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Sample records for cephalexin

  1. Cephalexin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cephalexin is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia and other respiratory tract ... the bone, skin, ears, , genital, and urinary tract. Cephalexin is in a class of medications called cephalosporin ...

  2. Cephalexin Induced Cholestatic Jaundice

    OpenAIRE

    Abhinav Agrawal; Mana Rao; Sarfaraz Jasdanwala; Ajay Mathur; Margaret Eng

    2014-01-01

    Cephalexin is a very commonly prescribed orally administered antibiotic which has many potential side effects. Amongst these cholestatic jaundice has been infrequently reported as an adverse reaction. We present a case of a 57-year-old male who exhibited features of cholestatic jaundice including elevated liver function tests (LFTs) after taking cephalexin and showed improvement on removal of the offending agent. During this time he was symptomatically treated with cholestyramine. Complete re...

  3. Comparative study of cephalexin hydrochloride and cephalexin monohydrate in the treatment of skin and soft tissue infections.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, A; Murray, D L; Hanna, C. B.; Kreindler, T G; Jacobson, K D; Bundy, J M; Waxman, K; Finnerty, E F; Folan, D W; Drucker, W R

    1988-01-01

    In two prospective, randomized multicenter double-blind studies with a dosage of either 250 mg given four times a day (study A) or 500 mg given two times a day (study B), the comparative efficacy and safety of cephalexin hydrochloride (LY061188; Keftab) and cephalexin monohydrate (Keflex) for treatment of skin and soft tissue infections were determined. In study A, 97 patients received cephalexin hydrochloride and 101 patients received cephalexin monohydrate. In study B, 75 patients received ...

  4. Integrated reactor concepts for the enzymatic kinetic synthesis of cephalexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Bosma, R.; Kroon, P.J.; Tjeerdsma, P.S.; DeVroom, E.; VanderLaan, J.M.; Moody, H.M.; Beeftink, H.H.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.

    2002-01-01

    Integrated process concepts for enzymatic cephalexin synthesis were investigated by our group, and this article focuses on the integration of reactions and product removal during the reactions. The last step in cephalexin production is the enzymatic kinetic coupling of activated phenylglycine (pheny

  5. In situ product removal during enzymatic cephalexin synthesis by complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Bosma, R.; Kemperman, G.J.; Strubel, M.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Beeftink, H.H.; Tramper, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, ‘complexation’ indicates the formation of clathrate type inclusion compounds of cephalexin with naphthalene derivatives. These inclusion compounds readily crystallise in solution, resulting in specific co-crystals of complexing agent and cephalexin with a set ratio between both compon

  6. In situ product removal during enzymatic cephalexin synthesis by complexation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Bosma, R.; Kemperman, G.J.; Strubel, M.; Ooijkaas, L.P.; Beeftink, H.H.; Tramper, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, `complexation' indicates the formation of clathrate type inclusion compounds of cephalexin with naphthalene derivatives. These inclusion compounds readily crystallise in solution, resulting in specific co-crystals of complexing agent and cephalexin with a set ratio between both compon

  7. Modelling of the enzymatic kinetically controlled synthesis of cephalexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Fretz, C.B.; Bruin, de V.H.; Berendsen, W.; Moody, H.M.; Roos, E.C.; Roon, van J.L.; Kroon, P.J.; Strubel, M.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.

    2002-01-01

    In this study the influence of diffusion limitation on enzymatic kinetically controlled cephalexin synthesis from phenylglycine amide and 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporinic acid (7-ADCA) was investigated systematically. It was found that if diffusion limitation occurred, both the synthesis/hydrolysis r

  8. Modeling of the enzymatic kinetic synthesis of cephalexin -Influence of substrate concentration and temperature

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Moody, H.M.; Hoogschagen, M.J.; Kroon, P.J.; Bosma, R.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2001-01-01

    During enzymatic kinetic synthesis of cephalexin, an activated phenylglycine derivative (phenylglycine amide or phenylglycine methyl ester) is coupled to the nucleus 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA). Simultaneously, hydrolysis of phenylglycine amide and hydrolysis of cephalexin take pla

  9. Development of surface-plasmon-resonance-based immunoassay for cephalexin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Paul P.; Daly, Stephen J.; Browne, Johnathan; Manning, Bernadette M.; O'Kennedy, Richard; van Amerongen, Aart

    2003-03-01

    The public concern surrounding antibiotic contamination in food and food products has made it imperative to develop analytical methods for their detection. Polyclonal antibodies and protein-hapten conjugates to cephalexin were used in the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition immunoassay to cephalexin. A conjugate consisting of cephalexin-bovine serum albumin (BSA) was immobilised on the dextran gel surface. Dissociation between the antibody and antigen was easily achieved with 10 mmol l-1 NaOH and was very reproducible. Standards of free hapten were prepared and premixed with antibody and, after a suitable incubation time, passed over the surface of the chip with the protein-hapten conjugate immobilised. The hapten in solution inhibited the binding of antibody to the surface resulting in higher response units of antibody bound at lower concentrations of free drug. Model inhibition immunoassays to cephalexin were developed in PBS and spiked milk samples. These assays had detection ranges between 4.88 to 2,500 ng ml-1 and 244 to 3,900 ng ml-1, respectively, with reproducible results.

  10. Development of surface plasmon resonance-based immunoassay for cephalexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, P.; Daly, S.; Browne, J.; Manning, B.; O'Kennedy, R.; Amerongen, van A.

    2003-01-01

    The public concern surrounding antibiotic contamination in food and food products has made it imperative to develop analytical methods for their detection. Polyclonal antibodies and protein-hapten conjugates to cephalexin were used in the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibi

  11. DISCRIMINATORY DISSOLUTION METHOD DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION FOR CEPHALEXIN OD TABLETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Ramachandran et al.

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a discriminative dissolution method was developed for Cephalexin OD (orally disintegrating tablets 750mg. The solubility and stability of the cephalexin API was determined in ten different solutions. In that 0.01N HCl, glycine buffer pH 3-0, acetate buffer pH 4.5 and water gave good stability and the solubility. Dissolution profiling of cephalexin OD tablets 750mg of single batch was done with the selected media containing varying concentration of surfactants (tween 80 and Sodium lauryl sulphate- SLS. The release profile is compared with that of the control media. The media that gave discriminately faster release than that of the control were found to be 0.01N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80, 0.01N HCl with 0.5% of SLS, acetate buffer with 1% of tween 80 and water with 0.5% of SLS. With the selected media, dissolution profile was done on the three different batches of cephalexin OD tablets one with lesser polymer ratio and other with higher polymer ratio that that of the test batch. Only 0.01N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80 as dissolution medium was found to show good discrimination in the release profile with change in the formulation conditions. The discriminative dissolution method developed was validated for its specificity, accuracy, stability, linearity and precision and it passes all the parameters.

  12. Pharmocokinetics of cephalothin and cephalexin in selected avian species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, M.; Locke, D.; Neal, L.A.; Carpenter, J.W.

    1981-01-01

    Plasma concentrations and the biological half-lives of cephalothin and cephalexin in avian species of a variety of body sizes and metabolic rates were studied. The species chosen were eastern bobwhite quail (Colinus v virginianus), pigeons (Columba livia), hybrid rosybill ducks (Netta sp), greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida), and emus (Dromiceius novaehollandiae). In the 1st phase of the study, cephalothin sodium was given IM in a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (av 18 micrograms/ml) at 0.5 hour and were measurable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalothin was 16 to 54 minutes; the half-life varied directly with increased species body weight, with the exception of the ducks studied. In the 2nd phase, cephalexin monohydrate was given orally in doses of 25, 35, and 50 mg/kg of body weight. Plasma concentrations reached peak (av 20 micrograms/ml) at 0.5 to 1 hour and were measurable 2.5 to 5.5 hours after drug administration. The biological half-life of cephalexin was 36 to 126 minutes. In the 3rd phase, differences in plasma concentrations and the half-lives of cephalexin between fed quail and fasted quail were insignificant. Dosage regimens for cephalothin of 100 mg/kg 4 times a day and for cephalexin of 35 to 50 mg/kg 4 times a day would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in large birds (pigeons, cranes, and emus). These same doses, administered every 2 to 3 hours, would be expected to establish and maintain therapeutic plasma concentrations in smaller birds (quail, ducks).

  13. Effect of oral cephalexin in the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayazi, Parviz; Mahyar, Abolfazl; Taremiha, Alireza; Ghorani, Najmeh; Esmailzadehha, Neda

    2014-06-01

    Lymphadenitis and abscess formation are the most common side effects of vaccination with Bacille Calmette Guerin (BCG). The lower the child's age at the time of vaccination, the higher the incidence of BCG lymphadenitis tends to be. Although various therapeutic approaches are in use for the treatment of BCG lymphadenitis, there is no consensus on which of them is optimal. This study aimed to determine whether oral cephalexin treatment hastens recovery from BCG lymphadenitis. The study involved 40 children (24 boys and 16 girls) with BCG lymphadenitis who were referred to Qazvin Children's Hospital, Qazvin University of Medical Sciences between December 2008 and the end of September 2009. The patients were randomly assigned to two groups of 20 patients each (12 boys and 8 girls in each group): group A patients did not receive any treatment and served as controls, and group B patients were treated with 50 mg/kg/day cephalexin syrup, administered in four doses, for 10 days. In all patients, clinical examination was normal, except for lymphadenitis. In all patients, BCG vaccination had been performed at birth, and polymerase chain reaction tests were positive for tuberculous bacilli. The recovery period and requirement of fine needle aspiration did not significantly differ between the two groups (P 0.05). This study showed that treatment with cephalexin does not hasten recovery from BCG lymphadenitis.

  14. Non-isothermal cephalexin hydrolysis by penicillin G acylase immobilized on grafted nylon membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohy Eldin, M.S.; Santucci, M.; Rossi, S.; Tramper, J.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Mita, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    A new catalytic membrane has been prepared using a nylon membrane grafted by -radiation with methylmethacrylate (MMA) and using hexamethylenediamine (HMDA) as spacer. Penicillin G acylase (PGA) and cephalexin were employed as catalyst and substrate, respectively. Cephalexin hydrolysis was studied in

  15. Synthesis and application of cephalexin imprinted polymer for solid phase extraction in milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Kiran; Sharma, Rajan; Naik, Laxmana; Rajput, Y S; Mann, Bimlesh

    2015-10-01

    Molecular imprinted polymer (MIP) against cephalexin was synthesized by co-polymerization of functional monomer, cross-linker, radical initiator, along with target molecule (cephalexin) in a porogenic material. Binding of cephalexin towards prepared MIP was studied in different solvents (water, methanol, 1M NaCl, acetone and acetonitrile) and best binding was observed in methanol. Partition coefficient and selectivity of prepared imprint and non-imprint was also studied. Cross reactivity in terms of binding efficiency was also assessed with other antibiotics. Chromatographic study of MIP was carried out by packing prepared imprint into glass column. MIP was used as matrix in solid phase extraction (SPE) for recovery of cephalexin from spiked milk samples for further estimation by high performance liquid chromatography. No interference was observed from milk components after elution of cephalexin from MIP, indicating selectivity and affinity of MIP. On the other hand, interference was observed in eluate obtained from C18 SPE column. PMID:25872441

  16. Development of colorimetric method for cephalexin in dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priyanka P

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, accurate, rapid, and economical colorimetric-spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of cephalexin in capsules. This method is based on the reaction of the drug with ferric chloride and potassium ferricyanide, giving a green-colored chromogen exhibiting maximum absorbance at 791 nm against reagent blank. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 1-6 µ g/ml. Results of the analysis were validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  17. Direct evidence for efficient transport and minimal metabolism of L-cephalexin by oligopeptide transporter 1 in budded baculovirus fraction

    OpenAIRE

    Mitsuoka, Keisuke; Tamai, Ikumi; Morohashi, Yasushi; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Saitoh, Ryoichi; Tsuji, Akira; KATO, YUKIO

    2009-01-01

    The oligopeptide transporter PEPT1 (SLC15A1) is responsible for absorption of peptidic nutrients in the small intestine. Although the L-diastereomer of the β-lactam antibiotic cephalexin (L-cephalexin) is likely to be transported by PEPT1, there has been no direct demonstration of PEPT1-mediated L-cephalexin transport. Indeed, after the incubation with L-cephalexin, the intact form of L-cephalexin has not been identified inside vesicles/proteoliposomes prepared from brush border membrane of i...

  18. Design and evaluation of gastroretentive mucoadhesive cephalexin tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonani, N G; Hiremath, S P; Dasankoppa, F S; Jamakandi, V G; Sreenivas, S A

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to develop gastroretentive mucoadhesive tablets of cephalexin, which will retain in the stomach for 10 h. Cephalexin, a first-generation cephalosporin, becomes ionized in intestinal pH because pKa is 4.5 and thus reducing its bioavailability. The various batches were prepared by wet granulation method using variety of mucoadhesive polymers such as hydroxyl propyl methyl cellulose K4M, hydroxyl propyl cellulose, chitosan, carbopol 934P and sodium carboxymethylcellulose and subjected to various evaluation parameters such as mucoadhesive strength, in vitro drug release profile, swelling characteristics and physical properties. It was evident from the study that the formulation containing HPMC K4M and carbopol 934P in combination exhibited maximum mucoadhesive strength of 144.42 gms, in vitro residence time was 8.73 h and in vitro drug release was found to be 75.03% in 10 h with non-Fickian diffusion mechanism. So, the optimized formulation F(2) was further subjected to in vivo retention time in rabbit by X-ray technique, SEM and Accelerated stability studies. Regarding all the properties evaluated, the formulation containing HPMC K4M and carbopol 934P in combination was found to be the best to achieve the aim of this study. PMID:19586492

  19. DERMAL DRUG LEVELS OF ANTIBIOTIC (CEPHALEXIN) DETERMINED BY ELECTROPORATION AND TRANSCUTANEOUS SAMPLING (ETS) TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    Sammeta, SM; Vaka, SRK; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to assess the validity of a novel “Electroporation and transcutaneous sampling (ETS)” technique for sampling cephalexin from the dermal extracellular fluid (ECF). This work also investigated the plausibility of using cephalexin levels in the dermal ECF as a surrogate for the drug level in the synovial fluid. In vitro and in vivo studies were carried out using hair less rats to assess the workability of ETS. Cephalexin (20mg/kg) was administered i.v. through tai...

  20. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CEPHALEXIN USING NINHYDRIN REAGENT IN TABLET DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel Satish A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and economical visible spectrophotometric method was developed and validated for the estimation of cephalexin in tablets. The method is based on the reaction of cephalexin with ninhydrin reagent in methanol giving blue color chromogen, which shows maximum absorbance at 576 nm against reagent blank. The chromogen obeyed Beer’s law in the concentration range of 5-60 µg/ml for cephalexin. The results of the analysis have been validated statistically and by recovery studies.

  1. Development of gastro retentive drug delivery system of cephalexin by using factorial design

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Rao, B.; Ashok Kottan, Neelima; Snehith, V.S.; Ramesh, C.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this research work was to formulate and optimize the floating drug delivery system containing cephalexin using 23 factorial design. Floating tablets were prepared by direct compression method incorporating HPMC K4M, xanthan gum, guar gum, sodium bicarbonate and tartaric acid as gas generating agent. The influence of independent variables like, polymer: polymer ratio, polymer type and tartaric acid on floating lag time and cephalexin release profile were studied. The diffusion...

  2. Analysis of the Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Cephalexin and Quinapril by a Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Model

    OpenAIRE

    Padoin, C; Tod, M; Perret, G; Petitjean, O

    1998-01-01

    Oligopeptidic drugs such as β-lactams and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors share the same carriers in humans and animals, which results in possible pharmacokinetic interactions. To model such interactions, the effects of quinapril on cephalexin pharmacokinetics were investigated in rats. Blood cephalexin concentrations were measured by liquid chromatography, and the data were analyzed by a noncompartmental method and by fitting a bicompartmental model by a nonlinear mixed-effect model...

  3. Evaluation of Amoxicillin & Cephalexin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets after tooth extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fakhraei AH.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: One of the most important complications after tooth extraction and oral and maxillofacial surgery is transient bacteraemia and prescription of prophylactic antibiotic is necessary to prevent postoperative infections in immunocompromised patients. Purpose: The aim of this study was the evaluation of cephalexin and amoxicillin concentrations in dental alveolar sockets following tooth extraction. Materials and Methods: In this interventional study, 80 healthy patients subjected to tooth extraction were divided into two groups. Each group received 1 gr amoxicillin or cephalexin and teeth were extracted 30-60-90-120-180 minutes after antibiotic intake. Blood sampling was performed immediately after extraction and concentrations of two antibiotics were measured in microbiology laboratory. ANOVA test and Post-hoc (Duncan test were used for statistical analysis with P<0.05 as the limit of significance. Results: The maximum serum concentration was 10.1006 μg/ml for amoxicillin at 120 minutes and 41.5467 μg/ml for cephalexin at 90 minutes after drug intake. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of cephalexin and amoxicillin for Streptococcus sanguis was 2 μg/ml and 1 μg/ml respectively. Conclusion: The mean concentration for amoxicillin was 10 times and for cephalexin was 20 times higher than MIC.

  4. Spectrophotometric methods for the estimation of Cephalexin in tablet dosage forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patel S

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Two simple, sensitive, accurate, rapid, and economical spectrophotometric methods, have been developed for the estimation of cephalexin in tablets. Method A is based on the reaction of cephalexin with Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, in presence of 20% sodium carbonate solution, giving a blue colour chromogen, which shows maximum absorbance at 753 nm against reagent blank, while method B is based on the estimation of cephalexin in distilled water, at 263 nm. Beer′s law was obeyed in the concentration range of 10-160 µg/ml in method A, and 5-50 µg/ml in method B. Results of the analysis were validated statistically, and by recovery studies.

  5. Tridentate hydrazone metal complexes derived from cephalexin and 2-hydrazinopyridine: Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacona, J. R.; Rincones, Maria

    2015-04-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a tridentate hydrazone ligand (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with 2-hydrazinopyridine were synthesized. The hydrazone ligand and mononuclear [ML(OAc)(H2O)] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ag) complexes were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The cephalexin 2-pyridinylhydrazone ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tridentate NNO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on three bacteria strains (Escherichia coli, Acinetobacter baumannii and Enterococcus faecalis) by agar diffusion disc method.

  6. Application of an immunosensor for the detection of the beta-lactam antibiotic, cephalexin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dillon, P.P.; Daly, S.J.; Browne, S.J.; Manning, B.M.; Loomans, E.E.M.G.; Amerongen, van A.; O'Kennedy, R.

    2003-01-01

    Public concern surrounding antibiotic contamination in food and food products has made it imperative to develop analytical methods for their detection. Polyclonal antibodies were used in the development of a surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based inhibition immunoassay for cephalexin. A conjugate con

  7. Selective kinetic study for the degradation of cephalexin in alkaline aqueous media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helaleh, M.I.H.; Abu-Nameh, E.S.M. [University Aligarh. India (India)

    1998-10-01

    A selective kinetic method for the analysis of cephalexin after its hydrolysis with sodium hydroxide is described. The activation parameters and the factors of the regression line equation are calculated. The correlation coefficient is found to be {<=} 1.000. Beer`s law is obeyed over the concentration range 0.12-0.9 mg/ml. (Author) 13 refs.

  8. Automated stand-alone flow injection immunoanalysis system for the determination of cephalexin in milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, U.J.; Zhi, Z.L.; Loomans, E.; Spener, F.; Meusel, F.

    1999-01-01

    A fully automated stand-alone flow injection immunoanalysis (FIIA) device for the determination of cephalexin in milk is developed with a main focus on the investigation of the influence of the sample matrix. The system is based on principles of flow-through immunoassays and on sequential addition o

  9. Cephalexin synthesis by immobilised penicillin G acylase under non-isothermal conditions: reduction of diffusion limitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Mohy Eldin, M.S.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of thermodialysis on the enzymatic kinetic synthesis of the antibiotic cephalexin was investigated. As reference points, two existing models for an immobilised enzyme (Assemblase?) and for the free enzyme were used. For Assemblase?, it is known that diffusion limitation occurs and that th

  10. A pharmacokinetic comparison of cefadroxil and cephalexin after administration of 250, 500 and 1000 mg solution doses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbhaiya, R H

    1996-05-01

    The pharmacokinetics of cefadroxil and cephalexin were examined following single oral doses of either 250, 500 or 1000 mg to a total of 36 healthy volunteers. The volunteers were divided into groups of 12 per dose-group and solution doses of cefadroxil or cephalexin were administered after an overnight fast according to a crossover design for the cephalosporins but not for doses. Serial blood and urine samples were collected from each individual and were analyzed for cefadroxil or cephalexin using validated HPLC assays with UV detection. The individual subject plasma concentration-time data for each cephalosporin were analyzed using noncompartmental methods. Profiles for cephalexin in plasma showed sharper and higher peaks than those for cefadroxil. Although values for the peak concentrations (Cmax) for cefadroxil were lower than that of cephalexin, the levels of cefadroxil in plasma and urine remained above the reported minimum inhibitory concentrations of susceptible organisms for longer period of time than those of cefalexin. The elimination half-life (t1/2) of cefadroxil (about 2 h) was significantly longer than that of cephalexin (about 1 h). The values for Cmax and AUC0-infinity values for both these cephalosporins showed dose-proportional increase, whereas t1/2, renal clearance (CLR) remained independent of dose. These observations confirm that cefadroxil and cephalexin obey linear pharmacokinetics. The CLr of both the cephalosporins were significantly higher than the average glomerular filtration rate at each dose level. The urinary recovery (% Xu) of each cephalosporin, accounted for over 80 per cent of the administered dose, and no significant differences in % Xu were observed between the two cephalosporins. These data suggest that the systemic availability of cefadroxil and cephalexin is similar at each dose level. PMID:8743403

  11. Ozonation of Cephalexin Antibiotic Using Granular Activated Carbon in a Circulating Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A circulating reactor was used to decompose cephalexin during catalytic ozonation. The effect of ozone supply and granular activated carbon (GAC) catalyst was investigated for removal of CEX and COD. The regeneration of exhausted activated carbon was investigated during in-situ ozonation. According to results, ozone supply appeared as the most influencing variable followed by dosage of granular activated carbon. The BET surface area, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and temperature programmed desorption (TPD) curves indicated that solid phase regeneration of activated carbon using ozone gas followed by mild thermal decomposition was very effective. The adsorption capacity of regenerated activated carbon was slightly lower than virgin activated carbon. The overall study revealed that catalytic ozonation was effective in removing cephalexin from solution and the method can be applied for in-situ ozonation processes. (author)

  12. Pharmacokinetics of Immediate and Sustained Release Cephalexin Administered by Different Routes to Llamas (Lama glama).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreil, Verónica; Ambros, Luis; Prados, Ana Paula; Tarragona, Lisa; Monfrinotti, Agustina; Bramuglia, Guillermo; Rebuelto, Marcela

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the pharmacokinetics of two different cephalexin formulations administered to llamas by the intravenous (IV), intramuscular (IM), and subcutaneous (SC) routes, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cephalexin against some Escherichia coli and staphylococci isolated from llamas, and we apply the PK/PD modelling approach, so that effective dosage recommendations for this species could be made. Six llamas received immediate (10 mg/kg, IV, IM, and SC) and sustained (8 mg/kg IM, SC) release cephalexin. Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by noncompartmental approach. Immediate release SC administration produced a significantly longer elimination half-life as compared with the IV and IM administration (1.3 ± 0.2 versus 0.6 ± 0.1 and 0.6 ± 0.1 h, resp.) and higher mean absorption time as compared with the IM administration (1.7 ± 0.5 versus 0.6 ± 0.4 h). Absolute bioavailability was in the range of 72-89% for both formulations and routes of administration. Cephalexin MIC90 values against staphylococci and E. coli were 1.0 and 8.0 μg/mL, respectively. Our results show that the immediate release formulation (10 mg/kg) would be effective for treating staphylococcal infections administered every 8 h (IM) or 12 h (SC), whereas the sustained release formulation (8 mg/kg) would require the IM or SC administration every 12 or 24 h, respectively. PMID:27051418

  13. Mucin-drugs interaction: The case of theophylline, prednisolone and cephalexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontremoli, Carlotta; Barbero, Nadia; Viscardi, Guido; Visentin, Sonja

    2015-10-15

    The binding of mucin with three commercially available drugs (theophylline, cephalexin and prednisolone) belonging to different pharmaceutical classes was investigated. The studied drugs are normally used to treat the symptomatology of cystic fibrosis. The interaction between drugs and mucin has been investigated using fluorescence and UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy; quenching mechanism, binding constants, binding sites, thermodynamic parameters and binding distance of the interaction were obtained. PMID:26422788

  14. Design of a sensitive fluorescent polarization immunoassay for rapid screening of milk for cephalexin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beloglazova, Natalia V; Eremin, Sergei A

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we describe the development of a sensitive, fast, and easily performed fluorescence polarization immunoassay for determination of cephalexin in milk. The experimental work was performed to increase sensitivity and specificity. Therefore, the structures of the tracers were varied by synthesis of both cephalexin (CEX) and cephalotin (CET) conjugates with a variety of fluorescent labels. Two rabbit antisera containing antibodies against cephalexin and cephalotin were tested in homologous and heterologous combinations with the tracers. For every working antibody-tracer combination, the analytical conditions and cross-reactivity for structural analogues-cephalosporins and other antibiotics that could also be present in milk-were determined. It was found that the highest sensitivity was achieved by use of the homologous pair CET-EDF-anti-CET antibody (limit of detection (LOD) 0.4 μg kg(-1) for standard solutions prepared in buffer), but this combination was not appropriate because of high cross-reactivity with CET. For subsequent experiments, therefore, CEX- EDF-anti-CEX antibody were chosen (LOD 0.8 μg kg(-1) for standard solutions prepared in buffer). Part of this manuscript is devoted to the variation of precipitation agents for pretreatment of milk before analysis; milk is an extremely complicated matrix. The optimum protein precipitation agent was methanol. This technique for cephalexin determination was characterized by a limit of detection of 1 μg kg(-1). The method was validated by using naturally contaminated and spiked milk samples. The results obtained corresponded very well with those obtained by HPLC, which was used as confirmation method. PMID:26416019

  15. A Population Pharmacokinetic Approach to Describe Cephalexin Disposition in Adult and Aged Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Prados

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to characterize the pharmacokinetics of orally administered cephalexin to healthy adult and aged dogs, using a population pharmacokinetic approach. Two hundred and eighty-six cephalexin plasma concentrations obtained from previous pharmacokinetic studies were used. Sex, age, pharmaceutical formulation, and breed were evaluated as covariates. A one-compartment model with an absorption lag-time (Tlag best described the data. The final model included age (adult; aged on apparent volume of distribution (Vd/F, apparent elimination rate (ke/F, and Tlag; sex (female; male on ke/F, and breed (Beagle; mixed-breed on Vd/F. Addition of the covariates to the model explained 78% of the interindividal variability (IIV in Vd/F, 36% in ke/F, and 24% in Tlag, respectively. Formulation did not affect the variability of any of the pharmacokinetic parameters. Tlag was longer, whereas Vd/F and ke/F were lower in aged compared to adult animals; in female aged dogs ke/F was lower than in male aged dogs; however, the differences were of low magnitude. Different disposition of cephalexin may be expected in aged dogs.

  16. Dissolution efficiency and bioequivalence study using urine data from healthy volunteers: a comparison between two tablet formulations of cephalexin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Helena dos Reis Serra

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess the bioequivalence of two cephalexin tablet formulations available in the Brazilian market (product A as reference formulation and product B as test formulation. Dissolution efficiency (DE% was calculated for both formulations to evaluate their in vitrobiopharmaceutical features. The oral bioequivalence study was performed in twenty-four healthy volunteers in a crossover design. Single oral dose (tablet containing 500 mg of cephalexin of each product was administered with two weeks of washout period. Urinary concentrations of cephalexin were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method and pharmacokinetics parameters were estimated by urinary excretion data. The bioequivalence was determined by the following parameters: the cumulative amount of cephalexin excreted in the urine, the total amount of cephalexin excreted in the urine and the maximum urinary excretion rate of cephalexin. DE values of immediate-release cephalexin tablets (500 mg were 68.69±4.18% for product A and 71.03±6.63% for product B. Regarding the dissolution test of the two brands (A and B analysed, both were in compliance with the official pharmacopeial specifications, since the dissolution of both formulations was superior to 80% of the amount declared in the label after 45 minutes of test (A=92.09%±1.84; B=92.84%±1.08. The results obtained indicated that the products A and B are pharmaceutical equivalents. Confidence intervals for the pharmacokinetic parameters were in compliance with the international standards, indicating that products A and B can be considered bioequivalents and, therefore, interchangeable.

  17. Influence of pH on cephalexin adsorption onto SBA-15 mesoporous silica: Theoretical and experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legnoverde, María S.; Simonetti, Sandra; Basaldella, Elena I.

    2014-05-01

    Cephalexin adsorption from aqueous solutions using SBA-15 mesoporous silica as adsorbent and the influence of pH solution on drug adsorption were studied. In order to have a better knowledge about the way the drug molecules interact with the inorganic matrix, the adsorption process was estimated by applying the computational chemistry software YAeHMOP (Yet Another extended Hückel Molecular Orbital Package). A strong correlation between the theoretical calculations and the experimental results was established, showing that the adsorbate-adsorbent interaction is pH dependent. Calculated cephalexin horizontal adsorption energy was almost 9 eV more stable than the one corresponding to vertical adsorption, and also the lowest enthalpy of contact and the maximum adsorption percent were found for the cationic cephalexin-silica system. Cephalexin adsorption through the NH3+ group is 8 eV stronger than the molecule adsorption through the COO- group. In agreement with these theoretical predictions, experimental results indicate that the electrostatic attraction between CPX ions and the surface of mesoporous silica is favored at pH values between 2 and 2.56, the maximum being for cephalexin adsorption obtained at pH 2.3.

  18. Simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric determination of cephalexin and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical preparation and human urine with the aid of chemometrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong Nian Ni; Wei Qiang Xiao

    2008-01-01

    A procedure for the simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric determination of cephalexin and trimethoprim was described. It was based on the different reaction rate of oxidation of these compounds with yellow ammonium cerous (Ⅳ) sulfate in acidic medium and colorless cerous (Ⅲ) sulfate was produced. The overlapped kinetic data was quantitatively resolved by the use of chemometric methods, partial least squares (PLS), principal component regression (PCR) and radial basis function-artificial neural network (RBF-ANN). The proposed method was also applied to the simultaneous determination of cephalexin and trimethoprim in pharmaceutical preparation and human urine with satisfied results, which compared well with those obtained by HPLC.

  19. Spiral conformation of Vibrio cholerae as determined by scanning electron microscopy of elongated cells induced by cephalexin treatment.

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, H.; Katayama, A.; Ito, T.; Tanaka, S.; Yoshii, Z

    1986-01-01

    The elongated cells of Vibrio spp. induced by cephalexin treatment were examined by scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that Vibrio cholerae has a twisted cell body and a right-handed spiral conformation and that the cell bodies of V. parahaemolyticus and V. alginolyticus are straight rather than curved.

  20. EFFECT OF HYDROPHILIC AND HYDROPHOBIC ORGANIC MATTER ON AMOXICILLIN AND CEPHALEXIN RESIDUALS REJECTION FROM WATER BY NANOFILTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A.Zazouli, M.Ulbricht, S. Nasseri, H. Susanto,

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotics such as amoxicillin and cephalexin are a group of pharmaceutical compounds in human medicine practice that have been entered in water bodies. Presence of these compounds in the environment has raised concerns regarding the toxicity to aquatic organisms and the emergence of strains of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Removal of these substances before entering the aquatic environment as well as water reuse plant is very important. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the impact of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of Natural Organic Matter (NOM on the removal efficiency of cephalexin and amoxicillin, by using two different commercially available composite NF membranes (TFC-SR2 and TFC-SR3. In addition, the effect of NOM fractions on retention mechanism and permeates flux behavior was studied. Amoxicillin and cephalexin were used as models of antibiotics; alginate and humic acid were used as models of hydrophilic and hydrophobic fractions of NOM, respectively. It was observed that the rejection and permeate flux of amoxicillin and cephalexin were influenced by the membrane characteristics and properties of NOM. The results showed that as the alginate proportion was increased, the rejection improved. The permeate flux decreased with increasing alginate ratio. It was observed that the rejections of amoxicillin and cephalexin in TFC-SR2 were >97.3% and >95.8% in all experiments, respectively. In TFC-SR3, the rejection percentage were (95.9%-100% and (86.1%-96.3%, respectively. Alginate and humic acid had synergistic effect on flux decline. In other words, increasing alginate concentration increased the rate and extent of flux reduction.

  1. Narrow-Spectrum Cephalosporin Susceptibility Testing of Escherichia coli with the BD Phoenix Automated System: Questionable Utility of Cephalothin as a Predictor of Cephalexin Susceptibility▿

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Sean X.; Parisian, Fern; Yau, Yvonne; Fuller, Jeffrey D.; Poutanen, Susan M.; Richardson, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    The resistance of Escherichia coli to cephalothin was found to be overestimated when the Phoenix automated susceptibility system was used to determine resistance compared to reference broth microdilution, a finding that jeopardized the use of cephalexin for first-line treatment of urinary tract infections in children. In addition, using broth microdilution, we studied the accuracy of either cephalothin or cefazolin in predicting cephalexin susceptibility. In contrast to the recommendation of ...

  2. Tetradentate metal complexes derived from cephalexin and 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone): Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacona, J. R.; Rangel, Victor; Loroño, Marcos; Camus, Juan

    2015-10-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a hydrazone ligand (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) were synthesized. The hydrazone ligand and mononuclear [ML(H2O)2][PF6] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) complexes were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The cephalexin 2,6-diacetylpyridine bis(hydrazone) ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tetradentate NNNO chelating agent. The biological applications of complexes have been studied on two bacteria strains (Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus) by agar diffusion disc method.

  3. Synthesis, characterization and antibacterial activity of a Schiff base derived from cephalexin and sulphathiazole and its transition metal complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anacona, J. R.; Rodriguez, Juan Luis; Camus, Juan

    2014-08-01

    Metal(II) coordination compounds of a cephalexin Schiff base (HL) derived from the condensation of cephalexin antibiotic with sulphathiazole were synthesized. The Schiff base ligand, mononuclear [ML(OAc)(H2O)2] (M(II) = Mn, Co, Ni, Zn) complexes and magnetically diluted trinuclear copper(II) complex [Cu3L(OH)5] were characterized by several techniques, including elemental and thermal analysis, molar conductance and magnetic susceptibility measurements, electronic, FT-IR, EPR and 1H NMR spectral studies. The analytical and molar conductance values indicated that the acetate ions coordinate to the metal ions. The Schiff base ligand HL behaves as a monoanionic tridentate NNO and tetradentate NNOO chelating agent in the mono and trinuclear complexes respectively.

  4. Organometallic complexes with biological molecules. XVIII. Alkyltin(IV) cephalexinate complexes: synthesis, solid state and solution phase investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, R; Scopelliti, M; Pellerito, C; Casella, G; Fiore, T; Stocco, G C; Vitturi, R; Colomba, M; Ronconi, L; Sciacca, I D; Pellerito, L

    2004-03-01

    Dialkyltin(IV) and trialkyltin(IV) complexes of the deacetoxycephalo-sporin-antibiotic cephalexin [7-(d-2-amino-2-phenylacetamido)-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid] (Hceph) have been synthesized and investigated both in solid and solution phase. Analytical and thermogravimetric data supported the general formula Alk(2)SnOHceph(.)H(2)O and Alk(3)Snceph(.)H(2)O (Alk=Me, n-Bu), while structural information has been gained by FT-IR, (119)Sn Mössbauer and (1)H, (13)C, (119)Sn NMR data. In particular, IR results suggested polymeric structures both for Alk(2)SnOHceph(.)H(2)O and Alk(3)Snceph(.)H(2)O. Moreover, cephalexin appears to behave as monoanionic tridentate ligand coordinating the tin(IV) atom through ester-type carboxylate, as well as through beta-lactam carbonyl oxygen atoms and the amino nitrogen donor atoms in Alk(2)SnOHceph(.)H(2)O complexes. On the basis of (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy it could be inferred that tin(IV) was hexacoordinated in such complexes in the solid state, showing skew trapezoidal configuration. As far as Alk(3)Sn(IV)ceph(.)H(2)O derivatives are concerned, cephalexin coordinated the Alk(3)Sn moiety through the carboxylate acting as a bridging bidentate monoanionic group. Again, (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy led us to propose a trigonal configuration around the tin(IV) atom, with R(3)Sn equatorial disposition and bridging carboxylate oxygen atoms in the axial positions. The nature of the complexes in solution state was investigated by using (1)H, (13)C and (119)Sn NMR spectroscopy. Finally, the cytotoxic activity of organotin(IV) cephalexinate derivatives has been tested using two different chromosome-staining techniques Giemsa and CMA(3), towards spermatocyte chromosomes of the mussel Brachidontes pharaonis (Mollusca: Bivalvia). Colchicinized-like mitoses (c-mitoses) on slides obtained from animals exposed to organotin(IV) cephalexinate compounds, demonstrated the high mitotic spindle-inhibiting potentiality of these chemicals

  5. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.

