnel is summarized and reported in this paper. (author)

  16. Identifying the northernmost summer monsoon location in East Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Haoran; Qian Weihong

    2007-01-01

    An integrated index which can be used to indicate the advance of subtropical summer monsoon in East Asia has been proposed in this paper. The index was combined by three variables including precipitation, wind and pseudo-equivalent potential temperature. The northernmost summer monsoon location (NSML) was identified by using this index annually. It was found that the NSML experienced an interdecadal shift in the period 1977-1979 based on the annual index analysis from 1961 to 2001. A comparison of the NSML with other four summer monsoon indices has also been made. The result showed that the NSML could well represent the interannual and interdecadal variability of summer monsoon precipitation in North China (beyond 35°N), while other four indices could well indicate the precipitation anomalies of East Asian summer monsoon along the Yangtze River valley (around 30°N).

  17. Electromagnetic and structural analysis of EAST passive stabilizers loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The passive stabilizers loop (PSL) is part of the plasma stabilizing system built in the EAST. Its purpose is to provide passive feedback control of the plasma vertical instability on short time scales. To accommodate with the new stage for high performance plasma and enhance the control of vertical stabilization in EAST, the project of PSL has been carried out. The eddy currents are induced by the vertical displacement events (VDEs) and disruption. The distribution of the eddy currents depend on the structure of the PSL and the formation of the induction. The FE model is created and meshed by the ANSYS software. Base on the simulation of plasma VDEs and disruption, the distribution and decay curve of the eddy currents on the PSL are obtained. The stress and the strain caused by the eddy currents and the magnetic fields are calculated. (author)

  18. The genus Scaphidium Olivier in East China (Coleoptera, Staphylinidae, Scaphidiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A review of 21 species of Scaphidium Olivier from East China is presented, including 6 new species: S. jinmingi sp. n. (Zhejiang, Anhui, Chongqing, S. crypticum sp. n.(Zhejiang, Fujian, Jiangxi, Guangxi, S. varifasciatum sp. n. (Zhejiang, An’hui, S. robustum sp. n. (Fujian, Guizhou, Chongqing, Guangxi, Yunnan, S. connexum sp. n. (Zhejiang, Fujian, Guangxi, and S. bayibini sp. n. (An’hui. New province records for S. comes Löbl, S. grande Gestro, S. sauteri Miwa & Mitono, S. formosanum Pic, S. carinense Achard, S. sinense Pic, S. delatouchei Achard, S. biwenxuani He, Tang & Li, S. klapperichi Pic, S. stigmatinotum Löbl, S. wuyongxiangi He, Tang & Li, and S. direptum Tang & Li as well as some biological notes are reported. Habitus and diagnostic characters of all species are photographed and a key to Scaphidium species of East China is provided.

  19. Optimization Analysis and Simulation of the EAST Cryogenic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱立龙; 庄明; 毛晋; 胡良兵; 盛林海

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the optimization cycle of the EAST cryogenic system. A simulation analysis and simulation of the main Claude program of this cycle was developed on the basis of the characteristics of the components and verified with the experimental results. The built-in volume ratio of the No. 7 compressor was tested with the purpose of finding the optimum internal pressure ratio to comply with the external pressure ratio so as to increase the isothermal efficiency and cycle efficiency. In addition, the UA (U, heat transfer coefficient; A, heat transfer area) values of the heat exchangers, efficiencies of turbines, mass flow fraction of the turbine stream were analyzed in order to improve the capacity or efficiency of the cycle. Finally, in view of the estimated heat loads of EAST in future, an upgraded operational cycle of 1500 W/4.5 K +1000 W/3.5 K +5 g/s is proposed according to the simulation.

  20. Fifth Century Pottery in Devon and North East Cornwall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Bidwell

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In western Cornwall production of pottery in the local gabbroic fabric seems to have continued throughout the 5th century. Very small quantities reached sites in north-east Cornwall and south Devon. The date at which pottery use ended in the remainder of Devon cannot be established at present. In the final phase the pottery in use consisted almost entirely of South Devon ware and BB1 from south-east Dorset; at Exeter importation of both wares ceased at about the same time. Changes in the latest coarse ware forms are discussed, and the importance of post-Roman Mediterranean imports in dating the end of the Romano-British industries is highlighted.

