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Sample records for cephalic containtment orthosis

  1. Cephalic Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be caused by a disturbance in the proliferation of nerve cells. Micrencephaly may also be associated with maternal problems ... as cephalic disorders. Understanding how genes control brain cell migration, proliferation, differentiation, and death, and how radiation, drugs, toxins, ...

  2. Active Elbow Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Ripel

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel approach to the design of a motorized rehabilitation device – active elbow orthosis (AEO – inspired by the principles of robotic exoskeletons. The device is currently designed for the elbow joint, but can be easily modified for other joints as well. AEO determines the motion activity of the patient using a strain gauge and utilizes this measurement to control the actuator that drives the forearm part of the orthosis. Patient activity level is related to a free arm measurement obtained via a calibration procedure prior to the exercise. A high-level control module offers several types of exercises mimicking the physiotherapist. The device was successfully verified by tests on a number of patients, resulting in extended range of elbow-joint motion.

  3. Cephalic Tetanus: A Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    F. L. Bukar; Atuanya, C. I.; Abdulhafiz, U.; M A Alhaji

    2011-01-01

    A case report of cephalic tetanus in a 2-year-old girl who was not immunized against tetanus following suppurative otitis media (SOM) is presented. This case is reported because of the rarity of cephalic tetanus associated with high mortality, to highlight the risk of cephalic tetanus as sequelae of SOM and the need for proper aural care and prompt treatment of SOM. Primary immunization of all eligible children as well as booster vaccination at appropriate time as an effective management stra...

  4. 21 CFR 890.3475 - Limb orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limb orthosis. 890.3475 Section 890.3475 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES PHYSICAL MEDICINE DEVICES Physical Medicine Prosthetic Devices § 890.3475 Limb orthosis. (a)...

  5. Development of Active Orthosis for Lumbago Relief- Improvement of Pneumatic Textile Actuator for Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujimoto Shinsaku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop the orthosis which improves the Quality of Life (QOL and maintains health conditions. As one of the treatment methods done to lumbago(low back pain, the waist fixation method with the spinal brace or the orthosis is prescribed. A waist active orthosis implemented with pneumatic flexible actuators have been developed. However, several problems of the previous actuator were that the strain and the generated force were small for the orthosis.Thus, this paper proposesthe improved actuator for the orthosis. Theimproved actuator is modeled and the reliability of static and dynamic model is validated through experiment. As a result, it was confirmed that the improved actuator had the strain of 2 times and the generated force of 1.3 times, in comparison with the previous actuator. And the dynamic model including volume of actuatorcould be represented by a second-order form with a dead time.

  6. Cephalic Tetanus from Penetrating Orbital Wound

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eloïse Guyennet

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Tetanus is a neurologic disorder caused by tetanospasmin, a protein toxin elaborated by Clostridium tetani. Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of the disease causing trismus and dysfunction of cranial nerves. We report the case of a man who presented with facial trauma, complete ophthalmoplegia, exophthalmos, areactive mydriasis, and periorbital hematoma. An orbital CT revealed air bubbles in the right orbital apex. The patient was given a tetanus toxoid booster and antibiotherapy. After extraction of a wooden foreign body, the patient developed right facial nerve palsy, disorders of swallowing, contralateral III cranial nerve palsy, and trismus. Only one case of cephalic tetanus from penetrating orbital wound has been reported in literature 20 years ago. When a patient presents with an orbital wound with ophthalmoplegia and signs of anaerobic infection, cephalic tetanus should be ruled out.

  7. Pancreatico-gastric Anastomosis Following Cephalic Duodenopancreatectomy: New Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tudor A

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Although in recent years there have been various versions of pancreatic - digestive reconstruction after cephalic duodenopancreatectomy, this issue is still highly debated.

  8. Voluntary driven elbow orthosis with speed controlled tremor suppression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil eHerrnstadt

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Robotic technology is gradually becoming commonplace in the medical sector and in the service of patients. Medical conditions that have benefited from significant technological development include stroke, for which rehabilitation with robotic devices is administered, and surgery assisted by robots. Robotic devices have also been proposed for assistance of movement disorders. Pathological tremor, among the most common movement disorders, is such one example. In practice, the dissemination and availability of tremor suppression robotic systems has been limited. Devices in the marketplace tend to either be non-ambulatory or to target specific functions such as eating and drinking.We have developed a one degree-of-freedom (DOF elbow orthosis that could be worn by an individual with tremor. A speed controlled voluntary driven suppression approach is implemented with the orthosis. Typically tremor suppression methods estimate the tremor component of the signal and produce a canceling counterpart signal. The suggested approach, instead estimates the voluntary component of the motion. A controller then actuates the orthosis based on the voluntary signal while simultaneously rejecting the tremorous motion.In this work, we tested the suppressive orthosis using a 1 DOF robotic system that simulates the human arm. The suggested suppression approach does not require a model of the human arm. Moreover, the human input along with the orthosis forearm gravitational forces, of nonlinear nature, are considered as part of the disturbance to the suppression system. Therefore, the suppression system can be modeled linearly. Nevertheless, the orthosis forearm gravitational forces can be compensated by the suppression system.The electromechanical design of the orthosis is presented, and data from an Essential Tremor patient is used as the human input. Velocity tracking results demonstrate an RMS error of 0.31 rad/s, and a power spectral density shows a reduction of

  9. Cephalic Tetanus in an Immunized Teenager: An Unusual Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felter, Robert A; Zinns, Lauren E

    2015-07-01

    Tetanus is a rare disease in developed countries but is prevalent worldwide. It has significant morbidity and mortality. The causative agent Clostridium tetani is ubiquitous in nature. In the United States, approximately 50 to 100 cases are reported per year but rarely in immunocompetent, fully immunized patients. Of the four types of tetanus (generalized, neonatal, cephalic, and localized), cephalic is the least common. We present a case of cephalic tetanus in a 14-year-old boy who completed his primary immunizations with a video of his physical examination findings. PMID:25853723

  10. Ankle-foot orthosis function in low-level myelomeningocele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hullin, M G; Robb, J E; Loudon, I R

    1992-01-01

    Six children with low-level myelomeningocele underwent gait analysis. All showed excessive ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion when walking barefoot. A rigid thermoplastic ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) improved gait by preventing ankle dorsiflexion and reducing knee flexion. Biomechanically, the AFO caused a reduction in external knee moment by aligning the knee with the ground reaction force. Small changes in the foot-shank angle of the orthosis had profound effects on knee mechanics. Knee hyperextension could be controlled by a rocker sole. Kinetic gait analysis permits understanding of the biomechanical effects of orthoses. PMID:1613099

  11. Cephalic phase responses to sweet taste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, L; Chabert, M; Louis-Sylvestre, J

    1997-03-01

    The sweet taste of nonnutritive sweeteners has been reported to increase hunger and food intake through the mechanism of cephalic-phase insulin release (CPIR). We investigated the effect of oral sensation of sweetness on CPIR and other indexes associated with glucose metabolism using nutritive and nonnutritive sweetened tablets as stimuli. At lunchtime, 12 normal-weight men sucked for 5 min a sucrose, an aspartame-polydextrose, or an unsweetened polydextrose tablet (3 g) with no added flavor. The three stimuli were administered in a counterbalanced order, each on a separate day at 1-wk intervals. Blood was drawn continuously for 45 min before and 25 min after the beginning of sucking and samples were collected at 1-min intervals. Spontaneous oscillations in glucose, insulin, and glucagon concentrations were assessed as were increments (slopes) of fatty acid concentrations during the baseline period. The nature of the baseline (oscillations: glucose, insulin, and glucagon; and slopes: fatty acids) was taken into account in the analyses of postexposure events. No CPIR and no significant effect on plasma glucagon or fatty acid concentrations were observed after the three stimuli. However, there was a significant decrease in plasma glucose and insulin after all three stimuli. Only the consumption of the sucrose tablet was followed by a postabsorptive increase in plasma glucose and insulin concentrations starting 17 and 19 min, respectively, after the beginning of sucking. In conclusion, this study suggested that oral stimulation provided by sweet nonflavored tablets is not sufficient for inducing CPIR. PMID:9062523

  12. A Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Providing Legged Mobility in Paraplegic Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Quintero, Hugo A.; Farris, Ryan J.; Hartigan, Clare; Clesson, Ismari; Goldfarb, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents preliminary results on the development of a powered lower limb orthosis intended to provide legged mobility (with the use of a stability aid, such as forearm crutches) to paraplegic individuals. The orthosis contains electric motors at both hip and both knee joints, which in conjunction with ankle-foot orthoses, provides appropriate joint kinematics for legged locomotion. The paper describes the orthosis and the nature of the controller that enables the SCI patient to comm...

  13. Mimetic orthosis for lower limbs to be applied on rehabilitation for hemiplegic persons

    OpenAIRE

    P.S. Luna; E. Cardiel; R. Muñoz; Urrutia, R.; Villanueva, D.; P.R.Hernández

    2008-01-01

    A rehabilitation tool based on an innovative mimetic active orthosis for hemiplegics is presented. It follows concepts of neuronal learning from afferent information from movements, similar to those lost after brain damage. An artificial gait pattern is applied on knee and hip articulations of a functional modified limb by using an exoskeleton powered by pneumatic muscles. Key Words: Key Words: Key Words: Key Words: Key Words: Active orthosis, mimetic orthosis, gait rehabilitation.

  14. Cephalic sensorial pores in galaxiid fishes from Chile (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia Sáez

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The number and arrangement of the cephalic pores of the lateral line in Chilean fishes of the family Galaxiidae, were studied. The study showed that Brachygalaxias differs from Galaxias, in the absence of mandibular pores and in pore number reductions in the preopeopercular series. The most important variations were recorded in Galaxias globiceps and G. platei. The former species differed from the other species in the absence of a pore in the preopercular series, while in G. platei the supraorbital pore situated behind the eye was the main distinctive feature observed, in contrast to the upper position observed in the other species studied. A taxonomic key using cephalic sensory pores is proposed. These results indicate that the cephalic sensorial pores of the lateral line are a useful taxonomic character in the improvement of the diagnosis of galaxiid fishes -and in taxonomic and systematic studies among family Galaxiidae members.

  15. CEPHALIC INDEX IN NEWBORNS: THE EFFECT OF HEREDITY AND SEX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aprajita

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric dimensions are the basis of evaluation of health of new-borns. MATERIALS AND METHOD Head length and Head Width of three hundred sixty normal new-borns (180 male and 180 female belonging to three different endogamous groups, i.e. Jat Sikhs, Banias and Majhbi Sikhs were recorded and Cephalic Index was calculated. RESULTS The difference in mean Cephalic index was found to be highly significant in the three endogamous groups (p<0.001, whereas it was just significant in males and females. CONCLUSION Cephalic index varies with heredity and also shows sexual dimorphism. This variation can be used in forensic practice for identification of skeletal remains. It is also useful in plastic surgery, facial reconstruction, pediatrics, oral surgery, dentistry and various other craniofacial surgeries.

  16. Plastazote abduction orthosis in the management of neonatal hip instability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Charles F

    2003-01-01

    Since 1987, 113 consecutive newborns with either Ortolani-positive or provocative-positive hip examinations in the newborn nursery have been treated with a Plastazote hip abduction orthosis when diagnosed and followed to determine if the method was safe, effective, and easy to use. Ortolani-positive hips often had bilateral abnormalities in the hip examination, were frequently associated with breech position, and were anatomically more dysplastic than those hips that were unstable by provocative testing. No patient developed ischemic necrosis during follow-up. Only two had additional treatment of their unstable hips. The rest had excellent results. Parents and caregivers found the device easy to use. The orthosis is recommended as the primary method for managing newborns with clinical instability to either the provocative or Ortolani test as being safe, effective, and easy to use across all skill levels. PMID:12960623

  17. EVALUATION OF CEPHALIC INDEX IN FEMALES OF WESTERN UP REGION BY SIMPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Sumita; Jain; Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Population can be classified by evaluation of cephalic index. Metric evaluation of cephalic index can be done generation of simple regression equation. In this study we evaluated horizontal cephalic index of females of western UP region , which forms a base line study of cephalic index of this region , and more so over it ref lects the intelligence level , socioeconomic status , dietary adequacies (inadequacies) and any ailment of ill health , w...

  18. A Motor Learning Oriented, Compliant and Mobile Gait Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Calanca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available People affected by Cerebral Palsy suffer from physical disabilities due to irreversible neural impairment since the very beginning of their life. Difficulties in motor control and coordination often relegate these patients to the use of a wheelchair and to the unavoidable upcoming of disuse syndromes. As pointed out in recent literature Damiano [7] physical exercise, especially in young ages, can have a deep impact on the patient health and quality of life. For training purposes is very important to keep an upright position, although in some severe cases this is not trivial. Many commercial mobile orthoses are designed to facilitate the standing, but not all the patients are able to deploy them. ARGO, the Active Reciprocated Gait Orthosis we developed, is a device that overcomes some of the limitations of these devices. It is an active device that is realized starting from a commercial reciprocated Gait Orthosis applying sensors and actuators to it. With ARGO we aim to develop a device for helping limbs in a non-coercive way accordingly to user’s intention. In this way patients can drive the orthosis by themselves, deploying augmented biofeedback over movements. In fact Cerebral Palsy patients usually have weak biofeedback mechanisms and consequently are hardly inclined to learn movements. To achieve this behavior ARGO deploys a torque planning algorithm and a force control system. Data collected from a single case of study shows benefits of the orthosis. We will show that our test patient reaches complete autonomous walking after few hour of training with prototype.

  19. Radiotherapy of the cephalic segment in patients with advanced neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although the treatment results have significantly improved for several pediatric malignant neoplasms, particularly Wilms's tumor, lymphomas and leukemia, in the last decade, the prognosis of the INSS, stage 4 neuroblastoma over one year one old patients remains poor. Even for the more advanced centers, using the more aggressive treatment schedules, such as bone marrow transplantation, the probability of a 2 year progression free interval varies from 6 to 50% and at 3 to 6 years, from 13 to 54%. Thereby, at least, 46 to 94% of these patients are expected to die due to the merciless neoplasm progression. The hypothesis here to be tested is regarding the impact of the cephalic irradiation on the outcome of stage 4 patients with skull metastasis at diagnosis. The end point was to establish, under the NEURO-III-85 protocol chemotherapy schedule, the possible benefit of this radiotherapy in preventing the cephalic recurrence, and its reflex on these patients total and diseases free survival. These results disclosed that the cephalic segment irradiation may prevent recurrences at this site. Unfortunately, the decrease in the cranial recurrence frequency did not affect either the disease free interval, or the total survival. The conclusion was that cephalic irradiation have the potential of avoiding these recurrences, without modifying the final outcome. This modality of radiotherapy must be reevaluated under more effective systemic treatments. (author)

  20. Cephalic phase metabolic responses in normal weight adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, D G; Storlien, L H; Furler, S M; Chisholm, D J

    1987-08-01

    The presence and physiologic importance of cephalic phase insulin release in humans remains controversial. The aim of these studies was to determine whether cephalic phase insulin release could be demonstrated in normal weight subjects and whether it would be associated with changes in blood glucose, free fatty acid, and pancreatic polypeptide levels. The studies were followed by a hyperglycemic clamp to determine whether cephalic responses would alter overall glucose disposal or glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. In all, 17 subjects were studied on two occasions with and without (control study) presentation of food stimuli. Tease-feeding alone (n = 6), or the administration of a sweet taste alone (aspartame, n = 5) failed to stimulate cephalic responses. However, the presentation of the combined stimuli (tease meals plus sweet taste, n = 7) resulted in a significant fall (P less than .005) in blood glucose levels and a variable rise in serum insulin (% insulin rise 38 +/- 15%, P less than .05) and C-peptide levels (7 +/- 6%, NS) within five minutes of the food presentation when compared with control studies, with no change seen in free fatty acid or pancreatic polypeptide levels. The blood glucose fall correlated strongly (r = .90, P less than .01) with a score of the subjective response to the food and taste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3298939

  1. Neurogenesis of cephalic sensory organs of Aplysia californica

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Wanninger, Andreas; Klussmann-Kolb, Annette

    2007-01-01

    The opisthobranch gastropod Aplysia californica serves as a model organism in experimental neurobiology because of its simple and well-known nervous system. However, its nervous periphery has been less intensely studied. We have reconstructed the ontogeny of the cephalic sensory organs (labial...... microscopy to analyze the ciliary distribution of these sensory epithelia. Labial tentacles and the lip develop during metamorphosis, whereas rhinophores appear significantly later, in stage 10 juveniles. Our study has revealed immunoreactivity against FMRFamides and serotonin in all major nerves. The common...... of conspicuous transient FMRFamide-like cell somata. We have further found two distinct populations of FMRFamide-positive cell somata located both subepidermally and in the inner regions of the cephalic sensory organs in juveniles. The latter population partly consists of sensory cells, suggesting an...

  2. Obesity-related complications in Danish single cephalic term pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nilas, Lisbeth; Wøjdemann, Karen;

    2005-01-01

    increased incidence of preeclampsia (OR 2.8), hypertension (OR 1.9), emergency cesarean delivery (OR 3.4), vacuum extraction (OR 5.6), and perineal rupture (OR 1.7) but a lower frequency of elective cesarean delivery (OR 0.25). CONCLUSION: The rate of complications during pregnancy and delivery increases......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between prepregnancy and obstetric body mass index (BMI) as well as fetal complications in a large, unselected cohort of Danish women with single cephalic pregnancies. METHODS: A cohort of 8,092 women from the Copenhagen First Trimester...... with an increasing prepregnancy BMI in women with single cephalic term pregnancies, particularly in nulliparous women....

  3. Simulation of human walking with powered orthosis for designing practical assistive device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchiyama, Yoshiho; Nagai, Chikara; Obinata, Goro

    2012-01-01

    To design a powered assistive orthosis for human walking, we have simulated walking motion with an orthosis. The model dynamics of the coupled human-orthosis is represented by a 10-rigid-link system. In this model there exist rotational joints at lumbar, both thighs and both legs for orthosis, and each joints are controlled by a couple of central pattern generators (CPG) which imitates neuronal system in the spinal cord of mammals. The CPG controller modeled by 18 oscillators which have the sensory feedbacks and generates the joint torques to move the skeletal model of the coupled human-orthosis. This means that we use five actuators for controlling orthosis in the both of sagittal and frontal plane. The parameters of the CPG and the connecting gains are optimized by using a genetic algorithm. We have achieved the successful simulation of stable walking against disturbances with this model. The simulation results indicate the possibility of a practical assistive orthosis with five active joints for stable walking. PMID:23367005

  4. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lysack, John T; Soboleski, Don

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. PMID:12709748

  5. Classic metaphyseal lesion following external cephalic version and cesarean section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysack, John T.; Soboleski, Don [Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Queen' s University, Kingston General Hospital, 76 Stuart Street, K7L 2V7, Kingston, Ont. (Canada)

    2003-06-01

    We report a case of an otherwise healthy neonate diagnosed at birth with a classic metaphyseal lesion of the proximal tibia following external cephalic version for frank breech presentation and a subsequent urgent cesarean section. Although the classic metaphyseal lesion is considered highly specific for infant abuse, this case demonstrates the importance of obtaining a history of obstetric trauma for neonates presenting to the imaging department for suspected non-accidental injury. (orig.)

  6. Botulinum toxin A for trismus in cephalic tetanus

    OpenAIRE

    Luiz Augusto F. Andrade; Sonia Maria D. Brucki

    1994-01-01

    Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of tetanus. As in generalized forms , trismus is a prominent feature of the disease, leading to considerable difficulty in feeding, swallowing of the saliva and mouth hygiene. These difficulties often precede respiratory problems and aspiration bronchopneumonia is a frequent life-threatening complication. Muscle relaxants other than curare drugs may show a limited benefit for relieving trismus. Tetanospasmin, the tetanic neurotoxin, and botulinum toxin sha...

  7. SCRIPT passive orthosis: design and technical evaluation of the wrist and hand orthosis for rehabilitation training at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Serdar; Lobo-Prat, Joan; Lammertse, Piet; van der Kooij, Herman; Stienen, Arno H A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, a new hand and wrist exoskeleton design, the SCRIPT Passive Orthosis (SPO), for the rehabilitation after stroke is presented. The SPO is a wrist, hand, and finger orthosis that assists individuals after stroke that suffer from impairments caused by spasticity and abnormal synergies. These impairments are characterized in the wrist and hand by excessive involuntary flexion torques that make the hand unable to be used for many activities in daily life. The SPO can passively offset these undesired torques, but it cannot actively generate or control movements. The user needs to use voluntary muscle activation to perform movements and thus needs to have some residual muscle control to successfully use the SPO. The SPO offsets the excessive internal flexion by applying external extension torques to the joints of the wrist and fingers. The SPO physically interacts with the users using the forearm shell, the hand plate and the digit caps from the Saebo Flex, but is otherwise a completely novel design. It applies the external extension torques via passive leaf springs and elastic tension cords. The amount of this support can be adjusted to provide more or less offset force to wrist, finger, or thumb extension, manually. The SPO is equipped with sensors that can give a rough estimate of the joint rotations and applied torques, sufficient to make the orthosis interact with our interactive gaming environment. Integrated inertial and gyroscopic sensors provide limited information on the user's forearm posture. The first home-based patient experiences have already let to several issues being resolved, but have also made it clear that many improvement are still to be made. PMID:24187220

  8. The morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in six species of batoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulvany, Samantha; Motta, Philip J

    2013-09-01

    Many benthic batoids utilize their pectoral fins for both undulatory locomotion and feeding. Certain derived, pelagic species of batoids possess cephalic lobes, which evolved from the anterior pectoral fins. These species utilize the pectoral fins for oscillatory locomotion while the cephalic lobes are used for feeding. The goal of this article was to compare the morphology of the cephalic lobes and anterior pectoral fins in species that possess and lack cephalic lobes. The skeletal elements (radials) of the cephalic lobes more closely resembled the radials in the pectoral fin of undulatory species. Second moment of area (I), calculated from cephalic lobe radial cross sections, and the number of joints revealed greater flexibility and resistance to bending in multiple directions as compared to pectoral fin radials of oscillatory species. The cephalic lobe musculature was more complex than the anterior pectoral fin musculature, with an additional muscle on the dorsal side, with fiber angles running obliquely to the radials. In Rhinoptera bonasus, a muscle presumably used to help elevate the cephalic lobes is described. Electrosensory pores were found on the cephalic lobes (except Mobula japonica) and anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, but absent from the anterior pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. Pore distributions were fairly uniform except in R. bonasus, which had higher pore numbers at the edges of the cephalic lobes. Overall, the cephalic lobes are unique in their anatomy but are more similar to the anterior pectoral fins of undulatory swimmers, having more flexibility and maneuverability compared to pectoral fins of oscillatory swimmers. The maneuverable cephalic lobes taking on the role of feeding may have allowed the switch to oscillatory locomotion and hence, a more pelagic lifestyle. PMID:23801572

  9. A powered lower limb orthosis for gait assistance in incomplete spinal cord injured subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Font Llagunes, Josep Maria; Arroyo, Guillermo; Serrancolí, Gil; Romero, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the mechanical design of a new active stance-control knee-ankle-foot orthosis (SCKAFO). The orthosis is intended to provide gait assistance for incomplete spinal cord injured patients that present functional hip muscles, but partially denervated knee and ankle muscles. It consists of a passive compliant joint that constrains ankle plantar flexion, along with a powered knee unit that prevents knee flexion during stance and controls flexion-extension du...

  10. Design and Evaluation of the AIRGAIT Exoskeleton: Leg Orthosis Control for Assistive Gait Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the body weight support gait training system known as the AIRGAIT exoskeleton and delves into the design and evaluation of its leg orthosis control algorithm. The implementation of the mono- and biarticular pneumatic muscle actuators (PMAs as the actuation system was initiated to generate more power and precisely control the leg orthosis. This research proposes a simple paradigm for controlling the mono- and bi-articular actuator movements cocontractively by introducing a cocontraction model. Three tests were performed. The first test involved control of the orthosis with monoarticular actuators alone without a subject (WO/S; the second involved control of the orthosis with mono- and bi-articular actuators tested WO/S; and the third test involved control of the orthosis with mono- and bi-articular actuators tested with a subject (W/S. Full body weight support (BWS was implemented in this study during the test W/S as the load supported by the orthosis was at its maximum capacity. This assessment will optimize the control system strategy so that the system operates to its full capacity. The results revealed that the proposed control strategy was able to co-contractively actuate the mono- and bi-articular actuators simultaneously and increase stiffness at both hip and knee joints.

  11. Design of a portable hydraulic ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Brett C; Nath, Jonathan; Durfee, William K

    2014-01-01

    Small-scale hydraulics is ideal for powered human assistive devices including powered ankle foot orthoses because a large torque can be generated with an actuator that is small and light. A portable hydraulic ankle foot orthosis has been designed and is undergoing preliminary prototyping and engineering bench test evaluation. The device provides 90 Nm of ankle torque and has an operating pressure of 138 bar (2,000 psi). The battery-operated hydraulic power supply weighs about 3 kg and is worn at the waist. The ankle component weighs about 1.2 Kg and connects to the power supply with two hoses. Performance simulation and preliminary bench testing suggests that the device could be useful in certain rehabilitation applications. PMID:25570175

  12. Implementation of the external cephalic version in breech delivery. Dutch national implementation study of external cephalic version

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papatsonis Dimitri N

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breech presentation occurs in 3 to 4% of all term pregnancies. External cephalic version (ECV is proven effective to prevent vaginal breech deliveries and therefore it is recommended by clinical guidelines of the Royal Dutch Organisation for Midwives (KNOV and the Dutch Society for Obstetrics and Gynaecology (NVOG. Implementation of ECV does not exceed 50 to 60% and probably less. We aim to improve the implementation of ECV to decrease maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality due to breech presentations. This will be done by defining barriers and facilitators of implementation of ECV in the Netherlands. An innovative implementation strategy will be developed based on improved patient counselling and thorough instructions of health care providers for counselling. Method/design The ultimate purpose of this implementation study is to improve counselling of pregnant women and information of clinicians to realize a better implementation of ECV. The first phase of the project is to detect the barriers and facilitators of ECV. The next step is to develop an implementation strategy to inform and counsel pregnant women with a breech presentation, and to inform and educate care providers. In the third phase, the effectiveness of the developed implementation strategy will be evaluated in a randomised trial. The study population is a random selection of midwives and gynaecologists from 60 to 100 hospitals and practices. Primary endpoints are number of counselled women. Secondary endpoints are process indicators, the amount of fetes in cephalic presentation at birth, complications due to ECV, the number of caesarean sections and perinatal condition of mother and child. Cost effectiveness of the implementation strategy will be measured. Discussion This study will provide evidence for the cost effectiveness of a structural implementation of external cephalic versions to reduce the number of breech presentations at term. Trial

  13. EVALUATION OF CEPHALIC INDEX IN FEMALES OF WESTERN UP REGION BY SIMPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Population can be classified by evaluation of cephalic index. Metric evaluation of cephalic index can be done generation of simple regression equation. In this study we evaluated horizontal cephalic index of females of western UP region , which forms a base line study of cephalic index of this region , and more so over it ref lects the intelligence level , socioeconomic status , dietary adequacies (inadequacies and any ailment of ill health , which is reflected in the values of cephalic index. This base line study will also help orthodontist s, plastic surgeons and anthropologists in cranio - facial reconstruction. AIMS & OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study is to generate a simple regression equation for cephalic index of females of western UP region using two variables. MATERIAL & METHODS : This exploratory study was conducted on 400 fe male students (17 - 25yrs of TMMC&RC , Moradabad , employing purposive sampling method , using Pearson’s coefficient , and generating simple regression equation. Spreading caliper was the instrument used in this study. RESULT: Following Simple regression equation =133.71+( - 2.9617.53 was generated using maximum head breadth (143.20 mm. CONCLUSION : We concluded our study by generating the simple regression equation for evaluation of cephalic index of females of western up region (81.83%.(Brachycephalic KEYWORDS : PEARSON’S COEFFICIENT , SIMPLE REGRESSION EQUATION , CEPHALIC INDEX , & SPREADING CALIPERS

  14. The CT evaluation of cephalic and cervical adenoid cystic carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the CT manifestations of cephalic and cervical adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC). Methods: Thirty-three cases of ACC were analyzed retrospectively. Of all cases, 22 cases underwent operation and 11 cases received radiotherapy. The manifestations of CT were evaluated and compared with the clinical and pathologic results. Results: Tumors originated from parotid gland (5 cases), floor of mouth (5 cases), nasal cavity and nasopharynx (5 cases), tongue (4 cases), palate (3 cases), tracheas (3 cases), submandibular gland (2 cases), tonsilla (2 cases), maxillary sinus (2 cases), and cheek (2 cases), respectively. The CT manifestations included: (1)ethmoid density in 21 cases, partial ethmoid density in 5 cases. (2)the morphology of ACC was irregular and the growth of the tumor was amorphous in 17 cases, and the margin of the tumor was vague in 20 cases. (3)ACC often grew along the nerve with infiltration, which caused destruction of the skull base in 5 cases and atrophy of mastication muscles and/or buccinator in 3 cases. Conclusion: (1)The characteristics of cephalic and cervical adenoid cystic carcinoma on CT scans were ethmoid density, infiltrated growth, growing along the nerve with infiltration, and submucous growth. Among them, the most important manifestation, which could lead to the histologic diagnosis on CT, was ethmoid density. (2)The range of ACC was usually underestimated on CT. (3)The manifestation of tumor growth along the nerve could be apparently displayed on MRI

  15. Botulinum toxin A for trismus in cephalic tetanus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Augusto F. Andrade

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic tetanus is a localized form of tetanus. As in generalized forms , trismus is a prominent feature of the disease, leading to considerable difficulty in feeding, swallowing of the saliva and mouth hygiene. These difficulties often precede respiratory problems and aspiration bronchopneumonia is a frequent life-threatening complication. Muscle relaxants other than curare drugs may show a limited benefit for relieving trismus. Tetanospasmin, the tetanic neurotoxin, and botulinum toxin share many similarities, having a closely related chemical structure, an origin from related microorganisms (Clostridium tetani and Clostridium botulinum, respectively, and presumably, the same mechanisms of action in the neuron. The difference between the two lies in their peculiar neurospecificity, acting in different neurons. Injection of minute doses of botulinum toxin in the muscles involved in focal dystonias or other localized spastic disorders have proved to be very effective in these conditions. We describe the use of botulinum toxin A in the successful treatment of trismus in a patient suffering from cephalic tetanus. We believe that this form of treatment may be of value in lowering the risk of pulmonary complications in tetanic patients.

  16. Performance of spinal cord injury individuals while standing with the Mohammad Taghi Karimi reciprocal gait orthosis (MTK-RGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most patients with spinal cord injury use a wheelchair to transfer from place to place, however they need to stand and walk with orthosis to improve their health status. Although many orthoses have been designed for paraplegic patients, they have experienced various problems while in use. A new type of reciprocal gait orthosis was designed in the Bioengineering Unit of Strathclyde University to solve the problems of the available orthoses. Since there was no research undertaken regarding testing of the new orthosis on paraplegic subjects, this study was aimed to evaluate the new orthosis during standing of paraplegic subjects. Five paraplegic patients with lesion level between T12 and L1 and aged matched normal subjects were recruited into this study. The stability of subjects was evaluated during quiet standing and while undertaking hand tasks during standing with the new orthosis and the knee ankle foot orthosis (KAFO). The difference between the performances of paraplegic subjects while standing with both orthoses, and between the function of normal and paraplegic subjects were compared using the paired t test and independent sample t test, respectively. The stability of paraplegic subjects in standing with the new orthosis was better than that of the KAFO orthosis (p < 0.05). Moreover, the force applied on the crutch differed between the orthoses. The functional performance of paraplegic subjects was better with the new orthosis compared with normal subjects. The performance of paraplegic subjects while standing with the new orthosis was better than the KAFO. Therefore, the new orthosis may be useful to improve standing and walking in patients with paraplegia.

  17. Comparison of Extension Orthosis Versus Percutaneous Pinning of the Distal Interphalangeal Joint for Closed Mallet Injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renfree, Kevin J; Odgers, Ryan A; Ivy, Cynthia C

    2016-05-01

    We compared a static extension orthosis with percutaneous pinning of the distal interphalangeal joint (DIPJ) for treatment of closed mallet injuries. After receiving counsel about treatment options, 44 patients (25 women and 19 men; mean age, 57 years) freely chose orthosis and 18 patients (5 women and 13 men; mean age, 51 years) chose pinning. Both the extension orthosis and the pin remained in place for 6 weeks; the pin then was removed, and the care in both groups was transitioned to nighttime orthosis use for an additional 6 weeks. The patients in the pin group were allowed to immediately resume unrestricted activity postoperatively. The mean follow-up was 32 months in the orthosis group and 19 months in the pin group. Final residual extensor lag was better in the pin group (5 vs 10 degrees, P = 0.048). Improvement between the groups was in favor of percutaneous pinning (36 vs 17 degrees, P = 0.001). No correlation was seen between time to treatment (≤14 vs >14 days from injury) and final extensor lag in either group (P = 0.85). The final mean DIPJ flexion was 53 degrees for orthosis and 46 degrees for pinning. Among the patients, 93% of the orthosis group and 100% of the pin group said that they would choose the same treatment again. Both groups had a mean of 5 hand therapy visits during treatment. Two complications occurred in the orthosis group (5%) and 3 (17%) occurred in the pin group. Extension orthotics and pinning are both well-tolerated, effective treatments of mallet injury. The techniques produce satisfactory correction of extensor lag and have high patient satisfaction. Pinning allows better correction of DIPJ extensor lag and results in a smaller degree of final extensor lag. Pinning is more expensive and may result in more DIPJ stiffness (ie, loss of active flexion), but it may be justified in certain patients (eg, medical professionals, food service workers) who would have difficulty working with an orthosis. PMID:25144418

  18. Evaluation of safety and reliability in an infant reciprocal walking orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, K; Woollam, P J; Jones, N; Poiner, R; Farmer, I R; Stallard, J

    2002-08-01

    In response to new demands for infant walking orthoses consideration was given to the development of a device for this category of patient. A specially developed hip joint with the required structural properties (Woollam et al., 2001) provided an opportunity for this development. Earlier structural assessment, and limited cyclic load testing of key elements of the orthosis (primarily the body brace), confirmed that a safe device for evaluation with patients could, theoretically, be produced. A provisional prototype was therefore designed and manufactured for initial structural testing of the complete infant orthosis (Stallard et al., 2001). Efficiency of walking is strongly influenced by the lateral rigidity of the orthosis. Monitoring the structural performance of the provisional infant design indicated it would equal or improve on the stiffness of that achieved in the adult specification. Additionally, relative strength was comparable with the adult version, which has proven to be safe and reliable in many years of routine prescription. This, together with the limited cyclic testing of the complete orthosis (Stallard et al., 2001), gave confidence that it was safe to proceed with controlled field evaluation of the infant design when supplied as a rehabilitation engineering device within the provisions of an ISO9001 and EN46001 QA System. This additional study of controlled patient use, and further representative cyclic load testing in parallel with the field evaluation, had established the long-term structural safety of the orthosis. Wider application is now to be introduced through completion of the EC (European Community) Medical Devices Directive formalities. PMID:12227452

  19. Hepato - Cephalic Index as a Predictor of Intrauterine Growth Restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dacaj, Ramadan; Izetbegovic, Sebija; Stojkanovic, Goran; Gjocaj, Curr

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to compare ultrasound fetoplacental parameters and to calculate Hepato-Cephalic Index (HCI) as a new predictor of IUGR. Methods and material: A clinical prospective study was conducted and included 120 pregnant women divided in two groups: non IUGR group included healthy pregnant women (n=60) and IUGR group included pregnant women with preeclampsia and IUGR (n=60). Outcome measures were following ultrasound fetoplacental parameters in fetuses with IUGR and non IUGR: Fetal Liver Length (FLL), Femur Length (FL), Biparietal Diameter (BPD), Placental Maturation by Grannum, Amniotic Fluid Index (AFI) and Hepato-Cephalic Index (HCI). Sonography was carried out by probe 3.5 Mhz type MINDRAY DC 7. Results: The mean of maternal age was 30.0±6.1 years in women with preeclampsia and IUGR and 28.1±5.1 years in healthy pregnant women, p > 0.05. There was a statistically significant difference in values of: FLL (p < 0.001), FL (p = 0.004), BPD (p < 0.001), AFI (p < 0.001), HCI (p < 0.001) between IUGR and non IUGR groups. The most of women with preeclampsia and IUGR had grade III of placental maturation (48.3%). There is a significant association between the placental maturation and the diagnosis, p < 0.001. There was a statistically significant difference in body mass of newborns between IUGR and non IUGR groups, p < 0.001. Conclusion: In a fetus with IUGR in preeclampsia there is a reduction in FLL, FL, BPD, AFI and HCI and there is a early maturation of the placenta. By measurement of fetoplacental ultrasonic parameters of liver, pregnant women will experience prediction of risk pregnancy (preeclampsia with IUGR) due to hypoxia. PMID:27046941

  20. Study about the ontogenetic development of cephalic sensory system of Cottus Gobio Linaeus 1758 (Pisces; Cottidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Ilie C. TELCEAN; SAS, István; Nicoleta R. RADU

    2005-01-01

    The lateral-cephalic channels system of Cotus gobio L. was studied for a number of 66 juveniles originated from the upper Tisa River. The topography of cephalic channels system and the number of their opening pores present a lot of similarities between different fishes groups that is close related in their phylogeny. The jointly characters are in fact the results of convergent evolution.The study on the ontogenesis of cephalic-laterals channels system and its pores at Cottus gobio can offer a...

  1. A portable powered ankle-foot orthosis for rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, K Alex; Kogler, Géza F; Loth, Eric; Durfee, William K; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2011-01-01

    Innovative technological advancements in the field of orthotics, such as portable powered orthotic systems, could create new treatment modalities to improve the functional out come of rehabilitation. In this article, we present a novel portable powered ankle-foot orthosis (PPAFO) to provide untethered assistance during gait. The PPAFO provides both plantar flexor and dorsiflexor torque assistance by way of a bidirectional pneumatic rotary actuator. The system uses a portable pneumatic power source (compressed carbon dioxide bottle) and embedded electronics to control the actuation of the foot. We collected pilot experimental data from one impaired and three nondisabled subjects to demonstrate design functionality. The impaired subject had bilateral impairment of the lower legs due to cauda equina syndrome. We found that data from nondisabled walkers demonstrated the PPAFO's capability to provide correctly timed plantar flexor and dorsiflexor assistance during gait. Reduced activation of the tibialis anterior during stance and swing was also seen during assisted nondisabled walking trials. An increase in the vertical ground reaction force during the second half of stance was present during assisted trials for the impaired subject. Data from nondisabled walkers demonstrated functionality, and data from an impaired walker demonstrated the ability to provide functional plantar flexor assistance. PMID:21674394

  2. A portable powered ankle-foot orthosis for rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Alex Shorter, PhD

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Innovative technological advancements in the field of orthotics, such as portable powered orthotic systems, could create new treatment modalities to improve the functional outcome of rehabilitation. In this article, we present a novel portablepowered ankle-foot orthosis (PPAFO to provide untethered assistance during gait. The PPAFO provides both plantar flexor and dorsiflexor torque assistance by way of a bidirectional pneumatic rotary actuator. The system uses a portable pneumatic power source (compressed carbon dioxide bottle and embedded electronics to control the actuation of the foot. We collected pilot experimental data from one impaired and three nondisabled subjects to demonstrate design functionality. The impaired subject had bilateral impairment of the lower legs due to cauda equina syndrome. We found that data from nondisabledwalkers demonstrated the PPAFO’s capability to provide correctlytimed plantar flexor and dorsiflexor assistance during gait. Reduced activation of the tibialis anterior during stance and swing was also seen during assisted nondisabled walking trials. An increase in the vertical ground reaction force during the second half of stance was present during assisted trials for the impaired subject. Data from nondisabled walkers demonstrated functionality, and data from an impaired walker demonstrated the ability to provide functional plantar flexor assistance.

  3. Ergonomy of paraplegic patients working with a reciprocating gait orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardi, M; Canale, I; Felici, F; Macaluso, A; Marchettoni, P; Sproviero, E

    1995-08-01

    A reciprocating gait orthosis (RGO) is, among others, the most widely adopted device to restore the standing and walking capability of paraplegic patients. The aim of the present study was the evaluation of the energy demand (VO2), and cardiopulmonary load (HR and VE) imposed on the subject by different working tasks while sitting in a wheelchair or standing using a RGO. In addition, a comparison with the performance of normal subjects was also attempted. The RGO use allowed a dramatic improvement of patients' mobility and reach space in the workplace. A further advantage provided by the use of the RGO was represented by the increased mobility of the subjects with respect to the wheelchair confined situation. The energy demand and the cardiorespiratory load imposed on the subjects by the use of the RGO were not different from those observed both in the same subjects sitting in a wheelchair and in the controls. The energy demand slightly exceeded the values typical of light work and was, thus, compatible with the normal duration of a working day. On the other hand, the cardiac load corresponded to that typical of moderate activity, thus limiting the duration of the working task to 5-8 h. Based on the ergometry test, all of the working activities considered can be classified as aerobic activities, energy demand being under the ventilatory threshold. PMID:7478740

  4. Engineering evaluation of the energy-storing orthosis FES gait system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kangude, Abhijit; Burgstahler, Brett; Durfee, William

    2010-01-01

    A system to restore walking in the vicinity of a wheelchair for people with paraplegia resulting from spinal cord injury is under development. The approach combines single channel surface electrical stimulation with an orthosis. The orthosis is spring loaded and contains a pneumatic system that stores energy during knee extension caused by quadriceps stimulation and transfers it to hip joint for hip extension. A laboratory version of the prototype of the gait system has been fabricated and engineering bench tests were performed. The paper presents the design of the wearable prototype and results of bench testing. PMID:21096941

  5. Cephalic vein: Saviour in the microsurgical reconstruction of breast and head and neck cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay K Shankhdhar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Reconstruction with microvascular free flaps is considered the reconstructive option of choice in cancer of the head and neck regions and breast. Rarely, there is paucity of vessels, especially the veins, at the recipient site. The cephalic vein with its good caliber and constant anatomy is a reliable recipient vein available in such situations. Materials and Methods: It is a retrospective study from January 2010 to July 2012 and includes 26 patients in whom cephalic vein was used for free-flap reconstruction in head and neck (3 cases and breast cancers (23 cases. Results: All flaps in which cephalic vein was used survived completely. Conclusion: Cephalic vein can be considered as a reliable source of venous drainage when there is a non-availability/unusable of veins during free-flap reconstruction in the head and neck region and breast and also when additional source of venous drainage is required in these cases.

  6. Measurement of Cephalic Indices in Older Children and Adolescents of a Nigerian Population

    OpenAIRE

    Babatunde Olayemi Akinbami

    2014-01-01

    Background. A study on the cephalic index was carried out on subjects from school students in Ogbia tribe of Bayelsa state in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This study determined the cephalic indices among the school students. In the present study, seven hundred subjects were randomly selected from secondary schools comprising 350 males and 350 females, respectively, with age range from 11–20 years, with both parents and grandparents of Ogbia tribe. The length and breadth of the head were...

  7. Measurement of Cephalic Indices in Older Children and Adolescents of a Nigerian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde Olayemi Akinbami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. A study on the cephalic index was carried out on subjects from school students in Ogbia tribe of Bayelsa state in the Niger Delta region of Nigeria. This study determined the cephalic indices among the school students. In the present study, seven hundred subjects were randomly selected from secondary schools comprising 350 males and 350 females, respectively, with age range from 11–20 years, with both parents and grandparents of Ogbia tribe. The length and breadth of the head were measured using a spreading caliper from standard bony landmarks. The measurable point for head length was measured between the glabella and inions while the head breadth was the widest biparietal diameter. The cephalic index was head breadth divided by the head length and multiplied by 100. The result showed that the mean cephalic index was 76.56. Males had a cephalic index of 77.21, while females had a cephalic index of 76.50. Based on this study, 78.68% of individuals were mesocephalic, 11.4% dolichocephalic, 9.0% Brachycephalic, and 0.43% hyperbrachycephalic. This research showed that the school students have mesocephalic phenotype. The data from this research will be useful in anthropology, genetics, forensic medicine, and clinical practice.

  8. A case of cephalic tetanus in a developed country.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusetti, S; Ghirotto, C; Ferronato, G

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus is a potentially life-threatening infection that results from contamination of skin wound by Clostridium Tetani spores. Although, it remains an important health problem in developing countries without strict national immunization programs, this condition is rare in the developed world. The most frequent presenting symptoms are trismus and dysphagia, due to the spasmodic contraction of the masticatory muscles. Then the disease usually diffuses with a descending pattern inducing a generalized contraction of the agonist and antagonistic muscles, which characterize a tetanic spasm. Mortality usually results from respiratory failure, cardiovascular collapse, or autonomic dysfunctions. Treatment usually requires the prompt admission to the intensive care unit to avoid the development of potential life-threatening complications. We report the case of a 78-year-old farmer, who was referred to us with progressive onset of lock-jaw and muscular stiffness of the facial region, that had occurred after he had scratched himself with a rose. The recognition of the presenting signs of cephalic tetanus allowed the prompt management of the infection. However, because of the rarity of this condition, the clinicians may be unfamiliar with the clinical presentation, and be unsuspecting of the diagnosis. PMID:23527734

  9. Obesity-related complications in Danish single cephalic term pregnancies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Line; Nilas, Lisbeth; Wøjdemann, Karen;

    2005-01-01

    increased incidence of preeclampsia (OR 2.8), hypertension (OR 1.9), emergency cesarean delivery (OR 3.4), vacuum extraction (OR 5.6), and perineal rupture (OR 1.7) but a lower frequency of elective cesarean delivery (OR 0.25). CONCLUSION: The rate of complications during pregnancy and delivery increases......OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to investigate the relationship between prepregnancy and obstetric body mass index (BMI) as well as fetal complications in a large, unselected cohort of Danish women with single cephalic pregnancies. METHODS: A cohort of 8,092 women from the Copenhagen First Trimester...... regression analyses. RESULTS: Overweight women had an odds ratio (OR) of 3.4 for diabetes, 1.9 for hypertension, 1.7 for preeclampsia, and 1.5 for cesarean delivery. The corresponding figures for obese women were 15.3, 4.8, 2.7, and 1.7, respectively. No relationship was found between BMI and vacuum...

  10. Effect of antipronation foot orthosis geometry on compression of heel and arch soft tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Declan Sweeney, BSc (Hon

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand how systematic changes in arch height and two designs of heel wedging affect soft tissues under the foot. Soft tissue thickness under the heel and navicular was measured using ultrasound. Heel pad thickness was measured while subjects were standing on a flat surface and also while they were standing on an orthosis with 4 and 8 degree extrinsic wedges and 4 and 8 mm intrinsic wedges (n = 27. Arch soft tissue thickness was measured when subjects were standing and when standing on an orthosis with –6 mm, standard, and +6 mm increments in arch height (n = 25. Extrinsic and intrinsic heel wedges significantly increased soft tissue thickness under the heel compared with no orthosis. The 4 and 8 degree extrinsic wedges increased tissue thickness by 28.3% and 27.6%, respectively, while the 4 and 8 mm intrinsic wedges increased thickness by 23.0% and 14.6%, respectively. Orthotic arch height significantly affected arch soft tissue thickness. Compared with the no orthosis condition, the –6 mm, standard, and +6 mm arch heights decreased arch tissue thickness by 9.1%, 10.2%, and 11.8%, respectively. This study demonstrates that change in orthotic geometry creates different plantar soft tissue responses that we expect to affect transmission of force to underlying foot bones.

  11. Anthropometric Study of the Cephalic and Nasal Indices of Ogu and Ikwerre People of Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Ordu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide a baseline data of cephalic and nasal index of Ogu and Ikwerre people of southern Nigeria. Cephalic index is used to measure the size of the head while nasal index is used to measure the size of the nose. A total number of one thousand subjects (1000 comprising five hundred (500 from each tribe were selected for this study. To obtain the nasal index, the nasal length was measured from the nasion to the point where the nasal septum merges with the skin of the upper lip (nasospinale, while the nasal breadth was measured from ala to ala using a vernier caliper. For the cephalic index to be obtained, the head length was measured from the glabella to the external occipital protuberance (opistocranium, while the head breadth was measured from the transverse diameter of the head (biparietal diameter using a spreading caliper. The results obtained showed that the Ikwerre males and females have a mean nasal index of 93.8 and 95.8 and a cephalic index of 74.9 and 74.8, respectively while the Ogu males and females have a mean nasal index of 95.8 and 87.34 and a cephalic index of 74.83 and 74.8, There was a significant difference in the nasal index of both Ikwerre and Ogu males and females (p0.05. This study has shown that the Ikwerre and Ogu people are both platyrrhines and their cephalic index indicated that they are dolicocephalic.

  12. Atosiban vs. ritodrine as a tocolytic in external cephalic version at term: a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Burgos, Jorge; Eguiguren, Nekane; Quintana, Eider; Cobos, Patricia; del Mar Centeno, Maria; Larrieta, Rosa; Fernández-Llebrez, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To compare the success rate of external cephalic version (ECV) at term using ritodrine or atosiban as a tocolytic agent. Study design: Prospective cohort study with a sample of 236 pregnant women with a breech presentation at term, from November 2006 to March 2008. Data have been analyzed from the moment the cephalic version is performed until the time of delivery. Results: ECV success rate using ritodrine as a tocolytic agent was 56.8% compared to 31.4% with atosiban. Ritodrine ...

  13. An evaluation of the posterior leaf spring orthosis using joint kinematics and kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ounpuu, S; Bell, K J; Davis, R B; DeLuca, P A

    1996-01-01

    The primary function of the posterior leaf spring orthosis (PLS) is to prevent excessive equinus or drop foot in swing. The name of the orthosis, posterior leaf "spring," suggests that it also mechanically augments push-off in stance. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of the PLS on ankle function by using computerized gait-analysis techniques. Multiple barefoot versus brace walks were compared in 31 children with cerebral palsy. Results indicate that the PLS reduces excessive equinus in swing and is sufficiently flexible to allow ankle dorsiflexion in midstance. In terminal stance, the peak power-generating capabilities of the ankle were reduced when the child was wearing the PLS. Energy results indicate that more mechanical energy was absorbed during midstance and less produced during terminal stance with the PLS. Therefore, the PLS improved ankle function but did not augment ankle function through storage and return of mechanical, or spring, energy. PMID:8728642

  14. Use of a static progressive stretch orthosis to treat post-traumatic ankle stiffness

    OpenAIRE

    Costa Christopher R; McElroy Mark J; Johnson Aaron J; Lamm Bradley M; Mont Michael A

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chronic ankle stiffness can develop for numerous reasons after traumatic injury, and may adversely affect patient gait, mobility, and function. Although standard physical therapeutic techniques typically resolve this stiffness, some cases may be recalcitrant to these measures, making it difficult to restore range-of-motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a static progressive stretch orthosis for the treatment of chronic ankle stiffness. Methods Twenty-six patien...

  15. Biomechanical evaluation of wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis in persons with spinal cord injury

    OpenAIRE

    Yeoun-Seung Kang, MD, PhD, CPO; Yoon-Ghil Park, MD, PhD; Bum-Suk Lee, MD; Hyung-Soon Park, PhD

    2013-01-01

    The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO) is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p ...

  16. The Effect of Using Anti spastic Orthosis on the Reduction of Spasticity in Diplegic Spastic Children

    OpenAIRE

    Ashkan Irani; Azadeh Imani; Seyyed Ali Hosseini

    2012-01-01

    Background and aim: Cerebral palsy is a non progressive brain disorder and, cerebral plasy is the most common type of spastic paralysis which can be the cause of motor and postural deficits during child development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Anti spastic Orthosis on the Reduction of Spasticity and in diplegic spastic children between 2 – 5 years in Tehran.Materials & Methods: 20 diplegic spastic children between 2- 5 years were selected randomly and divi...

  17. Preliminary design of an energy storing orthosis for providing gait to people with spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughner, Kyle J; Durfee, William K

    2014-01-01

    A new design is proposed for an energy storing orthosis (ESO) that restores walking to people with spinal cord injury by combining functional electrical stimulation of the quadriceps muscle with a mechanical brace that uses elastic elements to store and transfer energy between hip and knee joints. The new ESO is a variation of a previous design and uses constant force springs for energy storage. Based on the detailed design and on dynamic simulations, the concept has demonstrated preliminary technical feasibility. PMID:25570518

  18. Exoskeleton Technology in Rehabilitation: Towards an EMG-Based Orthosis System for Upper Limb Neuromotor Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Manuel Vaca Benitez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitation of patients should not only be limited to the first phases during intense hospital care but also support and therapy should be guaranteed in later stages, especially during daily life activities if the patient’s state requires this. However, aid should only be given to the patient if needed and as much as it is required. To allow this, automatic self-initiated movement support and patient-cooperative control strategies have to be developed and integrated into assistive systems. In this work, we first give an overview of different kinds of neuromuscular diseases, review different forms of therapy, and explain possible fields of rehabilitation and benefits of robotic aided rehabilitation. Next, the mechanical design and control scheme of an upper limb orthosis for rehabilitation are presented. Two control models for the orthosis are explained which compute the triggering function and the level of assistance provided by the device. As input to the model fused sensor data from the orthosis and physiology data in terms of electromyography (EMG signals are used.

  19. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baronio, Gabriele; Harran, Sami; Signoroni, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP) with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE) process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer) is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities. PMID:27594781

  20. A Critical Analysis of a Hand Orthosis Reverse Engineering and 3D Printing Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Baronio

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The possibility to realize highly customized orthoses is receiving boost thanks to the widespread diffusion of low-cost 3D printing technologies. However, rapid prototyping (RP with 3D printers is only the final stage of patient personalized orthotics processes. A reverse engineering (RE process is in fact essential before RP, to digitize the 3D anatomy of interest and to process the obtained surface with suitable modeling software, in order to produce the virtual solid model of the orthosis to be printed. In this paper, we focus on the specific and demanding case of the customized production of hand orthosis. We design and test the essential steps of the entire production process with particular emphasis on the accurate acquisition of the forearm geometry and on the subsequent production of a printable model of the orthosis. The choice of the various hardware and software tools (3D scanner, modeling software, and FDM printer is aimed at the mitigation of the design and production costs while guaranteeing suitable levels of data accuracy, process efficiency, and design versatility. Eventually, the proposed method is critically analyzed so that the residual issues and critical aspects are highlighted in order to discuss possible alternative approaches and to derive insightful observations that could guide future research activities.

  1. Comparison of three ankle-foot orthosis configurations for children with spastic hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckon, C E; Thomas, S S; Jakobson-Huston, S; Sussman, M; Aiona, M

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of the hinged ankle-foot orthosis (HAFO), posterior leaf spring (PLS), and solid ankle-foot orthosis (SAFO), in preventing contracture, improving efficiency of gait, and enhancing performance of functional motor skills in 30 children (21 male, 9 female; mean age 9 years 4 months; age range 4 to 18 years,) with spastic hemiplegia. Following a 3-month baseline period of no ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) use, each AFO was worn for 3 months after which ankle range of motion, gait analysis, energy consumption, and functional motor skills were assessed. The HAFO and PLS increased passive ankle dorsiflexion and normalization of ankle rocker function during gait. Normalization of knee motion in stance was dependent upon the knee abnormality present and AFO configuration. The HAFO was the most effective in controlling knee hyperextension in stance, while PLS was the most effective in promoting knee extension in children with >10 degree knee flexion in stance. Energy efficiency was improved in 21 of the children, with 13 of these children demonstrating the greatest improvement in HAFO and PLS. Improvements in functional mobility were greatest in the HAFO and PLS. PMID:11409825

  2. Effectiveness of adjustable dorsiflexion night splint in combination with accommodative foot orthosis on plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winson C. C. Lee, PhD

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Foot orthoses and night splints have been used separately to treat patients with plantar fasciitis, but were not always successful. Combined use of both orthoses might give better outcomes. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a soft and self-adjustable dorsiflexion night splint in combination with an accommodative foot orthosis for patients with plantar fasciitis. Twenty-eight patients were assigned to group A (foot orthosis only and group B (combination of foot orthosis and dorsiflexion night splints. A Foot Function Index (FFI questionnaire was used to evaluate the pain and functions of feet just before, 2 weeks after, and 8 weeks after the treatments. Results showed that subjects in group B had significantly reduced pain scores at week 2 (p < 0.001 and week 8 (p < 0.001. In group A, no statistical differences were noted in the pain (p = 0.15, disability (p = 0.56, activity limitation (p = 0.75, and total FFI (p = 0.35 scores for the three time periods. The application of foot orthoses with adjustable dorsiflexion night splints was found to be more effective than the application of foot orthoses alone in relieving foot pain in patients with plantar fasciitis.

  3. Cephalic arch stenosis in autogenous brachiocephalic hemodialysis fistulas: results of cutting balloon angioplasty

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heerwagen, Søren Thorup; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V; Hansen, Marc Allan

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic arch stenosis is a known cause of hemodialysis access failure in patients with brachiocephalic fistulas (BCFs). Outcomes of endovascular treatment are affected by resistance of the stenosis to balloon dilation, a high vein rupture rate and the development of early restenosis. The purpose...

  4. Multiple cephalic vein aneurysms with calcification in a patient undergoing hemodialysis: An unusual entity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh K Yadav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral venous aneurysms are a known complication following autogenous arteriovenous fistula (AVF for hemodialysis. We present a case of aneurysms involving the cephalic vein associated with calcification, a condition that, to the best of our knowledge, has not been reported earlier in the literature.