  6. A noninferiority clinical trial comparing fluconazole and ketoconazole in combination with cephalexin for the treatment of dogs with Malassezia dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickafoose, L; Hosgood, G; Snook, T; Westermeyer, R; Merchant, S

    2010-01-01

    This double-blinded noninferiority clinical trial evaluated the use of oral fluconazole for the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs by comparing it with use of an accepted therapeutic agent, ketoconazole. Dogs presenting with Malassezia dermatitis were treated with either fluconazole or ketoconazole in addition to cephalexin for concurrent bacterial dermatitis. Statistically significant improvements in cytologic yeast count, clinical signs associated with Malassezia dermatitis, and pruritus were seen with both antifungal treatments. There was no statistical difference between the treatments with regard to the magnitude of reduction in these parameters. These results suggest that fluconazole is at least as effective as ketoconazole for the treatment of dogs with Malassezia dermatitis. PMID:20957617

  7. Pulsed Laser-Driven Molecular Self-assembly of Cephalexin: Aggregation-Induced Fluorescence and Its Utility as a Mercury Ion Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Pradeep Kumar; Prabhune, Asmita; Ogale, Satishchandra

    2015-11-01

    A fluorescent self-assembly of cephalexin is obtained by pulsed laser irradiation process. An intense fluorescence emission is found in the self-assembled form due to occurrence of a typical aggregation-induced emission in cephalexin molecules. It is observed that fluorescence quenching of the self-assembled fluorescent nanostructures occurs in the presence of extremely low Hg(++) ions concentrations (10(-7) m) as compared to other heavy metal ions e.g. Ferrous (Fe(++) ), Manganese (Mn(++) ), Magnesium (Mg(++) ), Cobalt (Co(++) ), Nickel (Ni(++) ) and Zinc (Zn(++) ) at the same concentrations. PMID:26333412

  8. Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in a postoperative patient taking cephalexin responding to plasmapheresis: A case report and review of cephalosporin-induced TTP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ritu; Amber, Kyle T

    2016-10-01

    The clinical presentation of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) is often atypical delaying diagnosis and treatment. A number of drugs have been implicated in the development of TTP, including cyclosporine, tacrolimus, clopidogrel, and quinine. To our knowledge, only three cases of cephalosporin-induced TTP have been described, with two of these cases occurring with these use of cephalexin. We herein describe a case of TTP occurring in a postoperative patient taking cephalexin, requiring plasmapheresis. Following plasmapheresis, the patient's mental status and platelet count significantly improved. J. Clin. Apheresis 31:473-475, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26274019

  9. Comparison of the clinical efficacy of oral terbinafine and ketoconazole combined with cephalexin in the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosales, Millie S; Marsella, Rosanna; Kunkle, Gail; Harris, Bradley L; Nicklin, Constance F; Lopez, Jennifer

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this randomized, single blinded clinical trial was to evaluate cytologically and clinically the efficacy of oral cephalexin alone and its combination with terbinafine or ketoconazole for the treatment of Malassezia dermatitis in dogs. Twenty-two client-owned dogs with Malassezia dermatitis completed the 3-week study. All received cephalexin (generic, 250 mg or 500 mg) at 22-30 mg kg(-1) twice daily. Eight dogs received terbinafine at 30 mg kg(-1) once daily and seven dogs received ketoconazole (generic, 200 mg) at 5-10 mg kg(-1) twice daily. The remaining seven dogs received cephalexin alone. At week 0 (visit 1) and week 3 (visit 2), mean yeast counts were determined from three affected areas using tape-strip cytology, a clinical index score (CIS) was assigned to the affected areas, and owners evaluated pruritus using a visual analogue scale. All groups showed reduction in mean yeast counts, CIS and pruritus. There was an 86.8%, 80.2% and 28.8% reduction in mean yeast counts from visit 1 to visit 2 for the terbinafine, ketoconazole and cephalexin-only groups, respectively. However, within treatment group comparisons a significant reduction in mean yeast count was only evident for the terbinafine (P Malassezia dermatitis. PMID:15960630

  10. 流动注射-化学发光法测定头孢氨苄%Flow Injection/Chemiluminescence Determination of Cephalexin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    范顺利; 吕超; 王军; 周庆祥

    2001-01-01

    头孢氨苄在 H2SO4 溶液中降解后,其产物可在酸性条件下与 Ce(Ⅳ) 产生化学发光反应,罗丹明6G 对该反应有较强的增敏作用。据此建立了流动注射-化学发光法测定头孢氨苄的新方法。该方法的线性范围为 0.10~10.0 mg/L 检出限为 0.06 mg/L,相对标准偏差 (n=11,c=1.00 mg/L) 为 0.8%。方法用于药物中头孢氨苄含量的测定,其结果与标准方法一致,回收率为 96%~106%。%A new flow-injection chemiluminescence(CL) method for determination of cephalexin was described. The method was based on CL reaction of the product degraded from cephalexin in sulphuric acid medium with Ce(Ⅳ) in acidic condition sensitized by rhodamine 6G. The linear range of the method is 0.10~10.0 mg/L cephalexin with detection limit of 0.06 mg/L and relative standard deviation(n=11,c=1.00 mg/L) of 0.8%. The method was applied to determination of cephalexin in pharmaceutical preparations with recovery of between 96% and 106%.

  11. Aqueous phase adsorption of cephalexin by walnut shell-based activated carbon: A fixed-bed column study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Ghadir; Abolghasemi, Hossein; Esmaieli, Mohamad; Sadeghi Pouya, Ehsan

    2016-07-01

    The walnut shell was used as a low cost adsorbent to produce activated carbon (AC) for the removal of cephalexin (CFX) from aqueous solution. A fixed-bed column adsorption was carried out using the walnut shell AC. The effect of various parameters like bed height (1.5, 2 and 2.5 cm), flow rate (4.5, 6 and 7.5 mL/min) and initial CFX concentration (50, 100 and 150 mg/L) on the breakthrough characteristics of the adsorption system was investigated at optimum pH 6.5. The highest bed capacity of 211.78 mg/g was obtained using 100 mg/L inlet drug concentration, 2 cm bed height and 4.5 mL/min flow rate. Three kinetic models, namely Adam's-Bohart, Thomas and Yoon-Nelson were applied for analysis of experimental data. The Thomas and Yoon-Nelson models were appropriate for walnut shell AC column design under various conditions. The experimental adsorption capacity values were fitted to the Bangham and intra-particle diffusion models in order to propose adsorption mechanisms. The effect of temperature on the degradation of CFX was also studied.

  12. Study on preparation of cephalexin by enzymatic method%酶法合成头孢氨苄工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王艳艳; 袁国强; 朱科; 王进贤

    2013-01-01

    目的 酶法合成氨苄西林工艺优化并回收套用母液中的母核.方法 采用酶催化法,以7-氨基-3-去乙酰氧基头孢烷酸(7-Amino-3-methy1-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid,7-ADCA)为母核,苯甘氨酸甲酯(D-phenylglycine methyl ester,PGM)为酰基供体,在水相中用固定化青霉素酰化酶(Penicillin Gacylase,PGA)催化合成头孢氨苄(Cephalexin);对投酶量、侧链与底物投料比、反应温度、反应pH、反应时间及母液中7-ADCA回收套用等条件进行优化,考察头孢氨苄摩尔收率及产品质量.结果 工艺优化后头孢氨苄摩尔收率85%以上,套用母液中回收的7-ADCA后头孢氨苄摩尔收率91%以上,高于目前化学法的收率(89%),产品质量合格.结论 酶法合成头孢氨苄工艺反应条件温和,收率高,排放废水中仅含有一些简单的无机盐,对环保无压力,属于绿色合成工艺.%Objective To study the process optimization ofcephalexin by enzymatic synthesis and recycling the nucleus in the mother liquid.Method Using the enzymatic method,7-amino-3-methyl-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid as the nucleus,D-phenylglycine methyl ester as the acyl donor,in the aqueous phase with immobilized penicillin G acylase catalyzed synthesis of cephalexin; temperature,pH,side chain and substrate feed ratio,investment conditions,Such as the amount of enzyme,reaction time and recycling the nucleus in the mother liquid was optimized,examining the yield and quality of the products.Result The molar yield of cephalexin was 85% after process optimization,and the molar yield of cephalexin was 91% after mother liquor was recycled,it was higher than the chenmical method(89%),and product quality was qualified.Conclusion The reaction conditions of enzymatic cephalexin was mild,the yield was higher,waste water of reaction contained only some simple inorganic salt and it decreased the environmental pressure,which belonged to the green synthesis process.

  13. Effects of Hydrophobicity of Ethylene Oxide-Propylene Oxide Copolymers on Phase Diagrams of Aqueous Two-Phase Systems and Partition Behaviors of Cephalexin and 7-Aminodeacetoxicephalos Doranic Acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建航; 魏东芝; 曹学君

    2002-01-01

    A series of ethylene oxide (EO)-propylene oxide (PO) random co-polymers (EOPO) were used to formaqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) with ammonium sulfate. Effects of EOPO's properties on the phase separationbehaviors and on the partition of cephalexin and 7-aminodesacetoxicephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA) in ATPS wereinvestigated. Both the molar mass and molar ratio of EO to PO of EOPO could greatly influence partition behaviorsof cephalexin and 7-ADCA as well as the binodal curve of ATPS. With the increase of molar mass of co-polymeror the decrease of molar ratio of EO to PO, the critical point of ATPS decreased, the binodal curve became moreasymmetry, and both cephalexin and 7-ADCA followed the same tendency to partition into the polymer-poorbottom phase. The experimental results shows that it is feasible to partition cephalexin and 7-ADCA in either thepolymer-rich top phase or the polymer-poor bottom phase by choosing a specific phase-forming EOPO.

  14. STUDIES ON THE RECOVERY PROCESS OF CEPHALEXIN FROM WASTE LIQUOR BY MACROPOROUS ADSORPTION RESIN%树脂吸附法回收头孢氨苄工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽娟; 刘崧; 石磊; 黄文杰; 马亚平

    2012-01-01

    A recovery process of Cephalexin from mother liquor of crude crystalline by macroporous adsorption resin was established. Among six kinds of macroporous resins HZ818, HZ832, HZ801, HZ816, D4020, and X-5, HZ816 resin had better performance for adsorption of Cephalexin. And the dynamic adsorption and desorption process of Cephalexin within liquor on HZ816 resin were studied. The adsorption capacities of HZ816 resin for Cephalexin was 45.4mg/mL, and Cephalexin adsorbed on the HZ816 resin could be effectively desorbed by 40% ethanol (pH 2.0). The average desorbing effeciency reached 94.5%. The final product's quality meeting the standards specified in 2010 edition of China Pharmacopoeia was obtained after crystallization, dry and so on. HZ816 resin was an ideal macroporous adsorbent for separating and purificating Cephalexin. This recovery process provided a new thought for the industrial production of Cephalexin.%为了从头孢氨苄结晶废母液中回收产品,采用大孔树脂吸附法对回收工艺进行了研究,比较了HZ818,HZ832,HZ801,HZ816,D4020,X-5等6种大孔吸附树脂对头孢氨苄的吸附性能,筛选出了高吸附性能的树脂,同时对头孢氨苄在HZ816吸附柱上的动态吸附-解吸过程进行了研究.其结果是:大孔吸附树脂HZ816能更好地分离回收头孢氨苄,其吸附量在45.4mg/mL左右,40%的乙醇(pH 2.0)可以将吸附在树脂柱上的头孢氨苄有效解吸,解吸率达94.5%,解吸液经结晶、干燥等后续处理可得到符合中国药典要求的产品.大孔吸附树脂HZ816是回收头孢氨苄的一种理想的吸附剂,该工艺简捷,具有很好的工业化前景.

  15. Determinação espectrofotométrica de cefalexina em formulações farmacêuticas explorando a sua reação de transferência de carga com a quinalizarina Spectrophotometric determination of cephalexin in pharmaceutical formulations exploring its charge transfer reaction with quinalizarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo R. de Paula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This work proposes a new simple and fast spectrophotometric method for cephalexin determination in pharmaceutical formulations. The method is based on the charge transfer reaction between cephalexin and quinalizarin in dimethylsulfoxide medium. Several analytical parameters related to the system were optimized and the reaction was characterized in terms of stoichiometry. Also, association constant and apparent molar absorptivity of the product were determined. The method presented a limit of detection of 0.46 mg L-1 and a quantification limit of 1.5 mg L-1. It was successfully applied in the determination of cephalexin in two samples of commercial pharmaceutical formulations.

  16. Real-time detection of cephalexin dissolution by FODT%头孢氨苄片溶出度的光纤过程分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李欣; 朱瑾; 耿晶; 杨淑梅; 李新霞

    2014-01-01

    Objective To detect drug release of cephalexin in vitro,and to establish a novel drug quality evaluation methodology by this instrument.Methods Detect and monitor cephalexin tablets dissolution by fiber optic drug dissolution tester (FODT).Results FODT could real-time detect dissolution rates of tab-lets in six different channels simultaneously.The within-day and between-day precision rates were 1.87%and 0.85%,respectively.And the recovery was 100.03%,while the relative standard deviation was 3.91%. The average dissolution of cephalexin tablets measured by FODT was (110.0±2.07)%,which showed no significant difference with the UV-method.Conclusion FODT could be applied to in vitro dissolution pro-file study,with reliable results,and it was of great importance in process optimization of pharmaceuticals.%目的:对头孢氨苄片体外溶出过程进行分析,建立以光纤药物溶出仪为测试仪器的药物质量评价的方法学。方法采用 FODT-601型光纤药物溶出度实时测定仪检测头孢氨苄片的溶出度。结果仪器可平行、实时监测6个通道不同头孢氨苄片的溶出过程,日内、日间精密度分别为1.87%和0.85%;回收率为100.03%,RSD为3.91%;FODT 法测得头孢氨苄片平均溶出度为(110.0±2.07)%,与紫外-可见分光光度法测得结果无明显差异。结论光纤药物溶出仪可实时监测片剂的体外溶出情况,实验数据可靠,在考察制剂溶出曲线、优化处方工艺上发挥重要作用。

  17. 动物性食品中头孢氨苄残留检测研究进展%Recent Advances in the Determination of Cephalexin Residue in Animal Derived Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张伟; 王兴; 刘金萍; 秦海艳; 刘若璇; 蔡云虹; 汝晓飞; 王捍东

    2016-01-01

    As a β-lactam antibiotic,Cephalexin can be used in both humans and animals .It has been widely applied in veterinary clinic .Firstly, the characteristics,hazard,the major detecting methods and technologies of Cephalexin in domestic and foreign were introduced .Methods and technologies,including Ultraviolet-Visible spectroscopy,High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC),Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spec-trometry (LC-MS),Capillary Electrophoresis (CE),Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA),Fluorescence Polarization Immunoassay (FPIA),Immunochromatography (IC),were described.Finally,prospects of analysis of Cephalexin residue were presented.%头孢氨苄属于人兽共用β-内酰胺类抗生素,在兽医临床上应用广泛。介绍了头孢氨苄的性质、危害及国内外主要的检测方法和技术,包括紫外分光光度法、高效液相色谱法、液质联用、毛细管电泳法、酶联免疫吸附法、荧光偏振免疫法、免疫层析法,并对头孢氨苄残留分析前景进行了展望。

  18. Dissolution Determination of Cephalexin from Different Preparations by Optical Fiber in-Situ Process Anal-ysis%光纤传感过程分析不同剂型头孢氨苄的溶出度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨淑梅; 何雯; 李欣; 李新霞

    2015-01-01

    目的::建立紫外光纤监测头孢氨苄五种固体剂型的溶出度的方法,比较同一药物不同剂型溶出行为差异。方法:采用《中国药典》2010年版中头孢氨苄片溶出度测定方法,结合六通道光纤传感原位过程分析仪原位、在线监测头孢氨苄5种不同固体制剂溶出度。结果:不同剂型头孢氨苄溶出曲线能够反映释药特性,5种剂型释药行为各具特点。结论:光纤药物溶出仪具有实时、在线、过程监测的特点,所得溶出曲线可直观反映不同剂型药物释药特点,为全面评价药物内在质量和临床用药提供参考。%Objective:To develop a UV optical fiber in situ process monitoring method for the dissolution behavior of five cepha-lexin solid dosage forms and compare the drug dissolution behavior of different cephalexin preparations. Methods: The dissolution of five different cephalexin preparations was on-line monitored according to the dissolution method for cephalexin tablets in Chinese Phar-macopeia (2010 edition) combined with a six channel optical fiber chemical sensor in situ dissolution monitor. Results:The dissolu-tion curves could show the drug release characteristics of different cephalexin preparations, and the five different preparations exhibited various drug release features. Conclusion:An in-situ, real time, on-line and process analysis of dissolution can be obtained by optical fiber dissolution test system automatically. The release characteristics of different preparations can be presented through dissolution curves directly, which can provide reference for the overall assessment of drug internal quality and clinical medication.

  19. Simultaneous and Direct Determination of Vancomycin and Cephalexin in Human Plasma by Using HPLC-DAD Coupled with Second-Order Calibration Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-Qian Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, and sensitive method for the simultaneous determination of vancomycin and cephalexin in human plasma was developed by using HPLC-DAD with second-order calibration algorithms. Instead of a completely chromatographic separation, mathematical separation was performed by using two trilinear decomposition algorithms, that is, PARAFAC-alternative least squares (PARAFAC-ALSs and self-weight-alternative-trilinear-decomposition- (SWATLD- coupled high-performance liquid chromatography with DAD detection. The average recoveries attained from PARAFAC-ALS and SWATLD with the factor number of 4 (N=4 were 101±5% and 102±4% for vancomycin, and 96±3% and 97±3% for cephalexininde in real human samples, respectively. The statistical comparison between PARAFAC-ALS and SWATLD is demonstrated to be similar. The results indicated that the combination of HPLC-DAD detection with second-order calibration algorithms is a powerful tool to quantify the analytes of interest from overlapped chromatographic profiles for complex analysis of drugs in plasma.

  20. Clostridium difficile 027-associated pseudomembranous colitis after short-term treatment with cefuroxime and cephalexin in an elderly orthopedic patient: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søgaard Kirstine

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clostridium difficile ribotype 027 has become increasingly prevalent in European countries. The clinical picture varies from self-limiting diarrhea to pseudomembranous colitis with toxic megacolon and ultimately death. Use of antibiotics is the principal risk factor; others include comorbidity, advanced age and hospitalization. However even with extensive knowledge of risk factors, it remains difficult to define “minimum risk,” as illustrated by the following case. Case presentation An 80-year-old Danish man in good health was hospitalized for a penetrating knee injury. He received 5 days of intravenous cefuroxime after surgical revision and was discharged with oral cephalexin. Post-discharge he suffered from abdominal discomfort and was readmitted with ileus 4 days after discharge, i.e. 10 days after initiation of antibiotic treatment. His condition deteriorated, and pseudomembranous colitis was diagnosed. Due to lack of response to vancomycin and metronidazole, a total colectomy was performed. Stool cultures were positive for CD 027. Conclusion Short-term use of cephalosporins may have induced CD 027 infection, and the patient’s age was the only identifiable risk factor for the fulminant course. Thus, even short-term prophylactic treatment with cephalosporins cannot be considered entirely safe.

  1. Highly sensitive fluorescent enhancement assay for cephalexin%高灵敏度荧光增敏法测定头孢氨苄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘奇; 杨红瑞; 王爱军

    2013-01-01

    在盐酸介质中,基于痕量头孢氨苄(CPX)对β-环糊精(β-CD)增敏KBrO3-KBr氧化亚甲蓝(MB)体系的荧光具有增强作用,提出了一种新的测定头孢氨苄荧光分析方法.该体系最大激发波长为λex=660 nm,最大发射波长为λem=678 nm,线性范围为0.001~3.5 mg/L,检出限为0.0002 mg/L,相对标准偏差为1.3%.方法可作为痕量头孢氨苄的分析方法.%A new spectrofluorimetric method with very high sensitivity and good selectivity for determining trace amount of cephalexin ( CPX) has been proposed. The method is based on the enhancement of CPX on the fluorescence intensity of the product yielded in the redox reaction between Br2 and MB in hydrochloric acidic medium, in which β-CD acts as a sensitizing effect reagent. Its maximum excitation wavelength is 660 nm, and the maximum emission wavelength is 678 nm. The linear range, detection limit and relative standard deviation are 0. 001 ~ 3. 5 mg/L, 0. 0002 mg/L and 1. 3% , respectively. The method was successfully applied to the assay of CPX in pharmaceutical formulations with satisfactory results.

  2. Removal of cephalexin from aqueous solutions by original and Cu(II)/Fe(III) impregnated activated carbons developed from lotus stalks Kinetics and equilibrium studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Hai [School of architecture and environment, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610207 (China); Liu Weifeng [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang Jian, E-mail: zhangjian00@sdu.edu.cn [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China); Zhang Chenglu; Ren Liang; Li Ye [Shandong Key Laboratory of Water Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Shandong University, Jinan 250100 (China)

    2011-01-30

    Research highlights: {yields} Activated carbon was produced by ultrasound digestion of lotus stalks in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. {yields} Cu(NO{sub 3}){sub 2}/Fe(NO{sub 3}){sub 3}-impregnated AC can enhance the CEX removal. {yields} The three adsorbents displayed high BET surface area and pore volume. {yields} All the kinetics data agreed well with the pseudo-second-order kinetic model. {yields} The Freundlich model was the best to describe the equilibrium data. - Abstract: Lotus stalk activated carbon (AC) was produced by ultrasound digestion of lotus stalks in H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}. Copper nitrate and iron nitrate were used to impregnate AC, producing Cu(II)-impregnated AC (AC-Cu) and Fe(III)-impregnated AC (AC-Fe). The modified ACs were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption isotherms, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The adsorption kinetics and isotherms of cephalexin (CEX) in aqueous solution were studied for AC, AC-Cu and AC-Fe. The kinetics and equilibrium data agreed well with the pseudo-second-order kinetics model and Freundlich isotherm model for all three adsorbents. The results also showed that the adsorption capacities of AC-Cu and AC-Fe were larger than the capacity of AC and AC-Fe was found to be the most effective at the removal of CEX in solution. Furthermore, batch experiments were conducted to study the effects of pH (2.5-10.5), initial concentration of CEX (4-16 mg/L), ionic strength (10-1000 mM) on CEX removal.

  3. 高效液相色谱法考察复方头孢氨苄胶囊的溶出度%Determination of dissolution of compound cephalexin capsule by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛秋兰

    2001-01-01

    采用反相高效液相色谱外标法,对复方头孢氨苄胶囊溶出度进行考察。方法:采用转蓝法,以4%乙酸溶液为溶剂,转速为100 r/min,时间为45 min。色谱条件:C18反相色谱柱为固定相,V(水)∶V(甲醇)∶V(3.86%乙酸钠溶液)∶V(4%乙酸溶液)=742:240:15:3为流动相,流速为1.2 mL/min,紫外检测波长为254 nm,在此条件下头孢氨苄和甲氧苄啶两组分能很好地分离。本法的线性范围分别是头孢氨苄为:27.6~276 μg/mL,甲氧苄啶为:5.56~55.6 μg/mL,平均回收率为头孢氨苄:99.32%,RSD=0.78%;甲氧苄啶:100.1%, RSD=0.57%。%A reversed-phase HPLC (RP-HPLC) method for the determination of the dissolution of compound cephalexin capsule was developed. A basket stirring technique was applied, with 4% acetic acid solution as dissolvent, at speed of 100 r/min for 45 min . A C18 reversed-phase column was used as fixed phase and water-methanol-3.86% sodium acetate-40% acetic acid (742∶240∶15∶3) as mobile phase. The flow rate was 1.2 ml/min and UV detection was performed at 254 nm. Cephalexin and Trimethoprim (TMP) could be separated in this condition. The linear ranges were 27.6~276 μg/mL for Cephalexin and 5.56~55.6 μg/mL for TMP. The recovery and RSD were 99.32% and 0.78% for Cephalaxin and 100.1% and 0.57% for TMP respectively.

  4. Semi- Synthesis of Cephalexin in DMSO-Water Medium by Immobilized Penicillin G Acylase%固定化青霉素酰化酶在DMSO一水介质中催化合成头孢氨苄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹选治; 杨晟; 王峥; 朱振勤; 杨蕾; 袁中一

    2001-01-01

    与传统的化学方法相比较,酶法合成头孢菌素工艺具有明显优点,通过酶的固定化与非水相酶催化技术相结合为提高产率找到了简捷的途径.实验以7-氨基-3-脱乙酰氧基头孢烷酸(7-amino-3-deactoxy-cephalosporanic,7-ADCA)为母核,苯甘氨酸甲酯盐酸盐(D-phenylglycine methyl ester chlorohydrate,PGME)为酰基供体,在二甲亚砜(DMSO)-水共溶剂体系中,采用聚丙烯腈纤维固定化青霉素酰化酶(penicillin acylaseEC3.5.1.11,PA)催化合成头孢氨苄(Cephalexin).发现DMSO浓度、反应温度、pH、底物浓度等对转化率均有影响.在25℃,pH6.5,40%DMSO-水体系中,7-ADCA、PGME浓度分别为85 mmoVL,128 mmol/L时,7-ADCA转化率达90%.在15次反复合成Cephalexin期间,转化率保持90%以上.

  5. 利用悬液芯片系统建立一种高通量检测牛奶中头孢氨苄和莱克多巴胺残留的方法%On the Development of a Microsphere-based Multiplexed Immunoassay for Cephalexin and Ractopamine in Raw Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘天龙; 王燕飞; 邹明强; 刘小雷; 云彩麟

    2011-01-01

    A rapid and convenient multiplexed, microsphere-based immunoassay was simultaneously developed for Cephalexin (Cex) and Ractopamine ( Rac) in raw milk. Synthetic antigen of Cephalexin and Ractopamine were covalently coupled to fluorescent-coded polystyrene microspheres as capture antigen, which were used to build a competitive detection system with standard sample of antibiotics and monoclonal antibody against Cephalexin and Ractopamine. Phycoerythrin-labeled goat anti mice IgG as fluorescent probe labeled monoclonal antibody specifically react with capture antigen. Fluorescent intensity associating microsphere and probe were detected respectively by laser on suspension array system to complete final detection. No crossreactivity of the antibody was observed in reaction system, indicating that the antibody is highly specific for Cephalexin and Ractopamine. Optimum concentration of antigen covered microsphere was set up (8. 4μg and 16. 64μg per lOOμl microspheres). Finally, the performance of beads-based immunoassay for simultaneous determination of Cephalexin and Ractopamine were evaluated demonstrating that the beads-based immunoassay is more adjective method for Cephalexin and Ractopamine determination in raw milk ( LOD Cex = 20. 59 ng/ml;LOD Rac = 23.51 ng/ml).%目的:旨在应用基于荧光编码微球技术的悬液芯片系统建立一种方便、稳定性好及高通量的检测牛奶中头孢氨苄和莱克多巴胺残留的免疫检测方法.方法:利用碳二亚胺法将抗生素合成抗原与表面具有羧基的聚苯乙烯微球通过酰胺键偶联成捕获抗原.利用捕获抗原、抗生素的单克隆抗体及抗生素标准品构建竞争性免疫检测体系.荧光标记的羊抗小鼠的IgG作为荧光探针标记与捕获抗原结合的单克隆抗体得到悬液芯片系统的检测物.悬液芯片系统的检测器由两柬特殊的激光构威,能够检测荧光探针荧光强度的同时分辨不同型号的微球以实现高通量

  6. Calculation of the molecular properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole Cálculo de propiedades moleculares de 5 cefalosporinas: cefradina, cefalexina, cefadroxilo, cefprozilo y ceftobiprole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elso Manuel Cruz Cruz

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The side chains attached to the 7-amino cephalosporanic acid, the structural basis of cephalosporin, condition its molecular properties and cause differences in its pharmacological action. Molecular modeling contributes to further knowledge about this relationship. Objective: To calculate structural and electronic properties of five cephalosporins: cephradine, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefprozil and ceftobiprole. Methods: A theoretical study using quantum mechanics methods to model the structure and electronic properties of the cephalosporins listed above was conducted. Molecular geometries were optimized with semi-empirical calculations, according to the parameterized number three model. The molecular properties were calculated following the density functional theory. The densities of atomic charges and the frontier orbitals were analyzed. Comparisons were established to measure the effect of substituents on the properties of the beta-lactam ring. All calculations were run on personal computers belonging to the Medical Sciences University of Las Tunas, from November 2009 to March 2010. Results: The structural parameters of the beta-lactam ring do not change as a result of changes in the side chains. The ring has a marked tendency to planarity. The ceftobiprole is different from the rest of the cephalosporins in the spatial disposition of the side chain, which facilitates access to the carbonyl carbon. There are no significant variations in the charge densities, especially in the positive charge of this carbon. Conclusions: The structure and electronic properties of the beta-lactam ring have no significant changes among modeled cephalosporins. The three dimensional structure of ceftobiprole favors a higher reactivity.Fundamento: las cadenas laterales unidas al ácido 7-aminocefalosporánico, base estructural de las cefalosporinas

  7. 电渗析组合反渗透过程处理头孢氨苄酶法母液废水的研究%Study on the treatment of waste water of the cephalexin enzymatic process by the combination process of electrodialysis and reverse osmosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮慧敏; 黄杰; 李健; 沈江南; 王家德; 高从堦

    2014-01-01

    利用电渗析技术脱除头孢氨苄酶法母液废水中的盐分,研究了操作电压、浓缩室与淡化室流速比、温度等因素对电渗析脱盐过程的影响,并研究了反渗透膜法处理脱盐母液废水的膜通量变化趋势。实验结果表明,当淡化室、浓缩室流量均为500 L/h(流速比1∶1),操作电压为25 V,温度<30℃时,电渗析在高效脱盐的同时具有理想的有机物截留率达99.50%以上,能耗3.65 kW⋅h/kg;反渗透膜法在处理脱盐母液废水时,膜通量衰减较慢,水回收率达到75.67%。实验结果表明,利用电渗析、反渗透组合工艺处理头孢氨苄酶法母液废水具有良好的可行性。%The-salt-in-the-waste-water-of-the-cephalexin-enzymatic-process-was-removed-by-electrodialysis.-The-influences-of-operating-voltage,velocity-ratio-and-temperature-on-the-desal-ination-process-were-investigated.-The-change-of-the-permeate-flux-in-the-reverse-osmosis-sepa-ration-process-was-also-studied.-The-results-showed-that-the-electrodialysis-process-performed-better-in-desalination-with-the-organic-matter-retention-rate-reaching-99.50%,the-energy-con-sumption-of-3.65-kW⋅h/kg-at-the-conditions-of-the-flow-of-500-L/h-(velocity-ratio-of-1∶1),the-operating-voltage-of-25-V-and-temperature<30℃.-During-the-reverse-osmosis-separation-pro-cess,the-decay-of-permeate-flux-was-slow-and-acceptable,and-the-water-recovery-rate-was-75.67%.-All-results-showed-that-it-was-feasible-to-treatment-the-waste-water-of-the-cephalexin-enzymatic-process-by-a-combined-process-of-electrodialysis-and-reverse-osmosis.

  8. 76 FR 20357 - Determination That KEFLEX (Cephalexin) Capsule, Equivalent to 333 Milligrams Base, Was Not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-12

    ... Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 10903 New Hampshire Ave., Bldg. 51, Rm. 6368, Silver...-mg strength was approved on May 12, 2006. KEFLEX is a cephalosporin antibiotic indicated for the... previous instances (see 72 FR 9763, March 5, 2007; 61 FR 25497, May 21, 1996), the Agency has...

  9. 77 FR 47511 - New Animal Drugs; Cephalexin; Fentanyl; Milbemycin Oxime and Praziquantel

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus) infections in dogs and puppies... (Ancylostoma caninum), adult whipworm (Trichuris vulpis), and adult tapeworm (Taenia pisiformis, Echinococcus multilocularis, and E. granulosus) infections in dogs and puppies two pounds of body weight or greater and...

  10. Rapid Determination of Cephalexin in Cephalexin Capsules by HPLC%用高效液相色谱法快速测定头孢氨苄胶囊中头孢氨苄含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文辉; 李平

    1999-01-01

    采用反相HPLC法,在C8柱上以甲醇-磷酸盐缓冲液(pH7.4)为流动相,检测波长为254 Nm快速测定头孢氮苄胶囊中头孢氨苄含量.方法简便、快速、准确;其平均回收率和相对标准偏差分别为100.2%和0.79%,测定样品结果与药典中的标准方法一致.

  11. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC DETERMINATION OF CEPHALEXIN IN CEPHALEXIN CAPSULES BY FLOW INJECTION ANALYSIS%流动注射光度法测定头孢氨苄胶囊中头孢氨苄的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊和玉; 汪敬武

    2004-01-01

    基于头孢氨苄所含伯氨基在酸性条件下可与茚三酮发生显色反应,从而建立流动注射分光光度法测定头孢氮苄的新方法.探讨了最佳的显色条件,工作波长为490 nm,线性范围为40-125μg/mL,回归方程为A=0.002 3C+0.017 5,相关系数r=0.998 6.

  12. 高效液相色谱法测定头孢氨苄干混悬剂中头孢氨苄的含量%Determination of cephalexin in cephalexin suspension by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭婷婷; 王卫华

    2011-01-01

    目的 采用高效液相色谱(HPLC)外标法测定头孢氨苄干混悬剂中头孢氨苄的含量.方法 采用安捷伦1100色谱系统,色谱柱为C18 ODS柱(250×4.6 mm,5μm),流动相为水-甲醇-3.86%醋酸钠-4%醋酸(742:240:15:3),检测波长为254nm,进样量为15μ1,流速为1ml/min.结果 头孢氨苄在1.83μg/ml~36.60μg/ml范围内呈良好线性关系,相关系数为0.9999,平均回收率为99.40%,RSD值为4.54%.结论 利用此方法测定头孢氨苄干混悬剂中头孢氨苄的含量准确可靠,灵敏度高,专属性强,可以满足质量控制的要求.

  13. DETERMINATION OF CEPHALEXIN CAPSULES BY HPLC%HPLC法测定头孢氨苄胶囊的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程成; 何健梅

    2000-01-01

    目的:建立头孢氨苄胶囊的含量测定方法.方法:采用反相高效液相外标法测定.结果:平均回收率为99.14%,RSD为0.87%.线性范围为10~250 μg·ml-1(r=0.9999).最低检测限可达0.1 ng.结论:该法快速准确,灵敏度高,重复性好.

  14. Study on the Crystallizing Process of Cephalexin%头孢氨苄的结晶工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐宝华; 赵宏

    2007-01-01

    目的:通过试验寻找最佳的头孢氨苄结晶工艺条件,提高产品的质量和稳定性.方法:对影响头孢氨苄结晶工艺的主要条件温度、PH、搅拌速度进行试验,选取最佳工艺参数.结论:筛选的工艺条件用于工业生产,得到的头孢氨苄质量及稳定性均达到目标.

  15. Delayed Anaphylaxis with Methimazole: Nicolau Syndrome After Oxytocin Intramuscular Administration Anastrazole-Induced Autoimmune Hepatitis Amoxicillin- and Cephalexin-Induced Eosinophilic Colitis Docetaxel-Induced Supravenous Erythematous Eruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancano, Michael A

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this feature is to heighten awareness of specific adverse drug reactions (ADRs), discuss methods of prevention, and promote reporting of ADRs to the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) MedWatch program (800-FDA-1088). If you have reported an interesting, preventable ADR to MedWatch, please consider sharing the account with our readers. Write to Dr. Mancano at ISMP, 200 Lakeside Drive, Suite 200, Horsham, PA 19044 (phone: 215-707-4936; e-mail: mmancano@temple.edu). Your report will be published anonymously unless otherwise requested. This feature is provided by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in cooperation with the FDA's MedWatch program and Temple University School of Pharmacy. ISMP is an FDA MedWatch partner. PMID:27559184

  16. 紫外分光光度法测定头孢氨苄胶囊的含量%Determination of Cephalexin in Capsules by UV Spectrophotography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王菊荣; 刘丽岚

    2002-01-01

    目的建立紫外分光光度法测定头孢氨苄胶囊的含量.方法样品经前处理后,采用紫外分光光度法,于262nm波长处测定吸收值.结果浓度在10~35μg*ml-1范围内线性关系良好(r=999 9);溶液在48h之内测定浓度无变化;平均回收率99.43%,RSD=0.43%(n=6),精密度测定RSD=0.32%(n=6),本法与药典法测定结果比较,t检验无显著性差异(P>0.05).结论该测定方法准确、精密,操作简单、快速,适合头孢氨苄胶囊的质量控制.

  17. 头孢氨苄的荧光分光光度法测定%Study on determination of Cephalexin in capsules by fluorescence chromogenic reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝巧艳; 张远馥; 王金中

    2007-01-01

    根据头孢氨苄在近中性的溶液中能与Au(Ⅲ)发生配合反应生成荧光物质(λex=355 nm,λem=438 nm),建立了用荧光分光光度法测定头孢氨苄的新方法.在所选定的最佳条件下,头孢氨苄的浓度在0.4~20 mg·L-1范围内与体系荧光强度成良好的线性关系,方法的检出限为0.14 mg·L-1.

  18. Determination of Cephalexin in Capsules by Fluorimetry%荧光衍生法测定胶囊中苯甘孢霉素的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝巧艳; 张远馥; 王淑敏; 王金中

    2008-01-01

    建立了用荧光分光光度法测定苯甘孢霉素含量的新方法.在近中性的介质中,苯甘孢霉素与Au(Ⅲ)发生配合反应生成荧光物质(λex=355 nm,λem=438 nm),在所选定的最佳条件下,苯甘孢霉素在0.40~20 mg·L-1范围内与体系荧光强度呈良好的线性关系,R=0.9982,对浓度为2.0 mg·L-1的苯甘孢霉素连续测定11次,其相对标准偏差(RSD)为2.48%,检出限为O.14 mg·L-1,平均回收率为100.4%.本法可用于片剂和胶囊中苯甘孢霉素含量的测定.

  19. 兽药头孢氨苄在牛奶中的残留规律的研究%The Research of Cephalexin's Residual Rule in Milk

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世俊; 邓斌; 张曦; 毛华明

    2007-01-01

    利用高效液相色谱法(HPLC),以兽药头孢氨苄治疗奶牛乳腺炎后在牛奶中的残留为对象,研究其在牛奶中的残留规律.结果表明,采用肌肉注射和静脉注射10 g头孢氨苄治疗,弃奶时间都以2.5 d比较适合.

  20. 磷钼杂多酸单扫极谱法测定头孢氨苄%SINGLE SWEEP POLAROGRAPHIC DETERMINATION OF CEPHALEXIN ON ITS REACTION WITH PHOSPHOMOLYBDATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王长发; 袁明全

    2003-01-01

    @@ 头孢氨苄是抗生素类药物,对其含量的测定中国药典(1995)[1]采用碘量法.较早时国外有人用直流极谱法测定[2],国内李起隆[3]等也曾用电分析研究过.不过测定都是基于对头孢氨苄的降解产物的电极反应而进行定量.本文采用一个新的反应,即头孢氨苄与磷钼杂多酸在pH为1.5的盐酸溶液沸水浴反应8 min.然后用氨氯化胺调pH=9.0的溶液作支持电解质,在滴汞电极上能产生灵敏的吸附还原波进行定量测定.方法简单,结果满意.

  1. 荧光分光光度法测定苯甘孢霉素的含量%Determination of Cephalexin by Fluorescaancee Spectrophotometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓蕾; 白林; 王琨; 王瑾

    2005-01-01

    目的建立荧光分光光度法测定苯甘孢霉素的含量.方法采用荧光分光光度法以激发波长348nm,发射波长444nm测定荧光强度.结果浓度在0~5.0μg·ml-1范围内呈良好的线性关系.回归方程Y=0.48+50.6X,r=0.9994.方法的平均回收率为98.76%.RSD为1.35%(n=5).结论方法简便易行,快速准确,可用于该制剂的质量控制.