  1. Is Economic Development Promoting Monetary Integration in East Asia?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kawasaki

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to investigate whether there exist international integrated markets among East Asian economies, by employing the Generalized Purchasing Power Parity (G-PPP model, then, it would help to suggest whether the East Asian region is the Optimum Currency Area (OCA or not. The empirical results in this paper suggest that holding the G-PPP among nine Asian countries (China, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand and Vietnam becomes more applicable in 2000–2013 than of that in 1984–1997. In the period of “globalization,” which is characterized by expansion of world trade, increase of international capital flows, and development of information and communications technologies, Asian economic development has been promoting not only economic integrations but also constructing the stable linkages of real exchange rates. Therefore, it would help to adopt regional coordination for monetary policies to assure the feasibility of a possible monetary union.

  2. Middle East physics collaboration plans for the future

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    The SESAME initiative, the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, is making progress. At a recent SESAME Council meeting at the end of May, Jordan, Iran and Israel confirmed their cash contributions to the project’s storage ring. The Palestinian Authority and Pakistan have confirmed their in-kind support and Egypt and Turkey are taking steps to allow their participation. Technically planned to start operation in 2015, SESAME has begun to show significant potential as a science for peace initiative in the Middle East.   The SESAME site in Allaan, Jordan.                   (© SESAME) Jordan has provided the land and an elegant building that will house the accelerator complex and associated infrastructure; a number of states, organizations and synchrotron light laboratories have donated the injector and booster, beam lines or components, support for infras...

  3. The east-west effect for atmospheric neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Lipari, P

    2000-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino fluxes observed by underground detectors are notsymmetric for rotations around the vertical axis. The flux is largest(smallest) for the nu's traveling toward east (west). This asymmetry is theresult of the effects of the geomagnetic field on the primary cosmic rays andon their showers. The size of the asymmetry is to a good approximationindependent from the existence of neutrino oscillations, and can in principlebe predicted without any ambiguity due to existence of unknown new physics. Weshow that there is an interesting hint of discrepancy between the experimentalmeasurement of the east-west asymmetry by Super-Kamiokande and the existingtheoretical predictions. We argue that the discrepancy is a real effect causedby the neglect, in the existing calculations, of the bending of the chargedsecondary particles (in particular of the muons) in the cosmic ray showers. Theinclusion of this effect in the calculation gives results in quantitativeagreeement with the data. We comment on the imp...

  4. SESAME: physics for peace in the Middle East

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    Allan, Jordan: a bridge of peace between nations is being constructed with the help of particle physics. Scheduled to be operational by 2011, SESAME, the Synchrotron-light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East, brings together countries from all over the region. SESAME construction site (Photo R. Sarraf, copyright: Al-Balqa Applied University). On the east bank of the river Jordan, 30 km from Amman, lies SESAME. A collaboration of nine members, including Jordan, Israel, Pakistan, Turkey, Egypt and Palestine, the project was created under the auspices of UNESCO. Following the same model as CERN, the underlying expectation is that SESAME will encourage peace by training a new generation of scientists from all over the region to work on a new synchrotron facility. Just as scientists from all over Europe collaborated at CERN in the aftermath of the Second World War, SESAME hopes to provide an environment where ...

  5. Positive response of Indian summer rainfall to Middle East dust

    KAUST Repository

    Jin, Qinjian

    2014-06-02

    Using observational and reanalyses data, we investigated the impact of dust aerosols over the Middle East and the Arabian Sea (AS) on the Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall. Satellite and aerosol reanalysis data show extremely heavy aerosol loading, mainly mineral dust, over the Middle East and AS during the ISM season. Multivariate empirical orthogonal function analyses suggest an aerosol-monsoon connection. This connection may be attributed to dust-induced atmospheric heating centered over the Iranian Plateau (IP), which enhances the meridional thermal contrast and strengthens the ISM circulation and rainfall. The enhanced circulation further transports more dust to the AS and IP, heating the atmosphere (positive feedback). The aerosols over the AS and the Arabian Peninsula have a significant correlation with rainfall over central and eastern India about 2 weeks later. This finding highlights the nonlocal radiative effect of dust on the ISM circulation and rainfall and may improve ISM rainfall forecasts. © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  6. 2-D soft x-ray arrays in the EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kaiyun; Xu, Liqing; Hu, Liqun; Duan, Yanmin; Li, Xueqin; Yuan, Yi; Mao, Songtao; Sheng, Xiuli; Zhao, Jinlong

    2016-06-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution soft x-ray (SXR) imaging diagnostic has been installed in EAST for the study of magnetohydrodynamics activities and core high-Z impurity transport. Up to 122 lines of sight view the poloidal plasma from three directions (two up-down symmetrical horizontal arrays and one vertical array), which renders the diagnostic able to provide detailed tomographic reconstructions under various conditions. Fourier-Bessel method based on flux coordinates was employed for 2-D SXR tomographic reconstruction. Examples of several events measured by SXR diagnostic in EAST are shown, namely the crash patterns of sawtooth, periodical burst of edge localized modes, and the transport of high-Z intrinsic impurities.