  5. A study of cephalic index and facial index in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Lakshmi Kumari

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The description of the human body has been a major concern since ancient times. The use of medical terminology enhances reliability of comparison made between studies from different areas thereby contributing higher level of scientific evidence. Cephalic index is an important parameter in forensic medicine, anthropology and genetics to know the sex and racial differences between individuals. Facial index is useful index for forensic scientists, plastic surgeons and anatomist. The parameters are useful for plastic surgeons during treatment of congenital and traumatic deformities, identification of individuals in medicolegal cases by forensic scientists and identifying craniofacial deformities of genetic syndromes by geneticist. Methods: 170 males and 110 female adults from Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India region are included in this study. Anthropometric points for cephalic index were measured by using spreading calipers. Facial index measurements were taken by measuring tape. All measurements were taken in subjects sitting in relaxed condition and subjects head is in anatomical position. Cranial index and facial index were calculated as per the formula. Results: Maximum number of males with mean cephalic index values of 80.21 were observed as mesocephalic and female with mean value of 79.25 observed as brachycephalic. Regarding facial index males were leptoprosopic and females were mesoprosopic. Conclusion: Cephalic index and facial index were terms used by anthropologists, anatomists, plastic surgeons and forensic scientists to identify individual's race and sex for treatment of craniofacial deformities. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 656-658

  6. Head and neck reconstruction using cephalic vein transposition in the vessel-depleted neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasilakis, Vasileios; Patel, Hasu D L; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2009-01-01

    In microvascular reconstructive surgery the patency of the recipient vessels is the key to successful outcome. In head and neck surgery there is often a lack of adequate recipient vessels as a result of chemoradiation therapy and ablative surgery. To overcome this it is crucial to identify vessels of adequate length and diameter outside the field of injury. We report our experience with cephalic vein transposition for drainage of seven free flaps--six intestinal and one osteocutaneous--for head and neck reconstruction. In five cases the cephalic vein was used during the free flap transfer and in two cases in salvage re-exploration surgery. All flaps survived completely. The anatomical course and location of the cephalic vein allow good patency and straightforward harvesting. Its vascular properties are predictive of reduced incidence of complications such as flap congestion and failure. We suggest that the cephalic vein offers a high venous flow drainage system for large free flaps and advocate its use in free intestinal transfer in the vessel-depleted neck as well as in re-exploration surgery. PMID:19530090

  7. Risk factors for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery after successful external cephalic version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hundt, Marcella; Vlemmix, Floortje; Bais, Joke M J; de Groot, Christianne J; Mol, Ben Willem; Kok, Marjolein

    2016-06-01

    Aim of this article is to examine if we could identify factors that predict cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery in women who had a successful external cephalic version. We used data from a previous randomized trial among 25 hospitals and their referring midwife practices in the Netherlands. With the data of this trial, we performed a cohort study among women attempting vaginal delivery after successful ECV. We evaluated whether maternal age, gestational age, parity, time interval between ECV and delivery, birth weight, neonatal gender, and induction of labor were predictive for a vaginal delivery on one hand or a CS or instrumental vaginal delivery on the other hand. Unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios were calculated with univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis. Among 301 women who attempted vaginal delivery after a successful external cephalic version attempt, the cesarean section rate was 13% and the instrumental vaginal delivery rate 6%, resulting in a combined instrumental delivery rate of 19%. Nulliparity increased the risk of cesarean section (OR 2.7 (95% CI 1.2-6.1)) and instrumental delivery (OR 4.2 (95% CI 2.1-8.6)). Maternal age, gestational age at delivery, time interval between external cephalic version and delivery, birth weight and neonatal gender did not contribute to the prediction of failed spontaneous vaginal delivery. In our cohort of 301 women with a successful external cephalic version, nulliparity was the only one of seven factors that predicted the risk for cesarean section and instrumental vaginal delivery. PMID:26333291

  8. Phenotypic variability and heritability of the cephalic region of Caiman latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Carolina; Giri, Federico; Siroski, Pablo; Amavet, Patricia

    2016-03-01

    The study of the cephalic shape of crocodilian is relevant in the fields of ecology, systematics, evolution, and conservation. Therefore, the integration of geometric analysis within quantitative genetics allows the evaluation of the inheritable shape components. In this study, the dorsal cephalic region of 210 Caiman latirostris hatchlings was analyzed from seven populations in Santa Fe, Argentina, to detect intra-, and inter-population phenotypic variability, and to determine the heritability of biological shape and size, using newly available geometric morphometric tools. The principal component analysis showed two configurations of cephalic shape that could be related to sexual dimorphism. In the canonical variate analysis, Procrustes distances between groups indicated that there are differences in shape among populations. Furthermore, the method of partial least squares indicated a covariation between cephalic shape and environmental variables. Regarding to CS of the skull we found significant differences among populations, moreover the partial least squares was also significant. Estimates of the heritability of shape and size were high, indicating that the components of these features are susceptible to the selection. PMID:26682625

  9. Short-term effects and long-term use of a hybrid orthosis for neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the upper extremity in patients after chronic stroke.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, J.W.; Voerman, G.E.; Santegoets, K.M.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To associate the short-term effects of the Handmaster orthosis on disabling symptoms of the affected upper extremity with long-term Handmaster orthosis use after stroke. DESIGN: Historic cohort study. PATIENTS: Patients with chronic stroke. METHODS: The Modified Ashworth Scale (0-5) for w

  10. Abdominal vascular responses to changes in carbon dioxide tension in the cephalic circulation of anaesthetized dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, R; Hainsworth, R; Rankin, A J; Soladoye, A O

    1985-01-01

    Dogs were anaesthetized with chloralose, the regions of both carotid sinuses were vascularly isolated and perfused with arterial blood and both cervical vagosympathetic trunks were cut above the nodose ganglia. The cephalic circulation was perfused through the brachiocephalic and left subclavian arteries with blood which was equilibrated with various levels of CO2. The abdomen was vascularly isolated, perfused through the aorta at constant flow and drained through the inferior vena cava at constant pressure. Changes in vascular resistance were determined from changes in abdominal aortic perfusion pressure and changes in capacitance from the integral of the changes in venous outflow. An increase in PCO2 in the cephalic perfusate resulted in an increase in abdominal vascular resistance and a decrease in capacitance. However, when carotid sinus pressure was high, the response of resistance to an increase in cephalic PCO2 was abolished and that of capacitance was significantly reduced. The reflex responses of both vascular resistance and capacitance to a change in carotid sinus pressure were enhanced when the cephalic PCO2 was raised. However, the effect on the reflex capacitance response from stimulation of baroreceptors was obtained only when PCO2 was changed below 5 kPa whereas the effect on resistance occurred at higher values of PCO2. The interaction between the effects of changes in cephalic PCO2 and the carotid sinus reflex and the differential effect on resistance and capacitance vessels have been explained in terms of the known difference in the sensitivities of these vessels to sympathetic nerve activity. PMID:3920388

  11. Use of a static progressive stretch orthosis to treat post-traumatic ankle stiffness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa Christopher R

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic ankle stiffness can develop for numerous reasons after traumatic injury, and may adversely affect patient gait, mobility, and function. Although standard physical therapeutic techniques typically resolve this stiffness, some cases may be recalcitrant to these measures, making it difficult to restore range-of-motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate a static progressive stretch orthosis for the treatment of chronic ankle stiffness. Methods Twenty-six patients (26 ankles who had chronic post-traumatic ankle stiffness were studied. The patients began treatment at a mean of 47 weeks (range, 6 to 272 weeks following their initial injury using a static progressive stretch orthosis. A patient-directed protocol was used for 30 minutes per day, 1 to 3 times per day, until the range-of-motion was considered to have plateaued. Mean treatment time was 10 weeks (range, 3 to 19 weeks. Treatment duration, range-of-motion, and complications with the device were assessed. Results The overall mean improvement in motion (combined dorsiflexion and plantar flexion was 17 degrees (range, 2 to 44 degrees. There was a mean improvement in dorsiflexion of 9 degrees (range, -2 to 20 degrees, and a mean improvement of 8 degrees of plantar flexion (range, -10 to 35 degrees. There were no reports of numbness or skin problems. Conclusions The outcomes of this study suggest that a patient-directed treatment protocol using a static progressive stretch orthosis was an effective ancillary method for the treatment of chronic post-traumatic ankle stiffness that was refractory to standard physical therapy techniques.

  12. Wearing an active spinal orthosis improves back extensor strength in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Gitte Hoff; Pedersen, Louise Nymann; Maribo, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background:Vertebral fractures are the most common clinical manifestations of osteoporosis. Vertebral fractures and reduced back extensor strength can result in hyperkyphosis. Hyperkyphosis is associated with diminished daily functioning and an increased risk of falling. Improvements in back...... extensor strength can result in decreased kyphosis and thus a decreased risk of falls and fractures.Objectives:The aim was to examine the effects of an active spinal orthosis - Spinomed III - on back extensor strength, back pain and physical functioning in women with osteoporotic vertebral fractures...

  13. 截瘫步行器的仿生效果%Bionic effect of reciprocating gait orthosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文远

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reciprocating gait orthosis makes the paraplegia patients walking, but reciprocating gait orthosis can only perform walking rehabilitation training and simple walking, which was far from real walking function compensation.OBJECTIVE: To summarize and analyze construction features, action mechanism and bionic effect of reciprocating gait orthosis.METHODS: We retrieved PubMed Database and Wanfang Database for articles concerning features, bionic effect and clinical application of reciprocating gait orthosis published from January 1990 to December 2008. The key words were "reciprocation gait orthosis, walkabout, bionice". A total of 32 articles were researched.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At present, unpowered reciprocating gait orthosis has been extensively utilized , but it can only perform walking rehabilitation training and simple walking, which was far from real walking function compensation for paraplegia patients. The bionic effects of reciprocation gait orthosis and walkabout were poor; gait lacked fidelity; physical ability was greatly consumed. However, the gait orthosis that requires outer energy for supplement can overcome the disadvantage of unpowered gait orthosis. With the wide usage of artificial intellectual technology in robot and many industry fields, its development can provide gait orthosis that has good function, safety, reliability, and bionics.%背景:截瘫步行器的临床应用,使截瘫患者重建步行功能成为可能,但截瘫步行器只为进行步行康复训练及简单的行走,距离真正意义上的步行功能代偿相差还很远.目的:对目前几种截瘫步行器的结构特点、作用机制及仿生效果进行归纳、分析.方法:应用计算机检索1990-01/2008-12 PubMed数据库及万方数据库有关截瘫步行器的特点、仿生效果及临床应用方面的相关文献,英文检索词"reciprocation gait orthosis,walkabout,bionice",中文检索词"截瘫步行器,仿生".检索文献量总计32篇.

  14. Determination of cephalic index and shape of head in adult female students in Birjand city during 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Sydeh Fateme Hosseini; Reza Mastery Farahani; Mohsen Norozian; Nozhat Shakeri; Mohammad Mehdi Hasanzadeh Tahery

    2014-01-01

    Background and Aim: Cephalometery, as one of the most significant section of anthropometry examines the facial and cephalic indeces. Since the measurements are affected by geographical factors, gender, age, and race, the obtained results are based on the community under study. Regarding lack of investigations on cephalometry in Birjand, the present study aimed at determining cephalic indexes and standard classification of neurocranium in 15-17 year old female students in the city in 2013. ...

  15. Secular changes in cephalic index-a study of Serbian school children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cvetković Milena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Craniofacial anthropometry is used to determine similarities and differences within a single population or between populations, as well as to determine the secular trends. The aim of the study is to determine differences in the cephalic index of school children from the city of Niš (southeastern Serbia in two periods-in 1983 and 2010. Subjects were aged 7-15. The first group of subjects (from 1983 included 968 children of both genders, while the second group of subjects (from 2010 included 1037 children, also of both genders. The test was performed according to the instructions of the International Biology Program (IBP. The head length and head breadth were measured, and based on these parameters the cephalic index was determined. The results show that during the time debrachycephalization appeared, because brachycephalic was dominant with the children from 1983, while mesocephalic was dominant with the second group (2010. Genderual dimorphism exists in both groups of subjects.

  16. Cephalic hedgehog expression is regulated directly by Sox17 in endoderm development of Xenopus laevis

    OpenAIRE

    Yagi, Yumihiko; Ito, Yuzuru; Kuhara, Satoru; Tashiro, Kosuke

    2008-01-01

    In early development of animals, hedgehog (Hh) genes function as morphogen in the axis determination and the organ formation. In Xenopus, three hedgehog genes, sonic (shh), banded (bhh), and cephalic (chh), were identified and might organize various tissues and organs in embryogenesis. Here, we report the spatial and temporal regulation of Xchh which is expressed in endoderm cells differentiating to digestive organs. Xchh expression in endoderm was inhibited by ectopic expression of the domin...

  17. A study of cephalic index and facial index in Visakhapatnam, Andhra Pradesh, India

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background: The description of the human body has been a major concern since ancient times. The use of medical terminology enhances reliability of comparison made between studies from different areas thereby contributing higher level of scientific evidence. Cephalic index is an important parameter in forensic medicine, anthropology and genetics to know the sex and racial differences between individuals. Facial index is useful index for forensic scientists, plastic surgeons and anatomist. The ...

  18. Secular changes in cephalic index-a study of Serbian school children

    OpenAIRE

    Cvetković Milena; Najman Stevo; Nikolić Miloš

    2014-01-01

    Craniofacial anthropometry is used to determine similarities and differences within a single population or between populations, as well as to determine the secular trends. The aim of the study is to determine differences in the cephalic index of school children from the city of Niš (southeastern Serbia) in two periods-in 1983 and 2010. Subjects were aged 7-15. The first group of subjects (from 1983) included 968 children of both genders, while the second gr...

  19. Cephalic salivary glands of two species of advanced eusocial bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae): morphology and secretion

    OpenAIRE

    Silvana B. Poiani; Carminda da Cruz-Landim

    2010-01-01

    Some adult eusocial bees have a pair of cephalic salivary glands (CSG) in addition to the thoracic labial or salivary gland pairs. This paper deals with variations in morphological features and secretion production of the CSG of females and males of Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 and Scaptotrigona postica Latreille, 1807. The following life stages were studied: newly emerged, nurse, and forager workers; newly emerged and egg-laying queens; and newly emerged and sexually mature males. The histo...

  20. Transposition of cephalic vein to rescue hemodialysis access arteriovenous fistula and treat symptomatic central venous obstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Jose Skupien

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is known that stenosis or central venous obstruction affects 20 to 50% of patients who undergo placement of catheters in central veins. For patients who are given hemodialysis via upper limbs, this problem causes debilitating symptoms and increases the risk of loss of hemodialysis access. We report an atypical case of treatment of a dialysis patient with multiple comorbidities, severe swelling and pain in the right upper limb (RUL, few alternative sites for hemodialysis vascular access, a functioning brachiobasilic fistula in the RUL and severe venous hypertension in the same limb, secondary to central vein occlusion of the internal jugular vein and right brachiocephalic trunk. The alternative surgical treatment chosen was to transpose the RUL cephalic vein, forming a venous necklace at the anterior cervical region, bypassing the site of venous occlusion. In order to achieve this, we dissected the cephalic vein in the right arm to its junction with the axillary vein, devalved the cephalic vein and anastomosed it to the contralateral external jugular vein, providing venous drainage to the RUL, alleviating symptoms of venous hypertension and preserving function of the brachiobasilic fistula.

  1. The Management of Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasanthamohan, Lakshman, E-mail: lakshman.vasanthamohan@medportal.ca; Gopee-Ramanan, Prasaanthan, E-mail: Prasa.gopee@medportal.ca; Athreya, Sriharsha, E-mail: sathreya@stjoes.ca [McMaster University, Faculty of Health Sciences (Canada)

    2015-10-15

    AimTo conduct a systematic review of management of current cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) and associated outcomes in the context of dysfunctional hemodialysis access.Materials and MethodsPubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched to retrieve literature on the management of CAS. Studies had to focus on management of access stenosis solely in the cephalic arch. Case reports and literature reviews were excluded. Studies were categorized by intervention, and primary and secondary patency data were compiled. Studies were aggregated, and meta-analyses were performed where possible.ResultsNine papers satisfied the aforementioned criteria: five were retrospective studies and four were prospective studies. CAS management strategies have included percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), peripheral cutting balloons, surgical cephalic vein transpositions, bare stents, and stent grafts. Reporting strategies varied between studies. Meta-analyses showed that results were variable even within studies using the same modality, particularly for PTA.ConclusionNo singular, definitive management strategy exists for CAS. Current studies are limited by being primarily single-center retrospective trials featuring heterogenous patient populations, interventions, and endpoints. Priorities for future studies should include larger randomized trials, more uniform management strategies and endpoints, and a longer duration of follow-up.

  2. The Management of Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Arteriovenous Fistulas for Hemodialysis: A Systematic Review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AimTo conduct a systematic review of management of current cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) and associated outcomes in the context of dysfunctional hemodialysis access.Materials and MethodsPubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library were searched to retrieve literature on the management of CAS. Studies had to focus on management of access stenosis solely in the cephalic arch. Case reports and literature reviews were excluded. Studies were categorized by intervention, and primary and secondary patency data were compiled. Studies were aggregated, and meta-analyses were performed where possible.ResultsNine papers satisfied the aforementioned criteria: five were retrospective studies and four were prospective studies. CAS management strategies have included percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty (PTA), peripheral cutting balloons, surgical cephalic vein transpositions, bare stents, and stent grafts. Reporting strategies varied between studies. Meta-analyses showed that results were variable even within studies using the same modality, particularly for PTA.ConclusionNo singular, definitive management strategy exists for CAS. Current studies are limited by being primarily single-center retrospective trials featuring heterogenous patient populations, interventions, and endpoints. Priorities for future studies should include larger randomized trials, more uniform management strategies and endpoints, and a longer duration of follow-up

  3. Thoraco-pelvic orthosis: a portable and removable bassinet for secure patient immobilization after primary bladder exstrophy closure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnetti, Marco; Berrettini, Alfredo; Beniamin, Francesco; Rigamonti, Waifro

    2010-12-01

    A portable and removable thoraco-pelvic orthosis for patient immobilization after neonatal primary bladder exstrophy closure is described. The device is made of a polyethylene shell, moulded at 170°C, coated inside with a 5 mm pad of plastazote and works applying a constant gentle pressure on the hips. PMID:20857296

  4. The Effect of Using Anti spastic Orthosis on the Reduction of Spasticity in Diplegic Spastic Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashkan Irani

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Cerebral palsy is a non progressive brain disorder and, cerebral plasy is the most common type of spastic paralysis which can be the cause of motor and postural deficits during child development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of using Anti spastic Orthosis on the Reduction of Spasticity and in diplegic spastic children between 2 – 5 years in Tehran.Materials & Methods: 20 diplegic spastic children between 2- 5 years were selected randomly and divided into two groups. The first lower limb spasticity was assessed by a neurologist, and then by an experienced occupational therapist whitout being aware of research process before the intervention, The experimental group went under treatment using positioning therapeutic intervention and neurodevelopmental treatment, while the control group was treated and only with NDT. The research Instrument used was the Modified Ashworth scale (MAS and the H-Reflex and, H/M ratio in the lower limb spasticity was assessed, Utilizing Experimental pretest - post test with control group design. The data of this study was analyzed using t Test k square test and the findings showed meaningful differences between the two groups.Result: The findings of this study reveraled meaningful differences between the two groups, scores of mean spasticity in interference group was significantly less than control group (p=0/003 Conclusion: Application of Anti spastic Orthosis before rehabilitation exercises is recommended for diplegic spastic children.

  5. A quasi-passive compliant stance control Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamaei, Kamran; Napolitano, Paul C; Dollar, Aaron M

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design of a novel quasi-passive stance-control orthosis that implements a natural amount of knee compliance during the weight acceptance phase and potentially the entire stance phase of the gait, and allows for free motion during the rest of the gait. We explain that the unaffected knee behaves close to a linear torsional spring in stance and hypothesize that an assistive device that places a linear spring of appropriate stiffness in parallel with the knee can help restore the natural behavior of the joint in stance. We present the design of a friction-based latching mechanism and a control algorithm that engages the spring in parallel with the knee in stance and disengages it during the swing phase of gait, and explain how this module is implemented into a brace in order to create a novel class of compliant stance control orthosis. The device is quasi-passive in that a small actuator serves to lock and unlock the spring module, but the device otherwise requires no actuation and very little power, computation, and control to operate. PMID:24187288

  6. Study about the ontogenetic development of cephalic sensory system of Cottus Gobio Linaeus 1758 (Pisces; Cottidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilie C. TELCEAN

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available The lateral-cephalic channels system of Cotus gobio L. was studied for a number of 66 juveniles originated from the upper Tisa River. The topography of cephalic channels system and the number of their opening pores present a lot of similarities between different fishes groups that is close related in their phylogeny. The jointly characters are in fact the results of convergent evolution.The study on the ontogenesis of cephalic-laterals channels system and its pores at Cottus gobio can offer an image on the main stages of their phylogeny. The first channels which are forming are the preoperculo-mandibularis (POM followed by the infraorbitalis (IO, supratemporalis (ST and the occipital (OC channel. The last formed seem to be the supraorbital channels (SO. The main stages of this ontogeny suggest that the sensory channels from the mandible and upper head have the priority in their development. A number of genipores are the forerunner for the cephalic pores. The beginning genipores from the infraorbital and supratemporal cephalic surface are the most similar with those from the Gobiidae fish family. The secondary process in sensory system ontogeny consists in developing of the channel structure. The channels structure development occurred principally in the fresh water fishes it seems to be related with their environment.The total length of lateral line at the populations of Cottus gobio from the upper Tisa River is already complete at the individuals with 35-40 mm standard length. That earliest development of the cannels and its opening pores are distinctive for Cottus gobio from the Tisa River system or generally for the entire lower Danube rivers system. The mature individuals have an average number of 30-33 pores on the lateral line. The comparative study of the lateral line lengthiness correlated with the standard length of specimens reveal that the individuals from Tisa River have similarities with the populations of Cottus gobio from Czech

  7. Cephalic And Prosopic Indices: Comparison In One-Day Newborn Boys In Zahedan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidari Z

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cephalometry is one of the important branches of anthropometry that has wide uses in identification, forensic medicine, plastic surgery, orthodontics, archeology and determining the origins of races. This research was investigated to determine the head and face phenotypes among one-day newborn boys in two aborigines of Sistani and Baluchi who were resident in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: The investigation is based on cross-sectional analytical descriptions of 420 newborn aborigine boys (216 Sistani & 204 Baluchi, who were clinically healthy, in Quds hospital in summer 1381, in Zahedan. In this study cephalic and prosopic indices were determined by classical cephalometric. Results: The mean and the standard deviations of cephalic index were 83.67±4.80 and 83.64±4.77 and prosopic index 86.79±5.87 and 86.53±6.76 for Sistani and Baluchi subjects respectively. Based on the cephalic index, the dominant head types in sistani group were hyperbrachycephalic (37% and brachycephalic (37%. In Blachui group, the hyperbrachycephalic (37.3% and brachycephalic (35.3% type were the dominant one. Furthermore, according to the prosopic index. The dominant face type among sistanis was euryprosopic type (42.6%. In Baluchi group, the dominant face type was also euryprosopic (39.2%. Conclusion: This research showed no statistically significant differences in terms of head and face type indices between two aborigines of Zahedan. Based on this cross-sectional study, it seems that there is similarities between the aforementioned groups

  8. Ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum: an anatomical and CT study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of 50 anatomical specimens and 100 routine CT scans of the chest and abdomen demonstrated that ossification in the cephalic attachment of the ligamentum flavum is a common anatomical finding, but not as common on CT. Examination of hospital charts and plain radiographs of 26 patients with such ossification suggests that it is probably a normal variant; there was no evidence that it is related to diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH) or inflammatory arthropathy. Marked ossification may cause or contribute to neurological symptoms

  9. A Case of Cephalic Tetanus with Unilateral Ptosis and Facial Palsy

    OpenAIRE

    Seo, Dong Hyuk; Cho, Dae Kyung; Kwon, Hee Chung; Kim, Tae Uk

    2012-01-01

    Cephalic tetanus is defined as a combination of trismus and paralysis of one or more cranial nerves. Cranial nerves III, IV, VI, VII, and XII may be affected, but the facial nerve is most frequently implicated. A 64-year-old female visited hospital for left ptosis followed by facial palsy after a left forehead abrasion in a car accident. At nine days post injury, left ptosis developed, left facial palsy developed twelve days post injury, and at fifteen days post injury, trismus and dysphagia ...

  10. Biomechanical evaluation of wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis in persons with spinal cord injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeoun-Seung Kang, MD, PhD, CPO

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The wrist-driven flexor hinge orthosis (WDFHO is a device used to restore hand function in persons with tetraplegic spinal cord injury by furnishing three-point prehension. We assessed the effectiveness and biomechanical properties of the WDFHO in 24 persons with cervical 6 or 7 tetraplegia who have severely impaired hand function. This study introduces a mechanical operating model to assess the efficiency of the WDFHO. Experimental results showed that pinch force increased significantly (p < 0.001 after using the WDFHO and was found to positively correlate with the strength of wrist extensor muscles (r = 0.41, p < 0.001. However, when the strength of the wrist extensors acting on the WDFHO was greater, the reciprocal wrist and finger motion that generates three-point prehension was less effective (r = 0.79, p < 0.001. Reliable and valid biomechanical evaluation of the WDFHO could improve our understanding of its biomechanics.

  11. Joint Motion Control of a Powered Lower Limb Orthosis for Rehabilitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nelson Costa; Milan Bezdicek; Michael Brown; John O. Gray; Darwin G. Caldwell; Stephen Hutchins

    2006-01-01

    Many patients with spinal injures are confined to wheelchairs, leading to a sedentary lifestyle with secondary pathologies and increased dependence on a carer. Increasing evidence has shown that locomotor training reduces the incidence of these secondary pathologies, but the physical effort involved in this training is such that there is poor compliance. This paper reports on the design and control of a new "human friendly" orthosis (exoskeleton), powered by high power pneumatic Muscle Actuators (pMAs). The combination of a highly compliant actuation system, with an intelligent embedded control mechanism which senses hip, knee, and ankle positions, velocity, acceleration and force, produces powerful yet inherently safe operation for paraplegic patients. This paper analyzes the motion of ankle, knee, and hip joints under zero loading, and loads which simulate human limb mass, showing that the use of "soft" actuators can provide a smooth user friendly motion.The application of this technology will greatly improve the rehabilitative protocols for paraplegic patients.

  12. Mechanical Performance of Actuators in an Active Orthosis for the Upper Extremities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Wiegand

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the project OrthoJacket is to develop a lightweight, portable, and active orthosis for the upper limps. The system consists of two special designed fluidic actuators which are used for supporting the elbow function and the internal rotation of the shoulder. A new design of flexible fluid actuator (FFA is presented that enables more design options of attaching parts, as it is allowed by conventional actuators with a stationary centre of rotation. This advantage and the inherent flexibility and the low weight of this kind of actuator predestined them for the use in exoskeletons, orthoses, and prostheses. The actuator for the elbow generates a maximum torque of 32 Nm; the internal rotation is supported with 7 Nm. Both actuators support the movement with up to 100% of the necessary power. The shells for the arm and forearm are made of carbon reinforced structures in combination with inflatable cushions.

  13. Fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification for an active pelvis orthosis: Preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Kebin; Parri, Andrea; Yan, Tingfang; Wang, Long; Munih, Marko; Vitiello, Nicola; Wang, Qining

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a fuzzy-logic-based hybrid locomotion mode classification method for an active pelvis orthosis. Locomotion information measured by the onboard hip joint angle sensors and the pressure insoles is used to classify five locomotion modes, including two static modes (sitting, standing still), and three dynamic modes (level-ground walking, ascending stairs, and descending stairs). The proposed method classifies these two kinds of modes first by monitoring the variation of the relative hip joint angle between the two legs within a specific period. Static states are then classified by the time-based absolute hip joint angle. As for dynamic modes, a fuzzy-logic based method is proposed for the classification. Preliminary experimental results with three able-bodied subjects achieve an off-line classification accuracy higher than 99.49%. PMID:26737144

  14. Automatic Assessment of Global Craniofacial Differences between Crouzon mice and Wild-type mice in terms of the Cephalic Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsdóttir, Hildur; Oubel, Estanislao; Frangi, Alejandro F.; Darvann, Tron Andre; Hermann, Nuno V.; Kreiborg, Sven; Larsen, Per; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Perlyn, Chad A.; Morriss-Kay, Gillian

    registering each mouse to the atlas using affine transformations. The skull length and width are then measured on the atlas and propagated to all subjects to obtain automatic measurements of the cephalic index. The registration accuracy was estimated by RMS landmark errors. Even though the accuracy of...... landmark matching is limited using only affine transformations, the errors were considered acceptable. The automatic estimation of the cephalic index was in full agreement with the gold standard measurements. Discriminant analysis of the three scaling parameters resulted in a good classification of the...

  15. In situ cephalic vein bypasses from axillary to the brachial artery after catheterization injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudorovic, Narcis; Lovricevic, Ivo; Ahel, Zaky

    2010-07-01

    The need to bypass to the brachial artery is rare. Over a five-year period, 16 patients had suffered iatrogenic post-catheterization injuries of the upper extremity. We have performed 16 bypasses, in 16 patients, mean age was 65 years (range 47-75), to the brachial artery originating from an artery proximal to the shoulder joint. In all cases, the axillary artery was the donor artery. All bypasses were created by using the cephalic vein with the in situ technique and distal anastomoses were made to a distance-free section of brachial artery. No operative mortality, neurological complications or major upper-extremity amputation was associated with the procedure. Life-long-conduit analysis showed 75% patency in the five-year period. After iatrogenic post-catheterization trauma of arterial system of upper extremity, bypasses from axillary to brachial artery with the cephalic vein with the in situ technique is a safe operation with satisfactory long-term patency. PMID:20395248

  16. Cephalic Duodenopancreatectomy for Hyperalgic Duodenal Crohn's Disease Fistulized in the Pancreatic Gland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabra Guellouz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal (GI tract involvement in adult Crohn's disease (CD is rare and severe complications unusual. Stenosis has been reported, but gastroduodenal fistulae are seldom detected during surgery and most of the fistulae are cologastric or ileogastric. In complicated gastroduodenal CD, medical treatments are often effective and surgery is only considered in exceptional cases. We here report the unusual case of a 23-year-old patient with upper GI CD presenting a hyperalgic giant ulcer of the bulb fistulized in the pancreatic gland. The failure of steroids and two lines of combined treatment led us to a salvage surgical option. Abdominal exploration showed a plate stomach with an inflammatory bulboduodenal block. Cephalic duodenopancreatectomy and cholecystectomy were performed; histological analysis reported large fissuring pylorus ulceration with micro abscesses reaching the pancreas and the presence of non-caseating granulomas. Six months after the surgery, the patient had stopped antalgic treatment and did not have residual abdominal pain. He had gained 11 kg in weight and had no diarrhea with pancreatic enzymes. To our knowledge, we report the first case of an upper GI and fistulizing CD patient heavily treated with steroids and combined immunosuppressant agents requiring salvage cephalic duodenopancreatectomy.

  17. Orthosis reduces breast pain and mechanical forces through natural and augmented breast tissue in women lying prone

    OpenAIRE

    Ried, Karin; Armstrong, Simon; Sali, Avni; McLaughlin, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background Breast implant displacement or rupture can cause aesthetic problems and serious medical complications. Activities with prone positioning and loading of the anterior chest wall, such as massage, chiropractic or osteopathic therapies may increase the risk of implant failure and can also cause discomfort in women with natural breast tissue. Here we test the effectiveness of a newly developed orthosis on pain, mechanical pressure and displacement of breast tissue in women with cosmetic...

  18. Radiotherapy of the cephalic segment in patients with advanced neuroblastoma; Radioterapia do segmento cefalico em pacientes portadores de neuroblastoma avancado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weltman, Eduardo

    1995-07-01

    Although the treatment results have significantly improved for several pediatric malignant neoplasms, particularly Wilms's tumor, lymphomas and leukemia, in the last decade, the prognosis of the INSS, stage 4 neuroblastoma over one year one old patients remains poor. Even for the more advanced centers, using the more aggressive treatment schedules, such as bone marrow transplantation, the probability of a 2 year progression free interval varies from 6 to 50% and at 3 to 6 years, from 13 to 54%. Thereby, at least, 46 to 94% of these patients are expected to die due to the merciless neoplasm progression. The hypothesis here to be tested is regarding the impact of the cephalic irradiation on the outcome of stage 4 patients with skull metastasis at diagnosis. The end point was to establish, under the NEURO-III-85 protocol chemotherapy schedule, the possible benefit of this radiotherapy in preventing the cephalic recurrence, and its reflex on these patients total and diseases free survival. These results disclosed that the cephalic segment irradiation may prevent recurrences at this site. Unfortunately, the decrease in the cranial recurrence frequency did not affect either the disease free interval, or the total survival. The conclusion was that cephalic irradiation have the potential of avoiding these recurrences, without modifying the final outcome. This modality of radiotherapy must be reevaluated under more effective systemic treatments. (author)

  19. Preoperative ultrasonographic examination of the radial artery and the cephalic vein and risks of dialysis arterio-venous fistula dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Hemodialysis used as renal replacement therapy requires a well-functioning vascular access. Arterio-venous fistula (AVF) created on the forearm is the best vascular access, but it also reveals numerous complications such as: lack of fistula maturation and hemodynamically significant stenoses. Many risk factors of fistula dysfunction are still not identified. Material/Methods: Radial artery and cephalic vein diameter and patency were ultrasonographically examined before forearm AVF creation. Intima-media complex width, blood flow and peak systolic velocity in distal part of radial artery were measured. Presence of thrombosis and post-inflammatory changes in cephalic vein were also checked. Forearm AVF was created in 66 patients. Fistula US examination was performed 3 and 12 months after operation with measurement of vessel diameter and blood flow. Fistula patency was observed in 24 months after creation. Comparison of pre- and postoperative US examinations between groups with well functioning and thrombosed fistulas was performed. Results: Primary patency of forearm AVF after 12 and 24 months was 65.2% and 53.0%, respectively. Patients with well functioning forearm AVF have significantly bigger cephalic vein diameter and peak systolic velocity in radial artery. We did not observe significant influence of radial artery intima-media complex width and radial artery diameter on AVF function. In postoperative examination, fistula diameter and flow significantly influenced the risk of AVF thrombosis. Conclusions: US examination of radial artery and cephalic vein performed before forearm AVF creation enables identification of patients with greater risk of fistula dysfunction. Cephalic vein diameter and peak systolic velocity are prognostic factors of fistula function. Control postoperative US examination of forearm fistula enables detection of AVF at risk of thrombosis. (authors)

  20. Maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Donk Riet W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To investigate the relation between maternal thyroid function and the outcome of external cephalic version (ECV in breech presentation. Methods Prospective cohort study in 141 women (≥ 35 weeks gestation with a singleton fetus in breech. Blood samples for assessing thyroid function were taken prior to ECV. Main outcome measure was the relation between maternal thyroid function and ECV outcome indicated by post ECV ultrasound. Results ECV success rate was 77/141 (55%, 41/48 (85% in multipara and 36/93 (39% in primipara. Women with a failed ECV attempt had significantly higher TSH concentrations than women with a successful ECV (p Conclusions Higher TSH levels increase the risk of ECV failure. Trial registration number ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT00516555

  1. Absorbed doses received by infants subjected to panoramic dental and cephalic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The IAEA Report No. 115 recommends that each country or region can establish levels of absorbed doses for each radiographic technique employed in diagnostic. assuming the extended and expensive of this purpose, we have been to begin in a first step with the dentistry area, in order to estimate the dose levels received at crystalline and thyroid level in infants that go to an important public institution in our country to realize panoramic and cephalic radiographs. This work will serve to justify and impel a quality assurance program in Venezuela on the dentistry area which includes aspects such as training for the medical lap referring the justification of the radiological practice, optimization of X-ray units to produce an adequate image quality that delivers to patient an absorbed dose as much lower as reasonably it can be reached without diagnostic detriment. (Author)

  2. Gait mode recognition and control for a portable-powered ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Li, Yifan; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2013-06-01

    Ankle foot orthoses (AFOs) are widely used as assistive/rehabilitation devices to correct the gait of people with lower leg neuromuscular dysfunction and muscle weakness. We have developed a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis (PPAFO), which uses a pneumatic bi-directional rotary actuator powered by compressed CO2 to provide untethered dorsiflexor and plantarflexor assistance at the ankle joint. Since portability is a key to the success of the PPAFO as an assist device, it is critical to recognize and control for gait modes (i.e. level walking, stair ascent/descent). While manual mode switching is implemented in most powered orthotic/prosthetic device control algorithms, we propose an automatic gait mode recognition scheme by tracking the 3D position of the PPAFO from an inertial measurement unit (IMU). The control scheme was designed to match the torque profile of physiological gait data during different gait modes. Experimental results indicate that, with an optimized threshold, the controller was able to identify the position, orientation and gait mode in real time, and properly control the actuation. It was also illustrated that during stair descent, a mode-specific actuation control scheme could better restore gait kinematic and kinetic patterns, compared to using the level ground controller. PMID:24187192

  3. Experimental Implementation of Underactuated Potential Energy Shaping on a Powered Ankle-Foot Orthosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Ge; Zhu, Hanqi; Elery, Toby; Li, Luwei; Gregg, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Traditional control methodologies of rehabilitation orthoses/exoskeletons aim at replicating normal kinematics and thus fall into the category of kinematic control. This control paradigm depends on pre-defined reference trajectories, which can be difficult to adjust between different locomotor tasks and human subjects. An alternative control category, kinetic control, enforces kinetic goals (e.g., torques or energy) instead of kinematic trajectories, which could provide a flexible learning environment for the user while freeing up therapists to make corrections. We propose that the theory of underactuated potential energy shaping, which falls into the category of kinetic control, could be used to generate virtual body-weight support for stroke gait rehabilitation. After deriving the nonlinear control law and simulating it on a human-like biped model, we implemented this controller on a powered ankle-foot orthosis that was designed specifically for testing torque control strategies. Experimental results with an able-bodied human subject demonstrate the feasibility of the control approach for both positive and negative virtual body-weight augmentation.

  4. Morphological changes in the cephalic salivary glands of females and males of Apis mellifera and Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silvana Beani Poiani; Carminda Da Cruz-Landim

    2010-06-01

    The cephalic salivary glands of some species of bees are exclusive and well developed only in Apinae. These glands were studied with light and scanning electron microscopy in workers, queens and males from the honey bee Apis mellifera, and the stingless bee Scaptotrigona postica in different life phases. The results show that the cephalic salivary glands are present in females of both the species, and in males of S. postica. Nevertheless, they are poorly developed in young males of A. mellifera. In both species, gland growth is progressive from the time of emergence to the oldest age but, in A. mellifera males, the gland degenerates with age. Scanning electron microscopy shows that the secretory units of newly emerged workers are collapsed while in older workers they are turgid. Some pits on the surface of the secretory units correspond to open intercellular spaces. The possible functions of these glands in females and males of both species are discussed.

  5. Cephalic Arch Stenosis in Autogenous Haemodialysis Fistulas: Treatment With the Viabahn Stent-Graft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cephalic arch stenosis (CAS) is an important and common cause of dysfunction in autogenous haemodialysis fistulas that requires multiple reinterventions and aggressive surveillance. We evaluated the safety and efficacy of the Viabahn stent-graft for the management of CAS. Between April 2005 and October 2011, 11 consecutive patients [four men and seven women (mean age 56.7 years)] with CAS and dysfunctional fistulas were treated with insertion of 11 Viabahn stent-grafts. Six stent-grafts were inserted due to residual stenosis after angioplasty and five for fistuloplasty-induced rupture. No patient was lost to follow-up. The technical and clinical success rate was 100 %. Primary access patency rates were 81.8 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.482–0.977] at 6 months and 72.7 % (95 % CI 0.390–0.939) at 12 months. Secondary access patency rates were 90.9 % at 6 months (95 % CI 0.587–0.997). There were no procedure-related complications. Mean follow-up was 543.8 days (range 156–2,282). The use of the Viabahn stent-graft in the management of CAS is technically feasible and, in this small series, showed patency rates that compare favorably with historical data of angioplasty and bare stents.

  6. A comparative ultrastructural investigation of the cephalic sensory organs in Opisthobranchia (Mollusca, Gastropoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbbeler, K; Klussmann-Kolb, A

    2007-12-01

    Cephalic sensory organs (CSOs) are specialised structures in the head region of adult Opisthobranchia involved in perception of different stimuli. The gross morphology of these organs differs considerably among taxa. The current study aims at describing the cellular morphology of the CSOs in order to reveal cellular patterns, especially of sensory epithelia, common for opisthobranchs. Transmission electron microscopy was used to characterise the fine structure of the organs and to compare the CSOs of four different opisthobranch species. The cellular composition of the sensory system is conserved among taxa. The epidermal cells in sensory regions are always columnar and ciliated cells are frequently apparent. The sensory cells are primary receptors arranged in subepidermal cell clusters. They extend dendrites which penetrate the epithelium and reach the surface. Some of the dendrites bear cilia, whereas others only build a small protuberance. Processing of sensory information takes place in the peripheral glomeruli of all species. Moreover, few taxa possess additional peripheral ganglia at the base of their CSOs. The results of the present study might support other investigations indicating that the posterior CSOs are primarily involved in distance chemoreception, whereas the anterior CSOs might be used for contact chemoreception and mechanoreception. PMID:17881026

  7. Evaluating a novel cervical orthosis, the Sheffield Support Snood, in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/motor neuron disease with neck weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Susan; Reed, Heath; Clarke, Zoë; Judge, Simon; Heron, Nicola; Mccarthy, Avril; Langley, Joe; Stanton, Andrew; Wells, Oliver; Squire, Gill; Quinn, Ann; Strong, Mark; Shaw, Pamela J; Mcdermott, Christopher J

    2016-01-01

    Current practice and guidelines recommend the use of neck orthoses for people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to compensate for neck weakness and to provide surrogate neck control. However, available options are frequently described by patients as restrictive and unsuitable and there was a need for a new device that addressed the needs of people with ALS. This project utilized a co-design process to develop a new neck orthosis that was more flexible yet supportive. Following development of a prototype device, a mixed methods cohort study was undertaken with patients and carers, in order to evaluate the new orthosis. Twenty-six patients were recruited to the study, with 20 of these completing all phases of data collection. Participants described the impact of neck weakness on their life and limitations of existing supports. Evaluation of the new orthosis identified key beneficial features: notably, increased support while providing a greater range of movement, flexibility of use, and improved appearance and comfort. In conclusion, the results of this evaluation highlight the value of this alternative option for people with ALS, and potentially other patient groups who require a neck orthosis. PMID:26915274

  8. Recent Trends in Lower-Limb Robotic Rehabilitation Orthosis: Control Scheme and Strategy for Pneumatic Muscle Actuated Gait Trainers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azuwan Mat Dzahir

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available It is a general assumption that pneumatic muscle-type actuators will play an important role in the development of an assistive rehabilitation robotics system. In the last decade, the development of a pneumatic muscle actuated lower-limb leg orthosis has been rather slow compared to other types of actuated leg orthoses that use AC motors, DC motors, pneumatic cylinders, linear actuators, series elastic actuators (SEA and brushless servomotors. However, recent years have shown that the interest in this field has grown exponentially, mainly due to the demand for a more compliant and interactive human-robotics system. This paper presents a survey of existing lower-limb leg orthoses for rehabilitation, which implement pneumatic muscle-type actuators, such as McKibben artificial muscles, rubbertuators, air muscles, pneumatic artificial muscles (PAM or pneumatic muscle actuators (PMA. It reviews all the currently existing lower-limb rehabilitation orthosis systems in terms of comparison and evaluation of the design, as well as the control scheme and strategy, with the aim of clarifying the current and on-going research in the lower-limb robotic rehabilitation field.

  9. Mobility training using a bionic knee orthosis in patients in a post-stroke chronic state: a case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byl Nancy N

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction An emerging area of neurorehabilitation is the use of robotic devices to enhance the efficiency and effectiveness of lower extremity physical therapy post-stroke. Many of the robotic devices currently available rely on computer-driven locomotive algorithms combined with partial bodyweight-supported treadmill training that drive reflex stepping with minimal patient intention during therapy. In this case series, we examined the effect of task-oriented mobility training in patients in a post-stroke chronic state using a novel, wearable, mobile, intention-based robotic leg orthosis. Case presentation Three individuals, all of whom had reached a plateau with conventional bodyweight-supported treadmill training, participated in task-oriented mobility therapy (1.5 hours, two to four times per week for four weeks with a robotic leg orthosis under supervision by a physical therapist. Participant 1 was a 59-year-old Caucasian man, who had an ischemic left stroke six years previously with resultant right hemiparesis. Participant 2 was a 42-year-old Caucasian woman with left hemiparesis after a right stroke 15 months previously. Participant 3 was a 62-year-old Caucasian woman with a history of a right middle cerebral artery aneurysm with third degree sub-arachnoid hemorrhage 10 years ago. Immediately after training, all participants demonstrated improved gait speed (10 meter walk, stride length and walking endurance (6 minute walk compared with baseline measurements. Improvements were maintained one month after training. Timed up and go and five times sit-to-stand were maintained for all three participants, with only one individual remaining outside the safety performance norm. Conclusions Lower extremity training integrating an intention-based robotic leg orthosis may improve gait speed, endurance and community levels of participation in select patients in a post-stroke chronic state after plateauing within a bodyweight

  10. IRRADIATION (GAMMA) OF FINE EMULSION SAUSAGE THAT CONTAINTED SODIUM DIACETATE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Listeria monocytogenes, a psychrotrophic food-borne pathogen, is a frequent post-process contaminant on ready-to-eat meat (RTE) products including frankfurters and bologna. Ionizing radiation can eliminate L. monocytogenes from ready-to-eat meats. Sodium diacetate (SDA) inhibits the growth of L. mo...

  11. Early functional postoperative therapy of distal radius fracture with a dynamic orthosis: results of a prospective randomized cross-over comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabian M Stuby

    Full Text Available This study was conducted according to GCP criteria as a prospective randomized cross-over study. The primary goal of the study was to determine clinical findings and patient satisfaction with postoperative treatment. 29 patients with a distal radius fracture that was surgically stabilized from volar and who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled over a 12-month period. Each patient randomly received either a dorsal plaster splint or a vacuum-fit flexible but blocked orthosis applied postoperatively in the operating theatre to achieve postoperative immobilization. After one week all patients were crossed over to the complementary device maintaining the immobilization until end of week 2. After week 2 both groups were allowed to exercise wrist mobility with a physiotherapist, in the orthosis group the device was deblocked, thus allowing limited wrist mobility. After week 4 the devices were removed in both groups. Follow-up exams were performed after postoperative weeks 1, 2, 4 and 12.Results were determined after week 1 and 2 using SF 36 and a personally compiled questionnaire; after weeks 4 and 12 with a clinical check-up, calculation of ROM and the DASH Score. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in ROM for volar flexion after 4 weeks, but no significant differences in DASH Score, duration of disability or x-ray findings. With regard to satisfaction with comfort and hygiene, patients were significantly more satisfied with the dynamic orthosis, and 23 of the 29 patients would prefer the flexible vacuum orthosis in future.German Clinical Trials Register (DRKS DRKS00006097.

  12. Comparison of Venous Return Characteristics with Right Ventricular Mechanics During Cephalic Fluid Shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Morgan; Martin, David

    2015-01-01

    For my summer internship project, I organized a pilot study to analyze the effects of a cephalic fluid shift on venous return and right ventricular mechanics to increase right ventricular and venous knowledge. To accomplish this pilot study, I wrote a testing protocol, obtained Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval, completed subject payment forms, lead testing sessions, and analyzed the data. This experiment used -20deg head down tilt (20 HDT) as the ground based simulation for the fluid shift that occurs during spaceflight and compared it to data obtained from the seated and supine positions. Using echocardiography, data was collected for the right ventricle, hepatic vein, internal jugular vein, external jugular vein, and inferior vena cava. Additionally, non-invasive venous pressure measurements, similar to those soon to be done in-orbit, were collected. It was determined that the venous return from below the heard is increased during 20 HDT, which was supported by increased hepatic vein velocities, increased right ventricular inflow, and increased right ventricular strain at 20 HDT relative to seated values. Jugular veins in the neck undergo an increase in pressure and area, but no significant increase in flow, relative to seated values when a subject is tilted 20 HDT. Contrary to the initial expectations based on this jugular flow, there was no significant increase in central venous pressure, as evidenced by no change in Doppler indices for right arterial pressure or inferior vena cava diameter. It is suspected that these differences in pressure are due to the hydrostatic pressure indifference point shifting during tilt; there is a potential for a similar phenomenon with microgravity. This data will hopefully lead to a more in-depth understanding of the response of the body to microgravity and how those relate to the previously mentioned cardiovascular risk of fluid shift that is associated with spaceflight. These results were presented in greater detail

  13. First Chemical Analysis and Characterization of the Male Species-Specific Cephalic Labial-Gland Secretions of South American Bumblebees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasero, Nicolas; Martinet, Baptiste; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Torres, Alexandra; Hoffmann, Wolfgang; Rasmont, Pierre; Lecocq, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The evolution of signals and reproductive traits involved in the pre-mating recognition has been in focus of abundant research in several model species, such as bumblebees (genus Bombus). However, the most-studied bumblebee reproductive trait, the male cephalic labial gland secretions (CLGS), remains unknown among bumblebee species from South America. In this study, the CLGS of five South American bumblebees of the subgenera Thoracobombus (Bombus excellens and B. atratus) and Cullumanobombus (B. rubicundus, B. hortulanus, and B. melaleucus) were investigated, by comparing the chemical compositions of their secretions to those of closely related European species. The results showed an obvious interspecific differentiation in both subgenera. The interspecific differentiation among the species of the Thoracobombus subgenus involved different compounds present at high contents (main compounds), while those of the Cullumanobombus subgenus shared the same main components. This suggests that among the species of the Cullumanobombus subgenus, the differentiation in minor components could lead to species discrimination. PMID:26460558

  14. Ukuran kranial dan indeks sefalik pada anak retardasi mental (Cranial size and cephalic index of mentally retarded children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi Elianora

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mental retardation is imperfect condition of mental development which resulted in delay of motoric development, speech and in adaption with the environment. The common symptoms is brain growth disorder, which affects the cranial size and the intelectual function lower than average (<70. Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the difference of cranial size and cephalic index of mentally retarded children compared with normal chilren based on antropometry and cephalometric measurement. Methods: This research was epidemiology analytic observational with case control design. The cranial size and cephalic index measurements were carried out on 168 children in range of age 7-12 years old (84 were moderate mental retarded children and 84 were normal children. Data was statistically analyzed with t-test. Results: The size of cranial and cephalic on index on mentally retarded children were smaller than normal children. S-N and G-Op size were shorter than normal children, the results of S-N differences (-4.4, S-Ar (-2.38 and G-Op (-5.5, Eu-Eu (-8.24. The results analysis of linear and angle component cranial base (S-N, S-Ar and cephalic index and the size of cranial base of mentally retarded children were smaller than normal children.Latar belakang: Retardasi mental merupakan ketidaksempurnaan perkembangan mental yang mengakibatkan keterlambatan perkembangan motorik, bicara dan penyesuaian diri dengan lingkungan. Gejala umum adalah gangguan

  15. Therapeutic Experience on Stance Control Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis With Electromagnetically Controlled Knee Joint System in Poliomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Ji, Sang-Goo; Jung, Kang-Jae

    2016-01-01

    A 54-year-old man with poliomyelitis had been using a conventional, passive knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with a drop ring lock knee joint for about 40 years. A stance control KAFO (SCKAFO) with an electromagnetically controlled (E-MAG) knee joint system was prescribed. To correct his gait pattern, he also underwent rehabilitation therapy, which included muscle re-education, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, strengthening exercises for the lower extremities, and balance training twice a week for about 4 months. Both before and after rehabilitation, we conducted a gait analysis and assessed the physiological cost index in energy expended during walking in a locked-knee state and while he wore a SCKAFO with E-MAG. When compared with the pre-rehabilitation data, the velocity, step length, stride length, and knee kinematic data were improved after rehabilitation. Although the SCKAFO with E-MAG system facilitated the control of knee motion during ambulation, appropriate rehabilitative therapy was also needed to achieve a normal gait pattern. PMID:27152288

  16. Therapeutic Experience on Stance Control Knee-Ankle-Foot Orthosis With Electromagnetically Controlled Knee Joint System in Poliomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Hwan; Ji, Sang-Goo; Jung, Kang-Jae; Kim, Jae-Hyung

    2016-04-01

    A 54-year-old man with poliomyelitis had been using a conventional, passive knee-ankle-foot orthosis (KAFO) with a drop ring lock knee joint for about 40 years. A stance control KAFO (SCKAFO) with an electromagnetically controlled (E-MAG) knee joint system was prescribed. To correct his gait pattern, he also underwent rehabilitation therapy, which included muscle re-education, neuromuscular electrical stimulation, strengthening exercises for the lower extremities, and balance training twice a week for about 4 months. Both before and after rehabilitation, we conducted a gait analysis and assessed the physiological cost index in energy expended during walking in a locked-knee state and while he wore a SCKAFO with E-MAG. When compared with the pre-rehabilitation data, the velocity, step length, stride length, and knee kinematic data were improved after rehabilitation. Although the SCKAFO with E-MAG system facilitated the control of knee motion during ambulation, appropriate rehabilitative therapy was also needed to achieve a normal gait pattern. PMID:27152288

  17. Autogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venousautogenous brachio-cephalic arterio-venous fistulae: effect of age, diabetes,fistulae: effect of age, diabetes, atherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on theatherosclerosis, and anticoagulation on the long-term outcomelong-term outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalois, Vassilios E; Ndzengue, Albert; Choi, Peter; Hakim, Nadey S

    2008-01-01

    Age, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors forAge, diabetes, and generalized atherosclerosis are thought to be limiting factors for creating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. Wecreating an autogenous arterio-venous fistula (AVF) unlike the use of anticoagulants. We retrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenousretrospectively assessed the effect of these factors on the outcome of 75 autogenous brachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Differentbrachio-cephalic AVFs created between January 1, 2002 and August 31, 2005. Different groups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-twogroups of patients were compared and the longevity of the AVFs was calculated. Fifty-two percent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% werepercent of the patients were >65 years old, 41.3% were diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths,diabetic, 48% were arteriopaths, and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean,and 41.3% were not using anticoagulants. The maximum follow-up was 35 months (mean, 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (mean 11.2 +/- 10.3 months; median, 7 months). The success rate of the operation was 93.3% (70 patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old,patent AVFs); 79.3% of the AVFs were functioning at 35 months. Age >65 years old, diabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were notdiabetes, generalized atherosclerosis, and the lack of use of anticoagulants were not associated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patencyassociated with an increased rate of technical failures or a decreased long-term patency rate of the AVFs.rate of the AVFs. PMID:19731852

  18. A single night of partial sleep loss impairs fasting insulin sensitivity but does not affect cephalic phase insulin release in young men

    OpenAIRE

    Cedernaes, Jonathan; Lampola, Lauri; Axelsson, Emil K; Liethof, Lisanne; Hassanzadeh, Sara; Yeganeh, Adine; Broman, Jan-Erik; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The present study sought to investigate whether a single night of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) would alter fasting insulin sensitivity and cephalic phase insulin release (CPIR) in humans. A rise in circulating insulin in response to food-related sensory stimulation may prepare tissues to break down ingested glucose, e.g. by stimulating rate-limiting glycolytic enzymes. In addition, given insulin's anorexigenic properties once it reaches the brain, the CPIR may serve as an early peripheral ...

  19. Lectin binding in the ependymal cells of the cephalic portion of the nervous system in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheri, Gherardo; Vichi, Debora; Sgambati, Eleonora

    2006-01-01

    The content, distribution and changes of the glycoconjugates oligosaccharides in the ependymal cells of the cephalic portion of the nervous system, in the chick embryo from 5 days of incubation till hatching and in the 3 days old chicken, were investigated. For this purpose a battery of six HRP-conjugated lectins were used (WGA, SBA, UEA I, LTA, PNA, ConA). Enzyme and chemical treatments were performed on some sections prior to staining with HRP-lectins. Our findings showed a large amount of all the investigated sugar residues at the apical portion of the ependymal cells, for the whole considered period of incubation and in the 3 days old chicken. This could indicate that also the immature ependymal cells (spongiobasts) begin to play a tipical role of the mature cells. The presence of cytoplasmic sopranuclear granules, containing D-glucosamine, D-galactose-(beta --> 3)-N-acetil-D-galactosamine and sialic acid in the early stages of incubation, might represent a secretion by the ependymal cells to integrate a not yet fully functioning secretion by the choroid plexuses. At the ciglia a large amount of oligosaccharides were detected in the second part of the period of incubation and in 3 days old chicken. These oligosaccharides could be involved in determining and mantaining the movement of the ciglia to facilitate the flow of the CSF. PMID:16981397

  20. Effects of 13 developmentally toxic chemicals on the migration of rat cephalic neural crest cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usami, Makoto; Mitsunaga, Katsuyoshi; Miyajima, Atsuko; Takamatu, Mina; Kazama, Shugo; Irie, Tomohiko; Doi, Osamu; Takizawa, Tatsuya

    2016-03-01

    The inhibition of neural crest cell (NCC) migration has been considered as a possible pathogenic mechanism underlying chemical developmental toxicity. In this study, we examined the effects of 13 developmentally toxic chemicals on the migration of rat cephalic NCCs (cNCCs) by using a simple in vitro assay. cNCCs were cultured for 48 h as emigrants from rhombencephalic neural tubes explanted from rat embryos at day 10.5 of gestation. The chemicals were added to the culture medium at 24 h of culture. Migration of cNCCs was measured as the change in the radius (radius ratio) calculated from the circular spread of cNCCs between 24 and 48 h of culture. Of the chemicals examined, 13-cis-retinoic acid, ethanol, ibuprofen, lead acetate, salicylic acid, and selenate inhibited the migration of cNCCs at their embryotoxic concentrations; no effects were observed for acetaminophen, caffeine, indium, phenytoin, selenite, tributyltin, and valproic acid. In a cNCC proliferation assay, ethanol, ibuprofen, salicylic acid, selenate, and tributyltin inhibited cell proliferation, suggesting the contribution of the reduced cell number to the inhibited migration of cNCCs. It was determined that several developmentally toxic chemicals inhibited the migration of cNCCs, the effects of which were manifested as various craniofacial abnormalities. PMID:26175014

  1. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.

  2. Computed-torque method for the control of a 2 DOF orthosis actuated through pneumatic artificial muscles: a specific case for the rehabilitation of the lower limb

    CERN Document Server

    Prattico, Flavio; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we give a new control model based on the so called computed-torque method for the control of a 2 degrees of freedom orthosis for the rehabilitation of the lower limb, the AIRGAIT exoskeleton's leg orthosis. The actuation of the AIRGAIT is made through self-made pneumatic muscles. For this reason this work starts with the static and dynamic characterization of our pneumatic muscles. The followed approach is based on the analytical description of the system. For this, we describe the pneumatic muscles behaviour with an easy-invertible polynomial fit function in order to model its non-linear trend. We give a geometrical model of the mechanical system to compute the length between the attachments of the pneumatic muscles to the structure for every angles assumed by the two joints. We evaluate through Newton-Euler equation the couples at the joints for each values of the angles. At last we show some validation tests in order to characterize the functioning of the proposed control model on the actuati...

  3. How can push-off be preserved during use of an ankle foot orthosis in children with hemiplegia? A prospective controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desloovere, Kaat; Molenaers, Guy; Van Gestel, Leen; Huenaerts, Catherine; Van Campenhout, Anja; Callewaert, Barbara; Van de Walle, Patricia; Seyler, J

    2006-10-01

    Several studies indicated that walking with an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) impaired third rocker. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of two types of orthoses, with similar goal settings, on gait, in a homogeneous group of children, using both barefoot and shoe walking as control conditions. Fifteen children with hemiplegia, aged between 4 and 10 years, received two types of individually tuned AFOs: common posterior leaf-spring (PLS) and Dual Carbon Fiber Spring AFO (CFO) (with carbon fibre at the dorsal part of the orthosis). Both orthoses were expected to prevent plantar flexion, thus improving first rocker, allowing dorsiflexion to improve second rocker, absorbing energy during second rocker, and returning it during the third rocker. The effect of the AFOs was studied using objective gait analysis, including 3D kinematics, and kinetics in four conditions: barefoot, shoes without AFO, and PLS and CFO combined with shoes. Several gait parameters significantly changed in shoe walking compared to barefoot walking (cadence, ankle ROM and velocity, knee shock absorption, and knee angle in swing). The CFO produced a significantly larger ankle ROM and ankle velocity during push-off, and an increased plantar flexion moment and power generation at pre-swing compared to the PLS (rocker, sagittal knee and hip ROM). However, compared to shoes, not all improvements were statistically significant. PMID:16934470

  4. 外展支具配合学步车治疗发育性髋关节脱位的疗效评价%Effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on developmental dysplasia of the hip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志勇; 徐勇强; 梁捷予; 李康华; 廖前德

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of abducens orthosis combined with walker on de-velopmental dysplasia of the hip ( DDH ). Methods A total of 126 patients (224 hips ) with DDH aged 6~36 months in Xiangya Hospital was randomly divided into 2 groups: an orthosis combined with walker group and an improved hip frog cast fixation group. Seventy patients (130 hips) were treated by the orthosis combined with walker and 56 patients (94 hips) were treated by the improved hip frog cast fixation. We compared the effect and complications of the 2 groups. Results The fine-ness rates of the orthosis combined with walker group and the improved hip frog cast fixation group were 89.2% and 90.4% , respectively, with no significant difference (P>0.05). The rate of femoral head osteonecrosis in the orthosis combined with walker group was significantly lower than that in the improved hip frog cast fixation group (1.5 % vs. 5.3 % , P0.05).支具加学步车组股骨头坏死的比例显著低于改良蛙式石膏组(分别为1.5%和5.3%,P<0.05),但前者术后发生再脱位的比例显著高于后者(分别为6.9%和1.1%,P<0.05).结论:两种方法均能有效治疗DDH,外展支具配合学步车治疗后出现股骨头坏死比例较低,但再脱位比例较高.

  5. Botulinum toxin type A for cephalic cutaneous allodynia in chronic migraine: a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Hollanda

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic allodynia (CA can be observed in 50-70% of patients with chronic migraine (CM. The aim of this trial was to assess the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (Botx-A in the treatment of CA associated with CM. In this placebo-controlled trial, patients were randomized either into Botx-A or 0.9% saline injections and efficacy measures were assessed every 4 weeks for 3 months. Efficacy endpoints were number of migraine episodes associated with CA, changes from baseline in visual analogical scale scores for pain (VAS and frequency of common analgesics use for migraine. A total of 38 subjects were randomized to saline (n=18 or Botx-A (n=20. There were no significant differences in baseline between active intervention or placebo groups regarding mean age, number of headache episodes [mean 12.1 (9.22 and 17.00 (9.69 respectively; P=0.12], pain severity as measured by the VAS or frequency of analgesic use for headache episodes. Efficacy analysis showed that Botx-A injections led to an important decrease from baseline in the mean migraine episodes associated with CA after 12 weeks (5.20 versus 11.17; P=0.01. Also, VAS scores and frequency of analgesics use for headache were significantly reduced in the Botx-A group. This study suggests that Botx-A injections are superior to saline in the treatment of CA associated with CM, with mild self limited side effects.