  2. Determination of Cephalexin in Pharmaceutical With Ion Selective Electrode%离子选择性电极法测定药剂中的头孢氨苄

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉忠; 吴芳辉; 徐稳杰

    1999-01-01

    基于头孢氨苄在0.10 mol/L NaOH介质中,沸水浴降解20min后,能生成硫醇化合物,利用硫离子选择电极研究了测定头孢氨苄条件,其浓度在6.0×10-5~1 × 10-2mol/L范围,电位E与浓度对数呈线性关系,并将此方法用于胶囊中头孢氨苄的测定,回收率为104.0%.

  3. 支撑液膜法制备头孢氨苄的研究%Preparation of cephalexin by supported liquid membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆莹莹; 高晓冲; 高灿; 常洪委; 高瑞昶

    2014-01-01

    建立一个三相体系,实现对头孢氨苄的合成与分离.对支撑液膜及其传质机理进行了简要介绍.实验中,以Isopar L为萃取剂,甲基三辛基氯化铵(Aliquat 336)为载体,1-癸醇为载体助溶剂.萃取部分考察了进料相头孢氨苄的浓度、进料液pH、进料相和有机相体积比对萃取率的影响.反萃部分考察了反萃液pH对反萃率的影响,对比了几种反萃液的反萃效果,最终选择pH =9.0的D-苯甘氨酸甲酯盐酸盐(PGME)溶液作为反萃液.选择进料头孢氨苄浓度为20 mmol/L,进料液pH为9.0,进料相与有机相体积比为1:1进行实验,得到头孢氨苄的最终收率为58.43%.

  4. 头孢氨苄酶法缩合工艺的研究进展%Advances in process of enzymatic condensation in cephalexin synthesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈舒明; 方长明; 刘爱红

    2001-01-01

    综述了青霉素乙酰化固定化酶和头孢氨苄酶法缩合工艺的研究进展;探讨了头孢氨苄酶法缩合工艺中酶催化缩合反应的影响因素、产品的分离与纯化以及过量原料的回收和酶反应器的选择等问题.结果认为头孢氨苄酶缩合反应的适宜条件为:侧链与7-氨基脱乙酰氧基头孢烷酸(7-ADCA)的投料比率为1:1~2:1,反应底物的浓度为300~600mmol·L-,反应温度在5~35℃之间,7-ADCA的转化率可以达到93%以上.

  5. Effect of film coating on cephalexin gastric-floating tablets%薄膜包衣对头孢氨苄胃内漂浮片的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹莉芳; 程开生; 王广基; 张陆勇; 臧洪梅; 周建平

    2008-01-01

    目的:考察薄膜包衣对头孢氨苄胃内漂浮片释药特性和起漂性能的影响.方法:采用3种不同型号欧巴代(Opadry、OpadryⅡ和Opadry AMB)膜材和3种渗透性的丙烯酸树脂[Eudragit RL 30D、RS 30D和RL 30D/RS 30D(1:1)]对头孢氨苄胃内漂浮片包衣,分别以Opardry和Eudragit RL 30D/RS 30D(1:1)对4,6,9,12 kg硬度的片剂包衣,增重1%~3%,考察上述包衣条件对头孢氨苄胃内漂浮片释放特性和起漂性能的影响.结果:3种不同型号欧巴代包衣、不同包衣增重及4种硬度片芯包衣的片剂与未包衣片相比,释放特性无明显变化,起漂时间均大于15 min,比未包衣前显著延长;6~9 kg硬度片芯以渗透性适宜的Eudragit RL 30D/RS 30D(1:1)包衣,增重1%~2%均能保证15 min内起漂,释药特性与未包衣前无明显变化.结论:对水具有渗透性、能束缚二氧化碳气体并具有一定抗张强度的衣材是胃内漂浮片优选的包衣材料.

  6. 头孢氨苄降解产物的电化学性质%The electrochemistry property of decomposed substance of cephalexin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柏云杉; 柏文彦

    2004-01-01

    头孢氨苄(CEX)降解产物中含有巯基(-SH)(头孢氨本身不具有电活性,但经NaOH降解后,能在NH3·H2O-NH4Cl溶液中产生灵敏的还原峰),能与Hg2+生成难溶化合物的特性,在汞膜电极上研究了CEX降解产物的伏安行为,初步探讨了电极反应机理;运用了方波伏安法在pH值9.78的NH3·H2O-NH4Cl介质中,检测限为1.0×10-9mol/L,测定头孢氨苄胶囊中CEX含量为79.82%,峰电流与头孢氨苄浓度在2×10-5~1×10-4、4×10-6~1×10-9mol/L之间为线形.

  7. Drug: D03438 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03438 Drug Cephalexin hydrochloride (USP); Keftab (TN) C16H17N3O4S. HCl. H2O 401.0...EMIC USE J01D OTHER BETA-LACTAM ANTIBACTERIALS J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB01 Cefalexin D03438 Cephalexin...als Beta-lactam, Cephalosporins Cephalexin D03438 Cephalexin hydrochloride (USP) Antiinfectives [BR:br08307]...ins Cefalexin [ATC:J01DB01] D03438 Cephalexin hydrochloride (USP) CAS: 105879-42-

  8. Cefadroxil

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the skin, throat, tonsils, and urinary tract. Cephalexin is in a class of medications called cephalosporin ... Avycaz), ceftibuten (Cedax), ceftriaxone (Rocephin), cefuroxime (Zinacef), or cephalexin (Keflex); penicillin antibiotics, or any other medications. Also ...

  9. Study on the Kinetics and the Therm Odynamics for Adsorption of Cephalexin by Activate Carbon%活性炭对头孢氨苄吸附的热力学与动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨慧文; 潘育方; 黄佳佳; 张荣

    2010-01-01

    从热力学和动力学角度研究了活性炭对水溶液中头孢氨苄的吸附行为.热力学研究表明:活性炭对头孢氨苄的吸附符合Freundlich等温吸附方程,ΔH25.24 kJ·mol-1,且<40 kJ·mol-1,说明该吸附是一个物理吸附且过程中吸热.同时测得吉布斯自由能ΔG<0,受温度影响不大,表明吸附质从溶液到吸附剂表面的吸附过程是自发过程.动力学研究表明:该吸附过程比较符合伪二级动力学描述,其表观活化能Ea为21.75 kJ·mol-1.

  10. 头孢氨苄与罗红霉素在医院获得性肺炎中的应用价值评价%Evaluation of the Application Value of Cephalexin and Roxithromycin in Hospital Acquired Pneumonia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊迎春; 许鹏

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨头孢氨苄与罗红霉素在医院获得性肺炎(HAP)中的应用效果.方法:回顾性分析本院2011年4月-2014年4月收治的86例医院获得性肺炎患者的临床资料,根据治疗方法不同分为两组,观察组46例给予头孢氨苄与罗红霉素联合治疗,对照组40例给予氟喹诺酮类抗生素治疗,比较两组临床疗效、实验室检查指标、住院时间、退热时间及肺炎严重程度(PSI)评分.结果:两组治疗有效率、外周血WBC、N%、CRP水平及住院时间、退热时间、PSI评分比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:头孢氨苄与罗红霉素抗生素联合应用于医院获得性肺炎中的临床效果与单用氟喹诺酮类抗生素相近,联合应用在医院获得性肺炎治疗中具有重要的价值.

  11. 头孢氨苄在磷酸盐缓冲液中的单扫描极谱法%Single-Sweep Polarographic Behavior of Cephalexin in Phosphate Buffer Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炎英; 薛红波; 牙禹; 詹国庆

    2010-01-01

    采用单扫描极谱法研究了头孢氨苄在pH 7.4的KH2PO4-K2HPO4缓冲溶液中的极谱行为,发现在-1.2 V附近产生一个灵敏的还原峰.还原峰峰电流与头孢氨苄的浓度分别在2.7 × 10-7~2.7×10-6 mol/L和2.7×10-6~1.0×10-3 mol/L范围存在良好的线性关系,检测限为2.7×10-8 mol/L (S/N=3).用于药片中头孢氨苄测量,加入回收率为94.0 %~102.0 %.

  12. Studies on Enzymatic Synthesis of Cephalexin by Immobilized Penicillin Acylase by Polyacrylonitrile Fibres%聚丙烯腈纤维固定化青霉素酰化酶合成头孢氨苄的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖; 韩辉; 徐冠珠

    2002-01-01

    将巨大芽孢杆菌胞外青霉素酰化酶通过共价键结合到聚丙烯腈纤维的衍生物上.制成的丝状固定化青霉素酰化酶表现活力达153U/g(湿重).固定化酶合成头孢氨苄的最适pH为6.5,最适温度为40°C.7-ADCA的投料浓度以4%为好,7-ADCA与PGME的投料量比率为1:2.最佳用酶量为170U/g 7-ADCA.在pH6.5、温度30℃时,固定化酶对7-ADCA的表观米氏常数K7-ADCA为0.162mol/L,对PGME的表观米氏常数KPGME为0.364mol/L,最大反应速度Vmax为0.0462mo.L-·min-1,用固定化酶合成头孢氨苄,使用50次保留酶活力83.9%.

  13. ENZYMATIC SYNTHESIS OF CEPHALEXIN INTEGRATED WITH AQUEOUS TWO-PHASE SYSTEMS%酶法合成头孢氨苄的反应-双水相萃取耦合过程

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建航; 魏东芝; 曹学君; 袁中一

    2003-01-01

    应用聚乙二醇(PEG)/硫酸镁双水相体系(ATPS)进行了酶法合成头孢氨苄的反应-双水相萃取的耦合过程研究.通过考察头孢氨苄、苯甘氨酸甲酯和7-氨基脱乙酰氧基头孢烷酸(7-ADCA)在ATPS中的分配行为建立了一个含20%(质量)PEG 400和12%(质量)硫酸镁的ATPS,在此体系中头孢氨苄的分配系数为6.7,苯甘氨酸甲酯的分配系数为1.5,7-ADCA的分配系数为1.2,且青霉素酰化酶的分配系数小于0.01.底物、产物以及催化剂的分配特性有利于构建双水相体系应用于酶法合成头孢氨苄的反应-双水相萃取的耦合过程.对此双水相体系中青霉素酰化酶的稳定性研究表明催化剂亦适合此体系的构建.进而将此体系应用于头孢氨苄酶法合成,产率为60%左右,相对水相体系20%左右的产率取得了较好的结果.

  14. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalexin and cephradine in pharmaceuticals%流动注射化学发光法测定头孢氨苄和头孢拉定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪敬武; 熊和玉

    2004-01-01

    基于KMnO4在酸性介质中氧化头孢氨苄和头孢拉定产生微弱的化学发光,同时借助甲醛对发光的增强作用,采用流动注射技术,建立了以上两种头孢类抗生素药物的测定新方法.方法检出限分别为0.096和0.10 μg/mL;相对标准偏差分别为1.6%和1.8%(n=11),线性范围分别为0.8~25和0.8~32 μg/mL,进样频率为60次/h.本方法已用于药物制剂的测定.

  15. STUDIES ON THE ADSORPTION BEHAVIOUR OF CEPHALEXIN ON HANGING MERCURY ELECTRODE SURFACE%头孢氨苄在悬汞电极表面吸附行为的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华强

    1999-01-01

    报道了头孢氨苄在悬汞电极表面的吸附行为.使用恒电位方波扫描法,测量了不同浓度的头孢氨苄在悬汞电极表面的微分电容曲线.结果表明:头孢氨苄在悬汞电极表面的吸附电位范围为+0.08~-1.35V(VS.SCE),吸附类型服从Frumkin吸附,吸附因数为0.84,吸附平衡常数为8.5×104,吸附自由能为-37.4KJ/mol.

  16. Preparation and in Vitro Evaluation of the Bioadhesive Cephalexin Sustained-release Tablets%头孢氨苄生物黏附缓释片的制备及体外评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张银龙; 尹莉芳; 周建平; 张陆勇

    2009-01-01

    目的:制备头孢氨苄生物黏附缓释片,并对其体外黏附性能及释药特性进行评价.方法:以单因素考察法确定制备头孢氨苄生物黏附缓释片的最优处方,以自制黏附力测定装置测定优化处方所制缓释片的黏附力,以转篮法(转速100 r·min-1)测定其在1、2、4、8小时时的释放度,并对其释药过程进行动力学方程拟合以判断释药机制.结果:最优处方采用羟丙甲纤维素(HPMC K15M,6 mg)为骨架材料,卡波姆(CP 971P,20 mg)为黏附材料,乳糖(18 mg)为填充剂,头孢氨苄和硬脂酸镁分别为52.6 mg 和0.5 mg.按优化处方所制的缓释片的黏附力为54.7 g;在0.1 mol·L-1的盐酸溶液中1、2、4、8小时的释放度分别为30%、50%、70%和90%以上;体外释药符合Higuchi方程,释放机制为扩散和骨架溶蚀的协同作用.结论:该头孢氨苄生物黏附缓释片的处方工艺基本满足设计要求.

  17. 铜离子催化头孢氨苄降解反应的荧光研究%Fluorescence Study of Degradation Reaction of Cephalexin Catalysted by Copper Ion(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任乃林; 郭祥群

    2008-01-01

    在pH:10.0的Britton-Robinson缓冲溶液中,80℃的水浴加热,铜离子能催化头孢氨苄的降解反应,产生具有荧光的产物,激发波长(λex)为340nm,发射波长(λem)为430nm.用荧光光度法研究了头孢氨苄的降解反应的条件及体系的荧光特性.实验表明,该体系的荧光强度与头孢氨苄的浓度在4.85×10-7 mol·L-1 ~4.85×10-6 mol·L-1范围内成良好的线性关系,检出限为1.0×10-8 mol·L-1.此法可用于头孢氨苄胶囊的分析.

  18. 臭氧氧化降解水中头孢氨苄的效能与机理研究%Degradation efficiency and mechanism of ozone on cephalexin in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶辉; 李文君; 陈卫; 陈连生; 冯博; 王伦; 徐峰

    2014-01-01

    研究了臭氧对难降解的头孢氨苄(CLX)的氧化效果,考察臭氧投加量、pH、腐殖酸、自由基抑制剂对反应的影响.结果表明,当反应的化学计量比达到1.1([O3]=1.5 mg/L,[CLX]=10mg/L)时,反应10 min,CLX的降解率达到96.67%.碱性条件下,OH-离子的增加促进了臭氧分解产生·OH,有利于臭氧氧化水中CLX,当CLX初始浓度为10 mg/L,臭氧投加量为1.0 mg/L,水样pH为2.5时,CLX的降解率仅为26.11%;水样pH增到10.0时,CLX的降解率增到91.26%.腐殖酸对臭氧氧化CLX的影响与腐殖酸的浓度有关,低浓度(2.5 mg/L)时对臭氧氧化CLX效果有所促进,其降解率提高了4.73%;高浓度时,抑制臭氧氧化反应,且随着腐殖酸浓度的提高,CLX降解效果逐渐降低,当腐殖酸浓度达到20 mg/L时,CLX的降解率仅有28.55%..OH抑制剂叔丁醇对臭氧氧化去除CLX具有明显的抑制作用,当叔丁醇浓度大于50 mg/L后,CLX的降解率仅约为12%.

  19. Drug: D00263 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D00263 Drug Cefalexin (JP16); Cephalexin; CEX; Keflex (TN) C16H17N3O4S 347.094 347....alexin (JP16) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Antibacterials Beta-lactam, Cephalosporins Cephalexin

  20. Effects of an ethyl lactate shampoo in conjunction with a systemic antibiotic in the treatment of canine superficial bacterial pyoderma in an open-label, nonplacebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaham, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    An open-label, nonplacebo-controlled study was designed to compare systemic cephalexin therapy versus systemic cephalexin and ethyl lactate shampoo therapy in the treatment of canine superficial bacterial pyoderma. Twenty client-owned dogs diagnosed with generalized superficial bacterial pyoderma (SP) were alternately assigned to oral treatment with cephalexin (25 to 30 mg/kg every 12 hours) or treatment with cephalexin (as for Group 1) and twice-weekly shampooing with a 10% ethyl lactate shampoo, which was left in contact with the dog's skin for 10 minutes. On Days 14 and 28, skin lesion severity scores, assessed by the investigators, were significantly (P shampoo than for the group treated with cephalexin only. On Day 14, dog owners gave better scores to dogs treated with cephalexin and shampoo for haircoat appearance and body odor than for dogs treated only with cephalexin. Clinical and cytologic resolution of SP occurred significantly (P shampoo group (29.4 days) than in the cephalexin only group (37.8 days).

  1. Effects of an ethyl lactate shampoo in conjunction with a systemic antibiotic in the treatment of canine superficial bacterial pyoderma in an open-label, nonplacebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jaham, Caroline

    2003-01-01

    An open-label, nonplacebo-controlled study was designed to compare systemic cephalexin therapy versus systemic cephalexin and ethyl lactate shampoo therapy in the treatment of canine superficial bacterial pyoderma. Twenty client-owned dogs diagnosed with generalized superficial bacterial pyoderma (SP) were alternately assigned to oral treatment with cephalexin (25 to 30 mg/kg every 12 hours) or treatment with cephalexin (as for Group 1) and twice-weekly shampooing with a 10% ethyl lactate shampoo, which was left in contact with the dog's skin for 10 minutes. On Days 14 and 28, skin lesion severity scores, assessed by the investigators, were significantly (P shampoo than for the group treated with cephalexin only. On Day 14, dog owners gave better scores to dogs treated with cephalexin and shampoo for haircoat appearance and body odor than for dogs treated only with cephalexin. Clinical and cytologic resolution of SP occurred significantly (P shampoo group (29.4 days) than in the cephalexin only group (37.8 days). PMID:12756640

  2. Drug: D00906 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e: J01DB01 Semisynthetic cephalosporin: narrow spectrum cephalosporin penicillin binding proteins inhibitor ...S J01DB First-generation cephalosporins J01DB01 Cefalexin D00906 Cephalexin (USP)

  3. Enzyme distribution derived from macroscopic particle behavior of an industrial immobilized penicillin-G acylase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roon, van J.L.; Tramper, J.; Joerink, M.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2003-01-01

    The macroscopic kinetic behavior of an industrially employed immobilized penicillin-G acylase, called Assemblase, formed the basis for a discussion on some simple intraparticle biocatalytic model distributions. Assemblase catalyzes the synthesis of the widely used semisynthetic antibiotic cephalexin

  4. Dipeptide transport: an active process with energy- and proton-dependence in the human intestinal cell line, Caco-2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Bing-wei; SHI Lei; CHEN Xi; CHEN Zhao-yong; TAI Ning-zheng; ZHAO Xiao-chen; LI Ning

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To determine the active process on dipeptide transport with proton- and energydependence in Caco-2 cells. Methods: A human intestinal cell monolayer (Caco-2) was used as the in vitro model of human small intestine and cephalexin as the model substrate for dipeptide transporter (PepT1). Caco-2 cells grown on multiwell dishes (24 wells) and Transwell membrane filters were incubated in the culture medium. The transport and uptake experiments of cephalexin across apical membranes were then conducted with different temperature and different pH values. Uptake of cephalexin in Caco-2 cells grown on multiple well dishes with addition of energy inhibitors( sodium azide, SA and 2,4-dinitrophenol, DNP) were then measured. Results: The accumulation of cephalexin into Caco-2 monolayers increased with the duration of culture. The uptake from the apical surface was markedly influenced by the pH of the apical medium, and the maximal uptake was achieved at pH 5.5; further acidification of the incubation medium may decrease transport of cephalexin despite an increase inward H + gradient.Cephalexin uptake was linear over the concentration range when the cells were incubated at 4 ℃ while the uptake rate was enhanced and tended to be saturated as the cephalexin concentration increased when the cells were incubated at 37 ℃. The kinetic parameters for the cephalexin transport carrier were determined to be: Vmax of (22. 173 ±1.9) nmol/min per mg protein, Km of (2.069 ±0.9) mol/L, the Kd was estimated to be (0.07 ± 0.02) nmol/min per mg protein per mmol/L. Uptake of cephalexin was markedly inhibited by sodium azide (SA) and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP). Conclusion: Cephalexin was transported actively across Caco-2 cells, and the transport process was proton- and energy-dependent. In addition, Caco-2 cells taked up cephalexin by dipeptide transporters that closely resembled the transporters present in the intestine. Caco-2 cells represented an ideal cellular model for future

  5. Outcome assessment in cellulitis clinical trials: is telephone follow up sufficient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambudiri, V E; Dwyer, R C; Camargo, C A; Kupper, T S; Pallin, D J

    2015-07-01

    The US Food and Drug Administration has scrutinized clinical trial methodology in cellulitis, partly because the definition and timing of cure are debatable. We analysed the validity of telephone self-report as a proxy for in-person follow up in a cellulitis treatment trial comparing cephalexin alone with cephalexin-plus-trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Our results demonstrate poor agreement between these two methods of outcome determination and have implications for future cellulitis clinical trial design and clinical management. PMID:25882364

  6. Facial ulcerations due to Acinetobacter baumannii: Vessel thrombosis with bacterial mycelia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Ming Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 14-year-old girl presented with a 2-week history of progressive facial ulcerations that did not respond to cephalexin and topical dexamethasone. Biopsy on the ulcer showed rod-shaped bacteria and actinomycetes-like mycelia in the vessel walls and within thrombi. Tissue culture yielded Acinetobacter baumannii, which was resistant to cephalexin. A favourite outcome was achieved with minocycline treatment. This is the first case report of A. baumannii-related vasculitis.

  7. A case study of Impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansouri P

    1993-05-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a case study on 234 patients with impetigo who referred to Razi Dermatology Hospital from April to November, 1989. Treatment was started immediately after obtaining direct smear and performing culture and antibiotic sensitivity test. The most common organism responsible for impetigo was the coagulase-positive staphylococcus (71%. In 13.7% of the cases, the coagulase-negative staphylococcus was grown on culture media, but none of the cultures showed streptococcus as the main organism. Treatment was started with oral penicillin V, oral erythromycin, benzathine penicillin G injection, oral cephalexin, and topical fuccidin. Clinical and bacteriological evaluation after 3-7 days showed that it is preferable to use oral cephalexin instead of other protocols such as oral erythromycin, which has previously been the drug of choice for impetigo. In addition, topical fuccidin with a 75% curative rate was the first drug for treatment, with the same effect as the oral cephalexin

  8. El meloxicam no modifica la disposición de la cefalexina en caninos Meloxicam does not modify cefalexin disposition in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. P Prados

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la farmacocinética de la cefalexina administrada por vía intravenosa a caninos y determinar si la administración conjunta con meloxicam produce modificaciones en la misma. Se trabajó con 7 perros Beagle sanos. Las drogas administradas fueron cefalexina y meloxicam a dosis única de 25 mg/kg intravenosa y 0.1 mg/kg intravenosa respectivamente. Cada animal recibió cefalexina sola (experiencia 1 y cefalexina 5 minutos luego de la administración de meloxicam (experiencia 2 con un período de lavado de 2 semanas entre cada experiencia. Las concentraciones plasmáticas de la cefalexina se determinaron mediante el método microbiológico. No se encontraron diferencias estadísticamente significativas entre los parámetros farmacocinéticos de la cefalexina calculados en cada experiencia, por lo tanto se concluye que el tratamiento simultáneo con ambas drogas no modifica la farmacocinética del antibiótico.The purpose of the present study was to describe intravenous cephalexin pharmacokinetics in healthy dogs and to investigate if previous administration of meloxicam affects it. Seven Beagle dogs were included in this study. Each dog received intravenous 25 mg/kg cephalexin (experience 1 or cephalexin 5 minutes after intravenous 0.1 mg/kg meloxicam (experience 2, with a 2 week wash out period. Cephalexin plasma concentrations were determined by microbiological assay. No statistical differences were found in cephalexin pharmacokinetic parameters between experiences. Consequently, when meloxicam is co-administered intravenously with cephalexin it doesn’t modify the pharmacokinetic of the antibiotic.

  9. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy)32+]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy)32+ with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ) are 0.03 μg ml-1 for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 μg ml-1 for cefoperazone and 0.08 μg ml-1 for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h-1. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations

  10. Cloning, Sequence Analysis, and Expression in Escherichia coli of the Gene Encoding an α-Amino Acid Ester Hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman-Tijmes, Jolanda J.; Jekel, P; de Vries, Erik; van Merode, Annet; Floris, René; Laan, Jan-Metske van der; Sonke, Theo; Janssen, Dick B.

    2002-01-01

    The α-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans ATCC 9325 is capable of hydrolyzing and synthesizing β-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin and ampicillin. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified α-amino acid ester hydrolase allowed cloning and genetic characterization of the

  11. Cloning, sequence analysis, and expression in Escherichia coli of the gene encoding an alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman-Tijmes, JJ; Jekel, PA; de Vries, EJ; van Merode, Annet; Floris, R; van der Laan, JM; Sonke, T; Janssen, DB

    2002-01-01

    The alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase from Acetobacter turbidans ATCC 9325 is capable of hydrolyzing and synthesizing beta-lactam antibiotics, such as cephalexin and ampicillin. N-terminal amino acid sequencing of the purified alpha-amino acid ester hydrolase allowed cloning and genetic characterizat

  12. Fixed drug eruption due to ornidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramji Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 56-year-old male developed an ulcer on his glans penis and mucosae of upper and lower lips 3 days after taking ofloxacin, cephalexin, and ornidazole. Clinically, a provisional diagnosis of fixed drug eruption was made. The causative drug was confirmed by an oral provocation test which triggered a reactivation of all lesions only with ornidazole.

  13. A multicomponent reaction-diffusion model of a heterogeneously distributed immobilized enzyme

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roon, van J.L.; Arntz, M.M.H.D.; Kallenberg, A.I.; Paasman, M.A.; Tramper, J.; Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Beeftink, H.H.

    2006-01-01

    A physical model was derived for the synthesis of the antibiotic cephalexin with an industrial immobilized penicillin G acylase, called Assemblase. In reactions catalyzed by Assemblase, less product and more by-product are formed in comparison with a free-enzyme catalyzed reaction. The model incorpo

  14. Flow injection chemiluminescence determination of cephalosporins in pharmaceutical preparations using tris (2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium (II)-potassium permanganate system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thongpoon, Chalermporn [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Liawruangrath, Boonsom [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Liawruangrath, Saisunee [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 (Thailand); Wheatley, R. Alan [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Townshend, Alan [Department of Chemistry, University of Hull, Hull HU6 7RX (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: A.townshend@hull.ac.uk

    2005-11-30

    A flow injection (FI) method using the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl) ruthenium(II) [Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+}]-potassium permanganate chemiluminescence(CL) was developed for the rapid and sensitive determination of cephalosporins such as cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, cefaclor and cefoperazone. The method is based on the CL reaction of cephalosporins and Ru(bpy){sub 3} {sup 2+} with potassium permanganate in the presence of perchloric acid, catalyzed by Mn(II). Under the optimum conditions, the calibration curves are linear over the range 0.10-12.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoxitin, 0.10-10.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoperazone and 0.10-15.0 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefazolin, cephalexin, cefadroxil, and cefaclor, respectively. The limits of detection (3{sigma}) are 0.03 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoxitin and cefadroxil, 0.06 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefoperazone and 0.08 {mu}g ml{sup -1} for cefazolin, cephalexin and cefaclor, respectively. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cefoxitin, cefazolin, cephalexin and cefadroxil in pharmaceutical formulations with a sample throughput of 90 h{sup -1}. There were no interference effects from some common excipients used in pharmaceutical preparations.

  15. Thermodynamically controlled synthesis of beta-lactam antibiotics. Equilibrium concentrations and side-chains properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Nierstrasz, V.A.; Kroon, P.J.; Bosma, B.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Beeftink, H.H.; Tramper, J.

    1999-01-01

    For the enzymatic synthesis of the antibiotic cephalexin, an activated acyl donor is generally used as one of the substrates (kinetically controlled approach); however, the thermodynamically controlled approach might be of interest since there is no need for activation of the acyl donor and less was

  16. Enhancement of enzymatic adipyl-7-ADCA hydrolysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schroën, C.G.P.H.; Kroon, P.J.; Vanderlaan, J.M.; Janssen, A.E.M.; Tramper, J.

    2002-01-01

    We studied enzymatic adipyl-7-ADCA hydrolysis as a new process for the production of 7-aminodeacetoxycephalosporanic acid (7-ADCA), one of the building blocks for cephalosporin antibiotics like cephalexin and cefadroxil. Adipyl-7-ADCA hydrolysis carried out with immobilised glutaryl acylase was cons

  17. Prevention of Infective (Bacterial) Endocarditis: Wallet Card

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... IV Cephalexin**† 2g 50 mg/kg Allergic to penicillins or ampicillin — Oral regimen OR Clindamycin OR Azithromycin ... 20 mg/kg 15 mg/kg Allergic to penicillins or ampicillin and unable to take oral medication ...

  18. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

    OpenAIRE

    Omar, Mahmoud A.; Osama H. Abdelmageed; Tamer Z. Attia

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of abs...

  19. Hormonal regulation of dipeptide transporter (PepT1) in Caco-2 cells with normal and anoxia/reoxygenation management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing-Wei Sun; Xiao-Chen Zhao; Guang-Ji Wang; Ning Li; Jie-Shou Li

    2003-01-01

    AIM: To determine the regulation effects of recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) on dipeptide transporter (PepT1) in Caco-2 cells with normal culture and anoxia/reoxygenation injury.METHODS: A human intestinal cell monolayer (Caco-2) was used as the in vitro model of human small intestine and cephalexin as the model substrate for dipeptide transporter (PepT1). Caco-2 cells grown on Transwell membrane filters were preincubated in the presence of rhGH in the culture medium for 4 d, serum was withdrawn from monolayers for 24 h before each experiment. The transport experiments of cephalexin across apical membromes were then conducted;Caco-2 cells grown on multiple well dishes (24 pore) with normal culture or anoxia/reoxygenation injury were preincubated with rhGH as above and uptake of cephalexin was then measured.RESULTS: The transport and uptake of cephelaxin across apical membranes of Caco-2 cells after preincubation with rhGH were significantly increased compared with controls (P=0.045, 0.0223). Also, addition of rhGH at physiological concentration (34 nM) to incubation medium greatly stimulates cephalexin uptake by anoxia/reoxygenation injuried Caco-2 cells (P=0.0116), while the biological functions of PepT1 in injured Caco-2 cells without rhGH were markedly downregulated. Northem blot analysis showed that the level of PepT1 mRNA of rhGH-treated injured Caco-2cells was greatly increased compared to controls.CONCLUSION: The present results of rhGH stimulating the uptake and transport of cephalexin indicated that rhGH greatly upregulates the physiological effects of dipeptide transporters of Caco-2 cells. The alteration in the gene expression may be a mechanism of regulation of PepT1. In addition, Caco-2 cells take up cephalexin by the Proton-dependent dipeptide transporters that closely resembles the transporters present in the intestine. Caco-2 cells represent an ideal cellular model for future studies of the dipeptide transporter.

  20. Detection and Characterization of β-Lactam Resistance in Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Behravan

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, detection, isolation, and characterization of β-lactamases from Bacillus cereus PTCC 1015 were investigated. B. cereus was inoculated in nutrient broth containing ampicillin (50 μg.ml−1 for 24 h (35°C, 200 rpm. Activity measurements were carried out against ampicillin (0.1 mg.ml−1 and cephalexin (0.08 mg.ml−1 by a spectrophotometric method at different conditions (pH 6–10, temperatures 25–45°C.Maximum penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity was observed at pH 7. The optimized temperatures for penicillinase and cephalosporinase activity were 30 and 40°C, respectively. At the above conditions, maximum enzymatic activity was calculated as 0.89 ± 0.014 and 0.037 ± 0.001 units against ampicillin and cephalexin.

  1. Ciprofloxacin, a quinolone carboxylic acid compound active against aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Chin, N X; Neu, H C

    1984-01-01

    The in vitro activity of ciprofloxacin, a quinolone-carboxylic acid derivative, was compared with those of norfloxacin, cefotaxime, cephalexin, ceftazidime, moxalactam, amoxicillin, and methicillin and other agents, as appropriate. The MICs of ciprofloxacin for 90% of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae and for Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Neisseria spp., and Bacteroides fragilis were between 0.005 and 0.8 micrograms/ml, whereas streptococci and staphylococci were all inhibited by less than o...

  2. Graphene oxide as a substrate for Raman enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Weizi; Chen, Xiaoyun; Sa, Yu; Feng, Yuanming; Wang, Yan; Lin, Wang

    2012-10-01

    We report the properties of graphene oxide, a two-dimensional carbon nanomaterial, as a substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering. The graphene oxide substrate produced Raman enhancement for rhodamine 6G, melamine, and cephalexin. Intense characteristic D and G peaks of graphene oxide were observed when positively charged rhodamine 6G and melamine were used as the Raman probe. We attribute the appearance of D and G peaks to the aggregation of negatively charged graphene oxide.

  3. Farmacodermia em um cão após administração de antibióticos do grupo betalactâmico: relato de caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.S. Aleixo

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A severe cutaneous reaction in a female dog after administration of penicillin and cephalexin is described, in which the main signs presented by the patient were fever, lack of appetite, and detachment of epidermis in the dorsal region of body.The established treatment was surgical debridement of the region, topical application of Aloe Vera with sugar, and systemic antibiotic therapy with ciprofloxacin, resulting in the recovery and wound closure in approximately 45 days.

  4. DISSOLUTION METHOD DEVELOPMENT FOR GASTRO RETENTIVE CONTROLLED RELEASE CEPHALAXIN TABLET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parag Lokhande

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cephalexin is in a group of drugs called cephalosporin antibiotics and is used to fight bacteria in the body. It works by interfering with the bacteria's cell wall formation, causing it to rupture, and killing the bacteria. A controlled release tablet dissolution method was developed for evaluation of Cephalaxin CR tablet & determination of Cephalaxin is done by UV spectrophotometer. The solubility and stability of the cephalexin API was determined in ten different solutions. In that 0.1N HCl, glycine buffer pH 3.0, acetate buffer pH 4.5 and water gave good stability and the solubility. Dissolution profiling of cephalexin gastroretentive controlled release (GR CR of single batch was done with the selected media containing varying concentration of surfactants (tween 80 and Sodium lauryl sulphate- SLS. The release profile is compared with that of the control media. The media that gave discriminately faster release than that of the control were found to be 0.1N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80, With the selected media, dissolution profile was done on the three different batches of cephalexin GR CR tablets one with lesser polymer ratio and other with higher polymer ratio that that of the test batch. Only 0.1N HCl with 0.75% of tween 80 as dissolution medium was found to show good discrimination in the release profile with change in the formulation conditions. The discriminative dissolution method developed was validated for its specificity, accuracy, stability, linearity and precision and it passes all parameters.

  5. Characterization of rPEPT2-mediated Gly-Sar transport parameters in the rat kidney proximal tubule cell line SKPT-0193 cl.2 cultured in basic growth media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bravo, Silvina A; Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Frokjaer, Sven;

    2005-01-01

    Omega.cm(2) (n = 5). Apical Gly-Sar uptake peaked after 3-6 days in culture. Uptake at day 4 was 5.89 +/- 0.30 pmol.cm(-2).min(-1) (n = 3). Di-/tripeptide uptake displayed an optimum at approximately pH 6. Affinity values for cephalexin, kyotorphin, and delta-aminolevulinic acid were comparable to those...

  6. In vivo evaluation of tigemonam, a novel oral monobactam.

    OpenAIRE

    Clark, J M; Olsen, S. J.; Weinberg, D S; Dalvi, M.; Whitney, R R; Bonner, D P; Sykes, R. B.

    1987-01-01

    Tigemonam, a new monobactam with excellent activity against gram-negative bacteria, was evaluated for in vivo efficacy and absorption after oral administration to laboratory animals. Tigemonam is absorbed when administered orally to mice and dogs. In a variety of gram-negative systemic infections in mice, orally administered tigemonam was efficacious in all infections studied. Comparison drugs such as amoxicillin, cephalexin, and cefaclor were less efficacious, especially in infections caused...

  7. Significance of "extravascular" protein binding for antimicrobial pharmacodynamics in an in vitro capillary model of infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Dudley, M N; Blaser, J; D. Gilbert; Zinner, S H

    1990-01-01

    The effect of protein binding in an "extravascular" space on antimicrobial pharmacodynamics was studied in an in vitro capillary model of infection. Simulated 500-mg oral doses of dicloxacillin (approximately 96% bound) or cephalexin (less than 5% bound) were administered every 6 h for four doses. A 10-fold-higher dose of dicloxacillin was also studied to determine the effect of drug concentration on the reduction of bacterial killing in the presence of protein. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 259...

  8. Lack of in vitro efficacy of oral forms of certain cephalosporins, erythromycin, and oxacillin against Pasteurella multocida.

    OpenAIRE

    Goldstein, E J; Citron, D M; Richwald, G A

    1988-01-01

    The in vitro susceptibility of human isolates of Pasteurella multocida to oral antimicrobial agents from our current study and from a review of the literature suggests that dicloxacillin (oxacillin), erythromycin, clindamycin, cephalexin, cefaclor, and cefadroxil should not be used for empiric therapy of animal bite wounds. Agents that were consistently active against P. multocida were penicillin, ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, minocycline, chloramphenicol, trimethopri...

  9. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection arising in a new tattoo

    OpenAIRE

    Philips, Rebecca C; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey A; Martin, Julie E.; Wilkerson, Michael G

    2014-01-01

    We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic f...