  7. A Survey and Analysis of Outsourcing in East China

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Tijun; Sandal, Leif Kristoffer; Kong, Jiehong; Dandan LI

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether outsourcing activities in east china are associated with a theoretical framework derived from the literature. By the methodology of Statistics Package for the Social Science (SPSS) , the results of survey indicate that outsourcing will more extensively practiced in the future, the principal outsourcing motivation are to reduce costs and focus on core businesses. The purchasing outsourcing has the largest correlation coefficients with...

  8. HCN Laser Interferometer on the EAST Superconducting Tokamak

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Qiang; GAO Xiang; JIE Yinxian; LIU Haiqing; SHI Nan; CHENG Yongfei; TONG Xingde

    2008-01-01

    A single-channel far-infrared (FIR) laser interferometer was developed to measure the line averaged electron density on the EAST tokamak. The structure of the single-channel FIR laser interferometer is described in detail. The evolution of density sawtooth oscillation was measured by means the FIR laser interferometer, and was identified by electron cyclotron emission (ECE) signals and soft X-ray intensity. The discharges with and without sawtooth were compared with each other in the Hugill diagram.

  9. Remote Antarctic feeding ground important for east Australian humpback whales

    OpenAIRE

    Constantine, R.; Steel, D.; Allen, J.; Anderson, M; Andrews, O.; Baker, C.; Beeman, P.; Burns, D.; Charrassin, J. B.; Childerhouse, S.; Double, M; Ensor, P.; Franklin, T; Franklin, W; Gales, N.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the dynamics of population recovery is particularly complex when an organism has multiple, remote breeding and feeding grounds separated by one of the longest known migration routes. This study reports on the most comprehensive assessment of humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae) movements between remote Antarctic waters south of New Zealand and east Australia (EA), and the migratory corridors and breeding grounds of Australia and Oceania. A total of 112 individual whales were ...

  10. Redefining Human Security for Vulnerable Migrants in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Jiyoung Song

    2015-01-01

    This article proposes human security as an analytical framework to understand the current trends of irregular migration (both forced and unauthorised) in East Asia and revisits the seven pillars of human security defined in the 1994 Human Development Report by the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). It explains how the concepts of human security are parallel to those prescribed in international human rights conventions but different in terms of the attitude towards states. Human secu...

  11. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory

  12. Conceptual Design of Neutral Beam Injection System for EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chundong; NBI Team

    2012-06-01

    Neutral beam injection (NBI) system with two neutral beam injections will be constructed on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) in two stages for high power auxiliary plasmas heating and non-inductive current drive. Each NBI can deliver 2~4 MW beam power with 50~80 keV beam energy in 10~100 s pulse length. Each elements of the NBI system are presented in this contribution.

  13. Peace and energy, two conditions for Middle east prosperity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions to have an economic development in the Middle-East is to install peace and to preserve it. For example, it is possible to envisage to build pipelines to export liquefied gas and petroleum but it is necessary to be sure they are not going to be destroyed by terrorists. An other point which seems dangerous is the importation of military weapons in these same regions

  14. Regional Economic Integration in the Middle East and North Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Rouis, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Limited integration has stifled the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region's significant potential for economic growth and job creation. Home to 5.5 percentage of the world's population and 3.9 percentage of the world's Gross Domestic Product (GDP), the region's share of nonoil world trade is only 1.8 percentages. By contrast, countries opting for a liberal trade and investment regime ...

  15. Unites States and the oil of the Middle-East

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses different aspects of the United States intervention and behavior in the Middle-East petroleum management. The Iraq and Iran potentials are largely under used. The Saudi Arabia defines its own oil policy, but benefits of the Unites States military help. The United States intervention is in the domain of the security of flux on the world market. (A.L.B.)