  6. Changes in the chemical profile of cephalic salivary glands of Scaptotrigona postica (Hymenoptera, Meliponini) workers are phase related.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poiani, Silvana B; Morgan, E David; Drijfhout, Falko P; da Cruz-Landim, Carminda

    2015-09-01

    Most advanced eusocial bees recruit their nest mates to food resources. Recent studies in Meliponini species have revealed that the cephalic salivary (labial) glands (CSGs) are responsible for the production of scent trail pheromones. Studies on CSGs have shown that changes occur in worker glandular cell morphology from emergence from brood combs until forager phase, which may be correlated to changes in the composition of the CSG secretion. However, the composition of the CSG secretion and the chemical changes that occur in it according to the worker's life phase or tasks performed are unknown for many species, including Scaptotrigona postica. In this study, the chemical profile of CSG secretion in S. postica workers was studied. Glands were taken from specimens that were newly emerged (NE), working in the brood comb area (CA) and foraging (FO), and were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that the glandular secretion consists of oxygenated compounds of middle volatility (acids, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, esters and ether), and their quantity varies among the different life phases, increasing as the individual moves from intra- to extra-colonial activities. The NE phase contained the smallest variety and quantity of compounds. Because of the variability of compounds, the CA workers were separated into three subgroups according to the chemical constitution of their secretion. Forager workers showed the largest quantity and variety of chemical compounds. The major compounds in forager gland secretion were 7-hexadecen-1-yl acetate and 5-tetradecen-1-yl acetate. Statistical analysis indicates that the chemical composition of glandular secretion is phase related. PMID:26333928

  7. FY1995 development of rehabilitation system for promoting social integration of people with disabilities. Development of a robotic orthosis assisting motion capabilities; 1995 nendo shogaino aru hito no shakai shinshutsu wo sokushinsuru rehabilitation system no kaihatsu. Rehabilitation kino wo yusuru doryoku sogu no kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    People with slight disabilities on motion. capability can be active in daily life using properly designed motion-assisting devices. Using these device in various cases would help the disabled participate in production activities, and would promote social integration of the disabled as rehabilitation in a broad sense. This research aims at developing such a device capable to help human motion by forearm based on technology and science in robotics. Two different methods are discussed in this research in order to develop robotic orthosis with good performance for assisting human motion by forearm. The first method is constructing a robotic orthosis with electronic motors and force sensors to produce a desired mechanical impedance. This orthosis was carefully designed such that mechanical safety for human is realized. The validity of the mechanism is illustrated by several experiments. The second method is constructing a low cost robotic orthosis with pneumatic actuators. A new type of pneumatic actuator is developed to realize this orthosis. Experimental results show that physical therapy can be performed effectively using this orthosis operated by direct teaching. (NEDO)

  8. Cephalic secretions of the bumblebee subgenus Sibiricobombus Vogt suggest Bombus niveatus Kriechbaumer and Bombus vorticosus Gerstaecker are conspecific (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Bombus)

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmont, Pierre; Terzo, Michaël; Murat Aytekin, A.; Hines, Heather; Urbanova, Klara; Cahlikova, L.; Valterova, Irena

    2005-01-01

    Three taxa of the subgenus Sibiricobombus live in the Near-East mountain steppes: Bombus niveatus, B. sulfureus and B. vorticosus. The latter is also present in the Balkan. B. niveatus and B. vorticosus can only be distinguished based on color pattern. B. sulfureus differs in coat color and in genitalia. We identified 40 compounds in the secretions of the labial glands of these taxa, among which 7 were detected for the first time in labial cephalic gland secretions of bumblebee males. Whereas...

  9. Abnormalities on cephalic hooklets of advanced third-stage larvae from Gnathostoma Owen, 1836 (Nematoda: Gnathostomidae) collected from Mexican rivulus Millerichthys robustus Costa, 1995 (Ciprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) in Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosqueda-Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Ocampo-Jaimes, Angélica

    2009-11-01

    Morphological abnormalities were observed on the cephalic bulb hooklets of advanced third-stage larvae (AdvL(3)) of genus Gnathostoma. The larvae were obtained from the fish "Mexican rivulus" Millerichthys robustus collected from a seasonal pond near Tlacotalpan, Veracruz, Mexico. The abnormalities involved (1) extra rudimentary hooklets, located between the four rows and after the fourth row, (2) branched or lobulated hooklets, and (3) fragmented hooklets not uniformly disposed in rows. The alterations observed on the cephalic bulb hooklets do not represent intraspecific variations, and they may be considered as a potential tool for assessing the presence of pollutants or stressors located within the ecosystem. PMID:20162840

  10. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANUFACTURING POSSIBILITY OF SPECIAL ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS COMPONENTS BY OMPARISON BETWEEN THE REQUIRED PRECISION AND THE VAILABLE PRECISION ON A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER PROGRAMED WITH TOPSOLID

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru STANIMIR

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Validation of different solutions adopted to achieve new ankle foot orthosis involves among others their prototyping. In these paper we developed a representative part for two axis machining that requires the use of the main features of TopSolid Cad and Cam modules, and that assumes the use of the main manufacturing processes that usually may be met on a vertical machining center. Also, in order to determine the dimensional and geometrical deviations of the part this was done on the YMC 1050 machining center. After comparing the measured deviations with the requirements of various components of orthesis, we concluded that the available precision meets the requirements and that the machining center with TopSolid software that we have will enable us to realize special ankle foot orthosis of quality, for experimental research .

  11. Lightweight modular orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engen, T

    1989-12-01

    Background and highlights are presented concerning the development of a new orthotic system judged to be "the most outstanding innovation in prosthetics and/or orthotics practice" during the 1986-1989 period. The first Brian Blatchford Prize was awarded at the Sixth World Congress of ISPO held in Kobe, Japan. November 12-17, 1989. The new development selected as most deserving of this award consists of a system utilizing inexpensive, lightweight, modular components which can be quickly assembled with a few hand tools to provide custom-fitted knee-ankle-foot orthoses for persons with paraplegia and quadriplegia. These leg frames support standing and permit the patient to begin receiving the physical and psychological benefits of weightbearing as soon as medically feasible after injury. Later, if desired, specially designed knee-joints, with a variety of possible locking features, can be installed on the existing leg frames at a reasonable cost. PMID:2608419

  12. Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo B. Gonçalves

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Phylogeny and revision of the bee genus Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, with comments on its female cephalic polymorphism. A taxonomic revision and a phylogeny for the species of Rhinocorynura are provided. Six species are recognized: R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae stat. nov., the latter removed from synonymy with R. inflaticeps, in addition to two newly described species, R. brunnea sp. nov. and R. viridis sp. nov. Lectotypes for Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 and Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906 are hereby designated. Another available name included in Rhinocorynura, Corynuropsis ashmeadi Schrottky, 1909, is removed from the genus and treated as species inquerenda in Augochlorini. Rhinocorynura is monophyletic in the phylogenetic analysis and the following relationships were found among its species: (R. crotonis (R. briseis ((R. brunnea sp. nov. + R. viridis sp. nov. (R. inflaticeps + R. vernoniae. Biogeographic relationships within the genus and comparisons with related taxa are presented. Females of all species exhibit pronounced variation in body size, in two of them, R. inflaticeps and R. vernoniae, with structural modifications possibly linked to division of labor. Identification key and illustrations for the species are provided.Filogenia e revisão taxonômica das abelhas do gênero Rhinocorynura Schrottky (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Augochlorini, com comentários sobre o poliformismo cefálico das fêmeas. São apresentadas uma revisão taxonômica e filogenia para as espécies de Rhinocorynura. Seis espécies são reconhecidas, duas descritas como novas, R. brunnea sp. nov. e R. viridis sp. nov., e quatro com nomes disponíveis, R. briseis, R. crotonis, R. inflaticeps e R. vernoniae stat. nov., esta última removida da sinonímia com R. inflaticeps. Designam-se aqui lectótipos para Halictus crotonis Ducke, 1906 e Halictus inflaticeps Ducke, 1906. Outro nome disponível incluído em

  13. Absorbed doses received by infants subjected to panoramic dental and cephalic radiographs; Dosis absorbida recibida por infantes sometidos a radiografias dentales panoramicas y cefalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, L.; Carreno, S. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas. Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica. Carretera Panamericana Km. 11. Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The IAEA Report No. 115 recommends that each country or region can establish levels of absorbed doses for each radiographic technique employed in diagnostic. assuming the extended and expensive of this purpose, we have been to begin in a first step with the dentistry area, in order to estimate the dose levels received at crystalline and thyroid level in infants that go to an important public institution in our country to realize panoramic and cephalic radiographs. This work will serve to justify and impel a quality assurance program in Venezuela on the dentistry area which includes aspects such as training for the medical lap referring the justification of the radiological practice, optimization of X-ray units to produce an adequate image quality that delivers to patient an absorbed dose as much lower as reasonably it can be reached without diagnostic detriment. (Author)

  14. Effect of wearing a dorsiflexion assist orthosis on mobility, perceived fatigue and exertion during the six-minute walk test in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomised cross-over protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLoughlin James

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Fatigue in combination with gait and balance impairments can severely limit daily activities in people with multiple sclerosis (PWMS. Generalised fatigue has a major impact on walking ability, with moderately disabled PWMS experiencing difficulty in walking extended distances. Localised motor fatigue in the ankle dorsiflexors can lead to foot drop, further reducing functional ambulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a simple dynamic dorsiflexion assist orthosis on walking-induced fatigue, gait, balance and functional mobility in PWMS. Methods A randomised cross-over trial will be conducted with 40 community dwelling PWMS with mild to moderate mobility disability. Participants will initially be screened for disease severity, balance, strength, depression and fatigue at the South Australian Motion Analysis Centre. On two non-consecutive occasions, within two weeks, participants will undergo either the 6-minute walk test (6MWT or the 6MWT while wearing a dorsiflexion ankle orthosis (with a randomised condition order. Distance walked, perceived exertion, perceived fatigue and the physiological cost of walking (the primary outcome measures will be compared between the two walking conditions. Additional pre- and post-6MWT assessments for the two conditions will include tests of strength, reaction time, gait and balance. Discussion This study will increase our understanding of motor fatigue on gait and balance control in PWMS and elucidate the effect of a Dynamic Ankle Orthosis on fatigue-related balance and gait in PWMS. It will also examine relationships between mobility and balance performance with perceived fatigue levels in this group. Trial Registration Number ACTRN12612000218897

  15. AN ANALYSIS OF THE MANUFACTURING POSSIBILITY OF SPECIAL ANKLE FOOT ORTHOSIS COMPONENTS BY OMPARISON BETWEEN THE REQUIRED PRECISION AND THE VAILABLE PRECISION ON A VERTICAL MACHINING CENTER PROGRAMED WITH TOPSOLID

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandru STANIMIR; Rusu, Florin; Cosmin BERCEANU; Dumitru FILIP

    2010-01-01

    Validation of different solutions adopted to achieve new ankle foot orthosis involves among others their prototyping. In these paper we developed a representative part for two axis machining that requires the use of the main features of TopSolid Cad and Cam modules, and that assumes the use of the main manufacturing processes that usually may be met on a vertical machining center. Also, in order to determine the dimensional and geometrical deviations of the part this was done on the YMC 1050 ...

  16. Use of External Cephalic Version and Amnioreduction in the Delivery of a Fetal Demise with Macrocephaly Secondary to Massive Intracranial Teratoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Blitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction - Congenital intracranial tumors are rare and often incidentally diagnosed on routine ultrasound. We report a case of a fetal demise with a massive intracranial teratoma at 25 weeks of gestation and the management of her delivery in the setting of macrocephaly, breech presentation, and polyhydramnios. Case - A 31-year-old G3P1011 woman at 25 weeks' gestation presented with a recent fetal demise and a fetal intracranial tumor first identified at 16 weeks' gestational age. The patient had declined termination of pregnancy. Biometry was consistent with 24 weeks' gestation, except for a head circumference of 394.4 mm consistent with 39 weeks' gestation. The fetus was in a breech presentation. An external cephalic version (ECV was successfully performed under epidural anesthesia and an amnioreduction was then performed to stabilize the fetal position. Immediate induction of labor and vaginal delivery followed. Discussion - ECV and amnioreduction may help facilitate delivery in cases of fetal demise complicated by macrocephaly, malpresentation, and polyhydramnios.

  17. Heterochronic shift between early organogenesis and migration of cephalic neural crest cells in two divergent evolutionary phenotypes of archosaurs: crocodile and ostrich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundrát, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Living archosaurs (crocodiles and birds) represent an intriguing evo-devo model system. Although close in phylogenetic relationship, the two lineages show considerable divergence in trends of phenotypic evolution. The head anatomy of recent crocodilians has changed little in comparison with that of their crocodylomorph ancestors. The head phenotype of the avians (birds), as well as some non-avian theropods, shows numerous evolutionary innovations that differ considerably from the crocodylomorph pattern. Most of the novel head structures, such as features of the craniofacial skeleton, cranial nerves, head muscles, and integument are derived from the same cellular source common to all archosaurs, the cephalic neural crest (CNC). Therefore, other factors must be involved in the developmental disparity of homologous structures in the aforementioned lineages. The present study analyzes the earliest developmental events that are associated with the appearance of the neural crest cells in the two archosaur models: Crocodylus niloticus and Struthio camelus. I found that both models share unique developmental features, the presence of an unpaired, rostrally migrating population of CNC cells, showing that the two are closely related to each other. On the other hand, the crocodile and the ostrich differ substantially in (1) timing, (2) duration, and (3) expression patterns of the CNC. Compared with the crocodile, the CNC cells in the ostrich (1) migrate much later into the embryonic head, (2) but relocate to their terminal positions faster, and (3) take specifically directed migratory routes in the mandibular/oral region and head/trunk-interface regions. I suggest that accelerated relocation of CNC cells combined with delayed head organogenesis may represent important innovative conditions in the developmental evolution of a new archosaur head phenotype. PMID:19754710

  18. Chronic stroke survivors achieve comparable outcomes following virtual task specific repetitive training guided by a wearable robotic orthosis (UL-EXO7) and actual task specific repetitive training guided by a physical therapist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byl, Nancy N; Abrams, Gary M; Pitsch, Erica; Fedulow, Irina; Kim, Hyunchul; Simkins, Matt; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Rosen, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    Survivors post stroke commonly have upper limb impairments. Patients can drive neural reorganization, brain recovery and return of function with task specific repetitive training (TSRT). Fifteen community independent stroke survivors (25-75 years, >6 months post stroke, Upper Limb Fugl Meyer [ULFM] scores 16-39) participated in this randomized feasibility study to compare outcomes of upper limb TSRT guided by a robotic orthosis (bilateral or unilateral) or a physical therapist. After 6 weeks of training (18 h), across all subjects, there were significant improvements in depression, flexibility, strength, tone, pain and voluntary movement (ULFM) (p shoulder and elbow without significant gains in fine motor hand control, activities of daily living or independence. PMID:23911077

  19. Efeito do uso de órtese de punho na ativação da musculatura flexora e extensora do punho Effect of the use of wrist orthosis on forearm muscle activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Maria Valladão Novais Van Petten

    2010-01-01

    (James® dynamometer under three conditions: free hand, wearing a composite orthosis, and wearing a thermoplastic orthosis. The tests were carried out using the dominant hand only. During the tests, surface electrodes were placed on the flexor and extensor muscles of the forearm to record the electrical muscle activity. The results obtained in the three conditions were compared, and the results analyzed using the statistical Wilcoxon Test. RESULTS: Significant differences were found in muscle activation when comparing the free hand with the use of any of the orthoses. In the comparison of data for the two different orthoses, no significant differences were found. A decrease in activity of the extensor muscles of the forearm was observed during all the tasks, as well as an increase in activation of the flexor muscles with the use of the orthoses. CONCLUSION: These results are important for the prescription of an orthosis during the rehabilitation process of a wide range of pathologies, such as tendinitis of the flexors and extensors of the first and fingers, as well as for forecasting the time of use of these devices.

  20. Osteology and myology of the cephalic region and pectoral girdle of Pimelodus blochii, comparison with other pimelodines, and comments on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pimelodinae (Ostariophysi: Siluriformes).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui

    2005-07-01

    The cephalic and pectoral girdle structures of the pimelodin Pimelodus blochii (Pimelodus group) are described and compared to those of representatives of the two other main pimelodin groups, namely Calophysus macropterus (Calophysus group) and Pseudoplatystoma fasciatum (Sorubim group), and of a representative of the peculiar pimelodin genus Hypophthalmus, H. edentatus, and several other catfishes, as the foundation for a discussion on the synapomorphies and phylogenetic relationships of the Pimelodinae. Three new, additional potential synapomorphies to support the monophyly of the Pimelodinae are pointed out: (1) presence of a 'muscle 1 of the mandibular barbels' running from the antero-ventro-mesial surface of the cartilaginous plates carrying these barbels to the dentaries; (2) presence of a muscle tensor tripodis running from the posterior surface of the neurocranium to the dorsal surface of the swimbladder near the tripus; and (3) presence of a 'drumming muscle of the swimbladder' running from the parapophyses of the fourth vertebra and, eventually, the posterior surface of the neurocranium, to the antero and antero-ventral surface of the swimbladder. The subfamilies Pimelodinae, Heptapterinae and Pseudopimelodinae seem to constitute a monophyletic assemblage, thus contradicting the commonly accepted idea that the family Pimelodidae is a polyphyletic clade. PMID:16393748

  1. Selective expression of the type 3 isoform of ryanodine receptor Ca2+ release channel (RyR3) in a subset of slow fibers in diaphragm and cephalic muscles of adult rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The expression pattern of the RyR3 isoform of Ca2+ release channels was analysed by Western blot in neonatal and adult rabbit skeletal muscles. The results obtained show that the expression of the RyR3 isoform is developmentally regulated. In fact, RyR3 expression was detected in all muscles analysed at 2 and 15 days after birth while, in adult animals, it was restricted to a subset of muscles that includes diaphragm, masseter, pterygoideus, digastricus, and tongue. Interestingly, all of these muscles share a common embryonic origin being derived from the somitomeres or from the cephalic region of the embryo. Immunofluorescence analysis of rabbit skeletal muscle cross-sections showed that RyR3 staining was detected in all fibers of neonatal muscles. In contrast, in those adult muscles expressing RyR3 only a fraction of fibers was labelled. Staining of these muscles with antibodies against fast and slow myosins revealed a close correlation between expression of RyR3 and fibers expressing slow myosin isoform

  2. Changes in joint kinematics in children with cerebral palsy while walking with and without a floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis Mudanças na cinemática articular em crianças com paralisia cerebral durante o andar com e sem órteses de reação ao solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roberto Garcia Lucareli

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis is commonly prescribed in the attempt to decrease knee flexion during the stance phase in the cerebral palsy (CP gait. Reported information about this type of orthosis is insufficient. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of clinically prescribed floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis on kinematic parameters of the hip, knee and ankle in the stance phase of the gait cycle, compared to barefoot walking on children with cerebral palsy. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of 2200 patients revealed that 71 patients (142 limbs had a diagnosis of diplegia, with no contractures in hip, knee or ankle flexion. Their average age was 12.2 ± 3.9. All of them were wearing clinically prescribed hinged floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis undergoing a three dimensional gait analysis. We divided the patients in three groups: Group I, with limited extension (maximum knee extension less than 15º; Group II, with moderate limited extension (maximum knee extension between 15º and 30º and Group III Crouch (maximum knee extension in stance more than 30º. RESULTS: Results indicate the parameters maximum knee extension and ankle dorsiflexion were significant in Group II e III; no change was observed in Group I. The maximum hip extension was not significant in all three groups. Conclusion: when indicated to improve the extension of the knees and ankle in the stance of the CP patients floor reaction ankle-foot orthosis was effective.INTRODUÇÃO: A órtese de reação ao solo é freqüentemente prescrita com o objetivo de reduzir a flexão do joelho durante a fase de apoio na marcha de pacientes com paralisia cerebral. Não há informações suficientes relatadas na literature sobre este tipo de órteses. OBJETIVOS: O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar o efeito que a órtese de reação ao solo tem na cinamática angular das articulações do quadril, joelho e tornozelo durante a fase de

  3. The Effect of Ethnic Factor on Cephalic Index in 17-20 Years Old Females of North of Iran Efecto del Factor Étnico en el Índice Cefálico en Mujeres entre 17 y 20 Años de Edad del Norte de Irán

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Jafar Golalipour

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Cephalic index and head shape are affected by geographical, gender, age, racial and ethnic factors. This study was carried out to determine cephalic index and head shape in 17-20 years old female in Gorgan, North of Iran. This descriptive and cross sectional study is undertaken on 410 normal 17-20 years old female (Turkman group: n=203, Fars group: n=207. The study was done by classic cephalometry in Gorgan ­ North of Iran. Means and SD of cephalic index was 85 ± 4.5 and 82.8 ± 3.6 in native Fars and Turkman groups, respectively. Dominant and rare type of head shape in native Fars group were hyperbrachycephalic (53.6% and dolichocephalic (15%, and in Turkman group were brachycephalic (58.1% and dolichocephalic (0.05%, respectively. With noticing of our results and other studies in the world, we can conclude that the role of ethnic factor on head dimensionsEl índice cefálico y forma de la cabeza son afectados por factores geográficos, género, edad, raza y grupos étnicos. Este estudio determina el índice cefálico y la forma de la cabeza en mujeres entre 17 y 20 años de edad en Gorgan, Norte de Irán. El estudio fue realizado en 410 mujeres normales de17 a 20 años de edad (grupo Turco n=203, grupo Fars n=207 del Norte de Irán, a través de cefalometría clásica. La media y DS del índice cefálico fue 85 ± 4.5 y 82.8 ± 3.6 en nativos de los grupos Fars y Turcos, respectivamente. Tipos dominantes y raros de la forma de la cabeza en el grupo Fars fueron hiperbraquicefálico (53.6% y dolicocefálico (15%, y en el grupo Turco fueron braquicefálico (58.1% y dolicocefálico (0.05%, respectivamente. Estos resultados y el de otros estudios realizados en el mundo, permiten concluir la influencia que tienen los factores étnicos en las dimensiones de la cabeza

  4. Uso de órtese para abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de criança portadora de paralisia cerebral: estudo de caso único Use of abduction thumb orthosis in functional performance of a child with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana M. Valladão N. Rodrigues

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: documentar o impacto do uso da órtese de abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de uma criança hemiparética com leve espasticidade. MÉTODOS: foi utilizado um desenho experimental de caso-único do tipo AB. A fase A consistiu na coleta de dados durante um período sem intervenção (condição controle. A fase B incluiu o uso de órtese de abdução do polegar como procedimento terapêutico associado ao atendimento de terapia ocupacional tradicional. A fase A teve a duração de seis semanas e a fase subseqüente de oito semanas. A criança foi avaliada semanalmente quanto à amplitude ativa de movimento de extensão e flexão de punho, abdução e oponência do polegar e quanto à função manual. A análise dos dados foi realizada através dos métodos estatísticos Celeration Line e Banda de Dois Desvios-Padrão, assim como da Análise Visual. RESULTADOS: a criança apresentou melhora significativa na amplitude de movimento do punho e polegar (ADM ativa. Com relação à função manual observou-se redução do tempo para realização das tarefas, porém não significativa, exceto para a tarefa de empilhar blocos. CONCLUSÕES: os resultados sugerem que o uso da órtese de abdução do polegar pode ser útil no tratamento de crianças com paralisia cerebral espástica para a melhoria da ADM ativa da mão, podendo ser utilizada como adjuvante a outras terapêuticas.OBJECTIVE: to investigate the impact of a thumb abduction orthosis on functional skills of a child with hemiparetic cerebral palsy and mild spasticity. METHODS: an AB single-subject design was used in this study. Baseline A consisted of data collected during a period without intervention (control conditions. The intervention phase B included the use of a thumb abduction orthosis in association with traditional occupational therapy. The baseline lasted six weeks and the intervention period eight weeks. Assessments were performed once a week throughout the study and

  5. Biomechanics Changes at Lower Limb Joints between Different Types of Ankle Foot Orthosis in Children with Cerebral Palsy%痉挛型脑瘫儿童佩戴不同类型踝足矫形器后下肢生物力学的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旻; 冯美兰; 瞿佩玉

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To understand the kinematics and kinetics variables at lower limb joints between rigid ankle foot orthosis (RAFO) and dynamic ankle foot orthosis (DAFO) in children with spastic cerebral palsy (CP) in order to find a better design for the ankle foot orthosis (AFO) in future. Methods: Sixteen spastic cerebral palsy children (10 boys, 6 girls, aged from 4 to 8 years, average age=6.25± 1.18 years) were recruited from the Rehabilitation Department of Shanghai 6th People's Hospital (China). Kinematics parameters were measured by using Vicon threedimensional gait analysis system and the kinetics changes were examined by two Kislter force platforms at the same time under three conditions.. (1) RAFO, (2) DAFO and (3) Bare foot only. Results: Both RAFO and DAFO showed significantly larger stride length than the bare foot only (RAFO increased 0. 05 m and DAFO increased 0.07 m, P<0.05), and significantly higher dorsiflexion degrees were found in initial contact (RAFO increased 9°and DAFO increased 11.3°, P<0.05) and stance phase (RAFO increased 10° and DAFO increased 11°, P<0.05)under both two AFO conditions at same time. RAFO showed significantly smaller range of motion at ankle joint during walking that the dynamic ankle foot orthosis and bare foot only (7° decreased when compared to the DAFO and 8° decreased when compared to the bare foot condition, P<0. 05). Besides, DAFO showed significantly higher ankle plantarflexion degrees when compared to the RAFO (5. 5° increased, P<0. 05). Both two AFO conditions showed an obviously higher ankle plantar moment than bare foot condition (0. 33 Nm/kg increased in RAFO and 0.37 Nm/kg increased in DAFO, P<0. 05), and no other kinetic or kinematic differences were found in hip and knee joint under three conditions. Conclusion: Both two different AFO can help to improve the walking ability of CP children and offer a better foot position during walking. The DAFO showed a bigger range of motion and better

  6. The therapeutic effects of Cheneau orthosis with different pressure areas on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis%舍努式矫形器压力面积对青少年特发性脊柱侧凸疗效的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹; 王楚怀; 赖建洋; 许轶

    2008-01-01

    目的 通过比较2组特发性脊柱侧凸患者穿戴不同压力面积舍努式矫形器后的疗效,以期为临床设计、制作舍努式矫形器提供参考资料.方法 选取T6以下椎体为顶椎的特发性脊柱侧凸青少年患者30例,将其随机分为A,B两组,分别穿戴跨度为3个椎体面积和5~6个椎体面积作为压力区域的舍努式矫形器,并测量装配前、后科布氏(Cobb)角和顶椎旋转角度以及穿戴矫形器后的疼痛指数.结果 A组患者Cobb角的矫正率为17%,B组患者Cobb角的矫正率为29%,组间差异具有统计学意义(P0.05);A组患者疼痛指数为5.00,B组为2.07,组间差异具有统计学意义(P0.05). Pain index was 5.00 in group A, and 2.07 in group B, which was statistically different (P<0.05). Conclusions Increasing pressure points' areas of Cheneau orthosis properly can improve more effectively the lateral curvature angle of the patients with adolescent idiopathic seoliosis.

  7. How to improve walking, balance and social participation following stroke: a comparison of the long term effects of two walking aids--canes and an orthosis TheraTogs--on the recovery of gait following acute stroke. A study protocol for a multi-centre, single blind, randomised control trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maguire Clare

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Annually, some 9000 people in Switzerland suffer a first time stroke. Of these 60% are left with moderate to severe walking disability. Evidence shows that rehabilitation techniques which emphasise activity of the hemiplegic side increase ipsilesional cortical plasticity and improve functional outcomes. Canes are commonly used in gait rehabilitation although they significantly reduce hemiplegic muscle activity. We have shown that an orthosis "TheraTogs" (a corset with elasticated strapping significantly increases hemiplegic muscle activity during gait. The aim of the present study is to investigate the long term effects on the recovery of gait, balance and social participation of gait rehabilitation with TheraTogs compared to gait rehabilitation with a cane following first time acute stroke. Methods/Design Multi-centre, single blind, randomised trial with 120 patients after first stroke. When subjects have reached Functional Ambulation Category 3 they will be randomly allocated into TheraTogs or cane group. TheraTogs will be applied to support hip extensor and abductor musculature according to a standardised procedure. Cane walking held at the level of the radial styloid of the sound wrist. Subjects will walk throughout the day with only the assigned walking aid. Standard therapy treatments and usual care will remain unchanged and documented. The intervention will continue for five weeks or until patients have reached Functional Ambulation category 5. Outcome measures will be assessed the day before begin of intervention, the day after completion, 3 months, 6 months and 2 years. Primary outcome: Timed "up and go" test, secondary outcomes: peak surface EMG of gluteus maximus and gluteus medius, activation patterns of hemiplegic leg musculature, temporo-spatial gait parameters, hemiplegic hip kinematics in the frontal and sagittal planes, dynamic balance, daily activity measured by accelerometry, Stroke Impact Scale

  8. [Cephalic duodenopancreatectomy with pylorus preservation: for which patients?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chassot, G; Morel, P

    1995-04-15

    From 1984 to the end of 1993, we performed 51 duodenopancreatectomies with pylorus preservation (27 for chronic pancreatitis and 24 for tumours). We have a complete follow up for 96% of our patients with a mean range of 76 months in the first group and 33 months in the second. There was no per- or postoperative mortality and 15% immediate postoperative morbidity. We observed 5 cases (10%) of anastomotic ulceration. New surgical technics enabled us to avoid this major complication for our last 31 patients. The short and long term benefits of pylorus-preserving duodenopancreatectomy on patients' wellbeing, nutritional status and weight gain were confirmed in 22 patients (82%) with pancreatitis. The mean survival time in patients with tumors (periampullary and head of pancreas adenocarcinoma) is similar to that with the classical Whipple procedure. PMID:7740288

  9. Experimental evaluation of a portable powered ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorter, Kenneth A; Li, Yifan; Morris, Emily A; Kogler, Géza F; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth T

    2011-01-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) ameliorate the impact of impairments to the lower limb neuromuscular motor system that affect gait. Emerging technologies provide a vision for fully powered, untethered AFOs. The portable powered AFO (PPAFO) provides both plantarflexor and dorsiflexor torque assistance via a bi-directional pneumatic rotary actuator. The system uses a portable pneumatic power source (bottle of compressed CO(2)) and embedded electronics to control foot motion during level walking. Experimental data were collected to demonstrate functionality from two subjects with bilateral impairments to the lower legs. These data demonstrated the PPAFO's ability to provide functional assistance during gait. The stringent design requirements of light weight, small size, high efficiency and low noise make the creation of daily wear assist devices challenging; but once such devices appear, they will present new opportunities for clinical treatment of gait abnormalities. PMID:22254386

  10. Experimental and computational analysis of composite ankle-foot orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequan Zou, DSc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber (CF ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs can improve gait by increasing ankle plantar-flexor power and improving plantar-flexor ankle joint moment and energy efficiency compared with posterior leaf spring AFOs made of thermoplastic. However, fabricating a CF AFO to optimize the performance of the individual user may require multiple AFOs and expensive fabrication costs. Finite element analysis (FEA models were developed to predict the mechanical behavior of AFOs in this study. Three AFOs, two made of CF composite material and one made of thermoplastic material, were fabricated and then mechanically tested to produce force-displacement data. The FEA models were validated by comparing model predictions with mechanical testing data performed under the same loading and boundary conditions. The actual mechanical testing demonstrated that CF performs better than thermoplastic. The simulation results showed that FEA models produced accurate predictions for both types of orthoses. The relative error of the energy return ratio predicted by the CF AFO FEA model developed in this study is less than 3%. We conclude that highly accurate FEA models will allow orthotists to improve CF AFO fabrication without wasting resources (time and money on trial and error fabrications that are expensive and do not consistently improve AFO and user performance.

  11. Experimental and computational analysis of composite ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dequan; He, Tao; Dailey, Michael; Smith, Kirk E; Silva, Matthew J; Sinacore, David R; Mueller, Michael J; Hastings, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can improve gait by increasing ankle plantar-flexor power and improving plantar-flexor ankle joint moment and energy efficiency compared with posterior leaf spring AFOs made of thermoplastic. However, fabricating a CF AFO to optimize the performance of the individual user may require multiple AFOs and expensive fabrication costs. Finite element analysis (FEA) models were developed to predict the mechanical behavior of AFOs in this study. Three AFOs, two made of CF composite material and one made of thermoplastic material, were fabricated and then mechanically tested to produce force-displacement data. The FEA models were validated by comparing model predictions with mechanical testing data performed under the same loading and boundary conditions. The actual mechanical testing demonstrated that CF performs better than thermoplastic. The simulation results showed that FEA models produced accurate predictions for both types of orthoses. The relative error of the energy return ratio predicted by the CF AFO FEA model developed in this study is less than 3%. We conclude that highly accurate FEA models will allow orthotists to improve CF AFO fabrication without wasting resources (time and money) on trial and error fabrications that are expensive and do not consistently improve AFO and user performance. PMID:25856154

  12. Experimental and computational analysis of composite ankle-foot orthosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dequan Zou, DSc; Tao He, MS; Michael Dailey, MBA, CO; Kirk E. Smith, BS; Matthew J. Silva, PhD; David R. Sinacore, PhD, PT; Michael J. Mueller, PhD, PT; Mary K. Hastings, DPT, MSCI

    2015-01-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can improve gait by increasing ankle plantar-flexor power and improving plantar-flexor ankle joint moment and energy efficiency compared with posterior leaf spring AFOs made of thermoplastic. However, fabricating a CF AFO to optimize the performance of the individual user may require multiple AFOs and expensive fabrication costs. Finite element analysis (FEA) models were developed to predict the mechanical behavior of AFOs in this study. Three AFOs...

  13. "A 'one-piece' gutter orthosis/strapping alternative".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoell, Christopher J

    2013-01-01

    Patients often have difficulty securing and positioning finger orthoses (splints). Using standard strapping materials molded directly into the orthotic device, this author describes an alternative strapping system for these small finger orthoses. -Victoria Priganc, PhD, OTR, CHT, CLT, Practice Forum Editor. PMID:22959536

  14. Estimulación eléctrica invasiva de C2-C3 en el tratamiento del dolor cefálico y facial: Neuralgia occipital. Migraña transformada. Cefalea en racimos. Algias faciales C2-C3 Invasive Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Cephalic and Facial Pain: Occipital Neuralgia. Transformed Migraine. Cluster Headache. Facial Algias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Rodrigo

    2008-09-01

    localizado en la cara, refuerza el relevante interés terapéutico que tiene la hipotética conexión funcional trigémino cervical. Es necesario determinar como es esta conexión trigémino-cervical para poder definir que tipo de algia facial se puede beneficiar del tratamiento con estimulación eléctrica cervico-occipital. Recomendamos valorar el componente cervicogénico, en todas las algias faciales refractarias a tratamientos convencionales, con el bloqueo anestésico de nervios occipital mayor y menor. Esto puede ser de gran utilidad, de cara al tratamiento con la estimulación occipital, en pacientes con síndromes dolorosos severos, localizados en la zona facial, que ocasionan situaciones totalmente invalidantes.Introduction. The peripheral cervical-occipital extraspinal electrical stimulation with an implanted system, is a little aggressive technique that can achieve good results in patients with refractory neurophatic pain localized in the cephalic and facial región. Thirty four patients with long-evolving, persistent, severe, uncontrolled pain of different ethiologies, localized in the cervical facial región, for whom other therapy options were exhausted, were treated with unilateral or bilateral cervical occipital electrical stimulation in the pain unit of the Zaragoza Clinic Hospital. Material and Method. Thirty four patients were treated from June 2002 to February 2008, fourteen of which were diagnosed with transformed migraine; two suffered from cluster headache and eighteen had occipital and/or trigeminal neuralgia. Before the neurostimulation system was implanted, an occipital nerve block was performed with local anesthetic to establish the cervicogenic component in the pain. The surgical procedure was performed in two stages. The treatment effectiveness assessment was made on the basis of the variation of the following parameters before and after the implant: ongoing pain, pain during the crisis, number of crisis events, overnight rest, functioning

  15. The central projection of cephalic mechanosensory axons in the haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insausti Teresita C

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The projections of mechanosensory hairs located on the dorsal and lateral head of the adult haematophagous bug Triatoma infestans were analyzed by means of cobalt filling. Axons run into the anterior and posterior tegumentary nerve and project through the brain to the ventral nerve cord. The fibres are small in diameter and run as a fascicle. Some branches run into suboesophageal and prothoracic centres; others run as far as to the mesothoracic ganglion. These sensory projections resemble that of wind-sensitive head hairs of the locust. The functional role of this sensory system in this species is discussed.

  16. Immunochemical detection of the crustacean cardioactive peptide in the cephalic ganglia cockroaches (Blattodea: Blattidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gladysz, M.; Guzik, J.; Sehadová, Hana; Baran, B.; Bembenek, J.; Dolezych, B.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 112, č. 2 (2015), s. 235-244. ISSN 1210-5759 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : Blattodea * Periplaneta americana * Gromphadorhina portentosa Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 0.975, year: 2014 http://www.eje.cz/corproof.php?tartkey=eje-000000-0111#.VRVB0PmG8mM

  17. Effect of a cephalic irradiation on humoral immunitary response in adult rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In connection with the origin and mechanisms of immunitary depression due to irradiation, it is tried to find if changes of humoral immunitary response could be caused by a limited irradiation of central nervous system

  18. Oral sensory and cephalic hormonal responses to fat and nonfat liquids in bulimia nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Bello, Nicholas T.; Coughlin, Janelle W.; Redgrave, Graham W.; Moran, Timothy H.; Guarda, Angela S.

    2010-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of food involves endogenous opioid mechanisms. Bulimics typically limit their food choices to low fat “safe foods” and intermittently lose control and binge on high fat “risk foods”. The aim of this study was to determine whether the oral sensory effects of a fat versus a non-fat milk product (i.e., traditional versus non-fat half-and-half) resulted in different subjective and hormonal responses in bulimic women (n=10) compared with healthy women (n=11). Naltrexone (50 mg P...

  19. Corazonin- and PDF-immunoreactivities in the cephalic ganglia of termites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Závodská, Radka; Wen, Ch. J.; Sehnal, František; Hrdý, Ivan; Lee, H. J.; Šauman, Ivo

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 55, č. 5 (2009), s. 441-449. ISSN 0022-1910 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC07032 Grant ostatní: National Taiwan University(TW) NSC 92-2313-B-002-069; National Taiwan University(TW) NSC 93-2313-B-002-045; National Taiwan University(TW) NSC 2313-B-002-015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508; CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : castes * circadian rhythm * neuropeptides Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.235, year: 2009

  20. Structure of the cephalic end of Ascarophis mexicana (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae), as revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František; González-Solís, D.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 2 (2007), s. 155-156. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA524/06/0170; GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Nematoda * Ascarophis * fish Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2007

  1. Neonatal injury at cephalic vaginal delivery: a retrospective analysis of extent of association with shoulder dystocia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cantekin Iskender

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe the risk factors and labor characteristics of Clavicular fracture (CF and brachial plexus injury (BPI; and compare antenatal and labor characteristics and prognosis of obstetrical BPI associated with shoulder dystocia with obstetrical BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia. METHODS: This retrospective study consisted of women who gave birth to an infant with a fractured clavicle or BPI between January 2009 and June 2013. Antenatal and neonatal data were compared between groups. The control group (1300 was composed of the four singleton vaginal deliveries that immediately followed each birth injury. A multivariable logistic regression model, with backward elimination, was constructed in order to find independent risk factors associated with BPI and CF. A subgroup analysis involved comparison of features of BPI cases with or without associated shoulder dystocia. RESULTS: During the study period, the total number of vaginal deliveries was 44092. The rates of CF, BPI and shoulder dystocia during the study period were 0,6%, 0,16% and 0,29%, respectively. In the logistic regression model, shoulder dystocia, GDM, multiparity, gestational age >42 weeks, protracted labor, short second stage of labor and fetal birth weight greater than 4250 grams increased the risk of CF independently. Shoulder dystocia and protracted labor were independently associated with BPI when controlled for other factors. Among neonates with BPI whose injury was not associated with shoulder dystocia, five (12.2% sustained permanent injury, whereas one neonate (4.5% with BPI following shoulder dystocia sustained permanent injury (p = 0.34. CONCLUSION: BPI not associated with shoulder dystocia might have a higher rate of concomitant CF and permanent sequelae.

  2. Cephalic and appendage morphology of the Cambrian arthropod Sidneyia inexpectans Walcott, 1911

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stein, Martin

    2013-01-01

    evidence for variability of head segment counts in Cambrian arthropods, and to falsify the hypothesis of a head with three postantennular segments in the euarthropod ground pattern. Restudy of a substantial amount of material of S. inexpectans shows that previous interpretations of a short head were based...... understood, but the exopod seemed to differ from that of other artiopodans, except for the shared presence of lamellae. The head was considered to comprise only the ocular and antennular segments, these being covered entirely on the ventral side by a large doublure. This short head was often taken as an...... at least two postantennular appendage bearing segments. The appendage morphology is shown to be consistent with artiopodan affinities. The exopod is of the bilobate flap-like type with lamellae inserting on the proximal portion, earlier proposed as a potential autapomorphy of Artiopoda. Reinforcement...

  3. Cephalic And Prosopic Indices: Comparison In One-Day Newborn Boys In Zahedan

    OpenAIRE

    "Heidari Z; Mahmoodzadeh sagheb; Mohammadi M; Noori Moogehi S M H; Arab A.

    2004-01-01

    Background: Cephalometry is one of the important branches of anthropometry that has wide uses in identification, forensic medicine, plastic surgery, orthodontics, archeology and determining the origins of races. This research was investigated to determine the head and face phenotypes among one-day newborn boys in two aborigines of Sistani and Baluchi who were resident in Zahedan. Materials and Methods: The investigation is based on cross-sectional analytical descriptions of 420 newborn aborig...

  4. Low frequency oscillations in cephalic vessels assessed by near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Phillip, Dorte; Schytz, Henrik W; Selb, Juliette;

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND METHODS: Low frequency oscillations (LFO) of cerebral vessels are believed to reflect cerebral autoregulation. We investigated day-to-day and hemispheric variations in 0.1 Hz LFO with near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and transcranial Doppler (TCD) to determine phase shift and gain...... of oxygenated haemoglobin (oxyHb) and the velocity of the middle cerebral artery (Vmca) to the arterial blood pressure (ABP). The direct left-right phase shifts of oxyHb and Vmca were also assessed. We examined 44 healthy volunteers by simultaneous recordings of ABP, oxyHb and Vmca during spontaneous...

  5. Immunocytochemical distribution of pigment-dispersing hormone in the cephalic ganglia of polyneopteran insects

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sehadová, Hana; Šauman, Ivo; Sehnal, František

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 312, - (2003), s. 113-125. ISSN 0302-766X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0043; GA AV ČR IAA5007205; GA AV ČR KSK5052113 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5007907 Keywords : PDF * PDH * accessory medulla Subject RIV: EA - Cell Biology Impact factor: 2.991, year: 2003

  6. Cephalic phase secretion of insulin and other enteropancreatic hormones in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veedfald, Simon; Plamboeck, Astrid; Deacon, Carolyn F; Hartmann, Bolette; Knop, Filip K; Vilsbøll, Tina; Holst, Jens J

    2016-01-01

    mmol/l on all days. The meal stimulus for the MSF consisted of an appetizing breakfast. Participants (9/10) also had a 6 mmol/l glucose clamp without MSF. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP) levels rose from 6.3 ± 1.1 to 19.9 ± 6.8 pmol/l (means ± SE) in response to MSF and atropine lowered basal PP levels and...

  7. Vasoactive intestinal peptide causes marked cephalic vasodilation, but does not induce migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rahmann, A.; Wienecke, T.; Hansen, J.M.;

    2008-01-01

    We hypothesized that intravenous infusion of the parasympathetic transmitter, vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP), might induce migraine attacks in migraineurs. Twelve patients with migraine without aura were allocated to receive 8 pmol kg(-1) min(-1) VIP or placebo in a randomized, double...... significantly after VIP (45.9 +/- 13.9%). VIP mediates a marked dilation of cranial arteries, but does not trigger migraine attacks in migraineurs. These data provide further evidence against a purely vascular origin of migraine Udgivelsesdato: 2008/3...

  8. Reliability of movement workspace measurements in a passive arm orthosis used in spinal cord injury rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudhe Claudia

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic and non-robotic training devices are increasingly being used in the rehabilitation of upper limb function in subjects with neurological disorders. As well as being used for training such devices can also provide ongoing assessments during the training sessions. Therefore, it is mandatory to understand the reliability and validity of such measurements when used in a clinical setting. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of movement measures as assessed in the Armeo Spring system for the eventual application to the rehabilitation of patients suffering from cervical spinal cord injury (SCI. Methods Reliability (intra- and inter-rater reliability of the movement workspace (representing multiple ranges of movement and the influence of varying seating conditions (5 different chair conditions was assessed in twenty control subjects. In eight patients with cervical SCI the test-retest reliability (tested twice on the same day by the same rater was assessed as well as a correlation of the movement workspace to retrieve self-care items as scored by the spinal cord independence measure (SCIM 3. Results Analysis of workspace measures in control subjects revealed intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC ranging from 0.747 to 0.837 for the intra-rater reliability and from 0.661 to 0.855 for the inter-rater reliability. Test-retest analysis in SCI patients showed a similar high reliability with ICC = 0.858. Also the reliability of the movement workspace between different seating conditions was good with ICCs ranging from 0.844 to 0.915. The movement workspace correlated significantly with the SCIM3 self-care items (p  Conclusion The upper limb movement workspace measures assessed in the Armeo Spring device revealed fair to good clinical reliability. These findings suggest that measures retrieved from such a training device can be used to monitor changes in upper limb function over time. The correlation between the workspace measures and SCIM3 self-care items indicates that such measures might also be valuable to document the progress of clinical rehabilitation, however further detailed studies are required.

  9. The use of reciprocal orthosis in the medical rehabilitation of children with musculocutaneous diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Chernyshova, Irina; Shevchenko, Stanislav; Petrov, Volodymyr; Pivovarov, Victor

    2009-01-01

    The treatment of neuromuscular diseases is a global medical and social problem. The motor schedule for this category of patients is especially important. An apparatus, which provides a reciprocal gait with minimum energy consumption due to a “walking” gait-modelling device, was developed at the Ukrainian Research Institute of Prosthetics, Prosthesis Making and Working Capacity Restoration and passed clinical trials. The verticalization and the ability to move promoted improvement in the physi...

  10. Inhibitory effect of BIBN4096BS on cephalic vasodilatation induced by CGRP or transcranial electrical stimulation in the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Kenneth A; Birk, Steffen; Doods, Henri;

    2004-01-01

    therapeutic principle. We used an improved closed cranial window model to measure changes of the middle meningeal artery (MMA) and cortical pial artery/arteriole diameter (PA) and changes in local cortical cerebral blood flow (LCBF(Flux)) in anaesthetised artificially ventilated rats. The ability of BIBN4096...... LCBF(Flux) was similar not prevented by the antagonist. We suggest that systemic BIBN4096BS exerts its inhibitory action mainly on large dural blood vessels (MMA)....

  11. Does Maturity Affect Cephalic Perfusion and T/QRS Ratio during Prolonged Umbilical Cord Occlusion in Fetal Sheep?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Wassink

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available T/QRS ratio monitoring is used to help identify fetal asphyxia. However, immature animals have greater capacity to maintain blood pressure during severe asphyxia, raising the possibility that they may show an attenuated T/QRS increase during asphyxia. Chronically instrumented fetal sheep at 0.6 of gestation (0.6 GA; n = 12, 0.7 GA (n = 12, and 0.8 GA (n = 8 underwent complete umbilical cord occlusion for 30 min, 25 min, or 15 min, respectively. Cord occlusion was associated with progressive metabolic acidosis and initial hypertension followed by severe hypotension, with a more rapid fall in mean arterial blood pressure (MAP and carotid blood flow (CaBF with advancing gestation. T/QRS ratio rose after occlusion more rapidly at 0.8 GA than in immature fetuses, to a similar final peak at all ages, followed by a progressive fall that was slower at 0.8 GA than in the immature fetuses. The increase in T/QRS ratio correlated with initial hypertension at 0.8 GA (P<0.05, R2 = 0.38, and conversely, its fall correlated closely with falling MAP in all gestational groups (P<0.01, R2 = 0.67. In conclusion, elevation of the T/QRS ratio is an index of onset of severe asphyxia in the last third of gestation, but not of fetal compromise.

  12. Dietary restraint and responsiveness to sensory-based food cues as measured by cephalic phase salivation and sensory specific satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tepper, B J

    1992-08-01

    Responsiveness to sensory-based food cues was examined in restrained and unrestrained, normal-weight subjects identified with the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire. Salivary flow rate was measured with no food present and while subjects viewed hot pizza. In the presence of food, restrained eaters had a mean salivary flow rate (0.388 g/min) greater than twice that of the unrestrained eaters (0.186 g/min). During sensory specific satiety testing, subjects tasted and rated the pleasantness of 9 foods, then received a meal of either cheese and crackers or cookies. Changes in pleasantness for the tasted foods were evaluated at 2, 20, and 40 min following the meal. Both restrained and unrestrained subjects displayed similar patterns of sensory specific satiety, i.e., the pleasantness foods which were eaten decreased relative to foods tasted but not eaten. These patterns were unaffected by the type of food consumed in the test meal. These data demonstrate that restrained eaters show moderately enhanced salivary responses but no changes in sensory-specific satiety to food stimuli, suggesting that heightened responsiveness to the sensory properties of foods may not be a generalized phenomenon in restrained eaters. PMID:1523258

  13. First Chemical Analysis and Characterization of the Male Species-Specific Cephalic Labial-Gland Secretions of South American Bumblebees

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brasero, N.; Martinet, B.; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Torres, A.; Hoffmann, W.; Rasmont, P.; Lecocq, T.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 10 (2015), s. 1535-1546. ISSN 1612-1872 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : male marking pheromone * labial gland secretions * Thoracobombus * Cullumanobombus Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.515, year: 2014

  14. Structure of the female cephalic end and cuticular ornamentations of Paraphilometroides nemipteri (Nematoda: Philometridae), as revealed by SEM

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Moravec, František

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 4 (2010), s. 313-314. ISSN 0015-5683 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC522 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Paraphilometroides * Nemipterus * Malaysia Subject RIV: GJ - Animal Vermins ; Diseases, Veterinary Medicine Impact factor: 1.533, year: 2010

  15. Reduction of cephalic arteriovenous shunting by ergotamine is not mediated by 5-HT1-like or 5-HT2 receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Bom, A.H.; Heiligers, J. P.; Saxena, P R; Verdouw, P. D.

    1989-01-01

    1. The potent, antimigraine drug ergotamine has affinity for both 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 binding sites and constricts arteriovenous anastomoses. Since 5-HT also constricts arteriovenous anastomoses (mainly via 5-HT1-like receptors), this study investigates the involvement of 5-HT receptors in the ergotamine-induced reduction of arteriovenous shunting in the carotid circulation of the cat and pig. 2. In the cat, ergotamine (3, 10 and 30 micrograms kg-1, i.v.) reduced carotid blood flow, predominantly...

  16. Reduced cephalic labial glands in the male bumblebees of the subgenus Rhodobombus Dalla Torre (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Bombus Latreille)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Terzo, M.; Coppens, P.; Valterová, Irena; Toubeau, G.; Rasmont, P.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 4 (2007), s. 497-503. ISSN 0037-9271 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4055403 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : Bombus mesomelas * Bombus terrestris * ultrastructure * sexual pheromones Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 0.823, year: 2007

  17. Design and Characterization of a Novel High-Power Series Elastic Actuator for a Lower Limb Robotic Orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Accoto

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available A safe interaction is crucial in wearable robotics in general, while in assistive and rehabilitation applications, robots may also be required to minimally perturb physiological movements, ideally acting as perfectly transparent machines. The actuation system plays a central role because the expected performance, in terms of torque, speed and control bandwidth, must not be achieved at the expense of lightness and compactness. Actuators embedding compliant elements, such as series elastic actuators, can be designed to meet the above-mentioned requirements in terms of high energy storing capacity and stability of torque control. A number of series elastic actuators have been proposed over the past 20 years in order to accommodate the needs arising from specific applications. This paper presents a novel series elastic actuator intended for the actuation system of a lower limb wearable robot, recently developed in our lab. The actuator is able to deliver 300 W and has a novel architecture making its centre of mass not co-located with its axis of rotation, for an easier integration into the robotic structure. A custom-made torsion spring with a stiffness of 272.25 N·m·rad−1 is directly connected to the load. The delivered torque is calculated from the measurement of the spring deflection, through two absolute encoders. Testing on torque measurement accuracy and torque/stiffness control are reported.

  18. Design and Characterization of a Novel High-Power Series Elastic Actuator for a Lower Limb Robotic Orthosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dino Accoto; Giorgio Carpino; Fabrizio Sergi; Nevio Luigi Tagliamonte; Loredana Zollo; Eugenio Guglielmelli

    2013-01-01

    A safe interaction is crucial in wearable robotics in general, while in assistive and rehabilitation applications, robots may also be required to minimally perturb physiological movements, ideally acting as perfectly transparent machines. The actuation system plays a central role because the expected performance, in terms of torque, speed and control bandwidth, must not be achieved at the expense of lightness and compactness. Actuators embedding compliant elements, such as series elastic actu...

  19. Numerical and experimental investigation of the structural behavior of a carbon fiber reinforced ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stier, Bertram; Simon, Jaan-Willem; Reese, Stefanie

    2015-05-01

    Ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) are designed to enhance the gait function of individuals with motor impairments. Recent AFOs are often made of laminated composites due to their high stiffness and low density. Since the performance of AFO is primarily influenced by their structural stiffness, the investigation of the mechanical response is very important for the design. The aim of this paper is to present a three dimensional multi-scale structural analysis methodology to speed up the design process of AFO. The multi-scale modeling procedure was applied such that the intrinsic micro-structure of the fiber reinforced laminates could be taken into account. In particular, representative volume elements were used on the micro-scale, where fiber and matrix were treated separately, and on the textile scale of the woven structure. For the validation of this methodology, experimental data were generated using digital image correlation (DIC) measurements. Finally, the structural behavior of the whole AFO was predicted numerically for a specific loading scenario and compared with experimental results. It was shown that the proposed numerical multi-scale scheme is well suited for the prediction of the structural behavior of AFOs, validated by the comparison of local strain fields as well as the global force-displacement curves. PMID:25765189

  20. CONTRIBUTIONS REFERRING TO A TERRITORIAL MODEL FOR DEVELOPMENT OF THE ECONOMY BASED ON KNOWLEGDE (METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK)

    OpenAIRE

    Mihail Dumitrescu; Lavinia Ţoţan

    2007-01-01

    This paper presented a short evolution of the concepts until the knowledge economy. It is mentioned the filosofy of the research which containts: the objectives of the projects, the changes in the preparation levels of human resources, the evolution of informational processes. The model also containts the determination of the characterizing indicators for the knowledge economy at territorial level with the computing relations, and also the evaluation on statistical bases.

  1. 液晶显示器用聚酰亚胺取向膜的合成与性能研究Ⅱ.主链含柔性基团的聚酰亚胺液晶取向膜的合成与性能研究%Synthesis and Characterization of polyimide alignment films for LCDⅡ.Synthesis and charactenization of polyimide alignment film containting flexible linkage in the backbones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘金刚; 王强; 朱普坤; 李佐邦; 杨士勇

    2000-01-01

      在以前的工作中,对液晶显示器(LCD)用聚酰亚胺取向膜进行了分子设计,并在此基础上合成了一类双醚二胺单体。本文采用所合成的两种双醚二胺单体:4,4'-双(氨基苯氧基)二苯甲酮(BAPB)与单醚二酐:3,3',4,4'-二苯醚四羧酸二酐(ODPA)合成了一种主链含柔性基团(—O—)的有机可溶性聚酰亚胺(PI)。对其进行了热性能、电性能、电光性能等表征,证明所合成的PI对液晶分子具有较好的取向效果,具有一定的应用前景。%  The molecular structure of polyimide alignment layer for Liquid Crystal Display(LCD) was designed in our previous work. In this research, according to the result of the design, a kind of polyimide alignment layer was synthesized by using the synthesized double-ether diamine monomers: 4,4'-bis(aminophenoxy)benzophenone(BAPB), 4,4'-bis(aminophenoxy)propane(BAPP) and a single-ether dianhydride monomer: 3,3',4,4'-oxydiphthalic dianhydride(ODPA). Because of the ether bonds in the molecular chain, the synthesized polyimide could be solved in organic solvents. The thermal properties, electrical properties, electro-optical properties were characterized at the same time.

  2. An SEM study of the cephalic region, buccal cavity and male tail of the species of the genus Strongylus Müller, 1780 (Nematoda, Strongyloidea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, L M

    1984-06-01

    The four species of the genus Strongylus Müller, 1780, namely, S. equinus, S. edentatus, S. vulgaris and S. asini were examined with the scanning electron microscope (SEM). The buccal cavity of each species was cut transversely and longitudinally and the scanning electron micrographs illustrate the shape of the buccal cavity and the dorsal gutter. The micrographs also show the presence of denticles near the oral rim of the buccal cavity of S. edentatus and the shape of the teeth in the buccal cavity of S. equinus, S. vulgaris and S. asini. The bursa of the four species has three symmetrical lobes, one dorsal and two lateral. The length of the three lobes in relation to each other varies between the species. The genital cone has a single large ventral papilla, a pair of dorsal raylets, a median dorsal cuticular appendage and a variety of cuticular appendages lateral and ventral to the cloaca. The development and arrangement of these components differs between the four species of the genus and can be used as a supportive character for specific identification. PMID:6747258

  3. Morfología cefálica en el Cavall pirinenc català (Cephalic morphology in the Cavall pirinenc català breed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pere-Miquel Parés i Casanova

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available ResumenSe han analizado 35 variables métricas de 19 cráneos procedentes deanimales adultos de la raza equina Cavall Pirinenc Català,procediendo a su estudio por Análisis de Componentes Principales.Las variables relacionadas con la anchura del neurocráneo, laslongitudes ventrales y las variables relacionadas con la órbita ocularson muy poco discriminantes. En cambio, las variables relacionadascon el viscerocráneo aparecen como especialmente discriminantes.Proponemos dar un especial énfasis, en estudios raciales equinossobre material óseo, al trabajo con las medidas que corresponden aesta zona (longitud del diastema, anchura mínima del espaciointeralveolar, longitud de la línea ocular anterior, altura facialcranealmente a P2, altura facial entre P4 y M1, asi como la LongitudFrontal.SummaryThirty-five metric parameters were taken on 19 skulls belonging toadult Cavall Pirinenc Català horse breed and were subjected to aPrincipal Component Analysis. Parameters related with neurocraniumwidth, ventral lengths and those related with ocular orbit are poorlydiscriminants. On the other hand, parameters related withviscerocranium are strongly discriminant. Our study strengths theimportance in using parameters linked to viscerocranium, and frontallength, in equine racial studies on bone.

  4. Does behaviour replace male scent marking in some bumble bees? Evidence of the absence of sexual marking cephalic secretion in the subgenus Rhodobombus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Terzo, M.; Coppens, P.; Valterová, Irena; Toubeau, G.; Rasmont, P.

    Washington : International Society of Chemical Ecology, 2005. s. 141. [ISCE Annual Meeting /21./. 23.07.2005-27.07.2005, Washington] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : bumblebee males * marking pheromone Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  5. Purely cutaneous sclerosing IgG4-related disease of the cephalic region: case report and a mini-review of the clinical and pathological aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscardin, Luca; Paolino, Giovanni; Panetta, Chiara; Donati, Pietro

    2016-06-01

    IgG4-related disease is a recently defined emerging entity. Many different organs may be affected by this disease: pancreas, salivary and lacrimal glands, liver, peritoneum and lung. Also the skin may be affected, as secondary localization, while as primary cutaneous localization it has been rarely described. A male patient presented at our Institute with a two-year history of sclerosing erythematous nodules of the scalp. Histological examination showed a T-lymphocyte (CD3+) infiltrate with interspersed plasmacytoid cells and the interposition of a fibrosclerotic tissue. We found numerous IgG4+ cells at the periphery of the nodular structures, while the serum levels of IgG4 and the remaining blood chemistry analysis were normal. Only a few cases of primitive cutaneous pseudo-lymphomatous IgG4-related disease have been described in the literature. Our case showed the same clinical and histologic features of those previously described; the etiology of IgG4-related diseases remains to be elucidated. PMID:26340764

  6. First Autologous Cord Blood Therapy for Pediatric Ischemic Stroke and Cerebral Palsy Caused by Cephalic Molding during Birth: Individual Treatment with Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelmann, E.