  10. Heterologous expression of leader-less pga gene in Pichia pastoris: intracellular production of prokaryotic enzyme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyslík Pavel

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Penicillin G acylase of Escherichia coli (PGAEc is a commercially valuable enzyme for which efficient bacterial expression systems have been developed. The enzyme is used as a catalyst for the hydrolytic production of β-lactam nuclei or for the synthesis of semi-synthetic penicillins such as ampicillin, amoxicillin and cephalexin. To become a mature, periplasmic enzyme, the inactive prepropeptide of PGA has to undergo complex processing that begins in the cytoplasm (autocatalytic cleavage, continues at crossing the cytoplasmic membrane (signal sequence removing, and it is completed in the periplasm. Since there are reports on impressive cytosolic expression of bacterial proteins in Pichia, we have cloned the leader-less gene encoding PGAEc in this host and studied yeast production capacity and enzyme authenticity. Results Leader-less pga gene encoding PGAEcunder the control of AOX1 promoter was cloned in Pichia pastoris X-33. The intracellular overproduction of heterologous PGAEc(hPGAEc was evaluated in a stirred 10 litre bioreactor in high-cell density, fed batch cultures using different profiles of transient phases. Under optimal conditions, the average volumetric activity of 25900 U l-1 was reached. The hPGAEc was purified, characterized and compared with the wild-type PGAEc. The α-subunit of the hPGAEc formed in the cytosol was processed aberrantly resulting in two forms with C- terminuses extended to the spacer peptide. The enzyme exhibited modified traits: the activity of the purified enzyme was reduced to 49%, the ratios of hydrolytic activities with cephalexin, phenylacetamide or 6-nitro-3-phenylacetylamidobenzoic acid (NIPAB to penicillin G increased and the enzyme showed a better synthesis/hydrolysis ratio for the synthesis of cephalexin. Conclusions Presented results provide useful data regarding fermentation strategy, intracellular biosynthetic potential, and consequences of the heterologous expression of PGAEc

  11. Frequency of Resistance and Susceptible Bacteria Isolated from Houseflies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Kalantar

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available "nAbstract "nBackground: In this study, we determine the vector competence of Musca domestica with reference to the transmis­sion of susceptible and resistance bacterial strains in hospitals and slaughter house in Sanandaj City, west Iran. "nMethods: Totally 908 houseflies were collected to isolate bacteria from their external body based on standard proce­dures.Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar based on recommendations of CLSI (formerly the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards. "nResults: From collected houseflies, 366 bacteria species were isolated. The most common isolated bacterium at hos­pitals was Klebsiella pneumoniae 43.3% (n= 90 followed by Pseudomonas aeruginosa 37% (n= 77, while that of slaughterhouse was Proteus mirabilis. 29.1% (n= 46 followed by Citrobacter freundii 28.4% (n= 45. Among all the isolates from hospitals, cephalexin, chloramphenicol, ampicillin, and tetracycline, resistance rates were above 32.5% and gentamicin expressed the highest susceptibility among all the isolates from hospitals. It is worth to note that K. pneumoniae showed 61% and 44.5% resistance to cephalexin and chloramphenicol respectively. Similarly, all iso­lates from slaughterhouse were more than 28% and 30% resistant to cephalexin and chloramphenicol respectively. Surprisingly, among all the isolates, Citrobacter freundii were highly resistant to gentamicin. "nConclusion: Houseflies collected from hospitals and slaughterhouse may be involved in the spread of drug resistant bacteria and may increase the potential of human exposure to drug resistant bacteria. "n  "nKeywords: House fly, bacterium, antibacterial resistance, hospitals, slaughterhouse

  12. In vitro susceptibilities of Borrelia burgdorferi to five oral cephalosporins and ceftriaxone.

    OpenAIRE

    Agger, W A; Callister, S M; Jobe, D A

    1992-01-01

    We determined the in vitro susceptibilities of eight Borrelia burgdorferi isolates to five oral cephalosporins. MICs for B. burgdorferi 297 were 23 micrograms/ml (cephalexin), 45 micrograms/ml (cefadroxil), 91 micrograms/ml (cefaclor), 0.13 microgram/ml (cefuroxime), 0.8 microgram/ml (cefixime), and 0.02 microgram/ml (ceftriaxone). When B. burgdorferi isolates were exposed to concentrations twice the MIC of cefuroxime, cefixime, or ceftriaxone, at least 72 h of incubation was required to kill...

  13. A case of wound infection caused by Shewanella algae in the south of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Taherzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shewanella algae was isolated from the purulent discharge in the navel area of a young male with a history of swimming in the Persian Gulf. A routine laboratory diagnosis procedure, followed by 16S rRNA gene sequence analyses, was used to avoid misidentification with other species of Shewanella. The bacterium was suscetible to ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid, nitrophorantion, amikacin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, gentamicin and co-trimoxazole but was resistant to amoxicillin, vancomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin, ampicillin, tetracycline, cephalothin and ceftizoxime. The patient successfully recovered after treatment with antibiotics.

  14. Avaliação de métodos de extração para a determinação de cromo e níquel em formulações farmacêuticas e em matérias-primas usadas na fabricação de medicamentos à base de cefalexina e ciprofloxacino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo R. de Paula

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the evaluation of extraction strategies for the treatment of medicine samples to determine chromium and nickel by GFAAS. Different approaches for extraction were evaluated and the most efficient involved magnetic stirring. The metals were quantitatively extracted by stirring 0.20 g samples with 25 mL of 2.0 mol L-1 HCl solution for 60 min. The developed method was successfully applied for the determination of Cr and Ni in tablets containing antibiotics and raw materials, with cephalexin and ciprofloxacin as active ingredients.

  15. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital, Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maksum Radji; Siti Fauziah; Nurgani Aribinuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit (ICU) of a tertiary care of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods, and their antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method. Results: Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment, of which 249 (64.68%) were cultured positive and 136 (35.32%) were negative. The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) (26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae) (15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (14.9%). P. aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin (95.3%), cefotaxime (64.1%), and ceftriaxone (60.9%). Amikacin was the most effective (84.4%) antibiotic against P. aeruginosa followed by imipenem (81.2%), and meropenem (75.0%). K. pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin (86.5%), ceftriaxone (75.7%), ceftazidime (73.0%), cefpirome (73.0%) and cefotaxime (67.9%), respectively. Conclusions: Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins, and quinolone antibiotics. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility patterns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  16. COAGULASE POSITIVE STAPHYLOCOCCI RESISTANCE TO BETALACTAM ANTIBIOTICS: USING IODOMETRIC AND ACIDOMETRIC ASSAY – 1999

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A TAVAKOLI

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. It is very important to know the resistant bacteria to common used antibiotics in our community. Staphylococcus coagulase positive was the main cause of infection in infectious disease. This study was done to demonstrate the pattern of resistance to batalactamase antibiotics among staphiococci. Methods. During a period of five month, 38 coagulase positive staphylococcus isolates were identified from various clinical specimens from 600 patients at the AI-Zahra university hospital (affiliated to IUMSHS. Results. Betalactamase production assays using rapid acidometric and iodometric tests showed that 78.9 percent and 73.6 percent of isolates were positive, respectively. The differnce in determination rate between acidometric and iodometric tests was not statistically significant. Moreover the acidometric test was cheaper and more easy to perform than iodometric test. In vitro sensitivity testing using the disc diffusion method showed that all of isolates were resistant to carbenicillin, ampicillin and amoxicillin, while 7.9 percent and 13.2 percent were resistant to cefazolin and cephalexin, respectively. Discussion. We recommend use of cefazolin, cephalexin and oxacillin for treatment of patients with staphylococcus infections.

  17. A Liquid Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry/Mass Spectrometry Method for the Quantification of Cefixime in Human Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Arunkumar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Cefixime is a third generation cephalosporin effective against gram-positive and gram-negative organisms. It is available in solid and liquid oral dosages of 100 mg, 200 mg and 400 mg. It is used to treat respiratory and urinary tract infections. In this study, a liquid chromatography-Mass spectrometric method to quantify cefixime in human plasma was developed. The quantification range for the method was 114.5033 to 9374.2050 ng/ml and the method was validated as per US FDA standards for pharmaceutical development. Cephalexin was used as the internal standard. Chromatographic and mass spectrometric conditions and extraction procedures were optimized to quantify the levels of cefixime in human plasma accurately. 100 μL of K3EDTA human plasma was required for sample processing. Extraction of cefixime and cephalexin was done by Liquid-Liquid extraction and separation was achieved by reverse phase liquid chromatography. Specificity, selectivity, matrix effect, calibration curve, precision, accuracy, ruggedness, recovery, stability and dilution integrity were established for cefixime in human plasma. The method met acceptance criteria for all the validation parameters and can be successfully applied to human pharmacokinetic and bioequivalence studies of cefixime. The bioanalytical method was highly sensitive and selective for estimation of cefixime in human plasma samples containing the drug

  18. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world.

  19. Exploring the potential impact of an expanded genetic code on protein function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Nasertorabi, Fariborz; Choi, Sei-Hyun; Han, Gye Won; Reed, Sean A; Stevens, Raymond C; Schultz, Peter G

    2015-06-01

    With few exceptions, all living organisms encode the same 20 canonical amino acids; however, it remains an open question whether organisms with additional amino acids beyond the common 20 might have an evolutionary advantage. Here, we begin to test that notion by making a large library of mutant enzymes in which 10 structurally distinct noncanonical amino acids were substituted at single sites randomly throughout TEM-1 β-lactamase. A screen for growth on the β-lactam antibiotic cephalexin afforded a unique p-acrylamido-phenylalanine (AcrF) mutation at Val-216 that leads to an increase in catalytic efficiency by increasing kcat, but not significantly affecting KM. To understand the structural basis for this enhanced activity, we solved the X-ray crystal structures of the ligand-free mutant enzyme and of the deacylation-defective wild-type and mutant cephalexin acyl-enzyme intermediates. These structures show that the Val-216-AcrF mutation leads to conformational changes in key active site residues-both in the free enzyme and upon formation of the acyl-enzyme intermediate-that lower the free energy of activation of the substrate transacylation reaction. The functional changes induced by this mutation could not be reproduced by substitution of any of the 20 canonical amino acids for Val-216, indicating that an expanded genetic code may offer novel solutions to proteins as they evolve new activities. PMID:26038548

  20. Use of an Improved Matching Algorithm to Select Scaffolds for Enzyme Design Based on a Complex Active Site Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoqiang; Xue, Jing; Lin, Min; Zhu, Yushan

    2016-01-01

    Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with high catalytic efficiencies towards target reactions. PMID:27243223

  1. Evaluation of nasopharyngeal microbial flora and antibiogram and its relation to otitis media with effusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourizadeh, Navid; Ghazvini, Kiarash; Gharavi, Vahideh; Nourizadeh, Niloufar; Movahed, Rahman

    2016-04-01

    Acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion (OME) are the main causes of hearing impairment in children which require proper treatment, mainly antibiotic therapy. Patients whom were appropriate candidates for adenoidectomy were divided into two groups regarding the presence of middle ear effusion. Adenoid tissue specimens were cultured in both groups and the bacterial flora and anti-microbial resistance pattern were determined. 72 patients were studied, 42 % had OME while 58 % did not. The following bacteria were isolated and cultured from both groups with no meaningful difference in prevalence: Streptococcus viridans (p = 0.265), Staphylococcus aureus (p = 0.72), H. influenza (p = 0.806), Entrococcus. spp (0.391), Streptococcus pneumonia (p = 0.391), nonhemolytic Streptococcus (p = 0.230). Bacterial sensitivity was similar for Amoxicillin-clavulanate (p = 0.935), Amoxicillin (p = 0.935), Cephalexin (p = 0.806), Cefixime (p = 0.391) and Azithromycin in both groups. The two groups showed no meaningful difference considering the bacterial flora of nasopharynx and their sensitivity. Bacteria in both groups were sensitive to Amoxicillin and Amoxicillin-clavulanate and resistant to Azithromycin, Cefixime and Cephalexin. PMID:25929414

  2. 头孢氨苄的紫外分光光度法测定%Determination of Cefalexin Injection by Ultraviolet Spectrophotometric Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王学立; 程亮亮; 温俊柳; 汪雪雁; 薛秀恒; 祁克宗

    2011-01-01

    本研究应用紫外分光光度计法测定了头孢氨苄注射液中头孢氨苄的含量,以建立一种准确、简单的测定方法,用于头孢氨苄注射液的含量测定。头孢氨苄在紫外光区有最大吸收值,且最大吸收波长为261nm。以261nm为测定波长做标准曲线,得到回归方程为:y=0.0224x,R2=0.9996。此法快捷简便,适用于兽药及动物性食品中药物残留分析。%In order to establish an accurate and simple method for the content of cephalexin injection determination, a method by UV spectrophotometer was conducted in this study. Results showed that the maximum wavelength of cephalexin in ultraviolet was 261nm. The standard curve was established and the regression equation was y=0.0224x, R2=0.9996. This method is fast, simple and applicable to analysis veterinary drugs and drugs residues in animal food.

  3. High-dose antibiotic therapy is superior to a 3-drug combination of prostanoids and lipid A derivative in protecting irradiated canines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Toles, R.E.; Miner, V.L.; Jackson, W.E.; Seed, T.M. [Armed Forces Radiobiology Research Inst., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2002-12-01

    There is an urgent need to develop non-toxic radioprotectors. We tested the efficacy of a 3-drug combination (3-DC) of iloprost, misoprostol, and 3D-MPL (3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A) and the effects of postirradiation clinical support with high doses of antibiotics and blood transfusion. Canines were given 3-DC or the vehicle and exposed to 3.4 Gy or 4.1 Gy of {sup 60}Co radiation. Canines irradiated at 4.1 Gy were also given clinical support, which consisted of blood transfusion and antibiotics (gentamicin, and cefoxitin or cephalexin). Peripheral blood cell profile and 60-day survival were used as indices of protection. At 3.4 Gy, 3-DC- or vehicle-treated canines without postirradiation clinical support survived only for 10 to 12 days. Fifty percent of the canines treated with 3-DC or vehicle and provided postirradiation clinical support survived 4.1-Gy irradiation. Survival of canines treated with vehicle before irradiation significantly correlated with postirradiation antibiotic treatments, but not with blood transfusion. The recovery profile of peripheral blood cells in 4.1 Gy-irradiated canines treated with vehicle and antibiotics was better than drug-treated canines. These results indicate that therapy with high doses of intramuscular aminoglycoside antibiotic (gentamicin) and an oral cephalosporin (cephalexin) enhanced survival of irradiated canines. Although blood transfusion correlated with survival of 3-DC treated canines, there were no additional survivors with 3-DC treated canines than the controls. (author)

  4. Performance and mechanisms for the removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from aqueous solution by graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Chen, Ying-Chun; Yang, Hao-Xuan; Yen, Chia-Heng

    2016-07-01

    In this study, commonly detected emerging contaminants (ECs) in water, including di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF), were selected as the target contaminants. A lab-prepared graphene-containing ceramic composite tubular membrane (TGCCM) coupled with the simultaneous electrocoagulation and electrofiltration process (EC/EF) in crossflow filtration mode was used to remove target contaminants in model solution. Meanwhile, a comparison of the removal efficiency was made among various tubular composite membranes reported, including carbon fibers/carbon/alumina composite tubular membrane (TCCACM), titania/alumina composite tubular membrane (TTACM) and alumina tubular membrane (TAM). The results of this study showed that the removal efficiencies for DnBP and DEHP were 99%, whereas 32-97% for cephalexin (CLX), sulfamethoxazole (SMX) and caffeine (CAF). In this work the mechanisms involved in removing target ECs were proposed and their roles in removing various ECs were also discussed. Further, two actual municipal wastewaters were treated to evaluate the applicability of the aforementioned treatment technology (i.e., TGCCM coupled with EC/EF) to various aqueous solutions in the real world. PMID:27131034

  5. Temporal profile of antimicrobial resistance exhibited by strains of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from cases of bovine mastitis for 20 years (1992-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ananda Paula Kowalski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Records of in vitro susceptibility tests performed between 1992 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed in order to evaluate the dynamic profiles of possible changes in antimicrobial resistance of Staphylococcus spp. isolated from milk samples of cows with mastitis during two decades. The results of 2,430 isolates tested by disk diffusion technique for susceptibility to oxacillin, penicillin, ampicillin, cephalexin, norfloxacin, tetracycline, sulfazotrim, gentamicin, and neomycin were analysed. Comparisons were performed between the percentages of resistance to antimicrobials and their classes and also between the decades studied. Additionally, the possible tendency or changes in the behaviour of these pathogens against the major drugs used in the last two decades were evaluated using regression analysis. The highest rates of resistance (P<0.0001 were observed for the beta-lactams (34.3%, with exception of cephalexin (6.9%, and for the tetracyclines (28%. Similar resistance rates (7.6% to 15.7% were observed among the other drugs. Regression analysis showed a reduction in resistance to penicillin and ampicillin throughout the period, whilst for oxacillin and neomycin a decrease in the resistance was observed during the first decade, followed by an increase. A trend towards decreased resistance was found for sulfazotrim, whereas for the other antimicrobials no decrease was observed. The results indicated no trend towards increased resistance for most antimicrobials tested. Nevertheless, it is necessary to monitor the resistance patterns of these pathogens in order to save these drugs as a therapeutic reserve

  6. 低浓度头孢类抗生素暴露对嗜热四膜虫超氧化物歧化酶和乳酸脱氢酶活力的影响%Effects of environmental relevant concentration exposure to cephalosporin antibiotics on activity of superoxide dismutase and lactic dehydrogenase of Tetrahymena thermophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白琦锋; 高礼; 袁涛

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究头孢类抗生素在环境相关浓度水平对嗜热四膜虫超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)和乳酸脱氢酶(LDH)活力的影响.方法 将处于对数生长期的嗜热四膜虫分别暴露于不同浓度的头孢氨苄和头孢拉定溶液,终浓度分别为0(对照)、0.05、1.0、1 000.0 μg/L.30℃暴露24 h后,测定嗜热四膜虫SOD和LDH的活力.结果 与对照组比较,各浓度头孢氨苄暴露组嗜热四膜虫SOD活力均较高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);而1.0和1 000.0μg/L头孢氨苄暴露组嗜热四膜虫LDH活力显著降低,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.01).与对照组比较,0.05 μg/L头孢拉定暴露组嗜热四膜虫SOD活力较低,1.0和1 000.0 μg/L头孢拉定暴露组嗜热四膜虫SOD活力较高,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);仅1.0μg/L头孢拉定暴露组嗜热四膜虫LDH活力显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论 环境相关浓度的头孢氨苄和头孢拉定对嗜热四膜虫酶活力产生一定影响.%Objective To study the effects of two main cephalosporin antibiotics (cephalexin and cefradine) on Tetrahymena thermophila at the environmental relevant concentration through testing the changes of the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). Methods Tetrahymena thermophila, which were in a logarithmic growth period, were exposed to different concentrations of cephalexin and cefradine for 24 h at 30 ℃. The final concentrations of the two drugs were 0 (control), 0.05, 1.0, and 1 000.0 μg/L Then, the activities of SOD and LDH in Tetrahymena thermophila were tested. Results Compared with the control group, SOD activities in Tetrahymena thermophila in every cephalexin exposuure group was significantly increased (P<0.05); However, LDH activities in Tetrahymena thermophila in 1.0 and 1 000.0 μg/L cephalexin groups were reduced (P<0.01). Compared with control group, SOD activity in Tetrahymena thermophila in 0.05 μg/L cefradine exposure group was

  7. 典型抗生素对羊角月牙藻的生长抑制及其联合毒性%Growth inhibitive effect of typical antibiotics and their mixtures on Selenastrum capricornutum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高礼; 石丽娟; 袁涛

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of two commonly used cephalosporins (cephalexin,cefradine) and their main degradation product 7-aminocephalosporanic acid (7-ACA),and two widely used tetracycline drugs (tetracycline,chlortetracycline),on the growth of Selenastrum capricornutum and the joint toxicity.Methods Selenastrum capricornutum was exposed respectively to the five compounds at five different concentrations (0.25-4 μg/ml for tetracycline and chlortetracycline,0.1-1 000 μg/ml for cephalexin and cefradine,60-960 μg/ml for 7-ACA),and a control group without compounds was set.In addition,according to toxicity unit method,the joint toxicity tests of tetracycline +aureomycin and tetracycline+7-ACA were set at five concentrations of 0.2,0.4,0.8,1.6 and 3.2 TU.After treatment for 72 h,the density of the algae population was measured.The percent of growth inhibition and median inhibitory concentration (IC50 value) were calculated.Results The 72 h-IC50 values of tetracycline,chlortetracycline and 7-ACA for Selenastrum capricornutum were 0.50,0.47 and 775.6 μg/ml,respectively.The percent of growth inhibition of cefradine was negative at each tested concentration (0.1-1 000 μg/ml).However,the growth of the algae was stimulated by cephalexin at lower concentrations (0.1,1 and 10 μg/ml),but inhibited by cephalexin at higher concentrations (100 and 1 000 μg/ml).The inhibition percent of cephalexin at 1 000 μg/ml was less than 50%.Therefore,the 72 h-IC50 values of cefradine and cephalexin could not be calculated in the tested concentration range.For the mixture toxicity,IC50 values of tetracycline +aureomycin group and tetracycline+7-ACA group were 0.99 TU and 1.5 TU,respectively.Conclusion The tetracycline drugs may inhibit the growth of Selenastrum capricornutum while cefradine may have stimulation at the tested concentrations.Cephalexin and 7-ACA presented hormesis.The toxicity of cephalosporin antibiotics degradation product 7-ACA was obviously higher than that of

  8. New combination for the therapy of canine otitis externa. I. Microbiology of otitis externa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, G; Radványi, S; Szigeti, G

    1997-02-01

    In order to compound a new drug combination against canine otitis externa (OE), 515 dogs affected with OE were subjected to physical examination and microbiological analysis of their ear exudates. OE was erythematous-ceruminous in 83 per cent and suppurative in 17 per cent of the patient material. Erythematous-ceruminous inflammations were characterised by severe pruritus and accumulation of brownish, greasy cerumen in the auditory canal. The yeast Malassezia pachydermatis was isolated from the ears of 76 per cent of the dogs, often in combination with Staphylococcus intermedius bacteria. M pachydermatis showed the most sensitivity, in decreasing order of efficacy, to ketoconazole, econazole, clotrimazole, miconazole and nystatin. S intermedius isolates were most sensitive to amoxycillin-clavulanic acid, enrofloxacin, cephalexin and gentamicin. The microorganism most frequently isolated from dogs with suppurative OE was Pseudomonas aeruginosa; in some cases Proteus, Streptococcus and Pasteurella were also isolated. The P aeruginosa isolates showed the highest sensitivity to gentamicin, polymyxin B and tobramycin.

  9. EUM: impacto de la intervención educativa en el consumo de antibióticos en la seguridad social

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desirée Sáenz Campos

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available La Seguridad Social de Costa Rica desarrolla un programa de educación médica permanente que, en 1996, enfatizó el uso racional de antibióticos en clínicas y hospitales del país. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar el impacto de la intervención educativa en la prescripción de antibióticos. Diez unidades reportaron el consumo de cefalexina, amoxicilina y sulfa-trimetoprim (S-TMP en ambas presentaciones orales disponibles, tres meses antes y después de la visita (se incluyeron datos de dos unidades más, como control; para análisis, los resultados se uniformaron como dosis diaria definida (DDD. El consumo global fue de 46.58 DDD antes del módulo, y vario +1.76 durante los 3 meses siguientes. La prescripción de cefalexina mostró una disminución media de 13%, y la prescripción de S-TMP bajó un 14%; ambos descensos se registraron en el 70% de las unidades. Alternativamente, la prescripción de amoxicilina aumentó sistemáticamente, hasta un 32% como promedio. Por su parte, los controles mostraron un incremento sistemático en el consumo de los antibióticos: +12% para cefalexina y S-TMP, respectivamente; y +37% para amoxicilina. En conclusión, se demostró que el consumo de medicamentos es susceptible de modificación, especialmente en núcleos cerrados (atención ambulatoria. Asimismo, que la intervención educativa tuvo un impacto real en la prescripción de antibióticos de uso masivo. Y finalmente, se confirma que la educación médica permanente es útil para promover, continuamente, el uso racional de medicamentos.In 1996, the Costa Rican Social Security developped a Program of Medical Education to promote an intesive knowledge of antibiotics rational use in several health center. In order to evaluate the posible impact of educative intervention in antibiotics prescriptions, ten health centers of all visited reported consuption of cephalexin, amoxicilin and sulpha-metoxazol (S-TMP in both formulation avalable (pills and

  10. Isolation and identification of bacterial causes of clinical mastitis in cattle in Sulaimania region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Hussein

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 51 cases of bovine clinical mastitis in Sulaimani district were investigated for their bacteriological causative agents; 76 milk samples were cultured on primary and selective media and the isolated bacteria were tested for their susceptibility to antimicrobial agents used in commercial intramammary infusion products. Eighty two bacterial isolates were obtained and further identified using biochemical tests. Escherichia coli was the most common bacteria followed by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactia and coagulase–negative staphylococci. Two other bacterial species (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcucs uberis were also isolated but in a lower proportion. Antibacterial susceptibility testing showed that the use of florfenicol, cephalexin and gentamicin may be useful for the treatment of clinical mastitis cases in cows.

  11. Species distribution and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of coagulase negative staphylococci isolated from various clinical specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohan U

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of 192 strains of Coagulase negative staphylococcus (CONS showed that Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most common species, 158 (82.29% isolated from all clinical specimens followed by S. saprophyticus (30, 15.62% isolated mainly from urine. Slime production was exhibited by 77 (48.7% strains of S. epidermidis and 8 (26.6% of S. saprophyticus and the difference in the slime producing activity was statistically significant (p<0.005. Antibiotic susceptibility testing against 15 commonly used antibiotics showed multidrug resistance with more than 90% resistance to penicillin, more than 50% to cephalexin and ciprofloxacin and more than 20% to methicillin, thus, highlighting the importance of species identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing for clinical isolates of CONS.

  12. Increasing Ciprofloxacin Resistance Among Prevalent Urinary Tract Bacterial Isolates in Gaza Strip, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakaria El Astal

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the incidence of ciprofloxacin resistance among 480 clinical isolates obtained from patients with urinary tract infection (UTI during January to June 2004 in Gaza Strip, Palestine. The resistance rates observed were 15.0% to ciprofloxacin, 82.5% to amoxycillin, 64.4% to cotrimoxazole, 63.1% to doxycycline, 32.5% to cephalexin, 31.9% to nalidixic acid, and 10.0% to amikacin. High resistance to ciprofloxacin was detected among Acinetobacter haemolyticus (28.6%, Staphylococcus saprophyticus (25.0%,Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0%, Klebsiella pneumonia (17.6%, and Escherichia coli (12.0%. Minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of ciprofloxacin evenly ranged from 4 to 32 μg/mL with a mean of 25.0 μg/mL. This study indicates emerging ciprofloxacin resistance among urinary tract infection isolates. Increasing resistance against ciprofloxacin demands coordinated monitoring of its activity and rational use of the antibiotics.

  13. Considering Respiratory Tract Infections and Antimicrobial Sensitivity: An Exploratory Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin, R.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to observe the sensitivity and resistance of status of antibiotics for respiratory tract infection (RTI. Throat swab culture and sensitivity report of 383 patients revealed sensitivity profiles were observed with amoxycillin (7.9%, penicillin (33.7%, ampicillin (36.6%, co-trimoxazole (46.5%, azithromycin (53.5%, erythromycin (57.4%, cephalexin (69.3%, gentamycin (78.2%, ciprofloxacin (80.2%, cephradine (81.2%, ceftazidime (93.1%, ceftriaxone (93.1%. Sensitivity to cefuroxime was reported 93.1% cases. Resistance was found with amoxycillin (90.1%, ampicillin (64.1%, penicillin (61.4%, co-trimoxazole (43.6%, erythromycin (39.6%, and azithromycin (34.7%. Cefuroxime demonstrates high level of sensitivity than other antibiotics and supports its consideration with patients with upper RTI.

  14. Structure and function of multidrug and toxin extrusion proteins (MATEs) and their relevance to drug therapy and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nies, Anne T; Damme, Katja; Kruck, Stephan; Schaeffeler, Elke; Schwab, Matthias

    2016-07-01

    Multidrug and toxin extrusion (MATE; SLC47A) proteins are membrane transporters mediating the excretion of organic cations and zwitterions into bile and urine and thereby contributing to the hepatic and renal elimination of many xenobiotics. Transported substrates include creatinine as endogenous substrate, the vitamin thiamine and a number of drug agents with in part chemically different structures such as the antidiabetic metformin, the antiviral agents acyclovir and ganciclovir as well as the antibiotics cephalexin and cephradine. This review summarizes current knowledge on the structural and molecular features of human MATE transporters including data on expression and localization in different tissues, important aspects on regulation and their functional role in drug transport. The role of genetic variation of MATE proteins for drug pharmacokinetics and drug response will be discussed with consequences for personalized medicine. PMID:27165417

  15. DETERMINATION OF CEFDITOREN PIVOXIL IN HUMAN PLASMA BY HIGH PERFORMANCE THIN LAYER CHROMATOGRAPHIC METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhoka Madhura Vishal

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A simple, rapid, sensitive high performance thin layer chromatography method for cefditoren pivoxil in human plasma using cephalexin as an internal standard has been developed and validated. The method enables to determine cefditoren pivoxil with minimum quantification limit 0.1µg ml-1 to 0.6 µg ml-1 having retention factor of 0.74±0.03. The sample preparation involves the simple protein precipitation technique using methanol as a precipitating agent. The determination was carried out on silica gel 60 F245 TLC plate with a mobile phase consisted of toluene: methanol: triethylamine (5:3.5:0.09 v/v/v. The wavelength selected was 250nm.

  16. Pulmonary renal syndrome: treatment of acute renal failure secondary to double positive goodpasture syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajkumar Prakashbhai Doshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case of a 34 year old female who presented with lower epigastric pain, flank pain and hematuria. Her symptoms started two days after being treated on Trimethoprim+Sulfamethoxazole for urinary tract infection. Worsening of her symptoms despite switching to Cephalexin prompted her to come to the emergency department. On admission, her creatinine was 5.3 mg/dL with potassium of 5.2 mEq/L and albuminuria of 100 mg/dL. Chest computed tomography (CT without contrast revealed findings consistent with goodpasture disease. Biopsy of the kidney confirmed diffuse necrotizing and crescentic glomerulonephritis consistent with anti-glomerular basement membrane antibody disease. She was treated with plasmapheresis and steroids with complete resolution of symptoms at follow up. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(1.000: 322-325

  17. Eyelid nonbullous impetigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Corredor-Osorio

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available We report an unusual case of nonbullous impetigo of the eyelid. A 21-year-old woman had a painless eruptions right eyelid and around nostril. Clinical examination revealed eyelid nonbullous impetigo. The patient was otherwise healthy. Any minor trauma or skin problems there were not founded. Staphylococcus aureus was isolated from the lesions. Complete resolution was achieved with oral cephalexin an ointment tobramycin. Impetigo nonbullous occurs commonly on the face of children but it might be developed in healthy adults even those was not necessary evidenced previous trauma or dermal infiltrate with pus or any other active cutaneous injury as this case is demonstrated. The treatment of impetigo around the eye included a careful examination of the segment anterior and the application de topical measures with oral and topical antibiotics. The case is being reported in view of its rarity and unusual location.

  18. Cavity Forming Pneumonia Due to Staphylococcus aureus Following Dengue Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, Nobuyuki; Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo; Amano, Yuichiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Kosuge, Youko

    2015-11-01

    While visiting Malaysia, a 22-year-old previously healthy Japanese man developed myalgia, headache, and fever, leading to a diagnosis of classical dengue fever. After improvement and returning to Japan after a five day hospitalization, he developed productive cough several days after defervescing from dengue. Computed tomography (CT) thorax scan showed multiple lung cavities. A sputum smear revealed leukocytes with phagocytized gram-positive cocci in clusters, and grew an isolate Staphylococcus aureus sensitive to semi-synthetic penicillin; he was treated successfully with ceftriaxone and cephalexin. This second reported case of pneumonia due to S. aureus occurring after dengue fever, was associated both with nosocomial exposure and might have been associated with dengue-associated immunosuppression. Clinicians should pay systematic attention to bacterial pneumonia following dengue fever to establish whether such a connection is causally associated. PMID:26304914

  19. Streptococcus suis in employees and the environment of swine slaughterhouses in São Paulo, Brazil: Occurrence, risk factors, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Taíssa Cook Siqueira; Gottschalk, Marcelo; Lacouture, Sonia; Megid, Jane; Ribolla, Paulo Eduardo Martins; Pantoja, José Carlos de Figueiredo; Paes, Antonio Carlos

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus suis is an important pathogen in the swine industry. This article is the first to report the occurrence, risk factors, serotype distribution, and antimicrobial susceptibility of S. suis recovered from employees and environmental samples of swine slaughterhouses in Brazil. Tonsillar swabs from all 139 pig-slaughtering employees and 261 environmental swabs were collected for detection of S. suis and serotyping by monoplex and multiplex polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the disk-diffusion method. Although S. suis was not detected in any of the tested employees, it was isolated from 25% of the environmental samples. Significant differences (P cephalexin (75%) were observed. However, multidrug resistance was observed in all the isolates. Because S. suis is present in the environment of swine slaughterhouses, on carcasses and knives, as well as on the hands of employees in all areas, all employees are at risk of infection. PMID:26424907

  20. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids. PMID:26106168

  1. The Screw-Like Movement of a Gliding Bacterium Is Powered by Spiral Motion of Cell-Surface Adhesins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivastava, Abhishek; Roland, Thibault; Berg, Howard C

    2016-09-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae, a rod-shaped bacterium, glides over surfaces at speeds of ∼2 μm/s. The propulsion of a cell-surface adhesin, SprB, is known to enable gliding. We used cephalexin to generate elongated cells with irregular shapes and followed their displacement in three dimensions. These cells rolled about their long axes as they moved forward, following a right-handed trajectory. We coated gold nanoparticles with an SprB antibody and tracked them in three dimensions in an evanescent field where the nanoparticles appeared brighter when they were closer to the glass. The nanoparticles followed a right-handed spiral trajectory on the surface of the cell. Thus, if SprB were to adhere to the glass rather than to a nanoparticle, the cell would move forward along a right-handed trajectory, as observed, but in a direction opposite to that of the nanoparticle. PMID:27602728

  2. Congenital microtia in a neonate due to maternal isotretinoin exposure 1 month before pregnancy: Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirazi, Mahboobeh; Abbariki, Ezzat; Pirjani, Reihaneh; Akhavan, Setareh; Dastgerdy, Ebrahim

    2015-06-01

    Isotretinoin is a drug used for treating severe cystic/nodular acne. Severe malformations have been documented in neonates whose mothers had taken isotretinoin during pregnancy. Women who became pregnant one cycle after completing therapy are believed to be at teratogenic risk not higher than baseline. We describe the case of a newborn whose mother had taken the drug for 4 weeks. The woman then had contraception for 4 weeks (after the drug treatment had finished), and became pregnant after that period. The newborn had isolated bilateral microtia due to suspected isotretinoin exposure. His mother also had a history of urine tract infection in the second week of pregnancy that was treated with cephalexin. The parents were not from a consanguineous marriage and had no family history of congenital malformations. To reduce the risk, effective contraception should be continued in fertile women more than 1 month after completing therapy. PMID:25773513

  3. Interaction of Peptide Transporter 1 With D-Glucose and L-Glutamic Acid; Possible Involvement of Taste Receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Ohmachi, Taichi; Ichiba, Kiko; Kamioka, Hiroki; Tomono, Takumi; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Idota, Yoko; Hatano, Yasuko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the influence of sweet and umami (savory) tastants on the intestinal absorption of cephalexin (CEX), a substrate of peptide transporter 1 (PEPT1, SLC15A1) in rats. After oral administration of glucose or mannitol to rats, CEX was administered together with a second dose of glucose or mannitol. Western blot analysis indicated that expression of PEPT1 in rat jejunum membrane was decreased by glucose, compared to mannitol. Furthermore, the maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) of orally administered CEX was reduced by glucose compared to mannitol. The effect of glucose was diminished by nifedipine, a L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker. We also found that Cmax of orally administered CEX was reduced by treatment with L-glutamic acid, compared to D-glutamic acid. Thus, excessive intake of glucose and L-glutamic acid may impair oral absorption of PEPT1 substrates. PMID:26852864

  4. 双歧杆菌对12种抗生素的敏感性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石晶红

    2008-01-01

    对鉴定为双歧杆菌的10株菌进行12种抗生素(Amikacin、Norfloxacin、Erythromycin、Levofloxacin、Tetracycline、Acetylspiramycin、Gentamicin、Chloramphenicol、Streptomycin、Metronidazole、Ampicillin、Cephalexin)的敏感性试验,结果表明,菌株B.catenulatum53对氨苄西林敏感,菌株B.catenulatum53、B.catenulatum56和B.adoleacentis59对四环素表现为中度敏感,菌株B.choleyium25和B.adoleacentis72对氯霉素表现为中度敏感,其余菌株对所选的抗生素都有一定的耐性。

  5. 荧光光度法测定头孢氨苄片剂的含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周采菊; 杨丽娟; 郭永恩; 金玉坤

    1998-01-01

    @@ 头孢氨苄(cephalexin)又称先锋Ⅳ,主要用于耐青霉素的葡萄球菌、链球菌、肺炎球菌、大肠杆菌等的感染.目前,测定方法有分光光度法[1]、光化学荧光法[2]、动力学催化法[3]等.Nightingle[4]等报道以0.10mol/L NaOH为介质,进行荧光分析快速、方便且灵敏.本文研究了头孢氨苄在酸性介质中的降解反应,应用于实际样品中测定,结果满意.