  16. Privatization in East Germany: Can the Treuhandanstalt provide a model?

    OpenAIRE

    Gupta, Asha

    1998-01-01

    The dynamics of privatization in the Eastern Germany can be better understood in terms of the 'economic polities' applied to the 'political markets'. The Treuhandanstalt played a key role in transforming the entire economy of the former GDR into the market economy in the wake of unification of East Germany with West Germany. The present study discusses the agency's structure, functions and responsibilities, on the one hand and financing, functioning and evaluation, on the other. Although the ...

  17. Conspicuous consumption and communism: Evidence from East and West Germany

    OpenAIRE

    Friehe, Tim; Mechtel, Mario

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates the influence of the political regime on the relative importance of conspicuous consumption. We use the separation of Germany into the communist GDR and the democratic FRG and its reunification in 1990 as a natural experiment. Relying on household data that are representative for Germany, our empirical results strongly indicate that conspicuous consumption is relatively more important in East Germany. Importantly, a significant gap in conspicuous consumption expenditur...

  18. Non-marital births in East Germany after unification

    OpenAIRE

    Dirk Konietzka; Michaela Kreyenfeld

    2001-01-01

    In comparison to other European countries, West Germany displays relatively low rates of non-marital childbearing. Since the 1960, there has been a postponement of first birth, an increase in the age at first marriage and an increase in childlessness. Nevertheless, childbearing and marriage remained strongly coupled. In the former East Germany, on the other hand, non-marital childbearing was relatively high compared to other European countries and particularly compared to West Germany. In 198...

  19. Migration, Development and Employment in East and Southeast Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Pernia, Ernesto M.

    1987-01-01

    The paper first reviews some of the major studies on internal migration in East and Southeast Asian countries, highlighting its relationship to development, particularly to the role of policies in the evolution of migration patterns. The central theme that emerges is that the pattern and effects of migration in these countries have been conditioned not simply by the rate of economic growth but by the character of growth as well as by the types of policies pursued. The paper also focuses on in...

  20. World Music, Creative Reinterpretation, and the East Moldavian Roma Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Toledo, Alejandro

    2013-01-01

    This study explores creative engagement with the East Moldavian Roma music tradition as a reflexive process that expands and enriches personal performance practice. It examines how a hermeneutic approach to understanding and reinterpreting the EMR musical tradition may be fed into one’s own performances, improvisations, and compositions, and how this engagement might be contextualized within an over-arching concept of World Music. Moreover, the study considers what transcription and analysis ...

  1. Cage experiments in an East African mangrove forest: a synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijvers, J.; Vincx, M.

    1997-01-01

    The impact of epibenthos on endobenthos has frequently been investigated for temperate saltmarsh regions by using cage exclusion experiments. Although the insight into the function of the endobenthos of mangrove forests is crucial for their management, very few cage experiments have so far been carried out in such areas. The present paper summarises the result of such experiments in a typical East African mangrove forest at Gazi Bay about 60 km south of Mombasa, Kenya. Epibenthic animals were...

  2. Community initiative projects of the East African Whale Shark Trust.

    OpenAIRE

    Njonjo, N.

    2007-01-01

    The East African Whale Shark Trust (EAWST) in Kenya was established to increase awareness and conservation of the whale shark. This is to be achieved by various research and education campaigns, with the education initiatives being designed specifically to target different stakeholders. Programs aimed at fishermen will focus on alternative fishing techniques, ecotourism and socio-economic aspects, while school children, people recently completing high school and tourists will be exposed to re...

  3. Modelling narrativity in East African English / Elizabeth D. Terblanche

    OpenAIRE

    Terblanche, Elizabeth Deborah

    2011-01-01

    Narratives are the product of a basic human tendency to make sense of real or imagined experiences. The research question posed in the dissertation is: how is narrativity encoded in East African English? Can the narrativity model in the dissertation distinguish between registers that prototypically focus on narration versus registers that do not primarily focus on narration? The narrativity model consists of four main groups of features, namely Agency, Causation, Contextualisation and Evaluat...

  4. East Africa: cycles of violence, and the paradox of peace

    OpenAIRE

    Blum, Stefan

    2006-01-01

    This paper contributes to explaining variation in violence in post-independence East Africa. By focussing on Tanzania and Uganda, our comparative "most-similar-cases" research design ensures significant across- and within-case variation in violence against relatively similar background conditions. As a conceptual starting point the World Bank's Collier/Hoeffler model and theory are applied to both countries. It is argued that while the model's fit is relatively good, Collier/Hoeffler's main t...