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial laceration due to traumatic birth injury is an extremely rare event affecting approximately one newborn per a population of 4.5 million. However, depending on the mode of injury, the resulting brain damage may lead to lifelong sequelae, for example, cerebral palsy for which there is no cure at present. Here we report a rare case of neonatal arterial ischemic stroke and cerebral palsy caused by fetal traumatic molding and parietal depression of the head during delivery caused by functional cephalopelvic disproportion due to a “long pelvis.” This patient was treated by autologous cord blood mononuclear cells (45.8 mL, cryopreserved, TNC 2.53 × 10e8) with a remarkable recovery. Active rehabilitation was provided weekly. Follow-up examinations were at 3, 18, 34, and 57 months. Generous use of neonatal head MRI in case of molding, craniofacial deformity, and a sentinel event during parturition is advocated to enhance diagnosis of neonatal brain damage as a basis for fast and potentially causative treatment modalities including autologous cord blood transplantation in a timely manner. PMID:27239361

  7. Exoskeleton Morphology of Three Species of Preponini, with Discussion of Morphological Similarities among Neotropical Charaxinae (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae)-I. Head, Cephalic Appendages, and Cervix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfantti, Dayana; Casagrande, Mirna Martins; Mielke, Olaf Hermann Hendrik

    2015-06-01

    The present study compares the morphology of the head, appendages, and cervical region of three species of the butterflies Archaeoprepona demophon demophon (Linnaeus, 1758), Archaeoprepona licomedes licomedes (Cramer, 1777), and Prepona pylene pylene Hewitson, [1854], through descriptions, illustrations, and scanning electron micrographs. The results are compared with Prepona claudina annetta (Gray, 1832), Memphis moruus stheno Hübner, [1819], and Zaretis itys itylus (Westwood, 1850), showing unique characteristics for each species and/or genus, or characteristics shared among the species analyzed. The detailed morphology of these three species was previouslyunknown. PMID:26003984

  8. Use of External Cephalic Version and Amnioreduction in the Delivery of a Fetal Demise with Macrocephaly Secondary to Massive Intracranial Teratoma

    OpenAIRE

    Blitz, Matthew J.; Elizabeth Greeley; Hima Tam Tam; Burton Rochelson

    2015-01-01

    Introduction - Congenital intracranial tumors are rare and often incidentally diagnosed on routine ultrasound. We report a case of a fetal demise with a massive intracranial teratoma at 25 weeks of gestation and the management of her delivery in the setting of macrocephaly, breech presentation, and polyhydramnios. Case - A 31-year-old G3P1011 woman at 25 weeks' gestation presented with a recent fetal demise and a fetal intracranial tumor first identified at 16 weeks' gestational age. The ...

  9. Effect of toe-spread-out exercise on hallux valgus angle and cross-sectional area of abductor hallucis muscle in subjects with hallux valgus

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Moon-Hwan; Yi, Chung-hwi; Weon, Jong-hyuck; Cynn, Heon-Seock; Jung, Do-Young; Kwon, Oh-yun

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated whether the toe-spread-out exercise affects the hallux valgus angle, the cross-sectional area of the abductor hallucis muscle, and the hallux valgus angle during active abduction. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-four subjects with hallux valgus were randomly assigned to orthosis and orthosis plus toe-spread-out exercise groups. The orthosis group wore the orthosis for 8 weeks, while the orthosis plus toe-spread-out group also performed the toe-spread-out exerci...

  10. The Effects of a Token Economy System on the Inappropriate Verbalizations of Emotional Support Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stover, Karen

    This paper reports on the application of a token economy approach to increase on-task behavior and decrease inappropriate "call-outs" of nine seventh and eighth grade Caucasian male students in a self-containted emotional support classroom. The program included a behavioral contract, token economy "bucks" kept in a classroom bank, and a list of 12…

  11. Podnikatelský plán soukromého zařízení pro děti předškolního věku

    OpenAIRE

    Němečková, Klára

    2008-01-01

    My work judges the business plan of private créche for children to free years old. The first part of my work mens revers with business plan, with its requirements, with its containt and with requirements for establishment of company in this sector. Practical part concretes business plan and judges its chance for a success.

  12. The Incidence of Complications Associated With Molding Helmet Therapy: An Avoidable Risk in the Treatment of Positional Head Deformities?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freudlsperger, Christian; Bodem, Jens P; Kargus, Steffen; Castrillon-Oberndorfer, Gregor; Hoffman, Jürgen; Engel, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Molding helmet therapy using an individual head orthosis presents a widely accepted treatment option for children with positional head deformities; however, studies addressing the incidence of complications during helmet therapy are rare. The current study evaluates the incidence of complications in 205 children with positional head deformity undergoing molding helmet therapy. Children were classified according to the severity of their deformity as presented by the Cranial Vault Asymmetry Index (CVAI) and the Cephalic Index (CI). Fifty-nine (28.8%) of our patients presented a moderate and 146 (71.2%) a severe form of a positional head deformity. Of these children, 166 (81.0%) were diagnosed for plagiocephaly, 19 (9.3%) were brachycephalic, and 20 (9.7%) showed a combination of plagiocephaly and brachycephaly. Overall, 54 children (26.3%) showed minor complications during their helmet molding including pressure sores (13.7%), ethanol erythema (2.9%), skin erosions/skin infections (4.3%), or deficient fitting (5.4%). Children with a combination of plagiocephaly and brachycephaly (n = 20) showed the highest risk for complications, which was significantly higher compared with children with plagiocephaly (50% vs 22.3%; P = 0.012). Irrespective of the type of positional head deformity, no statistical difference was revealed between the moderate and the severe form. Minor complications are a relatively frequent event during helmet molding therapy. Especially children with a combination of plagiocephaly-brachycephaly are at high risk for complications. A reduction of this rate might be reached by a close follow-up for a short period between helmet manufacturing adjustments. PMID:26080239

  13. Estimating Ground Inclination Using Strain Sensors with Fourier Series Representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ulf Holmberg; Wolfgang Svensson

    2010-01-01

    An embedded measurement system for foot orthosis during gait is proposed. Strain gauge sensors were mounted on a foot orthosis to give information about strain in the sagittal plane. The ankle angle of the orthosis was fixed and strain characteristics were therefore changed when walking on slopes. With a Fourier series representation of the strain during a gait cycle, ground angle at different walking speeds and inclinations could be estimated with similar accuracy as previous studies using k...

  14. Efeito do uso de órtese de punho na ativação da musculatura flexora e extensora do punho Effect of the use of wrist orthosis on forearm muscle activation

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Maria Valladão Novais Van Petten; Antônio Ferreira Ávila

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Analisar o efeito do uso de órtese de imobilização do punho, confeccionada com diferentes materiais, na ativação da musculatura flexora e extensora do antebraço durante a realização de tarefas específicas. MÉTODOS: Vinte e seis adultos, com média de idade de 26,2 anos, foram submetidos aos Testes Funcional da Mão de Jebsen-Taylor e de Força de Preensão (dinamômetro Jamar®) em três condições: com a mão livre, com o uso de órtese de compósito e com a órtese de termomoldável. Os testes...

  15. Effect of wearing a dorsiflexion assist orthosis on mobility, perceived fatigue and exertion during the six-minute walk test in people with multiple sclerosis: a randomised cross-over protocol

    OpenAIRE

    McLoughlin James; Barr Christopher; Sturnieks Daina; Lord Stephen; Crotty Maria

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Fatigue in combination with gait and balance impairments can severely limit daily activities in people with multiple sclerosis (PWMS). Generalised fatigue has a major impact on walking ability, with moderately disabled PWMS experiencing difficulty in walking extended distances. Localised motor fatigue in the ankle dorsiflexors can lead to foot drop, further reducing functional ambulation. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a simple dynamic dorsiflexion assi...

  16. Treatment of Idiopathic Scoliosis by Orthosis Combinated with Orthopedic Gymnastics%矫形支具配合矫正体操对特发性脊柱侧弯的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范亚蓓; 王彤; 王红星; 王春兰; 赵勇; 李涛; 钱开林

    2007-01-01

    目的:探讨脊柱矫形器配合矫正体操治疗特发性脊柱侧弯患者的疗效.方法:40例特发性脊柱侧弯患儿.均每天穿戴矫形支具时间23h并配合脊柱矫正体操练习,要求达到凸侧肌肉收缩,凹侧肌肉牵伸,每次30min,每天1-2次.穿戴期间定期X线片检查脊柱Cobb角.结果:1年后随访,40例患儿中33例能坚持穿戴矫形支具和进行矫正体操练习;胸椎、腰椎Cobb 角与治疗前比较均降低(P<0.05).单弧侧弯治疗的效果比双弧更明显(P<0.05).结论:矫形支具配合矫正体操治疗能矫正脊柱侧弯畸形,是治疗特发性脊柱侧弯的一种有价值的方法.

  17. Uso y lectura turística de los grandes conjuntos arqueológicos. Reflexiones a partir del Estudio de Público de Medina Azahara / Madinat al-Zahra (Córdoba)

    OpenAIRE

    María García Hernández; Manuel de la Calle Vaquero

    2010-01-01

    Heritage managers have realized a great effort in order to prepare archaeological sites for the public visit. In a context of rapid growth of the tourist cultural flows, many of the archaeological elements have been incorporated as tourist resources to the strategies of socioeconomic local development. Nevertheless visitor studies has been one of the aspects least treated in Spain though it is one of the most important parts of projects of museology. This paper containts a few reflections on ...

  18. Vliv genotypu na obsah rutinu v rostlinách rodu \\kur{(Fagopyrum)}

    OpenAIRE

    Králová, Martina

    2008-01-01

    The bachelor work is focused on evaluation of the influence of buckwheat species and variety on rutin containt in particular plant parts, on the total rutin yield per hectare production and on comparison varietal differences between both species, common buckwheat \\kur{(Fagopyrum)}esculentum)} Moench) and tartary buckwheat \\kur{(Fagopyrum tataricum)}. Rutin is a flavonol (quercetin-3-O- rutinosid) which is also called P vitamin. As well as it is known as the permeability factor or factor allow...

  19. Opensourcové řešení redakčního systému a elektronického obchodu

    OpenAIRE

    Moravcová, Iva

    2008-01-01

    This bachelor thesis describes one of possible solutions how create web pages and internet shop by opensource software, especially web content managment system Wordpress. First part of thesis is about Wordpress and containts database and features description of Wordpress version 2.7 At the end is mentioned the procedure of instalation and general recommended settings. Second part is engaged in online shopping plugins for this system. The three most frequently used plugins - WP ShoppingCart, W...

  20. Bezpečnost počítačových sítí

    OpenAIRE

    Hollas, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This thesis called The Computer network security and it is about the network and the most important LAN and WAN. The first chapter is focused on basic principles these network by the explanations protocols, which usually use on the computers network. In the next chapters containts the basic security of the computer network. Next is devoting space the most common used attacks on the computer network and the security opposit side. In describes individual of attacks are givens examples of attack...

  1. Towards compliant and wearable robotic orthoses: A review of current and emerging actuator technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veale, Allan Joshua; Xie, Shane Quan

    2016-04-01

    Robotic orthoses, or exoskeletons, have the potential to provide effective rehabilitation while overcoming the availability and cost constraints of therapists. However, current orthosis actuation systems use components designed for industrial applications, not specifically for interacting with humans. This can limit orthoses' capabilities and, if their users' needs are not adequately considered, contribute to their abandonment. Here, a user centered review is presented on: requirements for orthosis actuators; the electric, hydraulic, and pneumatic actuators currently used in orthoses and their advantages and limitations; the potential of new actuator technologies, including smart materials, to actuate orthoses; and the future of orthosis actuator research. PMID:26923385

  2. Somatic effects in man due to chronic radiation exposure: Health effects from fallout and radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The detailed review containts a short introduction and the following chapters: 1. Background of nuclear technology with special emphasis on the production and toxicity of nuclear fuels; 2. The nuclear power industry (mainly dealing with the growth of the industry and the Chernobyl accident); 3. The use of nuclear weapons and their effects; 4. Health studies of populations around the Rocky Flats nuclear plant, the Windscale nuclear plant and the Savannah River nuclear installation; 5. Health studies of populations exposed to radioactive clouds and plumes, residing in a contaminated environment and ingesting food and water containing fallout radionuclides. (MG)

  3. Estimulación eléctrica invasiva de C2-C3 en el tratamiento del dolor cefálico y facial: Neuralgia occipital. Migraña transformada. Cefalea en racimos. Algias faciales C2-C3 Invasive Electrical Stimulation for the Treatment of Cephalic and Facial Pain: Occipital Neuralgia. Transformed Migraine. Cluster Headache. Facial Algias

    OpenAIRE

    M. D. Rodrigo; Quero, J; P. Cía; R. Escartín; P. Acín; C. Bono; C. Polo

    2008-01-01

    Introducción. La estimulación eléctrica extraespinal periférica cervico-occipital, llevada a cabo con un sistema implantado, es una técnica quirúrgica poco cruenta que puede proporcionar buenos resultados en pacientes con dolor neuropático refractario localizado en región cefálica y facial. Presentamos treinta y cuatro pacientes con dolor cervico-facial de larga evolución, persitente, severo, no controlado, de diferentes etiologías, en los que se habían agotado otras posibilidades terapéutica...

  4. Uso de órtese para abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de criança portadora de paralisia cerebral: estudo de caso único Use of abduction thumb orthosis in functional performance of a child with cerebral palsy: a single-subject study

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana M. Valladão N. Rodrigues; Mancini, Marisa C.; Daniela V. Vaz; Lílian de Castro Silva

    2007-01-01

    OBJETIVOS: documentar o impacto do uso da órtese de abdução do polegar no desempenho funcional de uma criança hemiparética com leve espasticidade. MÉTODOS: foi utilizado um desenho experimental de caso-único do tipo AB. A fase A consistiu na coleta de dados durante um período sem intervenção (condição controle). A fase B incluiu o uso de órtese de abdução do polegar como procedimento terapêutico associado ao atendimento de terapia ocupacional tradicional. A fase A teve a duração de seis seman...

  5. Comparison of owner satisfaction between stifle joint orthoses and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy for the management of cranial cruciate ligament disease in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Juliette L; May, Kimberly D; Kieves, Nina R; Mich, Patrice M; Goh, Clara S S; Palmer, Ross H; Duerr, Felix M

    2016-08-15

    OBJECTIVE To compare owner satisfaction between custom-made stifle joint orthoses and tibial plateau leveling osteotomy (TPLO) for the management of medium- and large-breed dogs with cranial cruciate ligament disease (CCLD). DESIGN Owner survey. SAMPLE 819 and 203 owners of dogs with CCLD that were managed with a custom-made stifle joint orthosis or TPLO, respectively. PROCEDURES Client databases of an orthosis provider and veterinary teaching hospital were reviewed to identify potential survey respondents. An online survey was developed to evaluate owner-reported outcomes, complications, and satisfaction associated with the nonsurgical (orthosis group) and surgical (TPLO group) interventions. Survey responses were compared between groups. RESULTS The response rate was 25% (203/819) and 37% (76/203) for the orthosis and TPLO groups, respectively. The proportion of owners who reported that their dogs had mild or no lameness and rated the intervention as excellent, very good, or good was significantly greater for the TPLO group than for the orthosis group. However, ≥ 85% of respondents in both groups reported that they would choose the selected treatment again. Of 151 respondents from the orthosis group, 70 (46%) reported skin lesions associated with the device, 16 (11%) reported that the dog subsequently underwent surgery, and 10 (7%) reported that the dog never tolerated the device. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results indicated high owner satisfaction rates for both interventions. Owners considering nonsurgical management with an orthosis should be advised about potential complications such as persistent lameness, skin lesions, patient intolerance of the device, and the need for subsequent surgery. PMID:27479283

  6. An EMG-Controlled SMA Device for the Rehabilitation of the Ankle Joint in Post-Acute Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, S.; Viscuso, S.

    2011-07-01

    The capacity of flexing one's ankle is an indispensible segment of gait re-learning, as imbalance, wrong compensatory use of other joints and risk of falling may depend on the so-called drop-foot. The rehabilitation of ankle dorsiflexion may be achieved through active exercising of the relevant musculature (especially tibialis anterior, TA). This can be troublesome for patients affected by weakness and flaccid paresis. Thus, as needs evolve during patient's improvements, a therapeutic device should be able to guide and sustain gradual recovery by providing commensurate aid. This includes exploiting even initial attempts at voluntary motion and turns those into effective workout. An active orthosis powered by two rotary actuators containing NiTi wire was designed to obtain ankle dorsiflexion. A computer routine that analyzes the electromyographic (sEMG) signal from TA muscle is used to control the orthosis and trigger its activation. The software also provides instructions and feed-back for the patient. Tests on the orthosis proved that it can produce strokes up to 36° against resisting torques exceeding 180 Ncm. Three healthy subjects were able to control the orthosis by modulating their TA sEMG activity. The movement produced in the preliminary tests is interesting for lower limb rehabilitation, and will be further improved by optimizing body-orthosis interface. It is hoped that this device will enhance early rehabilitation and recovery of ankle mobility in stroke patients.

  7. Series elastic actuator control of a powered exoskeleton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragonesi, Daniel; Agrawal, Sunil; Sample, Whitney; Rahman, Tariq

    2011-01-01

    A motorized upper extremity orthosis based on the passive WREX system is being developed. The orthosis is a 4 dof arm controlled by user residual force inputs. The arm is intended for people with neuromuscular weakness due to muscular dystrophy or spinal muscular atrophy. Previous work determined that actuation in parallel with gravity balancing springs required less torque than actuation in series. Compliance is achieved by using a series elastic actuator (SEA) by placing torsional springs between the motors and the WREX. A torque control was implemented on the SEA at the joint level. The response of the control law was characterized without disturbances. The SEAs were then attached to the orthosis to test the response with disturbances, and the control provided accurate joint torques. PMID:22255098

  8. Couple Control Model Implementation on Antagonistic Mono- and Bi-Articular Actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Prattico, Flavio; Yamamoto, Shin-ichiroh

    2014-01-01

    Recently, robot assisted therapy devices are increasingly used for spinal cord injury (SCI) rehabilitation in assisting handicapped patients to regain their impaired movements. Assistive robotic systems may not be able to cure or fully compensate impairments, but it should be able to assist certain impaired functions and ease movements. In this study, a couple control model for lower-limb orthosis of a body weight support gait training system is proposed. The developed leg orthosis implements the use of pneumatic artificial muscle as an actuation system. The pneumatic muscle was arranged antagonistically to form two pair of mono-articular muscles (i.e., hip and knee joints), and a pair of bi-articular actuators (i.e., rectus femoris and hamstring). The results of the proposed couple control model showed that, it was able to simultaneously control the antagonistic mono- and bi-articular actuators and sufficiently performed walking motion of the leg orthosis.

  9. Effects of rearfoot-controlling orthotic treatment on dorsiflexion of the hallux in feet with abnormal subtalar pronation: a preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munuera, Pedro V; Domínguez, Gabriel; Palomo, Inmaculada C; Lafuente, Guillermo

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the treatment of abnormal subtalar pronation restores functional (as opposed to structural) limited dorsiflexion of the first metatarsophalangeal joint (functional hallux limitus). We studied 16 feet of eight individuals with abnormal subtalar pronation. Orthoses were made for all of the feet, and hallux dorsiflexion was measured during weightbearing. Each patient was unshod without the orthosis, unshod with the orthosis fitted on the same day, and unshod with the orthosis fitted approximately 5 months later. The results suggest that in functional hallux limitus caused by abnormal subtalar pronation, hallux dorsiflexion will gradually be restored by the use of foot orthoses to control the abnormal subtalar pronation. PMID:16868319

  10. Pathology-designed custom molded foot orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbloom, Kevin B

    2011-01-01

    Treating patients with custom foot orthoses for common pathologies is a rewarding experience when the proper steps are taken during foot casting and custom-orthosis prescription writing. This article describes successful methods for orthoses casting and prescription writing for custom-molded orthoses for Achilles tendonitis, pes planus, hallux limitus, plantar fasciitis/heel spurs, lateral ankle instability, metatarsalgia, and pes cavus. In addition, a summary of orthotic laboratory instructions for each pathology-designed custom orthosis is provided, which should be considered by orthotic laboratories. PMID:21276525

  11. Augmenting Locomotion in an Anthropomorphic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Wight

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available A powered orthosis has applications ranging from assisting the elderly to augmenting astronauts. An assistive control scheme is developed that uses the force from a slave actuator to augment the force of a master actuator. This can be used to augment a closed-loop control scheme applied to the master actuator. Initially, actuator augmentation is explored both theoretically and experimentally using a simple mechanical system. The control scheme is then applied to a scale model of human lower limbs on a stationary bicycle to investigate the feasibility of a powered orthosis using pneumatic muscle actuators.

  12. Colpocephaly

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the brain -- are larger than normal because white matter in the posterior cerebrum has failed to develop or thicken. Colpocephaly, one of a group of structural brain disorders known as cephalic disorders , is characterized by microcephaly ( ...

  13. Tetanus: delay in diagnosis in England and Wales.

    OpenAIRE

    Schon, F; O'Dowd, L; White, J; Begg, N.

    1994-01-01

    A 7 day delay occurred in the diagnosis of cephalic tetanus in a 69 year old woman who developed an ipsilateral facial palsy 5 days after a facial laceration. Cranial nerve palsies often precede trismus in this form of tetanus.

  14. Abnormal formation and communication of external jugular vein

    OpenAIRE

    Nayak SB; KV S

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of variations in the origin, course and termination of external jugular vein may be important for surgeons, radiologists, and plastic surgeons. In this report, we present a variation in the origin of the external jugular vein and its abnormal communication with the cephalic vein. The external jugular vein was formed by the union of facial and retromandibular veins. Its course and termination were normal but it communicated with the cephalic vein through a large communicating vein, w...

  15. Investigation on Reaction Synthesis of Sialon Multiphase Refractory from Clay and Additive TiO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XULihua; QIANYangbo; 等

    2001-01-01

    Sialon multiphase composites containting titanium-carbon or titanium-nitrogen have been synthesized from clay nd additive titania through different sintering processes,The experimental results indicated that there was a great change of crystal phase in the similar-composition specimens singtering in air ,nitrogen and bedding protecive poder respectively,determined by XRD analysis,The subsequent evidences were also supplied by SEM.The improvement in mehanical properties of multiphase refracto-ries was observed as the amount of titania changing from 0 to 16%,The main causes maybe come from the excellent properties of high hardness and in-situ strengthening effects of the in-situ formed secondary phase,TiC or TiN.

  16. Optimum design of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, József

    2013-01-01

    This book helps designers and manufacturers to select and develop the most suitable and competitive steel structures, which are safe, fit for production and economic. An optimum design system is used to find the best characteristics of structural models, which guarantee the fulfilment of design and fabrication requirements and minimize the cost function. Realistic numerical models are used as main components of industrial steel structures. Chapter 1 containts some experiences with the optimum design of steel structures Chapter 2 treats some newer mathematical optimization methods. Chapter 3 gives formulae for fabrication times and costs. Chapters 4 deals with beams and columns. Summarizes the Eurocode rules for design. Chapter 5 deals with the design of tubular trusses. Chapter 6 gives the design of frame structures and fire-resistant design rules for a frame. In Chapters 7 some minimum cost design problems of stiffened and cellular plates and shells are worked out for cases of different stiffenings and loads...

  17. Functional electrical stimulation-assisted walking for persons with incomplete spinal injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ladouceur, M.; Barbeau, H.

    2000-01-01

    This study investigated the changes in maximal overground walking speed (MOWS) that occurred during; walking training with a functional electrical stimulation (FES) orthosis by chronic spinal cord injured persons with incomplete motor function loss. The average walking: speed over a distance of 10...

  18. Experimental Determination of Human Arm Force/Elbow Joint Angle Relation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krejsa, Jiří; Zezula, M.; Věchet, Stanislav

    Prague : Institute of Thermomechanics AS CR, v. v. i., 2010 - (Zolotarev, I.), s. 79-80 ISBN 978-80-87012-26-0. [Engineering Mechanics 2010. Svratka (CZ), 10.05.2010-13.05.2010] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : intelligent orthosis * human arm force measurement Subject RIV: JB - Sensors, Measurment, Regulation http://www.engmech.cz/

  19. Assessment of the impact of orthotic gait training on balance in children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drużbicki, Mariusz; Rusek, Wojciech; Szczepanik, Magdalena; Dudek, Joanna; Snela, Sławomir

    2010-01-01

    The cerebral palsy symptoms are, among others, balance and gait disorders. The goal of this study was to assess balance capabilities in children with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy rehabilitated using Lokomat active orthosis. The experimental group included children with cerebral palsy, aged 6-14 years, independent standing, level II-III according to GMFCS classification. The cohort was randomly divided into two groups. The balance was assessed on a stabilometric platform. The experimental group was administered a rehabilitation program with the use of Lokomat active orthosis. Statistically significant improvement of balance was found in the experimental group; however, in the control group the improvement was also visible, but not on the statistically significant level. While comparing the results of both groups, significantly bigger improvement was achieved by the children from the experimental group. Lokomat active orthosis is one of the newest devices applied in the rehabilitation. The study shows that training with active orthosis can have positive influence on the balance improvement in children with CP and that further analysis of the impact of such training on locomotive functions is needed. PMID:21243970

  20. Human Walk Modeled by PCPG to Control a Lower Limb Neuroprosthesis by High-Level Commands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Duvinage

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Current active leg prostheses do not integrate the most recent advances in Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI and bipedal robotics. Moreover, their actuators are seldom driven by the subject’s intention. This paper aims at showing a summary of our current results in the field of human gait rehabilitation. In a first prototype, the main focus was on people suffering from foot drop problems, i.e. people who are unable to lift their feet. However, current work is focusing on a full active ankle orthosis. The approach is threefold: a BCI system, a gait model and an orthosis. Thanks to the BCI system, patients are able to generate high-level commands. Typically, a command could represent a speed modification. Then, a gait model based on a programmable central pattern generator is used to generate the adequate kinematics. Finally, the orthosis is tracking this kinematics when the foot is in the air, whereas, the orthosis is mimicking a spring when the foot is on the ground.

  1. Revision of Ilyphagus Chamberlin, 1919 (Polychaeta, Flabelligeridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Salazar-Vallejo

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Ilyphagus Chamberlin, 1919 includes abyssal, fragile benthic species. Most species have large cephalic cages but chaetae are brittle and easily lost which may explain why the original definition included species with a cephalic cage or without it. The type species, I. bythincola Chamberlin, 1919, together with another species (I. pluto Chamberlin, 1919 were described as lacking a cephalic cage whereas a third species (I. ascendens Chamberlin, 1919 was described with one. To clarify this situation, all available type and non-type materials were studied. Ilyphagus is redefined to include species with digitiform bodies, abundant filiform papillae and a thin body wall; their neurochaetae are thick, anchylosed aristate spines, and all species have a cephalic cage (in the type species the presence of a cage is inferred from the remaining chaetal scars. Ilyphagus pluto, which also lacks a a cephalic cage is determined here to be a holothurian. The redefined genus contains I. bythincola (incl. I. ascendens, I. coronatus Monro, 1939, I. hirsutus Monro, 1937, and I. wyvillei (McIntosh, 1885.

  2. Using a Caesarean Section Classification System based on characteristics of the population as a way of monitoring obstetric practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milanez Helaine M

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective to compare the distribution of caesarean rates in the Robson's 10 groups classification in order to see if any change occurred after the implementation of an audit and feedback intervention. Design: cross sectional, before and after an audit and feedback study. Setting: a university hospital in Brazil. Methods clinical records of all births during two three months-periods were evaluated. Each case of CS was classified into one of ten mutually exclusive categories according to obstetric characteristics. The proportion of CS in each group was compared in both periods. Results total number of deliveries and the high rate of CS were similar in both periods. Group 3 (multiparous excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, spontaneous labour accounted for the largest proportion of deliveries, 28.5 and 26.8% in both periods. Group 1 (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, spontaneous labour was the second largest one, while Group 5 (previous caesarean section, single, cephalic, and ≥ 37 weeks was the third but the largest contributor to CS, accounting for 16.6 and 14.9% among all deliveries in both periods. Groups 2 (nulliparous, single, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, induction or CS before labour and 4 (multiparous excluding previous CS, single, cephalic, ≥ 37 weeks, induction or CS before labour were less prevalent, however had higher rates of CS. Only in Group 10 (All single, cephalic, ≤ 36 weeks, including previous CS, there was a significant decrease of CS rate from 70.5 to 42.6% between periods. Conclusion Robson's classification did not identify any significant change in the pattern of CS rates with the audit and feedback process, but showed to be useful for comparing trends among similar obstetric populations.

  3. Robotic Assistance of Human Motion using Active-backdrivability on a Geared Electromagnetic Motor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Jorge Claros

    2016-03-01

    bandwidth and also providing controllable assistance and resistance forces to the user’s movements, without the use of any biological signal. Validation of the proposed approach is shown by the construction of a powered orthosis for the knee, used to test the system’s performance under real human motion conditions. The proposed system was tested on one healthy subject by measuring electromyographic levels both with and without the orthosis, under controlled flexion and extension cycles. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach in detecting the user’s intentions regarding motion, reducing and increasing muscular activity when configured for assistance and resistance, respectively, and also increasing the transparency of the actuation system when perfect tracking of the limbs is needed.

  4. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper; Weber, Tom

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess Danish obstetricians' and gynecologists' personal preference and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in uncomplicated single cephalic pregnancies at term. DESIGN: Nation-wide anonymous postal questionnaire. POPULATION: Four hundred and fifty......-five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...... and gynecologists would personally prefer vaginal delivery in uncomplicated pregnancies, but nearly 40% agree with the woman's right to request a cesarean section....

  5. Spring-Assisted Cranioplasty for Bicoronal Synostosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tovetjärn, Robert; Maltese, Giovanni; Kölby, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    were identified. Sixteen patients had syndromic bicoronal synostosis, and 2 had nonsyndromic bicoronal synostosis. Cephalic index was obtained from three-dimensional computed tomography scans, and photographs were analyzed for aesthetic evaluation. RESULTS: The preoperative calvarial shape was...... hyperbrachycephalic in all subjects. Postoperatively, the calvarial shape was, in general, much closer to the norm. The reduction in the mean cephalic index from the preoperative stage (94) to the 3-year follow-up (82) was statistically significant (P <0.0001). The mean duration of surgery was 155 (SD, 32) minutes...

  6. A Helping Hand : On Innovations for Rehabilitation and Assistive Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Mats

    2013-01-01

    This thesis focuses on assistive and rehabilitation technology for restoring the function of the hand. It presents three different approaches to assistive technology: one in the form of an orthosis, one in the form of a brain-computer interface combined with functional electrical stimulation and finally one totally aiming at rehabilitating the nervous system by restoring brain function using the concept of neuroplasticity. The thesis also includes an epidemiological study based on statistics ...

  7. Self-adjusting orthoses design

    OpenAIRE

    Prates, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes an approach to the development of a customized 3D printed multi-material cervical orthosis that combines new production techniques with smart materials and biomimetic structures. It suggests a lightweight, waterproof, ventilated, hygienic and comfortable orthoses designed specifically for each patient in collaboration with doctors, additive manufacturing specialists and designers. The combination of innovative production techniques with smart materials can gene...

  8. Consumer satisfaction with the services of prosthetics and orthotics facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Bosmans, Joline; Geertzen, Jan; Dijkstra, Pieter U.

    2009-01-01

    Consumer satisfaction with the services provided in a prosthetics and orthotics (PO) facility has seldom been studied. The aim of this study was to analyze consumer satisfaction regarding the services provided by 15 PO facilities in The Netherlands. Consumers (n=1,364) of these PO facilities who were fitted with a prosthesis, orthopaedic shoes, an orthosis, or another device, were asked to rate the overall services provided and whether they were satisfied with the device provided and its deli...

  9. The Magnitude of Errors Associated in Measuring the Loads Applied on an Assistive Device While Walking

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Mohammad Taghi; Jamshidi, Nima

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of the loads exerted on the limb is a fundamental part of designing of an assistive device, which has been done by using strain gauges or a transducer. Although calculation of loads applied on an orthosis coefficients achieved from calibration is a standard way, most of researchers determined the loads based on available equations. Therefore, the aim of this research is finding the accuracy of this method with respect to calibration. Some strain gauges were attached on the lateral...

  10. Effects of Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Function and Quality of Life for People with Multiple Sclerosis Taking Dalfampridine

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Lori; Warring, Tina; Agrella, Stephanie; Rogers, Helen L.; Fox, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) can adversely affect gait, causing gait slowing, loss of balance, decreased functional mobility, and gait deficits, such as footdrop. Current treatments for gait dysfunction due to MS are pharmacologic, using dalfampridine, or orthotic, using an ankle-foot orthosis. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) to the fibular nerve stimulates active dorsiflexion and provides an alternative treatment for gait dysfunction caused by footdrop. The objective of this s...

  11. Effect of a 2-Week Trial of Functional Electrical Stimulation on Gait Function and Quality of Life in People with Multiple Sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Downing, Abbey; Van Ryn, David; Fecko, Anne; Aiken, Christopher; McGowan, Sean; Sawers, Sarah; McInerny, Thomas; Moore, Katie; Passariello, Louis; Rogers, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Background: Footdrop is a common gait deviation in people with multiple sclerosis (MS) leading to impaired gait and balance as well as decreased functional mobility. Functional electrical stimulation (FES) provides an alternative to the current standard of care for footdrop, an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO). FES stimulates the peroneal nerve and activates the dorsiflexor muscles, producing an active toe clearance and a more normal gait. This study was undertaken to determine the effects of a 2-we...

  12. The HEPHAISTOS study: compliance and adherence with a novel orthotic device for calf muscle unloading

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Tobias; Ducos, Michel; Yang, Pengfei; Jos, Dennis; Frings-Meuthen, Petra; Brüggemann, Gert-Peter; Bloch, W; Rittweger, Jörn

    2013-01-01

    The present manuscript seeks to discuss methodological aspects regarding the application of the novel unloading orthosis 'HEPHAISTOS' that has been specifically developed to study physiological effects of muscular unloading without altering the impact of gravitational loading. The 'HEPHAISTOS' has been applied in an ambulatory clinical interventional study. During gait, the 'HEPHAISTOS' significantly reduces activation and force production of calf muscles while it completely retains body mass...

  13. Three dimensional analysis of brace biomechanical efficacy for patients with AIS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lebel, David E; Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Shin, Eyun-Jung;

    2013-01-01

    Corrective three dimensional (3D) effect of different braces is debatable. We evaluated differences in in-brace radiographic correction comparing a custom thoracic-lumbo-sacral-orthosis (TLSO) (T) brace to a Chêneau type TLSO (C) brace using 3D EOS reconstruction technology. Our primary research ...... question was the 3D effect of brace on the spine and in particularly the apical vertebra rotation (AVR)....

  14. Effects of Aircast brace and elastic bandage on physical performance of athletes after ankle injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Gunay, Sevtap; Karaduman, Ayse; Ozturk, Burcu Bahar

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of using Aircast® orthosis and elastic bandage application on the physical performance of athletes with ankle injuries. Methods: The study included 60 elite male football players with ankle injuries. Ankle range of motion on the sagittal and frontal plane was measured. One maximum repetition test for the tibialis anterior, tibialis posterior and peroneal muscles; fingertip rise test, single- and double-feet vertical jump tests and...

  15. Traumatic fractures of the thoraco-lumber spine

    OpenAIRE

    Ozyalcin, Halit; Aktuglu, Kemal; Sesli, Erhan

    2004-01-01

    From 1986 to 1988, 171 patients with thoraco-lumbar vertebrae fructures were admitted to the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology clinic of Ege University. The stable fractures of 108 patients were treated with conservative methods, with a postural reduction, body cast and total contact plastic thoracolumbosacral orthosis. Unstable fractures of 63 patients underwent early surgical reduction and external fixation with double Harrington instrumentation. The decrease in angle o...

  16. An Alternate Conservative Management of Shoulder Dislocations and Subluxations

    OpenAIRE

    Sawa, Thomas M.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents clinical observations/results of the application of an alternate method to traditional conservative management of subluxations and dislocations of the glenohumeral joint on major junior hockey players. The proposed program involves three stages: 1) rest and nutrition, 2) interferential current and faradic muscle stimulation, and 3) a traditional progressive-resistance weight-training program in conjunction with a specially designed orthosis. Current scientific theory on so...

  17. Proprioceptive feedback and brain computer interface (BCI based neuroprostheses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ander Ramos-Murguialday

    Full Text Available Brain computer interface (BCI technology has been proposed for motor neurorehabilitation, motor replacement and assistive technologies. It is an open question whether proprioceptive feedback affects the regulation of brain oscillations and therefore BCI control. We developed a BCI coupled on-line with a robotic hand exoskeleton for flexing and extending the fingers. 24 healthy participants performed five different tasks of closing and opening the hand: (1 motor imagery of the hand movement without any overt movement and without feedback, (2 motor imagery with movement as online feedback (participants see and feel their hand, with the exoskeleton moving according to their brain signals, (3 passive (the orthosis passively opens and closes the hand without imagery and (4 active (overt movement of the hand and rest. Performance was defined as the difference in power of the sensorimotor rhythm during motor task and rest and calculated offline for different tasks. Participants were divided in three groups depending on the feedback receiving during task 2 (the other tasks were the same for all participants. Group 1 (n = 9 received contingent positive feedback (participants' sensorimotor rhythm (SMR desynchronization was directly linked to hand orthosis movements, group 2 (n = 8 contingent "negative" feedback (participants' sensorimotor rhythm synchronization was directly linked to hand orthosis movements and group 3 (n = 7 sham feedback (no link between brain oscillations and orthosis movements. We observed that proprioceptive feedback (feeling and seeing hand movements improved BCI performance significantly. Furthermore, in the contingent positive group only a significant motor learning effect was observed enhancing SMR desynchronization during motor imagery without feedback in time. Furthermore, we observed a significantly stronger SMR desynchronization in the contingent positive group compared to the other groups during active and

  18. Aplication of breathable and odorless lining to orthopaedic shoes

    OpenAIRE

    Peixoto, Joaquim Jorge Gomes; Souto, A. Pedro; Flores, Paulo

    2011-01-01

    The main purpose of this work is to apply new materials and new finishing to improve comfort in orthopaedic footwear associated with orthosis. This desideratum will be reached through the selection and application of advanced materials, such, breathables membranes and fabric finished with anti-fungal and anti-bacteria treatments. In this work, water vapor permeability was evaluated to determine the transport property of water vapor produced by transpiration of the skin. A new lining with brea...

  19. The use of dynamic orthoses in the treatment of the stiff elbow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallucci, Gerardo L; Boretto, Jorge G; Dávalos, María A; Alfie, Verónica A; Donndorff, Agustín; De Carli, Pablo

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of the treatment of stiff elbow with the use of dynamic orthoses. We included 30 patients with stiff elbow with an arc of mobility of 100° or less and a stable and congruent joint without heterotopic ossifications. The dynamic orthosis was designed in our service and consists of an articulated brace with springs. Mean previous mobility was 109°-41°, with an average arc of motion of 68°. Its use began 78 days after surgery or trauma and continued for 75 days. Statistical analysis was performed. Average follow-up was 23 months. Postoperative mobility was 126°-21° with an improvement of 37° of mobility. Ten patients did not recover a functional range of motion. Twenty-three patients were satisfied with the treatment and seven were unsatisfied with the use of the orthosis. Our results suggest that dynamic orthoses are useful in the treatment of stiff elbow. We achieved a mean improvement of 37° in the arc of motion, which in many cases has rendered arthrolysis unnecessary. The major strength of this paper is the practical application of the orthosis and its relatively easy manufacture. PMID:24509815

  20. Wearable Monitoring Devices for Assistive Technology: Case Studies in Post-Polio Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Andreoni

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The correct choice and customization of an orthosis are crucial to obtain the best comfort and efficiency. This study explored the feasibility of a multivariate quantitative assessment of the functional efficiency of lower limb orthosis through a novel wearable system. Gait basographic parameters and energetic indexes were analysed during a Six-Minute Walking Test (6-MWT through a cost-effective, non-invasive polygraph device, with a multichannel wireless transmission, that carried out electro-cardiograph (ECG; impedance-cardiograph (ICG; and lower-limb accelerations detection. Four subjects affected by Post-Polio Syndrome (PPS were recruited. The wearable device and the semi-automatic post-processing software provided a novel set of objective data to assess the overall efficiency of the patient-orthosis system. Despite the small number of examined subjects, the results obtained with this new approach encourage the application of the method thus enlarging the dataset to validate this promising protocol and measuring system in supporting clinical decisions and out of a laboratory environment.

  1. Effect of dynamic orthoses on gait: a retrospective control study in children with hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gestel, Leen; Molenaers, Guy; Huenaerts, Catherine; Seyler, Jos; Desloovere, Kaat

    2008-01-01

    Several positive influences of orthoses on gait in children with cerebral palsy have been documented, as well as some detrimental effects. Most importantly, push-off is decreased in orthoses, compromising a physiological third ankle rocker. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three types of orthosis on gait in a homogeneous group of children. All orthoses aimed at improving push-off and normalizing the pathological plantarflexion-knee extension couple. Thirty-seven children (22 females, 15 males) with hemiplegia, aged 4 to 10 years (30 Gross Motor Function Classification System [GMFCS] Level I, six GMFCS Level II), walked barefoot and with orthoses being either Orteams (orthoses with the dorsal part containing 11 sleeves), posterior leafsprings (PLS), or Dual Carbon Fibre Spring ankle foot orthosis (AFOs; CFO: carbon fibre at the dorsal part of the orthosis). All orthoses were expected to prevent plantarflexion and allow dorsiflexion, thus improving first, second, and third rocker. The orthoses were compared through objective gait analysis, including 3D kinematics and kinetics. All orthoses successfully improved the gait pattern and only small differences were noted between the configurations of the different orthoses. The CFO, however, allowed a more physiological third ankle rocker compared with the Orteam/PLS. Although the PLS ensured the highest correction at the ankle around initial contact, the CFO created a significantly higher maximal hip flexion moment in stance. In general, the results of this study indicated a substantial functional flexibility of the CFO. PMID:18173633

  2. The use of upper limb orthoses in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a literature review in the field of occupational therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Silvério de Souza Silva

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic systemic disease that most often affects smaller joints such as hands and wrists. It may cause deformities that jeopardize hand function, thus impacting the subject occupational performance. In order to assist the hand function restoration, occupational therapists often use orthosis to improve autonomy and/or independence to perform daily activities in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Objective: This study aimed to identify the upper limb’s orthoses used in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, who were assisted by the Occupational Therapy, featuring the population, the type of research and the outcomes obtained. Method: This study is literature review and its selection criteria consists of publications in English, Spanish and Portuguese published within the last ten years, divided between experimental, observational and case studies, all with diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis and assisted by an occupational therapist. Twelve articles were selected for review. Findings: The literature review points out the benefits achieved through the use of the orthosis to manual dexterity, grip strength, pain relief and aspects related to comfort and patient satisfaction. Conclusion: In this context, the orthosis appears as an important assistive technology resource to keep function and restore compromised activities.

  3. SpineCor treatment for Juvenile Idiopathic Scoliosis: SOSORT award 2010 winner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Circo Alin B

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Juvenile idiopathic scoliosis is a condition used to describe patients who are least 4 years of age but younger than 10 when the deformity is first identified. In these patients, the condition is usually progressive and those that are diagnosed at five years or younger have a high chance of progression to a large curve, with additional pulmonary and cardiac complications. The main form of conservative treatment for juvenile scoliosis is the use of a bracing system. This prospective interventional study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of the Dynamic SpineCor orthosis for juvenile idiopathic scoliosis as well as to evaluate the stability of the spine after the weaning point. Material and Methods For this study, 150 juvenile patients were treated by the SpineCor orthosis between 1993 and 2009. Of these, 67 patients had a definite outcome and 83 are still actively being treated. To determine the effectiveness of the brace the OUTCOME criteria recommended by the SRS was used. Results The results from our study showed that of the 67 patients with a definite outcome, 32.9% corrected their Cobb angle by at least 5° and 10.5% had a stabilization of their Cobb angle. Within the patients with a definite outcome, 37.3% of patients where recommended for surgery before authorized end of treatment. For this group of patients, surgery was postponed. Looking at the stability of the curves 2 years after the end of the treatment, we found 12.5% of the patients continued their correction without the brace being used and 71.4% remained stable. Discussion From our study we can clearly see that the effectiveness of the SpineCor orthosis in obtaining and maintaining the neuromuscular integration of the corrective movement can be achieved effectively for juvenile patients. Over 75% of all patients that finished the treatment had remained stable with a few continuing to correct their Cobb angle after the use of the SpineCor orthosis was

  4. Moxibustion did not have an effect in a randomised clinical trial for version of breech position

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bue, Linda; Lauszus, Finn Friis

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: In Chinese traditional medicine, the stimulation of acupuncture point no. 67 - the bladder meridian - is recommended to favour cephalic version in case of foetal breech presentation. The point can be stimulated by an acupuncture needle, ginger application, fingertip pressure, laser or...

  5. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  6. Morphogenesis defects are associated with abnormal nervous system regeneration following roboA RNAi in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cebrià, Francesc; Newmark, Phillip A

    2007-03-01

    The process by which the proper pattern is restored to newly formed tissues during metazoan regeneration remains an open question. Here, we provide evidence that the nervous system plays a role in regulating morphogenesis during anterior regeneration in the planarian Schmidtea mediterranea. RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown of a planarian ortholog of the axon-guidance receptor roundabout (robo) leads to unexpected phenotypes during anterior regeneration, including the development of a supernumerary pharynx (the feeding organ of the animal) and the production of ectopic, dorsal outgrowths with cephalic identity. We show that Smed-roboA RNAi knockdown disrupts nervous system structure during cephalic regeneration: the newly regenerated brain and ventral nerve cords do not re-establish proper connections. These neural defects precede, and are correlated with, the development of ectopic structures. We propose that, in the absence of proper connectivity between the cephalic ganglia and the ventral nerve cords, neurally derived signals promote the differentiation of pharyngeal and cephalic structures. Together with previous studies on regeneration in annelids and amphibians, these results suggest a conserved role of the nervous system in pattern formation during blastema-based regeneration. PMID:17251262

  7. Association of acetazolamide infusion with headache and cranial artery dilation in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Asghar, Mohammad Sohail; Amin, Faisal Mohammad; Hougaard, Anders; Larsen, Vibeke Andrée; de Koning, Patrick J H; Larsson, Henrik Bo Wiberg; Olesen, Jes; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    The carbonic anhydrase inhibitor acetazolamide causes extracellular acidosis and dilatation of cerebral arterioles. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that acetazolamide also may induce headache and dilatation of cranial arteries. In a randomized double-blind crossover study design, 12 young...... acetazolamide causes sensitization of cephalic perivascular nociceptors, which, in combination with vasodilatation, leads to delayed headache....

  8. Variable clinical expression of an identical mutation in the ATP7A gene for Menkes disease/occipital horn syndrome in three affected males in a single family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borm, Bettina; Møller, Lisbeth Birk; Hausser, Ingrid; Emeis, Michael; Baerlocher, Kurt; Horn, Nina; Rossi, Rainer

    2004-07-01

    Two maternal half-brothers presented with huge cephalic hematoma, fatal in one. Skin morphology disclosed lack of elastic fibres. Their maternal uncle is moderately mentally handicapped and has extensive connective tissue disorders. In all these patients, an identical missense mutation in the ATP7A gene was found and confirmed Menkes' disease. PMID:15238919

  9. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa...

  10. The cholinomimetic agent carbachol induces headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, H W; Wienecke, Troels; Oturai, P S;

    2009-01-01

    The parasympathetic nervous system is likely to be involved in migraine pathogenesis. We hypothesized that the cholinomimetic agonist carbachol would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and radial arteries. Carbachol (3 microg/kg) or placebo was randomly infused into 12 healthy subjects ...

  11. Evolutionarily conserved requirement of Cdx for post-occipital tissue emergence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rooijen, C.; Simmini, S.; Bialecka, M.; Neijts, R.; van de Ven, C.; Beck, F.; Deschamps, J.

    2012-01-01

    Mouse Cdx genes are involved in axial patterning and partial Cdx mutants exhibit posterior embryonic defects. We found that mouse embryos in which all three Cdx genes are inactivated fail to generate any axial tissue beyond the cephalic and occipital primordia. Anterior axial tissues are laid down a

  12. Long-term follow-up of cognitive outcome after breech presentation at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Henrik Toft; Steffensen, Flemming Hald; Olsen, Jørn;

    1999-01-01

    Boerge Prien IQ test. A total of 164 conscripts were born in breech presentation and 70 (42.7%) of these were delivered after Caesarean section. The mean Boerge Prien test score was 43.2 among men born in cephalic presentation and 39.9 among those born in breech presentation for a difference of 3.3 (95...

  13. New genus, three new and two known species of the family Onchulidae Andrassy, 1964 with notes on systematics and biology of the family

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holovachov, O.V.; Winiszewska, G.; Sturhan, D.; Esquivel, A.; Wu, J.

    2008-01-01

    Tobrilonchulus novaezelandiae gen. n., sp. n. from New Zealand is particularly characterized by outer labial and cephalic sensilla arranged at the same level; stoma with one minute dorsal tooth, two ventrosublateral denticles and two drop-shaped sclerotizations; presence of gubernaculum; and long fl

  14. Effect of maternal Tp53 gene G412C polymorphism on neural tube defects: A study from North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Arora

    2012-01-01

    Conclusion: The study highlights the selective advantage provided by maternal ′CC′ genotype, thereby reducing risk of cephalic NTDs, probably due to the lower apoptotic activity of the protein, however, more specifically in the presence of community-specific microenvironment.

  15. Subspecific differentiation in male reproductive traits and virgin queen preferences, in Bombus terrestris

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lecocq, T.; Coppée, A.; Mathy, T.; Lhomme, P.; Cammaerts-Tricot, M. C.; Urbanová, Klára; Valterová, Irena; Rasmont, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 46, č. 5 (2015), s. 595-605. ISSN 0044-8435 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-04291S Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : mate preference * reproductive traits * cephalic labial gland secretions * male marking pheromone * subspecies * olfactometer Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.676, year: 2014

  16. Chondroitin sulphate-mediated fusion of brain neural folds in rat embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, M I; Moro, J A; Martín, C; de la Mano, A; Carnicero, E; Martínez-Alvarez, C; Navarro, N; Cordero, J; Gato, A

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that during neural fold fusion in different species, an apical extracellular material rich in glycoconjugates is involved. However, the composition and the biological role of this material remain undetermined. In this paper, we show that this extracellular matrix in rat increases notably prior to contact between the neural folds, suggesting the dynamic behaviour of the secretory process. Immunostaining has allowed us to demonstrate that this extracellular matrix contains chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), with a spatio-temporal distribution pattern, suggesting a direct relationship with the process of adhesion. The degree of CSPG involvement in cephalic neural fold fusion in rat embryos was determined by treatment with specific glycosidases.In vitro rat embryo culture and microinjection techniques were employed to carry out selective digestion, with chondroitinase AC, of the CSPG on the apical surface of the neural folds; this was done immediately prior to the bonding of the cephalic neural folds. In all the treated embryos, cephalic defects of neural fold fusion could be detected. These results show that CSPG plays an important role in the fusion of the cephalic neural folds in rat embryos, which implies that this proteoglycan could be involved in cellular recognition and adhesion. PMID:18836253

  17. Danish obstetricians' personal preference and general attitude to elective cesarean section on maternal request: a nation-wide postal survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergholt, Thomas; Østberg, Birgitte; Legarth, Jesper; Weber, Tom

    2004-01-01

    -five obstetricians and gynecologists identified in the records of the Danish Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology from January 2000. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Personal preference on the mode of delivery and general attitude towards elective cesarean section on maternal request in an uncomplicated single cephalic...

  18. External morphology of stable fly (Diptera: Muscidae) larvae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to examine the external morphology of first-, second-, and third-instar stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans (L.)). In the cephalic region, the antennae, labial lobe, and maxillary palpi are morphologically similar among instars. Antennae comprise a prominent ante...

  19. Revealing Maximal Diameter of Upper Limb Superficial Vein with an Elevated Environmental Temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irfan, Hira; Ooi, Guo Shen; Kyin, May M; Ho, Pei

    2016-01-01

    Ultrasonography is the primary tool for preoperative analysis of vein morphology for fistula creation in patients with end-stage renal disease. This study examines the effect of environmental temperature on the superficial vein size. Superficial veins of thirteen healthy volunteers were marked at three sites: cephalic vein in left lateral arm near cubital fossa, cephalic vein in left forearm at wrist, and basilic vein in left medial arm near cubital fossa. Mean diameters were recorded using ultrasound probe at 26°C and 43°C. Body temperature was increased using a Bair Hugger blanket. Mean values from the two temperatures were analyzed using paired sample t-test. All three superficial vein sites displayed statistically significant increase in diameter when the temperature was increased from 26°C to 43°C. Paired t-test showed p values of 0.001 for cephalic vein at wrist, 0.01 for cephalic vein near cubital fossa, and 0.01 for basilic vein near cubital fossa. This study proved that environmental temperature exerts a statistically significant effect on vein size measured by ultrasound during preoperative assessment for vascular access. Not to the extent of 43°C, the authors would recommend setting the room temperature higher during ultrasound vascular assessment to avoid underestimating the superficial vein size. PMID:27597987

  20. Preliminary images from an adaptive imaging system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.A. Griffiths; M.G. Metaxas; S. Pani; H. Schulerud; C. Esbrand; G.J. Royle; B. Price; T. Rokvic; R. Longo; A. Asimidis; E. Bletsas; D. Cavouras; A. Fant; P. Gasiorek; H. Georgiou; G. Hall; J. Jones; J. Leaver; G. Li; D. Machin; N. Manthos; J. Matheson; M. Noy; J.M. Østby; F. Psomadellis; P.F. van der Stelt; S. Theodoridis; F. Triantis; R. Turchetta; C. Venanzi; R.D. Speller

    2008-01-01

    I-ImaS (Intelligent Imaging Sensors) is a European project aiming to produce real-time adaptive X-ray imaging systems using Monolithic Active Pixel Sensors (MAPS) to create images with maximum diagnostic information within given dose constraints. Initial systems concentrate on mammography and cephal

  1. A new Benthopelagic species of Heterokrohnia (Chaetognatha) from the North Atlantic Ocean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Casanova, Jean-Paul; Chidgey, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    A new species of Heterokrohnia, H. mirabiloides, is described from the “Discovery” collections made in the North-East Atlantic. It differs from the two other species of the “mirabilis” group mainly in the cephalic armature, particularly the posterior teeth which are much less numerous and bent at ri

  2. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, C. de; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P. van; Grond, J. van der

    2005-01-01

    Background: Evidence exists that beverages do not trigger appropriate anticipatory physiologic responses, such as cephalic phase insulin release. Therefore, it is of interest to elucidate the food properties necessary for triggering adaptive responses. Previously, we found a prolonged dose-dependent

  3. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de C.; Stafleu, A.; Osch, M.J.P.; Grond, van der J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that beverages do not trigger appropriate anticipatory physiologic responses, such as cephalic phase insulin release. Therefore, it is of interest to elucidate the food properties necessary for triggering adaptive responses. Previously, we found a prolonged dose-dependent

  4. Variations of immunoglobulins after antigenic injection in irradiated rabbit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Study on the influence of irradiation upon rabbit immunoglobulins is developed. It is tried to check if the observed delay, after cephalic irradiation, in specified antibody response of injected antigen, could be in relation with a transient hypoimmunoglobulinemia in these same animals

  5. The tantulocarid genus Arcticotantalus removed from Basipodellidae into Deoterthridae (Crustacea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Steen Wilhelm; Kirkegaard, Maja; Olesen, JØrgen

    2009-01-01

    is tentatively placed in Deoterthridae based on the mode of formation of the male trunk sac, the pattern of ornamentation on the tergites and cephalic shield, and the number of setae on the thoracopods and caudal rami. It is suggested that the genus Arcticotantulus Kornev, Tchesunov & Rybnikov, 2004 is removed...

  6. EFEKTIVITAS NIRA AREN SEBAGAI BAHAN PENGEMBANG ADONAN ROTI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mody Lempang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation is a natural process that happen in fresh-sweet sap of aren trees (Arenga pinnata Merr., because many kinds of microorganism stay and life in this substance e.g. bakteria (Acetobacter acetic and yeast (Saccharomyces tuac. Species of yeast from genus of Saccharomyses, e.g. Saccharomyses serivisae is wellknown as microorganism that can ferment sugar (glucose into alchohol and CO2. This natural process as well happen in aren sap, so that this substance potencially using as a swollen agent of bread or cake dough. This research objective is to recognize the effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough. Fermentation duration of bread dough was one hour by using swollen agent of fresh, 10 hours old and 20 hours old of aren sap. Daily yield of sap tapped from aren trees in Maros district, South Sulawesi province was 7 litre (4-5 litre collected in the morning and 2-3 litre colected in the afternoon. Aren sap containt some of nutritions e.g. carbohydrate, protein, fat, vitamin C and mineral. Sweet taste of aren sap caused by it’s charbohydrate content of 11.18%. The effectiveness of aren sap as a swollen agent of bread dough is lower than instant (commercial yeast. The older of aren sap the lower of it’s effectiveness as a swollen agent of dough and kuality of bread yield.    Keywords : Sap, Arenga pinnata, swollen agent, bread dough

  7. Percutaneous, Minimally Invasive Repair of Traumatic and Simultaneous Rupture of Both Achilles Tendons: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietek, Pawel; Karaczun, Maciej; Kruk, Bartosz; Szczypior, Karina

    2016-01-01

    Achilles injury is a common musculoskeletal disorder. Bilateral rupture of the Achilles tendon, however, is much less common and usually occurs spontaneously. Complete, traumatic, and bilateral ruptures are rare and typically require long periods of immobilization before the patient can return to full weightbearing. A 52-year-old male was hospitalized for bilateral traumatic rupture to both Achilles tendons. No risk factors for tendon rupture were found. Blood samples revealed no peripheral blood pathologic features. Both tendons were repaired with percutaneous, minimally invasive surgery using the Achillon(®) tendon suture system. Rehabilitation was begun 4 weeks later. An ankle-foot orthosis was prescribed to provide ankle support with an adjustable range of movement, and active plantar flexion was set at 0° to 30°. The patient remained non-weightbearing with the ankle-foot orthosis device and performed active range-of-motion exercises. At 8 weeks after surgery, we recommended that he begin walking with partial weightbearing using a foot-tibial orthosis with the range of motion set to 45° plantar flexion and 15° dorsiflexion. At 10 weeks postoperatively, he was encouraged to return to full weightbearing on both feet. Beginning rehabilitation as soon as possible after minimally invasive surgery, compared with 6 weeks of immobilization after surgery, provided a rapid resumption to full weightbearing. We emphasize the clinical importance of a safe, simple treatment program that can be followed for a patient with damage to the Achilles tendons. To our knowledge, ours is the first report of minimally invasive repair of bilateral simultaneous traumatic rupture of the Achilles tendon. PMID:26002678

  8. The influence of the external ankle support on the dynamic balance in volleyball athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Manuela Azevedo Correia de Lima; Germanna de Medeiros Barbosa; Joseanne Daniele Cezar Ribeiro; José Jamacy de Almeida Ferreira; Palloma Rodrigues de Andrade; Heleodório Honorato dos Santos

    2015-01-01

    AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ankle external supports on proprioception and dynamic balance in volleyball players. Seventeen female volleyball players (18.94±2.49 years; 65.45±9.49 kg; 1.71±0.05 m; BMI=22.0±2.67 kg/m²) took part in this study. The dynamic balance was assessed through the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT). Comparisons between stabilization (no stabilizer/NS, orthosis/ORT and functional bandaging/FB) modes and the SEBT grid lines and inter-limb ...

  9. Internal Models Support Specific Gaits in Orthotic Devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matthias Braun, Jan; Wörgötter, Florentin; Manoonpong, Poramate

    2014-01-01

    system's accuracy and robustness on a Knee-Ankle-Foot-Orthosis, introducing behaviour changes depending on the patient's current walking situation. We conclude that the here presented model-based support of different gaits has the power to enhance the patient's mobility.......Patients use orthoses and prosthesis for the lower limbs to support and enable movements, they can not or only with difficulties perform themselves. Because traditional devices support only a limited set of movements, patients are restricted in their mobility. A possible approach to overcome such...