  6. Isolation and characterization of atypical Listeria monocytogenes associated with a canine urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palerme, Jean-Sébastien; Pan, Po Ching; Parsons, Cameron T; Kathariou, Sophia; Ward, Todd J; Jacob, Megan E

    2016-09-01

    Listeria monocytogenes, a well-described cause of encephalitis and abortion in ruminants and of food-borne illness in humans, is rarely associated with disease in companion animals. A case of urinary tract infection associated with an atypical, weakly hemolytic L. monocytogenes strain is described in a diabetic dog. The serotype of the L. monocytogenes isolate was determined to be 1/2a (3a), with the multilocus genotyping pattern 2.72_1/2a. A nucleotide substitution (Gly145Asp) was detected at residue 145 in the promoter prfA region. This residue is within the critical helix-turn-helix motif of PrfA. The source of the L. monocytogenes strain remains unknown, and the dog recovered after a 4-week course of cephalexin (30 mg/kg orally twice daily). PMID:27493137

  7. Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis: where are we now

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Himanshu; Marshall, Tarnya

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with polyarthritis and constitutional symptoms, and a recent history of multiple tick bites and skin rash on trekking holiday. He did not respond to oral doxycycline and cephalexine for presumed Lyme's disease. Further investigation confirmed strongly positive streptococcal serology. There was absence of clinical or echocardiography evidence of heart involvement and immunological screening for inflammatory arthritis was negative. In the absence of other major Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever, besides polyarthritis and the serological evidence of a recent streptococcal infection, a diagnosis of post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) was also made. He responded well to penicillin therapy and has been started on oral penicillin prophylaxis as per available guidance. As streptococcal infections in the adult population are increasingly reported, it is a timely opportunity to revisit PSRA, and develop comprehensive treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. PMID:27520996

  8. Cellulitis: diagnosis and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Elizabeth; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Cellulitis is an acute infection of the dermal and subcutaneous layers of the skin, often occurring after a local skin trauma. It is a common diagnosis in both inpatient and outpatient dermatology, as well as in the primary care setting. Cellulitis classically presents with erythema, swelling, warmth, and tenderness over the affected area. There are many other dermatologic diseases, which can present with similar findings, highlighting the need to consider a broad differential diagnosis. Some of the most common mimics of cellulitis include venous stasis dermatitis, contact dermatitis, deep vein thrombosis, and panniculitis. History, local characteristics of the affected area, systemic signs, laboratory tests, and, in some cases, skin biopsy can be helpful in confirming the correct diagnosis. Most patients can be treated as an outpatient with oral antibiotics, with dicloxacillin or cephalexin being the oral therapy of choice when methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is not a concern. PMID:21410612

  9. Fusion of bacterial spheroplasts by electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruthe, H J; Adler, J

    1985-09-25

    Spheroplasts of Escherichia coli or Salmonella typhimurium were found to fuse in an electric field. We employed the fusion method developed by Zimmermann and Scheurich (1981): Close membrane contact between cells is established by dielectrophoresis (formation of chains of cells by an a.c. field), then membrane fusion is induced by the application of short pulses of direct current. Under optimum conditions the fusion yield was routinely 90%. Fusable spheroplasts were obtained by first growing filamentous bacteria in the presence of cephalexin, then converting these to spheroplasts by the use of lysozyme. The fusion products were viable and regenerated to the regular bacterial form. Fusion of genetically different spheroplasts resulted in strains of bacteria possessing a combination of genetic markers. Fusion could not be achieved with spheroplasts obtained by growing the cells in the presence of penicillin or by using lysozyme on bacteria of usual size. PMID:3899175

  10. [Separation of bases, phenols and pharmaceuticals on ionic liquid-modified silica stationary phase with pure water as mobile phase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xusheng; Qiu, Hongdeng; Liu, Xia; Jiang, Shengxiang

    2011-03-01

    N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid (IL) -modified silica was prepared with the reaction of 3-chloropropyl modified silica and N-methylimidazole using toluene as solvent. Based on the multiple interactions between N-methylimidazolium IL-modified silica and analytes such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic attraction, repulsion interaction, hydrogen-bonding, etc., the bases (cytosine, thymine, 2-aminopyrimidine and 6-chloroguanine), phenols (m-aminophenol, resorcinol and m-nitrophenol) and three pharmaceuticals (moroxydine hydrochloride, acyclovir and cephalexin hydrate) were separated successfully with only pure water as the mobile phase. These chromatographic separations are environmental friendly, economical and convenient, without any organic solvent or buffer additive. The retention mechanism of these samples on the stationary phase was also investigated. PMID:21657060

  11. Post-streptococcal reactive arthritis: where are we now.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Himanshu; Marshall, Tarnya

    2016-01-01

    A 35-year-old man presented with polyarthritis and constitutional symptoms, and a recent history of multiple tick bites and skin rash on trekking holiday. He did not respond to oral doxycycline and cephalexine for presumed Lyme's disease. Further investigation confirmed strongly positive streptococcal serology. There was absence of clinical or echocardiography evidence of heart involvement and immunological screening for inflammatory arthritis was negative. In the absence of other major Jones criteria for acute rheumatic fever, besides polyarthritis and the serological evidence of a recent streptococcal infection, a diagnosis of post-streptococcal reactive arthritis (PSRA) was also made. He responded well to penicillin therapy and has been started on oral penicillin prophylaxis as per available guidance. As streptococcal infections in the adult population are increasingly reported, it is a timely opportunity to revisit PSRA, and develop comprehensive treatment and antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines. PMID:27520996

  12. In Vitro Antibacterial Effect of Effective Microorganisms( EM) on Aeromonas hydrophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu; Zhixiu; He; Houjun; Zhang; Wenbo; Wu; Xiangdong; Wan; Gen; Deng; Shunzhou; Liu; Songlin

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand in vitro antibacterial effect of antibiotics and EM on Aeromonas hydrophila,14 isolates of A. hydrophila were isolated from diseased fish and aquaculture in the study. PCR amplification results of aerolysin gene( Aero gene) of isolates indicated that 7 out of 14 isolates were pathogenic A.hydrophila. In vitro antibacterial test indicated that 14 isolates were resistance to penicillin G,ampicillin,cephradine,cefazolin,tetracycline,terimethoprim,lincomycin and cephalexin,but showed high sensitivity to cefotaxime and furazolidone. In vitro antibacterial effect of EM on 14 isolates of A. hydrophila was positively correlated with concentration,and EM with the concentration greater than 60% had antibacterial effect on 14 isolates.

  13. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit of Fatmawati Hospital,Indonesia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Maksum; Radji; Siti; Fauziah; Nurgani; Aribinuko

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the sensitivity pattern of bacterial pathogens in the intensive care unit(ICU) of a tertiary care of Falmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia.Methods:A cross sectional retrospective study of bacterial pathogen was carried out on a total of 722 patients that were admitted to the ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia during January 2009 to March 2010. All bacteria were identified by standard microbiologic methods,and(heir antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed using disk diffusion method.Results:Specimens were collected from 385 patients who were given antimicrobial treatment,of which 249(64.68%) were cultured positive and 136(35.32%) were negative.The most predominant isolate was Pseudomonas aeruginosa(P.aeruginosa)(26.5%) followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae(K.pneumoniae)(15.3%) and Staphylococcus epidermidis(14.9%).P.aeruginosa isolates showed high rate of resistance to cephalexin(95.3%),cefotaxime(64.1%),and ceftriaxone(60.9%).Amikacin was the most effective(84.4%) antibiotic against P.aeruginosa followed by imipenem(81.2%),and meropenem(75.0%).K.pneumoniae showed resistance to cephalexin(86.5%),ceftriaxone(75.7%),ceftazidime(73.0%),cefpirome(73.0%) and cefotaxime(67.9%),respectively.Conclusions:Most bacteria isolated from ICU of Fatmawati Hospital Jakarta Indonesia were resistant to the third generation of cephalosporins,and quinolone antibiotics.Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pallerns is very important for setting orders to guide the clinician in choosing empirical or directed therapy of infected patients.

  14. Microbiology of lower respiratory tract infection in workers of garment industry of Kathmandu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Pant

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES This study was designed with the objectives of describing the distribution pattern of microorganisms responsible for causing LRTI in the workers of garment industries. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 198 cases of suspected person of Lower Respiratory Tract infection (LRTI LRTI were included in this study. This study was conducted between November 2009 to April 2010. Specimen for the study was expectorated sputum. Gram-stain, Ziehl-Neelsen stains and culture were performed. RESULTS On direct microscopic examination, 20.51% were Gram positive bacteria, 79.48% were Gram negative bacteria and 4% were smear positive AFB. On culture sensitivity examination, 22% percent showed growth of different bacteria in different culture media. The bacteria isolated from the samples included Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.38%, Proteus mirabilis (15.38% and Citrobacterfruendii (15.38%. Gram Negative bacteria were found most susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (92.30%, 24/26 and Amikacin (92.30%, 24/26. Similarly, Gram Positive bacteria were found most susceptible to Ciprofloxacin (100%, 8/8 followed by Cloxacillin and Cephalexin (87.5%, 7/8. Smear positive AFB was significantly associated with not using the protective measures (mask by workers and presence of symptoms (cough for more than two weeks, night sweat, hemoptysis and anorexia (p=0.031. Culture positivity was significantly associated with symptoms like production of purulent sputum (p=0.045. CONCLUSION There was insignificant association between LRTI and risk factors present in working room of garment industries. Most of the isolates were sensitive to Ciprofloxacin and resistance to Ampicillin and Cephalexin.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12772 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 14-22

  15. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in shiraz, iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japoni, Aziz; Ziyaeyan, Mazyar; Jmalidoust, Marzieh; Farshad, Shohreh; Alborzi, Abdolvahab; Rafaatpour, Noraladdin; Badiee, Parisa

    2010-07-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA) pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19) to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended. PMID:24031530

  16. Influence of human urine to antimicrobial susceptibility of clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli producing β-lactamase of different types

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    Ž. Žagar

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to determine the influence of human urine on the antibiotic susceptibilities of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli strains producing different types of extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL. The study was performed on 26 ESBL negative strains of K. pneumoniae, 80 K. pneumoniae strains producing SHV-ESBLs (52-SHV-5, 31- SHV-2 and 7- SHV-12, 94 E. coli strains harbouring TEM- ESBLs and 14 E. coli strains possessing CTX-M group 1 β-lactamases. The minimum inhibitory concentrations of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate (co-amoxilcav, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were performed in parallel in Mueller-Hinton broth and urine by broth microdilution method. With ESBL negative strains, urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin alone and combined with clavulanate, cephalexin, cefuroxime, ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin. Against SHV-5 producers, an increase in MIC90 was observed with cefotaxime, cefepime and ciprofloxacin when the test was performed in urine. SHV-2 producers showed elevated MIC90 of ceftazidime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone and cefepime in the presence of urine, in contrast to SHV-12 producers which displayed elevated MIC90 only for cefotaxime. Urine increased MIC90 of amoxycillin/clavulanate, ceftazidime and cefepime against CTX-M producers, and of amoxycillin/clavulanate, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, cefepime and ciprofloxacin for TEM producers. According to our results the activity of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection could be overestimated by a standard in vitro testing. However, most of antibiotics used for the treatment of urinary tract infection achieve very high concentration in urine and that could abrogate the reduction of antimicrobial activity by biological fluid.

  17. Resistance of Escherichia coli, the most frequent cause of urinary tract infection in children, to antibiotics

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    Stojanović Vesna

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Urinary tract infections (UTI take the second place in the incidence of bacterial infection in children. Escherichia coli is a cause of infection in 85-90%. A periodic evaluation of the resistance to antimicrobial drugs has to be performed in each geographic region, since investigations confirmed that the resistance of bacteria causing UTI has been in progress. Material and methods. A retrospective investigation has been performed, comprising the two time periods in the range of 10 years in order to identify the prevalence and resistance of the bacteria causing UTI in the patients treated at the Department of Nephrology of Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina. Results. During the first investigated period from January 1996 up to December 1997, there were 163 urin analyses performed vs 134 urine analyses in the second period, starting from January 2006 to December 2007. In both periods, Escherichia coli, was the most frequent cause of UTI (82.1% in 1996/97 vs 86.50% in 2006/07. During this ten-year period, the resistance of Escherichia coli increased both to ampicillin (from 53% to 69% (p>0.05 and to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (34% vs 55%; p<0.05 as well as to cephalexin (4% vs 36%; p<0.05 which has been lately used in our region as a drug of choice in empiric therapy of the suspect UTI. Discussion. There have been records on a slow increase of the Escherichia coli resistance to ceftazidim, gentamycin and nalidixic acid, but significant increase to ampicillin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole and cephalexin. Conclusion. For the initial therapy of UTI in the Province of Vojvodina we recommend: per orally - cephalosporins I, II and III generation, and in case when the child is not capable to get therapy perorally, or in the case of highly febrile infant - cephalosporins III generation parenterally.

  18. 药物相互作用致心房颤动患者INR异常升高的病例分析及文献复习%Case analysis of the abnormal rise in INR due to drug interaction and brief review on literature

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙云川; 王昕; 秦明照; 王家伟

    2013-01-01

    An 85-year old woman had a history of long-term oral warfarin for atrial fibril ation, with INR range between 1.6 and 2.5. The patient had taken cephalexin for 3 days due to pharyngitis, INR increased to 11.72 two days afer withdrawl of cephalexin. Ecchymosis occurred at the right upper-arm. Warfarin was withdrawn next day and INR decreased to 2.6 after intravenous vitamin K1 (10mg), Warfarin was restarted and INR was between 1.6 and 2.5. INR and bleeding should be monitored more intensely if increase in drug combination. Interaction of warfarin with other drugs should be given more attention. Patient’s education is very important for safety of warfarin use.%  患者女性,85岁,因房颤长期服用华法林,国际标准化比值(INR)1.6-2.5。患者因咽痛服用头孢氨苄片3d,停用2d后INR升至11.72,伴右上臂片状瘀斑。次日停用华法林,给予静脉滴注10mg维生素K1,INR降至2.6。2d后重启华法林治疗,INR1.6-2.5。应用华法林时如增加合并用药,要密切监测INR及出血情况,重视华法林的药物相互作用。患者教育对华法林的用药安全十分重要。

  19. A clinico-bacteriological study of lacrimal regurgitate in cases of chronic dacryocystitis in a referral hospital in Madhya Pradesh

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    Devendra Kumar Shakya

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic dacryocystitis is an inflammation of the lacrimal sac which usually occurs because of the obstruction of the nasolacrimal duct. Objective: The primary objective of the study was to know its clinico-bacteriological profile. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational study was carried out over a period of one year to know the current bacterial flora involved in chronic dacryocystitis. All specimens were processed for isolation and identification of bacterial pathogens according to the standard microbiological techniques. The antibiotic susceptibility pattern was done by Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method according to the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines. Results: Among total 100 cases of chronic dacryocystitis, the highest percentage of infections in relation to age was noted in the age group of 50-60 years and the prevalence rate was higher in female patients compared with male. Out of total chronic dacryocystitis cases, 72% cases were found to be culture positive. Among positive culture, gram positive organisms were higher than that of Gram-negative. Staphylococcus epidermidis was the most frequently isolated and Streptococcus pyogenes was least isolated. The highest percentage of positive samples was found in the mucopurulent discharge followed by extensive purulent and clear fluid, respectively. In Gram-positive isolates, chloramphenicol was the most sensitive followed by cefazolin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, cephalexin, vancomycin, gentamycin, and tobramycin, respectively, whereas in Gram-negative isolate, chloramphenicol and nalidixic acid were equally effective followed by ofloxacin, gentamycin, cephalexin, cefazolin and ciprofloxacin, respectively. Conclusion: S. epidermidis was the most frequently isolated bacteria, and chloramphenicol was the most susceptible drug in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.

  20. Use of an Improved Matching Algorithm to Select Scaffolds for Enzyme Design Based on a Complex Active Site Model.

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    Xiaoqiang Huang

    Full Text Available Active site preorganization helps native enzymes electrostatically stabilize the transition state better than the ground state for their primary substrates and achieve significant rate enhancement. In this report, we hypothesize that a complex active site model for active site preorganization modeling should help to create preorganized active site design and afford higher starting activities towards target reactions. Our matching algorithm ProdaMatch was improved by invoking effective pruning strategies and the native active sites for ten scaffolds in a benchmark test set were reproduced. The root-mean squared deviations between the matched transition states and those in the crystal structures were < 1.0 Å for the ten scaffolds, and the repacking calculation results showed that 91% of the hydrogen bonds within the active sites are recovered, indicating that the active sites can be preorganized based on the predicted positions of transition states. The application of the complex active site model for de novo enzyme design was evaluated by scaffold selection using a classic catalytic triad motif for the hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl acetate. Eighty scaffolds were identified from a scaffold library with 1,491 proteins and four scaffolds were native esterase. Furthermore, enzyme design for complicated substrates was investigated for the hydrolysis of cephalexin using scaffold selection based on two different catalytic motifs. Only three scaffolds were identified from the scaffold library by virtue of the classic catalytic triad-based motif. In contrast, 40 scaffolds were identified using a more flexible, but still preorganized catalytic motif, where one scaffold corresponded to the α-amino acid ester hydrolase that catalyzes the hydrolysis and synthesis of cephalexin. Thus, the complex active site modeling approach for de novo enzyme design with the aid of the improved ProdaMatch program is a promising approach for the creation of active sites with

  1. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns and cross-resistance of methicillin resistant and sensitive Staphyloccus aureus isolated from the hospitalized patients in Shiraz, Iran

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    Aziz Japoni

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Nosocomial infections caused by methicillin-resistant staphylococci (MRSA pose a serious problem in many countries. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial susceptibility patterns of methicillin sensitive and resistant Staphylococcus aureus isolates from the hospitalized patients. Totally 356 isolates of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus including 200, 137 and 19 corresponding to MSSA, MRSA, and intermediate MRSA strains, respectively were isolated. Antibacterial susceptibility patterns of the isolates to 14 antibiotics were examined using Kirby-Bauer method. MICs of 15 antibiotics to 156 MRSA isolates were determined by E test method. Cross-resistances of MRSA isolates (137+19 to the other tested antibiotics were also determined. S.aureus with high frequencies were isolated from the blood, sputum and deep wound samples. All of 200 MSSA isolates were sensitive to oxacillin, vancomycin, tecoplanin, rifampin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid. A gradient of reduced susceptibility of MSSA to cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin were evident. MRSA isolates were sensitive to vancomycin, tecoplanin, linezolid, quinupristin/dalfopristin, mupirocin and fusidic acid, while reduced susceptibility of them to rifampin, co-trimoxazole, clindamycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin and gentamicin were observed. MRSA isolates exhibited a high range of cross-resistance to the eight tested antibiotics. Overall, co-trimoxazole, ciprofloxacin, clindamycin, tetracycline, erythromycin and gentamicin showed low activity against MSSA and MRSA isolates which may indicate they are not suitable to be used in clinical practices. To preserve the effectiveness of antibiotics, rational prescription and concomitant application of preventive measures against the spread of MRSA are recommended.

  2. Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of causative organisms of neonatal septicemia in an urban hospital of Bangladesh

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    Forhad Monjur

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The information of the sensitivity pattern of the causative organisms is very important for effective control of septicemia in neonates. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion and profile of pathogenic bacteria in the blood cultures of the neonates with clinically suspected septicemia and their susceptibility pattern to antimicrobial agents for developing a unified antibiotic treatment protocol. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional retrospective study was conducted over a period of 3 year and 4 months (39 months. The study included 1000 patients admitted in the selected hospital in Bangladesh. Blood samples for culture were taken aseptically before starting antibiotic therapy. Microorganisms were isolated and identified by standard microbiological processes which include colony morphology, Gram stain, and biochemical profiles. Antimicrobial sensitivity patterns were performed by Kirby-Bauer′s disc diffusion method against imipenem, ciprofloxacin, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, netilmicin, gentamicin, ceftriaxone, aztreonam, cefotaxime, cephalexin, and ampicillin. Results: Among the patients, 633 (63.3% were males and 367 (36.7% were females. Blood cultures were found positive in 194 (19.4% neonates. The organisms isolated were Pseudomonas spp. (31.4%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.2%, Staphylococcus aureus (12.4%, Escherichia coli (7.2%, Acinatobactor (5.7%, Gram-negative Bacilli (4.1%, Flavobacterium spp. (3.6%, Serratia spp. (5.7%, Citrobacter fruendi (3.1%, Streptococcus species (2.6%, and Enterobacter spp. (1.0%. A majority of the bacterial isolates in neonatal sepsis were found sensitive to imipenem (91.8% and ciprofloxacin (57.2% and resistant to commonly used antibiotics, eg. ampicillin (96.4% and cephalexin (89.2%. Conclusion : The problem can be mitigated by careful selection and prudent use of available antibiotics.

  3. Analysis of some pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater of Almadinah Almunawarah

    KAUST Repository

    Shraim, Amjad

    2012-11-29

    The chemical pollution of water resources is a major challenge facing the humanity in this century. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) are a group of emerging environmental chemical pollutants distinguished by their bioactivity and high solubility. They may also cause health complications to humans and living organisms. Pharmaceuticals enter the environment, mainly via wastewater and can eventually reach the surface and ground water. Despite this, PPCPs received less attention as environmental pollutants than other chemical pollutants (e.g. heavy metals and pesticides). The purpose of this work was to investigate the presence of some of the most frequently dispensed drugs for the residents of Almadinah Almunawarah, Saudi Arabia in the municipal wastewater before and after treatment. For this purpose, wastewater samples were collected biweekly from the city’s sewage treatment plant for a period of 4 months and analyzed the targeted drugs using tandem LC–MS. Out of the 19 investigated drugs, 5 pharmaceuticals have been found in concentrations greater than the limit of detection in both the influents and effluents of the sewage treatment plant. As expected, the concentrations of investigated pharmaceuticals in the wastewater were found to be low. These drugs and their average concentrations (in ng mL−1) in the influents were: acetaminophen (38.9), metformin (15.2), norfluoxetine (7.07), atenolol (2.04), and cephalexin (1.88). Meanwhile, the effluents contained slightly lower levels (in ng mL−1) than those of influents: acetaminophen (31.2), metformin (3.19), norfluoxetine (7.25), atenolol (0.545), and cephalexin (1.53). The results of this study supported by many other investigations indicate the inefficiency of current conventional wastewater treatment protocols in eliminating such a group of active and potentially hazardous pollutants from the wastewater.

  4. Estudo de perfil de dissolução dos medicamentos de referência, genérico e similar contendo cefalexina na forma farmacêutica cápsula

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    Marlus Chorilli

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o avanço da tecnologia e das pesquisas envolvendo liberação de fármacos, modernização de testes e maior ênfase da previsibilidade de efeitos terapêuticos por meio dos testes in vitro, os testes de dissolução e os estudos de perfis de dissolução têm ganhado cada vez mais importância. Apesar de terem sido introduzidos inicialmente como uma forma de caracterizar o perfil de liberação de fármacos pouco solúveis, atualmente os testes de dissolução fazem parte das monografias de quase todas as formas farmacêuticas sólidas orais. Este trabalho teve como objetivo estudar o perfil de dissolução (porcentagem de fármaco dissolvido versus tempo dos medicamentos de referência, genérico e similar contendo cefalexina 500 mg na forma farmacêutica de cápsulas. Foram analisadas três especialidades farmacêuticas (referência, genérico e similar, os quais foram submetidos ao teste de dissolução e perfil de dissolução in vitro. Os resultados obtidos no teste de dissolução permitem concluir que as amostras encontraram-se de acordo com as especificações e o perfil de dissolução deste medicamento, nesta forma farmacêutica, é considerado de dissolução rápida (85% de fármaco dissolvido em 15 minutos. Portanto, existe uma grande semelhança entre as curvas obtidas, o que sugere que se trata de equivalentes farmacêuticos. Palavras-chave: Cefalexina. Perfil de dissolução. Medicamento referência. Medicamento genérico. Medicamento similar. ABSTRACT Study of dissolution profile of the pioneer brand name, generic and similar brand name pharmaceutical products containing cephalexin in the form of capsules With recent advances in technology and research into drug delivery, the modernization of tests and greater emphasis on the predictability of therapeutic effect by means of in vitro tests, the dissolution test and the study of dissolution profiles are gaining more and more importance. Though introduced initially as a way

  5. STUDY OF ANTIBIOTIC SUSCEPTIBILITY TEST OF MODERN GENERATION OF DRUGS AGAINST UPPER RESPIRATORY TRACT PATHOGENS

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    Vinod Singh et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Nasal infection or sinusitis is an inflammation of nasal passages caused by both viral and bacteriological pathogens. Antimicrobial resistance has universally recognized as growing problem concern about suitable therapy for nasal infection. The study was aimed at determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility against nasal infecting microorganisms. 50 clinical samples were taken from OPD of GMC Hospital, Bhopal (MP, India. Of the samples analyzed, 47 bacterial strains were isolated out of which 29 strains were of Gram positive bacteria (8 strains were of Staphylococcus aureus, 6 of Staphylococcus epidermidis, 7 of Streptococcus pneumoniae and 8 of Corynebacterium diptheriae and 18 strains were of Gram negative bacteria (8 of Escherichia coli, 6 of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 4 of Neisseria meningitidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility assay was performed by disc diffusion method according to the reference criteria of clinical and laboratory standard institute guidelines. In the present study antibiotic susceptibility pattern results showed maximum level of resistance in gram positive strains S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% against penicillin, S. aureus 8 (100%, S. epidermidis 6 (100% and S. pneumoniae 7 (100% were resistant to Cefuroxime, S. aureus 7 (87.5%, S. epidermidis 6 (100%, S. pneumoniae 7 (100% and C. diptheriae (8 (100% were resistant to erythromycin and azithromycin whereas, rest of gram positive strains showed satisfactory antibiotic susceptibility against chloramphenical, cefazolin, cephalexin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin and tetracyclin. Similarly for gram negative strains multi-drug resistance was observed in 8 (100% isolates of E. coli against aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime, cefuroxime, ciprofloxacin, nalidixic acid and ofloxacin, P. aeruginosa 6 (100% were resistant to aztreonam, cefdinir, cefixime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefuroxime

  6. Study on brand counterfeit drugs detection methods by Raman spectroscopy%基于拉曼光谱法的品牌仿冒药检测方法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王科兵; 高群; 李皓; 陆峰

    2013-01-01

    目的 针对目前市面上的品牌药仿冒的制假现象,以国内多个厂家生产的头孢氨苄胶囊为工具药,建立基于支持向量机和相似度法或主成分分析的两步判别方法.方法 第一步,通过模拟建立头孢氨苄胶囊品牌药及4种仿冒药的分类模型,建模交叉验证的准确率为95.63%,并对可疑样品进行预测分类,准确率为93.75%,以自制样品作为额外的预测集,假阳性率为25%.第二步,对阳性样品进行相似度计算或主成分分析,可分别将假阳性率降低至5%和0%.结果与结论 两步判别法可快速、准确地实现对品牌仿冒药的检测.%Objective To established a two-step discriminant method based on SVM and HQI or PCA, in which cephalexin capsules from several domestic manufacturers were used as tool drugs for counterfeits of brand drugs appear on the market. Method In the first step, a simulating classification model of cephalexin brand capsules and 4 kinds of counterfeit drugs was built, the cross-validation accuracy was 95.63% , and prediction accuracy of suspicious samples within the model was 93.75% , and the false-positive rate of additional homemade test samples was 25% . In the second step, the positive samples were applied to HQI and PCA methods, and the false positive rate could be reduced to 5% and 0% respectively. Results and Conclusion The two-step discrimination method established in our study could detected counterfeits of brand drugs efficiently and accurately.

  7. Study on phenotypic characteristics of Salmonella gallinarum and Sallmonella pullorum isolates based on biochemical and antimicrobial susceptibility tests in Iran

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    Moradi Bidhendi, S

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Salmonellosis is a very important disease of avian species because of its huge economic impact, worldwide distribution and difficulty posed in its control. Fowl typhoid and pullorum disease, is caused by Salmonella enterica subsp enterica serovar Gallinarum biovar Gallinarum and Pullorum. The purpose of this study was to investigate the biochemical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella gallinarum and Salmonella pullorum. A total of 13 Salmonella isolates, identified by biochemical tests and specific antisera including Salmonella gallinarum (n=10 and Salmonella pullorum (n=3. All were found to be susceptible to gentamicin. Also 7 (53.8 %, 6 (46.1% and 5 (38.4% isolates were resistant to streptomycin, cephalexin and nalidixic acid respectively. Multidrug resistance to three or more antibiotics was observed in 6 (46.1% isolates and overall 9 antibiotic resistance patterns were recorded. The results showed that poultries as a source of antimicrobial resistance could pose a serious risk to public health via food chain transfer. Hence more epidemiological surveillance programs and antibiotic susceptibility investigations are advised.

  8. Frequency and Susceptibility of Bacteria Caused Urinary Tract Infection in Neonates: Eight-Year Study at Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran Iran.

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    Peymaneh Alizadeh Taheri

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Susceptibility pattern of organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI in neonate would potentially improve the clinical management by enabling clinicians to choose most reasonable first line empirical antibiotics. This study aimed to this end by studying isolated organisms from neonates with UTI in an inpatient setting.Current retrospective study has recruited all cases of neonatal UTI diagnosed through a suprapubic/catheterized sample, admitted to Neonatal Division of Bahrami Children's Hospital, Tehran, Iran, from June 2004 to June 2012.Escherichia coli was the dominant (64.4% bacteria among a total of 73 cases (69.9% boys and 30.1% girls; aged 14.14 ± 7.68 days; birth weight of 3055.85 ± 623.00 g and Enterobacter (19.2%, Klebsiella (12.3%, and Staphylococcus epidermdisis (4.1% were less frequent isolated bacteria. E. coli was mostly resistant to ampicillin (93.6%, cefixime (85.7% and cephalexin (77.3%, and sensitive to cefotaxime (63.6%. Enterobacter found to be most resistant to amikacin (100%, ampicillin (92.85%, and most sensitive to ceftizoxime (71.4%.A high ratio (> 92.85% of resistance toward ampicillin was observed among common neonatal UTI bacterial agents. Having this finding along with previous reports of emerging resistance of neonatal uropathogensto ampicillin could be a notion that a combination of a third generation cephalosporin and an aminoglycoside would be a more reasonable first choice than ampicillin plus an aminoglycoside.

  9. Synthesis and Preliminary Antimicrobial Activities of New Arylideneamino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-(thio/dithio-acetamido Cephalosporanic Acids

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    Shakir Mahmood Alwan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available New derivatives of 7-aminocephalosporanic acid 1–8 were synthesized by acylation of the 7-amino group of the cephem nucleus with various arylidinimino-1,3,4-thiadiazole-thio(or dithio-acetic acid intermediates 3a–d and 5a–d, respectively, so the acyl side chains of these new cephalosporins contained a sulfide or disulfide bond. This unique combination of a Schiff base with the sulfide or disulfide bonds in the acyl side chain afforded new cephalosporins of reasonable potencies, some of which were found to possess moderate activities against the tested microorganisms. Their chemical structures were characterized by ¹H-NMR, IR spectroscopy and elemental microanalysis. Preliminary in vitro antimicrobial activities of the prepared cephalosporins were investigated using a panel of selected microorganisms. Results indicated that the newly synthesized cephalosporins containing disulfide bonds (compounds 5–8 exhibited better activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The cephalosporins cross-linked by a sulfide bond (compounds 1–4 showed a slight change in antimicrobial activities when compared with that of the reference cephalosporin (cephalexin.

  10. Absorption of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate and its enzymatic conversion to d-amphetamine

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    Michael Pennick

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Michael PennickBiosciences Department, Shire Pharmaceutical Development Ltd, Basingstoke, UKAbstract: These studies investigated the absorption and metabolic conversion of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX, a prodrug stimulant that requires conversion to d-amphetamine for activity. Oral absorption of LDX was assessed in rat portal and jugular blood, and perfusion of LDX into isolated intestinal segments of anesthetized rats was used to assess regional absorption. Carrier-mediated transport of LDX was investigated in Caco-2 cells and Chinese hamster ovary (CHO cells expressing human peptide transporter-1 (PEPT1. LDX metabolism was studied in rat and human tissue homogenates and human blood fractions. LDX was approximately10-fold higher in portal blood versus systemic blood. LDX and d-amphetamine were detected in blood following perfusion of the rat small intestine but not the colon. Transport of LDX in Caco-2 cells had permeability apparently similar to cephalexin and was reduced with concurrent PEPT1 inhibitor. Affinity for PEPT1 was also demonstrated in PEPT1-transfected CHO cells. LDX metabolism occurred primarily in whole blood (rat and human, only with red blood cells. Slow hydrolysis in liver and kidney homogenates was probably due to residual blood. The carrier-mediated absorption of intact LDX, likely by the high-capacity PEPT1 transporter, and subsequent metabolism to d-amphetamine in a high-capacity system in blood (ie, red blood cells may contribute to the consistent, reproducible pharmacokinetic profile of LDX.Keywords: lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, LDX, prodrug, ADHD, absorption, Vyvanse

  11. Antibacterial susceptibility profiles of subclinical mastitis pathogens isolated in Batna and Setif Governorates (East of Algeria

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    Mamache Bakir

    Full Text Available Sub-clinical mastitis is a main pathology of dairy husbandry because it is not clinically recognized by the owners and the veterinarians. For this reason, its economic loss is usually underestimated in milk production. This study has been undertaken in order to evaluate the epidemiologic situation of sub-clinicalmastitis in Batna and Setif governorates (East of Algeria. For this purpose, a detailed bacteriological study of all bacterial strains isolated from sub-clinical mastitis followed by a study of their antibacterial susceptibility profiles has been undertaken. 89 bacterial strains distributed as follows were studied: 27 strains of staphylococci among which 23 were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS that are generally incriminated in sub-clinical mastitis. 39 strains of streptococci among which 10 were Lactococcus lactis ssp lactis strains. 23 strains of enterobacteria represented mainly by Escherichia coli (E.coli. All these bacterial strains were isolated from cow milk of 3 different farms. The antibacterial susceptibility profiles have revealed a susceptibility of the isolated strains to a large number of antibiotics mainly to the Neomycin, the Cephalexin and the Spiramycin. [Vet. World 2011; 4(12.000: 537-541

  12. Endosymbiotic Bacteria Associated with the Mealy Bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

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    Sreerag, Ravikumar Sreekala; Jayaprakas, C A; Ragesh, L; Kumar, Sasidharan Nishanth

    2014-01-01

    The mealy bug, Rhizoecus amorphophalli, is a menace to the aroid farmers due to the intensive infestation on stored tubers. Spraying of pesticides was able to control this pest but it always left a chance for fungal growth. Bacterial endosymbionts associated with the insects provide several benefits to their host. Since such endosymbionts play a vital role even in the physiology of their host, revealing the types of bacteria associated with mealy bug will give basic information, which may throw light on the management of this noxious pest. The present study is the first to identify bacterial endosymbionts associated with R. amorphophalli employing phenotypic characterization and 16S rDNA sequencing. Three culturable bacteria, namely, Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus gallinarum, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus, were isolated from R. amorphophalli. Moreover, the antibiotic susceptibility tests against the isolated bacteria showed that all the isolates were susceptible to the three antibiotics tested, except cephalexin. Recently, endosymbionts are used as effective biocontrol agents (BCAs) and the present study will stand as a connecting link in identification and effective utilization of these endosymbionts as BCAs for management of R. amorphophalli.

  13. Shattering a myth - Whooping cough susceptible to antibiotics.

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    Syed, Muhammad Ali; Jamil, Bushra; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is the causative agent of a milder form of pertussis or whooping cough. Little is reported about the antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanism of drug resistance of Bordetella parapertussis. The objective of this study has been to investigate antimicrobial resistance, distribution of integrons and presence of gene cassettes to quinolones (qnr) and sulfonamides (sul) among B. parapertussis strains' isolated from Pakistan. Thirty-five (35) samples were collected from various hospitals of Pakistan from children (median age 3 years) with pertussis-like symptoms, all were tested and confirmed to be B. Parapertussis. Resistance profile of Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Sulphamethoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin and Erythromycin were investigated through all samples. Majority of the isolates were found to be resistant to the afore-mentioned antibiotics except erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to quinolones phenotypically, but qnr genes were detected in only 25.7% (9/35) of isolates. On the other hand, 71.4% (25/35) isolates were resistant to sulfonamides phenotypically. From these 71% strains showing phenotypical resistance, 96% (24/25) were found to possess sul genes. Only two isolates were carrying class 1 integrons, which also harbored sul gene and qnr gene cassettes. It can be safely concluded that the phenotypic resistance patterns seemed mostly independent of presence of integrons. However, interestingly both integrons harboring strains were resistant to quinolones and sulfonamides and also possessed qnr and sul genes.

  14. Reductions of bacterial antibiotic resistance through five biological treatment processes treated municipal wastewater.

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    Yuan, Qing-Bin; Guo, Mei-Ting; Wei, Wu-Ji; Yang, Jian

    2016-10-01

    Wastewater treatment plants are hot spots for antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, limited studies have been conducted to compare the reductions of ARB and ARGs by various biological treatment processes. The study explored the reductions of heterotrophic bacteria resistant to six groups of antibiotics (vancomycin, gentamicin, erythromycin, cephalexin, tetracycline, and sulfadiazine) and corresponding resistance genes (vanA, aacC1, ereA, ampC, tetA, and sulI) by five bench-scale biological reactors. Results demonstrated that membrane bioreactor (MBR) and sequencing batch reactor (SBR) significantly reduced ARB abundances in the ranges of 2.80∼3.54 log and 2.70∼3.13 log, respectively, followed by activated sludge (AS). Biological filter (BF) and anaerobic (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB) techniques led to relatively low reductions. In contrast, ARGs were not equally reduced as ARB. AS and SBR also showed significant potentials on ARGs reduction, whilst MBR and UASB could not reduce ARGs effectively. Redundancy analysis implied that the purification of wastewater quality parameters (COD, NH4 (+)-N, and turbidity) performed a positive correlation to ARB and ARGs reductions. PMID:27384166

  15. Treatment of Acne in Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Anna L; Qi, Ji; Rainer, Barbara; Sachs, Dana L; Helfrich, Yolanda R

    2016-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a common disease of the pilosebaceous unit and affects adolescents and adults. Because high-quality guidelines regarding treatment of acne in pregnancy are scarce, management of this condition can be challenging. We describe the safety profile of common therapies and outline approaches based on available evidence. Topical azelaic acid or benzoyl peroxide can be recommended as baseline therapy. A combination of topical erythromycin or clindamycin with benzoyl peroxide is recommended for inflammatory acne. Oral erythromycin or cephalexin is generally considered safe for moderate to severe inflammatory acne when used for a few weeks. A short course of oral prednisolone may be useful for treating fulminant nodular cystic acne after the first trimester. In general, topical and oral antibiotics should not be used as monotherapy, but combined with topical benzoyl peroxide to decrease bacterial resistance. Oral retinoids are teratogenic and absolutely contraindicated for women who are pregnant or considering pregnancy. Although some complementary therapies including micronutrients and nonpharmacologic treatments seem to be well tolerated, limited data exist regarding their safety and efficacy, and they are not currently recommended during pregnancy. The risk-to-benefit ratio, efficacy, acceptability, and costs are considerations when choosing a treatment for acne in pregnancy. PMID:26957383

  16. Spatial Patterning of Newly-Inserted Material during Bacterial Cell Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursell, Tristan

    2012-02-01

    In the life cycle of a bacterium, rudimentary microscopy demonstrates that cell growth and elongation are essential characteristics of cellular reproduction. The peptidoglycan cell wall is the main load-bearing structure that determines both cell shape and overall size. However, simple imaging of cellular growth gives no indication of the spatial patterning nor mechanism by which material is being incorporated into the pre-existing cell wall. We employ a combination of high-resolution pulse-chase fluorescence microscopy, 3D computational microscopy, and detailed mechanistic simulations to explore how spatial patterning results in uniform growth and maintenance of cell shape. We show that growth is happening in discrete bursts randomly distributed over the cell surface, with a well-defined mean size and average rate. We further use these techniques to explore the effects of division and cell wall disrupting antibiotics, like cephalexin and A22, respectively, on the patterning of cell wall growth in E. coli. Finally, we explore the spatial correlation between presence of the bacterial actin-like cytoskeletal protein, MreB, and local cell wall growth. Together these techniques form a powerful method for exploring the detailed dynamics and involvement of antibiotics and cell wall-associated proteins in bacterial cell growth.[4pt] In collaboration with Kerwyn Huang, Stanford University.