  5. Business Cycle Synchronization in the East Asian Economies

    OpenAIRE

    Xulan Yu; Yoshihiko Tsukuda

    2007-01-01

    The paper examines the possibility of financial cooperation by investigating the business cycle synchronization among the eight core East Asian countries(China, Japan, Korea, Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand) using the logarithm of per capita real GDP data from 1994Q1 to 2005Q3. The paper employs the model of multivariate time series analysis developed by Engle and Kozicki (1993) and Vahid and Engle (1993). The empirical study reveals that the per capita real GDP ...

  6. Flora Diversity from Kersik Luway Nature Monument, East Kalimantan

    OpenAIRE

    SRI HARTINI

    2007-01-01

    Kersik Luway is one area in Padang Luway Nature Reserve, East Kalimantan which have some potential plants. Ornamental plants are can be found in this area, which several of them are attractive and useful. The aims of the research were to inventory interesting flora diversity in Kersik Luway. The method used in this research were explorative method at the place. The result showed that there were approximately 18 species of interesting flora in Kersik Luway. The plants are Vaccinium varingiaefo...

  7. Writing and re-writing the Middle East

    OpenAIRE

    Levey, Gregory

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is comprised of a critical component and a creative component. The creative component consists of a portfolio of creative writing drawn from a fictionalized memoir, and the critical component consists of three interconnected chapters analyzing the creative component. The creative component, titled The Accidental Peacemaker, has been written alongside my recently published (and related) book, How to Make Peace in the Middle East in Six Months or Less Without Leaving Your Apartm...

  8. Control optimization of the cryoplant warm compressor station for EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhuang, M.; Hu, L. B.; Zhou, Z. W.; Xia, G. H. [Cryogenic Engineering Division, Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O.Box 1126,Shushanhu Road 350, Hefei, Anhui 230031 (China)

    2014-01-29

    The cryogenic control system for EAST (Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak) was designed based on DeltaV DCS of Emerson Corporation. The automatic control of the cryoplant warm compressors has been implemented. However, with ever-degrading performance of critical equipment, the cryoplant operation in the partial design conditions makes the control system fluctuate and unstable. In this paper, the warm compressor control system was optimized to eliminate the pressure oscillation based on the expert PID theory.

  9. Evaluation of onion cultivation energy balance in east Azerbaijan province

    OpenAIRE

    Gorttapeh, Abdullah Hasanzadeh; Kordlar, Momamad Eskandari; Talat, Farshid; Roshdi, Mohsen; Akhondi, Naser; Salehzadeh, Hojat; Amirnia, Reza

    2008-01-01

    One of the estimating methods of agricultural development and production stability in agricultural locations is the use of energy flow method. In this consideration energy flow in agricultural ecosystems of onion in East Azerbaijan was calculated by the use of gathered information and data via questionnaire and statistics of related Province’s agricultural Jihad organization and farms. The related data of inputs and outputs were altered to equal amounts of consumer and productive ...

  10. Transnistria, the "General Plan East", and the "Shoah by bullets"

    OpenAIRE

    Chioveanu, Mihai

    2010-01-01

    With the early "flush of victory" against USSR, and the (under)cover provided by Hitler's "war of annihilation" in the East, Ion Antonescu and his regime turned ethnic cleansing into a top priority policy. Mesmerized by the promise of a Jew free Romania, with other ethnic and religious minorities targeted as well, the government easily accepted mass killing, ghettoization, and brutal deportations as means to achieve envisioned ultra-nationalistic ends. However, with late 1942 and the "pallor ...

  11. Marte CCSL to execute East-ADL Timing Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Mallet, Frédéric; Peraldi-Frati, Marie-Agnès; André, Charles

    2009-01-01

    In the automotive domain, several loosely-coupled Architecture Description Languages (ADLs) compete to provide a set of abstract modeling and analysis services on top of the implementation code. In an effort to make all these languages, and more importantly their underlying models, interoperable, we use the UML Profile for MARTE as a pivot to define the semantics of these models. In this paper, we particularly focus on East-ADL2. We discuss the benefits of having an integrated, MARTE-centered...

  12. Ethics and Ego: East-West Perceptions of Morality

    OpenAIRE

    Geir Sigurðsson

    2014-01-01

    The thesis from which this comparison proceeds is that the major differences between the East-Asian and Western ethical traditions emanate from divergent views of the kind of role selfhood or ego should play in social human life. A comparison of these views, it is suggested, will be helpful to flesh out the different perceptions of morality. It will be proposed that Western thinking is characterized by a stronger focus on the self, and that while Western ethical thinkers and schools certainly...