  10. The rehabilitative approach in rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Pappone

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The rehabilitative approach for the patient with rheumatoid arthritis should be early, global and complementary to an early pharmacological therapy, in the context of a multidisciplinary approach, that should include physicians with different specialties and other health professionals. Evaluation scales assessing disability and quality of life are necessary for the rehabilitative approach. These can be classified in 2 groups: specific tools and generic tools, each evaluating different components of the health status. After the evaluation and the definition of the aims of the rehabilitation, a rehabilitative project, potentially including physical therapies, therapeutic exercises, occupational therapy and orthosis should be defined.

  11. Infantile and juvenile scoliosis: the crooked path to diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wick, Jane Maureen; Konze, Julie; Alexander, Kelly; Sweeney, Chris

    2009-09-01

    Most cases of scoliosis are diagnosed and treated during adolescence; many are detected in school screening programs. For a small percentage of children, however, the onset of scoliosis occurs much earlier than adolescence.Infantile scoliosis (ie, onset from birth to two years of age) and juvenile scoliosis (ie, onset from three to nine years of age) involve very different diagnoses and treatment regimens than adolescent scoliosis. Early onset scoliosis may resolve with growth or may require nonsurgical treatment (eg, orthosis, body cast); surgical intervention (eg, halo traction, growing rods, vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib); or a combination of both. PMID:19785096

  12. Error signals driving locomotor adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Julia T; Jensen, Peter; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2016-01-01

    perturbations. Forces were applied to the ankle joint during the early swing phase using an electrohydraulic ankle-foot orthosis. Repetitive 80 Hz electrical stimulation was applied to disrupt cutaneous feedback from the superficial peroneal nerve (foot dorsum) and medial plantar nerve (foot sole) during...... anaesthesia (n = 5) instead of repetitive nerve stimulation. Foot anaesthesia reduced ankle adaptation to external force perturbations during walking. Our results suggest that cutaneous input plays a role in force perception, and may contribute to the 'error' signal involved in driving walking adaptation when...

  13. Prediction of Lower Extremity Movement by Cyclograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Kutilek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Human gait is nowadays undergoing extensive analysis. Predictions of leg movements can be used for orthosis and prosthesis programming, and also for rehabilitation. Our work focuses on predicting human gait with the use of angle-angle diagrams, also called cyclograms. In conjunction with artificial intelligence, cyclograms offer a wide area of medical applications. We have identified cyclogram characteristics such as the slope and the area of the cyclogram for a neural network learning algorithm. Neural networks learned by cyclograms offer wide applications in prosthesis control systems.

  14. Pseudolella major sp. nov. (Axonolaimidae, Nematoda) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chunming; Huang, Yong

    2016-03-01

    A new species of free-living nematode, Pseudolella major sp. nov. is described from the intertidal mudflats of Ximen Island in the East China Sea. Pseudolella major sp. nov. is characterized as follows: body length ~1 300 μm; short cephalic setae, 2-3 μm long; amphidial fovea loop-shaped with elongated ventral branch; ventral branch 50-60 μm long and extending past the base of buccal cavity; buccal cavity cylindrical with arching or spherical base; three heavy outwardly-curving odontia with blunt tips located at anterior of buccal cavity; pharynx short with posterior bulb; ventral gland cell elongate oval-shaped, located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore situated at the level of the middle of buccal cavity; tail conical to cylindrical; spicules arched, with double-cephalate proximal end; gubernaculum with a strong dorsal caudal apophysis.

  15. Further description of Aspidodera raillieti (Nematoda: Aspidoderidae) from Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) by light and scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Oliveira-Menezes, A; Cárdenas, M Q; Lanfredi, R M

    2007-10-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Freitas 1956 are widely distributed from Americas. The species of the genus Aspidodera Railliet and Henry 1912 are parasites of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia, and Rodentia. In the present work, Aspidodera raillieti (L. Travassos, Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 5(3):271-318, 1913), collected from the large intestine of Didelphis marsupialis (Mammalia: Didelphidae) from Valle del Cauca, Colombia, is redescribed. The association of light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) allowed a detailed analysis of the morphology and ultrastructure of this nematode. Some taxonomic features, such as cephalic region, topography of the cuticle, sucker, spicules, posterior end of males, localization of vulva, the anus, and posterior end of females were observed. Important structures such as amphid, details of cephalic region, phasmid, and number and localization of caudal papillae are documented by SEM, for the first time adding characters to identify this species. Colombia is a new geographical record for A. raillieti. PMID:17622560

  16. Can classic metaphyseal lesions follow uncomplicated caesarean section?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connell, AnnaMarie [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin 1 (Ireland); Donoghue, Veronica B. [Children' s University Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin 1 (Ireland); National Maternity Hospital, Radiology Department, Dublin (Ireland)

    2007-05-15

    Classic metaphyseal lesion (CML) is the term given to a fracture that most often occurs in the posteromedial aspect of the distal femur, proximal tibia, distal tibia, and proximal humerus in infants; this finding is strongly associated with non-accidental injury. To demonstrate that the CML may occur following simple lower segment caesarean section (LSCS). A review of 22 years of an obstetric practice that delivers 8,500 babies per year. We identified three neonates born by elective LSCS, each with distal femoral metaphyseal fractures on postpartum radiographs. All caesarean sections were elective and uncomplicated. External cephalic version was not employed preoperatively. Postpartum radiographs demonstrated a fracture of the distal femoral metaphysis in each neonate, typical of a CML. We propose that a CML can occur in the setting of a simple, elective and uncomplicated LSCS where no external cephalic version is employed. (orig.)

  17. Calicobenedenia Polyprioni n. gen., n. sp. (Monogenoidea: Capsalidae) from the external surfaces of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei: Polyprionidae), in the north Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritsky, D C; Fennessy, C J

    1999-04-01

    Calicobenedenia polyprioni n. sp. (Capsalidae) is described from the external surfaces (skin and eye) of wreckfish, Polyprion americanus (Teleostei, Perciformes, Polyprionidae), from the north Atlantic Ocean. The monotypic Calicobenedenia n. gen. is proposed for this species and is characterized, in part, by its members possessing an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks and 1 pair of anchors, a common genital pore opening marginally immediately posterior to the left cephalic lobe, 2 testes juxtaposed near the body midlength, and by lacking cephalic suckers or adhesive discs, accessory haptoral sclerites, and a uterine valve. The new genus most closely resembles Entobdella, which differs from Calicobenedenia by having an aseptate haptor armed with 14 submarginal hooks, 2 pairs of anchors, and a pair of accessary sclerites. PMID:10219294

  18. Somatosensory evoked potentials after multisegmental upper limb stimulation in diagnosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Restuccia, D; Valeriani, M.; Di Lazzaro, V; Tonali, P.; Mauguière, F

    1994-01-01

    Radial, median, and ulnar nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) were recorded, with non-cephalic reference montage, in 38 patients with clinical signs of cervical myelopathy and MRI evidence of spondylotic compression of the cervical cord. Upper limb SEPs are useful in spondylotic myelopathy because SEPs were abnormal in all patients for at least one of the stimulated nerves and SEP abnormalities were bilateral in all patients but one. Reduction of the amplitude of the N13 potential in...

  19. Comparison of methods to facilitate postoperative bowel function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crainic, Christina; Erickson, Kathie; Gardner, Janet; Haberman, Sheri; Patten, Pam; Thomas, Pat; Hays, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Improving postoperative return of bowel function after abdominal surgery is an important nursing and medical goal. One promising intervention to achieve this goal is to have patients chew gum several times per day in the early postoperative period to stimulate the cephalic-vagal reflex and bowel peristalsis. A study to determine if return of gastrointestinal function after abdominal surgery could be hastened by the simple intervention of chewing gum or sucking on hard candy three times per day is described. PMID:20552850

  20. Intrapartum fetal monitoring by ST-analysis of the fetal ECG

    OpenAIRE

    Westerhuis, M.E.M.H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Intrapartum fetal monitoring aims to identify fetuses at risk for neonatal and long-term injury due to asphyxia. To serve this purpose, cardiotocography (CTG) combined with ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG), which is a relatively new method, may be used. The main aim of this thesis was to quantify the (cost) effectiveness of intrapartum fetal monitoring by ST-analysis of the fetal ECG in women with a singleton term pregnancy in cephalic position. Methods Several studi...

  1. Randomised controlled trial of intrapartum fetal heart rate monitoring.

    OpenAIRE

    Mahomed, K.; Nyoni, R.; Mulambo, T.; Kasule, J.; Jacobus, E.

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To compare effectiveness of different methods of monitoring intrapartum fetal heart rate. DESIGN--Prospective randomised controlled trial. SETTING--Referral maternity hospital, Harare, Zimbabwe. SUBJECTS--1255 women who were 37 weeks or more pregnant with singleton cephalic presentation and normal fetal heart rate before entry into study. INTERVENTIONS--Intermittent monitoring of fetal heart rate by electronic monitoring, Doppler ultrasound, use of Pinard stethoscope by a research ...

  2. Hepatogastrostomy by EUS for malignant afferent loop obstruction after duodenopancreatectomy

    OpenAIRE

    Ratone, Jean-Philippe; Caillol, Fabrice; Bories, Erwan; Pesenti, Christian; Godat, Sebastien; Giovannini, Marc

    2015-01-01

    One of the most difficult biliary drainages is the recurrence and stenosis on afferent loop after surgery. We report an original case of hepaticogastrostomy (HGE) in a patient who had malignant stenosis of afferent loop after cephalic duodenopancreatectomy (CDP). After failure of the gastrointestinal stent, two metal self-expandable stents were placed by endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) after puncture of the dilated left hepatic duct. On clinical improvement and disappearance of jaundice, palliati...

  3. Methodology for a global bicycle real world accidents reconstruction

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2012-01-01

    The use of the bicycle on a large scale encouraged in the context to develop an eco friendly environment is facing today on a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of th...

  4. In-depth real-world bicycle accident reconstructions

    OpenAIRE

    Bourdet, Nicolas; Deck, Caroline; Serre, Thierry; Perrin, Christophe; LLARI, Maxime; Willinger, Rémy

    2013-01-01

    Use of bicycles on a large scale, encouraged in the context to develop an eco-friendly environment, is facing today a range of barriers. One of these barriers identified by researchers and governments is observed to include ‘road safety’. Hence, it is necessary to set up a protection system for bicyclists especially for the cephalic segment. Currently only few studies are available concerning the head impact loading in case of real accidents. Therefore, the objective of this work ...

  5. POINT OF MAXIMUM WIDTH: A NEW MEASURE FOR ANTHROPOMETRIC OUTCOMES IN PATIENTS WITH SAGITTAL SYNOSTOSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Gangopadhyay, Noopur; Shah, Manjool; Skolnick, Gary B; Patel, Kamlesh B; Naidoo, Sybill D.; Woo, Albert S.

    2014-01-01

    The aesthetic success of sagittal synostosis reconstruction is measured by cephalic index (CI). This limited measure does not fully account for the abnormal head shape in sagittal synostosis. In this retrospective study, we investigate a new objective measure, point of maximum width (PMW) of the skull from a vertex view, to determine where the head is widest for children with sagittal synostosis as compared to normal controls. Preoperative CT scans of 27 children with sagittal synostosis and ...

  6. Analysis of factors that influence the outcomes of labor induction with intravenous synthetic oxytocin infusion in term pregnancy with favourable bishop score

    OpenAIRE

    Mahmut Kuntay Kokanali; Demet Kokanali; Ali irfan Guzel; Hasan Onur Topcu; Sabri Cavkaytar; Melike Doganay

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors that influence the success of labor induction with synthetic intravenous oxytocin infusion in term pregnancies with favourable Bishop score. Material and Methods: 150 pregnant women with completed 37 weeks of gestation and Bishop score>6 who had single and cephalic presentation of pregnancy and were decided to underwent labor induction with intravenous oxytocin infusion were included in the study. Labor induction was considered unsuccessful if a vaginal ...

  7. Analysis of Factors that Influence the Outcomes of Labor Induction with Intravenous Synthetic Oxytocin Infusion in Term Pregnancy with Favourable Bishop Score

    OpenAIRE

    Kokanalı, Mahmut Kuntay; Kokanalı, Demet; Güzel, Ali İrfan; Topçu, Hasan Onur; Cavkaytar, Sabri; Doğanay, Melike

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the factors that influence the success of labor induction with synthetic intravenous oxytocin infusion in term pregnancies with favourable Bishop score. Material and Methods: 150 pregnant women with completed 37 weeks of gestation and Bishop score>6 who had single and cephalic presentation of pregnancy and were decided to underwent labor induction with intravenous oxytocin infusion were included in the study. Labor induction was considered unsuccessful if a vaginal ...

  8. Foams Stabilized by Tricationic Amphiphilic Surfactants

    OpenAIRE

    Heerschap, Seth; Marafino, John N.; McKenna, Kristin; Caran, Kevin L.; Feitosa, Klebert

    2015-01-01

    The unique surface properties of amphiphilic molecules have made them widely used in applications where foaming, emulsifying or coating processes are needed. Novel surfactant architectures with multi-cephalic and multi-tailed molecules have reportedly enhanced their anti-bacterial activity in connection with tail length and the nature of the head group, but their ability to produce and stabilize foam is mostly unknown. Here we report on experiments with tris-cationic, triple-headed, double- a...

  9. Cebocephaly, alobar holoprosencephaly, spina bifida, and sirenomelia in a stillbirth.

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, C.P.; Shih, S L; Liu, F F; Jan, S W

    1997-01-01

    Cebocephaly and sirenomelia are uncommon birth defects. Their association is extremely rare; however, the presence of spina bifida with both conditions is not unexpected. We report on a female still-birth with cebocephaly, alobar holoprosencephaly, cleft palate, lumbar spina bifida, sirenomelia, a single umbilical artery, and a 46,XX karyotype, but without maternal diabetes mellitus. Our case adds to the examples of overlapping cephalic and caudal defects, possibly related to vulnerability of...

  10. Estudio de las visitas de las moscas de las flores (Diptera: Syrphidae) and Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae) en el Jardín Botánico José Celestino Mutis Bogotá (Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    Zamora Carrillo, Mónica; Amat García, Germán D.; Fernández Alonso, José Luis

    2011-01-01

    [EN]The objective of this research was to describe the biological interaction between Salvia bogotensis (Lamiaceae) and the flower flies (Diptera:Syrphidae) in an urban setting, the Jardín Botánico “José Celestino Mutis” (Bogotá DC). After verifying the existence of the entomofilia syndrome were studied namely: floral morphology, taxonomic composition, richness and abundance of syrphid species identified as flower visitors and the cephalic and oral morphometry. S. bogotensis presents entomoph...

  11. The kinematics of swimming and relocation jumps in copepod nauplii

    OpenAIRE

    Borg, Marc Andersen; Bruno, Eleonora; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Copepod nauplii move in a world dominated by viscosity. Their swimming-by-jumping propulsion mode, with alternating power and recovery strokes of three pairs of cephalic appendages, is fundamentally different from the way other microplankters move. Protozoans move using cilia or flagella, and copepodites are equipped with highly specialized swimming legs. In some species the nauplius may also propel itself more slowly through the water by beating and rotating the appendages in a different, mo...

  12. 头静脉修剪高位重建动静脉内瘘11例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆猛桂

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察头静脉修剪高位重建动静脉内瘘的结果。方法:11例慢性肾脏病5期维持血液透析伴动静脉内瘘血栓形成的患者。首次建立动静脉内瘘采用的是头静脉及桡动脉端侧吻合,使用时间为6-24个月。再次手术、切除头静脉血栓部分血管,近端与桡动脉高位重新予端侧吻合。结果:手术均取得成功,随访6-12个月,内瘘均通畅,无血栓形成。结论:头静脉修剪高位重建动静脉内瘘可行,值得推广应用。%Objective:To observe the cephalic vein reconstruction trim high arteriovenous fistula results. Methods:11 patients with chronic kidney disease with five hemodialysis arteriovenous fistula thrombosis patients. First created arteriovenous fistula is used cephalic vein and radial artery end to side anastomosis, the use of time is 6-24 months. Reoperation, removal of part of the cephalic vein thrombosis of blood vessels, and the radial artery proximal to the high re-side anastomosis. The results were successful surgery, fol ow-up 6-12 months, fistula were patent, without thrombosis. Conclusion:trim high cephalic vein arteriovenous fistula reconstruction feasible, should be widely applied.

  13. Eviota piperata, a new gobiid species from Palau (Teleostei: Gobiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, David W; Winterbottom, Richard

    2014-01-01

    A new species of dwarfgoby, Eviota piperata is described from Palau. It belongs to the cephalic sensory-pore system Group II (lacking only the IT pore); has a dorsal/anal-fin formula of 8/8; has some pectoral-fin rays branched; no dark spot over the ural centrum; the male genital papilla is not fimbriate; and the cheek and body are heavily peppered with chromatophores. PMID:24869823

  14. Plasticity of Ectomesenchymal Stem Cells and its Ability of Producing Tissue Engineering Tooth by Recombining with Dental Epithelial Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    1 IntroductionRecently, it has been found that human dental pulp stem cells could generate dentin-pulp complex-like structures in nude mice, but studies on tissue engineering tooth-like structures by cultured human dental epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells are still reported rarely. Ectomesenchyme is an unique structure of vertebrates embryo compose of postmigratory cephalic neural crest cells (NCC) and its derivatives. The aim of the present study was to identify and isolate the ectomesenchymal stem cel...

  15. Synovial cyst--an unusual cause of nerve root compression. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, A J

    1988-01-01

    An elderly woman presented with a tense, synovia-lined ganglion, associated with the left L3/L4 apophyseal joint, which protruded posteriorly and caudally through the joint capsule and extended anteriorly and cephally into the neural canal. The intraspinal extension produced a compression radiculopathy of the L3 nerve root. Removal of the cyst produced acute and dramatic alleviation of the symptoms. PMID:3340901

  16. The Levels and Duration of Sensory and Motor Blockades of Spinal Anesthesia in Obese Patients That Underwent Urological Operations in the Lithotomy Position

    OpenAIRE

    Taner Ciftci; Ali Bestemi Kepekci; Hatice Pınar Yavasca; Hayrettin Daskaya; Volkan İnal

    2015-01-01

    Obesity has a significant effect on the cephalic spread of a spinal block (SB) due to a reduction in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SB is controlled by the tissue blood flow in addition to the CSF. Some positions and techniques of surgery used can cause changes in hemodynamics. We investigated effects of hemodynamic changes that may occur during Transurethral prostate resection (TUR-P) and lithotomy position (LP) at the SB level in obese versus nonobese individuals. Sixty patients who had undergo...

  17. Effect of a nitric oxide donor (glyceryl trinitrate) on nociceptive thresholds in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, L L; Brennum, J; Iversen, Helle Klingenberg;

    1996-01-01

    Several animal studies suggest that nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in central and peripheral modulation of nociception. Glyceryl trinitrate (GTN) exerts its physiological actions via donation of NO. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of this NO donor on nociceptive...... central facilitation of nociception by NO. However, we regard convergence of nociceptive input from pericranial myofascial tissue and from cephalic blood vessels dilated by NO as a more likely explanation of our findings....

  18. Chiral recognition of pinacidil and its 3-pyridyl isomer by canine cardiac and smooth muscle: Antagonism by sulfonylureas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinberg, M.I.; Wiest, S.A.; Zimmerman, K.M.; Ertel, P.J.; Bemis, K.G.; Robertson, D.W. (Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN (USA))

    1991-01-01

    Pinacidil, a potassium channel opener (PCO), relaxes vascular smooth muscle by increasing potassium ion membrane conductance, thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. PCOs also act on cardiac muscle to decrease action potential duration (APD) selectively. To examine the enantiomeric selectivity of pinacidil, the stereoisomers of pinacidil (a 4-pyridylcyanoguanidine) and its 3-pyridyl isomer (LY222675) were synthesized and studied in canine Purkinje fibers and cephalic veins. The (-)-enantiomers of both pinacidil and LY222675 were more potent in relaxing phenylephrine-contracted cephalic veins and decreasing APD than were their corresponding (+)-enantiomers. The EC50 values for (-)-pinacidil and (-)-LY222675 in relaxing cephalic veins were 0.44 and 0.09 microM, respectively. In decreasing APD, the EC50 values were 3.2 microM for (-)-pinacidil and 0.43 microM for (-)-LY222675. The eudismic ratio was greater for the 3-pyridyl isomer than for pinacidil in both cardiac (71 vs. 22) and vascular (53 vs. 17) tissues. (-)-LY222675 and (-)-pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) also increased 86Rb efflux from cephalic veins to a greater extent than did their respective optical antipodes. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glyburide (1-30 microM), shifted the vascular concentration-response curve of (-)-pinacidil to the right by a similar extent at each inhibitor concentration. Glipizide also antagonized the response to (-)-pinacidil, but was about 1/10 as potent with a maximal shift occurring at 10 and 30 microM. Glyburide antagonized the vascular relaxant effects of 0.3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 2.3 microM) and reversed the decrease in APD caused by 3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 1.9 microM). Nitroprusside did not alter 86Rb efflux, and vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by sulfonylureas.

  19. Impact of sex ratio on onset and management of labour.

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Marion H; Carr-Hill, Roy A.

    1982-01-01

    In a study of 52,266 live singleton deliveries in a total population male babies were delivered at earlier gestations than female. This difference was not due to induction or elective caesarean section. Female babies were more likely to present and be delivered by the breech. When the presentation was cephalic, male babies were much more likely to be delivered by forceps or caesarean section and female babies to deliver spontaneously.

  20. Cienfuegia gen. nov (Xyalidae) and Pseudoterschellingia gen. nov (Linhomoeidae), two new genera of free-living marine nematodes from the Caribbean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Armenteros, M; Vincx, M.; Decraemer, W.

    2009-01-01

    Two new genera of nematodes are described from the Caribbean Sea. Cienfuegia gen. nov. belongs to the Xyalidae based on the position of the anterior gonad constantly left of the intestine, cuticle clearly striated, second and third circle of anterior sensilla inserted at the same level and buccal cavity surrounded by pharynx. The new genus is differentiated from other genera by the buccal cavity divided in two chambers and by the four cephalic setae being longer than the six outer labial seta...

  1. Adenoma seroso oligoquístico do pâncreas - a propósito de um caso clínico

    OpenAIRE

    Almeida, N; Alves, S.; I. Borges; C. Gregório; Gomes, D.; F. Portela; Sérgio, M

    2006-01-01

    We present the case of a fifty years old patient who was first seen in the Emergency Service with a three month history of epigastric pain, without previous pancreatitis or alcohol consumption. The abdominal ultrasound has shown a cystic lesion of the pancreas confirmed by CT scan. However, its ethiology was not determined even after ultrasound guided aspiration of the cyst fluid. The patient was submitted to cephalic pancreatoduodenectomy (Whipple's resection) after a...

  2. The C. elegans protein CEH-30 protects male-specific neurons from apoptosis independently of the Bcl-2 homolog CED-9

    OpenAIRE

    Schwartz, Hillel T.; Horvitz, H Robert

    2007-01-01

    The developmental control of apoptosis is fundamental and important. We report that the Caenorhabditis elegans Bar homeodomain transcription factor CEH-30 is required for the sexually dimorphic survival of the male-specific CEM (cephalic male) sensory neurons; the homologous cells of hermaphrodites undergo programmed cell death. We propose that the cell-type-specific anti-apoptotic gene ceh-30 is transcriptionally repressed by the TRA-1 transcription factor, the terminal regulator of sexual i...

  3. Effect of chewing gum on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function

    OpenAIRE

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yi-tao

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a source of morbidity and the major determinant of length of stay after abdominal operation. There are many different reasons for postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction such as stress response, perioperative interventions, bowel manipulation and so on. The mechanism of enhanced recovery from postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction with the help of chewing gum is believed to be the cephalic-vagal stimulation of digestion which increases...

  4. Chiral recognition of pinacidil and its 3-pyridyl isomer by canine cardiac and smooth muscle: Antagonism by sulfonylureas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinacidil, a potassium channel opener (PCO), relaxes vascular smooth muscle by increasing potassium ion membrane conductance, thereby causing membrane hyperpolarization. PCOs also act on cardiac muscle to decrease action potential duration (APD) selectively. To examine the enantiomeric selectivity of pinacidil, the stereoisomers of pinacidil (a 4-pyridylcyanoguanidine) and its 3-pyridyl isomer (LY222675) were synthesized and studied in canine Purkinje fibers and cephalic veins. The (-)-enantiomers of both pinacidil and LY222675 were more potent in relaxing phenylephrine-contracted cephalic veins and decreasing APD than were their corresponding (+)-enantiomers. The EC50 values for (-)-pinacidil and (-)-LY222675 in relaxing cephalic veins were 0.44 and 0.09 microM, respectively. In decreasing APD, the EC50 values were 3.2 microM for (-)-pinacidil and 0.43 microM for (-)-LY222675. The eudismic ratio was greater for the 3-pyridyl isomer than for pinacidil in both cardiac (71 vs. 22) and vascular (53 vs. 17) tissues. (-)-LY222675 and (-)-pinacidil (0.1-30 microM) also increased 86Rb efflux from cephalic veins to a greater extent than did their respective optical antipodes. The antidiabetic sulfonylurea, glyburide (1-30 microM), shifted the vascular concentration-response curve of (-)-pinacidil to the right by a similar extent at each inhibitor concentration. Glipizide also antagonized the response to (-)-pinacidil, but was about 1/10 as potent with a maximal shift occurring at 10 and 30 microM. Glyburide antagonized the vascular relaxant effects of 0.3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 2.3 microM) and reversed the decrease in APD caused by 3 microM (-)-LY222675 (EC50, 1.9 microM). Nitroprusside did not alter 86Rb efflux, and vascular relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was unaffected by sulfonylureas

  5. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of human hypothalamic responses to sweet taste and calories

    OpenAIRE

    Smeets, P.A.M.; Graaf, de, Joost; Stafleu, A.; van Osch, M. J. P.; Grond, van der, J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence exists that beverages do not trigger appropriate anticipatory physiologic responses, such as cephalic phase insulin release. Therefore, it is of interest to elucidate the food properties necessary for triggering adaptive responses. Previously, we found a prolonged dose-dependent decrease in the hypothalamic functional magnetic resonance imaging signal after ingestion of a glucose solution. OBJECTIVES: The aims of the present study were to measure the effects of sweet tast...

  6. Rhipidocotyle gibsoni n. sp. from a Brazilian Freshwater Fish and Rhipidocotyle froesi n.sp. for r. baculum (linton, 1905 of Eckmann (1932 (Bucephalidae; Digenea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Kohn

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Rhipidocotyle gibsoni n.sp. is described from Acestrorhynchus lacustris from Paraná River, brazil. It is most closely related to r. froesi n. sp. and to R. eckmanni in the shape of the cephalic hood, differing in the extent of the uterus, in the position of the vitelline follicles and in that the host is a freshwater fish. Rhipidocotyle froesi n. sp. is proposed for the marine specimens described by Eckmann (1932 as R. baculum (Linton, 1905.

  7. Morphometric variation among the Central Indian populations

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Rajesh K.; Dipak K. Adak,; Pal, M.; P. Bharati

    2013-01-01

    Data on 8 anthropometric characters of 6663 adult males belonging to 22 caste groups, distributed in 38 districts of Central India were taken for present investigation, to study the morphometric variation. Cephalic index, nasal Index, Generalized Mahalanobis distances and its size and shape components were computed and dendrograms were drawn. Comparison of coefficient of variations shows that there exists variation in nasal breadth, nasal length, weight and hence in nasal index. But no marked...

  8. Epidural labour analgesia using Bupivacaine and Clonidine

    OpenAIRE

    Syal, K; R K Dogra; A Ohri; Chauhan, G.; Goel, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: To compare the effects of addition of Clonidine (60 μg) to Epidural Bupivacaine (0.125%) for labour analgesia, with regard to duration of analgesia, duration of labour, ambulation, incidence of instrumentation and caesarean section, foetal outcome, patient satisfaction and side effects. Patients & Methods: On demand, epidural labour analgesia was given to 50 nulliparous healthy term parturients (cephalic presentation), divided in two groups randomly. Group I received bupivacain...

  9. Cross-phylum functional equivalence of Otx genes and the origin of brain patterning

    OpenAIRE

    Adachi, Yoshitsugu

    2004-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms of cephalic development is an intriguing question in evolutionary and developmental biology. Otx gene plays important roles in animal brain and head development and Otx genes are found in all major animal groups: cnidarians, lophotrochozoans, ecdysozoans, anddeuterostomes. Ascidians, positioned near the origin of the phylum Chordata, share a conserved set of anteroposterior patterning genes withthat of vertebrates. Here I report the cross-phylum regulatory potential of th...

  10. The selective sigma-1 receptor antagonist E-52862 attenuates neuropathic pain of different aetiology in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gris, Georgia; Portillo-Salido, Enrique; Aubel, Bertrand; Darbaky, Yassine; Deseure, Kristof; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    E-52862 is a selective σ1R antagonist currently undergoing phase II clinical trials for neuropathic pain and represents a potential first-in-class analgesic. Here, we investigated the effect of single and repeated administration of E-52862 on different pain-related behaviours in several neuropathic pain models in rats: mechanical allodynia in cephalic (trigeminal) neuropathic pain following chronic constriction injury of the infraorbital nerve (IoN), mechanical hyperalgesia in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic polyneuropathy, and cold allodynia in oxaliplatin (OX)-induced polyneuropathy. Mechanical hypersensitivity induced after IoN surgery or STZ administration was reduced by acute treatment with E-52862 and morphine, but not by pregabalin. In the OX model, single administration of E-52862 reversed the hypersensitivity to cold stimuli similarly to 100 mg/kg of gabapentin. Interestingly, repeated E-52862 administration twice daily over 7 days did not induce pharmacodynamic tolerance but an increased antinociceptive effect in all three models. Additionally, as shown in the STZ and OX models, repeated daily treatment with E-52862 attenuated baseline pain behaviours, which supports a sustained modifying effect on underlying pain-generating mechanisms. These preclinical findings support a role for σ1R in neuropathic pain and extend the potential for the use of selective σ1R antagonists (e.g., E-52862) to the chronic treatment of cephalic and extra-cephalic neuropathic pain. PMID:27087602

  11. Rat hindlimb joint immobilization with acrylic resin orthoses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.A. da Silva

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to propose an orthosis of light material that would be functional for the animal and that would maintain only the ankle joint immobilized. Male Wistar rats (3 to 4 months old, 250-300 g were divided into 2 groups (N = 6: control and immobilized for 7 days. Rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (40 mg/kg weight and the left hindlimb was immobilized with the orthoses composed of acrylic resin model, abdominal belt and lateral supports. The following analyses were performed: glycogen content of the soleus, extensor digitorum longus, white gastrocnemius, red gastrocnemius, and tibialis anterior muscles by the phenol sulfuric method, and the weight, fiber area and intramuscular connective tissue of the soleus by the planimetric system. Data were analyzed statistically by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov, Student t and Wilcoxon tests. Immobilization decreased glycogen in all muscles (P < 0.05; soleus: 31.6%, white gastrocnemius: 56.6%, red gastrocnemius: 39%, extensor digitorum longus: 41.7%, tibialis anterior: 45.2% in addition to reducing soleus weight by 34% (P < 0.05. Furthermore, immobilization promoted reduction of the fiber area (43%, P < 0.05 and increased the connective tissue (200%, P < 0.05. The orthosis model was efficient comparing with another alternative immobilization model, like plaster casts, in promoting skeletal muscle alterations, indicating that it could be used as a new model in other studies related to muscle disuse.

  12. Comparison of custom and prefabricated orthoses in the initial treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeffer, G; Bacchetti, P; Deland, J; Lewis, A; Anderson, R; Davis, W; Alvarez, R; Brodsky, J; Cooper, P; Frey, C; Herrick, R; Myerson, M; Sammarco, J; Janecki, C; Ross, S; Bowman, M; Smith, R

    1999-04-01

    Fifteen centers for orthopaedic treatment of the foot and ankle participated in a prospective randomized trial to compare several nonoperative treatments for proximal plantar fasciitis (heel pain syndrome). Included were 236 patients (160 women and 76 men) who were 16 years of age or older. Most reported duration of symptoms of 6 months or less. Patients with systemic disease, significant musculoskeletal complaints, sciatica, or local nerve entrapment were excluded. We randomized patients prospectively into five different treatment groups. All groups performed Achilles tendon- and plantar fascia-stretching in a similar manner. One group was treated with stretching only. The other four groups stretched and used one of four different shoe inserts, including a silicone heel pad, a felt pad, a rubber heel cup, or a custom-made polypropylene orthotic device. Patients were reevaluated after 8 weeks of treatment. The percentages improved in each group were: (1) silicone insert, 95%; (2) rubber insert, 88%; (3) felt insert, 81%; (4)stretching only, 72%; and (5) custom orthosis, 68%. Combining all the patients who used a prefabricated insert, we found that their improvement rates were higher than those assigned to stretching only (P = 0.022) and those who stretched and used a custom orthosis (P = 0.0074). We conclude that, when used in conjunction with a stretching program, a prefabricated shoe insert is more likely to produce improvement in symptoms as part of the initial treatment of proximal plantar fasciitis than a custom polypropylene orthotic device. PMID:10229276

  13. Efficacy of a hybrid assistive limb in post-stroke hemiplegic patients: a preliminary report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeda Koji

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Robotic devices are expected to be widely used in various applications including support for the independent mobility of the elderly with muscle weakness and people with impaired motor function as well as support for nursing care that involves heavy laborious work. We evaluated the effects of a hybrid assistive limb robot suit on the gait of stroke patients undergoing rehabilitation. Methods The study group comprised 16 stroke patients with severe hemiplegia. All patients underwent gait training. Four patients required assistance, and 12 needed supervision while walking. The stride length, walking speed and physiological cost index on wearing the hybrid assistive limb suit and a knee-ankle-foot orthosis were compared. Results The hybrid assistive limb suit increased the stride length and walking speed in 4 of 16 patients. The patients whose walking speed decreased on wearing the hybrid assistive limb suit either had not received sufficient gait training or had an established gait pattern with a knee-ankle-foot orthosis using a quad cane. The physiological cost index increased after wearing the hybrid assistive limb suit in 12 patients, but removal of the suit led to a decrease in the physiological cost index values to equivalent levels prior to the use of the suit. Conclusions Although the hybrid assistive limb suit is not useful for all hemiplegic patients, it may increase the walking speed and affect the walking ability. Further investigation would clarify its indication for the possibility of gait training.

  14. 3D MODELLING OF PROPHYLACTIC FOOTWEAR FOR A HIGH ARCHED FOOT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSTEA Mariana

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article approaches the methodology of designing customized footwear for high arched foot. The authors propose to reconsider the classical structure of footwear bottom components for people with high arched foot and recommend incorporating custom components, with the role of compensation or adjustment. This study continues the authors’ research, starting from a foot’s 3D shape obtained by 3D scanning, the anthropometrical and biomechanical parameters, shoe lasts’ 3D modelling and continuing with 3D footwear design. Including customized orthosis can help to stop the evolution of abnormalities, diminishes sensations of pain during walking and improves performance in various physical activities carried out during the day, walking, running, and standing. The prophylactic footwear has to meet four main requirements: to protect the foot and ankle during walking and static; to ensure the normal resistance systems (bones, muscle and joint of the foot; to prevent the installation of irreversible structural changes by reducing stress on the foot; to contribute to increased performance in conducting regular physical activity. It is presented the steps of modelling an orthosis, a virtual simulation of its cutting process, followed by the integration and development of the insole, filling and sole for a customized shoe. Delcam Crispin CAD system and its applications for orthopaedics are used to design the bottom components of prophylactic footwear for a high arched foot.

  15. Rehabilitation Management of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrado, Bruno; Ciardi, Gianluca; Bargigli, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    The Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) causes significant muscular deficits in the affected patients, restricts daily activities (ADL), and involves a severe disability. Although the conservative intervention is the only treatment for the disease, there is no scientific evidence so far on rehabilitation treatment. Objectives of the review are: research the best literary evidence so far on the rehabilitation treatment of CMT; critically analyze the outcome, to build an evidence-based work protocol.A systematic review of the rehabilitation of a patient with CMT, including the results from the following databases: Pubmed, Medline, Embase, Pedro, Cinahl, Ebsco discovery. Criteria for inclusion: randomized/controlled studies, analytic studies, transversal studies on a cohort of at least 10 individuals; medium/long-term report of the results.Eleven studies in total have been admitted to the final review phase; trials about physiotherapy CMT treatment (5), about orthosis treatment (6). Despite the wide range of outcomes and proposed interventions, the data points to the following: strength or endurance trainings improve functionality and ADLs of affected patients, while orthotic role is, at the moment, not completely clear.Physiotherapy treatment is a useful tool to manage CMT; more studies on a larger number of cases are needed to define orthosis utility and to establish the gold standard of the treatment. PMID:27124017

  16. Decohesion Kinetics of PEDOT:PSS Conducting Polymer Films

    KAUST Repository

    Dupont, Stephanie R.

    2013-10-17

    The highly conductive polymer PEDOT:PSS is a widely used hole transport layer and transparent electrode in organic electronic devices. To date, the mechanical and fracture properties of this conductive polymer layer are not well understood. Notably, the decohesion rate of the PEDOT:PSS layer and its sensitivity to moist environments has not been reported, which is central in determining the lifetimes of organic electronic devices. Here, it is demonstrated that the decohesion rate is highly sensitive to the ambient moisture content, temperature, and mechanical stress. The kinetic mechanisms are elucidated using atomistic bond rupture models and the decohesion process is shown to be facilitated by a chemical reaction between water molecules from the environment and strained hydrogen bonds. Hydrogen bonds are the predominant bonding mechanism between individual PEDOT:PSS grains within the layer and cause a significant loss in cohesion when they are broken. Understanding the decohesion kinetics and mechanisms in these films is essential for the mechanical integrity of devices containing PEDOT:PSS layers and yields general guidelines for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices. Decohesion rate in PEDOT:PSS conducting films is studied under varied environmental conditions. The moisture content in the environment is the most important factor accelerating the decohesion in the PEDOT:PSS layer, which is detrimental for device reliability. The findings on the decohesion rate and mechanisms, elucidated by atomic kinetic models, are essential for the design of more reliable organic electronic devices containting PEDOT:PSS layers. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. The effect of anaerobic fermentation processing of cattle waste for biogas as a renewable energy resources on the number of contaminant microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnani, Tb. Benito A.; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Harlia, Ellin

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle waste has a positive potential that can be exploited, as well as a negative potential that must be controlled so as not to pollute the environment. Beef cattle waste can be processed into an alternative energy, namely biogas. Anaerobic treatment of livestock waste to produce gas can be a solution in providing optional energy, while the resulted sludge as the fermentation residue can be used as organic fertilizer for crops. However, this sludge may containt patogenic microorganism that will damage human and environmet healt. Therefor, this study was aimed to know the potency of beef cattle waste to produce biogas and the decrease of the microorganism's number by using fixed dome digester. Beef cattle waste was processed into biogas using fixed dome digester with a capacity of 12 m3. Biogas composition was measured using Gas Cromatografi, will microorganism species was identified using Total plate Count Methode. The result of this study shows that the produced biogas contains of 75.77% Mol (CH4), 13.28% Mol (N), and 6.96% Mol (CO2). Furthermor, this study show that the anaerobic fermrntation process is capable of reducing microorganisms that could potentially pollute the environment. The number of Escherichia coli and Samonella sp. were protozoa can be reduced in order of 94.73%. Protozoa that can be identified in cattle waste before, and after anaerobic fermentation was merely Eimeria sp.. The process also reduced the yeast of 86.11%. The remaining yeast after fermentation was Candida sp. Finally, about 93.7% of endoparasites was reduced by this process. In this case, every trematode and cestoda were 100% reduced, while the nematode only 75%. Reducing some microorganisms that have the potential to pollute the environment signifies sludge anaerobic fermentation residue is safe to be applied as organic fertilizer for crops.

  18. The effect of anaerobic fermentation processing of cattle waste for biogas as a renewable energy resources on the number of contaminant microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurnani, Tb. Benito A.; Hidayati, Yuli Astuti; Marlina, Eulis Tanti; Harlia, Ellin

    2016-02-01

    Beef cattle waste has a positive potential that can be exploited, as well as a negative potential that must be controlled so as not to pollute the environment. Beef cattle waste can be processed into an alternative energy, namely biogas. Anaerobic treatment of livestock waste to produce gas can be a solution in providing optional energy, while the resulted sludge as the fermentation residue can be used as organic fertilizer for crops. However, this sludge may containt patogenic microorganism that will damage human and environmet healt. Therefor, this study was aimed to know the potency of beef cattle waste to produce biogas and the decrease of the microorganism's number by using fixed dome digester. Beef cattle waste was processed into biogas using fixed dome digester with a capacity of 12 m3. Biogas composition was measured using Gas Cromatografi, will microorganism species was identified using Total plate Count Methode. The result of this study shows that the produced biogas contains of 75.77% Mol (CH4), 13.28% Mol (N), and 6.96% Mol (CO2). Furthermor, this study show that the anaerobic fermrntation process is capable of reducing microorganisms that could potentially pollute the environment. The number of Escherichia coli and Samonella sp. were waste before, and after anaerobic fermentation was merely Eimeria sp.. The process also reduced the yeast of 86.11%. The remaining yeast after fermentation was Candida sp. Finally, about 93.7% of endoparasites was reduced by this process. In this case, every trematode and cestoda were 100% reduced, while the nematode only 75%. Reducing some microorganisms that have the potential to pollute the environment signifies sludge anaerobic fermentation residue is safe to be applied as organic fertilizer for crops.

  19. Visualisation to enhance biomechanical tuning of ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs in stroke: study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carse Bruce

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There are a number of gaps in the evidence base for the use of ankle-foot orthoses for stroke patients. Three dimensional motion analysis offers an ideal method for objectively obtaining biomechanical gait data from stroke patients, however there are a number of major barriers to its use in routine clinical practice. One significant problem is the way in which the biomechanical data generated by these systems is presented. Through the careful design of bespoke biomechanical visualisation software it may be possible to present such data in novel ways to improve clinical decision making, track progress and increase patient understanding in the context of ankle-foot orthosis tuning. Methods A single-blind randomised controlled trial will be used to compare the use of biomechanical visualisation software in ankle-foot orthosis tuning against standard care (tuning using observation alone. Participants (n = 70 will have experienced a recent hemiplegia (1-12 months and will be identified by their care team as being suitable candidates for a rigid ankle-foot orthosis. The primary outcome measure will be walking velocity. Secondary outcome measures include; lower limb joint kinematics (thigh and shank global orientations & kinetics (knee and hip flexion/extension moments, ground reaction force FZ2 peak magnitude, step length, symmetry ratio based on step length, Modified Ashworth Scale, Modified Rivermead Mobility Index and EuroQol (EQ-5D. Additional qualitative measures will also be taken from participants (patients and clinicians at the beginning and end of their participation in the study. The main aim of the study is to determine whether or not the visualisation of biomechanical data can be used to improve the outcomes of tuning ankle-foot orthoses for stroke patients. Discussion In addition to answering the primary research question the broad range of measures that will be taken during this study are likely to contribute to a

  20. Design of splints based on the NiTi alloy for the correction of joint deformities in the fingers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Puértolas Sergio

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proximal interphalange joint (PIP is fundamental for the functional nature of the hand. The contracture in flexion of the PIP, secondary to traumatisms or illnesses leads to an important functional loss. The use of correcting splints is the common procedure for treating this problem. Its functioning is based on the application of a small load and a prolonged stress which can be dynamic, static progressive or static serial. It is important that the therapist has a splint available which can release a constant and sufficient force to correct the contracture in flexion. Nowadays NiTi is commonly used in bio-engineering, due to its superelastical characteristics. The experience of the authors in the design of other devices based on the NiTi alloy, makes it possible to carry out a new design in this work - the production of a finger splint for the treatment of the contracture in flexion of the PIP joint. Methods Commercial orthosis have been characterized using a universal INSTRON 5565 machine. A computational simulation of the proposed design has been conducted, reproducing its performance and using a model "ad hoc" for the NiTi material. Once the parameters have been adjusted, the design is validated using the same type of test as those carried out on commercial orthosis. Results and Discussion For commercial splint the recovering force falls to excessively low values as the angle increases. Angle curves for different lengths and thicknesses of the proposed design have been obtained, with a practically constant recovering force value over a wide range of angles that vary between 30° and 150° in every case. Then the whole treatment is possible with only one splint, and without the need of progressive replacements as the joint recovers. Conclusions A new model of splint based on NiTi alloy has been designed, simulated and tested comparing its behaviour with two of the most regularly used splints. Its uses is recommended

  1. Comparison of the effect of posterior lumbar interbody fusion with pedicle screw fixation and interspinous fixation on the stiffness of adjacent segments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chun-de; SUN Hao-lin; LU Hong-zhang

    2013-01-01

    Background Adjacent segment degeneration could seriously affect the long-term prognosis of lumbar fusion.Dynamicfixation such as the interspinous fixation,which is characterized by retaining the motion function of the spinal segment,has obtained satisfactory short-term effects in the clinical setting.But there are few reports about the biomechanicalexperiments on whether dynamic fixation could prevent adjacent segment degeneration.Methods The surgical segments of all 23 patients were L4/5.Thirteen patients with disc herniation of L4/5 underwentWallis implantation surgery,and 10 patients with spinal stenosis of L4/5 underwent posterior lumbar interbody fusion(PLIF).L3-S1 segmental stiffness and displacement were measured by a spine stiffness gauge (SSG) device duringsurgery when the vertebral plate was exposed or during spinal decompression or internal fixation.Five fresh,frozencadavers were used in the self control experiment,which was carried out in four steps:exposure of the vertebral plate,decompression of the spinal canal,implantation of a Wallis fixing device,and PLIF of L4/5 after removing the Wallis fixingdevice.Then,L3-S1 segment stiffness was measured by an SSG device.Results The experiments showed that the average stiffness of the L4/5 segment was (37.1±8.9) N/mm after exposure of the vertebral plate,while after spinal decompression,the average stiffness fell to (26.2±7.1) N/mm,decreasing by 25.8% (P <0.05).For the adjacent segments L3/4 and L5/S1,their stiffness showed no significant difference between the L4/5 segment decompression and the exposure of the vertebral plate (P >0.05).After Wallis implantation of L4/5,the stiffness of the cephalic adjacent segment L3/4 was (45.8±10.7) N/mm,which was 20.5% more than that after the exposure of the vertebral plate (P <0.05); after L4/5 PLIF surgery,the stiffness of L3/4 was (35.3±10.7) N/mm and was decreased by 12.4% more than that after the exposure of the vertebral plate (P <0.05).The

  2. Lateral decubitus for treating pertrochanteric fractures using cephalomedullary nails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton João Nunes de Oliveira

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To perform a retrospective radiographic evaluation on the fracture reduction and implant position in the femoral head among patients with pertrochanteric fractures who had been treated using a cephalomedullary nail in lateral decubitus; and to assess factors that might interfere with the quality of the fracture reduction and with the implant position in using this technique. METHODS: Nineteen patients with a diagnosis of pertrochanteric fractures of the femur who had been treated using cephalomedullary nails in lateral decubitus were evaluated. For outpatient radiographic evaluations, we used the anteroposterior view of the pelvis and lateral view of the side affected. We measured the cervicodiaphyseal angle, tip-apex distance (TAD, spatial position of the cephalic element in relation to the head, and the bispinal diameter. To make an anthropometric assessment, we used the body mass index. Two groups of patients were created: one in which all the criteria were normal (TAD ≤25 mm, cervicodiaphyseal angle between 130° and 135° and cephalic implant position in the femoral head in the central-central quadrant; and another group presenting alterations in some of the criteria for best prognosis. RESULTS: Female patients predominated (57.9% and the mean age was 60 years. Seven patients presented a central-central cephalic implant position. One patient present a cervicodiaphyseal angle >135° and the maximum TAD was 32 mm; consequently, 12 patients presented some altered criteria (63.2%. None of the characteristics evaluated differed between the patients with all their criteria normal and those with some altered criteria, or showed any statistically significant association among them ( p> 0.05. CONCLUSION: The technique described here enabled good reduction and good positioning of the implant, independent of the anthropometric indices and type of fracture.

  3. Sonic hedgehog is a chemotactic neural crest cell guide that is perturbed by ethanol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolosa, Ezequiel J; Fernández-Zapico, Martín E; Battiato, Natalia L; Rovasio, Roberto A

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to understand the involvement of Sonic hedgehog (Shh) morphogen in the oriented distribution of neural crest cells (NCCs) toward the optic vesicle and to look for potential disorders of this guiding mechanism after ethanol exposure. In vitro directional analysis showed the chemotactic response of NCCs up Shh gradients and to notochord co-cultures (Shh source) or to their conditioned medium, a response inhibited by anti-Shh antibody, receptor inhibitor cyclopamine and anti-Smo morpholino (MO). Expression of the Ptch-Smo receptor complex on in vitro NCCs was also shown. In whole embryos, the expression of Shh mRNA and protein was seen in the ocular region, and of Ptch, Smo and Gli/Sufu system on cephalic NCCs. Anti-Smo MO or Ptch-mutated plasmid (Ptch1(Δloop2)) impaired cephalic NCC migration/distribution, with fewer cells invading the optic region and with higher cell density at the homolateral mesencephalic level. Beads embedded with cyclopamine (Smo-blocking) or Shh (ectopic signal) supported the role of Shh as an in vivo guide molecule for cephalic NCCs. Ethanol exposure perturbed in vitro and in vivo NCC migration. Early stage embryos treated with ethanol, in a model reproducing Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, showed later disruptions of craniofacial development associated with abnormal in situ expression of Shh morphogen. The results show the Shh/Ptch/Smo-dependent migration of NCCs toward the optic vesicle, with the support of specific inactivation with genetic and pharmacological tools. They also help to understand mechanisms of accurate distribution of embryonic cells and of their perturbation by a commonly consumed teratogen, and demonstrate, in addition to its other known developmental functions, a new biological activity of cellular guidance for Shh. PMID:26979762

  4. Sensor-based hip control with hybrid neuroprosthesis for walking in paraplegia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtis S. To, PhD

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to test whether a hybrid neuroprosthesis (HNP with an exoskeletal variable-­constraint hip mechanism (VCHM combined with a functional neuromuscular stimulation (FNS controller can maintain upright posture with less upper-limb support and improve gait speed as compared with walking with either an isocentric reciprocating gait orthosis (IRGO or FNS only. The results show that walking with the HNP significantly reduced forward lean in FNS-only walking and the maximum upper-limb forces by 42% and 19% as compared with the IRGO and FNS-only gait, respectively. Walking speed increased significantly with VCHM as compared with 1:1 reciprocal coupling and by 15% when using the sensor-based FNS controller as compared with HNP with fixed baseline stimulation without the controller active.

  5. Technologies for Medical Sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Tavares, João; Barbosa, Marcos; Slade, AP

    2012-01-01

    This book presents novel and advanced technologies for medical sciences in order to solidify knowledge in the related fields and define their key stakeholders.   The fifteen papers included in this book were written by invited experts of international stature and address important technologies for medical sciences, including: computational modeling and simulation, image processing and analysis, medical imaging, human motion and posture, tissue engineering, design and development medical devices, and mechanic biology. Different applications are treated in such diverse fields as biomechanical studies, prosthesis and orthosis, medical diagnosis, sport, and virtual reality.   This book is of interest to researchers, students and manufacturers from  a wide range of disciplines related to bioengineering, biomechanics, computational mechanics, computational vision, human motion, mathematics, medical devices, medical image, medicine and physics.

  6. Ankle and subtalar synovitis in a ball-and-socket ankle joint causing posterolateral painful coarse crepitus: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Ka Yuk; Lui, Tun Hing

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old girl with bilateral ball-and-socket ankles reported left medial heel pain. Her left heel had gone into a varus position on tiptoeing, and a painful clunk had occurred when returning to normal standing. The clunk persisted after physiotherapy and treatment with an orthosis. Subtalar arthroscopy and peroneal tendoscopy showed mild diffuse synovitis of the ankle joint, especially over the posterior capsule, and a patch of inflamed and fibrotic synovium at the posterolateral corner of the subtalar joint. The clunk subsided immediately after arthroscopic synovectomy and had not recurred during 5 years of follow-up. We found no other reported cases of ankle and subtalar synovitis occurring in patients with a ball-and-socket ankle joint. PMID:25179452

  7. [Static metatarsalgia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eulry, F

    1997-01-01

    Static metatarsalgia involves pain of non-inflammatory origin in the region of the metatarsal heads. It is caused by a functional disorder or anatomic derangement of the architecture over the ball of the foot, whether congenital or acquired, evident or not. Clinical examination, including of the shoe and of the plantar orthosis, distinguishes five types of anomalies: 1. horizontal malalignment of the metatarsal heads with insufficiency at the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint, dominated by hallux valgus, and involvement of the second metatarsal bone, sometimes favouring Freiberg's disease; 2. vertical malalignment, with a hollow anterior foot, sometimes complicated by Morton's neuroma; 3. a combination of these two anomalies, easily diagnosed but less easily treated; 4. possible enlargement of the first metatarsal-phalangeal joint (hallux rigidus, sesamoid pathology); 5. no patent architectural anomalies, but stress fractures or bone insufficiency fractures of the metatarsals. Only clinical examination can orient complementary strategy and examinations. PMID:9035541

  8. The effects of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting on rearfoot movement and foot pressure distributions in patients with flexible flatfoot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chih-Kuan; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Chih-Kuang

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting (TCIFMP) orthosis in patients with flexible flatfoot. The TCIFMP insole was custom- mode, made from semi-rigid plastazote and PPT. Using the gait analysis and the plantar-pressure measure systems, we investigate rearfoot motion and plantar pressure redistribution in these patients. The results of this study showed that the excessive valgus movement of the rearfoot can be reduced significantly by the TCIFMP insole in these patients. Besides, there were significant decreases in the peak pressure under the toe, lateral metatarsal, lateral foot and heel areas. Therefore, we suggested that the TCIFMP insole is an effective orthotic device for rearfoot motion control, plantar pressure reduction and re-distribution in patients with flexible flatfoot. PMID:25683316

  9. Slow walking model for children with multiple disabilities via an application of humanoid robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, ZeFeng; Peyrodie, Laurent; Cao, Hua; Agnani, Olivier; Watelain, Eric; Wang, HaoPing

    2016-02-01

    Walk training research with children having multiple disabilities is presented. Orthosis aid in walking for children with multiple disabilities such as Cerebral Palsy continues to be a clinical and technological challenge. In order to reduce pain and improve treatment strategies, an intermediate structure - humanoid robot NAO - is proposed as an assay platform to study walking training models, to be transferred to future special exoskeletons for children. A suitable and stable walking model is proposed for walk training. It would be simulated and tested on NAO. This comparative study of zero moment point (ZMP) supports polygons and energy consumption validates the model as more stable than the conventional NAO. Accordingly direction variation of the center of mass and the slopes of linear regression knee/ankle angles, the Slow Walk model faithfully emulates the gait pattern of children.

  10. AAU-BOT1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svendsen, Mads Sølver; Helbo, Jan; Hansen, Michael Rygaard;

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the development of the humanoid robot AAU-BOT1. The purpose of the robot is to investigate human-like walking and in this connection, test prosthetic limbs. AAU-BOT1 has been designed with modularity in mind making it possible to replace, e.g. the lower leg to test transfemoral...... Systems at Aalborg University and supported by the Department of Health Sciences and Technology (HST). To further reduce the cost, the robot uses off-the-shelf hardware which also reduced the time from idea to practical implementation. The result is a low-cost humanoid robot fully assembled and equipped...... or transtibial prosthesis or orthosis. Recorded motion data from a male test person, along with approximated inertial and mass properties, were used to determine necessary joint torques in human walking which was used as design parameters for the robot. The robot has 19 degrees of freedom (DoF), 17...

  11. Design of active orthoses for a robotic gait rehabilitation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villa-Parra, A. C.; Broche, L.; Delisle-Rodríguez, D.; Sagaró, R.; Bastos, T.; Frizera-Neto, A.

    2015-09-01

    An active orthosis (AO) is a robotic device that assists both human gait and rehabilitation therapy. This work proposes portable AOs, one for the knee joint and another for the ankle joint. Both AOs will be used to complete a robotic system that improves gait rehabilitation. The requirements for actuator selection, the biomechanical considerations during the AO design, the finite element method, and a control approach based on electroencephalographic and surface electromyographic signals are reviewed. This work contributes to the design of AOs for users with foot drop and knee flexion impairment. However, the potential of the proposed AOs to be part of a robotic gait rehabilitation system that improves the quality of life of stroke survivors requires further investigation.

  12. Tiny hydraulics for powered orthotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durfee, William; Xia, Jicheng; Hsiao-Wecksler, Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Untethered, powered orthotics require an actuation system with power supply and control, transmission line and actuator. Fluid power has unmatched force-to-weight and power-to-weight compared to electromechanical systems, but it is unclear if those same advantages hold for small systems in the 10 to 100 W range. A systems analysis approach suggests that a fluid power system will be lighter than an electromechanical system with the same output power and efficiency if the fluid power is run at pressures over about 200 psi. A theoretical analysis of small bore cylinders suggests that eliminating the piston seal will result in a higher efficiency actuator if the clearance gap is small. A demonstration, battery powered electrohydraulic actuator assembled from off-the-shelf components had the force and power suited to a powered ankle orthosis, but is too large and too heavy, suggesting the need to develop custom components. PMID:22275671

  13. Plantar fasciitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Tahririan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Heel pain, mostly caused by plantar fasciitis (PF, is a common complaint of many patients who requiring professional orthopedic care and are mostly suffering from chronic pain beneath their heels. The present article reviews studies done by preeminent practitioners related to the anatomy of plantar fasciitis and their histo-pathological features, factors associated with PF, clinical features, imaging studies, differential diagnoses, and diverse treatment modalities for treatment of PF, with special emphasis on non-surgical treatment. Anti-inflammatory agents, plantar stretching, and orthosis proved to have highest priority; corticosteroid injection, night splints and extracorporeal shock wave therapy were of next priority, in patients with PF. In patients resistant to the mentioned treatments surgical intervention should be considered.

  14. Prosthetic ambulation in a paraplegic patient with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, J C; Park, C; Kim, D Y; Choi, Y S; Kim, Y K; Seong, Y J

    2000-08-01

    Great importance and caution should be placed on prosthetic fitting for a paraplegic patient with an anesthetic residual limb if functional ambulation is to be achieved. The combination of paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy is a complex injury that makes the rehabilitation process difficult. This article describes a case of L2 paraplegia with a transfemoral amputation and radial nerve palsy on the right side. Following the rehabilitation course, the patient independently walked using a walker at indoor level with a transfemoral prosthesis with ischial containment socket, polycentric knee assembly, endoskeletal shank and multiaxis foot assembly and a knee ankle foot orthosis on the sound side. The difficulties of fitting a functional prosthesis to an insensate limb and the rehabilitation stages leading to functional ambulation are reviewed. PMID:10992814

  15. Long term curative effects of postoperative rehabilitation after posterior spinal fusion on congenital scoliosis%先天性脊柱侧弯后路融合术后康复的远期疗效 .

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷伟; 黄耀添; 赵黎; 崔庚; 袁志; 韩利华; 杜俊杰

    2002-01-01

    Objective To review our experience on correction of low grade and medium congenital scoliosis by posterior spinal fusion. Method During 1978~ 1998, 56 patients with low grade and medium congenital scoliosis were treated by posterior spinal fusion with autologous bone、 xenogenic bone and recombining xenogenic bone in our department. Preoperative Cobb angles of all patients were less than 40 degrees. Result The study covered 50 patients with minimum follow up period from surgery of 2 years ( mean 9.5 years, ranging from 2~ 22 years ). All patients have got satisfactory fusion, and the Cobb angels of all patients after operation have no increase with the increase of age. Conclusion Posterior spinal fusion in treatment of low grade and medium congenital scoliosis is easy to do, safe and less injury and cost. The follow up results are satisfying. It is necessary and important to use orthosis and doing orthopedic exercise to consolidate and improve the curative effect after operation.

  16. Cletocamptus goenchim sp. nov., a new harpacticoid (Copepoda: Harpacticoida) from India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gomez, S.; Ingole, B.; Sawant, M.; Singh, R.

    ); total body length measured from tip of rostrum to posterior margin of caudal rami ranging from 345 to 425 µm (mean, 388 µm; n= 6; total length of allotype, 385 µm). Rostrum sexually dimorphic, slender and elongate (Fig. 8A). Cephalic shield... of the male P3ENP2. Cletocamptus goenchim sp. nov. shows the typical sexual dimorphism for the genus in A1, basis of P1, outer spines of P2-P4EXP, P2ENP, P3ENP, P5, and P6. Gómez et al. (2007) noted that C. retrogresus, C. albuquerquensis (Herrick, 1894...