  17. Practical survey on antibiotic-resistant bacterial communities in livestock manure and manure-amended soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qingxiang; Wang, Ruifei; Ren, Siwei; Szoboszlay, Marton; Moe, Luke A

    2016-01-01

    Through livestock manure fertilization, antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and genes are transferred to agricultural soils, resulting in a high prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the soil. It is not clear, however, whether a correlation exists between resistant bacterial populations in manure and manure-amended soil. In this work, we demonstrate that the prevalence of cephalexin-, amoxicillin-, kanamycin- and gentamicin-resistant bacteria as well as bacteria simultaneously resistant to all four antibiotics was much higher in manure-amended soils than in manure-free soil. 454-pyrosequencing indicated that the ARB and multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria (MARB) in swine or chicken manure and manure-amended soil were mainly distributed among Sphingobacterium, Myroides, Enterococcus, Comamonas and unclassified Flavobacteriaceae. The genus Sphingobacterium was highly prevalent among ARB from swine manure and manure-amended soil, and was also the most dominant genus among MARB from chicken manure and manure-amended soil. Other dominant genera among ARB or MARB populations in manure samples, including Myroides, Enterococcus and Comamonas, could not be detected or were detected at very low relative abundance in manure-amended soil. The present study suggests the possibility of transfer of ARBs from livestock manures to soils and persistence of ARB in these environments. PMID:26513264

  18. Antibiotic resistance in uropathogenic Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infections out-patients in Kermanshah

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    Somayeh Jalilian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections (UTIs are common cause of infections described in out-patient's setting and increase in antibiotic resistance of Escherichia coli, is encountered world-wide. Antibiotic treatment is usually empirical; therefore, this study to provide the knowledge of local resistance pathogen patterns in Kermanshah. Materials and Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of all E. coli isolates from urine samples admitted to Kermanshah Central lab between March 2011 and 2012 were included. Antimicrobial resistance was tested by the Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion. Results: This study showed a total of 20,742 samples, 1228 (5.92 were positive for pathogenic bacteria. E. coli were the predominant 801 isolate (65.2%. Out of the 13 antibiotics tested for E. coli isolates, minimum and maximum resistance were observed to ampicillin (9.4% and augmentin (68.6%. Almost 59-66% of the uropathogenic E. coli strains were resistant to amikacin, co-trimoxazole, tetracycline and cephalotin and nearly half of them were resistant to nalidixic acid and cephalexin. Conclusion: This study confirms that E. coli is still the most common uropathogen isolated. Augmentin and amikacin are not as a first choice for treatment of UTI in Kermanshah area. Ampicillin and nitrofurantoin may be considered as a first choice empiric agent in out-patients.

  19. Adsorptive interaction of certain beta-lactam antibiotics in aqueous solution. Interpretation by frontier orbital theory

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    Dutta, Monali; Dutta, Narendra N. [Regional Research Laboratory, Assam (Indonesia). Chemical Engineering Division; Bhattacharyya, K.G. [Guwahati University, Gauhati (Indonesia). Chemistry Department

    2000-04-01

    The adsorption of certain beta-lactam antibiotics such as 7-aminocephalosporanic acid, 7-aminodeacetoxy cephalosporanic acid, cephalexin, cefadroxyl, cephalosporin-C, and 6-aminopenicillanic acid in aqueous solution is studied using two different types of polymeric resins and activated carbon as the adsorbents. Adsorption affinity expresses as the slope of the linear region of the isotherm for a solute is found to be different for different adsorbents, and this difference can be interpreted from sorbent surface chemistry and morphological structure. The adsorptive interaction on the polymeric resins and activated carbon was computed based on the Frontier Orbital Theory. Electronic states of the adsorbent and adsorbate were calculated using the semiempirical molecular orbital (MO) method from which the characteristic energy of adsorption in aqueous solution was estimated. Adsorption affinity was correlated by the ratio of characteristic energy to that of the reference adsorbate. It was found that charge transfer interaction plays an important role in the adsorption of beta-lactams in aqueous solution. The experimentally measured enthalpy of adsorption was also correlated by the ratio of the characteristic energy to that of the reference adsorbate. The enthalpy of adsorption seems to correlate well with the adsorptive interaction energy computed from molecular orbital theory. (author)

  20. Analysis of Six β-Lactam Residues in Milk and Egg by Micellar Electrokinetic Chromatography with Large-Volume Sample Stacking and Polarity Switching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Yu-Xiu; Chen, Guan-Hua; Fang, Rou; Zhang, Li; Yi, Ling-Xiao; Meng, Hong-Lian

    2016-05-01

    A new micellar electrokinetic chromatography method with large-volume sample stacking and polarity switching was developed to analyze amoxicllin, cephalexin, oxacillin, penicillin G, cefazolin, and cefoperazone in milk and egg. The important parameters influencing separation and enrichment factors were optimized. The optimized running buffer consisted of 10 mM phosphate and 22 mM SDS at pH 6.7. The sample size was 1.47 kPa × 690 s, the reverse voltage was 20 kV, and the electric current recovery was 95%. Under these optimum conditions, the enrichment factors of six β-lactams were 193-601. Their LODs were <0.26 ng/g, and LOQs were all 2 ng/g, which was only 1/50-1/2 of the maximum residual limits demanded by U.S. and Japanese regulations. The intraday and interday RSDs of method were lower than 3.70 and 3.91%, respectively. The method can be applied to determine these six antibiotic residues in egg and milk. PMID:27088652

  1. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium

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    Nathan Zelyas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates’ identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making.

  2. Refined models of New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase-1 with inhibitors: an QM/MM modeling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeng-Tseng; Cheng, Tian-Lu

    2016-10-01

    New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) has been identified as a potential target for the treatment of multi-drug resistance bacterial infections. We used molecular docking, normal MD, SIE, QM/MM MD simulations, QM/MM GBSA binding free energy, and QM/MM GBSA alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques to investigate interactions of the NDM-1 with 11 inhibitors (Tigecycline, BAL30072, D-captopril, Penicillin G, Ampicillin, Carbenicillin, Cephalexin, Cefaclor, Nitrocefin, Meropenem, and Imipenem). From our normal MD and QM/MM simulations, the correlation coefficients between the predicted binding free energies and experimental values are .88 and .93, respectively. Then simulations, which combined QM/MM/GBSA and alanine-scanning mutagenesis techniques, were performed and our results show that two residues (Lys211 and His250) have the strongest impact on the binding affinities of the 11 NDM-1/inhibitors. Therefore, our approach theoretically suggests that the two residues (Lys211 and His250) are responsible for the selectivity of NDM-1 associated inhibitors. PMID:26488313

  3. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF SEVEN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF Nocardia spp. IN BRAZIL

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    Larissa Anuska Zeni CONDAS

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%, amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%, cephalexin (100% and ceftiofur (100%, while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%, sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43% and ampicillin (29%. However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test, only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim.

  4. Study of Incidence, Risk Factors and Antibiotic Sensitivity Pattern of Acinetobacter baumannii in a Tertiary Care Hospital

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    Vijaya S Rajmane

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, Acinetobacter species has emerged as an important pathogen and the prevalence of infection has increased since last two decades worldwide. Objective: To see the impact of Acinetobacter infection in our hospital and antibiotic sensitivity and resistance pattern. Material and Methods: The study was carried out on clinical samples submitted to the Microbiology laboratory in Krishna institute of Medical Sciences and Research, Karad, over a period of one year (July 2012 to June 2013.Various risk factors like length of hospital stay, ICU admission, any interventions done were noted. Identification and antibiotic susceptibility of the isolates was performed using standard protocol. Results: Out of a total 2728 samples, 86 (3.15% were found to be due to Acinetobacter baumannii. Of the 86 isolates the organism was predominantly isolated from pus samples 48 (55.81% followed by sputum 17 (19.76%, urine 6 (6.97% and blood 4 (4.65%. Out of 86 Acinetobacter isolates, 76 (88.37% showed resistance to Cephalexin, 74 (86.04% each to Cefotaxime and Ceftazidime. The isolates also showed high level of resistance to Ciprofloxacin (82.55%, Ampicillin (77.90% and Gentamicin (74.41%. The isolates from urine samples showed 100% sensitivity to Nitrofurantoin. Imipenem and Meropenem were highly active against the isolate with least resistance of 12.79% each. Conclusion: The present study highlights Acinetobacter species as an important pathogen because of multidrug resistant strains jerking in the hospital environment.

  5. EFECTOS ADVERSOS DERMATOLÓGICOS POR ANTIBACTERIANOS.SISTEMA CUBANO DE FARMACOVIGILANCIA. 2007-2009

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    Alfonso Orta Ismary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Adverse reactions to antimicrobials in Cuba have taken place since 2003 to date, the first in the report of adverse reactions in general, as well as serious and fatal reactions, on the skin and schedules are the systems more affected. This research aimed to characterize the antibacterial dermatologic toxicities reported by the national coordinating pharmacovigilance unit from 2007 to 2009. Method: An observational study of Pharmacovigilance, descriptive and transversal using Spontaneous Reporting of Suspected Adverse Reaction database and the Cuban system of pharmacovigilance. Reports were analyzed for antibacterial dermatologic toxicities reported from 2007 through 2009, the primary endpoint was the dermatologic adverse effect reported. Results: A total of 3006 suspected adverse reactions to skin. Predominated in females (60.2% and in adults, 53.7%. The antibacterial associated with increased number of notifications were 18.5% RL penicillin, amoxicillin, cephalexin, 17.3% and 9.7%. Dermatological adverse events predominated were rash and urticaria. Moderate adverse effects predominated (64.4%, 87.5% were probable and 81.8% common. Conclusions: Adverse dermatologic antibacterial dominated by females and in adults. RL Penicillin was the drug most associated with adverse reactions. Moderate adverse reactions, probable and common were the more frequent in the study.

  6. Determination of β-lactam Antibiotics in Pharmaceutical Preparations by Uv-visible Spectrophotometry Atomic Absorption and High Performance Liquid Chromatography

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    *A. J. Abdulghani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The determination amoxicillin, ampicillin and cephalexin was studied by complexation of the antibiotics with Au(III and Hg(II ions in bulk and pharmaceutical preparations using uv-visible spectrophotometry, atomic absorption, and HPLC techniques. Optimum conditions for complex formation were fixed at pH 4 and (2-4 for Au(III and Hg(IIcomplexes respectively, heating temperature at (60 °C and heating time for (10 minute. All complexes were extracted from aqueous solution with benzyl alcohol prior to measurements except in the case of HPLC. The L:M ratios for all complexes were determined and stability constants were calculated using mole ratio method. The Beer's law was obeyed over the concentration range (5-60 and 5-50 µg/ml of antibiotics for Au(III and Hg(II complexes using colorimetric method and (1-25 µg/ml of Au(III for FAAS. The linearity for HPLC method was (10-110 and 10-120 µg/ml respectively. The correlation coefficients (r were (0.9981-0.9997. Generally, the highest sensitivity was recorded by FAAS.

  7. Antimicrobial resistance and prevalence of resistance genes in intestinal Bacteroidales strains

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    Viviane Nakano

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This study examined the antimicrobial resistance profile and the prevalence of resistance genes in Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis strains isolated from children's intestinal microbiota. METHODS: The susceptibility of these bacteria to 10 antimicrobials was determined using an agar dilution method. β-lactamase activity was assessed by hydrolysis of the chromogenic cephalosporin of 114 Bacteriodales strains isolated from the fecal samples of 39 children, and the presence of resistance genes was tested using a PCR assay. RESULTS: All strains were susceptible to imipenem and metronidazole. The following resistance rates were observed: amoxicillin (93%, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (47.3%, ampicillin (96.4%, cephalexin (99%, cefoxitin (23%, penicillin (99%, clindamycin (34.2% and tetracycline (53.5%. P-lactamase production was verified in 92% of the evaluated strains. The presence of the cfiA, cepA, ermF, tetQ and nim genes was observed in 62.3%, 76.3%, 27%, 79.8% and 7.8% of the strains, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate an increase in the resistance to several antibiotics in intestinal Bacteroides spp. and Parabacteroides distasonis and demonstrate that these microorganisms harbor antimicrobial resistance genes that may be transferred to other susceptible intestinal strains.

  8. Efficacy of Amitraz plus Metaflumizone for the treatment of canine demodicosis associated with Malassezia pachydermatis

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    Cafarchia Claudia

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This case reports the efficacy of metaflumizone plus amitraz spot-on formulation (ProMeris Duo®; Fort Dodge against generalized demodectic mange. A two year-old male dog presented at clinical examination with poor general condition, diffused alopecia, crusted lesions, pruritus, skin scales and pustules. Demodex mites, Malassezia pachydermatis yeasts and bacteria were diagnosed. The dog was treated with cephalexin and topically with metaflumizone plus amitraz spot on formulation at two weeks intervals until two consecutive skin scrapings resulted negative for mites. The number of adult mites statistically decreased at follow-up with a reduction of approximately 42 and 94% at +14 and +28 days post treatment (p.t. respectively. Nymphs and larvae could not be detected from +28 day p.t. while eggs were no longer present +42 day p.t. The dog was negative for both bacteria and M. pachydermatis at 14 days p.t., coinciding with improved general clinical conditions, recovering skin lesions and no further signs of pruritus. These results show that metaflumizone plus amitraz associated with the antibiotic therapy is highly effective for treating generalized demodectic mange and could also be effective toward controlling M. pachydermatis opportunistic infections.

  9. Resistance Pattern of Enterococci Isolated from Nosocomial Infections in the Hospitals Located in Gonbad and Gorgan Cities

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    Naghipoor, E. (MSc

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Enterococci are normal flora of human body and considered as the third leading cause of nosocomial infections. The aim of this study was to determine drug resistance of Enterococcus species through biochemical methods. Material and Methods: One hundred twenty-eight of enterococcus suspected samples were isolated from gorgan and gonbad’s hospitals from April to June, 2013. The samples were cultured on blood agar, chrome-agar, EMB agar and some special cultures of isolation of Enterococcus species. Suspension of bacteria was grown in Mueller Hinton agar and the inhibition zone diameter was determined by disk antibiogram. Results: Of 128 samples, 109(85.15% were enterococci faecalis and 19 (14.85% Enterococcus Faecium. In all of 128 cases, eight showed resistance to amoxicillin, ten to ampicillin, five to gentamicin, five to ciprofloxacin, six to chloramphenicol, four to cephalexin and one to vancomycin. Conclusion: It seems to be necessary to use drug sensitivity test for having appropriate treatment and preventing from resistance strains.

  10. In vitro Comparison of Disk Diffusion and Agar Dilution Antibiotic Susceptibility Test Methods for Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Marta C de Castillo

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available At present, most Neisseria gonorrhoeae testing is done with ß-lactamase and agar dilution tests with common therapeutic agents. Generally, in bacteriological diagnosis laboratories in Argentina, study of antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae is based on ß-lactamase determination and agar dilution method with common therapeutic agents. The National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS has recently described a disk diffusion test that produces results comparable to the reference agar dilution method for antibiotic susceptibility of N.gonorrhoeae, using a dispersion diagram for analyzing the correlation between both techniques. We obtained 57 gonococcal isolates from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina. Antibiotic susceptibility tests using agar dilution and disk diffusion techniques were compared. The established NCCLS interpretive criteria for both susceptibility methods appeared to be applicable to domestic gonococcal strains. The correlation between the MIC's and the zones of inhibition was studied for penicillin, ampicillin, cefoxitin, spectinomycin, cefotaxime, cephaloridine, cephalexin, tetracycline, norfloxacin and kanamycin. Dispersion diagrams showed a high correlation between both methods.

  11. A clinico-bacteriological study of pyodermas at a tertiary health center in southwest Rajasthan

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    Ajit Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The spectrum of pyoderma changes constantly, and so does the antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Aims: This study was done to assess the magnitude and clinical patterns of pyodermas, their causative micro-organisms, and the antibiotic susceptibility patterns. Materials and Methods: Five hundred consecutive, clinically diagnosed and untreated cases of pyoderma, attending the Dermatology OPD of RNT Medical College and MB Government Hospital, Udaipur, from October 2010 to September 2011 were the subjects of this study. A detailed clinical examination, and relevant investigations including bacterial culture and sensitivity, were carried out and recorded. Statistical Analysis: For statistical analysis of data, the software ′EPI-INFO Version 6′ was used, and Chi-square (χ2 test was applied. Results: Of 19576 cases attending skin OPD during the study period, pyoderma was seen in 500 patients; the incidence being 2.55%. Males outnumbered females. The highest number of cases (109; 21.8% was observed in 1st decade. Lower extremities were the commonest site of predilection. Primary pyodermas outnumbered secondary pyodermas. Furuncle (136; 27.2% and infectious eczematoid dermatitis (62; 12.4% were the commonest entities among primary and secondary pyoderma respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the commonest causative agent in both primary and secondary pyoderma. It showed high susceptibility to amoxycillin + sulbactam, aminoglycosides and cefoperazone, moderate susceptibility to linezolid, while low susceptibility to fluoroquinolones and cephalexin. Conclusion: Such studies help to assess the changing trend of bacterial infections, their causative organisms and antibiotic susceptibility pattern.

  12. A Dermal Piercing Complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum

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    Trisha Patel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dermal piercings have recently become a fashion symbol. Common complications include hypertrophic scarring, rejection, local infection, contact allergy, and traumatic tearing. We report a rare case of Mycobacterium fortuitum following a dermal piercing and discuss its medical implications and treatments. Case. A previously healthy 19-year-old woman presented complaining of erythema and edema at the site of a dermal piercing on the right fourth dorsal finger. She was treated with a 10-day course of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and one course of cephalexin by her primary care physician with incomplete resolution. The patient stated that she had been swimming at a local water park daily. A punch biopsy around the dermal stud was performed, and cultures with sensitivities revealed Mycobacterium fortuitum. The patient was treated with clarithromycin and ciprofloxacin for two months receiving full resolution. Discussion. Mycobacterium fortuitum is an infrequent human pathogen. This organism is a Runyon group IV, rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria, often found in water,soil, and dust. Treatment options vary due to the size of the lesion. Small lesions are typically excised, while larger lesions require treatment for 2–6 months with antibiotics. We recommend a high level of suspicion for atypical mycobacterial infections in a piercing resistant to other therapies.

  13. Evaluation of probiotic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici B14 in association with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 for application in a soy based aerated symbiotic dessert

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    Maria Carolina de Oliveira Ribeiro

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the probiotic properties of Pediococcus acidilactici B14 and to study its resistance in the gastrointestinal system when combined with Lactobacillus acidophilus ATCC 4356 and used in a potentially symbiotic aerated soy based dessert. P. acidilactici B14 showed some important probiotic characteristics such as survival rate of 45.9% at pH 2.5; 72.4% in 0.3% bile salts and 95.8% after gastrointestinal transit at pH 4.0. Tolerance against the antibiotics cephalexin, neomycin, vancomycin, cefotaxime and penicillin G was also observed. The strain inhibited antagonism against the following cultures: Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Bacillus cereus ATCC 33018, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538P and Salmonella sp. The mixed culture of P. acidilactici B14 with L. acidophilus ATCC 4356 showed a survival rate of 92.4% after the passage through the gastrointestinal system at pH 4.0. Furthermore, in the presence of the food matrix, an average increase in cell viability, after being subjected to the gastrointestinal system of 9.9% at pH 2.0 and 6.1% at pH 4.0, was observed. This characterized the adequacy of the associated culture as probiotic in the development of a functional food such as soy based aerated symbiotic dessert.

  14. Role of [FeOx(OH)y] surface sites on the adsorption of β-lactamic antibiotics on Al2O3 supported Fe oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Paula S; Medeiros, Tayline P V; Ardisson, José D; Lago, Rochel M

    2016-11-01

    In this work, [FeOx(OH)y]/Al2O3 composites with different Fe oxyhydroxy contents, i.e. 10, 20 and 50wt% treated at 150, 200, 300 and 450°C were investigated as adsorbents of β-lactamic antibiotics, i.e. cephalexin, ceftriaxone and especially amoxicillin, from aqueous solutions. The obtained results showed that the nature of the surface Fe(3+) species play a fundamental role on the adsorption process. The most efficient adsorption was obtained for the sample 150Fe50A (50% [FeOx(OH)y] supported in Al2O3 treated at 150°C) whereas the thermal treatment at higher temperatures caused a strong decrease on the adsorption capacity. Mössbauer, XRD, FTIR, Raman, TG-MS, SEM, CHN and BET of the composite 150Fe50A suggested an approximate composition of FeO0.65(OH)1.7 whereas at 450°C strong dehydroxylation process takes place to form FeO1.4(OH)0.21. These results combined with competitive adsorption using amoxicillin mixed with phosphate or H2O2 suggest that the antibiotic molecules adsorb by complexation on surface sites likely based on FeOx(OH)y by the replacement of the labile OH ligands. PMID:27318729

  15. Shattering a myth - Whooping cough susceptible to antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syed, Muhammad Ali; Jamil, Bushra; Bokhari, Habib

    2016-05-01

    Bordetella parapertussis is the causative agent of a milder form of pertussis or whooping cough. Little is reported about the antibiotic resistance patterns and mechanism of drug resistance of Bordetella parapertussis. The objective of this study has been to investigate antimicrobial resistance, distribution of integrons and presence of gene cassettes to quinolones (qnr) and sulfonamides (sul) among B. parapertussis strains' isolated from Pakistan. Thirty-five (35) samples were collected from various hospitals of Pakistan from children (median age 3 years) with pertussis-like symptoms, all were tested and confirmed to be B. Parapertussis. Resistance profile of Ampicillin, Cephalexin, Sulphamethoxazole, Chloramphenicol, Ofloxacin, Nalidixic acid, Gentamycin and Erythromycin were investigated through all samples. Majority of the isolates were found to be resistant to the afore-mentioned antibiotics except erythromycin. All isolates were resistant to quinolones phenotypically, but qnr genes were detected in only 25.7% (9/35) of isolates. On the other hand, 71.4% (25/35) isolates were resistant to sulfonamides phenotypically. From these 71% strains showing phenotypical resistance, 96% (24/25) were found to possess sul genes. Only two isolates were carrying class 1 integrons, which also harbored sul gene and qnr gene cassettes. It can be safely concluded that the phenotypic resistance patterns seemed mostly independent of presence of integrons. However, interestingly both integrons harboring strains were resistant to quinolones and sulfonamides and also possessed qnr and sul genes. PMID:27166543

  16. Occurrence of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates from poultry in Iran

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    Ghaderi, R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica is recognized as one of the major food-borne pathogens with more than 2,500 serotypes worldwide. The present study addresses antimicrobial resistance of Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis isolates in Iran. A collection of 151 Salmonella spp. isolates collected from poultry were serotyped to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Sixty-one Salmonella Enteritidis were subsequently tested against 30 antimicrobials. A high frequency of antimicrobial resistance was observed against nitrofurantoin (n=55, 90.2% followed by nalidixic acid (n=41, 67.2%, and cephalexin (n=23, 37.7%. Multi-drug resistance were observed in 35 (57.4% out of 61 isolates. Twenty-six antimicrobial resistance patterns were observed among the 61 Salmonella Enteritidis. All isolates were susceptible to ofloxacin, imipenem, enrofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, and 3rd and 4th generation cephalosporins. In conclusion, our results revealed that implementing new policies toward overuse of antimicrobial drugs in Iranian poultry industry are of great importance.

  17. Removal of phthalates and pharmaceuticals from municipal wastewater by graphene adsorption process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Gordon C C; Tang, Pei-Ling

    2016-01-01

    In this work graphene was used for evaluation of its adsorption behavior and performance in removing phthalate esters and pharmaceuticals in municipal wastewater. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DnBP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), acetaminophen (ACE), caffeine (CAF), cephalexin (CLX), and sulfamethoxazole (SMX) were emerging contaminants (ECs) with detection frequencies over 92% in a one-year monitoring of the occurrence of ECs in influent samples of a sewage treatment plant in Taiwan. Thus, these ECs were selected as the target contaminants for removal by graphene adsorption process. Experimental results showed that the adsorption isotherm data were fitted well to Langmuir model equation. It was also found that the adsorption process obeyed the pseudo-second-order kinetics. A graphene dosage of 0.1 g/L and adsorption time of 12 h were found to be the optimal operating conditions for the ECs of concern in model solutions in a preliminary study. By using the determined optimal operating conditions for removal of such ECs in actual municipal wastewater, removal efficiencies for various ECs were obtained and given as follows: (1) DnBP, 89%, (2) DEHP, 86%, (3) ACE, 43%, (4) CAF, 84%, (5) CLX, 81%, and (6) SMX, 34%. PMID:27148730

  18. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Non-Fermenters in Human Infections with Special Reference to Acinetobacter Species in a Tertiary Care Hospital from North Karnataka, India

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    Prashant K. Parandekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Non-fermenters are a group of aerobic non-spore forming gram negative bacilli that are either incapable of utilizingcarbohydrates as a source of energy or degrade them via oxidative rather than fermentative pathway. These are increasingly been reported from the cases of nosocomial infections. Aims and Objectives: This study was undertaken aiming to identify, characterize all nonfermenters and further study of Acinetobacterisolates. Materials and Methods: A total 116 non-fermenters isolated from various specimens obtained from the patients in tertiarycare hospital. Gram negative bacilli which failed to produce acid on Triple Sugar Iron Agar (TSI were identified by employing battery oftests. The Acinetobacter isolates were further speciated and antimicrobial susceptibility testing done by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion technique. Results: Non-fermenters isolated were Pseudomonas aerugionsa (69.8%, Acinetobacter species (18.9%,Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (4.3%, Burkholderia cepacia (3.4%, Alcaligenes fecalis (1.7% and Pseudomonas fluorescens (1.7%. Most of the isolates showed susceptibility to imipenem (86.3% whereasnone of the isolates were sensitive to cephalexin and co-trimoxazole. Conclusion: This study highlights that, after Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter species is the most common non-fermenter. Majority of the isolates of Acinetobacter Species were ofnosocomial origin and were multidrug resistant, which underlines the importance of proper vigilance of these infections in hospital setting.

  19. Tufted Hair Folliculitis: A Case Report

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    Alev Eken

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Tufted hair folliculitis (THF is a recurrent and progressive folliculitis of the scalp that resolves with irregular areas of scarring alopecia within which numerous hair tufts emerge from dilated follicular openings. A 14-year-old female presented with pruritic, inflammatory and exudating wounds on the scalp which appeared ten years ago. Dermatological examination revealed tufts of 10 to 15 apparently normal hair shafts in a sclerotic plaque measuring 15x25 cm on the parieto-occipital region of the scalp that emerge through dilated follicular openings. The patient was diagnosed by histopathological examination as having THF. Oral rifampicin 600 mg/day, cephalexin 1500 mg/day and vitamin C 1000 mg/day for 3 weeks were not effective, then, he was treated with isotretinoin 0.6 mg/kg/day for six months. The inflammation and exudation decreased by this treatment while hair tufting was persisting. We report this case since THF is rarely encountered disease and is difficult to be treated.

  20. Repurposing cephalosporin antibiotics as pro-senescent radiosensitizers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labay, Edwardine; Mauceri, Helena J; Efimova, Elena V; Flor, Amy C; Sutton, Harold G; Kron, Stephen J; Weichselbaum, Ralph R

    2016-06-01

    Radiation therapy remains a significant therapeutic modality in the treatment of cancer. An attractive strategy would be to enhance the benefits of ionizing radiation (IR)with radiosensitizers. A high-content drug repurposing screen of approved and investigational agents, natural products and other small molecules has identified multiple candidates that blocked repair of IR damage in vitro. Here, we validated a subset of these hits in vitro and then examined effects on tumor growth after IR in a murine tumor model. Based on robust radiosensitization in vivo and other favorable properties of cephalexin, we conducted additional studies with other beta-lactam antibiotics. When combined with IR, each cephalosporin tested increased DNA damage and slowed tumor growth without affecting normal tissue toxicity. Our data implicate reactive oxygen species in the mechanism by which cephalosporins augment the effects of IR. This work provides a rationale for using commonly prescribed beta-lactam antibiotics as non-toxic radiosensitizers to enhance the therapeutic ratio of radiotherapy. PMID:27129153

  1. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A multicentre study.

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    Rajaduraipandi K

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA is an important nosocomial pathogen. We report the prevalence and antibiotic susceptibility pattern of MRSA in major southern districts of Tamilnadu. Methods: A total of 7172 clinical specimens and 1725 carrier screening samples were collected from different centers and subjected to MRSA screening using conventional microbiological methods. Subsequently the antibiotic sensitivity test was performed for the confirmed MRSA isolates. Results: Out of 906 strains of S. aureus isolated from clinical and carrier samples, 250 (31.1% and 39 (37.9% were found to be methicillin resistant respectively. Almost all clinical MRSA strains (99.6% were resistant to penicillin, 93.6% to ampicillin, and 63.2% towards gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, cephalexin, erythromycin, and cephotaxime. All MRSA strains (100% of carrier screening samples had resistance to penicillin and about 71.8% and 35.9% were resistant to ampicillin and co-trimoxazole respectively. Multidrug resistance was observed among 63.6% of clinical and 23% of carrier MRSA isolates. However, all strains of clinical and carrier subjects were sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: The determination of prevalence and antibiotic sensitivity pattern of MRSA will help the treating clinicians for first line treatment in referral hospitals.

  2. Antibacterial activities of some plant extracts alone and in combination with different antimicrobials against multidrug-resistantPseudomonas aeruginosa strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Bassam Abu-Shanab; Kamel Adwan

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the possible in vitro interaction between ethanolic extracts ofRhus coriaria(R. coriaria) (seed),Sacropoterium spinosum(S. spinosum) (seed),Rosa damascena (R. damascene) (flower) and certain known antimicrobial drugs including oxytetracycline HCl, penicillin G, cephalexin, sulfadimethoxine as sodium, and enrofloxacin. This synergy study was carried out against 3 clinical strains of multidrug-resistantPseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa).Methods: Evaluation of synergy interaction between plant extracts and antimicrobial agents was carried out using microdilution method.Results: The results of this study showed that there is a decrease in the MIC in case of combination of ethanolic plant extracts and test antimicrobial agents. The most interesting result was that the combination betweenR. coriaria and these antibiotics, showed a high decrease in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and a strong bactericidal activity against these strains.Conclusions: These results may indicate that combinations betweenR. coriaria extract and these antibiotics could be useful in fighting emerging drug-resistanceP. aeruginosa, which may due to thatR. coriaria extract contain natural inhibitors working by different mechanisms or inhibiting efflux pumps. Now we have experiments underway leading to the identification of the active molecules present inR. coriaria. Further,in vivo experiments are needed to confirm pseudomonal protection.

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of clinical Escherichia coli isolates from dogs and cats in the United States: January 2008 through January 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thungrat, Kamoltip; Price, Stuart B; Carpenter, D Mark; Boothe, Dawn Merton

    2015-09-30

    Escherichia coli is among the most common bacterial pathogens in dogs and cats. The lack of a national monitoring program limits evidence-based empirical antimicrobial choices in the United States. This study describes antimicrobial susceptibility patterns for presumed clinical E. coli isolates from dogs (n=2392) or cats (n=780) collected from six geographic regions in the United States between May 2008 and January 2013. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined for 17 drugs representing 6 drug classes. Urinary tract isolates were most common (71%). Population MIC distributions were generally bimodal with the second mode above the resistant breakpoint for all drugs except gentamicin, amikacin, and meropenem. The MIC90 exceeded the susceptible breakpoint for ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, cephalothin (surrogate drug for cephalexin), and doxycycline but was below the susceptible breakpoint for all others. None of isolates was susceptible or resistant to all drug tested; 46% were resistant to 1 or 2 antimicrobial categories, and 52% to more than three categories. The resistance percentages were as follows: doxycycline (100%), cephalothin (98%)>ampicillin (48%)>amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (40%)>ticarcillin-clavulanic acid (18%)>cefpodoxime (13%), cefotaxime (12%), cefoxitin (11%), cefazolin (11%), enrofloxacin (10%), chloramphenicol (9.6%)>ciprofloxacin (9.2%), ceftazidime (8.7%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.9%), gentamicin (7.9%)>meropenem (1.5%), amikacin (0.7%) (Pcephalexin, ampicillin, or amoxicillin-clavulanic acid. Based on susceptibility patterns, trimethoprim-sulfonamides may be the preferred empirical oral treatment. PMID:26165272

  4. MOLECULAR IDENTIFICATION AND ANTIMICROBIAL RESISTANCE PATTERN OF SEVEN CLINICAL ISOLATES OF Nocardia spp. IN BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condas, Larissa Anuska Zeni; Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Muro, Marisol Domingues; de Vargas, Agueda Palmira Castagna; Matsuzawa, Tetsuhiro; Yazawa, Katsukiyo; Siqueira, Amanda Keller; Salerno, Tatiana; Lara, Gustavo Henrique Batista; Risseti, Rafaela Mastrangelo; Ferreira, Karen Spadari; Gonoi, Tohru

    2015-01-01

    Nocardia is a ubiquitous microorganism related to pyogranulomatous infection, which is difficult to treat in humans and animals. The occurrence of the disease is on the rise in many countries due to an increase in immunosuppressive diseases and treatments. This report of cases from Brazil presents the genotypic characterization and the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern using the disk-diffusion method and inhibitory minimal concentration with E-test® strips. In summary, this report focuses on infections in young adult men, of which three cases were cutaneous, two pulmonary, one neurological and one systemic. The pulmonary, neurological and systemic cases were attributed to immunosuppressive diseases or treatments. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA segments (1491 bp) identified four isolates of Nocardia farcinica, two isolates of Nocardia nova and one isolate of Nocardia asiatica. N. farcinica was involved in two cutaneous, one systemic and other pulmonary cases; N. nova was involved in one neurological and one pulmonary case; and Nocardia asiatica in one cutaneous case. The disk-diffusion antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the most effective antimicrobials were amikacin (100%), amoxicillin/clavulanate (100%), cephalexin (100%) and ceftiofur (100%), while isolates had presented most resistance to gentamicin (43%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (43%) and ampicillin (29%). However, on the inhibitory minimal concentration test (MIC test), only one of the four isolates of Nocardia farcinica was resistant to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim. PMID:26200967

  5. Kinetic Spectrophotometric Determination of Certain Cephalosporins in Pharmaceutical Formulations

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    Mahmoud A. Omar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5–15 g mL−1 and 5–25 g mL−1 using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision.

  6. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  7. Bacterial Profile of Blood Stream Infection and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern of Isolates.

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    Usha Arora, Pushpa Devi

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples from 2542 clinically diagnosed cases of septicemia were processed. Out of these 946(76.55% were from Pediatric Department and rest from other Departments. Growth was obtained in509(20.02% cases . Candida spp were isolated from 23 (4.57 cases Out of 486 bacterial isolates 52.67% were gram positive bacteria whereas 47.33% were gram negative bacilli . Staph aureus 133 (27.37%wasthe predominant organisms followed by CONS 98 (20.1%. Amongst gram negative organismsEnterobacter 69 (14.19 % was the most predominant followed by Esch coli 45 (9.27 % Pseudomonas 37(7.62 % and Acinetobacter spp 34 (6.69 %. Amongst gram positive organisms maximum resistancewas seen with ampicillin (74.61% and erythromycin (69.67 %. Most of the gram negative bacilli wereMDR (71%. Maximum resistance was observed with ampicillin (86.1% cephalexin (68.07% andpiperacillin (57.71%. Most successful drugs were amikacin,gentamicin and cefotaxime. 34.35% of theisolates were ESBL producers.

  8. Intravenous Versus Oral Antibiotic Prophylaxis Efficacy for Elective Laparoscopic Cholecystectomies: a Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaca, A Serdar; Gündoğdu, Haldun; Özdoğan, Mehmet; Ersoy, Eren

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present prospective randomized controlled trial is to compare the effectiveness of intravenous and oral antibiotic prophylaxis for cost and surgical site infection in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Three hundred twenty patients were split into two groups as to include 160 patients in each, and they were evaluated in a prospective and randomized fashion. While one group was subjected to 1 g cefazolin via intravenous route during anesthesia induction, other group received 1 g cephalexin monohydrate via oral route 1 h prior to the operation. Demographic findings and operation results of the patients were compared by analyses. Our 320 patients (278 females and 42 males) received elective cholecystectomy and were followed up for a period of 6-26 months. Each group had 160 patients. Both groups were similar with regard to demographic characteristics and inclusion criteria. Among all, only five (1.5 %) cases demonstrated postoperative surgical site infection. Surgical site infection at postoperative period was determined in three (1.8 %) cases of intravenous prophylaxis group and two (1.2 %) cases of oral prophylaxis group. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups in terms of surgical site infection. Oral antibiotic prophylaxis can be used in elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy prophylaxis due to its cost-effective, reliable nature, and low surgical site infection rate. PMID:26730079

  9. Determination of Drug Resistance Pattern of Prevalent Bacteria Isolated from Patients with UTI

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    H Zandi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Urinary tract infections are the most prevalent bacterial infections in the world and using empiric antibiotic therapy may increase the drug resistance. This cross- sectional study accomplished to determine the prevalence of UTI and related antibiotic resistance pattern. Methods: UTI suspected patients referred to Yazd central laboratory studied. The urine samples cultured colonies with colony count of > 105 cfu/ml identified, and antibiotic resistance patterns determined by the standard disk diffusion method (Kirby-Bauer. Results: Out of 17353 samples 1623 (9.35% were positive culture. The most prevalent microorganisms were as follows: E.coli (47.07%. Enterobacter (12.07%. S. aureus (10.96%, Klebsiella pneumoniae (9.85%, CNS (8.37%, group B streptococci (4.86%. Enterococci (2.09%. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (1.54%. Proteus (1.17%. Nonhemolytic streptococci (0.86%, Citrobacter and α hemolytic Streptococci (0.55%. The antibiogram results showed that isolated strains had the most drug resistance as follows: to ampicillin (80%, SXT (53.66%, tetracycline (50.33%, cephalexin (22.92%, nalidixic acid (19.4%, nitrofruntain (17.12%, ceftizoxime (8.5% and ciprofloxacin (8%. Gram (+ cocci strains were 100% sensitive to vancomycin. Conclusion: selection of proper antibiotic against isolated species though susceptibility testing decreases the dissemination of resistant strains.