  13. Global Volatility and Forex Returns in East Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Sanjay Kalra

    2008-01-01

    During 2001-07, increases in mature market volatility were associated with declines in forex returns for East Asian countries, consistent with an overall "flight to safety" effect. Estimates from GARCH models suggest that a 5 percentage point increase in mature market equity volatility generated an exchange rate depreciation of up to ½ percent. This sensitivity rose during the latter period in the sample, suggesting greater integration of Asian financial markets with global markets. Uncondit...

  14. Traditional Aquaculture Practice at East Calcutta Wetland: The Safety Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Raychaudhuri, S.; Mishra, M.; S. Salodkar; M. Sudarshan; A. R. Thakur

    2008-01-01

    The current study is on East Calcutta Wetland (ECW) which is a model for multi-use resource recovery system with activities like pisciculture and agriculture. The entire city's soluble waste is disposed into the raw sewage canals which finally drains into the shallow, flat bottom fish ponds called Bheri. These sewage fed fisheries act simultaneously for the purification process like removal of heavy metals, coliform reduction as well as fish production at a commercial scale. The fishes from t...

  15. Danish interests in regional security institutions in East Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Jacobsen, Katja Lindskov; Nordby, Johannes Riber

    2013-01-01

    For the past decade peace and security in East Africa have gained increasing focus internationally. The region has experienced armed conflicts, civil wars, rebellion, drought and famine. Yet, at the same time, there is also an emerging ambition among a number of African states to handle security issues on the continent independently. Such ambitions have fostered a variety of military capacity building programmes supported by external donors. This report explores how Denmark up until now has s...

  16. Ensounded bodies, making place in London's East End

    OpenAIRE

    Berrens, Karla

    2015-01-01

    In this research, I investigate the relationship between the urban soundscape and the making of place in London's East End. I explore the ways in which ensounding our bodies (Ingold 2007) and listening participatively to the soundscape can bring our sensuous and emotional bodies back to the forefront of our urban experience. In doing so, I examine the junction between the discussion around place, emotion and the soundscape, placing the sensuous body at its centre as its articulating pivot. ...

  17. Pension Fund Performance in East Asia: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Zamri Ahmad; Eliza Nor

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses and analyzes asset allocation and performance of the major pension funds in four East Asia countries, namely Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong and South Korea. The respective funds for these countries are Employee Provident Fund (EPF), Central Provident Fund (CPF), Mandatory Pension Fund (MPF) and National Pension Service (NPS). The impact of some economic crises on the fund performance will also be assessed. Besides looking at the individual countries, a comparison of the p...

  18. The views of university professors of East Timor about entrepreneurship

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Cristina Maria Santos; Vieira, Filipa Dionísio; Xavier, Tomas; Silva, Dorotéa

    2014-01-01

    Entrepreneurship has been recognized as a source of sustaining basis in fostering innovation, creating opportunities, local sustainability and socio-economic development of a country, since is a transforming process from an innovative idea to an enterprise. Entrepreneurship has been argued as the most effective economic power in the global economics and social history. The Strategic Plan for Development of East Timor from 2011 to 2030 reports that since 2007 only 9% of the population had econ...

  19. Integrating the East: The Labour Market Effects of Immigration

    OpenAIRE

    Bauer, Thomas; Zimmermann, Klaus F.

    1995-01-01

    The paper evaluates the potential gains from labour immigration for the European Union. After a review of the East-West migration problem and recent western migration policies, governmentally controlled labour immigration is studied in a framework with unions, unemployment and heterogenous workers. The model predicts a decline in wages with unskilled and skilled immigration if both types of workers are complements. Only skilled migration reduces unemployment, however. This disequilibrium fram...

  20. Maize breeding in East and Southern Africa, 1900–2000

    OpenAIRE

    Smale, Melinda; Jayne, T.S.

    2004-01-01

    "During the first half of the 20th century, African farmers transformed maize from a minor imported foodcrop into the continent's principal staple food. In the second half of the century, newly independent governments launched support programs that greatly expanded smallholder production, leading to substantial production surges of 10 to 20 years in duration. Today, after widespread adoption by both commercial farmers and smallholders, farmers now plant 58 percent of all maize area in East an...