  17. [A comparative study of excretory and sensory apparatus of two cercariae of Diplodiscus parasites of European and African Amphibians (Trematoda, Diploidiscidae) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayssade-Dufour, C; Albaret, J L; Grabda-Kazubska, B; Kulo, S D

    1978-01-01

    The comparative study of the excretory system provides new data on the number of flame cells of two cercariae of Diplodiscus from Poland and Togo but does not allow to distinguish them. On the other hand, the comparison of the superficial sensory apparatus shows significant differences. The cercariae from Togo differ from these of Poland by a much lower number of all the cephalic papillae and papillae of cycle Cv, a higher number of acetabular papillae, and the presence of 9 to 12 pairs of dorsal papillae in the median part of the tail. Therefore the African Diplodicus is not D. subclavatus. We identify it as D. fischthalicus. PMID:754617

  18. Embolization of a Jejunal Artery Pseudoaneurysm via Collateral Vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romain Breguet

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms are rare and only few cases have been reported. They are considered to be life threatening in case of rupture. Rapid treatment is mandatory and endovascular procedure is recommended as the treatment of choice. Occasionally, endovascular approach is difficult to achieve, owing to unusual vascular anatomy. Whenever it is the case, an alternative method has to be considered. We report the case of a jejunal artery pseudoaneurysm that required an access via collateral vessels to accomplish complete occlusion in a 34-year-old woman who presented with a sudden epigastric pain 14 days after a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy.

  19. Embolization of a Jejunal Artery Pseudoaneurysm via Collateral Vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breguet, Romain; Pupulim, Lawrence F; Terraz, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Visceral artery pseudoaneurysms are rare and only few cases have been reported. They are considered to be life threatening in case of rupture. Rapid treatment is mandatory and endovascular procedure is recommended as the treatment of choice. Occasionally, endovascular approach is difficult to achieve, owing to unusual vascular anatomy. Whenever it is the case, an alternative method has to be considered. We report the case of a jejunal artery pseudoaneurysm that required an access via collateral vessels to accomplish complete occlusion in a 34-year-old woman who presented with a sudden epigastric pain 14 days after a cephalic duodenopancreatectomy. PMID:26798541

  20. Brugia lepori sp. n. (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) from rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus) in Louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhard, M L

    1984-08-01

    Brugia lepori sp. n., a filarial nematode from the abdominal lymphatics and subcutaneous tissues of rabbits (Sylvilagus aquaticus, S. floridanus), from St. Tammany Parish, Louisiana, is described. Brugia lepori is of moderate size (males 12 to 19 mm, females 39 to 45 mm) and within the genus most closely resembles Brugia beaveri of the raccoon, from which it can be distinguished by its larger size, smaller spicules, and smaller microfilaria which has a shorter cephalic space. Brugia lepori is only the second species of Brugia described from North America and the third species reported from the Western Hemisphere. PMID:6502360

  1. Effect of x irradiation on survival of rabbits with staphylococcal B enterotoxemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Total body irradiation (500 R) of rabbits 4 days before intramuscular staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) inoculation at doses of 10 to 50 μg/kg failed to produce lethality. The same x-ray pretreatment improved survival of rabbits given higher doses of SEB (100 to 5000 μg/kg). Local cardiac-region or cephalic irradiation (500 R) failed to improve survival among rabbits inoculated with SEB (100 μg/kg). The mechanisms by which total-body irradiation protects rabbits against SEB toxemia may be associated with both decreased tissue O2 demand and leukopenia

  2. Effect of x-irradiation on survival of rabbits with staphylococcal B enterotoxemia. Interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1978-02-03

    Nonlethal, total-body, x-irradiation (500 R) of rabbits 4 days before intramuscular staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) inoculation at doses of 10 to 50 micrograms/kg prevented the lethality. The same x-ray pretreatment improved survival of rabbits given higher doses of SEB (100 to 5000 micrograms/kg). Local cardiac region or cephalic irradiation (500 R) failed to improve survival among rabbits inoculated with SEB (100 micrograms/kg). The mechanisms by which total-body x irradiation protects rabbits against SEB toxemia may be associated with both decreased tissue O/sub 2/ demand and leukopenia.

  3. Effect of x irradiation on survival of rabbits with staphylococcal B enterotoxemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, C.T.; Hilmas, D.E.

    1978-11-01

    Total body irradiation (500 R) of rabbits 4 days before intramuscular staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) inoculation at doses of 10 to 50 ..mu..g/kg failed to produce lethality. The same x-ray pretreatment improved survival of rabbits given higher doses of SEB (100 to 5000 ..mu..g/kg). Local cardiac-region or cephalic irradiation (500 R) failed to improve survival among rabbits inoculated with SEB (100 ..mu..g/kg). The mechanisms by which total-body irradiation protects rabbits against SEB toxemia may be associated with both decreased tissue O/sub 2/ demand and leukopenia.

  4. Fine needle aspiration cytology of subcutaneous cysticercosis of the breast. Case report and pathogenic discussion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuong, P N

    1989-01-01

    A case of subcutaneous cysticercosis of the breast diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology is reported. The cytologic preparations showed the presence of many inflammatory cells mixed with spiked spherules resembling the rambutan tropical fruit. These spherules arose from the degenerated integument of the parasite found in the histologically excised cyst. They are suggestive of the presence of an encysted flat worm, but are not specific for cysticercosis, whose identification is based on the study of the cephalic extremity of the parasite. PMID:2781970

  5. Place of radiotherapy in head and neck paraganglioma: about a series of 30 patients treated at the Bordeaux university hospital centre between 1987 and 2010; Place de la radiotherapie des paragangliomes de la tete et du cou: a propos d'une serie de 30 patients traites au centre hospitalier universitaire de Bordeaux entre 1987 et 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galland-Girodet, S.; Darrouzet, V.; Maire, J.P.; De-Mones-del-Pujol, E.; Demeaux, H.; Digue, L.; Benech, J.; Protat, B.; Trouette, R.; Aymeri, H. [Service de radiotherapie, CHU de Bordeaux, Bordeaux (France)

    2011-10-15

    The authors report a study which aimed at revealing the long term effect of radiations on the tumour para-ganglionic tissue, at assessing the efficiency and the role of radiotherapy in taking into care of cervical-cephalic paraganglioma, and at assessing the post-therapeutic quality of life. The study is based on a retrospective analysis of 30 patients treated by irradiation, and the analysis is performed in terms of treatment type, received dose, response to radiotherapy, survival rate, tumour control. Short communication

  6. Social allostasis: anticipatory regulation of the internal milieu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay eSchulkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Social regulation of the internal milieu is a fundamental behavioral adaptation. Cephalic capabilityis reflected by anticipatory behaviors to serve systemic physiological regulation. Homeostaticregulation, a dominant perspective, reflects reactive responses; allostatic regulation, thephysiology of change, emphasizes longer-term anticipatory, and feedforward systems. Steroids,such as cortisol, and peptides such as corticotrophin releasing hormone are but one exampleof such anticipatory regulatory systems. The concept of allostasis is in part to take accountof anticipatory control amidst diverse forms of adaptation underlying this regulatory adaptationthat supports social contact and internal milieu.

  7. Successful treatment of a patient with an infected urachal remnant via single-incision laparoscopic surgery: Report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Hiroyuki; Oshita, Akihiko; Imamura, Yuji; Sasaki, Masaru; Kohyama, Mohei; Tazaki, Tatsuya; Sugiyama, Yoichi; Daimaru, Yutaka; Nakamitsu, Atsushi

    2016-02-01

    We report on a case of an infected urachal remnant successfully treated via a single-incisional laparoscopic technique. An 18-year-old woman was diagnosed with an infected urachal remnant. The center of the umbilicus was pulled and inverted from the skin, and the cephalic side of the urachus was dissected from the umbilicus. A single-incision laparoscopic technique employing ultrasonic coagulating shears was used to dissect the urachal remnant from the stump of the umbilicus to the caudal end. Single-incision laparoscopic excision of the urachal remnant can be used successfully as a minimally invasive technique with optimal cosmetic outcomes. PMID:26781536

  8. A congenital malformation of the systemic heart complex in Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schipp, R.; von Boletzky, S.; Jakobs, P.; Labourg, P. J.

    1998-03-01

    In semi-adult Sepia officinalis L. (Cephalopoda) from the Bay of Arcachon (France) a congenital malformation of the systemic heart is described by macro-and microscopical methods. It concerns an atypical doubling of the site of insertion at the cephalic aorta at the apical ventricle. Its comparison with the paired anlagen of the systemic heart complex in normal embryogenesis and the central circulatory system of Nautilus gives rise to interpret it as a form of atavism. The possible causal role of mutagenic antifoulings is discussed.

  9. Multilocular True Ulnar Artery Aneurysm in a Pediatric Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stalder, Mark W; Sanders, Christopher; Lago, Mary; Hilaire, Hugo St

    2016-01-01

    Ulnar artery aneurysms are an exceedingly rare entity in the pediatric population and have no consistent etiologic mechanism. We present the case of a 15-year-old male with a multilocular ulnar artery aneurysm in the setting of no antecedent history of trauma, no identifiable connective tissue disorders, and no other apparent etiological factors. Furthermore, the patient's arterial palmar arch system was absent. The aneurysm was resected, and arterial reconstruction was successfully performed via open surgical approach with cephalic vein interposition graft. We believe this treatment modality should be considered as the primary approach in all of these pediatric cases in consideration of the possible pitfalls of less comprehensive measures. PMID:27104094

  10. Binding sites of mosquitocidal toxins of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis on pupae and larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, K Athisaya; Paily, K P; Hoti, S L; Balaraman, K

    2015-01-01

    Two of the potential bacterial isolates, viz., Pseudomonas fluorescens (VCRC B-426) and Bacillus subtilis (VCRC B-471) whose toxins kill the mosquito pupae/larvae have been identified at our center. As the mode of action of these bacteria are not known, an attempt was made to find out the binding sites of the toxic proteins through immunological methods. Antibodies were raised in BALB/c mice and egg yolk system of chicken layers against the mosquitocidal proteins. The antibodies showed specific binding on to the cephalic and thoracic cuticle of the pupae as well as the paddles of the larvae, indicating the binding of the mosquitocidal proteins. PMID:24624898

  11. Allometric growth of larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Iannacone, J.; Alvariño, L.

    2007-01-01

    Allometric growth of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782) was studied, during one generation, under temperature and humid conditions that fluctuated between 22±3ºC y 73±6%, respectively. Every one of the six larval instars (LI) was lengthened total lengthen (TL) (mm) and diameter of cephalic capsule (CC) (mm). CC and TL presented a coefficient of variation means (CV %) of 15.59±8.87% and 16.57±3.98%, respectively. Larvae growth rate mean was 1.58±0.27 (1.25 to 1.95). Percentage o...

  12. Morphology-Based Diagnosis of Acneiform Eruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Sarah L; Polcari, Ingrid C

    2015-08-01

    Acne is the most common skin disease. Distinguishing between true acne vulgaris and the various acneiform eruptions is important yet sometimes challenging. Given the common nature of acne and acneiform eruptions, the pediatrician must be aware of these lesion patterns and possess the skills to effectively evaluate the pediatric presentation of these eruptions. This article discusses several of the most common acneiform eruptions, including neonatal acne and cephalic pustulosis, periorificial dermatitis (perioral dermatitis), facial angiofibromas, iatrogenic acneiform drug eruptions, and childhood rosacea. PMID:26312592

  13. Hippocampal volume MRI and 1H-MRS study in chronic alcohol dependent patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To observe the changes of the bilateral hippocampal volume (BHV) and 1H- MRS appearance of chronic alcohol dependent (CAD) patients and to provide quantitative information for the clinical diagnosis of CAD. Methods: The conventional MR imaging including three-dimensional fast spoiled gradient recalled echo (3D-FSPGR) and 1H-MRS were performed on 16 patients with CAD (CAD group) and 18 cases of volunteer (control group). The BHV were measured in both groups and the standardized BHV in CAD group and control group were compared. 1H-MRS metabolites including N-acetylaspartate (NAA), Choline compounds (Cho), Creatine (Cr), and myoinositol (mI) of the bilateral cephalic hippocampus were acquired. The ratios of Cho/Ci, Cho/NAA, NAA/Cr and mI/Ci within the bilateral cephalic hippocampus of the two groups were compared. The t test was used to compare the BHV and the ratios of 1H-MRS in the bilateral cephalic hippocampus between the two groups. Results: In CAD group, the left and the right hippocampal volume were 1.881±0.292, 2.139±0.328 respectively while they were 2.106±0.245 and 2.267±0.271 respectively in the control group. The BHV had no significant difference between the left and the right in either the CAD group or the control group (t=0.232, 0.147 respectively, P>0.05). The BHV had no significant difference between the CAD group and control group (t=0.424, 0.131 respectively, P>0.05). The Cho/Cr and NAA/Cr in the right cephalic hippocampus of the CAD group were 1.225±0.210 and 1.145±0.034 respectively, while they were 1.429±0.286, 1.612±0.444 respectively in the control group (t=0.321, 0.408, P1H-MRS could potentially provide early diagnostic evidence for CAD patients before the onset of cerebral morphological changes. (authors)

  14. Case Report: Prune perineum syndrome: a rare case with an unfavourable outcome [version 2; referees: 1 approved, 2 approved with reservations

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto I. Lopes; Francisco T. Dénes; Messi, Gustavo B.; Marcos G. Machado

    2016-01-01

    Prune perineum syndrome (PPS) is a rare anomaly, with only two previous case reports, both dying in the perinatal period. We report the first case of PPS that reached childhood. The patient presented with a hypoplastic genitalia and bilateral cryptorchidism. There was no evidence of an anal orifice. A significant prune-like mass was observed, extending from the perineum to both gluteal regions and to a cephalic mid-line bony prominence, with a 1cm central orifice that discharged urine. MRI co...

  15. Description of Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. (Nematoda, Cyatholaimidae from Bizerte Lagoon, Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boufahja, F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A new free–living marine nematode species of Cyatholaimidae, Marylynnia puncticaudata n. sp. from Bizerte Lagoon (Tunisia is morphologically described. Males are characterized by a slightly larger body than females, a cephalic ring followed by ten subcephalic setae, modified cuticular punctuation, caudal lateral differentiation of large dots, and strongly cuticularized gubernaculum with a unique shape and bidenticulated distal half. The cuticle ornamentation of females is similar to the males. However, their caudal lateral differentiation is composed of smaller and more spaced dots. An updated morphological key to species of Marylynnia is given.

  16. THE MAXILLARY ARCH AND CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: COMPARING ETHNIC MALAYS AND ETHNIC CHINESE IN MALAYSIA

    OpenAIRE

    Khin Myo Thu; Than Winn; Jayasinghe, J.A.P.; Nizam Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare maxillary arch and head measurements between ethnic Malays and Chinese. Mean ages were 23.5 years (Malay) and 21.1 years (Chinese), and both groups were brachycephalic with the cephalic index 86.4 for Malay and 85.9 for Chinese which is not significantly different between them. Means of anterior arch width (AAW), posterior-arch-width (PAW) and arch-length were significantly different between two groups. AAW and PAW were significantly different ...

  17. Generation and characterization of a novel neural crest marker allele, Inka1-LacZ, reveals a role for Inka1 in mouse neural tube closure

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, Bethany S.; Sargent, Thomas D.; Williams, Trevor

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies identified Inka1 as a gene regulated by AP-2α in the neural crest required for craniofacial morphogenesis in fish and frog. Here, we extend the analysis of Inka1 function and regulation to the mouse by generating a LacZ knock-in allele. Inka1-LacZ allele expression occurs in the cephalic mesenchyme, heart, and paraxial mesoderm prior to E8.5. Subsequently, expression is observed in the migratory neural crest cells and their derivatives. Consistent with expression of Inka1 in ...

  18. Taste processing in Drosophila larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthi A. Apostolopoulou

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The sense of taste allows animals to detect chemical substances in their environment to initiate appropriate behaviors: to find food or a mate, to avoid hostile environments and predators. Drosophila larvae are a promising model organism to study gustation. Their simple nervous system triggers stereotypic behavioral responses, and the coding of taste can be studied by genetic tools at the single cell level. This review briefly summarizes recent progress on how taste information is sensed and processed by larval cephalic and pharyngeal sense organs. The focus lies on several studies, which revealed cellular and molecular mechanisms required to process sugar, salt, and bitter substances.

  19. A new Benthopelagic species of Heterokrohnia (Chaetognatha) from the North Atlantic Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Casanova, Jean-Paul; Chidgey, Kathleen

    1990-01-01

    A new species of Heterokrohnia, H. mirabiloides, is described from the “Discovery” collections made in the North-East Atlantic. It differs from the two other species of the “mirabilis” group mainly in the cephalic armature, particularly the posterior teeth which are much less numerous and bent at rigth-angle. Although H. mirabiloides is benthopelagic as are all the Heterokrohnia species, most specimens have been caught using benthic sampling gear (31 out of 33 specimens). On the other hand H....

  20. The effect of sodium nitroprusside on cerebral hemodynamics and headache in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Song; Ashina, Messoud; Olesen, Jes;

    2013-01-01

    InvestigationSodium nitroprusside (SNP) is a powerful vasodilatory agent that, similarly to glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), releases nitric oxide (NO) but in contrast does not pass the blood-brain barrier. Nevertheless, it has already been used in animal models without any knowledge of its headache......-inducing potential. We hypothesized that SNP would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and radial but not cerebral arteries.MethodsFive healthy volunteers received intravenous infusions of SNP in a non-randomized dose-titration (1-5 µg/kg/min) study. We recorded headache intensity (verbal rating scale from...

  1. Effect of osteoporosis and intervertebral disc degeneration on endplate cartilage injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lei Wang; Wei Cui; Jean Pierre Kalala; Tom Van Hoof; Bao-Ge Liu

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the effect of osteoporosis and intervertebral disc degeneration on the endplate cartilage injury in rats.Methods:A total of48 femaleSpragueDawley rats(3 months) were randomly divided intoGroupsA,B,C andD with12 rats in each group.Osteoporosis and intervertebral disc degeneration composite model, simple degeneration model and simple osteoporosis model were prepared inGroupsA,B andC respectively.After modeling, four rats of each group at12th,18th and24th week were sacrificed.Intervertebral height of cervical vertebra C6/C7 was measured.Micro-CT was used to image the endplate of cephalic and caudal cartilage atC6/C7 intervertebral disc.Abraded area rate ofC6 caudal andC7 cephalic cartilage endplate was calculated, and thenC6/C7 intervertebral disc was routinely embedded and sectioned, stained with safraninO to observe histological changes microscopically.Results:At12,18 and 24 weeks, intervertebral disc height ofC6/C7 were(0.58±0.09) mm,(0.53±0.04) mm and(0.04±0.06) mm inGroupA rats,(0.55±0.05) mm,(0.52±0.07) mm and(0.07±0.05) mm inGroupB rats.At24th week, intervertebral disc height ofGroupA rats was significantly lower than that ofGroupB rats (P0.05).At12 and18 weeks, the abraded rate ofC6 caudal andC7 cephalic cartilage endplate inGroupA rats were significantly higher than that inGroupsB,C andD rats(P0.05).Microscopic observation ofCT showed that ventral defects inC6 caudal orC7 cephalic cartilage endplate inGroupsA andB appeared after12 weeks of modeling;obvious cracks were found in front of theC6 andC7 vertebral body, and cartilage defect shown the trend of "repairing" at18 and24 weeks after modeling.Conclusions:Intervertebral disc degeneration and osteoporosis can cause damage to the cartilage endplate.Co-existence of these two factors can induce more serious damage to the endplate, which has possitive correlation with intervertebral disc degeneration.Osteoporosis plays a certain role in intervertebral disc degeneration process, and

  2. Neoparaseuratum travasssosi, n. g., n. sp. (Nematoda: Quimperiidae, a new parasite from thorny catfish Pterododas granulosus in Brazil

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    F. Moravec

    1992-01-01

    Full Text Available A new nematode genus and species. Neoparaseuratum travassosi n. g., n. sp., is described from the intestine of the freshwater thorny catfish, Pterodoras granulosus (Valenciennes, from the Paraná River, Brazil. This seuratoid nematode species represents a new genus of the family Quimperiidae, being characterized mainly by the presence of numerous narrow longitudinal bands of inflated cuticle extending along the cephalic region of the body, small deirids, postoesophageal position of the excretory pore, relatively short (0.159-0.303 mm, equal spicules and a gubernaculum, the absence of caudal alae and preanal sucker in the male, and by some other features.

  3. Pseudascarophis brasiliensis sp. nov. (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae parasitic in the Bermuda chub Kyphosus sectatrix (Perciformes: Kyphosidae from southeastern Brazil

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    Felipe Bisaggio Pereira

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Pseudascarophis (Nematoda: Cystidicolidae found in the stomach of Kyphosus sectatrix (Linnaeus (Kyphosidae, off Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, is described. The new species can be differentiated from the other congeners by the presence of lateral alae, distinct but inconspicuous cephalic papillae at the anterior end, three pairs of precloacal and one pair of adcloacal papillae in males, egg morphology and morphometry of glandular oesophagus and spicules. Pseudascarophis tropica is transferred to Ascarophis as Ascarophis tropica (Solov'eva comb. n. due to its ambiguous diagnosis.

  4. Disease: H00993 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cephalic osteodysplastic primordial dwarfism, type I (MOPD I) is a condition comprising sereve intrauter...abalme A, Chastang J, Touraine R, Tubacher E, Senni F, Bober MB, Nampoothiri S, Jouk PS, Steichen E, Berland S, Tout...ain A, Wise CA, Sanlaville D, Rousseau F, Clerget-Darpoux F, Leutenegger AL Association of TALS developmental disorder...332:240-3 (2011) PMID:9800907 (description) Sigaudy S, Toutain A, Moncla A, Fredouille C, Bourliere B, Ayme S, Philip N Micro...ake N, Eid MM, Abdel-Hamid MS, Hassan NA, Eid OM, Effat LK, El-Badry TH, El-Kamah GY, El-Darout

  5. Patient specific ankle-foot orthoses using rapid prototyping

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    Sivak Seth

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prefabricated orthotic devices are currently designed to fit a range of patients and therefore they do not provide individualized comfort and function. Custom-fit orthoses are superior to prefabricated orthotic devices from both of the above-mentioned standpoints. However, creating a custom-fit orthosis is a laborious and time-intensive manual process performed by skilled orthotists. Besides, adjustments made to both prefabricated and custom-fit orthoses are carried out in a qualitative manner. So both comfort and function can potentially suffer considerably. A computerized technique for fabricating patient-specific orthotic devices has the potential to provide excellent comfort and allow for changes in the standard design to meet the specific needs of each patient. Methods In this paper, 3D laser scanning is combined with rapid prototyping to create patient-specific orthoses. A novel process was engineered to utilize patient-specific surface data of the patient anatomy as a digital input, manipulate the surface data to an optimal form using Computer Aided Design (CAD software, and then download the digital output from the CAD software to a rapid prototyping machine for fabrication. Results Two AFOs were rapidly prototyped to demonstrate the proposed process. Gait analysis data of a subject wearing the AFOs indicated that the rapid prototyped AFOs performed comparably to the prefabricated polypropylene design. Conclusions The rapidly prototyped orthoses fabricated in this study provided good fit of the subject's anatomy compared to a prefabricated AFO while delivering comparable function (i.e. mechanical effect on the biomechanics of gait. The rapid fabrication capability is of interest because it has potential for decreasing fabrication time and cost especially when a replacement of the orthosis is required.

  6. Foot orthoses and gait: a systematic review and meta-analysis of literature pertaining to potential mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Kathryn; Blanch, Peter; Chapman, Andrew R; McPoil, Thomas G; Vicenzino, Bill

    2010-11-01

    This article systematically reviews the available literature to improve our understanding of the physiological basis for orthoses under the kinematic, shock attenuation and neuromotor control paradigms. The propositions made under these three paradigms have not been systematically reviewed collectively, and as such, there is no single-point synthesis of this clinically relevant body of evidence and somewhat disparate findings. Our comprehensive search strategy yielded 22 papers. Under each paradigm, the role of orthoses with different design features including combinations of posting, moulding and density was analysed. Where possible, data have been pooled to provide an increased level of confidence in findings. The main findings in the kinematic paradigm were that posted non-moulded orthoses systematically reduced peak rearfoot eversion (2.12° (95% CI 0.72 to 3.53)) and tibial internal rotation (1.33° (0.12 to 2.53)) in non-injured cohorts. In the shock attenuation paradigm, it was found that non-posted moulded and posted moulded orthoses produced large reductions in loading rate and vertical impact force when compared with a control and to a posted non-moulded orthosis. The neuromotor control paradigm seems to be the least conclusive in its outcome. Based on our review, this paper concludes with rudimentary guidelines for the prescription of orthosis, that sports medicine practitioners may use in their clinical decision-making process. The need for further research focusing on the role of injury, particularly in neuromotor control modification and long-term adaptation to orthoses, was highlighted. PMID:19996330

  7. Influence of virtual reality soccer game on walking performance in robotic assisted gait training for children

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    Zimmerli Lukas

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual reality (VR offers powerful therapy options within a functional, purposeful and motivating context. Several studies have shown that patients' motivation plays a crucial role in determining therapy outcome. However, few studies have demonstrated the potential of VR in pediatric rehabilitation. Therefore, we developed a VR-based soccer scenario, which provided interactive elements to engage patients during robotic assisted treadmill training (RAGT. The aim of this study was to compare the immediate effect of different supportive conditions (VR versus non-VR conditions on motor output in patients and healthy control children during training with the driven gait orthosis Lokomat®. Methods A total of 18 children (ten patients with different neurological gait disorders, eight healthy controls took part in this study. They were instructed to walk on the Lokomat in four different, randomly-presented conditions: (1 walk normally without supporting assistance, (2 with therapists' instructions to promote active participation, (3 with VR as a motivating tool to walk actively and (4 with the VR tool combined with therapists' instructions. The Lokomat gait orthosis is equipped with sensors at hip and knee joint to measure man-machine interaction forces. Additionally, subjects' acceptance of the RAGT with VR was assessed using a questionnaire. Results The mixed ANOVA revealed significant main effects for the factor CONDITIONS (p Conclusions The VR scenario used here induces an immediate effect on motor output to a similar degree as the effect resulting from verbal instructions by the therapists. Further research needs to focus on the implementation of interactive design elements, which keep motivation high across and beyond RAGT sessions, especially in pediatric rehabilitation.

  8. Examination of the torque required to passively palmar abduct the thumb CMC joint in a pediatric population with hemiplegia and stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirling, Leia; Ahmad, Mona Qureshi; Kelty-Stephen, Damian; Correia, Annette

    2015-12-16

    Many activities of daily living involve precision grasping and bimanual manipulation, such as putting toothpaste on a toothbrush or feeding oneself. However, children afflicted by stroke, cerebral palsy, or traumatic brain injury may have lost or never had the ability to actively and accurately control the thumb. To translate insights from adult rehabilitation robotics to innovative therapies for hand rehabilitation in pediatric care, specifically for thumb deformities, an understanding of the torque needed to abduct the thumb to assist grasping tasks is required. Participants (n=16, 10 female, 13.2±3.1 years) had an upper extremity evaluation and measures were made of their passive range of motion, anthropometrics, and torques to abduct the thumb for both their affected and non-affected sides. Torque measures were made using a custom wrist orthosis that was adjusted for each participant. The torque to achieve maximum abduction was 1.47±0.61inlb for the non-affected side and 1.51±0.68inlb for the affected side, with a maximum recorded value of 4.87inlb. The overall maximum applied torque was observed during adduction and was 5.10inlb. We saw variation in the applied torque, which could have been due to the applied torques by the Occupational Therapist or the participant actively assisting or resisting the motion rather than remaining passive. We expect similar muscle and participant variation to exist with an assistive device. Thus, the data presented here can be used to inform the specifications for the development of an assistive thumb orthosis for children with "thumb-in-palm" deformity. PMID:26542786

  9. Validation of Ponseti method for clubfoot deformity correction

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    Sanjiv Kumar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Idiopathic Congenital Talipes Equino-Varus (CTEV is a complex deformity of foot that is difficult to treat. The goal of treatment is to gain a functional, pain free, plantigrade foot, with good mobility and without callosities. Currently, the most accepted and popular method is the Ponseti method which allows correction of all components of CTEV by manipulation and serial casting without any major surgical intervention. This prospective study was done in a tertiary care centre to statistically assess the efficacy of Ponseti method. Methods: We treated 150 children (210 feet with idiopathic clubfoot deformity, using Ponseti technique. The severity of foot deformities were assessed by Pirani scoring system and were also recorded clinically, radiologically and podographically. The changes in the mean Catterall-Pirani scores at different follow ups were evaluated statistically. Results: The mean number of casts that were applied to obtain correction was 7.86 (range 5 to 11 casts. Percutaneous tendoachilles tenotomy was done in 70% of feet. All children were given foot abduction orthosis after the correction. The results were graded according to Ponseti and Smoley criteria. Good results were obtained in 83% of feet, acceptable results in 7% of feet and poor results in 10% of cases. Statistically significant correction was achieved in manipulation and casting stage which was maintained during bracing phase. The recurrences of the deformity were primarily due to poor compliance in the use of orthosis in post correction phase. Conclusion: The Ponseti method of correction is a safe and effective treatment for congenital idiopathic clubfoot and radically decreases the need for extensive corrective surgery. Non-compliance with orthotics is the main factor causing relapse of the deformity. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 650-655

  10. Idiopathic scoliosis

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    Jandrić Slavica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Idiopathic scoliosis is a structural and lateral curvature of the spine for which a currently recognizable cause has not been found and there is no basic evidence for physical and radiographic pathology. Complications. Scoliosis could be a cause of the back pain, deformities, respiratory and cardiology problems. There is a higher risk for decreasing of bone mineral density. Diagnosis and Management. Physical examination, radiography and stereophotogrametry are used in diagnostics of idiopathic scoliosis. The management of idiopathic scoliosis can be conservative or operative. The main forms of conservative management are: therapy exercises, electrical stimulation and spinal orthosis. The primary aim of scoliosis management is to stop curvature progression. The improvement of pulmonary function (vital capacity and treatment of pain are also of major importance. The guidelines for Conservative Management of Scoliosis. The International Society on Scoliosis Orthopaedic and Rehabilitation Treatment gave the guidelines for conservative management of scoliosis. Conservative management of scoliosis includes: a Lyonaise, Side-Shift, Dobosiewicz, Schroth and other kinesitherapy methods, b scoliosis intensive rehabilitation which appears to be effective with respect to many signs and symptoms of scoliosis and with respect to impeding curvature progression and c brace treatment, which has been found to be effective in preventing curvature progression and thus in altering the natural history of idiopathic scoliosis. Conclusion. The International Society has given the standards for kinesitherapy, intensive rehabilitation and spinal orthosis in clinical practice and clinical investigations. Surgical procedures can improve curves in the frontal plane, but have important limitations in maintaining fixation and achieving correction in other planes.

  11. TINGKAT KANDUNGAN UNSUR RADIOAKTIF AIR SUNGAI AYUNG DI DENPASAR BALI

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    Dewa Nyoman Alit Ardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Ayung river is one of the longest rivers in Bali. The upstream of the river is in regency of Bangli, Badung, Buleleng, Tabananand downstream is located in Padang Galak beach, East Denpasar Sub-regency. As the sample of the study, the water of the river wastaken from the stream entering the city of Denpasar. The sample was taken in five different points and for each point was taken twice. Thefirst was taken at 5 p.m, and the second was at 6 a.m. This study aims at finding out the rate of radioactive content of Ayung river water inthe city of Denpasar.The water sample was analyzed in Radiometry Analysis Group of Radiation Physics and environmental research centre andNuclear Technique Development, Jalan Taman Sari 71 Bandung – 40132. The process of counting was conducted in this place in order toknow the rate of the element activities and then identification of elements contens in the sample. The result of the counting and identifyingwas compered with standard grade of radioactivity in the area.The element of identification result and the amount of activity rate found showed that the element were natural radioactiveelements, the content: 40K (Kalium-40, 234Th (Thorium-234, 233Th (Thorium-233, 228Ac (Actinium-288, 114mIn (Indium-114m. Thehighest activity of radioactive elements in each sample point: in E2 point content element 40K with the activity 2.08 Bq/lt, in point A1 234Thwith the activity 16.34 Bq/lt, in point E1 containts 233Th with activity 598.29 Bq/lt, in point E1 and E2 contain 228Ac with the activity939.63 Bq/lt. The height of activity value of the counting and identifying elements was still under the rate of the highest level.The result of the study showed that radioactive elements 40K had the tendency of increasing radioactivity. The same thinghappened to 233Th at the peak of energi 185.00 keV. The content of its radioactive tends to exist in each point of sample point and theactivity tends to increase. Though the rate of

  12. Mapping of superficial extremity veins: normal diameters and trends in a vascular patient-population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivack, Dan E; Kelly, Patrick; Gaughan, John P; van Bemmelen, Paul S

    2012-02-01

    Ultrasonic measurement of superficial extremity veins is a common procedure. To establish normal values for vein-size in a population of vascular patients and to assess if measurements remain unchanged over time, we analyzed a database with results of 28,130 measurements in 2420 separate saphenous and 3206 cephalic veins. Mean size of the great saphenous vein ranges from 2.3 mm to 4.4 mm but did not follow a tapering pattern as is often assumed. The distal calf segment is smaller than the ankle segment. The mean cephalic vein size in the upper arm (2.4 mm) was smaller than at the antecubital level (2.7 mm). A decrease in vein diameter over time was noted in many locations and this reached statistical significance (p < 0.005 for the thigh segment). The clinical significance of this is a need to repeat ultrasonic vein-mapping if more than a year elapses between ultrasound and surgical vein harvest. PMID:22230131

  13. Gene Expression Changes in Venous Segment of Overflow Arteriovenous Fistula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro Hashimoto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The objective of this study was to characterize coordinated molecular changes in the structure and composition of the walls of venous segments of arteriovenous (AV fistulas evoked by overflow. Methods. Venous tissue samples were collected from 6 hemodialysis patients with AV fistulas exposed to overflow and from the normal cephalic veins of 4 other hemodialysis patients. Total RNA was extracted from the venous tissue samples, and gene expression between the 2 groups was compared using Whole Human Genome DNA microarray 44 K. Microarray data were analyzed by GeneSpring GX software and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis. Results. The cDNA microarray analysis identified 397 upregulated genes and 456 downregulated genes. Gene ontology analysis with GeneSpring GX software revealed that biological developmental processes and glycosaminoglycan binding were the most upregulated. In addition, most upregulation occurred extracellularly. In the pathway analysis, the TGF beta signaling pathway, cytokines and inflammatory response pathway, hypertrophy model, and the myometrial relaxation and contraction pathway were significantly upregulated compared with the control cephalic vein. Conclusion. Combining microarray results and pathway information available via the Internet provided biological insight into the structure and composition of the venous wall of overflow AV fistulas.

  14. Differential influences of unilateral tDCS over the intraparietal cortex on numerical cognition

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    Christina Artemenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent neuro-imaging research identified the bilateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS to be a key area associated with number processing. However, causal structure-function relationships are hard to evaluate from neuro-imaging techniques such as fMRI. Nevertheless, brain stimulation methods like transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS allow for investigating the functional relevance of the IPS for number processing. Following up on a study using bilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over the IPS, the current study aimed at evaluating the differential lateralized functional contributions of the left and right IPS to number processing using unilateral bi-cephalic tDCS over either the left or right IPS. Results indicated a right lateralization for the processing of the place-value structure of the Arabic number system. Importantly, the processing of number magnitude information was not affected by unilateral IPS corroborating the assumption that number magnitude is processed in the bilateral IPS. Taken together, these data suggest that even though number magnitude is represented bilaterally, the left and right IPS seem to contribute differentially to numerical cognition with respect to the processing of specific other aspects of numerical information.

  15. Ghrelin: A link between memory and ingestive behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Ted M; Suarez, Andrea N; Kanoski, Scott E

    2016-08-01

    Feeding is a highly complex behavior that is influenced by learned associations between external and internal cues. The type of excessive feeding behavior contributing to obesity onset and metabolic deficit may be based, in part, on conditioned appetitive and ingestive behaviors that occur in response to environmental and/or interoceptive cues associated with palatable food. Therefore, there is a critical need to understand the neurobiology underlying learned aspects of feeding behavior. The stomach-derived "hunger" hormone, ghrelin, stimulates appetite and food intake and may function as an important biological substrate linking mnemonic processes with feeding control. The current review highlights data supporting a role for ghrelin in mediating the cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie conditioned feeding behavior. We discuss the role of learning and memory on food intake control (with a particular focus on hippocampal-dependent memory processes) and provide an overview of conditioned cephalic endocrine responses. A neurobiological framework is provided through which conditioned cephalic ghrelin secretion signals in neurons in the hippocampus, which then engage orexigenic neural circuitry in the lateral hypothalamus to express learned feeding behavior. PMID:27072509

  16. A new genus of Cystidicolid nematode from the stomach of Galaxias maculatus (Osmeriformes: Galaxiidae) in Patagonia (Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brugni, Norma L; Viozzi, Gustavo P; Fernández, María V; Vega, Rocío M

    2009-02-01

    During a parasitological survey of Galaxias maculatus (Jenyns) from Patagonian Andean Lakes, specimens of a new species of nematode were collected from the stomach of fish and studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. This species is described as the only member of a newly proposed genus of Cystidicolidae by having oral opening dorsoventrally elongated, 2 lateral pseudolabia, 4 cephalic papillae, stoma (vestibule) elongated, esophagus divided into anterior muscular and posterior glandular sections, and caudal alae in males. Placonema n. gen. (Habronematoidea, Cystidicolidae) is characterized by the combination of the following features: oral opening dorsoventrally elongated demarcated by 4 sclerotized plates and 2 well-developed pseudolabia projected to the buccal cavity, each pseudolabium with conspicuous, conical, anterior protuberances. Four cephalic papillae and deirids simple. Male with caudal alae, area rugosa absent, 4 pairs of preanal papillae, unpaired papilla present on anterior cloacal lip, and 6 pairs of postanal papillae. Larvigerous eggs without filaments. Placonema pataguense n. gen. n. sp. infects the stomach of G. maculatus from Lake Patagua (Patagonia, Argentina) and is the first species of Cystidicolidae described from G. maculatus. PMID:18652524

  17. A new species of Parodontophora (Nematoda: Axonolaimidae) from the intertidal zone of the East China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Haixia; Huang, Yong

    2016-02-01

    This study described a new species of free-living nematode discovered in the intertidal mudflat of Ximen Island, East China Sea. The new species, designated Parodontophora longiamphidata sp. nov., was characterized by a cylindrical body with tapering extremeties; cuticle smooth without somatic setae; four short cephalic setae; cylindrical buccal cavity with six clawlike teeth at the top of stoma; pharynx cylindrical with widened base; amphidial fovea crook-shaped with elongated scalariform branch extending past level of base of pharynx and ventral gland; ventral gland cell long-oval shaped located posterior to pharyngo-intestinal junction; excretory pore at level of middle of buccal cavity; tail conico-cylindrical with enlarged tip; three caudal gland cells, male spicules arched with cephalic proximal end and tapered distal end; gubernaculum with dorso-caudal apophysis; female with two opposed outstretched ovaries; and vulva at slightly post-midpoint of body length. This new species was close to P. wuleidaowanensis Zhang, 2005 and P. polita Gerlach, 1955 in terms of long amphidial fovea branch. The newly found species was easily distinguishable from the two documented; its amphidial fovea branch (255-290 µm versus 72-106 and 125-150 µm) was obviously longer. Key to the Parodontophora species with a longer amphidial fovea branch was given.

  18. Dilated coronary sinus in a dog with persistent left cranial vena cava

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the electrocardiographic, echocardiographic (two-dimensional, M-mode, contrast and Doppler) and non-selective angiocardiographic features in a 3 year old female Beagle with dilated coronary sinus due to persistent left cranial vena cava. Negative P waves in leads III and aVR and a positive P wave in lead aVL were seen, Echocardiographically, a hipoechoic circular structure was seen between the left atrium and the pericardium in the area where the coronary sinus islocated, A velocity pattern with two peaks was obtained, one systolicwith velocity = 0.44 +/- 0.05 m/sec and the other diastolic with velocity = 0.27 +/- 0.01 m/sec, By M-mode echocardiography, at level of the aorta and the left atrium, a linear structure was identified betweenthe left atrium and the pericardium; this structure was characterizedby phasic movements of the anterior wall during the cardiac cycle, Following a left cephalic vein injection of saline, bubbles were seen within the coronary sinus; when saline was injected into the right cephalic vein, bubbles were also seen within the coronary sinus and right atrium and ventricle, Non-selective angiocardiography confirmed a dilated coronary sinus with persistent left cranial vena cava, The right cranial vena cava was absent, The dog was clinically normal and the unusual vessel was an incidental finding

  19. New Aspidoderidae species parasite of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae): a light and scanning electron microscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chagas-Moutinho, V A; Sant'anna, V; Oliveira-Menezes, A; De Souza, W

    2014-02-01

    Nematodes of the family Aspidoderidae (Nematoda: Heterakoidea) Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, are widely distributed in the Americas. The family Aspidoderidae includes the subfamilies Aspidoderinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1947, and Lauroiinae Skrjabin and Schikobalova, 1951. These two subfamilies are delineated by the presence or absence of cephalic cordons at the anterior region. The nematodes in the subfamily Aspidoderinae, which includes the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are represented by nematodes with anterior cephalic cordons at the anterior end. The nematodes of the genus AspidoderaRailliet and Henry, 1912, are found in the cecum and large intestine of mammals of the orders Edentata, Marsupialia and Rodentia. Species within this genus have many morphological similarities. The use of scanning electron microscopy allows the specific characterization of the species within this genus. In the present work, we describe a new species of Aspidodera parasite of the large intestine of Didelphis aurita (Mammalia: Didelphidae) Wied-Neuwied, 1826, collected from Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio de Janeiro. The combination of light and scanning electron microscopy allowed us a detailed analysis of this nematode. PMID:24129095

  20. Orthodenticle is required for the development of olfactory projection neurons and local interneurons in Drosophila

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Sen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The accurate wiring of nervous systems involves precise control over cellular processes like cell division, cell fate specification, and targeting of neurons. The nervous system of Drosophila melanogaster is an excellent model to understand these processes. Drosophila neurons are generated by stem cell like precursors called neuroblasts that are formed and specified in a highly stereotypical manner along the neuroectoderm. This stereotypy has been attributed, in part, to the expression and function of transcription factors that act as intrinsic cell fate determinants in the neuroblasts and their progeny during embryogenesis. Here we focus on the lateral neuroblast lineage, ALl1, of the antennal lobe and show that the transcription factor-encoding cephalic gap gene orthodenticle is required in this lineage during postembryonic brain development. We use immunolabelling to demonstrate that Otd is expressed in the neuroblast of this lineage during postembryonic larval stages. Subsequently, we use MARCM clonal mutational methods to show that the majority of the postembryonic neuronal progeny in the ALl1 lineage undergoes apoptosis in the absence of orthodenticle. Moreover, we demonstrate that the neurons that survive in the orthodenticle loss-of-function condition display severe targeting defects in both the proximal (dendritic and distal (axonal neurites. These findings indicate that the cephalic gap gene orthodenticle acts as an important intrinsic determinant in the ALl1 neuroblast lineage and, hence, could be a member of a putative combinatorial code involved in specifying the fate and identity of cells in this lineage.

  1. Local increase level of chondroitin sulfate induces changes in the rhombencephalic neural crest migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro Balbás, J A; Gato, A; Alonso, M; Barbosa, E

    1998-03-01

    Numerous studies suggest that chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) inhibits neural crest cells (NCC) migration at the trunk level. However, its action on the cephalic neural crest is not clear. To determine this action, we have microinjected 0.5 nl of different concentrations of chondroitin sulfate (CS) at the anterior rhombencephalon level in 9 stage chick embryos, as well as subgerminally administering beta-D-xyloside to 8 stage chick embryos. Beta-D-xyloside disrupts CSPG synthesis, producing an increase in CS free chains in several embryonal anlages. Chondroitin sulfate microinjected embryos and beta-D xyloside treated embryos were reincubated until attaining 12 stage. Results obtained for both experimental groups were similar. Immunoreactivity with HNK-1 antibody revealed that NCC did not migrate, remaining near the rhombencephalon dorsal wall; in addition, several NCC did not separate from the neural fold, becoming invaginated towards the rhombencephalon cavity. Our findings indicate that an increase in CS free chains in cephalic neural crest migratory routes not only disrupts their migration, but also impedes delamination and detachment of the rhombencephalic neuroepithelium NCC. These data suggest that the inhibitory action upon the neural crest migration attributed to CSPG may rest on its glycosaminoglycan (GAG). We cannot, however, rule out the possibility that increases in other GAGs apart from CS, may produce similar effects on neural crest migration. PMID:9551866

  2. In vivo venous assessment of red blood cell aggregate sizes in diabetic patients with a quantitative cellular ultrasound imaging method: proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Tripette

    Full Text Available Diabetic patients present higher level of red blood cell (RBC aggregation contributing to the development of vascular complications. While it has been suggested that this hematology/rheology parameter could bring additional prognostic information for the management of those patients, RBC aggregation screening is not included as a clinical practice. Most medical centers are not equipped to measure properly this parameter, although sedimentation tests can bring some indication. Here, we aimed at evaluating the feasibility of using ultrasound to assess in-vivo hyper-aggregation in type 2 diabetic patients.Seventeen diabetic patients and 15 control subjects underwent ultrasound measurements of RBC aggregation in both cephalic and great saphenous veins. Non-invasive in-vivo ultrasound measurements were performed using a newly developed cellular imaging technique, the structure factor size and attenuation estimator (SFSAE. Comparisons with an ex-vivo gold standard rheometry technique were done, along with measurements of pro-aggregating plasma molecule concentrations.In-vivo RBC aggregation was significantly higher in diabetic patients compared with controls for cephalic vein measurements, while a trend (p = 0.055 was noticed in the great saphenous vein. SFSAE measurements were correlated with gold standard in-vitro measures, fibrinogen and C-reactive protein plasma concentrations.RBC aggregation can be measured in-vivo in diabetic patients using ultrasound. Prospective studies are needed to determine whether the SFSAE method could help clinicians in the early management of vascular complications in this patient population.

  3. Groove Pancreatitis: Spiral CT Findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To describe the spiral CT findings of groove pancreatitis, a little known entity, and to review its differential diagnosis. We present 8 cases of groove pancreatitis. or pancreatitis affecting the groove between pancreatic head, duodenum and common bile duct, all studied with spiral CT. For two cases, in which were performed cephalic duodenopancreatectomies, anatomopathological correlations were available. In the other 6 cases, radiological follow-ups of anywhere between 5 and 36 months were utilized. In all eight cases, spiral CT showed expansion and increasing density of lipids within the groove with poor contrast enhancement indicative of the fibrous nature of this pathology, and associated with cystic areas in its interior and/or the duodenal wall. the pancreatic head was unaffected in pure forms of groove pancreatitis, and hypodense areas were observed in zones of cephalic segmental enhancement. Knowledge of this little known form of chronic pancreatitis, and the radiological findings that permit its diagnosis are important for the radiologist since its differential diagnosis includes neoplasia of the peri-ampullary region. (Author) 6 refs

  4. One new genus and five new nematode species (Monhysterida, Xyalidae) from Tonga and Kermadec Trenches, Southwest Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leduc, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the diversity and systematics of nematodes in hadal trenches (>6000 m depth). The analysis of core samples recently obtained from Tonga (10810 m) and Kermadec Trenches (8081 m) reveals the presence of a diverse nematode community in these extreme environments, and provides the deepest record for the phylum. Here, one new genus and five new species of the family Xyalidae are described. Lamyronema n. gen. is characterised by a large, tripartite buccal cavity and can be distinguished from other genera with similar buccal cavities mainly by the pharyngeal tissue almost completely surrounding the buccal cavity and by the presence of sub-cephalic setae positioned anteriorly to the amphideal fovea. Lamyronema horizonensis n. gen. n. sp. is characterised by the presence of 16-22 sub-cephalic setae, pronounced sexual dimorphism in the size of the amphideal fovea, and short, straight spicules. Daptonema amphorum n. sp. is characterised by short somatic setae, narrow head region, amphideal fovea relatively far from anterior body extremity, thin gubernaculum without apophyses, and cuticularised prevulvar uterine sac with two conspicuous rims. Manganonema kitasatoi n. sp., M. rowdeni n. sp., and M. majusculum n. sp. share traits that set them apart from other species of the genus, i.e., large body size (1100-2080 µm), presence of one pair of short setae posterior to the amphideal fovea, and male reproductive system with two testes. The latter trait necessitates amendments to the genus diagnosis. PMID:26249462

  5. Obstetric Risk factors for Low Birth Weight amongst Full Term Babies Born at a Tertiary Care Hospital of Belgaum District, South India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damaru Prasad Paneru, Vijaya A Naik, B R Nilgar, Mahesh D Mallapur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low Birth Weight is a multifaceted socio- medical and public health problem, especially in developing countries where Intrauterine Growth Retardation remains major manifestation. This study was carried out to identify obstetric risk factors for Low Birth Weight amongst full term babies born at a tertiary care hospital. Methodology: This was the retrospective record-based study, carried out at the Dr P.K Charitable Hospital of Belgaum district, South India. Records of all consecutive full term (?37 weeks of gestation singleton live births occurring during the period from 1st April–September 31, 2012 was examined to obtain relevant information. Results: A total of 1299 women delivered singleton live births at full term during the stipulated time period. Mean maternal age was 23.28±3.39 years, 53% were primi-gravida and 48.8% were high risk pregnancy. Low birth weight (LBW was prevalent amongst 19.3% new born. Among the independent significant factors associated with the LBW, primigravida, hypertensive mothers, non cephalic presentation, female baby had 1.31, 1.96, 2.89 and 1.33 times higher odds of delivering/having LBW as against multigravida, normotensive mothers, cephalic presentation and male baby respectively. Conclusions: Primigravida, hypertensive disorders during pregnancy, fetal presentation at delivery and sex of the new born were significantly associated with the LBW. Early identification, monitoring and management of hypertensive disorders during pregnancy eventually reduce the LBWs attributable to hypertension.

  6. A Computational Approach to Model Vascular Adaptation During Chronic Hemodialysis: Shape Optimization as a Substitute for Growth Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudzadeh Akherat, S. M. Javid; Boghosian, Michael; Cassel, Kevin; Hammes, Mary

    2015-11-01

    End-stage-renal disease patients depend on successful long-term hemodialysis via vascular access, commonly facilitated via a Brachiocephalic Fistula (BCF). The primary cause of BCF failure is Cephalic Arch Stenosis (CAS). It is believed that low Wall Shear Stress (WSS) regions, which occur because of the high flow rates through the natural bend in the cephalic vein, create hemodynamic circumstances that trigger the onset and development of Intimal Hyperplasia (IH) and subsequent CAS. IH is hypothesized to be a natural effort to reshape the vessel, aiming to bring the WSS values back to a physiologically acceptable range. We seek to explore the correlation between regions of low WSS and subsequent IH and CAS in patient-specific geometries. By utilizing a shape optimization framework, a method is proposed to predict cardiovascular adaptation that could potentially be an alternative to vascular growth and remodeling. Based on an objective functional that seeks to alter the vessel shape in such a way as to readjust the WSS to be within the normal physiological range, CFD and shape optimization are then coupled to investigate whether the optimal shape evolution is correlated with actual patient-specific geometries thereafter. Supported by the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases of the National Institutes of Health (R01 DK90769).

  7. Catheterization of cerebral arteries under real-time MR imaging guidance: an experimental study in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To investigate the feasibility of catheterization of cerebral arteries under the real-time MR imaging guidance in experimental pigs. Methods: Ten small-sized female pigs were selected for this study. Via the femoral access, percutaneous catheterization with a 3 F active MR-tracking microcatheter was performed under real-time MRI guidance and the microcatheter was separately placed into bilateral ascending pharyngeal arteries. After the procedure, all the pigs were sacrificed and sent for pathologic examination. Gross pathologic examination of aortic arches, brachio-cephalic arteries, carotid arteries and ascending pharyngeal arteries was performed to search for the perforation and dissection. Results: MR angiography revealed that in pigs the bilateral ascending pharyngeal arteries formed an arteriolar network at the cranial base, supplying blood flow to the brain. Catheterization of ascending pharyngeal arteries from the femoral artery access was successfully performed in all 10 pigs with the help of real-time MR imaging-guidance. A single procedure took about 4-12 minutes. Macroscopically, no evidence of vascular injury of aortic arches, brachio-cephalic arteries, carotid arteries and ascending pharyngeal arteries was found. Conclusion: Under real-time MRI guidance the catheterization of cerebral arteries can be correctly and quickly accomplished in experimental pigs. (authors)

  8. A survey of the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, genus Phalotris (Serpentes, Colubridae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo C. Leynaud

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Colubrid snakes of the South American genus Phalotris are difficult to detect because of their secretive habits, and thus they are poorly represented in collections. The species Phalotris cuyanus and P. tricolor, the southernmost representatives of the tricolor species group, were studied to determine the limits of intraspecific variation of P. cuyanus and to consolidate the taxonomic relationship between both species, the phenetically and geographically closest members in the group. The distribution of selected external characters (cephalic, ventral and subcaudal scales, coloration pattern, width of white and black collars, and hemipenis morphology were analyzed. Comparative data on the other members of the group, P. mertensi and P. matogrossensis, are briefly discussed. Males of P. cuyanus have a higher number of ventral scales than males of P. tricolor (mean of 220.3 vs. 204.6. Cephalic melanism varies among individuals and does not have discriminant orgeographic value for this species group. The white nuchal collar may partially cover the parietal scales in the four species. The black collar is moderately narrow in P. cuyanus, but it can be up to 12 scales wide in P. tricolor. Vertebral dotting is neither constant nor exclusive of any species. The four species of the group are wellcharacterized by combinations of character states for each one. We suggest considering to P. cuyanus as an evolutionary species typical of the Monte biogeographic province.

  9. [Neurocristopathies of the human nasofrontal bud. Ethmoidal syndromes (hypo- and hyper-septoethmoidism) (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couly, G

    1981-01-01

    Knowledge of human brain development biology has increased rapidly over the last decade due to fundamental acquisitions in the fields of organogenesis, fetal development, and post-natal growth. The role of the neural crests during cephalic organogenesis, recently studied by Mme Nicole Le Douarin, has given new biological dimensions to the head : it is an organic complex, globally neural in character, and of encephalofacial territorialization. The cervicocephalic region derives this original segmentation from the migratory property of this contingent of the neural crests. In this perspective, the nasofrontal bud is therefore an embryonic cephalic segment, in which appears the pro-encephalon, the eyes, the olfactory bulb, and the median facial zones (bone, cartilage, teeth). Any morphogenetic anomaly in this original craniofacial segment creates associated malformation of the brain, the base of the skull, and the face (eyes and olfactory bulbs) : the neurocristopathies. In this respect, and from the semiological point of view, the face is the "predicate" of the brain. A new classification of these malformations is proposed, based on the clinical study of the ethmoid, a cartilaginous median organ which is accessible clinically. Epigenesis lasts for 18 months in this organ, which forms a part of the face and the neurocranium, and which is known to play a "motor" morphogenetic role on the osteomembranous face : the ethmoidal syndromes (hypo- and hyper-septoethmoidism). Future reports will discuss the neurocristopathies of the branchial arches. PMID:6944757

  10. A new species of Torrestrongylus (Trichostrongylidae, Anoplostrongylinae) from Macrotus waterhousii (Chiroptera: Phyllostomidae) in Central Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspeta-Mandujano, Juan Manuel; Peralta-Rodríguez, Jorge Luis; Galindo-García, María Guadalupe; Jiménez, Francisco Agustín

    2015-01-01

    A new species of nematode, Torrestrongylus tetradorsalis n. sp., is described herein, based on specimens recovered from the small intestine of the leaf-nosed bat, Macrotus waterhousii, from the Biosphere Reserve “Sierra de Huautla” in the state of Morelos, Mexico. The new species is included in Torrestrongylus because it features a bursa of the type 3 – 2, a divided cephalic vesicle with an anterior half in the shape of an umbrella, and a posterior widened half. The new species can be distinguished from the only other congener T. torrei Pérez-Vigueras, 1935 by four key features: first, by the absence of cervical alae in both males and females; second, by the relatively longer second half of the cephalic cap; third, by the configuration of the dorsal ray, that does not have a medial terminal ray, and finally, by the structure of the spicules. This is the second species in the genus, previously known from bats of the families Phyllostomidae and Molossidae in Cuba, and now in Mexico. PMID:26514594

  11. Anthropometric outcome of sagittal craniosynostosis following surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown good short-term outcomes after surgery for sagittal synostosis. However, the improvement in head shape usually regresses over the long term. The aim of this study was to compare anthropometric changes after surgery between osteoplastic expansion surgery and distraction osteogenesis for correcting sagittal synostosis. From November 2002 through December 2008, 17 patients with sagittal synostosis were analyzed. Anthropometric changes were assessed with cephalic indices obtained with computed tomography of the skull. The age of the patients at the time of surgery ranged from 2 to 25 months (mean, 8.2 months), and the follow-up period ranged from 6 to 63 months (mean, 17 months). In 16 patients, the cephalic index showed improvement immediately after surgery but gradually decreased in the follow-up period. The improving rate was decreased more after osteoplastic expansion surgery than after distraction osteogenesis (p<0.01). Although long-term follow-up is necessary, morphological improvement persists to a greater degree after distraction surgery. (author)

  12. Early behaviour of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate in the head after intravenous bolus injection: Its relevance to the cerebral blood circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relative differences between the behavior of sup(99m)Tc-pertechnetate (Tc) and both, non-diffusible and diffusible reference tracers in the head were evaluated by a statistical comparison of their time-activity curves in blood, brain and some tissues underlying the brain, after IV injection in the rat. This study showed that the particular cephalic behaviour of Tc was neither similar to that of diffusible tracers (even with restricted diffusion) nor equivalent to that of a non-diffusible tracer in the whole head. Although Tc is not an intravascular tracer in the entire cephalic volume, it was demonstrated that the initial peak characterizing the dilution of this tracer in the head is exclusively generated by its first passage in the cerebral circulation, even if the blood flow rate is changed. To extract from this initial peak a first dilution curve relevant to the cerebral circulation, Tc kinetics in the head were considered a two compartmental model. Assuming that the maximum uptake of tracer was reached at the same time in both compartments of this model, the disappearance of Tc from the fast compartment approximates the first dilution curve of Tc in the fast cerebral circulation, if the slope of the Tc disappearance curve from the slow compartment is assimilated to a plateau. (orig.)