  10. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Escherichia coli strain DC2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-05-01

    Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are integral players in bacterial cell division, and their catalytic activities can be monitored with β-lactam-containing chemical probes. Compounds that target a single PBP could provide important information about the specific role(s) of each enzyme, making identification of such molecules important. We evaluated 22 commercially available β-lactams for inhibition of the PBPs in live Escherichia coli strain DC2. Whole cells were titrated with β-lactam antibiotics and subsequently incubated with a fluorescent penicillin derivative, Bocillin-FL (Boc-FL), to label uninhibited PBPs. Protein visualization was accomplished by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) separation and fluorescent scanning. The examined β-lactams exhibited diverse PBP selectivities, with amdinocillin (mecillinam) showing selectivity for PBP2, aztreonam, piperacillin, cefuroxime, cefotaxime, and ceftriaxone for PBP3, and amoxicillin and cephalexin for PBP4. The remaining β-lactams did not block any PBPs in the DC2 strain of E. coli or inhibited more than one PBP at all examined concentrations in this Gram-negative organism. PMID:25733506

  11. Isolation, Identification, and Characterization of Cadmium Resistant Pseudomonas sp. M3 from Industrial Wastewater

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    Syed Zaghum Abbas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the isolation, identification, and characterization of the cadmium resistant bacteria from wastewater collected from industrial area of Penang, Malaysia. The isolate was selected based on high level of the cadmium and antibiotic resistances. On the basis of morphological, biochemical characteristics, 16S rDNA gene sequencing and phylogeny analysis revealed that the strain RZCd1 was authentically identified as Pseudomonas sp. M3. The industrial isolate showed more than 70% of the cadmium removal in log phase. The cadmium removal capacity of strain RZCd1 was affected by temperature and pH. At pH 7.0 and 35°C, strain RZCd1 showed maximum cadmium removal capacity. The minimal inhibitory concentration of strain RZCd1 against the cadmium was 550 µg/mL. The resistance against the cadmium was associated with resistance to multiple antibiotics: amoxicillin, penicillin, cephalexin, erythromycin, and streptomycin. The strain RZCd1 also gave thick bands of proteins in front of 25 kDa in cadmium stress condition after 3 h of incubation. So the identified cadmium resistant bacteria may be useful for the bioremediation of cadmium contaminated industrial wastewater.

  12. Management of mastitis in breastfeeding women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Jeanne P

    2008-09-15

    Mastitis occurs in approximately 10 percent of U.S. mothers who are breastfeeding, and it can lead to the cessation of breastfeeding. The risk of mastitis can be reduced by frequent, complete emptying of the breast and by optimizing breastfeeding technique. Sore nipples can precipitate mastitis. The differential diagnosis of sore nipples includes mechanical irritation from a poor latch or infant mouth anomalies, such as cleft palate or bacterial or yeast infection. The diagnosis of mastitis is usually clinical, with patients presenting with focal tenderness in one breast accompanied by fever and malaise. Treatment includes changing breastfeeding technique, often with the assistance of a lactation consultant. When antibiotics are needed, those effective against Staphylococcus aureus (e.g., dicloxacillin, cephalexin) are preferred. As methicillin-resistant S. aureus becomes more common, it is likely to be a more common cause of mastitis, and antibiotics that are effective against this organism may become preferred. Continued breastfeeding should be encouraged in the presence of mastitis and generally does not pose a risk to the infant. Breast abscess is the most common complication of mastitis. It can be prevented by early treatment of mastitis and continued breastfeeding. Once an abscess occurs, surgical drainage or needle aspiration is needed. Breastfeeding can usually continue in the presence of a treated abscess. PMID:18819238

  13. Ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the simultaneous analysis of β-lactams (four penicillins and eight cephalosporins) in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karageorgou, Eftichia G; Samanidou, Victoria F; Papadoyannis, Ioannis N

    2012-10-01

    The application of ultrasound-assisted matrix solid phase dispersive extraction for the confirmatory analysis of 12 β-lactam antibiotics in milk by high performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection has been proposed herein. Four penicillins (cloxacillin, dicloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin) and eight cephalosporins (cefaclor, cefadroxil, ceftiofur, cefuroxime, cefoperazone, cefazolin, cephalexin, and cefotaxime) are effectively extracted using a mixed sorbent of Quick Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe technique and OASIS HLB providing a matrix free from any endogenous interference. Examined analytes were well resolved on an Inertsil ODS-3 analytical column with a mobile phase of CH(3)COONH(4) (0.05 M) and acetonitrile delivered under a gradient program. 1,7-Dimethyl-xanthine was used as internal standard. The method was validated meeting the European Legislation determining linearity, selectivity, stability, decision limit, detection capability, accuracy, precision, and ruggedness according to the Youden approach. Recoveries of all antibiotics rated from 85.0 to 115.7%, while RSD values were <12.7%. Finally, the method was successfully applied to milk samples purchased from local market. PMID:22941669

  14. Expedient antibiotics production: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bienkowski, P.R.; Byers, C.H.; Lee, D.D.

    1988-05-01

    The literature on the manufacture, separation and purification, and clinical uses of antibiotics was reviewed, and a bibliography of the pertinent material was completed. Five antimicrobial drugs, penicillin V and G, (and amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), Cephalexin (a cephalosporin), tetracycline and oxytetracycline, Bacitracin (topical), and sulfonamide (chemically produced) were identified for emergency production. Plants that manufacture antibiotics in the continental United States, Mexico, and Puerto Rico have been identified along with potential alternate sites such as those where SCP, enzyme, and fermentation ethanol are produced. Detailed process flow sheets and process descriptions have been derived from the literature and documented. This investigation revealed that a typical antibiotic-manufacturing facility is composed of two main sections: (1) a highly specialized, but generic, fermentation unit and (2) a multistep, complex separation and purification unit which is specific to a particular antibiotic product. The fermentation section requires specialized equipment for operation in a sterile environment which is not usually available in other industries. The emergency production of antibiotics under austere conditions will be feasible only if a substantial reduction in the complexity and degree of separation and purity normally required can be realized. Detailed instructions were developed to assist state and federal officials who would be directing the resumption of antibiotic production after a nuclear attack. 182 refs., 54 figs., 26 tabs.

  15. Antimicrobial Resistant Pattern of Escherichia Coli Strains Isolated from Pediatric Patients in Jordan

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    Mohammad Alshara

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate antimicrobial resistant pattern of Escherichia coli (E. coli strains isolated from clinical specimens of Jordanian pediatric patients during the period from January to December 2008. A total of 444 E. coli strains were isolated from clinical specimens and tested for their susceptibility to different antimicrobial drugs. Overall, high resistance rate was observed for ampicillin (84%, followed by amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (74.3%, cotrimoxazole (71%, nalidixic acid (47.3%, cephalothin (41%. Lower resistance rates were observed for amikacin (0% followed by Cefotaxime (11%, Ceftriaxone (11.7%, ciprofloxacin (14.5%, Norfloxacin (16.5%, gentamicin (17.3% cephalexin (20.9%, Ceftazidime (22.5%, cefixime (29.6%, and cefaclor (32.8%. Ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid and cotrimoxazole were found to be ineffective at in vitro inhibition of the E. coli of pediatric origin. Amikacin was highly effective for E. coli with susceptibility rate of 100%. The majority of E. coli strains were susceptible to third generation cephalosporins and fluoroquinolones.

  16. Agar dilution method for susceptibility testing of Neisseria gonorrhoeae

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    Marta C de Castillo

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available The antibiotic susceptibilities of Neisseria gonorrhoeae isolates obtained from patients attending a clinic for sexually transmitted diseases in Tucumán, Argentina, were determined by the agar dilution method (MIC. 3.5% of the isolates produced ²-lactamase. A total of 96.5% of ²-lactamase negative isolates tested were susceptible to penicillin (MIC < 2 µgml-1; 14.03% of the tested isolates were resistant to tetracycline (MIC < 2 µgml-1, and 98% of the tested isolates were susceptible to spectinomycin (MIC < 64 µgml-1. The MICs for 95% of the isolates, tested for other drugs were: < 2 µgml-1 for cefoxitin, < 0.06 µgml-1 for cefotaxime, < 0.25 µgml-1 for norfloxacin, < 10 µgml-1 for cephaloridine, < 10 µgml-1 for cephalexin, and < 50 µgml-1 for kanamycin. Antibiotic resistance among N. gonorrhoeae isolates from Tucumán, Argentina, appeared to be primarily limited to penicillin and tetracycline, which has been a general use against gonorrhoeae in Tucumán since 1960. Periodic monitoring of the underlying susceptibility profiles of the N. gonorrhoeae strains prevalent in areas of frequent transmission may provide clues regarding treatment options and emerging of drug resistance.

  17. Kinetic spectrophotometric determination of certain cephalosporins in pharmaceutical formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Mahmoud A; Abdelmageed, Osama H; Attia, Tamer Z

    2009-01-01

    A simple, reliable, and sensitive kinetic spectrophotometric method was developed for determination of eight cephalosporin antibiotics, namely, Cefotaxime sodium, Cephapirin sodium, Cephradine dihydrate, Cephalexin monohydrate, Ceftazidime pentahydrate, Cefazoline sodium, Ceftriaxone sodium, and Cefuroxime sodium. The method depends on oxidation of each of studied drugs with alkaline potassium permanganate. The reaction is followed spectrophotometrically by measuring the rate of change of absorbance at 610 nm. The initial rate and fixed time (at 3 minutes) methods are utilized for construction of calibration graphs to determine the concentration of the studied drugs. The calibration graphs are linear in the concentration ranges 5-15 mug mL(-1) and 5-25 mug mL(-1) using the initial rate and fixed time methods, respectively. The results are validated statistically and checked through recovery studies. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of the studied cephalosporins in commercial dosage forms. Statistical comparisons of the results with the reference methods show the excellent agreement and indicate no significant difference in accuracy and precision. PMID:20140078

  18. December critical care case of the month

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    Sultan S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available No abstract available. Article truncated at 150 words. History of Present Illness: The patient is a 32-year-old woman who presented with flank pain for 3 days to an outside hospital. She was diagnosed with pyelonephritis and begun on ceftriaxone. She was discharged against medical advice on cephalexin. She returned to the same hospital 3 days later by ambulance with labored breathing and weakness and was emergently intubated. She was transferred for ventilator management and respiratory failure. Past Medical History: She has a long history of poorly controlled diabetes mellitus. Physical Examination: She is orally intubated and sedated. Vitals: Temperature - 100.9º F, Blood Pressure - 117/75 mm Hg, Heart Rate - 148 beats per minute, Respiratory Rate - 31 breaths/min, SpO2 - 88 % on assist control of 30, tidal volume of 350 mL, PEEP 15, and an FiO2 100%. There is scatted rhonchi and rales but the remainder of the physical examination is unremarkable. Radiography: Her admission ...

  19. Development of a focused ultrasound-assisted extraction method for the determination of trace concentrations of Cr and Mn in pharmaceutical formulations by ETAAS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Carlos Eduardo R; Caldas, Luiz Fernando S; Brum, Daniel M; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2013-02-23

    This paper reports the development of a new method for the focused ultrasound extraction of Cr and Mn from pharmaceutical formulations and their determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). The method was optimized by evaluating the influence of several variables such as the sonication power and time, concentration of HCl in the extractant solution and mass of sample employed in the extraction procedure. The curves of pyrolysis and atomization were constructed for both analytes in order to evaluate the effect of the matrix on the measurement of Cr and Mn. Quantitative extraction of both Cr and Mn was achieved when 25-150 mg of the sample were sonicated for 30 min at 50% power with 5 ml of a 1 moll(-1) HCl solution. The developed method was successfully applied in the determination of Cr and Mn in samples of pharmaceutical formulations containing different active principles such as ciprofloxacin, cephalexin, azithromycin, amlodipine and methionine. There was no statistical (95% confidence level, paired t-test) difference between the results obtained by the proposed method and the results obtained after total digestion of the samples. PMID:23245262

  20. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection arising in a new tattoo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philips, Rebecca C; Hunter-Ellul, Lindsey A; Martin, Julie E; Wilkerson, Michael G

    2014-06-01

    We report an uncommon case of a cutaneous infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum arising in a new tattoo. A 29-year-old man presented with a several month history of a non-pruritic papular eruption within a tattoo; the papules developed 1-to-2 weeks after the tattoo procedure. He denied similar symptoms with previous tattoos. He had been treated unsuccessfully with cephalexin. Histopathologic examination revealed perifollicular chronic and granulomatous inflammation, consistent with chronic folliculitis. Acid-fast bacilli culture identified Mycobacterium fortuitum complex. The patient was treated with a 2-month course of oral trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (160mg/800mg twice daily) and ciprofloxacin (250 mg twice daily), with clinical improvement at follow up after three weeks of the antibiotic regimen. Rapidly growing mycobacteria have emerged as a cause of tattoo-associated cutaneous infection in recent years. Diagnosis and treatment can be difficult without clinical suspicion. M. fortuitum and other rapidly growing mycobacteria should be considered in the differential diagnosis of tattoo-associated dermatologic complications. PMID:24945647

  1. 临床分离大肠埃希菌的耐药性分析%ANALYSIS OF THE DRUG RESISTANCE OF THE CLINICAL ISOLATED ESCHERICHI COLI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包东武; 刘荣志

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨临床分离大肠埃希菌对常用抗生素的耐药性和不同标本中大肠埃希菌的耐药性差异,为临床治疗提供依据.[方法]用VITEK32型全自动细菌分析系统对我院2007年元月~2009年7月临床分离的395株大肠埃希菌进行鉴定,药敏试验采用K-B法,判断标准按NCCLS2006年版进行.[结果]大肠埃希菌对亚胺培南和头孢哌酮/舒巴坦的耐药率分别为2.5%和0;对头孢3代和4代杭生素、头霉素类、氟曲南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因、哌拉西林/三唑巴坦的耐药率为9.1%~21.5%;对青霉素类、喹诺酮类、磺胺类的耐药率为62.0%~83.5%;痰标本中大肠埃希菌的耐药率明显高于血液和尿液及其他标本的分离株.[结论]大肠埃希菌对青霉素类、喹诺酮类、磺胺类的耐药率较高;对头孢3代和4代抗生素、头霉素类、氨曲南、阿米卡星、呋喃妥因和哌拉西林/三唑巴坦的耐药率较低;目前对亚胺培南和头孢哌酮/舒巴坦敏感;不同标本中大肠埃希菌对同种抗生素的耐药性存在着差异.%[Objective] To understand drug tolerance of escherichina coli in common antibiotic and the difference of drug tolerance in different samples, and to select drugs for clinical reference. [Methods] 395 clinical separate strains escherichia coli and drug tolerance in our hospital from Jan2007 to July 2009 were identified and detected. Drug sensitive experiment was performed by (K- B) method, distinguished standard according to NCCLS 2006. [Results] Drug tolerant rate of escherichia coli in cefoperazone/sulbactam and imipenem were 2.5% and 0, respectively. The rates of cephaloglycin, cephalexin, Cephamycin, aztreonam, amikacin, nitrofurantoin and piperacillim were at the range of 9.1%-21.5%; The rates of penicillins, Quinovic - ketone sulfonamides were at the range of 62.0%-83.5%; Drug tolerant rate of escherichia coli in sputum was higher than that in blood, urine and other samples separate

  2. In vitro activity of cefazolin pentahydrate%五水头孢唑啉体外抗菌作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李耘; 吕媛; 刘健; 薛峰; 李曼宁

    2009-01-01

    , cefazolin pentahydrate also showed antibacterial activity. MIC values was ≤ 8 mg · L-1 for non- ESBLs Enterobacteriaceae bacteria. Time- kill curves test results indicated that cefazolin pentahydrate typically is of time dependent profile against staph-ylococci, but for E. coli, the bactericidal activity slight increased with drug concentration increased. Conclution Compared with contrast drugs, the activities of cefazolin pentahydrate against G+ bacteria were better than cephalexin, clindamycin, clarithromycin, and silght better than cefotiam, and similar with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefuroxime and levofloxacin. For non - ESBLs Enterobacteriaceae, the activies of cefazolin pentahydrate were better than cephalexin, and similar with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and cefuroxime.

  3. Dexamethasone plus lidocaine Local closed to cure Inter-appointment?pain and To prevent swelling%地塞米松加利多卡因局部封闭治疗约诊间疼痛和预防肿胀中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雯

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe and analyze the role of conventional medication to ease joint dexamethasone plus lidocaine par-tial closure of pain and swelling,and to explore during the acute treatment of root canal treatment methods. Methods After root canal preparation will be pain 80 cases of acute apical teeth were randomly divided into two groups,were named as the experimen-tal group and control group,the control group of 40 patients teeth give cephalexin tablets and metronidazole tablets oral;experimen-tal group of 40 patients given teeth to give cephalexin tablets and oral metronidazole tablets, parallel apical dexamethasone plus li-docaine treatment of partial closure. Comparison between the two groups of pain response rate and the incidence of apical swelling, and statistical analysis. Results Experimental pain remission rate (75%) than the control group (35%),the incidence of swelling in the experimental group patients (10%), lower than the control group (30%).Two groups were comparable with dental treatment ef-fect differences (P<0.05). Conclusion Dexamethasone Gary lidocaine local closed can relieve pain after root canal preparation,re-duce the incidence of development into periapical abscess, worthy of clinical popularization and application.%目的:通过观察分析常规药物治疗联合地塞米松加利多卡因局部封闭治疗对疼痛与肿胀的缓解作用,探讨治疗根管治疗期间急症方法。方法选取该院2011年1月—2012年1月进行根管预备后发生急性根尖疼痛的80例患牙,随机均分为实验组与对照组,对照组40例患牙给予头孢氨苄片和甲硝唑片口服;实验组40例患牙给予头孢氨苄片和甲硝唑片口服,并行根尖区地塞米松加利多卡因局部封闭治疗。对比两组间疼痛缓解率和根尖区肿胀发生率进行统计学处理。结果实验组疼痛缓解率(75%)高于对照组(35%),实验组患者肿胀发生率(10%)低于对照组(30%)

  4. Avaliação da atividade antimicrobiana in vitro do extrato de Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC Evaluation of in vitro antimicrobial activity of Tabernaemontana catharinensis A. DC. extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    diffusion in Mueller Hinton medium. Inhibition tests were performed with solutions of T. catharinensis dry crude extract dissolved in ethanol 70% (v/v at 1.0 mg mL-1, which became 0.005 mg mm-2 when applied to 20 mm² disks. As negative control, assays were carried out in plates containing P. aeruginosa and disks with ethanol 70% (v/v. Positive control consisted of disks containing the antibiotics ceftriaxone sodium (0.25 mg mm-2 disk area, tetracycline (0.005 mg mm-2 and cephalexin (0.005 mg mm-2. Extract solution at 0.005 mg mm-2 inhibited Staphylococcus aureus, with 0.6cm halo mean diameter. The inhibition halo for Pseudomonas aeruginosa was on average 1.2 cm. Tetracycline, cephalexin and negative control (ethanol 70% v/v did not show antimicrobial action, whereas ceftriaxone sodium resulted in 2.2 and 1.0cm mean inhibition halo diameters for P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus, respectively.

  5. Topical retapamulin in the management of infected traumatic skin lesions

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    Ribhi Shawar

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Ribhi Shawar1, Nicole Scangarella-Oman1, MaryBeth Dalessandro2, John Breton2, Monique Twynholm3, Gang Li4, Harmony Garges51Infectious Disease Center for Excellence in Drug Discovery, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 2Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 3Infectious Diseases Medicine Development Centre Europe, GlaxoSmithKline, Greenford, Middlesex, UK; 4MDC BDS – Infectious Disease, GlaxoSmithKline, Collegeville, PA, USA; 5Anti-infectives Medicine Development Center, GlaxoSmithKline, Research Triangle Park, NC, USAAbstract: Retapamulin is a novel semisynthetic pleuromutilin antibiotic specifically designed for use as a topical agent. The unique mode of action by which retapamulin selectively inhibits bacterial protein synthesis differentiates it from other nonpleuromutilin antibacterial agents that target the ribosome or ribosomal factors, minimizing the potential for target-specific cross-resistance with other antibacterial classes in current use. In vitro studies show that retapamulin has high potency against the Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, and coagulase-negative staphylococci commonly found in skin and skin-structure infections (SSSIs, including S. aureus strains with resistance to agents such as macrolides, fusidic acid, or mupirocin, and other less common organisms associated with SSSIs, anaerobes, and common respiratory tract pathogens. Clinical studies have shown that twice-daily topical retapamulin for 5 days is comparable to 10 days of oral cephalexin in the treatment of secondarily infected traumatic lesions. A 1% concentration of retapamulin ointment has been approved for clinical use as an easily applied treatment with a short, convenient dosing regimen for impetigo. Given the novel mode of action, low potential for cross-resistance with established antibacterial agents, and high in vitro potency against many bacterial pathogens

  6. Synergistic effects of plant extracts and antibiotics on Staphy-lococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ghaleb Adwan; Mohammad Mhanna

    2009-01-01

    Objective:This study has been done to evaluate the interaction between water extracts of Psidium guajava, Rosmarinus officinalis,Salvia fruticosa,Majorana syriaca,Ocimum basilucum,Syzygium aromaticum,Laurus nobilis,and Rosa damascena alone and then synergy testing of these extracts with known antimicrobial agents including oxytetracycline HCl,gentamicin sulfate,penicillin G,cephalexin and enrofloxacin.This study was conducted against five S.aureus isolates;one is Methicillin -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)and 4 Methicillin -sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA).Methods:Evaluation of the interaction between plant extracts and different antimicrobial agents has been done using well -diffusion and microdilution methods. Results:The results of the conducted experiments using well -diffusion method demonstrate that these plants showed in vitro interactions between antimicrobial agents and plant extracts were additive,while using microdi-lution method showed synergistic effects with significant reduction in the MICs of the test antibiotics against these strains of S.aureus.This change in MIC was noticed in all plant extracts against test antibiotics inclu-ding these plants showed weak antibacterial activity by well diffusion method.Synergism effect was occurred in both sensitive and resistant strains but the magnitude of minimum fold reduction of inhibitory concentration in resistant strains especially MRSA strain was higher than the sensitive strains.Coclusion:This study probably suggests the possibility of concurrent use of these antimicrobial drugs and plant extracts in combination in trea-ting infections caused by S.aureus strains or at least the concomitant administration may not impair the antimi-crobial activity of these antibiotics.

  7. Urinary Tract Infections Due to Catheterization and Drug Resistance Patterns of Isolated Bacteria

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    M. Mosavian

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available UTI is the most common infection in all ages and urinary catheters especially long-term catheterization are important predisposing factors of UTI. Urinary catheters are used in different hospital wards as a complementary curative method for the patients who are undergone various surgical procedures, such as : cesarean, hysterectomy , laparotomy, etc and they who are unable to control their voided urine . 226 urine specimens were collected from 119 catheterized patients which had been hospitalized in seven wards of Razi and Golestan hospitals in Ahwas city . At least two urine specimens were collected from each patient , before and after the insertion of the catheter . All of the specimens were inoculated to suitable Media, after transportation to the Microbiology Lab . Isolated colonies were identified and their resistance patterns were determined by the standard disk diffusion method (Kirby –Bauer procedure to 8 different antibiotics. 38 cases (43.6% out of 87 patients showed Bacteriuria in the end of catheterization . They had no bacteriuria symptoms or sign before the catheterization. The most cases(28.9% of bacteriuria occured in 30-39 years group and the lowest cases (2.6 % of them occured in 60-69 years group. Out of 50 bacterial strains isolated from urine cultures , E.coil (with 17 cases was the highest (34% and Staphylococcus aureus , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Edwardsiella tarda , Enterobacter sakazakii (with 2% for each were the lowest cases. E.coli, Enterobacter and Kl. rhinoscleromatis , showed the most resistance to Ampicillin, Penicillin , Cephalexin , and the lowest rate to Nalidixic acid, Gentamicin and Nitrofurantoin . Staphylococcus epidermidis isolates ,also,showed the most resistance (100% to Penicillin and Ampicillin , and the lowest rate to Gentamicin (with 66.7%, Cotrimoxazol and Nitrofurantoin (with 50% .The results of this study suggested that catheterization , especially long- term catheterization causes the rise of

  8. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Adams, Holly; Banvard, Christine; Juckett, Gregory

    2014-08-15

    Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas. Both types usually resolve within two to three weeks without scarring, and complications are rare, with the most serious being poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Treatment includes topical antibiotics such as mupirocin, retapamulin, and fusidic acid. Oral antibiotic therapy can be used for impetigo with large bullae or when topical therapy is impractical. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides are options, but penicillin is not. Natural therapies such as tea tree oil; olive, garlic, and coconut oils; and Manuka honey have been anecdotally successful, but lack sufficient evidence to recommend or dismiss them as treatment options. Treatments under development include minocycline foam and Ozenoxacin, a topical quinolone. Topical disinfectants are inferior to antibiotics and should not be used. Empiric treatment considerations have changed with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, macrolide-resistant streptococcus, and mupirocin-resistant streptococcus all documented. Fusidic acid, mupirocin, and retapamulin cover methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and streptococcal infections. Clindamycin proves helpful in suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole covers methicillin-resistant S

  9. The survey of bacterial etiology and their resistance to antibiotics of urinary tract infections in children of Birjand city

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    Azita Fesharakinia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Urinary tract infection is one of the most prevalent bacterial infections in childhood, which due to an inapproto determine the common bacteria and their antibiotic susceptibility in children with urinary tract infection.   Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytical and prospective study was done in 2009-2010 on urine samples of all children under 13 years who had been referred to Emmam-Reza hospital laboratory in Birjand and had positive urine culture. Sex and age of children, the kind of isolated bacteria in urine culture, susceptibility and resistance of these bacteria to current antibiotics were studied.The obtained data was analyzed by means of SPSS using Fisher exact- test.   Results: 100 children (84 girls and 16 boys with positive urine culture were studied. The most common age of urinary tract infection was under two years. In all ages the rate of urinary tract infection in females was more than males. E.coli was the most common cause in both sexes. There was a significant relationship between kind of microorganism and age of infection. The most prevalent cause of urinary tract infection in all ages was E.coli (75% ,infection by Proteus was 11%, and other microorganism caused 14% of the cases. E.coli had the most susceptibility to ceftriaxone and ceftazidime and the most resistance to cephalexin and co-trimoxazol. Not taking the type of microorganism into consideration, the most sensitive antibiotics were ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, cefexim and nalidixic acid and the most resistance was against co-trimoxasol and cefalexin.   Conclusion: Regarding the results, it is recommended to use cefexime and nalidixic acid for outpatient treatment of urinary infection , and ceftazidime and ceftriaxon for inpatient treatment.Selecting of antibiotics for urinary infection therapy should be based on the local prevalence of pathogenic bacteria and antibiotic sensitivities rather than on a universal guideline.

  10. CLINICAL AND LABORATORY PROFILE OF CHILDREN BIRTH TO 12 YEARS PRESENTING WITH FIRST URINARY TRACT INFECTION (UTI AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

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    Yengkhom Rameshwor

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infection (UTI is a common infection in infants and children. The clinical manifestations of UTI are varied and the etiology of UTI and the antibiotic resistance of uropathogens have been changing over the past years, both in community and nosocomial infections. However, there are not much information on etiology and resistance pattern of community acquired UTIs in India. This study was designed and conducted in the department of Pediatrics, BVDU Medical college hospital, Pune during the per iod from July 2009 to August 2011 to study children from birth to 12 years of age presenting with their first UTI with respect to their age and sex distributions, clinical manifestations, laboratory parameters, uropathogens and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns of 52 patients who attended our tertiary care centre. This study showed highest incidence of first UTI among infants with male preponderance among 5WBCs/mm 3 . E. coli was the commonest organism found in urine culture in all the age groups followed by CONS, Klebsiella and Pseudomonas. Maximum Sensitivity of E. coli was to Imipenem, Meropenem, Amikacin, Gatifloxacin and Nitrofurantoin. E. coli was found resistant to commonly used oral antibiotics like cotrimoxazole, ampicil lin, cephalexin, cefuroxime, cefixime, cepodoxim. Most isolates of Klebsiella, Pseudomonas and Proteus were highly sensitive to Piperacillin - Tazobactum, Imipenem, Aminoglycosides, Fluroquinolones and Nitrofurantoin. Also, Klebsiella isolates were found se nsitive to third generation cephalosporins but Pseudomonas and Proteus isolates were resistant to it. CONS and Enterococci were highly sensitive to Co - amoxyclav, Ampicillin - sulbactum, Piperacillin - tazobactum, Imipenem, Amikacin and Gatifloxacin.

  11. Use of antibiotics in ambulatory care patients and at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases

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    Stefan-Mikić Sandra

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Optimal pharmacotherapy includes utilization of the right drug at the right time, right duration of therapy and adequate dosage. This study analyzed utilization of antimicrobial drugs at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad and in outpatients of the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman. Material and methods Utilization of anti-infective agents was examined according to Anatomic-Therapeutic-Chemical Classification (group J. Drug utilization data were presented in Defined Daily Doses at the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad in Defined Daily Doses per 100 bed-days, and in the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman in Defined Daily Doses/1000 inhabitants per day. Results At the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad penicillins susceptible to beta-lactamase were established as most frequently used (39.33% namely: benzylpenicillin (32.18%, quinolone antibacterial agents ciprofloxacin (12.44% and cephalosporins, cephalexin (8.25%. In the Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman most frequently used were extended-spectrum penicillins (24.20% namely tetracyclines, doxycycline (18.98%, amoxicillin (18.27%, macrolides roxithromycin (17.56%. At the Clinic of Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Center Novi Sad the decision on using antibiotics and establishing whether it was bacterial or virus infection in 92.13% cases was made on the basis of following analyses: throat and nasal swabs, urine culture, virus complement-binding reaction. In Outpatient General Service of the Health Center Novi Sad - Liman it was done only in 18.46%. Conclusion Although treatment performed based on clinical picture and experience usually proves to be correct, antibiotic prescription policy should include antibiograms to provide optimal treatment and decrease the degree of resistance. Thus medicine would be

  12. Molecular characterization and antibiotic resistance of enterotoxigenic and entero-aggregative Escherichia coli isolated from raw milk and unpasteurized cheeses

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    Mojtaba Bonyadian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the occurrence of enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative Escherichia coli strains and antibiotic resistance of the isolates in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. Out of 200 samples of raw milk and 50 samples of unpasteurized cheeses, 96 and 24 strains of E. coli were isolated, respectively. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR was used to detect the genes encoding heat-stable enterotoxin a (STa, heat-stable enterotoxin b (STb, heat labile toxin (LT and enteroaggregative heat-stable toxin1 (EAST1. Twelve out of 120 (10.00% isolates harbored the gene for EAST1, 2(1.66% isolates were detected as producing STb and LT toxins and 12 (10.00% strains contained STb and EAST1 genes. None of the strains contain the STa gene. All of the strains were tested for antibiotic resistance by disk diffusion method. Disks included: ciprofloxacin (CFN, trimetoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TSX, oxytetracycline (OTC, gentamicin (GMN, cephalexin (CPN, nalidixic acid (NDA and nitrofurantoin (NFN, ampicillin (AMP, neomycin (NEO and streptomycin (STM. Among 120 isolated strains of E. coli, the resistance to each antibiotics were as follows: OTC100%, CPN 86.00%, NDA 56.00%, NFN 42.00%, GMN 30.00%, TSX 28.00%, CFN 20%, AM 23.40% and STM 4.25%. None of the isolates were resistant to NEO. The present data indicate that different resistant E. coli pathogens may be found in raw milk and unpasteurized cheese. It poses an infection risk for human and transferring the resistant factors to microflora of the consumers gut.

  13. Mycobacterium tuberculosis ClpX interacts with FtsZ and interferes with FtsZ assembly.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Dziedzic

    Full Text Available FtsZ assembly at the midcell division site in the form of a Z-ring is crucial for initiation of the cell division process in eubacteria. It is largely unknown how this process is regulated in the human pathogen Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Here we show that the expression of clpX was upregulated upon macrophage infection and exposure to cephalexin antibiotic, the conditions where FtsZ-ring assembly is delayed. Independently, we show using pull-down, solid-phase binding, bacterial two-hybrid and mycobacterial protein fragment complementation assays, that M. tuberculosis FtsZ interacts with ClpX, the substrate recognition domain of the ClpXP protease. Incubation of FtsZ with ClpX increased the critical concentration of GTP-dependent polymerization of FtsZ. Immunoblotting revealed that the intracellular ratio of ClpX to FtsZ in wild type M. tuberculosis is approximately 1:2. Overproduction of ClpX increased cell length and modulated the localization of FtsZ at midcell sites; however, intracellular FtsZ levels were unaffected. A ClpX-CFP fusion protein localized to the cell poles and midcell sites and colocalized with the FtsZ-YFP protein. ClpX also interacted with FtsZ mutant proteins defective for binding to and hydrolyzing GTP and possibly for interactions with other proteins. Taken together, our results suggest that M. tuberculosis ClpX interacts stoichiometrically with FtsZ protomers, independent of its nucleotide-bound state and negatively regulates FtsZ activities, hence cell division.

  14. An HPLC-DAD method for the simultaneous determination of nine β-lactam antibiotics in ewe milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cámara, M; Gallego-Picó, A; Garcinuño, R M; Fernández-Hernando, P; Durand-Alegría, J S; Sánchez, P J

    2013-11-15

    The presence of β-lactam residues in foodstuffs constitutes a potential risk to the human health and undesirable effects on consumers, and nowadays these antibiotic residues are also recognised as an emerging environmental problem. In addition, these are of great concern to prestigious Manchego cheese processors (Central Spain denomination of origin) because they reduce the curdling of milk and cause improper cheese ripening, which consequently lead to an important loss of monetary income. This work describes the development of a sensitive and reliable method using liquid chromatography with UV-diode array detection (LC-DAD) for simultaneous determination of the β-lactam antibiotics, ampicillin (AMP), benzylpenicillin (PEG), cephalexin (CFX), cefazolin (CFL), cefoperazone (CFP), cloxacillin (CLO), dicloxacillin (DCL), oxacillin (OXA) and phenoxymethylpenicillin (PEV), in Manchega ewe milk. The column, mobile phase, temperature and flow rate were optimised to provide the best resolution of these analytes. The extraction method of the antibiotic residues involves the deproteinisation of the milk sample using acetonitrile and centrifugation followed by a solid-phase extraction (SPE) clean-up. The recoveries for the studied β-lactams ranged from 79% to 96% with relative standard deviations between 0.5% and 4.9%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) for all these compounds were in the range of 3.4-8.6μgkg(-1), which are lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs) established by the European Union for the studied β-lactams in milk, making the method suitable for performing routine analyses. The proposed multi-residue LC-UV-diode array detection (LC-DAD) method is a powerful and popular alternative for the determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in small milk industries and is the first one capable of determining nine β-lactam antibiotics in samples of Manchega ewe milk. PMID:23790854

  15. Profiling of β-lactam selectivity for penicillin-binding proteins in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaoglu, Ozden; Tsui, Ho-Ching T; Winkler, Malcolm E; Carlson, Erin E

    2015-01-01

    Selective fluorescent β-lactam chemical probes enable the visualization of the transpeptidase activity of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) at different stages of bacterial cell division. To facilitate the development of new fluorescent probes for PBP imaging, we evaluated 20 commercially available β-lactams for selective PBP inhibition in an unencapsulated derivative of the D39 strain of Streptococcus pneumoniae. Live cells were treated with β-lactam antibiotics at different concentrations and subsequently incubated with Bocillin FL (Boc-FL; fluorescent penicillin) to saturate uninhibited PBPs. Fluorophore-labeled PBPs were visualized by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and fluorescence scanning. Among 20 compounds tested, carbapenems (doripenem and meropenem) were coselective for PBP1a, PBP2x, and PBP3, while six of the nine penicillin compounds were coselective for PBP2x and PBP3. In contrast, the seven cephalosporin compounds tested display variability in their PBP-binding profiles. Three cephalosporin compounds (cefoxitin, cephalexin, and cefsulodin) and the monobactam aztreonam exhibited selectivity for PBP3, while only cefuroxime (a cephalosporin) was selective for PBP2x. Treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with a sublethal concentration of cefuroxime that inhibited 60% of PBP2x activity and less than 20% of the activity of other PBPs resulted in formation of elongated cells. In contrast, treatment of S. pneumoniae cultures with concentrations of aztreonam and cefoxitin that inhibited up to 70% of PBP3 activity and less than 30% of other PBPs resulted in no discernible morphological changes. Additionally, correlation of the MIC and IC50s for each PBP, with the exception of faropenem, amdinocillin (mecillinam), and 6-APA, suggests that pneumococcal growth inhibition is primarily due to the inhibition of PBP2x. PMID:25845878

  16. An LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of cefprozil diastereomers in human plasma and its application for the bioequivalence study of two cefprozil tablets in healthy Chinese volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Ma, Jing-Yi; Zhang, Yanan; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhao, Hongna; Du, Aihua; Yang, Man; Meng, Lingjie; Deng, Ming; Liu, Huichen

    2016-03-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric method was developed for the first time and validated for the determination of cefprozil diastereomers in human plasma. The plasma samples were prepared by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. Detection was performed using an electronic spray ion source in the negative ion mode, operating in the multiple reaction monitoring of the transitions m/z 388.0 to m/z 205.0 for cefprozil diastereomers and m/z 346.1 to m/z 268.1 for cephalexin (the internal standard). The calibration curves of cis-cefprozil and trans-cefprozil were linear in the ranges 0.125-16.0 µg/mL and 0.0403-1.72 µg/mL, respectively. The lower limits of quantification of cis- and trans-cefprozil were 0.125 and 0.0403 µg/mL in human plasma, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precisions of cis- and trans-cefprozil were all <9.7%, and the accuracy ranged from 99.2 to 104.7% and from 100.6 to 102.2%, respectively. The validated method was successfully applied to a bioequivalence study of two cefprozil formulations in 24 healthy Chinese volunteers. The two cefprozil tablets were bioequivalent by measurement of cis-, trans- and total cefprozil. We suggest that the bioequivalence of cefprozil formulations can be evaluated only using cis-cefprozil as the analyte in future studies. PMID:26129932

  17. Microbial infection and antibiotic patterns among intensive care unit patients in a tertiary hospital in Central Nepal

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    RK Sanjana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims The present study is a fundamental effort to evaluate the bacteriological and antibiotic patterns in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU setting in a tertiary care hospital. This study was carried out to guide the clinician in choosing the appropriate antibiotics and to prevent emergence of multidrug resistance bacteria. Materials and Methods Between March 2009 to Feb 2012, the samples from various ICUs that were submitted to the microbiology laboratory for culture and sensitivity were included in this study. All the organisms were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratory procedure and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disc diffusion methods. Result Of 3,780 specimens, 2,312 (61.1% isolates were recovered. Single organisms were isolated from 1,746 (75.5% samples while the remaining 566 (24.4% had two or more organisms isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate 819 (35.4%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 637 (27.5%. Antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that almost all isolates were resistant to cephalexin (97.8% and ciprofloxacin (80.3%. However (95.8% of the isolates were sensitive to tobramycin, (92.0% to meropenem & (74.80 % to amikacin. Conclusion It is concluded that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominate pathogen isolated from ICUs of this Hospital. Most of the frequently isolated pathogens are resistant to cephalosporins and quinolone antibiotics as compared to aminoglycosides and carbapenem. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pattern is very important for setting a guideline to the clinician in choosing an appropriate therapy of infected patients of ICUs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-3, 1-8 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i3.8678

  18. 奶牛源性双歧杆菌的分离及耐药特性%Isolations of the Bifidobacterium from cows and their resistance characteristics to given antibacterial drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李少英; 李培锋; 石晶红; 雷守成; 张燕燕; 张开屏

    2008-01-01

    为探究奶牛源性双歧杆菌的耐药特性,用双歧杆菌选择性培养基对当地25头乳牛粪便进行了双歧杆菌的分离,筛选耐特定抗菌药菌株,对其进行属种鉴定,选择鉴定为双歧杆菌的7株菌进行12种抗菌药耐药特性研究.结果表明,试验双歧杆菌菌株(以下称试验菌株)中2株被鉴定为豚双歧杆菌(Bifidobacterium choleyium),4株为链状双歧杆菌(Bif.catenulatum),1株为青春双歧杆菌(Bif.adoleacentis).在抗菌药浓度一定的条件下,试验菌株对四环素(Tetracycline Hydrochloride)、氯霉素(Chloramphenicol)和红霉素(Erythromycin)敏感;对诺氟沙星(Norfloxacin)、乙酰螺旋霉素(Acetylspiramycin)、盐酸左氧氟沙星(Levofloxacin)、氨苄西林(Ampicillin)、头孢氨苄(Cephalexin),因菌株不同,敏感性不同;但对链霉素(Streptomycin)、庆大霉素(Gentamycin)、阿米卡星(Amikacin)和甲硝唑(Metronidazole Tablest)表现出强的耐受性,并且,试验菌株用三种方法均未检测到质粒.