  13. Two new genera and five new species of Selachinematidae (Nematoda, Chromadorida from the continental slope of New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Leduc

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two new genera and five new species of Selachinematidae are described from the New Zealand upper continental slope (350-1240 m depth. Synonchiella rotundicauda sp. nov. is characterised by cephalic setae 0.25 cbd long, mandibles each with two pairs of hooks and two wing-like projections laterally, eight cup-shaped pre-cloacal supplements and short rounded tail. Pseudocheironchus gen. nov. is similar to Cheironchus, but differs from the latter in having a cuticle without lateral differentiation, cephalic setae only slightly longer than the outer labial sensillae, and a posterior buccal cavity with three equal mandibles. Pseudocheironchus ingluviosus gen. et sp. nov. is characterised by mandibles with eight blunt teeth, multispiral amphideal fovea with five turns, and a short rounded tail. Males of this new species with 17-19 cup-shaped pre-cloacal supplements. Males of the genus Cobbionema are described for the first time; C. trigamma sp. nov. is characterised by four long cephalic setae and six smaller outer labial setae in one circle, six rhabdions surrounding the anterior buccal cavity, each with two pairs of pointed projections at their posterior extremities, posterior buccal cavity widening posteriorly, with three pairs of rhabdions fused posteriorly and widening anteriorly, males with two testes pointing anteriorly and with reflexed posterior testis, and no pre-cloacal supplements. Gammanema agglutinans sp. nov. is characterised by a short, stout body often covered in adhering mucus and detritus, cuticle with minute spines, leaf-shaped somatic setae with ducts, sexual dimorphism in the shape of the amphideal fovea (loop-shaped in males and spiral in females, posterior buccal cavity with three pairs of broad, column-shaped rhabdions fused anteriorly, intestine cells with orange-brown granules, and small tubular pre-cloacal supplements. Bendiella gen. nov. is most similar to Halichoanolaimus, but differs from the latter, and all other genera

  14. Efeitos do uso de órtese na mobilidade funcional de crianças com paralisia cerebral The effects of the use of orthoses on the functional mobility of children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VCR Cury

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo:Comparar o desempenho motor de crianças com paralisia cerebral (PC em duas condições: com órtese e sem órtese. Métodos:Vinte crianças PC foram avaliadas utilizando-se o teste Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM, a versão modificada da avaliação da marcha Physicians Rating Scale (PRS e entrevista com os pais para avaliar o uso de órteses na rotina diária. Resultados:O teste ANOVA que foi utilizado para avaliar o efeito do uso órtese na mobilidade das crianças revelou médias significantemente superiores na condição com órtese durante o desempenho motor grosso e na marcha. Entrevistas informaram que o uso de órteses estava inserido na rotina diária e os pais demonstraram percepção positiva com relação ao uso desse dispositivo. Conclusão: As órteses promoveram o desempenho de tarefas motoras da rotina diária de crianças com PC, podendo orientar os processos de avaliação e de intervenção dos profissionais que trabalham com essa clientela.Objective:To compare the motor performance of children with cerebral palsy (CP under two conditions: with and without orthoses. Method:Twenty children with CP were evaluated using the Gross Motor Function Measure test (GMFM, a modified version of the Physicians Rating Scale (PRS locomotion assessment, and an interview with their parents to evaluate the use of orthoses in their daily routine. Results:The ANOVA test was used to evaluate the effect of orthosis use on the children's mobility, and it revealed that, when orthosis was used, the means for gross motor function and gait assessments were significantly higher. The interviews confirmed that the use of orthoses was included in the daily routine, and the parents demonstrated positive perceptions regarding the use of such devices. Conclusion: Orthoses improved the performance of routine daily motor tasks among the children with CP, and this finding may serve to guide the assessment and intervention processes of professionals

  15. A double toe-to-hand transfer in a young girl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 14 years old girl lost all the fingers of her right hand except the thumb in a Toka (fodder chopping machine) 4 months ago. The fingers had been amputated at the level of the metacarpophalangeal joint. A double toe transfer was done using the second and third toes of her right foot to reconstruct the second and third digits of her right hand using microvascular technique. Bones were fixed with K-wires, corresponding tendons and nerves were attached, the dorsalis pedis artery was anastamosed end-to-side to the radial artery and the vein was anastamosed to the cephalic vein. The patient recovered well. K-wires were removed at 6 weeks and physiotherapy was started. After 4 months, the patient was able to use the hand for normal hand function and could make a tripod pinch. (author)

  16. Sphenopalatine ganglion neuromodulation in migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Sabrina; Schoenen, Jean; Ashina, Messoud

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this article is to review the prospect of treating migraine with sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) neurostimulation. BACKGROUND: Fuelled by preliminary studies showing a beneficial effect in cluster headache patients, the potential of treating migraine with neurostimulation...... has gained increasing interest within recent years, as current treatment strategies often fail to provide adequate relief from this debilitating headache. Common migraine symptoms include lacrimation, nasal congestion, and conjunctival injection, all parasympathetic manifestations. In addition......, studies have suggested that parasympathetic activity may also contribute to the pain of migraineurs. The SPG is the largest extracranial parasympathetic ganglion of the head, innervating the meninges, lacrimal gland, nasal mucosa, and conjunctiva, all structures involved in migraine with cephalic...

  17. Arterial responses during migraine headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg; Nielsen, T H; Olesen, J;

    1990-01-01

    The superficial temporal artery has been thought to be the main focus of pain during migraine attacks, but its diameter has never been measured directly. The use of a new, high-resolution ultrasound machine to measure arterial size in 25 migraine patients with unilateral head pain showed that the...... lumen was wider on the painful than on the non-painful side during a migraine attack. The diameters of both radial arteries and the temporal artery on the non-painful side were smaller during than between attacks. The generalised vasoconstriction was not shared by the temporal artery on the affected...... side, which suggests a local vasodilatory response. The findings suggest that cephalic arteries may play a role in migraine pathogenesis....

  18. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...... eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...

  19. Psilorhynchus tysoni, a new species of torrent minnow from the Salween River drainage, western Thailand (Teleostei: Psilorhynchidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Kevin W; Pinion, Amanda K

    2016-01-01

    Psilorhynchus tysoni, new species, is described on the basis of 10 specimens, 23.3-53.8 mm SL from the Mae Nam Moei and Hue Mae Song Rivers, in the Salween River drainage in western Thailand. It belongs to the P. nudithoracicus species group and can be distinguished from other members of this group by a combination of characters, including features of body and fin coloration, head shape, and caudal fin-ray, vertebrae, and cephalic lateral-line canal pore counts. Phylogenetic analyses of a mitochondrial DNA data set (comprising 642 bp of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 1140 bp of cytochrome b) for 12 species of Psilorhynchus and one outgroup taxon resulted in phylogenetic hypotheses in which P. tysoni is a member of a clade equivalent to the P. nudithoracicus species group. Within this group P. tysoni is placed as the sister taxon of a putatively undescribed species of Psilorhynchus from Myanmar. PMID:27395735

  20. Evolutionary Theology and Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Georgievich Yushchenko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The essential theses of evolutional theology are set forth here, which assume biological evolution to be either a technology of the Creator or His own evolution towards understanding His own intentions and attributes. The paradigm of evolutional Christianity is reviwed along with the position and the role of humans in the psychophysical megasynthesis of the Universe and the attibutes of religious and scientifically-atheistic world-view. Biological evolution is interpreted as an ascending row of divine embodiments in biological organisms culminated in the most cephalized  living forms:  human being (terrestrial form and higher dolphins (water form. The establishment of communication between these living forms is considered a necessary stage of integration of Noospheric consciousness. It is suggested to use the ethics of the Creator’s attitude to human beings, as a basis of bio-ethical attitude of humans to animals, especially to higher ones possessing advanced intellect and soul.

  1. The orb-weaving spider genus Chrysometa in Uruguay: distribution and description of a new species (Araneae, Tetragnathidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simó, Miguel; Álvarez, Luis; Laborda, Álvaro

    2016-01-01

    The spider genus Chrysometa Simon, 1895 comprises 138 species of small (3-5 mm) Neotropical orb-weavers spiders (Nogueira et al. 2011; World Spider Catalogue 2015) mainly associated with arboreal vegetation from intermediate to low altitude forests (Levi 1986). Males of Chrysometa differ from other tetragnathids by having the palpal tibial length approximately as long as its widest point; paracymbium articulated and with several apophyses located at both ends; male cephalic region narrower than in the female and having cymbial ectobasal and ectomedian processes. Females are diagnosed by having femora without trichobothria; abdomen covered with silver guanine patches; a flat epigynum and also by their fertilization ducts originating anteriorly and crossing over the spermathecae (Levi 1986; Alvarez-Padilla & Hormiga 2011). PMID:27395900

  2. Postoperative Massive Pulmonary Embolism Due to Superficial Vein Thrombosis of the Upper Limb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cascella, Marco; Viscardi, Daniela; Bifulco, Francesca; Cuomo, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that deep vein thrombosis of the upper extremities is linked to high morbidity/mortality, resulting in 12-20% of all documented pulmonary embolism; however, there are few data about thromboembolism originating from a vein and/or a branch of a superficial vein of the upper extremities. Pulmonary embolism secondary to upper limb superficial vein thrombosis (not combined with upper extremities deep vein thrombosis) is a very rare clinical manifestation with few cases reported in the literature. We report a rare case of thrombophlebitis in departure from a superficial branch of the cephalic vein of the right arm, complicated by cardiac arrest secondary to a massive pulmonary embolism in a patient who underwent major surgery for ovarian cancer. We discuss on the numerous thrombotic risk factors, triggering a cascade of reactions and resulting in a potential fatal clinical manifestation. PMID:26985256

  3. Descriptions of four larval forms of Nilodosis Kieffer from East Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqu Tang

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Larval material putatively assigned to the genus Nilodosis Kieffer from Korea, China and Japan has been compared. The results show that the Japanese larval form has the club- to balloon-shaped cephalic setae S7 and S9 in common with the Korean larval form, but it can be separated from the latter by the shape of the inner mandibular teeth and the premandibular teeth. The larval forms from China (Guangdong and Yunnan apparently consist of two independent species. It is most likely that there will be more species in this genus found in Asia. Larvae are mud-sandy bottom-dwellers that can occur in the littoral of lakes and the potamal of larger rivers, up to a maximum depth of 5 meters. The specific larval characters show that it probably is a semi-psammorheophilic predator. doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1406.Published online: 17 October 2012. 

  4. Tetanus: a diagnostic challenge in the Western world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Driessche, A; Janssens, B; Coppens, Y; Bachmann, C; Donck, J

    2013-01-01

    Tetanus is a very serious neuromuscular disease caused by a powerful exotoxin, tetanospasmin, from the Clostridium tetani bacillus. Its incidence in the developed world has diminished considerably since the introduction of primary vaccination. Tetanus is diagnosed clinically, through recognition of the characteristically inducible muscle spasms. Three clinical forms described in adults are generalised, localised and cephalic tetanus. Management of tetanus aims at removing the source of tetanospasmin, neutralising circulating toxin, and providing adequate supportive care for muscle spasms, respiration and autonomic instability. Tetanus is a forgotten disease in developed countries since many practicing primary care physicians have not seen a single case in their career. We present a case of tetanus and review briefly the pathogenesis, clinical features and therapy in order to educate the internist in recognising and adequately treating this disease. PMID:24635328

  5. Arvustused / Jan Berkovitch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Berkovitch, Jan

    2007-01-01

    Heliplaatidest: Municipal Waste "The Art Of Partying", Fueled By Fire "Spread The Fire", Apocryphal Voice "Stilltrapped", Amorphis "Silent Waters", As I Lay Dying "An Ocean Between Us", Baroness "Red Album", Behemoth "The Apostasy", Beherit "H418ov21.C / Electric Doom Synthesis", Cephalic Carnage "Xenosapien", Beneath The Massacre "Mechanics Of Dysfunction", Crionics "Neuthrone", Depressed Mode "Ghosts Of Devotion", Down "III - Over The Under", Drudkh "Estrangement", Einstürzende Neubauten "Alles Wieder Offen", Entombed "Serpent Saints - The Ten Amendments", Fall Of The Leafe "Aerolithe", Helena Nova "Vaenlasega voodis", King Diamond "Give Me Your Soul... Please!", Manes "How The World Came To An End", Must Missa "Martyr Of Wrath", Mustasch "Latest Version Of Truth", Nile "Ithyphallic", Pig Destroyer "Phantom Limb", Reverend Bizarre "Ill: So Long Suckers", Terhen "Eyes Unfolded", Throne Of Katarsis "An Eternal Dark Horizon", Tulus "Biography Obscene", Turbonegro "Retox", Weedeater "God Luck and Good Speed", Vreid "I Krig

  6. Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Nematoda: Monhysteridae), a parasite of Talorchestia brito (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poinar, George; Duarte, Daniella; Santos, Maria João

    2010-01-01

    Halomonhystera parasitica n. sp. (Monhysterida: Monhysteridae) is described from the body-cavity and under the dorsal plates of the sandy beach amphipod Talorchestia brito Stebbing (Crustacea: Talitridae) in Portugal. The new species differs from previously described members of the genus by a combination of the following characters: four medium-sized cephalic setae; base of stoma with three blunt denticles; posterior dilated portion of stoma absent; amphids small, with width less than quarter of corresponding body width; amphids located less than two labial widths from anterior extremity; uterine eggs elliptical and unembryonated; gubernaculum lacks caudal process; and male tail with two separated pairs of postcloacal papillae and a single subterminal seta-like papilla. This is the first representative of the family Monhysteridae parasitic in the body-cavity of crustaceans. Approximately 48% of the amphipods examined contained various stages of H. parasitica. PMID:20012518

  7. Secrets of safe laparoscopic surgery: Anaesthetic and surgical considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srivastava Arati

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, laparoscopic surgery has gained popularity in clinical practice. The key element in laparoscopic surgery is creation of pneumoperitoneum and carbon dioxide is commonly used for insufflation. This pneumoperitoneum perils the normal cardiopulmonary system to a considerable extent. Every laparoscopic surgeon should understand the consequences of pneumoperitoneum; so that its untoward effects can be averted. Pneumoperitoneum increases pressure on diaphragm, leading to its cephalic displacement and thereby decreasing venous return, which can be aggravated by the position of patient during surgery. There is no absolute contraindication of laparoscopic surgery, though we can anticipate some problems in conditions like obesity, pregnancy and previous abdominal surgery. This review discusses some aspects of the pathophysiology of carbon dioxide induced pneumoperitoneum, its consequences as well as strategies to counteract them. Also, we propose certain guidelines for safe laparoscopic surgery.

  8. Homeostasis in Primates in the Hyperdynamic Environment. [circadian timekeeping and effects of lower body positive pressure on sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, C. A.

    1985-01-01

    The influence of chronic centrifugation upon the homestatic regulation of the circadian timekeeping system was examined. The interactions of body temperature regulation and the behavioral state of arousal were studied by evaluating the influence of cephalic fluid shifts induced by lower body positive air pressure (LBPP), upon these systems. The small diurnal squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus) was used as the non-human primate model. Results show that the circadian timekeeping system of these primates is functional in the hyperdynamic environment, however, some of its components appear to be regulated at different homeostatic levels. The LBPP resulted in an approximate 0.7 C decrease in DBT (p 0.01). However, although on video some animals appeared drowsy during LBPP, sleep recording revealed no significant changes in state of arousal. Thus, the physiological mechanisms underlying this lowering of body temperature can be independent of the arousal state.

  9. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography

  10. Biological Activities of Royal Jelly - Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crenguţa I. Pavel

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Royal jelly is a secretion product of the cephalic glands of nurse bees that has been used for centuries for itsextraordinary properties and health effects. This bibliographic study aims to review many of the scientific findingsand research that prove many of the remarkable various actions, effects and some uses of royal jelly. There are takeninto consideration numerous biological properties and effects of royal jelly: antioxidant, neurotrophic, hipoglicemiant, hipocholesterolemiant and hepatoprotective, hypotensive and blood pressure regulatory, antitumor, antibiotic, anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory and anti-allergic, general tonic and antiaging. Royal jelly is one ofthe most studied bee products, but there still remains much to reveal about its biochemistry and biological activity infuture research for our health and life benefit.

  11. [Sesamoid osteoopathy of the foot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szántó, D; Szücs, G; Tamási, L; Fazekas, K; Lukács, K; Flórián, A

    1996-12-01

    Taking parts of sesamoids in several arthroosteopathies of 160 males and 156 females in the retrospective study were investigated. On the comparative dorsi-plantar, oblique, inversion and eversion pedal plain films could demonstrate bony hypotrophy and hypertrophy of sesamoids in 124 (39.55%) of 316 subjects. Until the dorsi-plantar radiographs were obtained with 15 degrees cephalic tube angulation, then the oblique, inversion and eversion ones were unangled. Radiographically the sesamoid osteopathies were divided into mild (grade 1, 36 of 124 cases), moderate (grade 2, 44 of 124 cases) and severe (grade 3, 44 of 124 cases) forms. The affictions involved the constant sesamoid bones of forefeet (1st and 5th metatarsophalangeal joints) exclusively. Sesamoid osteopathy was clinically specified by the serious locomotive pain of ball of the feet as well unfavourable chances against conservative treatment. PMID:9679599

  12. Allometric growth of larvae of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iannacone, J.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Allometric growth of Spodoptera eridania (Cramer, 1782 was studied, during one generation, under temperature and humid conditions that fluctuated between 22±3ºC y 73±6%, respectively. Every one of the six larval instars (LI was lengthened total lengthen (TL (mm and diameter of cephalic capsule (CC (mm. CC and TL presented a coefficient of variation means (CV % of 15.59±8.87% and 16.57±3.98%, respectively. Larvae growth rate mean was 1.58±0.27 (1.25 to 1.95. Percentage of CC showed a light negative allometric with relation to TL, and between LI and %CC of S. eridania.

  13. [Relationships between the coronal suture and the sulci of the lateral convexity of the frontal lobe: neurosurgical applications].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusmão, S; Reis, C; Silveira, R L; Cabral, G

    2001-09-01

    An anatomical study of the relationships between the coronal suture and the sulci of the convexity of the frontal lobe was accomplished in seven cephalic segments. The pre-central and central sulci are, respectively, 26,5 mm and 40,5 mm behind the bregma and 15,0 mm and 35,5 mm behind the pterion. The use of the coronal suture as point of reference, and especially, its relationship with the sulci of the lateral surface of the frontal lobe, allows to determine the projection on the cranium of the superficial cerebral lesions with the purpose to delimit the surgical access and to guide the approach to the cerebral convexity. PMID:11588637

  14. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fitriana, Yuli Sulistya; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2015-10-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  15. A new species of Syphacia (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Calomys laucha (Rodentia: Cricetidae) in an agroecosystem of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Elba Juliana Rojas; Miño, Mariela Haydée; Notarnicola, Juliana; Robles, María del Rosario

    2011-08-01

    A new oxyurid nematode Syphacia hodarae n. sp. is described from the cecum and rectum of the cricetid rodent Calomys laucha Fischer, 1814 (Sigmodontinae, Phyllotini), captured in an agroecosystem of central Argentina. The new species is distinguished from other members of the genus mainly by the shape of the cephalic plate, presence of cervical alae in females, absence of lateral alae, and absence of deirids. Some characters are shared with Syphacia carlitosi, a parasite of Akodon azarae from the wetlands in Argentina. However, S. hodarae can be differentiated from this species by the absence of ornamentation on the accessory hook of the gubernaculum, length of spicule and gubernaculum, size of the eggs, and distance to the vulva from the anterior end. This is the first record of a Syphacia species from the tribe Phyllotini in Argentina, and the first time a Syphacia species is reported from C. laucha . PMID:21506826

  16. Morphology of the oxyurid nematodes Trypanoxyuris (T.) cacajao n. sp. and T. (T.) ucayalii n. sp. from the red uakari monkey Cacajao calvus ucayalii in the Peruvian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conga, D F; Giese, E G; Serra-Freire, N M; Bowler, M; Mayor, P

    2016-07-01

    Cacajao calvus ucayalii (Thomas, 1928) (Primates: Pitheciidae), a subspecies endemic to the Peruvian Amazon, occurs in patchy and sometimes isolated populations in north-eastern Peru and is in a vulnerable situation, mainly due to habitat loss and hunting. This rareness and remote distribution means that, until now, parasitical studies have been limited. Based on optical and scanning electron microscopy of specimens of both sexes, we report two new species of Trypanoxyuris pinworms occurring in the large intestine of the Peruvian red uakari, namely Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) cacajao and Trypanoxyuris (Trypanoxyuris) ucayalii. Both species showed a distinct morphology of the lips and cephalic structure. Sexual dimorphism in the lateral alae was observed in both male and the female worms, with ventral ornamentation being shown in the oesophageal teeth. The finding of these new pinworm species highlights the possibility of discovering other species. PMID:26282270

  17. Access flow reduction for cardiac failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourquelot, Pierre

    2016-03-01

    High-flow in hemodialysis arteriovenous angioaccesses is frequent. It may result in high-output cardiac failure, which should be prevented by fistula flow reduction. The most frequently reported flow reduction procedure is banding but immediate and long-term results are questionable. Alternative techniques are related here with personal results. Juxta-anastomosis "Proximal Radial Artery Ligation" (PRAL) is a very simple and effective reduction technique for side-to-end radio-cephalic fistulas (82 patients; reduction rate [RR]: 54% ± 19%). For brachial artery-based fistulas flow reduction two variants of Revision Using Distal Inflow (RUDI) procedures are used: 1) RUDI-1 using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) graft or a greater saphenous vein, which we first described in 1989 as "Distal Report of the Arterial Inflow" (35 patients; RR: 53% ± 18%), 2) RUDI-2 procedure, "Transposition of the Radial Artery", which we described in 2009 (47 patients; RR: 66% ± 14%). PMID:26951907

  18. Prenatal diagnosis of schizencephaly with septo-optic dysplasia by ultrasound and magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Shen, Shu-Huei; Guo, Wan-You; Chen, Chih-Yao; Chao, Kuan-Chong; Yang, Ming-Jie; Hung, Chia-Yi Selena

    2008-08-01

    A 28-year-old woman, gravida 1, para 0, was referred to our fetal diagnosis unit at 28(+2) gestational weeks because no fetal movements were detected. On 2-D ultrasonography, the cephalic axial view showed multiple hypoechoic spaces in the fetal brain, both cerebral cortex and occipital lobe showed bilateral defects, and the septum pellucidum was absent. Multiple irregularly shaped cystic lesions connected with subarachnoid spaces were observed by three-dimensional ultrasonography in surface rendering mode. Septo-optic dysplasia with dysgenesis of corpus callosum was confirmed by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The fetus was complicated with cleft schizencephaly involving bilateral frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, which can often lead to learning disability, epilepsy and cerebral palsy after birth. The flaccid mobility of all four extremities of the fetus, demonstrated prenatally by real-time ultrasound and functional MRI, forecast the risk of postnatal spastic quadriplegia. PMID:18840179

  19. Telescopium telescopium as potential biomonitors of Cu, Zn, and Pb for the tropical intertidal area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, C K; Noorhaidah, A; Azlan, A; Nor Azwady, A A; Ismail, A; Ismail, A R; Siraj, S S; Tan, S G

    2009-02-01

    The distributions of Cu, Zn, and Pb concentrations in the selected soft tissues (foot, cephalic tentacle, mantle, muscle, gill, digestive caecum, and remaining soft tissues) and shells of the mud-flat snail Telescopium telescopium were determined in snails from eight geographical sites in the south-western intertidal area of Peninsular Malaysia. Generally, the digestive caecum compared with other selected soft tissues, accumulated higher concentration of Zn (214.35+/-14.56 microg/g dry weight), indicating that the digestive caecum has higher affinity for the essential Zn to bind to metallothionein. The shell demonstrated higher concentrations of Pb (41.23+/-1.20 microg/g dry weight) when compared to the selected soft tissues except gill from Kuala Sg. Ayam (95.76+/-5.32 microg/g dry weight). The use of different soft tissues also can solve the problem of defecation to reduce error in interpreting the bioavailability of heavy metals in the intertidal area. PMID:18243309

  20. A new species of Holocephalus Hope from Paraguay (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Dichotomiini s. str.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Rafael V; Vaz-de-Mello, Fernando Z

    2016-01-01

    It came to us from Svatopluk Pokorný a single Scarabaeinae specimen from Paraguay which we promptly diagnosed as belonging to the genus Holocephalus Hope, mainly due to the shape of first labial palpomere, head, cephalic carina, pronotum and other secondary charateristics (Smith & Génier 2001, Vaz-de-Mello et al. 2011). Comparisons with the diagnosis provided in the very fine and comprehensive revision of the genus (Smith & Génier 2001) and with specimens deposited at CEMT (Cuiabá-MT, Brazil) allowed us to confirm that this exemplar belongs to a new species of Holocephalus, which is described here. Besides providing illustrated description and diagnosis of the sixth discovered species of the genus, we differentiate it in a Holocephalus key adapted from Smith & Génier (2001) and also provide additional geographical records for other species in the genus. PMID:27395726

  1. THE MAXILLARY ARCH AND CEPHALOMETRIC MEASUREMENTS: COMPARING ETHNIC MALAYS AND ETHNIC CHINESE IN MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khin Myo Thu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to compare maxillary arch and head measurements between ethnic Malays and Chinese. Mean ages were 23.5 years (Malay and 21.1 years (Chinese, and both groups were brachycephalic with the cephalic index 86.4 for Malay and 85.9 for Chinese which is not significantly different between them. Means of anterior arch width (AAW, posterior-arch-width (PAW and arch-length were significantly different between two groups. AAW and PAW were significantly different from their corresponding indices for Malays but not for Chinese. The Pont’s and Korkhaus’ Indices could not be applied to the Malays but moderately to the Chinese.

  2. The first report of Hepatozoon sp. (Apicomplexa: Hepatozoidae) in neotropical felids from Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Betina; dos Santos Paduan, Karina; Rubini, Adriano Stefani; de Oliveira, Tadeu Gomes; Pereira, Cristiane; O'Dwyer, Lucia Helena

    2008-03-25

    In order to investigate the occurrence of Hepatozoon infection in Neotropical felids from Brazil, blood from the jugular or cephalic vein was taken from 29 non-domestic felids including ocelot (Leopardus pardalis), little spotted cat (Leopardus tigrinus), margay (Leopardus wiedii), and jaguarondi (Puma yagouaroundi) from the Northeast region of Brazil. Hepatozoon infection was confirmed by light microscopy and molecular techniques. The results showed five naturally infected felids. Partial sequences of the 18S rRNA gene of the Hepatozoon sp. from these felids were further analyzed. Sequences revealed that the isolates found are closely related to Hepatozoon sp. from domestic cats in Spain. Hepatozoon species from Neotropical felids were identified molecularly and characterized for the first time. This is also the first report of Hepatozoon infection in a little spotted cat. PMID:18243562

  3. Effects of Co60 gamma radiation on Biomphalaria glabrata (Say, 1818) Embryo. II. Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The morphogenetic effects of ionizing radiation were investigated in Biomphalaria glabrata embryos irradiated in the cleavage, blastula, gastrula, young trochophore and trochophore stages with 5 to 25 Gy doses of 60CO gamma radiation. The number of malformed embryos rapidly increased with increasing radiation dose, reaching a maximum between 5th to 8th day after irradiation in all stages analyzed. Susceptibility to malformation induction was higher the younger than the age of the irradiated embryo. However, for the cleavage stage the frequency of malformed embryos was inversely proportional to radiation dose for the same radiation dose. Several types of morphogenetic malformations were obtained, among then cephalic malformations, exogastrula, shell malformations and embryos with everted stomodeum, unspecific malformations being the most frequent. The results show that the types of malformation induced by radiation probably are not radiation-specific and do not depend on the dose applied

  4. Relações cranioencefálicas das veias de Trolard e de Labbé: aplicações neurocirúrgicas Cranioencephalic relationships between Trolard and Labbé veins: neurosurgical applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastião Gusmão

    2001-03-01

    Full Text Available Realizamos estudo anatômico das veias anastomóticas de Trolard e de Labbé em sete segmentos cefálicos com o objetivo de precisar o trajeto e as referências que facilitem a preservação destes vasos durante o procedimento cirúrgico. Estudamos também as relações da veia de Trolard com a área motora.We accomplished an anatomic study of the anastomotic veins of Trolard and Labbé in seven human cephalic segments with the objective to accurate its stretch and references to facilitate its preservation during surgical procedure. The relationship between the Trolard vein and motor cortex was also studied.

  5. Radiologic investigation of craniopagus twins: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Myung Soon; Sung, Ki Joon [Wonju College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-12-15

    Conjoined twins represent a rare congenital abnormality, occurring at a frequency of 1:30,000 to 100,000 live births. Of the various forms of this condition, cephalic conjoining or craniopagus compromises 6% of the total, making the appearance of this disorder 0.6 per million births. In most cases of craniopagus twins, surgical separation is attempted. Radiologic methods may be used in evaluating the site of contact between the two heads and relation of one brain to the other. A case of conjoined twins were delivered by caesarian section from a 24 year old multiparous women at OB and GY Department, Wonju Christian Hospital, Gestational period was 29 weeks and both twins died after birth. We describe the radiologic investigation of craniopagus twins, partial type.

  6. Radiologic investigation of craniopagus twins: A case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conjoined twins represent a rare congenital abnormality, occurring at a frequency of 1:30,000 to 100,000 live births. Of the various forms of this condition, cephalic conjoining or craniopagus compromises 6% of the total, making the appearance of this disorder 0.6 per million births. In most cases of craniopagus twins, surgical separation is attempted. Radiologic methods may be used in evaluating the site of contact between the two heads and relation of one brain to the other. A case of conjoined twins were delivered by caesarian section from a 24 year old multiparous women at OB and GY Department, Wonju Christian Hospital, Gestational period was 29 weeks and both twins died after birth. We describe the radiologic investigation of craniopagus twins, partial type

  7. Herpetofauna of the Quaternary sand dunes of the Middle Rio São Francisco, Bahia, Brazil. VIII. Amphisbaena arda sp. nov., a fulliginosa-like checkered patterned Amphisbaena (Squamata: Amphisbaenidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Trefaut Rodrigues

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Amphisbaena arda sp. nov. is described based on a specimen obtained at Mocambo do Vento, on the left bank of the São Francisco river, Bahia state, Brazil. A. arda is a medium size amphisbaenian with a checkered black and white color pattern similar to the one present in the fuliginosa group but differing from that by having a lighter pigmentation, an uniformly white ventral surface, and by several other important morphological characters. A. arda is similar to Amphisbaena vermicularis in meristic characters currently used to assist amphisbaenian identification but can be separated from it by its color pattern, its flatter cephalic shields, and by the more ventral position of the nostril.

  8. Unusual case of persistent Horner′s syndrome following epidural anaesthesia and caesarean section

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubhra Goel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a rare case of persistent Horner′s syndrome following epidural anesthesia and Caesarean section. A 33-year-old female presented with persistent ptosis and miosis following epidural anesthesia and Caesarian section several months prior. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI/magnetic resonance angiography (MRA of head, neck, and chest were unremarkable. Medline search using terms Horner′s, epidural, spinal anesthesia, delivery, childbirth, Caesarian, and pregnancy identified 31 articles describing Horner′s syndrome in obstetric epidural anesthesia, of which 11 were following Caesarean section. The increased incidence of Horner′s syndrome in the setting of epidural anesthesia in pregnancy may be related to epidural venous engorgement and cephalic spread of the local anaesthetic, with disruption in the oculosympathetic pathway. It is important to include recent epidural anesthesia within the differential diagnosis of acute Horner′s syndrome in a postpartum female. Rarely, the ptosis may be permanent and require surgical intervention.

  9. The Effect of Temperature and Laboratory Rearing Conditions on the Development of Dermestes maculatus (Coleoptera: Dermestidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetti, Noelia I; Visciarelli, Elena C; Centeno, Néstor D

    2016-03-01

    Experiments were conducted to study the life cycle of Dermestes maculatus and to establish the total developmental time and the developmental time of immature stages, in relation with six different temperatures. We also analyzed the variations in size, morphology, and other indicators of temporal variation during life cycle of D. maculatus, in relation with temperature. One hundred larvae were selected per experiment, reared individually. The remaining larvae were reared to evaluate and establish temporal variations among the instars (length, cephalic width, and dry weight). In all trials, survivorship was greater than 50% and seven larval instars were found. Data of the average developmental time of immature stages and of the total cycle, at different temperatures, are provided. This is of relevance when estimating particularly, a minimum PMI. No relation between morphometric parameters and temperature was found, suggesting that other random factors may have been involved. Thus, this indicates that the method of isomegalen diagrams could not be used for calculating PMI. PMID:26477981

  10. Congenital seminal vesicle cyst accompanying with ipsilateral renal agenesis in an adolescent patient: A pediatric radiologist approach to Zinner’s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Burak Özkan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A fifteen-year-old boy who had complaints of left sided pelvic pain with known ipsilateral left renal agenesia was referred to pediatric radiology department. Incidentally, his sonography examination revealed a dilated tubular structure located in the retro-vesicular region from cephalic to prostate. Contrast enhanced pelvic MRI showed a huge seminal vesicle cyst which is over 6 cm without a mass effect near the aspect border of the prostate and bladder. The patient was diagnosed with Zinner syndrome. The patient doesn’t have new complaint with no definite increase in the diameter of the cyst. In this case presentation we are discussing the Zinner syndrome’s imaging findings from a pediatric radiologist approach with a brief review of the literature.

  11. The kinematics of swimming and relocation jumps in copepod nauplii

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, Marc Andersen; Bruno, Eleonora; Kiørboe, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Copepod nauplii move in a world dominated by viscosity. Their swimming-by-jumping propulsion mode, with alternating power and recovery strokes of three pairs of cephalic appendages, is fundamentally different from the way other microplankters move. Protozoans move using cilia or flagella, and...... copepodites are equipped with highly specialized swimming legs. In some species the nauplius may also propel itself more slowly through the water by beating and rotating the appendages in a different, more complex pattern. We use high-speed video to describe jumping and swimming in nauplii of three species of...... pelagic copepods: Temora longicornis, Oithona davisae and Acartia tonsa. The kinematics of jumping is similar between the three species. Jumps result in a very erratic translation with no phase of passive coasting and the nauplii move backwards during recovery strokes. This is due to poorly synchronized...

  12. Effect of chewing gum on the postoperative recovery of gastrointestinal function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Wei; Chen, Gang; Ding, Yi-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction remains a source of morbidity and the major determinant of length of stay after abdominal operation. There are many different reasons for postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction such as stress response, perioperative interventions, bowel manipulation and so on. The mechanism of enhanced recovery from postoperative gastrointestinal dysfunction with the help of chewing gum is believed to be the cephalic-vagal stimulation of digestion which increases the promotability of neural and humoral factors that act on different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. Recently, there were a series of randomized controlled trials to confirm the role of chewing gum in the recovery of gastrointestinal function. The results suggested that chewing gum enhanced early recovery of bowel function following abdominal surgery expect the gastrointestinal surgery. However, the effect of chewing gum in gastrointestinal surgery was controversial. PMID:26550107

  13. The effect of otolith malformation on behavior and cortisol levels in juvenile red drum fish (Sciaenops ocellatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Zoe S; Wilkes, Allison A; Moore, Erica J; Lancon, Trevor W; Clubb, Fred J

    2012-08-01

    Captive-raised red drum fish were observed with phenotypic abnormalities, including deformities of the spine, jaw, and cephalic region, that were consistent with vitamin C deficiency during the larval stage. In light of their visible exterior skeletal abnormalities, we suspected that the affected fish would also have abnormal otoliths. Otoliths are dense calcareous structures that function in fish hearing. We hypothesized that abnormal fish would have irregular otoliths that would alter behavior and cortisol levels as compared with those of phenotypically normal fish. The normal and abnormal fish had statistically significant differences in behavior, cortisol levels, and otolith volume and density. MicroCT assessment of abnormal fish revealed operculum abnormalities, malocclusions, and several types of otolith malformations. Therefore, the affected fish had not only an abnormal skeletal appearance but also significantly abnormal behavior and cortisol responses. PMID:23043776

  14. Molecular and pathological characterization of Fusarium solani species complex infection in the head and lateral line system of Sphyrna lewini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirarat, Nopadon; Sahatrakul, Komsil; Lacharoje, Sitthichok; Lombardini, Eric; Chansue, Nantarika; Techangamsuwan, Somporn

    2016-08-01

    A severe fungal infection affecting the head and lateral line system was diagnosed in 7 captive scalloped hammerhead sharks Sphyrna lewini in an aquarium in Thailand. Extensive and severe necrotizing cellulitis was consistently observed microscopically along the cephalic and lateral line canals in conjunction with positive fungal cultures for Fusarium sp. Molecular phylogenetic analysis was performed from 3 isolates based on the nucleotide sequences containing internally transcribed spacer (ITS) and a portion of 5.8S and 28S rDNA. The fungus was highly homologous (100%) and closely related to F. solani species complex 2 (FSSC 2), which belongs to Clade 3 of the FSSC. Our results illustrate the histopathological findings and expand upon our knowledge of the prevalence of invasive fusariosis in the head and lateral line system of hammerhead sharks. PMID:27503915

  15. EFFICACY OF SUBLINGUAL MISOPROSTOL VERSUS OXYTOCIN DRIP FOR INDUCTION AND AUGMENTATION OF LABOUR IN PROM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVES : To evaluate efficacy of sublingual misoprostol ver sus oxytocin drip for induction and augmentation of labor in prelabor rupture of membranes. METHODS : The study included 200 pregnant women with singleton ter m pregnancy with cephalic presentation, leaking per vaginum and no contraindications to vagi nal delivery. They were randomised in two groups, 100 in sublingual misoprostol group and 100 f or oxytocin drip group. Induction delivery interval, mode of delivery, incidence of o perative interference and maternal and fetal outcome were noted and analysed. RESULTS : Mean induction delivery interval was 8 hrs in misoprostol group and 15 hrs in oxytocin group. Mode o f delivery was vaginal in 99% in misoprostol group but 80% in oxytocin group. Sublingua l misoprostol was associated with less meconium passage (1% compared to 20% in oxytocin gro up. CONCLUSION : Sublingual misoprostol is a good alternative to oxytocin drip fo r induction and augmentation of labour in women with PROM.

  16. A PROGRAMMED LABOUR - PROTOCOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A Prospective randomized Clinical study of outcome of labour following. “A Programmed labour. Protocol” was done at Department of OBG, MRMC Gulbarga. The Protocol was aimed with dual. Objective of Providing Pain relief during labour and teaching the goal of safe motherhood by optimizing objective outcome. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Shortening of duration of labour. Effect of labour analgesia. Monitoring of the events during labour. Lowering the incidence of operative deliveries. METHODS: 100 cases primi pregnant women admitted in labour room are randomly selected. It is designed to apply to low risk primi parous, singleton cephalic presentation without evidence of CPD and spontaneous onset of labour. RESULTS: Shortened duration of all the stages of Labour, especially significant reduction in duration of active phase of labour. CONCLUSION: The programmed labour is simple easy and effective method for painless and safe delivery.

  17. Three-dimensional structure of brain tissue at submicrometer resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saiga, Rino; Mizutani, Ryuta, E-mail: ryuta@tokai-u.jp [Department of Applied Biochemistry, Tokai University, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Inomoto, Chie; Takekoshi, Susumu; Nakamura, Naoya; Tsuboi, Akio; Osawa, Motoki [Tokai University School of Medicine, Isehara, Kanagawa 259-1193 (Japan); Arai, Makoto; Oshima, Kenichi; Itokawa, Masanari [Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science, Setagaya, Tokyo 156-8506 (Japan); Uesugi, Kentaro; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Terada, Yasuko; Suzuki, Yoshio [Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute (JASRI/SPring-8), Sayo, Hyogo 679-5198 (Japan)

    2016-01-28

    Biological objects are composed of submicrometer structures such as cells and organelles that are essential for their functions. Here, we report on three-dimensional X-ray visualization of cells and organelles at resolutions up to 100 nm by imaging microtomography (micro-CT) equipped with Fresnel zone plate optics. Human cerebral tissue, fruit fly cephalic ganglia, and Escherichia coli bacteria labeled with high atomic-number elements were embedded in epoxy resin and subjected to X-ray microtomography at the BL37XU and BL47XU beamlines of the SPring-8 synchrotron radiation facility. The obtained results indicated that soft tissue structures can be visualized with the imaging microtomography.

  18. On the growth and regeneration of the exoskeleton in early jawless vertebrates (Osteostraci, Agnatha).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanassieva, O B

    2016-01-01

    Based on the study of sculpture of the cephalic shield and histological structure of the exoskeleton in Reticulaspis menneri Afanassieva et Karatajute -Talimaa (Osteostraci, Agnatha) from the Lower Devonian of the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, it has been established that, in the ontogeny of the form under study, dentin generation of the exoskeleton may have developed repeatedly, depending on the requirements of the organism. It is established for the first time that, on the shield surface of osteostracans, dentin structures of various types (tubercles, ridges, networks) could be formed both primarily and in subsequent generations with the growth of the exoskeleton. Injury of the integument and, hence, changes in mechanical tension in covering tissues caused activation of the formation of subsequent generations (of dentin) in the areas involved in reparative regeneration of the shield. PMID:27021367

  19. Duodenopancreatectomia e hemicolectomia direita em monobloco para tratamento de câncer de cólon direito localmente avançado En bloc pancreaticoduodenectomy and right hemicolectomy for locally advanced right colon cancer treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Cruz Henriques

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reports the case of a patient whit a diagnosis of diarrhea and weight loss. Subsidiary exams showed ulcerovegetant lesion in the second duodenal portion and duodenocolic fistula. An exploratory laparotomy was performed and a neoplasic lesion in the hepatic angle of the colon was observed invading the second duodenal portion. The patient then underwent a cephalic gastroduodenopancreatectomy associated with en bloc right hemicolectomy and improved well in the postoperative period. Currently, 48 months after the surgery, he does not present any signs of the disease dissemination or recurrence. The consulted literature recommends that multivisceral resection must be considered if the patient is clinically able to undergo major surgery and does not present any signs of neoplasic dissemination, since the postoperative survival time is considerably longer in the resected group and some of these patients even achieve cure.

  20. Psittacine paranasal sinus--a new definition of compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, A; Henninger, W

    2001-12-01

    Documentation of the psittacine paranasal sinuses has been limited. To provide more published detail, spiral computed tomography (CT) was used to scan the cephalic and cervical region from cadavers of 10 psittacine birds (Ara ararauna, Ara chloroptera, Ara macao, and Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus). Skeletal studies, histologic examinations, and evaluation of deep-frozen sections and anatomic preparations confirmed the results of the CT scans. New morphologic details of the paranasal sinus and some compartments were discovered. The paranasal sinuses of these macaws consist of two unpaired rostral compartments, followed caudally by eight paired compartments. Histologic examinations revealed that the walls of the paranasal sinuses consist of flat or cubic monolayer epithelium with underlying connective tissue. The described method of CT examination of these macaws, especially the positioning, scan orientation and parameters, and documentation of the normal paranasal sinus, provides a basis for future clinical use of CT. PMID:12785700

  1. UNE COLORATION SIMPLE ET RAPIDE DU FROTTIS DU SPERME

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建华; 朱继业

    2003-01-01

    Objective To introduce a rapid simple staining method for sperm morphology.MethodsLiquified semen was on the glass, fixed by methanol, treated with phosphonic acid buffer, stained by A,B staining solution separately, and rinsed by running water.ResultsAfter staining,the whole spermatozoid was very clear. The cephalic zone of spermatozoid head, acrosome area, was colored pink; its caudal zone colored violet red or violet blue. The body and tail of spermatozoid colored pink or light blue. Normal and abnormal morphology of spermatozoid could be differentiated easily. The sloughed spermatogenic cells and white blood cells could be differentiated also.ConclusionThis rapid staining method of semen smear can produce the same effect of other usual staining method , but the staining time is shorter and the procedure is simpler.

  2. Effect of pregnancy in hematological profile of dogs

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    Elenica Dimco

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Pregnant impact on hematological parameters in the dogs was award in this study. Blood was collected in the cephalic vein of 32 female animals, clinically healthy, in different physiological condition. Hematological parameters that studied were RBC, WBC and platelets count, Hgb concentration, HCT, differential counting of leukocytes and erythrocyte indicators. The obtained results from the analysis showed that pregnancy can affect the values of hematological parameters. The number of erythrocytes, the level of hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration in pregnant animals resulted lower than in non-pregnant animals. No volatility resulted in the values of MCV, MCH and MCHC. In the pregnant animals group was found the increase of the circulating leucocytes number, of relative value of neutrophils and lymphocytes decrease. The pregnancy condition should be taken in consideration during the results interpretation of laboratory analysis.

  3. Evemphyron sinense, a new genus and species infesting legume seedpods in China (Coleoptera, Attelabidae, Rhynchitinae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Xiangyang; Alonso-Zarazaga, Miguel A.; Xiao, Zhishu; Wang, Zhiliang; Zhang, Runzhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Evemphyron Alonso-Zarazaga, Lv & Wang, gen. n., belonging to Attelabidae Rhynchitinae, is described. Its single species, Evemphyron sinense Alonso-Zarazaga, Lv & Wang, sp. n., was reared from larvae found inside seed pods of the legume Callerya dielsiana (Fabaceae, Millettieae) in Sichuan Province (China). The species is figured and placed in the Deporaini because of the presence of minute labial palpi, the strongly crescentic apex of the postmentum, and the apodemes of male IX sternite and female VIII sternite curved sinistro-anterially near their cephalic end. It shows 3-segmented labial palpi and male sex patches on the procoxae, characters that suggest a basal position in the tribe. PMID:27408602

  4. Ultrastructural studies on the microfilaria of Brugia malayi

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    Tongu,Yasumasa

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructure of microfilaria Brugia malayi was investigated with electron microscope. Microfilariae are covered by a sheath membrane with dense materials on its outer surfaces. The cuticle consists of 3 layers; namely, external cortical, internal cortical and fibrous layer. Beneath these cuticular layers, thin hypodermis is present and the muscle cells are arranged of 4 groups in a crosssection except for the head and tail. A pair of cephalic channel containing several cilial rods opens at the anterior end of the worm. A hook is situated on the anterior edge of one channel orifice, and several spines grow on the opposite side to the hook. Caudal channels paired laterally opening into the both sides of the posterior region differ from cephalic channels by the presence of a single cilial rod. A central canal runs from the buccal cavity to the inner body, and opens into the inner body cell through the filamentous apparatus. The inner body appears to consist of several cells having storage substances and a flat nucleus located on the periphery of the cell. An excretory apparatus, i. e., a cell, is composed of a nucleus and a large vesicle which has many microprojections on the luminal surfaces. The GI cell which occupies the whole width in a cross-section is larger than the R cell. R2-R4 cells appear to be in a close contact with the anal apparatus having many microprojections on the luminal surfaces. These microprojections differ from those of the excretory vesicle in their thickness and length. The characteristic patterns of these organs are compared with other microfilariae.

  5. Effects of selection for cooperation and attention in dogs

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    Miklósi Ádám

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has been suggested that the functional similarities in the socio-cognitive behaviour of dogs and humans emerged as a consequence of comparable environmental selection pressures. Here we use a novel approach to account for the facilitating effect of domestication in dogs and reveal that selection for two factors under genetic influence (visual cooperation and focused attention may have led independently to increased comprehension of human communicational cues. Method In Study 1, we observed the performance of three groups of dogs in utilizing the human pointing gesture in a two-way object choice test. We compared breeds selected to work while visually separated from human partners (N = 30, 21 breeds, clustered as independent worker group, with those selected to work in close cooperation and continuous visual contact with human partners (N = 30, 22 breeds, clustered as cooperative worker group, and with a group of mongrels (N = 30. Secondly, it has been reported that, in dogs, selective breeding to produce an abnormal shortening of the skull is associated with a more pronounced area centralis (location of greatest visual acuity. In Study 2, breeds with high cephalic index and more frontally placed eyes (brachycephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds were compared with breeds with low cephalic index and laterally placed eyes (dolichocephalic breeds, N = 25, 14 breeds. Results In Study 1, cooperative workers were significantly more successful in utilizing the human pointing gesture than both the independent workers and the mongrels. In study 2, we found that brachycephalic dogs performed significantly better than dolichocephalic breeds. Discussion After controlling for environmental factors, we have provided evidence that at least two independent phenotypic traits with certain genetic variability affect the ability of dogs to rely on human visual cues. This finding should caution researchers against making simple generalizations

  6. Studies on ascaridid, oxyurid and enoplid nematodes (Nematoda) from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moravec, Frantisek; Van As, Liesl L

    2015-01-01

    Based on light and scanning electron microscopical studies, eight species (five adult and three larval) of nematodes belonging to the Ascaridida, Oxyurida and Enoplida were collected from fishes of the Okavango River, Botswana, namely Falcaustra similis Moravec et Van As, 2004, Atractidae gen. sp. (only female) (both Cosmocercoidea), Cucullanus sp. (only female) (Seuratoidea), Cithariniella longicaudata sp. n., Synodontisia annulata sp. n. (both Oxyuroidea), Contracaecum sp. third-stage larvae, third-stage larvae of Galeiceps sp. (both Ascaridoidea) and Eustrongylides sp. fourth-stage larvae (Dioctophymatoidea). The new species Citharinella longicaudata (type host Schilbe intermedius Rüppel) is mainly characterised by the shape and size of cephalic papillae and the spicule 108 µm long, and Synodontisia annulata (type host S. intermedius) by the shape of cephalic papillae, body length of gravid females (4.88-5.33 mm) and a short spicule (66 µm long). The female specimen of Cucullanus sp. from Tilapia sparmanni Smith markedly differs from congeners parasitising inland fishes in Africa by the elongate pseudobuccal capsule and by the excretory pore far posterior to the oesophago-intestinal junction; apparently, it belongs to an undescribed species. Galeiceps larvae parasitising fishes are described for the first time. Cithariniella gonzalezi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 is considered a junior synonym of C. khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972, and the previous records of Cithariniella citharini Khalil, 1964 from Synodontis spp. in Egypt concern, in fact, Cithariniella khalili Petter, Vassiliadès et Troncy, 1972. The specimens of Cithariniella reported by Koubková et al. (2010) from Paradistichodus dimidiatus (Pellegrin) in Senegal and misidentified as C. gonzalesi Van Waerebeke, Chabaud, Bain et Georges, 1988 are considered to represent a new species, C. koubkovae sp. n.; this is established by reference to the description and drawings

  7. The influence of anthropometric factors on postural balance: the relationship between body composition and posturographic measurements in young adults

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    Angélica Castilho Alonso

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of anthropometric characteristics and gender on postural balance in adults. One hundred individuals were examined (50 males, 50 females; age range 20-40 years. METHODS: The following body composition measurements were collected (using bone densitometry measurements: fat percentage (% fat, tissue (g, fat (g, lean mass (g, bone mineral content (g, and bone mineral density (g/cm2. In addition, the following anthropometric measurements were collected: body mass (kg, height (cm, length of the trunk-cephalic region (cm, length of the lower limbs (cm and length of the upper limbs (cm. The following indices were calculated: body mass index (kg/m², waist-hip ratio and the support base (cm². Also, a postural balance test was performed using posturography variables with open and closed eyes. RESULTS: The analysis revealed poor correlations between postural balance and the anthropometric variables. A multiple linear regression analysis demonstrated that the whole group (female and male height explained 12% of the medial-lateral displacement, 10% of the speed of oscillation, and 11% of the displacement area. The length of the trunk-cephalic length explained 6% of the displacement in the anteroposterior direction. With eyes closed, the support base and height explained 18% of the medial displacement, and the lateral height explained 10% of the displacement speed and 5% of the scroll area. CONCLUSION: Measured using posturography, the postural balance was only slightly influenced by the anthropometric variables, both with open and closed eyes. Height was the anthropometric variable that most influenced postural balance, both in the whole group and separately for each gender. Postural balance was more influenced by anthropometric factors in males than females.

  8. Pelvimetry using magnetic resonance imaging. Comparison with X-ray pelvimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance pelvimetry (MRP) in pregnant women at term in comparison with X-ray pelvimetry (X-P). The basic experiment revealed the accuracy of MRP to be satisfactory. Then MRP was performed in thirty-two pregnant women at term (27 with breech presentation and 5 with cephalic presentation) and five non-pregnant patients. Twenty-seven of the pregnant women and all of the non-pregnant patients had X-P simultaneously. Measured MRP and X-P pelvic diameters were compared. Measured diameters of the pelvic inlet (auteroposterior and transverse) were nearly the same with MRP and X-P. But the outlet antero-posterior diameters measured by MRP were smaller than those measured by X-P in twenty-five of twenty-seven women, by an average of 1.0 cm (p<0.001). This gap may result from the difference in posture during examination by means of MRP (supine) and X-P (standing, for lateral image). MRP may represent the actual state of pelvic outlet of women during labor on delivery tables or beds. Vaginal delivery was planned for 22 women with breech presentation who were considered to have an adequate pelvis. Eighteen (82%) of them had successful vaginal delivery and the four other patients had a cesarean section (C/S) due to arrest of labor. Three of four women with cephalic presentation who were suspected by MRP to have a contracted pelvis underwent C/S due to cephalopelvic disproportion. MRP may be a promising alternative to conventional X-P, because it can provide accurate measurements without the hazard of ionizing radiation. (author)

  9. New deep-sea large free-living nematodes from macrobenthos in the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench (the North-Western Pacific)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadeeva, Natalia; Mordukhovich, Vladimir; Zograf, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The composition of deep-sea nematode assemblages of the North-Western (NW) Pacific is poorly-studied. According to the available literature data more than 700 valid species of nematodes were reported from the depth of 400 m and deeper, out of that only 6 species were registered in the NW Pacific: 2 species from the coast of the Japanese Islands and 4 from the Sea of Japan. Ecological studies of the deep-sea nematode communities of this region are scanty and represent very scarce and fragmentary information. The first recent study of free-living nematodes collected from the abyssal plain adjacent to the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench has revealed more than 50 species of nematodes in macrobenthic samples. Families Anticomidae, Comesomatidae, Desmodoridae, Leptosomatidae, Oncholaimidae, Oxystominidae, Phanodermatidae, Siphonolaimidae and Thoracostomopsidae were the most abundant and diverse. Such taxonomic composition differs greatly from previously described meiobenthical nematode communities of NW Pacific and even World Ocean and similar to macrofaunal nematode assemblages of the Atlantic and Arctic regions. Several genera of nematodes can be considered as new records for the NW Pacific region. Micoletzkyia kamchatika sp. nov., Metaphanoderma improvisa sp. nov., and Phylloncholaimus palmaris sp. nov. are described from the Kuril-Kamchatka Trench. Micoletzkyia kamchatika sp. nov. is particularly characterized by a developed cuticular cephalic capsule underlying amphids, relatively small amphids, and the shape of the gubernaculum. Metaphanoderma improvisa sp. nov. is particularly characterized by a developed cuticular cephalic capsule, relatively large amphids, and the absence of pigmented eye spots. Phylloncholaimus palmaris sp. nov. is similar to the type species in many measurements but may be differentiated from that by the smaller amphid, shape of spicules and gubernaculums and by large precloacal papillae with four setae.

  10. Developmental origin of shark electrosensory organs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Renata; Zhang, Guangjun; Albert, James S; Evans, David H; Cohn, Martin J

    2006-01-01

    Vertebrates have evolved electrosensory receptors that detect electrical stimuli on the surface of the skin and transmit them somatotopically to the brain. In chondrichthyans, the electrosensory system is composed of a cephalic network of ampullary organs, known as the ampullae of Lorenzini, that can detect extremely weak electric fields during hunting and navigation. Each ampullary organ consists of a gel-filled epidermal pit containing sensory hair cells, and synaptic connections with primary afferent neurons at the base of the pit that facilitate detection of voltage gradients over large regions of the body. The developmental origin of electroreceptors and the mechanisms that determine their spatial arrangement in the vertebrate head are not well understood. We have analyzed electroreceptor development in the lesser spotted catshark (Scyliorhinus canicula) and show that Sox8 and HNK1, two markers of the neural crest lineage, selectively mark sensory cells in ampullary organs. This represents the first evidence that the neural crest gives rise to electrosensory cells. We also show that pathfinding by cephalic mechanosensory and electrosensory axons follows the expression pattern of EphA4, a well-known guidance cue for axons and neural crest cells in osteichthyans. Expression of EphrinB2, which encodes a ligand for EphA4, marks the positions at which ampullary placodes are initiated in the epidermis, and EphA4 is expressed in surrounding mesenchyme. These results suggest that Eph-Ephrin signaling may establish an early molecular map for neural crest migration, axon guidance and placodal morphogenesis during development of the shark electrosensory system. PMID:16409384

  11. Profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference center for congenital toxoplasmosis in the northern state of Minas Gerais, Brazil

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    Janer Aparecida Silveira Soares

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To describe the clinical and epidemiological profile of pregnant women and children treated at a reference outpatient clinic for congenital toxoplasmosis. METHODS: Pregnant women potentially exposed to Toxoplasma gondii were observed. Diagnoses were made using serologic tests compatible with acute toxoplasmosis. Children presenting with: Toxoplasma-specific antibodies (IgM or IgA or ascending IgG titers higher than maternal titers in the first 3 months of life coupled with toxoplasmosis symptoms; intracranial calcifications (by transfontanelar ultrasound or cephalic segment tomography; or retinochoroiditis (by fundoscopy examination in the first 8 months of life were also included in the study. RESULTS: Fifty-eight mother-child pairs were observed (mean age of the mothers was 22.1 years. Most patients lived in urban areas (86.2% and had attended less than 8 years of school (51.7%. Diagnosis was made after birth in 19 (32.8% children. Thirty-four (58.6% women received some type of treatment during pregnancy. Most (72.4% of the children did not present with clinical alterations at birth. The main findings were ophthalmological: 20 (34.5% children with retinochoroiditis, 17 (29.3% with strabismus, and 7 (12.1% with nystagmus. Of the children with retinochoroiditis, 9 presented with subnormal vision. Ten (32.3% out of 31 children presented with intracranial calcifications by cephalic segment congenital toxoplasmosis, and 9 (42.9% children presented with delayed psychomotor development. CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight a critical situation. Protocols for follow-up of pregnant women and their children must be created to improve medical care and minimize sequelae.

  12. Ultrastructure analysis of the immature stages of Ravinia belforti (Diptera: Sarcophagidae), a species of medical-veterinary and forensic importance, by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da-Silva-Xavier, Alexandre; de Carvalho Queiroz, Margareth Maria

    2016-07-01

    The postmortem interval is related to the age of immature species of flies found on corpses and can be estimated using data available in the literature on the biology of the species. The flesh fly Ravinia belforti is a carrier of enteric pathogens that can affect human and animal health as well as being of forensic importance. As the morphology of many immature Sarcophagidae is unknown, these immature forms must be collected and characterized after the emergence of the adult male. Here we describe and analyze the morphological characteristics of the larvae stages L1, L2, L3 and the puparium of R. belforti by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Ten specimens of each stage were analyzed. Larvae of R. belforti follow the typical muscoid vermiform pattern with 12 segments. The anterior region is pointed, while the posterior region is thicker. The spines of the cephalic collar are flattened and with double, triple or quadruple points, different from the spines along the body that only have a single point. In L2, the anterior spiracle is present with a varying number of papillae (16-22), differing from other species. The posterior spiracles are located within the peritreme. The spiracular cavity is internalized in the posterior region, following the pattern that differs Sarcophagidae from other families. L3 features more visible and developed spines around the cephalic collar, getting thicker and denser near to the first thoracic segment. Puparium is similar to other species of Sarcophagidae. This paper presents important data on this family which has both health and forensic importance. Furthermore, R. belforti shows significant differences from other species of Sarcophagidae. PMID:27072901

  13. The growth pattern of normal cranial bone by CT scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since CT scanning was originally introduced in 1969 by Hounsfield, it has become globally available, cost-efficient and more sophisticated for clinical applications, and primarily for identifying intracranial disorders. In this study, morphological analyses of skull growth were performed using CT scanner system, with emphasis on cranial bone of normal Japanese examinees spanning a wide age-range. Normal Japanese volunteers (50 males and 50 females, ages 1 to 96 years, without craniofacial disorders or malformations) were randomly selected and underwent CT scanning of the skull. Transmission CT scanning system (HITACHI W-500) was used with a window level of +300 and window range of 800, to visualize hard tissue. Three levels of axial CT slices; orbito-meatal plane, 3rd ventricle, splenium of corporis callosi were obtained and following items were analysed; absorptivity of calvarial outer table, diploe, inner table, ratio of absorptivity of outer table/inner table, ratio of thickness of outer table/inner table, thickness of the calvarium (frontal, temporal, occipital), and cephalic indexes of three levels. From the aforementioned data analyses, the following findings were notable. Below 10 years of age, absorptivity of diploes is higher than outer and inner tables, and is associated with the most rapid expansion of the cranium. The absorptivity of calvarial bones and thickness of inner tables increase with age until the 3rd decade and then gradually decrease. The thickness of frontal and occipital bones increase with age and peak during the 4th decade while three cephalic indexes at three levels change with age and became more dolicocephalic. (author)

  14. Biology and life table of Dirphia araucariae (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae: A herbivore of potentially high impact on Araucaria angustifolia

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    Mauricio M. Zenker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The life-history and biology of Dirphia araucariae Jones, 1908, including its life fertility table, are here described. Moths were reared in the laboratory under controlled conditions on their host plant, Araucaria angustifolia (Bertoloni O. Kuntze - Araucariaceae. We describe several life-history traits of the species, namely: developmental period, survival rate, growth rate, fertility, fecundity, sex ratio, cephalic capsule width, and pupal weight. Mean duration of life stages were: egg = 26.78 days; larva = 61.78 days; prepupa = 6.85 days; pupa = 62.46 days; adult = 8.37 days. We found statistically significant differences between sexes for adult, larval and pupal stage duration; larval stage was longer in females while pupal stage was longer in males. The survival rate of each life stage was: egg = 96.18%; larva = 95.38%; prepupa = 83.87%; pupa = 100%. The larvae developed through six instars and the mean growth rate was 1.418. The width of male and female cephalic capsules were different in last three instars, even though the total mean width between sexes was not different. Pupal mean weight ranged from 2.40 g to 4.79 g, with females being heavier than males. Fertility ranged from 66.78% to 100%, and the total fecundity was 358.45 eggs/female, including both laid eggs and eggs held in the abdomen. The sex ratio was 0.50 ± 0.05. The estimated biotic potential was 48731.08 specimens/female/year. We found the following values for the fertility life table: (Ro = 117.21 females; (T = 162.75 days; (r m = 0.21; (l = 1.23. Considering the biological parameters evaluated in this study, we conclude that D. araucariae is not able to cause primary damage in A. angustifolia forests, although further studies are needed to understand the reasons for occasional population outbreaks.

  15. Descompensación distal postoperatoria (D.D.P. en curvas lenke 1a tratadas con tornillos pediculares: una revisión de 63 casos Descompensação distal pós-operatória (DDP em curvaturas lenke 1a tratadas com parafusos pediculares: análise de 63 casos Postoperative distal decompensation (PDD in lenke 1a curvatures treated with pedicular screws: analysis of 63 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norberto Ventura

    2012-06-01

    central vertical até o sacro (LVS era superior a 10 mm de "distância vertebral" (DV. RESULTADOS: 8 casos (12,7% desenvolveram DDP. O sinal de Risser foi 0 em 2 pacientes (25% e 1 em 2 pacientes (25%. Relação VDI/VD: 4 pacientes (50% mesmo nível (VD +0, 4 pacientes (50% nível caudal (VD +1; relação VDI/VE: 5 pacientes (62,5% 2 níveis cefálicos (VE -2, 3 pacientes (37,5% 1 nível cefálico (VE -1; relação VDI/DV: 5 pacientes (62,5% um nível cefálico DV (-1, 3 pacientes mesmo nível (DV +0. CONCLUSÕES: Risco de descompensação distal pós-operatória:VDI mesmo nível VD (VD +0, 2 níveis cefálicos VE (VE -2, 1 nível cefálico DV (DV -1. Estratégia cirúrgica nas curvaturas Lenke 1A: VDI: 1/2 níveis caudal até VD (VD +1/+2, um nível cefálico até VE (VE -1, mesmo nível DV (DV +0.OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for postoperative distal decompensation (PDD and safe surgical strategy in curvatures Lenke type 1A, treated with pedicle screws. METHOD: Retrospective radiographic study of 63 patients with scoliosis Lenke 1A, with follow-up of at least one year. The parameters evaluated were age, sex, degrees of Cobb's angle, Risser sign, relationship of distal instrumented vertebra (DIV to the distal vertebra (DV of the curvature, to the stable vertebra (SV and to the vertebra which distance to the central vertical line to the sacrum (VLS was greater than 10 mm of "vertebral distance" (VD. RESULTS: 8 cases (12.7% developed DDP. The Risser sign was 0 in 2 patients (25% and 1 in 2 patients (25%. DIV/DV relationship: 4 patients (50% same level (DV +0, 4 patients (50% caudal level (DV +1; DIV/SV ratio: 5 patients (62.5% 2 cephalic levels (VD -2, 3 patients (37.5% 1 cephalic level (SV -1; DIV/VD relationship: 5 patients (62.5% 1 cephalic level (VD -1, 3 patients the same level (VD +0. CONCLUSIONS: Risk of postoperative distal decompensation: DIV same level DV (DV +0, 2 cephalic levels SV (SV -2, 1 cephalic level VD (VD -1. Surgical strategy in Lenke 1A

  16. GPR investigations in galleries buried inside a karstified limestone formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousset, D.; Sénéchal, G.; Gaffet, S.

    2009-04-01

    resolution is centimetric to decimetric and matches the required geologic accuracy. These data allow us to accurately map the stratigraphy of the surrounding rocks across the concrete walls of the tunnel.Using thes results the location of 5 vertical drillings has been determined. Future acquisition including standard borehole measurements (gamma-ray, resistivity, sonic, etc ...) will be performed in the boreholes as well as GPR vertical profiling and surface to borehole measurements. In order to monitor the water content, 50 meters of the raw gallery have been investigated with multi offset 250 Mhz shielded antennas. Using this data set, we obtain a detailed 2D velocity model down to 10 to 12 meters. The minimum offset of the data is 18 cm, using a single 250 MHz RAMAC antenna up to 9 meters using the transmitter of a shielded antenna and the receiver of an other one. We compare pre stack depth migration approach and DMO/NMO velocity analysis. First results show that the velocity range from 6 to 8 cm/ns. Porosity can be estimated from GPR velocity : in the usual frequency radar range and for good dielectric material, the radar wave velocity can be approximated by a relation depending only of the wave velocity in free space and the dielectric constant of the investigated medium. This dieclectric constant is itself strongly dependant of the volumetric water content in the medium. The estimation of water content is finally estimated using the usualy well-known polynomial function proposed by Topp. Future GPR acquisitions, including measurements along the 3 available kilometers of gallery, should be performed during this year, in order to compare the 2D velocity model determined with data acquired when water conditions are dry. This comparison will allow us to compare the water spatial distribution of water containt variations and, finally, to better characterize the karstified context of this massif.

  17. Treatment of a High-Risk Diabetic Patient with Peripheral Vascular Disease and Osteomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Latricia L; Kalmar, Garrett; Driver, Vickie R

    2016-06-01

    We report a case of calcaneal osteomyelitis that was surgically resected from a patient with diabetes and peripheral vascular disease. A 91-year-old male with history of type 2 diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, balloon angioplasty, and recent (2 months ago) stent of the superficial femoral artery presented to the emergency department with a left heel wound infection probed to bone. The patient reported having been on intravenous Zosyn for several months via an outside infectious disease provider for clinical suspicion of osteomyelitis, but noted no improvement. This report includes information regarding the clinical examination and imaging findings, which were used to assess this high-risk patient. Our patient underwent a partial calcanectomy and completed a 6-week course of intravenous antibiotics. The purpose of this case report is to illustrate limb preservation in a high-risk patient with compromised vascular supply who underwent a partial calcanectomy for treatment of calcaneal osteomyelitis. The patient underwent surgical resection of the calcaneus without complications and healed unremarkably with the ability to ambulate while wearing an ankle foot orthosis with a custom shoe. This report was authorized for publication as an educational report to contribute to generalizable knowledge and does not include any patient health information. PMID:27423990

  18. Surface electrical stimulation for foot drop: Control aspects and walking performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stein Richard B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of electrical stimulation to correct foot drop in hemiplegia was proposed over 40 years ago. Recently, improved control strategies have been developed and implemented in commercially available devices. In this article we review the control methods that have been used and present some results from a multi-center clinical trial. A foot-drop stimulator improves the gait pattern and results in an immediate increase in walking speed. In this sense it acts like an ankle-foot orthosis and this immediate increase will be referred to as an orthotic effect. Prolonged use of a foot drop stimulator over a period of months results in further, large increases in walking speed both with the stimulator on and off. Evidence indicates that a part of this increase results from daily use that strengthens residual cortico-spinal connections. Therefore the improvement over time will be referred to as a therapeutic effect. We found that people with non-progressive and progressive conditions of the central nervous system have an orthotic benefit, as well as a therapeutic up to 3 months of use. In generally non-progressive conditions such as stroke, further therapeutic increases are seen up to at least 11 months of use. In disorders such as multiple sclerosis, the progression of the disease eventually overcomes the early therapeutic effects. In conclusion, many individuals can benefit from commercially available foot-drop stimulators with improved control strategies and cosmetic design.

  19. Resistive flex sensors: a survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saggio, Giovanni; Riillo, Francesco; Sbernini, Laura; Quitadamo, Lucia Rita

    2016-01-01

    Resistive flex sensors can be used to measure bending or flexing with relatively little effort and a relatively low budget. Their lightness, compactness, robustness, measurement effectiveness and low power consumption make these sensors useful for manifold applications in diverse fields. Here, we provide a comprehensive survey of resistive flex sensors, taking into account their working principles, manufacturing aspects, electrical characteristics and equivalent models, useful front-end conditioning circuitry, and physic-bio-chemical aspects. Particular effort is devoted to reporting on and analyzing several applications of resistive flex sensors, related to the measurement of body position and motion, and to the implementation of artificial devices. In relation to the human body, we consider the utilization of resistive flex sensors for the measurement of physical activity and for the development of interaction/interface devices driven by human gestures. Concerning artificial devices, we deal with applications related to the automotive field, robots, orthosis and prosthesis, musical instruments and measuring tools. The presented literature is collected from different sources, including bibliographic databases, company press releases, patents, master’s theses and PhD theses.

  20. Understanding gait control in post-stroke: implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajesh; Arya, Kamal Narayan; Sharma, Pawan; Garg, R K

    2012-01-01

    The role of the brain in post-stroke gait is not understood properly, although the ability to walk becomes impaired in more than 80% of post-stroke patients. Most, however, regain some ability to walk with either limited mobility or inefficient, asymmetrical or unsafe gait. Conventional intervention focuses on support of weak muscles or body part by use of foot orthosis and walking aids. This review provides an overview of available evidence of neuro-kinesiology & neurophysiology of normal and post-stroke gait. The role of the spinal cord has been explored, more in animals than humans. Mammalian locomotion is based on a rhythmic, "pacemaker" activity of the spinal stepping generators. Bipedal human locomotion is different from quadripedal animal locomotion. However, knowledge derived from the spinal cord investigation of animals, is being applied for management of human gait dysfunction. The potential role of the brain is now recognized in the independent activation of muscles during walking. The brain modifies the gait pattern during the complex demands of daily activities. Though the exact role of the motor cortex in control of gait is unclear, available evidence may be applied to gait rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. PMID:22196422

  1. A passive exoskeleton can push your life up: application on multiple sclerosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Russo, Francesco; Berchicci, Marika; Perri, Rinaldo Livio; Ripani, Francesca Romana; Ripani, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we report the benefits of a passive and fully articulated exoskeleton on multiple sclerosis patients by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures, paying particular attention to the prefrontal cortex activity. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological condition characterized by lesions of the myelin sheaths that encapsulate the neurons of the brain, spine and optic nerve, and it causes transient or progressive symptoms and impairments in gait and posture. Up to 50% of multiple sclerosis patients require walking aids and 10% are wheelchair-bound 15 years following the initial diagnosis. We tested the ability of a new orthosis, the "Human Body Posturizer", designed to improve the structural and functional symmetry of the body through proprioception, in multiple sclerosis patients. We observed that a single Human Body Posturizer application improved mobility, ambulation and response accuracy, in all of the tested patients. Most importantly, we associated these clinical observations and behavioral effects to changes in brain activity, particularly in the prefrontal cortex. PMID:24204814

  2. Synoviorthesis with colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivard, G.E.; Girard, M.; Lamarre, C.; Jutras, M.; Danais, S.; Guay, J.P.; Belanger, R.D.

    1985-11-01

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal /sup 32/P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be done.

  3. The prevention of ankle sprains in sports. A systematic review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, S B; Stroup, D F; Branche, C M; Gilchrist, J; Goodman, R A; Weitman, E A

    1999-01-01

    To assess the published evidence on the effectiveness of various approaches to the prevention of ankle sprains in athletes, we used textbooks, journals, and experts in the field of sports medicine to identify citations. We identified 113 studies reporting the risk of ankle sprains in sports, methods to provide support, the effect of these interventions on performance, and comparison of prevention efforts. The most common risk factor for ankle sprain in sports is history of a previous sprain. Ten citations of studies involving athletes in basketball, football, soccer, or volleyball compared alternative methods of prevention. Methods tested included wrapping the ankle with tape or cloth, orthoses, high-top shoes, or some combination of these methods. Most studies indicate that appropriately applied braces, tape, or orthoses do not adversely affect performance. Based on our review, we recommend that athletes with a sprained ankle complete supervised rehabilitation before returning to practice or competition, and those athletes suffering a moderate or severe sprain should wear an appropriate orthosis for at least 6 months. Both coaches and players must assume responsibility for prevention of injuries in sports. Methodologic limitations of published studies suggested several areas for future research. PMID:10569362

  4. Traumatic spinal fracture treated by vertebroplasty: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tender Gabriel

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Surgical treatment for lumbar burst fractures is complex and typically involves either a retroperitoneal corpectomy and/or a posterior pedicle screw fixation. We describe the case of a patient with a lumbar burst fracture who was cured via a less invasive approach that has not been previously reported as standalone treatment. Case presentation This 25-year-old Caucasian man presented with excruciating axial low back pain exacerbated by any attempt to elevate the head of the bed after a motor vehicle accident. Computed tomography demonstrated a burst L4 fracture without spinal canal compromise. The patient underwent a bilateral vertebroplasty with an injectable polymer that mimics cortical bone. Postoperatively, the patient was progressively mobilized in a thoracolumbar spinal orthosis brace without any recurrence of pain. Postoperative computed tomography showed no loss of height in the L4 vertebral body. At one-year postoperatively, the patient was symptom free and the computed tomography scan showed good fracture healing. Conclusion Retroperitoneal corpectomy and/or posterior multi-segment fixation for lumbar burst fractures without neural compression in young patients are associated with loss of mobility and potential future adjacent level disease. Our limited vertebroplasty intervention with close postoperative clinical monitoring has not been previously described as standalone treatment, and it offers the advantages of less operative morbidity and maintenance of lumbar mobility in selected patients.

  5. The influence of the external ankle support on the dynamic balance in volleyball athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Azevedo Correia de Lima

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe purpose of this study was to assess the effect of ankle external supports on proprioception and dynamic balance in volleyball players. Seventeen female volleyball players (18.94±2.49 years; 65.45±9.49 kg; 1.71±0.05 m; BMI=22.0±2.67 kg/m² took part in this study. The dynamic balance was assessed through the Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT. Comparisons between stabilization (no stabilizer/NS, orthosis/ORT and functional bandaging/FB modes and the SEBT grid lines and inter-limb were carried out. The SEBT assessment showed a significant difference between the groups NS x ORT and NS x FB (p < .01, and between the lines (p< .01. Significant line/limb interaction in DL and NDL (p< .01 was detected. The external supports tested herein showed similar effects on balance, restricting lower limb's reach in the SEBT execution in some of tested directions.

  6. Reinforcement learning of self-regulated sensorimotor β-oscillations improves motor performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naros, G; Naros, I; Grimm, F; Ziemann, U; Gharabaghi, A

    2016-07-01

    Self-regulation of sensorimotor oscillations is currently researched in neurorehabilitation, e.g. for priming subsequent physiotherapy in stroke patients, and may be modulated by neurofeedback or transcranial brain stimulation. It has still to be demonstrated, however, whether and under which training conditions such brain self-regulation could also result in motor gains. Thirty-two right-handed, healthy subjects participated in a three-day intervention during which they performed 462 trials of kinesthetic motor-imagery while a brain-robot interface (BRI) turned event-related β-band desynchronization of the left sensorimotor cortex into the opening of the right hand by a robotic orthosis. Different training conditions were compared in a parallel-group design: (i) adaptive classifier thresholding and contingent feedback, (ii) adaptive classifier thresholding and non-contingent feedback, (iii) non-adaptive classifier thresholding and contingent feedback, and (iv) non-adaptive classifier thresholding and non-contingent feedback. We studied the task-related cortical physiology with electroencephalography and the behavioral performance in a subsequent isometric motor task. Contingent neurofeedback and adaptive classifier thresholding were critical for learning brain self-regulation which, in turn, led to behavioral gains after the intervention. The acquired skill for sustained sensorimotor β-desynchronization correlated significantly with subsequent motor improvement. Operant learning of brain self-regulation with a BRI may offer a therapeutic perspective for severely affected stroke patients lacking residual hand function. PMID:27046109

  7. Effect of Custom-Molded Foot Orthoses on Foot Pain and Balance in Children With Symptomatic Flexible Flat Feet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hong-Jae; Lim, Kil-Byung; Yoo, JeeHyun; Yun, Hyun-Ju; Jeong, Tae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of custom-molded foot orthoses on foot pain and balance in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot 1 month and 3 months after fitting foot orthosis. Method A total of 24 children over 6 years old with flexible flat feet and foot pain for at least 6 months were recruited for this study. Their resting calcaneal stance position and calcaneal pitch angle were measured. Individual custom-molded rigid foot orthoses were prescribed using inverted orthotic technique to control foot overpronation. Pain questionnaire was used to obtain pain sites, degree, and frequency. Balancing ability was determined using computerized posturography. These evaluations were performed prior to custom-molded foot orthoses, 1 month, and 3 months after fitting foot orthoses. Result Of 24 children with symptomatic flexible flat feet recruited for this study, 20 completed the study. Significant (p<0.001) improvements in pain degree and frequency were noted after 1 and 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. In addition, significant (p<0.05) improvement in balancing ability was found after 3 months of custom-molded foot orthoses. Conclusion Short-term use of custom-molded foot orthoses significantly improved foot pain and balancing ability in children with symptomatic flexible flat foot. PMID:26798604

  8. Ultrasound guided block of the saphenous neuroma following use of an AFO in a patient with paraplegia. A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesikburun, S; Köroğlu Omaç, Ö; Yaşar, E; Yilmaz, B; Kenan Tan, A

    2014-04-01

    The saphenous nerve is the terminal branch of the femoral nerve and a pure sensory nerve that provide sensation to medial leg. Injury to saphanous nerve following trauma or surgery of the knee can result in formation of a painful neuroma along its distribution. We present a case of saphenous neuroma following use of an ankle-foot orthosis (AFO) in a patient with paraplegia. A 36-year-old patient with paraplegia who was capable of walking independently with his AFO presented to our department with a 3-month history of pain in his left calf. Examination revealed tenderness, paresthesias and positive Tinel sign over the anteromedial aspect of the calf. Ultrasonographic examination of the painful area showed a mass with heterogenous echogenity which was consistent with a saphenous neuroma at the site where fastener band of AFO compressed to skin. We performed a nerve block with steroid and local anesthetic injection under ultrasound guidance to the neuroma. The patient reported pain relief following injection. The use of the AFO may cause a painful saphenous neuroma which is an unusual cause of extremity pain in patients with paraplegia. Ultrasound may be a beneficial diagnostic tool and a guidance for the therapeutic interventions in this condition. PMID:24398411

  9. Restoration of ankle movements with the ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator: a safe and reliable treatment option for permanent central leg palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Klaus Daniel; Polanski, Witold Henryk; Schulz, Anne-Kathrin; Jöbges, Michael; Hoff, Hansjoerg; Schackert, Gabriele; Pinzer, Thomas; Sobottka, Stephan B

    2016-01-01

    OBJECT The ActiGait drop foot stimulator is a promising technique for restoration of lost ankle function by an implantable hybrid stimulation system. It allows ankle dorsiflexion by active peroneal nerve stimulation during the swing phase of gait. In this paper the authors report the outcome of the first prospective study on a large number of patients with stroke-related drop foot. METHODS Twenty-seven patients who experienced a stroke and with persisting spastic leg paresis received an implantable ActiGait drop foot stimulator for restoration of ankle movement after successful surface test stimulation. After 3 to 5 weeks, the stimulator was activated, and gait speed, gait endurance, and activation time of the system were evaluated and compared with preoperative gait tests. In addition, patient satisfaction was assessed using a questionnaire. RESULTS Postoperative gait speed significantly improved from 33.9 seconds per 20 meters to 17.9 seconds per 20 meters (p mobility, social participation, and quality of life was confirmed by 89% to 96% of patients. CONCLUSIONS The ActiGait implantable drop foot stimulator improves gait speed, endurance, and quality of life in patients with stroke-related drop foot. Regarding gait speed, the ActiGait system appears to be advantageous compared with foot orthosis or surface stimulation devices. Randomized trials with more patients and longer observation periods are needed to prove the long-term benefit of this device. PMID:26207599

  10. EEG classification for motor imagery and resting state in BCI applications using multi-class Adaboost extreme learning machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Lin; Cheng, Wei; Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Jue

    2016-08-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems provide an alternative communication and control approach for people with limited motor function. Therefore, the feature extraction and classification approach should differentiate the relative unusual state of motion intention from a common resting state. In this paper, we sought a novel approach for multi-class classification in BCI applications. We collected electroencephalographic (EEG) signals registered by electrodes placed over the scalp during left hand motor imagery, right hand motor imagery, and resting state for ten healthy human subjects. We proposed using the Kolmogorov complexity (Kc) for feature extraction and a multi-class Adaboost classifier with extreme learning machine as base classifier for classification, in order to classify the three-class EEG samples. An average classification accuracy of 79.5% was obtained for ten subjects, which greatly outperformed commonly used approaches. Thus, it is concluded that the proposed method could improve the performance for classification of motor imagery tasks for multi-class samples. It could be applied in further studies to generate the control commands to initiate the movement of a robotic exoskeleton or orthosis, which finally facilitates the rehabilitation of disabled people.

  11. Congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia and fibula: treatment option by multilevel osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napiontek, Marek; Shadi, Milud

    2014-03-01

    Few papers have described patients treated surgically with single osteotomy for congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia and fibula. Only one paper has described two-level osteotomy for deformity correction: the first for deformity correction and the second for bone lengthening. There are no publications describing the surgical correction of deformation only by the method of multilevel tibial and fibular osteotomy. Research material included four children aged between 3.1 and 5.1 years (average age: 3.7 years) who were operated upon for bowing of the tibia and fibula exceeding 35° in the coronal plane. In all cases, tibial osteotomy was carried out at three or two levels accompanied by fibular osteotomy, and with intramedullary stabilization using K-wires (three patients) or Rush pin (one patient). Follow-up ranged from 3 to 7.7 years. In all cases, axis correction and bone healing were achieved. In large congenital posteromedial bowing of the tibia and fibula, a multilevel tibial and fibular osteotomy may be a better solution than an orthosis or a long time waiting for a spontaneous correction of the deformation. Large circumferential periosteal release that accompanied the surgery influenced the stimulation of bone growth. It may induce the process of lower limbs' equalization not to require the application of intensive surgical procedures. PMID:24390537

  12. 不同材料矫形器的生物学性能%Biological properties of orthoses made of different materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林志伟; 王应球; 郑群香

    2011-01-01

    背景:矫形器通过力的作用以预防、矫正畸形,达到治疗骨骼、关节、肌肉和神经疾患并补偿其功能的效果.目的:介绍了矫形器的分类,不同材料矫形器的性能及应用效果.方法:以"矫形器,生物学性能,先天性马蹄内翻足,婴幼儿"为中文关键词,以"orthosis,Congenital Club Foot" 为英文关键词,采用计算机检索中国期刊全文数据库、PubMed数据库(1996-01/2010-12)相关文章.纳入与矫形器材料、以及先天性马蹄内翻足治疗相关内容的文献,排除重复研究或Meta分析类文章,共入选20篇文章进入结果分析.并回顾性分析应用低温热塑板或高温热塑板,根据3点力作用原理设计制作静态足踝矫形器或动态足踝矫形器,结合手法推拿等综合治疗婴幼儿先天性马蹄内翻足96例(106足)临床效果.结果与结论:文章重点从矫形器的分类、矫形器的材料、矫形器的基本作用及临床验证几方面进行了叙述.目前常用的矫形器材料主要有金属材料(钢材和铝合金)、皮革、橡胶、塑料及各种纤维等.临床验证结果:随访1年优86例(93足);良8例(10足);可2例(3足).提示选用高温热塑板制作成静态踝足矫形器或动态踝足矫形器治疗婴幼儿先天性马蹄内翻足早期效果满意.%BACKGROUND: Orthoses are used to prevent and correct deformity through the force in order to treat bone, joint, muscle and nerve disorders and compensate the functions.OBJECTIVE: To introduce the classification, properties, and curative effects of orthoses made of different materials.METHODS: A computer-based search of CNKI and PubMed databases(1996-01/2010-12) were performed using the keywords of “orthosis, biological properties, congenital club food, infants” in Chinese and “orthosis,congenital club foot” in English. Articles related to orthosis and congenital club foot were included, and repetitive article or Meta analysis were excluded. Finally, 20

  13. Delayed gait recovery in a stroke patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong Pyo; Lee, Mi Young; Kwon, Yong Hyun; Jang, Sung Ho

    2013-06-01

    We report on a stroke patient who showed delayed gait recovery between 8 and 11 months after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. This 32-year-old female patient underwent craniotomy and drainage for right intracerebral hemorrhage due to rupture of an arteriovenous malformation. Brain MR images revealed a large leukomalactic lesion in the right fronto-parietal cortex. Diffusion tensor tractography at 8 months after onset revealed that the right corticospinal tract was severely injured. At this time, the patient could not stand or walk despite undergoing rehabilitation from 2 months after onset. It was believed that severe spasticity of the left leg and right ankle was largely responsible, and thus, antispastic drugs, antispastic procedures (alcohol neurolysis of the motor branch of the tibial nerve and an intramuscular alcohol wash of both tibialis posterior muscles) and physical therapy were tried to control the spasticity. These measures relieved the severe spasticity, with the result that the patient was able to stand at 3 months. In addition, the improvements in sensorimotor function, visuospatial function, and cognition also seemed to contribute to gait recovery. As a result, she gained the ability to walk independently on even floor with a left ankle foot orthosis at 11 months after onset. This case illustrates that clinicians should attempt to find the cause of gait inability and to initiate intensive rehabilitation in stroke patients who cannot walk at 3-6 months after onset. PMID:25206447

  14. A robotic gait training system integrating split-belt treadmill, footprint sensing and synchronous EEG recording for neuro-motor recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi-Hung; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Quanquan; Hsu, Wei-Chun; Hsiao, Yu-Tsung; Su, Jui-Yiao; Kobayashi, Yo; Fujie, Masakatsu G

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a robotic gait training system for neuro-motor rehabilitation of hemiplegic stroke survivors. The system is composed of a treadmill consisting of two separated belts, footprint array sensor attached below each belt for gait data acquisition, and an electroencephalography (EEG) device for monitoring brain activities during gait training. The split belt treadmill allow physical therapists to set different treadmill belt velocities to modify physical workload of the patients during walking, thus being able to better improve the symmetry of gait phases between affected and unaffected (sound) legs in comparison with conventional treadmills where there is only one single belt. In contrast to in-shoe pressure sensors, the under-belt footprint sensor array designed in this study not only reduces the preparation complexity of gait training but also collects more gait data for motion analysis. Recorded EEG is segmented synchronously with gait-related events. The processed EEG data can be used for monitoring brain-activities during gait training, providing a neurological approach for motion assessment. One subject with simulated stroke using an ankle-foot orthosis participated in this study. Preliminary results indicate the feasibility of the proposed system to improve gait function and monitor neuro-motor recovery. PMID:26737065

  15. Parametric study of orthopedic insole of valgus foot on partial foot amputation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jun-Chao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Chen, Wei; Du, Cheng-Fei; Mo, Zhong-Jun; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2016-06-01

    Orthopedic insole was important for partial foot amputation (PFA) to achieve foot balance and avoid foot deformity. The inapposite insole orthosis was thought to be one of the risk factors of reamputation for foot valgus patient, but biomechanical effects of internal tissues on valgus foot had not been clearly addressed. In this study, plantar pressure on heel and metatarsal regions of PFA was measured using F-Scan. The three-dimensional finite element (FE) model of partial foot evaluated different medial wedge angles (MWAs) (0.0°-10.0°) of orthopedic insole on valgus foot. The effect of orthopedic insole on the internal bone stress, the medial ligament tension of ankle, plantar fascia tension, and plantar pressure was investigated. Plantar pressure on medial heel region was about 2.5 times higher than that of lateral region based on the F-Scan measurements. FE-predicted results showed that the tension of medial ankle ligaments was the lowest, and the plantar pressure was redistributed around the heel, the first metatarsal, and the lateral longitudinal arch regions when MWA of orthopedic insole ranged from 7.5° to 8.0°. The plantar fascias maintained about 3.5% of the total load bearing on foot. However, the internal stresses from foot bones increased. The simulation in this study would provide the suggestion of guiding optimal design of orthopedic insole and therapeutic planning to pedorthist. PMID:26291149

  16. Applications of shape memory alloys for neurology and neuromuscular rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittaccio, Simone; Garavaglia, Lorenzo; Ceriotti, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca

    2015-01-01

    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are a very promising class of metallic materials that display interesting nonlinear properties, such as pseudoelasticity (PE), shape memory effect (SME) and damping capacity, due to high mechanical hysteresis and internal friction. Our group has applied SMA in the field of neuromuscular rehabilitation, designing some new devices based on the mentioned SMA properties: in particular, a new type of orthosis for spastic limb repositioning, which allows residual voluntary movement of the impaired limb and has no predetermined final target position, but follows and supports muscular elongation in a dynamic and compliant way. Considering patients in the sub-acute phase after a neurological lesion, and possibly bedridden, the paper presents a mobiliser for the ankle joint, which is designed exploiting the SME to provide passive exercise to the paretic lower limb. Two different SMA-based applications in the field of neuroscience are then presented, a guide and a limb mobiliser specially designed to be compatible with diagnostic instrumentations that impose rigid constraints in terms of electromagnetic compatibility and noise distortion. Finally, the paper discusses possible uses of these materials in the treatment of movement disorders, such as dystonia or hyperkinesia, where their dynamic characteristics can be advantageous. PMID:26023790

  17. Synoviorthesis with colloidal 32P chromic phosphate for hemophilic arthropathy: clinical follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thirty-one synoviortheses were performed in 22 joints of 14 hemophilic patients (aged 12 to 28 years) with chronic synovitis and for whom conventional treatments were considered ineffective. Except for patients with inhibitors, conventional treatments included three to six months of adequate prophylactic therapy with the missing coagulation factors, intensive physiotherapy and, when indicated, antiinflammatory agents and orthosis. Colloidal 32P chromic phosphate was injected intraarticularly in doses of 1.0 mCi for knees and of 0.5 mCi for the other joints. Time of follow-up ranged from two to five years. Frequency and importance of bleeding decreased in all patients. Effect on range of motion was best in knees. In elbows, flexion-extension was improved in four cases, unchanged in five and decreased in one; pronation-supination was decreased in four cases. The results of 13 synoviortheses in four hemophilic patients with high titer factor VIII inhibitors were comparable to those in hemophiliacs with no inhibitors. However, in three of the four patients synoviorthesis had to be repeated after two to four years for recurrence of synovitis. Extraarticular escape of radioactivity was monitored 62 times for 17 synoviortheses in 12 patients; extraarticular counts never exceeded 4% of the intraarticular counts. Chromosome aberrations were found not to be increased after treatment in the seven patients in whom adequate analysis could be done

  18. Delayed gait recovery in a stroke patient

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jeong Pyo Seo; Mi Young Lee; Yong Hyun Kwon; Sung Ho Jang

    2013-01-01

    We report on a stroke patient who showed delayed gait recovery between 8 and 11 months after the onset of intracerebral hemorrhage. This 32-year-old female patient underwent craniotomy and drainage for right intracerebral hemorrhage due to rupture of an arteriovenous malformation. Brain MR images revealed a large leukomalactic lesion in the right fronto-parietal cortex. Diffusion tensor tractography at 8 months after onset revealed that the right corticospinal tract was severely injured. At this time, the patient could not stand or walk despite undergoing rehabilitation from 2 months after onset. It was believed that severe spasticity of the left leg and right ankle was largely responsible, and thus, antispastic drugs, antispastic procedures (alcohol neurolysis of the motor branch of the tibial nerve and an intramuscular alcohol wash of both tibialis posterior muscles) and physical therapy were tried to control the spasticity. These measures relieved the severe spasticity, with the result that the patient was able to stand at 3 months. In addition, the improvements in sensorimotor function, visuospatial function, and cognition also seemed to contribute to gait recovery. As a result, she gained the ability to walk independently on even floor with a left ankle foot orthosis at 11 months after onset. This case illustrates that clinicians should attempt to find the months after onset.

  19. Potential of modeling and simulations of bioengineered devices: Endoprostheses, prostheses and orthoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginestra, Paola Serena; Ceretti, Elisabetta; Fiorentino, Antonio

    2016-07-01

    Modeling and simulation of prosthetic devices are the new tools investigated for the production of total customized prostheses. Computational simulations are used to evaluate the geometrical and material designs of a device while assessing its mechanical behavior. Data acquisition through magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography or laser scanning is the first step that gives information about the human anatomical structures; a file format has to be elaborated through computer-aided design software. Computer-aided design tools can be used to develop a device that respects the design requirements as, for instance, the human anatomy. Moreover, through finite element analysis software and the knowledge of loads and conditions the prostheses are supposed to face in vivo, it is possible to simulate, analyze and predict the mechanical behavior of the prosthesis and its effects on the surrounding tissues. Moreover, the simulations are useful to eventually improve the design (as geometry, materials, features) before the actual production of the device. This article presents an extensive analysis on the use of finite element modeling for the design, testing and development of prosthesis and orthosis devices. PMID:27095509

  20. The Immediate Effects of Orthoses on Pain in People with Lateral Epicondylalgia

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    Ebrahim Sadeghi-Demneh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Tennis elbow is a common cause of upper limb dysfunction and a primary reason for pain at the lateral aspect of the elbow. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three commonly used orthoses on pain severity. An elbow band, an elbow sleeve, and a wrist splint were assessed for their ability to reduce the level of reported pain. Method. A crossover randomized controlled trial was used. The orthoses were worn in a randomized order, and all participants were required to complete a control trial for which they wore a placebo orthosis. 52 participants with lateral epicondylalgia were recruited, and the level of pain at their elbow was recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS. Results. The reported pain for all orthoses was lower than that of the placebo (. Pain reduction was significantly greater with a counterforce elbow band or a counterforce elbow sleeve compared to a wrist splint (. There was no significant difference between a counterforce elbow band and a counterforce elbow sleeve (. Conclusion. All the types of orthoses studied showed an immediate improvement on pain severity in people with lateral epicondylalgia. The counterforce elbow orthoses (elbow band and elbow sleeve presented the greatest improvement, suggesting that either of them can be used as a first treatment choice to alleviate the pain in people with tennis elbow.

  1. Assistive technology in occupational therapy practice with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system

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    Tácia Caroline de Lima Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to report the effects of the interventions, using the resource of assistive technology, carried out with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system at his home. This is a study case, which was conducted in seven meetings, addressing the child and his caregivers during a process of evaluation, preparation of assistive devices, family orientation, and evaluation of the family environment repercussion. The results showed that the child presents significant motor, cognitive, and psychosocial impairments, resulting in difficulties in performing activities of daily living, communication, and play. Adjustments were proposed to facilitate the child’s involvement and alleviate family difficulties on equipment and environments, such as wheelchair, bedroom, bathroom, orthosis, toys and communication. Finally, it was possible to note that the assistive technology resources were used according to the child’s needs and his own reality, and that the domiciliary visits contributed positively to the family’s life because they facilitated the child’s care, despite the limitations faced.

  2. Trainer variability during step training after spinal cord injury: Implications for robotic gait-training device design

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    Jose A. Galvez, PhD

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Robotic devices are being developed to automate repetitive aspects of walking retraining after neurological injuries, in part because they might improve the consistency and quality of training. However, it is unclear how inconsistent manual training actually is or whether stepping quality depends strongly on the trainers' manual skill. The objective of this study was to quantify trainer variability of manual skill during step training using body-weight support on a treadmill and assess factors of trainer skill. We attached a sensorized orthosis to one leg of each patient with spinal cord injury and measured the shank kinematics and forces exerted by different trainers during six training sessions. An expert trainer rated the trainers' skill level based on videotape recordings. Between-trainer force variability was substantial, about two times greater than within-trainer variability. Trainer skill rating correlated strongly with two gait features: better knee extension during stance and fewer episodes of toe dragging. Better knee extension correlated directly with larger knee horizontal assistance force, but better toe clearance did not correlate with larger ankle push-up force; rather, it correlated with better knee and hip extension. These results are useful to inform robotic gait-training design.

  3. [Foot equipment of diabetic arteriopathy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miault, D; Brun, J P; Dupre, J C; Pill, M; Miault, P; Deschamps, E; Priollet, P; Laurian, C; Fichelle, J M; Cormier, J M

    1993-01-01

    Surgical appliances have a place of choice in the care of the foot with trophic lesions in diabetics, after partial amputation and as a preventive measure when it is free from trophic disorders. The type of appliance will depend on the footwear and the possibility of wearing orthopedic soles, whatever the stage of the affection. For the foot free from trophic disorders the shoes should be wide fitting, in soft leather and of the seamless type. Made to measure shoes should be reserved for badly deformed feet. The soles should be molded in silicone or polyurethane to distribute weight bearing and to avoid it over zones at risk. Appliances for the foot with trophic lesions should allow the resumption of walking. If the lesions are too extensive an orthosis is performed or a specific type of slipper with molded soles is worn to avoid pressure on the wounds. After amputation of toes a silicone orthoplasty is used to fill the interdigital space to avoid deformity of the other toes. If a front of foot has been amputated a corrected silicone molded sole with false extremity is applied. For a back of foot amputation an orthoprosthesis is made, preferentially in silicone introductible in a regular high sided shoe. In order to fulfil its preventive or temporary role, the appliance should evolve with time and be followed up regularly with close collaboration between the diabetic specialist the podologist and the orthotist. PMID:8473812

  4. [Treatment for Patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease: Orthopaedic Aspects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Kota

    2016-01-01

    The orthopedic manifestations in patients with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease include deformity and dysfunction of the extremities and spine. Conservative treatment is the first choice. Orthosis and rehabilitation can improve function, and are important for the prevention of joint contractures. Foot problems are most commonly observed and require surgical treatment. Foot deformities include pes cavus, cavovarus, claw toes, or drop foot. Single or combined surgeries selected for soft tissues are plantar release, tendon transfer, or Achilles tendon lengthening, and those for bones are osteotomies and joint fusions. The upper limb initially demonstrates loss of power of the intrinsic hand muscles followed by symmetrical atrophy of the forearm muscle groups. The typical hand deformity is claw hand. Tendon transfer, joint fusion, soft tissue release, or nerve decompression procedures are performed for correction of hand deformities. Acetabular dysplasia in the hip joints is sometimes observed and osteotomy is selected as surgical treatment in such cases. The associated spinal deformity is scoliosis with or without kyphosis. Similar to treatment of idiopathic scoliosis, posterior spinal fusion is performed in patients with progressive spinal deformities. PMID:26764299

  5. AAU-BOT1: A Platform for Studying Dynamic, Life-Like Walking

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    Mads Sølver Svendsen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the development of the humanoid robot AAU-BOT1. The purpose of the robot is to investigate human-like walking and in this connection, test prosthetic limbs. AAU-BOT1 has been designed with modularity in mind making it possible to replace, e.g. the lower leg to test transfemoral or transtibial prosthesis or orthosis. Recorded motion data from a male test person, along with approximated inertial and mass properties, were used to determine necessary joint torques in human walking which was used as design parameters for the robot. The robot has 19 degrees of freedom (DoF, 17 actuated and 2 unactuated acting as passive toe joints. The project was granted 60,000 Euro, and to keep development costs below this, the development and instrumentation was carried out by three groups of master students from the Department of Mechanical Engineering (ME and the Department of Electronic Systems at Aalborg University and supported by the Department of Health Sciences and Technology (HST. To further reduce the cost, the robot uses off-the-shelf hardware which also reduced the time from idea to practical implementation. The result is a low-cost humanoid robot fully assembled and equipped with sensors ready to take its first steps.

  6. A passive exoskeleton can push your life up: application on multiple sclerosis patients.

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    Francesco Di Russo

    Full Text Available In the present study, we report the benefits of a passive and fully articulated exoskeleton on multiple sclerosis patients by means of behavioral and electrophysiological measures, paying particular attention to the prefrontal cortex activity. Multiple sclerosis is a neurological condition characterized by lesions of the myelin sheaths that encapsulate the neurons of the brain, spine and optic nerve, and it causes transient or progressive symptoms and impairments in gait and posture. Up to 50% of multiple sclerosis patients require walking aids and 10% are wheelchair-bound 15 years following the initial diagnosis. We tested the ability of a new orthosis, the "Human Body Posturizer", designed to improve the structural and functional symmetry of the body through proprioception, in multiple sclerosis patients. We observed that a single Human Body Posturizer application improved mobility, ambulation and response accuracy, in all of the tested patients. Most importantly, we associated these clinical observations and behavioral effects to changes in brain activity, particularly in the prefrontal cortex.

  7. 前臂腕部自体动静脉内瘘成熟状态的初步研究%Primary study in maturity status of native arteriovenous fistula on the wrist

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐元恺; 张丽红; 张文云; 段青青; 林琼真; 李英

    2014-01-01

    目的 通过前瞻性观察前臂腕部自体动静脉内瘘穿刺使用时的头静脉内径,血流量及血管壁厚度,总结中国人内瘘成熟时的内瘘血管状态.方法 自体动静脉内瘘建立后由专业护理人员经验性判断穿刺时间定为拟成熟,并应用彩色多普勒超声监测血管状态.穿刺透析3次后没有出现透析血流量不足、透后出血时间延长、血肿等并发症者判定为成熟,超声测量的数据即定为成熟时的血管状态.结果 31例患者进入研究,30例患者最终判定为内瘘成熟.患者平均年龄(52.93±3.21)岁,女性患者13例,内瘘位置左前臂22例,原发病为糖尿病肾病者13例.术前平均头静脉内径(3.10±0.11)mm,术前头静脉血流量及管壁厚度超声无法测得.30例患者平均内瘘成熟时间(57.10±3.21)d.至内瘘成熟时,头静脉平均内径为(4.74±0.16) mm,较术前平均扩张(57.08±5.96)%,与K/DOQI指南推荐的6 mm相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).头静脉平均血流量(569.76±48.34)ml/min,与K/DOQI指南推荐的600 ml/min相比差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).平均头静脉壁厚度(0.95±0.04) mm.内瘘成熟时头静脉内径、血流量及管壁厚度95%可信区间的下限分别为4.44 mm、486.37 ml/min及0.67 mm.结论 我国维持性血液透析患者腕部自体动静脉内瘘成熟时的头静脉内径明显小于K/DOQI指南推荐的内径数值,我国维持性血液透析患者的内瘘成熟标准可能异于国外.%Object To investigate the maturity status of the cephalic vein when the native arteriovenous fistula matures and set up indicators of a matured native arteriovenous fistula.Methods The diameter,flow rate and wall thickness of the cephalic vein were prospectively measured by Doppler ultrasound after the native fistula was created.Mature judgment was done by skilled nurses depending on their experience before the fistula was punctured.The ultrasound data was marked as proposed mature at the

  8. Arreglo de los polígonos del exocorion de huevos eclosionados de algunas especies de los géneros Triatoma Laporte, Meccus Stal y Nesotriatoma Usinger (Heteroptera: Reduviidae.

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    Glauco López

    2009-12-01

    analysis of the exochorial polygonal cells of hatched eggs of Triatoma infestans (Klug, Triatoma lenti Sherlock & Serafim, Triatoma maculata (Erichson, Triatoma sordida (Stal, Meccus picturatus (Usinger, Meccus longipennis (Usinger, Meccus pallidipennis (Stal and Nesotriatoma flavida (Neiva was performed; cephalic, median and caudal egg regions were compared. It was found that cells with hexagonal shape were more abundant among all egg regions and studied species, followed by pentagonal and heptagonal polygons respectively. The average number of hexagonal and pentagonal polygons was significantly different among the three egg regions for each species, and when comparing the median, cephalic and caudal egg regions among different species. However, the average number of heptagons did not differ among the three egg regions for each species. The average number of heptagons did not differ when comparing the median egg region, but differed when comparing the cephalic and caudal egg regions, among different species. The average number of hexagons, pentagons, heptagons, total polygons, and total segments did not differ among the different species eggs of Meccus genus. A group of 108 micrographies (380,000 μm2 each one were studied using tessellation methods. Shared tilings and unshared tilings were found in all the micrographies observed. Shared tilings were conformed by combinations of heptagons, hexagons and pentagons, and unshared tilings by combinations of polygons from four to nine sides. Finally, each tiling arrangement was represented as a graph. Taxonomic, functional and phylogenetic implications of the polygonal cell arrangement described here are discussed.

  9. Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849: a study of topotypic specimens (Mollusca: pulmonata: planorbidae

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    W. Lobato Paraense

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available A description of Biomphalaria obstructa (Morelet, 1849, based on specimens collected at its type locality - isla del carmen, state of Campeche, Mexico - is presented. The Shell is small, 13 mm in diameter, 3.5 mm in width and with 5.75 whorls in the largest specimen, thin, moderately lustrous and translucent, horn-colored. Whorls increasing regularly (neither slowly nor rapidly in diameter, rounded on the periphery side, bluntly angular on the left. Suture well-marked, deeper on the left. Right side widely concave, with first whorl deeply situated and partly hidden by the next. Left side shallower than right one, largely flattened, with first whorl plaintly visible. Aperture roundly heart-shaped, usually in the same plane as the body whorl but somewhat deflected to the left (less frequently to the right in some specimens. Peristome sharp, seldom blunt; a distinct callus on the parietal wall. A number of young shells develop one set (seldom more of apertural lamellae which tend to be resorbed as the shell grows. Absence of renal ridge. Ovotestis with about 70 mostly unbrached diverticula. Seminal vesicle beset with well-developed knoblike to fingerlike diverticula. Vaginal pouch more or less developed. Spermatheca club-shaped when empty, egg-shaped when full, and with intermediate forms between those extremes. Spermathecal body usually somewhat longer than the duct. Prostate with 7 to 20 (mean 12.06 ± 2.51 usually short diverticula which give off plumpish branches spreading out in a fan shape and overlapping to some extent their immediate neighbors. Foremost prostatic diverticulum nearly always partially or completely inserted between the spermathecal body and the uterine wall. Penial sheath consistently narrower and shorter than the prepuce. Muscular coat of the penis consisting of an inner longitudinal and an outer circular layers. Ratios between organ lengths: caudal to cephalic parts of female duct = 0.55 to 1.37 (mean 0.85 +- 0.17; cephalic

  10. Clinical usefulness of doppler ultrasonography before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty immature native arteriovenous fistula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To report the clinical efficacy of preprocedural doppler ultrasound examination for the treatment of immature arteriovenous fistula by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and the efficacy of PTA about its treatment. From November 2008 to May 2013, 28 patients who were diagnosed with immature arteriovenous fistula using doppler ultrasound examination and obtained successful maturation of it after PTA were included in this study. A retrospective comparative analysis was performed according to the findings between doppler ultrasound examination and fistulography during the procedure. The success rate of PTA and patency of fistula were evaluated in each patient Doppler ultrasound examination revealed stenosis in twenty three patients and thrombotic total occlusion in five patients. Stenosis was located in the proximal cephalic vein 2 cm from the anastomosis in 67.8% (19/28). In the five cases of thrombotic total occlusion, the lesions were long lesions from the anastomosis to the entire proximal cephalic vein at the elbow joint level. Fistulography revealed 5 patients with thrombotic total occlusion and 24 stenosis sites in 23 patients, respectively. The location and characteristics of all lesions were consistent on doppler ultrasound examination. Only four cases were observed as non-thrombotic total occlusion on fistulography, which had more than 90% stenosis on doppler ultrasound examination. The initial success rate of PTA for immature arteriovenous fistula was 96.4% (27/28). In three patients, clinical success was obtained after four times of additional PTA. Six additional PTAs were performed during follow-up, no complications related to the procedures were found. The primary patency rate was 92.9% at 3 months, 60.7% at 6 months and 39.3% at 12 months. The estimated mean survival of arteriovenous fistula was 347.9 days and the estimated median survival was 232 days. Also, the 12 months primary patency rates between the stenosis group and occlusion

  11. Clinical usefulness of doppler ultrasonography before percutaneous transluminal angioplasty immature native arteriovenous fistula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeong Eun [Dept. of Radiology, Inje University Seoul Paik Hospital, College of Medicine, Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Young Kwon; Sim, Jae Chan; Lee, So Young; Sung, Su Ah; Hwang, Young Hwan [Eulji General Hospital, College of Medicine, Eulji University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    To report the clinical efficacy of preprocedural doppler ultrasound examination for the treatment of immature arteriovenous fistula by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) and the efficacy of PTA about its treatment. From November 2008 to May 2013, 28 patients who were diagnosed with immature arteriovenous fistula using doppler ultrasound examination and obtained successful maturation of it after PTA were included in this study. A retrospective comparative analysis was performed according to the findings between doppler ultrasound examination and fistulography during the procedure. The success rate of PTA and patency of fistula were evaluated in each patient Doppler ultrasound examination revealed stenosis in twenty three patients and thrombotic total occlusion in five patients. Stenosis was located in the proximal cephalic vein 2 cm from the anastomosis in 67.8% (19/28). In the five cases of thrombotic total occlusion, the lesions were long lesions from the anastomosis to the entire proximal cephalic vein at the elbow joint level. Fistulography revealed 5 patients with thrombotic total occlusion and 24 stenosis sites in 23 patients, respectively. The location and characteristics of all lesions were consistent on doppler ultrasound examination. Only four cases were observed as non-thrombotic total occlusion on fistulography, which had more than 90% stenosis on doppler ultrasound examination. The initial success rate of PTA for immature arteriovenous fistula was 96.4% (27/28). In three patients, clinical success was obtained after four times of additional PTA. Six additional PTAs were performed during follow-up, no complications related to the procedures were found. The primary patency rate was 92.9% at 3 months, 60.7% at 6 months and 39.3% at 12 months. The estimated mean survival of arteriovenous fistula was 347.9 days and the estimated median survival was 232 days. Also, the 12 months primary patency rates between the stenosis group and occlusion

  12. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

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    William Ruger Porter

    Full Text Available Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange. Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT. Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory

  13. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  14. Confocal analysis of nervous system architecture in direct-developing juveniles of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida, Nereididae

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    Jacobs David K

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of Family Nereididae have complex neural morphology exemplary of errant polychaetes and are leading research models in the investigation of annelid nervous systems. However, few studies focus on the development of their nervous system morphology. Such data are particularly relevant today, as nereidids are the subjects of a growing body of "evo-devo" work concerning bilaterian nervous systems, and detailed knowledge of their developing neuroanatomy facilitates the interpretation of gene expression analyses. In addition, new data are needed to resolve discrepancies between classic studies of nereidid neuroanatomy. We present a neuroanatomical overview based on acetylated α-tubulin labeling and confocal microscopy for post-embryonic stages of Neanthes arenaceodentata, a direct-developing nereidid. Results At hatching (2-3 chaetigers, the nervous system has developed much of the complexity of the adult (large brain, circumesophageal connectives, nerve cords, segmental nerves, and the stomatogastric nervous system is partially formed. By the 5-chaetiger stage, the cephalic appendages and anal cirri are well innervated and have clear connections to the central nervous system. Within one week of hatching (9-chaetigers, cephalic sensory structures (e.g., nuchal organs, Langdon's organs and brain substructures (e.g., corpora pedunculata, stomatogastric ganglia are clearly differentiated. Additionally, the segmental-nerve architecture (including interconnections matches descriptions of other, adult nereidids, and the pharynx has developed longitudinal nerves, nerve rings, and ganglia. All central roots of the stomatogastric nervous system are distinguishable in 12-chaetiger juveniles. Evidence was also found for two previously undescribed peripheral nerve interconnections and aspects of parapodial muscle innervation. Conclusions N. arenaceodentata has apparently lost all essential trochophore characteristics typical of

  15. Vascular Patterns in Iguanas and Other Squamates: Blood Vessels and Sites of Thermal Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, William Ruger; Witmer, Lawrence M.

    2015-01-01

    Squamates use the circulatory system to regulate body and head temperatures during both heating and cooling. The flexibility of this system, which possibly exceeds that of endotherms, offers a number of physiological mechanisms to gain or retain heat (e.g., increase peripheral blood flow and heart rate, cooling the head to prolong basking time for the body) as well as to shed heat (modulate peripheral blood flow, expose sites of thermal exchange). Squamates also have the ability to establish and maintain the same head-to-body temperature differential that birds, crocodilians, and mammals demonstrate, but without a discrete rete or other vascular physiological device. Squamates offer important anatomical and phylogenetic evidence for the inference of the blood vessels of dinosaurs and other extinct archosaurs in that they shed light on the basal diapsid condition. Given this basal positioning, squamates likewise inform and constrain the range of physiological thermoregulatory mechanisms that may have been found in Dinosauria. Unfortunately, the literature on squamate vascular anatomy is limited. Cephalic vascular anatomy of green iguanas (Iguana iguana) was investigated using a differential-contrast, dual-vascular injection (DCDVI) technique and high-resolution X-ray microcomputed tomography (μCT). Blood vessels were digitally segmented to create a surface representation of vascular pathways. Known sites of thermal exchange, consisting of the oral, nasal, and orbital regions, were given special attention due to their role in brain and cephalic thermoregulation. Blood vessels to and from sites of thermal exchange were investigated to detect conserved vascular patterns and to assess their ability to deliver cooled blood to the dural venous sinuses. Arteries within sites of thermal exchange were found to deliver blood directly and through collateral pathways. The venous drainage was found to have multiple pathways that could influence neurosensory tissue temperature

  16. Correction of the axial and appendicular deformities in a patient with Silver-Russel syndrome

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    Ali Al Kaissi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Scoliosis and limb length discrepancy are the major orthopaedic abnormalities in patients with Silver-Russel syndrome (SRS. In this paper, we describe a series of orthopaedic interventions in an attempt to overcome the progressive pathologic mechanism in a 7-year-old girl who manifested the full phenotypic features of SRS. Materials and Methods: Unilateral hip dislocation, progressive scoliosis and limb length discrepancy have been dealt with through Pemberton osteotomy, spinal fusion and Taylor-Spatial-Frame respectively. Results: In order to correct the axial and the appendicular deformities a sum of seven operations were performed (between the age of 7 years and 13 years. Pemberton osteotomy was performed to treat dislocation of her right hip because of developmental dysplasia of the hip. Spinal fusion (spondylodesis of segments Th3-L5 was done to correct her scoliosis. And, to overcome the limb length discrepancy of 15-cm we used Taylor-Spatial-Frame with percutaneous distal corticotomy of the femur, and the proximal tibia, as well as the foot, were performed. We were able to minimize the limb length discrepancy to 5 cm. The girl became able to walk with the aid of a below knee orthosis and through lifting the left limb with 5-cm height shoe. Conclusion: Limb lengthening surgery in patients with multiple malformation complex as in SRS is associated with high recurrence risk because of; muscular hypotonia, overtubulation of the long bones, and the poor bone regenerative quality. Our interventions were principally directed towards improving the cosmetic outlook, functions and the biomechanics.

  17. Congenital vertical talus: Treatment by reverse ponseti technique

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    Bhaskar Atul

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The surgery for idiopathic congenital vertical talus (CVT can lead to stiffness, wound complications and under or over correction. There are sporadic literature on costing with mixed results. We describe our early experience of reverse ponseti technique. Materials and methods: Four cases (four feet of idiopathic congenital vertical talus (CVT which presented one month after birth were treated by serial manipulation and casting, tendoachilles tenotomy and percutaneous pinning of talonavicular joint. An average of 5.2 (range - four to six plaster cast applications were required to correct the forefoot deformity. Once the talus and navicular were aligned based on the radiographic talus-first metatarsal axis, percutaneous fixation of the talo-navicular joint with a Kirschner wire, and percutaneous tendoachilles tenotomy under anesthesia was performed following which a cast was applied with the foot in slight dorsiflexion. Results: The mean follow-up period for the four cases was 8.5 months (6-12 months. At the end of the treatment all feet were supple and plantigrade but still using ankle foot orthosis (AFO. The mean talocalcaneal angle was 70 degrees before treatment and this reduced to 31 degrees after casting. The mean talar axis first metatasal base angle (TAMBA angle was 60° before casting and this improved to 10.5°. Conclusion: Although our follow-up period is small, we would recommend early casting for idiopathic CVT along the same lines as the Ponseti technique for clubfoot except that the forces applied are in reverse direction. This early casting method can prevent extensive surgery in the future, however, a close vigil is required to detect any early relapse.

  18. Impact of locomotion training with a neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL) exoskeleton on neuropathic pain and health related quality of life (HRQoL) in chronic SCI: a case study (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruciger, Oliver; Schildhauer, Thomas A; Meindl, Renate C; Tegenthoff, Martin; Schwenkreis, Peter; Citak, Mustafa; Aach, Mirko

    2016-08-01

    Chronic neuropathic pain (CNP) is a common condition associated with spinal cord injury (SCI) and has been reported to be severe, disabling and often treatment-resistant and therefore remains a clinical challenge for the attending physicians. The treatment usually includes pharmacological and/or nonpharmacological approaches. Body weight supported treadmill training (BWSTT) and locomotion training with driven gait orthosis (DGO) have evolved over the last decades and are now considered to be an established part in the rehabilitation of SCI patients. Conventional locomotion training goes along with improvements of the patients' walking abilities in particular speed and gait pattern. The neurologic controlled hybrid assistive limb (HAL®, Cyberdyne Inc., Ibraki, Japan) exoskeleton, however, is a new tailored approach to support motor functions synchronously to the patient's voluntary drive. This report presents two cases of severe chronic and therapy resistant neuropathic pain due to chronic SCI and demonstrates the beneficial effects of neurologic controlled exoskeletal intervention on pain severity and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Both of these patients were engaged in a 12 weeks period of daily HAL®-supported locomotion training. In addition to improvements in motor functions and walking abilities, both show significant reduction in pain severity and improvements in all HRQoL domains. Although various causal factors likely contribute to abatement of CNP, the reported results occurred due to a new approach in the rehabilitation of chronic spinal cord injury patients. These findings suggest not only the feasibility of this new approach but in conclusion, demonstrate the effectiveness of neurologic controlled locomotion training in the long-term management of refractory neuropathic pain. Implications for Rehabilitation CNP remains a challenge in the rehabilitation of chronic SCI patients. Locomotion training with the HAL exoskeleton seems to improve CNP

  19. Management of Typical and Atypical Hangman's Fractures

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    Al-Mahfoudh, Rafid; Beagrie, Christopher; Woolley, Ele; Zakaria, Rasheed; Radon, Mark; Clark, Simon; Pillay, Robin; Wilby, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study of a prospectively maintained database. Objective Our aim was to retrospectively review management and outcomes of patients with low-grade hangman's fractures, specifically looking at differences in outcomes between collars and halo immobilization. We also studied fracture patterns and their treatment outcomes. Methods Forty-one patients with hangman's fractures were identified from 105 patients with axis fractures between 2007 and 2013. Typical hangman's fractures were defined as traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis causing a bilateral pars interarticularis fracture. Fractures involving the posterior cortex of C2 on one or both sides or an asymmetrical pattern were defined as atypical. Results There were 41 patients with a mean age of 59 years, with 13 (31.7%) typical and 28 (68.2%) atypical fractures. There were 22 (53.6%) type 1 fractures, 7 (41.4%) type 2 fractures, and 2 (4.9%) type 2a fractures in this series. Cervical collars were used to manage 11 patients (27% of all patients with hangman's fractures) and halo orthosis was used in 27 (65.8%). Three (7.3%) patients underwent surgical fixation of the fracture. Bony union was achieved in all patients on radiologic follow-up. Permanent neurologic deficit occurred in one patient due to associated injuries. Neck pain and stiffness were reported more commonly in the atypical group, but this finding was not statistically significant. Conclusions The majority of hangman type fractures can be treated nonoperatively. We found no difference in outcomes between a rigid collar or halo immobilization for treatment of low-grade fractures. Radiologic follow-up is essential to identify cases of nonunion. PMID:27099816

  20. Treatment of the spasticity in children with cerebral palsy.

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    Meholjić-Fetahović, Ajsa

    2007-11-01

    Botulinum toxin is a natural purified protein and one of the strongest biological poisons--neurotoxin. It is produced by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. Its medical usage started in USA in 1981 and in Europe in 1992. There are seven different immune types of the toxin: A, B, C1, D, E, F and G. Toxin types A and B are used to decrease muscular spasticity. Botulinum toxin prevents the formation of acetylcholine from cholinergic nerve tissues in muscles, which in the end irreversibly destroys neuromuscular synapses. It is called temporary local chemodenervation. It does not affect the synthesis of acetylcholine. As it affects neuromuscular bond it also affects one of the symptoms of cerebral palsy--spasticity. Decreasing the spasticity of children with cerebral palsy leads to the improvement of conscious movements, muscles are less toned, passive mobility is improved, orthosis tolerance is also improved, and the child is enabled to perform easier and better motor functions such as crawling, standing and walking. Since the action of Botulinum toxin is limited to 2-6 months, new neural collaterals are formed and neuromuscular conductivity is reestablished which in the end once again develops a muscular spasm. This leads to a conclusion that botulinum toxin should again be applied into spastic muscles. It is very important for good effect of Botulinum toxin to set the goals of the therapy in advance. The goals include improvement of a function, prevention of contractions and deformities, ease of care and decrease of pain for children with cerebral palsy. After application of botulinum toxin, it is necessary to perform adequate and intensive physical treatment with regular monitoring of effects. This work shows a case of a boy with spastic form of cerebral palsy. After being rehabilitated using Vojta therapy and Bobath concept and the conduct of certain physical procedures, botulinum toxin is administered into his lower limbs' muscles and kinesiotherapy is