  19. Postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery, with and without prophylactic antibiotic administration: A comparative study

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    Asi Kanwarjit

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Many a times in clinical periodontology, the decision whether to prescribe prophylactic antibiotics or not , is perplexing.The present study was conducted to compare the bacteremias induced after periodontal flap surgeries with and without prophylactic antibiotics. Materials and Methods: The occurrence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery was studied in 30 patients. On these patients, 30 quadrant wise flap surgeries were carried out without any preoperative prophylactic antibiotics and 30 surgeries carried out after prophylactic administration of amoxycillin preoperatively. A blood sample was taken from each patient at the time of maximum surgical trauma and was cultured for micro-organisms and antibiotic sensitivity. Results: 18 out of 60 blood samples were positive for micro-organisms. There was a significant reduction in post operative bacteremia after amoxycillin prophylaxis (x - 7.96 with P< 0.01 as post operative bacteremia was found in 14 of the non medicated patients as compared to only 4 of the pre medicated patients. The micro-organisms encountered in the study are as follows:- 1 Staphylococcus albus coagulase negative, 2 Klebsiella, 3 Psedomonas aerugenosa, 4 Streptococcus viridans, 5 Alpha hemolytic streptococcus, 6 Neisseria catarrhalis Conclusion: On the basis of the study, it is concluded that the incidence of postoperative bacteremia following periodontal flap surgery is not as high as previously reported. The clinical results show that Amoxicillin is highly effective in reducing postoperative bacteremia in periodontal flap surgery and thus in preventing the possible sequelae (Infective Endocarditis and other systemic maladies in susceptible patients. However, cefotaxime and cephalexin may prove to be more effective in preventing the same.

  20. Prescription pattern of antimicrobials in tertiary care hospital in central India

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    Pallavi Dnyaneshwar Admane

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Antimicrobial agents are the greatest contribution to 20th century, which are used for cure and prevention of infections. Widespread use of antimicrobials has facilitated the development of resistance.Aim: the study was to assess the use of antimicrobials in tertiary care hospital in Maharashtra.Method: Prescription audit was done to assess the use of antimicrobials. Total 1942 prescriptions were analyzed for average number of drugs prescribed, antimicrobials prescribed by generic name or brand name, percentage of antibiotics among the prescribed drugs, use of fixed drug combinations, if any.Statistical analysis used: Data was analyzed by percentage.Result: Demographic analysis showed that out of 1942 patients in OPD, most were male (56.38 and in the age group between 35 to 50 years.  In 1942 prescription, 30.25% drugs were antimicrobials. Three drugs were prescribed in 52.15% of the prescription, followed by 4 drugs in 19.78% prescriptions.  79.18% prescriptions were prescribed by generic name while 20.82% were prescribed by brand name. 29.18% of drugs were fixed dose combinations of all the antibiotics were prescribed empirically on the basis of provisional diagnosis. Of the total of antibiotics prescribed, amoxicillin was prescribed in 50.66% of patients, followed by cotrimoxazole in 26.05 % patients, cephalexin (8.50%   were used commonly.  Conclusion: The rational use of antimicrobial agents is one of the main contributors to control worldwide emergence of antibacterial resistance, side effects and reduced cost of the treatment.

  1. Isolation and identification of Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products and their drug resistance patterns in Anand, Gujarat

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    M. N. Brahmbhatt

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was carried out with aim to isolate Staphylococcus aureus from milk and milk products (pedha and curd and determine antibiogram pattern of S. aureus isolates. Materials and Methods: During 9 months duration of study a total of 160 milk and milk product samples (pedha and curd were collected from different places in and around Anand city such as milk collection centre of Co-operative milk dairies, cattle farms, individual household, milk vendors and sweet shops. The samples were collected under aseptic precautions and were enriched in Peptone Water (PW followed by direct plating on selective media viz. Baird-Parker Agar. The presumptive S. aureus isolates were identified by biochemical tests. Antibiogram pattern of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents were evaluated by disk diffusion method. Results: Analysis of result revealed that out of total 160 samples of milk (100 and milk products i.e. curd (30 and pedha (30 resulted in the isolation of 10 isolates (6.25 % of S. aureus. In the present study S. aureus isolates were found variably resistant to the antibiotics tested. The S. aureus isolates showed highest sensitivity towards cephalothin (100.00 %, co-trimoxazole (100.00 %, cephalexin (100.00 % and methicillin (100.00 % followed by gentamicin (90.00 %, ciprofloxacin (80.00 %, oxacillin (70.00 %, streptomycin (60.00 % and ampicillin (60.00 %. The pattern clearly indicated that the overall high percent of S. aureus isolates were resistant to Penicillin-G (100.00 % followed by ampicillin (40.00 %, oxytetracycline and oxacillin (20.00 % and streptomycin and gentamicin (10.00 % Conclusions: Results clearly suggested a possibility of potential public health threat of S. aureus resulting from contamination of milk and milk products with pathogenic bacteria is mainly due to unhygienic processing, handling and unhygienic environment. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 10-13

  2. Comparison of the Efficacy of Oral and Injectable Forms of Prophylactic Antibiotics in Grade Ii Traumatic Ulcers in Emergency Wards of University Hospitals of Yazd

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    MR Hajiesmaieli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Traumatic ulcers are one of the most common causes of referral to emergency wards and interfere with wound healing. Even in a complete sterile condition, all of the ulcers may be contaminated with bacteria, but a few of them progress and cause clinical manifestations. There is a controversy on the use prophylactic antibiotics in traumatic ulcers. In this study we compare the efficacy of oral and injectable forms of antibiotics in prophylaxis of infection. Methods: In this clinical trial study, 237 cases suffering from grade II traumatic ulcers were selected by simple random method and divided into 2 groups; first group was administered 1 gram cephazoline prior to suturing and received no other antibiotics , while the second group received 500 mg cephalexin capsule before suturing and continued the treatment for 24 hours. (500 mg QID .Patients were followed up on day 7, 10 and 30 after discharge from hospital for infection of the wounds. The collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11 software using Chi-squire and Fisher exact tests. Results: According to the findings, confounding variables such as sex, age, width of the wound, traumatic cause and site and also the time course until referral to the emergency ward were similar in both groups. Prevalence of infection in the group receiving oral and injection forms of antibiotic was 2.5% and 1.7%, respectively, difference of which was not significant.(P=0.683 Conclusion: As the prevalence of wound infection is similar in both groups, oral forms of antibiotics can be used instead of injectable forms for wound infection prophylaxis.

  3. Multi-residue enantiomeric analysis of human and veterinary pharmaceuticals and their metabolites in environmental samples by chiral liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Muñoz, Dolores; Kasprzyk-Hordern, Barbara

    2015-12-01

    Enantiomeric profiling of chiral pharmacologically active compounds (PACs) in the environment has hardly been investigated. This manuscript describes, for the first time, a multi-residue enantioselective method for the analysis of human and veterinary chiral PACs and their main metabolites from different therapeutic groups in complex environmental samples such as wastewater and river water. Several analytes targeted in this paper have not been analysed in the environment at enantiomeric level before. These are aminorex, carboxyibuprofen, carprofen, cephalexin, 3-N-dechloroethylifosfamide, 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine, dihydroketoprofen, fenoprofen, fexofenadine, flurbiprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen, ifosfamide, indoprofen, mandelic acid, 2-phenylpropionic acid, praziquantel and tetramisole. The method is based on chiral liquid chromatography utilising a chiral α1-acid glycoprotein column and tandem mass spectrometry detection. Excellent chromatographic separation of enantiomers (Rs≥1.0) was achieved for chloramphenicol, fexofenadine, ifosfamide, naproxen, tetramisole, ibuprofen and their metabolites: aminorex and dihydroketoprofen (three of four enantiomers), and partial separation (Rs = 0.7-1.0) was achieved for ketoprofen, praziquantel and the following metabolites: 3-N-dechloroethylifosfamide and 10,11-dihydro-10-hydroxycarbamazepine. The overall performance of the method was satisfactory for most of the compounds targeted. Method detection limits were at low nanogram per litre for surface water and effluent wastewater. Method intra-day precision was on average under 20% and sample pre-concentration using solid phase extraction yielded recoveries >70% for most of the analytes. This novel, selective and sensitive method has been applied for the quantification of chiral PACs in surface water and effluent wastewater providing excellent enantioresolution of multicomponent mixtures in complex environmental samples. It will help with better understanding

  4. Antibiotic Resistance of Urinary Tract Infection of Children Under 14 Years Admitted To The Pediatric Clinic of Imam Sajjad Hospital, 2012

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    F Asadi Manesh F

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Urinary tract infection is the most common childhood infections after upper respiratory tract infection. Early diagnosis, proper treatment and appropriate patient follow-up can lead to a significant reduction in symptoms. The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial resistance of urinary tract infection in children under 14 years admitted to the pediatric clinic of Imam Sajjad (AS Yasooj. Methods: Methods: In this cross-sectional study antibiotic sensitivity of 145 positive urine cultures were evaluated by disc diffusion method. Urine specimens were collected by suprapubic aspiration and catheterization urethral in children without urinary incontinence and Mid Stream Clean-Catch method. Data were analyzed by chi square test. Results: Among the patients were studied, 60.68% female and 39.31% were male. The most common cause of urinary tract infections in children, Escherichia coli (72.41%, followed by Klebsiella (34/10.34%. Antibiotic resistance patterns including ampicillin (85.51%, amoxicillin (/83.44%, cephalexin (69.65%, cephalothin (62.06%, cotrimoxazole (37.61%, nalidixic acid (44.82%, cefixime (24.37%, nitrofurantoin (36.55%, gentamicin (35.17%, ceftriaxone (28.27%, ciprofloxacin (26.89%, amikacin (25.51%, and cefotaxime (24.82% were respectively. Conclusion: Conclusion: Antibiotic resistance in urinary tract infections of children in Yasuj in 2012 was higher than previous years except for amikacin, But it was a remarkable increase in ciprofloxacin and co-trimoxazole. The use of nitrofurantoin, cefotaxime, third generation cephalosporins and aminoglycosides is recommended for empirical treatment.

  5. Antagonistic Activity of Nocardia brasiliensis PTCC 1422 Against Isolated Enterobacteriaceae from Urinary Tract Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalali, Hossnieh Kafshdar; Salamatzadeh, Abdolreza; Jalali, Arezou Kafshdar; Kashani, Hamed Haddad; Asbchin, Salman Ahmadi; Issazadeh, Khosro

    2016-03-01

    The main drawback of current antibiotic therapies is the emergence and rapid increase in antibiotic resistance. Nocardiae are aerobic, Gram-positive, catalase-positive, non-motile actinomycetes. Nocardia brasiliensis was reported as antibiotic producer. The purpose of the study was to determine antibacterial activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 against isolated Enterobacteriaceae from urinary tract infections (UTIs). The common bacteria from UTIs were isolated from hospital samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was performed for the isolated pathogens using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline. Antagonistic activity of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 was examined with well diffusion methods. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 by submerged culture was analyzed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Isolated strains included Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Serratia marcescens and Proteus mirabilis. The most common pathogen isolated was E. coli (72.5%). Bacterial isolates revealed the presence of high levels of antimicrobial resistances to ceftriaxone and low levels of resistance to cephalexin. Supernatant of N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 showed antibacterial activity against all of the isolated microorganisms in well diffusion method. The antibiotic resistance among the uropathogens is an evolving process, so a routine surveillance to monitor the etiologic agents of UTI and the resistance pattern should be carried out timely to choose the most effective empirical treatment by the physicians. Our present investigation indicates that the substances present in the N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 could be used to inhibit the growth of human pathogen. Antibacterial resistance among bacterial uropathogen is an evolving process. Therefore, in the field on the need of re-evaluation of empirical treatment of UTIs, our present. The study has demonstrated that N. brasiliensis PTCC 1422 has a high potential

  6. Use of antimicrobials by pregnant women in the public health care

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    Janaína Soder Fritzen

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify and classify, according to the risk, the antimicrobials prescribed to pregnant women assisted by the National Program of Prenatal and Postpartum Follow-up in a municipality of Rio Grande do Sul. Methods: Analytical and retrospective cross-sectional study conducted in 2011 based on the registers of 87 pregnant women assisted in 2010 using an instrument with questions about the dispensed drugs. The prescribed antimicrobials were identified and classified as topical and systemic use and according to the risk of using it during pregnancy. Data were analyzed using SPSS 15.0. Results: The pregnant women had a mean age of 28.01 years and attended 5.3 consultations. There was an average prescription of 6.52 drugs/pregnant woman. Of the 568 drugs prescribed, 85 (14.96% had an antimicrobial activity, 29 (34.1% were for topical use and 56 (65.9% for systemic use, and 46 (52.9% pregnant women received at least one antimicrobial. There were 13 different products with a prevalence of antifungals of gynecological / topical use, 16 (18.82%, 30 (35.3% were prescribed in the first trimester of pregnancy, 30 (35.3% in the second and 25 (29.4% in the third trimester. According to the classification of the risk to the fetus, nine (61.54% antimicrobials belonged to the B category and four (30.77% to the C category. Conclusion: It was verified the prescription of antimicrobials for systemic use and B category risk for pregnancy to 52.9% of pregnant women in prenatal follow-up in the place where the study took place. Miconazole and metronidazole vaginal cream, cephalexin 500 mg, azithromycin 500 mg and amoxicillin 500 mg were the most prescribed drugs.

  7. Pediatric Biopharmaceutical Classification System: Using Age-Appropriate Initial Gastric Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawahna, Ramzi

    2016-05-01

    Development of optimized pediatric formulations for oral administration can be challenging, time consuming, and financially intensive process. Since its inception, the biopharmaceutical classification system (BCS) has facilitated the development of oral drug formulations destined for adults. At least theoretically, the BCS principles are applied also to pediatrics. A comprehensive age-appropriate BCS has not been fully developed. The objective of this work was to provisionally classify oral drugs listed on the latest World Health Organization's Essential Medicines List for Children into an age-appropriate BCS. A total of 38 orally administered drugs were included in this classification. Dose numbers were calculated using age-appropriate initial gastric volume for neonates, 6-month-old infants, and children aging 1 year through adulthood. Using age-appropriate initial gastric volume and British National Formulary age-specific dosing recommendations in the calculation of dose numbers, the solubility classes shifted from low to high in pediatric subpopulations of 12 years and older for amoxicillin, 5 years, 12 years and older for cephalexin, 9 years and older for chloramphenicol, 3-4 years, 9-11 and 15 years and older for diazepam, 18 years and older (adult) for doxycycline and erythromycin, 8 years and older for phenobarbital, 10 years and older for prednisolone, and 15 years and older for trimethoprim. Pediatric biopharmaceutics are not fully understood where several knowledge gaps have been recently emphasized. The current biowaiver criteria are not suitable for safe application in all pediatric populations. PMID:26935428

  8. Possible interaction of quinolone antibiotics with peptide transporter 1 in oral absorption of peptide-mimetic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakawa, Hiroshi; Kamioka, Hiroki; Kanagawa, Masahiko; Hatano, Yasuko; Idota, Yoko; Yano, Kentaro; Morimoto, Kaori; Ogihara, Takuo

    2016-01-01

    The study investigated whether quinolone antibiotics inhibit the PEPT1-mediated uptake of its substrates. Among the quinolones examined, lomefloxacin, moxifloxacin (MFLX) and purlifloxacin significantly inhibited the uptake of PEPT1 substrate phenylalanine-Ψ(CN-S)-alanine (Phe-Ψ-Ala) in HeLa/PEPT1 cells to 31.6 ± 1.3%, 27.6 ± 2.9%, 36.8 ± 2.2% and 32.6 ± 1.4%, respectively. Further examination showed that MFLX was an uncompetitive inhibitor, with an IC50 value of 4.29 ± 1.29 mm. In addition, MFLX significantly decreased the cephalexin and valacyclovir uptake in HeLa/PEPT1 cells. In an in vivo study in rats, the maximum plasma concentration (C(max)) of orally administered Phe-Ψ-Ala was significantly decreased in the presence of MFLX (171 ± 1 ng/ml) compared with that in its absence (244 ± 9 ng/ml). The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of orally administered Phe-Ψ-Ala in the presence of MFLX (338 ± 50 ng/ml · h) tended to decrease compared with that in its absence (399 ± 75 ng/ml · h). The oral bioavailability of Phe-Ψ-Ala in the presence and absence of MFLX was 41.7 ± 6.2% and 49.2 ± 9.2%, respectively. The results indicate that administration of quinolone antibiotics concomitantly with PEPT1 substrate drugs may potentially result in drug-drug interaction. PMID:26590007

  9. Isolation, Identification and Drug Sensitivity Test of the Pathogenic Bacteria of Cow Mastitis%奶牛乳房炎病原菌的分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乌伦吉如嘎; 郭志凯; 邓常胜; 卢永跃

    2012-01-01

    The pathogenetic milk samples from a cattle-raising community in Tumoteyou County of Baotou were selected to perform tests for pathogen isolation and culturing,smear staining,biochemical identification,drug sensitivity to find out which type of mastitis pathogenic bacteria the cows had and which kind of drugs they were sensitive to. The results showed that the prevalence of cow mastitis in the community is caused by Escherichia coli,Streptococcus agalactiae and Staphylococcus aureus. The identified pathogens had certain drug-resistance to long-term soil enzyme and the sulfate chains of enzyme, but they were extremely sensitive to cephalexin and were also highly sensitive to the new enzyme and ampicillin sodium.%为了调查内蒙古包头市土默特右旗某养牛小区发生的奶牛乳房炎的病原菌种类及其敏感药物,对发病牛乳样进行了病原分离培养、镜检、生化鉴定、药敏试验。试验结果表明,该养牛小区流行的奶牛乳房炎主要是由大肠杆菌、无乳链球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌引起的,3种病原菌对长效土霉素和硫酸链霉素具有一定的耐药性,而对头孢氨苄极度敏感,对新霉素和氨苄西林钠高度敏感。

  10. 748例β-内酰胺类抗菌药物不良反应分析%Analysis on 748 Cases of β-lactam Antibiotics Drug Adverse Reaction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张树强; 邢蓉; 王群; 师佩兰; 谢冬梅; 许健

    2011-01-01

    目的 了解蚌埠地区β-内酰胺类抗菌药物致药品不良反应(ADR)的发生情况.方法 对2010年1~12月蚌埠地区上报的748例β-内酰胺类抗菌药物ADR病例报告,按性别、年龄、给药途径、药品类别、ADR累及系统-器官及临床表现等进行统计、分析.结果 ADR涉及的β-内酰胺类抗菌药物共26种,ADR发生频次以阿莫西林居首位,其次为头孢氨苄和头孢拉啶;主要的ADR类型为皮肤及其附件损害,占47.48%;1例严重ADR.结论 应规范β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的临床应用,以减少ADR的发生率.%Objective To investigate the situation of β- lactam antibiotics drug adverse reactions in Bengbu region. Method According to gender, age, administration route, drug category, organs or systems, clinical manifestations Involved with ADR, and so on, 748 cases of β-lactam antibiotics drag adverse reactions in Bengbu region reported from Jan 2010 to Dec 2010 were analyzed. Results 26 β-lactam antibiotics drugs were involved with ADR. As to the ADR frequence, the highest was related to amoxicillin, and then were related to cephalexin and cephradine. The major organ-system damage involved in ADR was skin and appendages disorders, which accounted for 47.48% of the total, and a serious ADR occurred. Conclusion Clinical appliance of β-lactam antibiotics drug should be standardized to reduce the ADR incidence.

  11. Demographic features and antibiotic resistance among children hospitalized for urinary tract infection in northwest Iran

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    Ghorashi Z

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Ziaaedin Ghorashi1, Sona Ghorashi2, Hassan Soltani-Ahari1, Nariman Nezami3 1Department of Pediatrics, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, 2Young Researchers Club, Tabriz Branch, Tabriz Islamic Azad University, 3Drug Applied Research Center, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI is the most common serious bacterial infection during infancy. The aim of the present study was to evaluate demographic characteristics, clinical presentations and findings, and antimicrobial resistance among infants and children hospitalized in Tabriz Children's Hospital, Tabriz, Iran. Methods: In this descriptive observational study, 100 children who had been admitted with UTI diagnosis to Tabriz Children's Hospital from March 2003 to March 2008 were studied. Demographic characteristics, chief complaints, clinical presentations and findings, urine analysis and cultures, antimicrobial resistance, and sonographic and voiding cystourethrographic reports were evaluated. Results: The mean age of patients was 35.77 ± 39.86 months. The male to female ratio was 0.26. The mean white blood cell count was 12,900 ± 5226/mm3. Sixty-two percent of patients had leukocytosis. The most common isolated pathogen was Escherichia coli spp (77% followed by Klebsiella spp (10%, Enterobacter spp (9%, and Enterococcus spp (4%. Isolated pathogens were highly resistant to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, and cephalexin (71%–96%, intermediate sensitivity to third-generation cephalosporins, and highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin (84.4%, amikacin (83.8%, and nitrofurantoin (82.8%. Conclusion: The most common pathogen of UTI in the hospitalized children was E. coli spp. The isolated pathogens were extremely resistant to ampicillin, and highly sensitive to ciprofloxacin and amikacin. Keywords: urinary tract infection, antibiotic, resistance, sensitivity, Escherichia coli

  12. Molecular detection of Salmonella spp. isolated from apparently healthy pigeon in Mymensingh, Bangladesh and their antibiotic resistance pattern

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    Md. Khaled Saifullah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Here we determined the prevalence of Salmonella in cloacal swabs and pharyngeal swabs of apparently healthy pigeons sold in the live bird markets and villages in and around Bangladesh Agricultural University Campus, Mymensingh, Bangladesh. Materials and methods: A total of 50 samples, comprised of cloacal swabs (n=24 and pharyngeal swabs (n=26 were collected. The samples were processed, and Salmonella was isolated through a series of conventional bacteriological techniques and biochemical tests followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. Results: The prevalence rate of Salmonella was found to be 37.5% (n=9/24 in cloacal swabs and 30.77% (n=8/26 in pharyngeal swabs with an overall prevalence rate of 34% (n=17/50. The prevalence rate of Salmonella pigeon varied slightly among locations; 34.62% (n=9/26 in live bird markets, and 33.33% (n=8/24 in villages. Molecular detection of 17 Salmonella isolates obtained from biochemical test was performed by genus specific PCR, where all of them amplified a region of 496-bp segment of the histidine transport operon gene. Antibiogram study revealed multi-drug resistant traits in most of the isolates tested. The highest resistance was found against Ampicillin (88.23% followed by Cephalexin (82.35%. The rate of sensitivity of the isolates to Ciprofloxacin was 100% followed by Azithromycin (82.35%, Gentamicin (76.47% and Nalidixic acid (76.47%. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that pigeons carry multi-drug resistant Salmonella that may transfer to the humans and animals. [J Adv Vet Anim Res 2016; 3(1.000: 51-55

  13. Investigation of the antibacterial activity of pioglitazone

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    Alzoubi KH

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Majed M Masadeh1, Nizar M Mhaidat2, Sayer I Al-Azzam2, Karem H Alzoubi21Department of Pharmaceutical Technology; 2Department of Clinical Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, JordanPurpose: To evaluate the antibacterial potential of pioglitazone, a member of the thiazolidinediones class of drugs, against Gram-positive (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteria.Methods: Susceptibility testing was done using the antibiotic disk diffusion method and the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC of pioglitazone was measured according to the broth micro incubation standard method.Results: Pioglitazone induced a dose-dependent antibacterial activity in which the optimal concentration was 80 µM. Furthermore, results indicated that while E. coli was sensitive (MIC = 31.25 ± 3.87 mg/L to pioglitazone-induced cytotoxicity, S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae were resistant (MIC = 62.5 ± 3.77 mg/L and MIC = 62.5 ± 4.14 mg/L, respectively. Moreover, pretreatment of bacteria with a suboptimal concentration of pioglitazone (40 µM before adding amoxicillin, cephalexin, co-trimoxazole, or ciprofloxacin enhanced the antibacterial activity of all agents except co-trimoxazole. This enhancing effect was particularly seen against K. pneumoniae.Conclusion: These results indicate the possibility of a new and potentially important pioglitazone effect and the authors’ ongoing studies aim to illustrate the mechanism(s by which this antibacterial effect is induced.Keywords: pioglitazone, susceptibility testing, antibiotics, diabetes 

  14. 头孢氨苄工艺改进%The Improved Process of Cefalexin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文杰; 赵南; 胡文彩

    2016-01-01

    Cefalexin was synthesized and determined to open the route for the synthesis of cefalexin. 7 -aminodesacetoxycephalosporanic acid ( 7-ADCA ) was used as the starting material, after salt formation protection, condensed with the intermediate phthalic anhydride levorotatory ammonia acid ethyl Deng sylvite after protected, reacted in the five steps, cephalexin was synthesized. The total yield was 91%, and the product quality met the requirements of Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010). This method increased the total yield, and the activated carbon in the aqueous phase was not activated after hydrolysis and extraction, reduced the activated carbon decolorization and filtration time, also shorten the production cycle, while reducing production costs.%通过对头孢氨苄合成工艺的研究,确定并打通了头孢氨苄的合成路线,以7-氨基-3-去乙酰氧基头孢烷酸(7-ADCA)为起始原料,经成盐保护后,与左旋苯酐氨酸乙基邓钾盐经保护后的中间体缩合,经五步反应,得到头孢氨苄。摩尔总收率91%,产品质量符合并且高于中国药典(2010版)的要求。本方法提高了总收率,并且在水解萃取分层后,在水相中不加活性炭,减少了活性炭脱色以及过滤的时间,也缩短了生产周期,同时降低了生产成本。

  15. 4株鸭疫里默氏杆菌的PCR快速鉴定及药敏试验%PCR Rapid Identification and Drug Sensitive Test of Four Isolated Strains of Riemerella anatipestifer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓉蓉; 罗青平; 温国元; 王红琳; 杨峻; 艾地云; 罗玲; 邵华斌

    2012-01-01

    从湖北省武汉郊区和监利市两地的发病雏鸭分离纯化到4株鸭疫里默氏杆菌(Riemerella anatipestifer,RA),通过对该菌形态学鉴定、生化试验、细菌16S rRNA的快速鉴别诊断证明了4株细菌均为鸭疫里默氏杆菌.将不同来源的菌株各选一株HBSPX和HBJL,进行了16S rRNA目的片段的扩增并测序,测序结果表明这两株细菌与其他鸭疫里默氏杆菌的16S rRNA同源性高达99.4%和98.9%.药敏试验结果表明,HBSPX株对阿莫西林、先锋Ⅵ高度敏感,但HBJL株对氯洁霉素和红霉素高度敏感.%Four strains isolated from diseased duck in Wuhan suburbs and Jianli of Hubei province were identified as Riernerella anatipestifer(RA) by morphological identification, biochemical tests and PCR identification of 16 S rRNA of bacteria. 16 S rRNA gene of bacteria was PCR amplified from two isolated strains HBSPX and HBJL The nucleotide sequence i-dentity of 16 S rRNA between two isolated strains and other RA was 99.4% and 98.9%. In drug sensitive test, HBSPX was highly sensitive to amoxicillin and cephalexin; and HBJL was highly sensitive to clindamycin and erythromyein.

  16. Encouraging good antimicrobial prescribing practice: A review of antibiotic prescribing policies used in the South East Region of England

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    Mayon White Richard T

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Good prescribing practice has an important part to play in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. Whilst it was perceived that most hospitals and Health Authorities possessed an antibiotic policy, a review of antibiotic policies was conducted to gain an understanding of the extent, quality and usefulness of these policies. Methods Letters were sent to pharmacists in hospitals and health authorities in across the South East region of the National Health Service Executive (NHSE requesting antibiotic policies. data were extracted from the policies to assess four areas; antibiotic specific, condition specific, patient specific issues and underpinning evidence. Results Of a possible 41 hospital trusts and 14 health authorities, 33 trusts and 9 health authorities (HAs provided policies. Both trust and HA policies had a median publication date of 1998 (trust range 1993-99, HA 1994-99. Eleven policies were undated. The majority of policies had no supporting references for the statements made. All policies provided some details on specific antibiotics. Gentamicin and ciprofloxacin were the preferred aminoglycoside and quinolone respectively with cephalosporins being represented by cefuroxime or cefotaxime in trusts and cephradine or cephalexin in HAs. 26 trusts provided advice on surgical prophylaxis, 17 had meningococcal prophylaxis policies and 11 covered methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA. There was little information for certain groups such as neonates or children, the pregnant or the elderly. Conclusion There was considerable variation in content and quality across policies, a clear lack of an evidence base and a need to revise policies in line with current recommendations.

  17. Investigations of multiresistance to antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta: Lactamase effect (ESBL test in strains E.coli and salmonella originating from domestic animals

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    Mišić Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The presence of multiresistance to the effects of antibiotics and chemotherapeutics and extended spectrum beta-lactamase were examined in 45 strains of E. coli and 35 strains of Salmonella. The strains of E. coli originated from several species of domestic animals: dogs, cats, poultry, and cattle, and 30 strains of Salmonella originated from poultry, 4 strains from cattle, and 1 strain from swine. The presence of the following serovarieties was established using serological examinations: Salmonella Enteritidis 17 strains, Salmonella Gallinarum 1 strain, Salmonella Hartford 5 strains, Salmonella Anatum 1 strain, Salmonella Typhimurium 4 strains, Salmonella Agona 1 strain, Salmonella Infantis 1 strain, Salmonella Thompson var. Berlin 1 strain, Salmonella Tennessee 1 strain, Salmonella Senftenberg 1 strain, Salmonella Glostrup 1 strain, and Salmonella Hadar 1 strain. In the examinations of the listed strains we used antibiogram discs of ampicillin, amoxicillin with clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cephtriaxon, cephotaxim, cephtazidime, aztreonam, gentamycin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, cyprofloxacine, and a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim. The lowest prevalence of multiresistance in E. Coli strains to 3 or more antibiotics was established in dogs 20%, and the highest in 60% strains originating from swine. In 62.88% strains of Salmonella we established sensitivity to all applied antibiotics. Resistance was also established in a small number of the examined strains to ampicillin (11 strains, to tetracycline (5 strains, to amoxicillin with clavulanic acid (5 strains, to sulphamethoxasole with trimethoprim (5 strains, to gentamycin (3 strains, and to cloramphenicol (1 strain. Of all the examined strains of Salmonella, 6 strains originating from poultry exhibited multiresistence. The presence of extended spectrum beta-lactamase effects examined using the ESBL test, was not established in strains of E. coli and Salmonella strains.

  18. Streamlining methodology for the multiresidue analysis of beta-lactam antibiotics in bovine kidney using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastovska, Katerina; Lightfield, Alan R

    2008-08-22

    A previously reported multiresidue method for the analysis of 11 important beta-lactams (amoxicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, cephalexin, cloxacillin, desfuroylceftiofur cysteine disulfide (DCCD), deacetylcephapirin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, and penicillin G) in bovine kidney has been further streamlined. The method is based on a simple extraction using acetonitrile-water (4:1, v/v), followed by dispersive solid-phase extraction clean-up with C(18) sorbent, concentration of an extract aliquot, and filtration of the final extracts using syringeless filter vials, which are used for the sample introduction in the liquid chromatographic-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) analysis. The recoveries have been improved by adding the internal standard [(13)C(6)]sulfamethazine to the homogenized sample before the extraction step, which enabled a proper control of the volume changes during the sample preparation. Average recoveries of fortified samples were 87-103% for all beta-lactams, except for DCCD, which had an average recovery of 60%. Based on the results of the stability study and LC mobile phase tests, methanol has been eliminated from the entire method, including the LC-MS/MS analysis. The best overall LC-MS/MS (electrospray positive ionization) performance was achieved by using 0.1% formic acid as an additive in both parts of the mobile phase, in water and in acetonitrile. To prevent carry-over in the LC-MS/MS analysis, the LC method was divided into two parts: one serving as an analytical method for injection of the sample and elution of the analytes and the other one, starting at a highly organic mobile phase composition, being dedicated for injection of a solvent, washing of the system, and equilibration of the column to the initial conditions of the analytical method. In this way, a blank solvent is injected after each sample, but these in-between injections contribute minimally to the overall sample throughput. PMID:18656204

  19. Impetigo: diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman-Adams, Holly; Banvard, Christine; Juckett, Gregory

    2014-08-15

    Impetigo is the most common bacterial skin infection in children two to five years of age. There are two principal types: nonbullous (70% of cases) and bullous (30% of cases). Nonbullous impetigo, or impetigo contagiosa, is caused by Staphylococcus aureus or Streptococcus pyogenes, and is characterized by honey-colored crusts on the face and extremities. Impetigo primarily affects the skin or secondarily infects insect bites, eczema, or herpetic lesions. Bullous impetigo, which is caused exclusively by S. aureus, results in large, flaccid bullae and is more likely to affect intertriginous areas. Both types usually resolve within two to three weeks without scarring, and complications are rare, with the most serious being poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis. Treatment includes topical antibiotics such as mupirocin, retapamulin, and fusidic acid. Oral antibiotic therapy can be used for impetigo with large bullae or when topical therapy is impractical. Amoxicillin/clavulanate, dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, doxycycline, minocycline, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and macrolides are options, but penicillin is not. Natural therapies such as tea tree oil; olive, garlic, and coconut oils; and Manuka honey have been anecdotally successful, but lack sufficient evidence to recommend or dismiss them as treatment options. Treatments under development include minocycline foam and Ozenoxacin, a topical quinolone. Topical disinfectants are inferior to antibiotics and should not be used. Empiric treatment considerations have changed with the increasing prevalence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, with methicillin-resistant S. aureus, macrolide-resistant streptococcus, and mupirocin-resistant streptococcus all documented. Fusidic acid, mupirocin, and retapamulin cover methicillin-susceptible S. aureus and streptococcal infections. Clindamycin proves helpful in suspected methicillin-resistant S. aureus infections. Trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole covers methicillin-resistant S

  20. Wound infections on board ship--prevention, pathogens, and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Eilif

    2011-01-01

    Wounds are common in seafarers and they can easily become infected in the marine environment. Pre-sea tetanus immunization is essential. Without diagnostic facilities and only a limited range of antibiotics onboard, injury prevention and early treatment to reduce the likelihood of infection are important measures. Suturing clean cuts reduces healing time and risk of infection. Fresh, clean cuts, especially on the face or head, can be closed by adhesive tape or sutures, but if infection arises, then one or more sutures should be removed to enable drainage. Most wounds must be considered contaminated and should not be closed, just covered with sterile dressing after cleaning. Antibiotic treatment should be started immediately in seafarers with hand and puncture wounds. The primary treatment for a simple abscess is incision and drainage. Antibiotic treatment is recommended for abscesses if the infection spreads to the surrounding tissue (associated cellulitis), if there is lack of response to incision and drainage alone, or if the abscess is in an area difficult or dangerous to drain (e.g. face, palm, genitalia). Recommended therapy for cellulitis is 5-10 days of dicloxacillin, cephalexin, clindamycin, or erythromycin, but if there is no improvement after 2-3 days, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) should be suspected. Bites and burn wounds require special attention. Since wound infections can deteriorate rapidly, a telemedicine advice service (TMAS) should be consulted during the early stages, and serial digital photographs of the affected area, transmitted by e-mail to TMAS, are often useful during treatment at sea. PMID:22258845

  1. Antibiotic resistance of uropathogens in newborns and young children with acute pyelonephritis

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    Peco-Antić Amira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Urinary tract infection is common in childhood. Depending on the localization of the infection, severity of its clinical presentation and possible acute and long-term complications, it may be described as either acute cystitis or acute pyelonephritis. Objective. The aim of this study was to assess the resistance patterns of uropathogens during the last 5 years in newborns and young children with acute pyelonephritis. Methods. Uropathogens resistance to commonly usable anti-microbial agents (ampicillin, a combination of sulphamethoxasole and trimethoprim, cephalexin, ceftriaxone, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, gentamycin, amikacin, ciprofloxacin, imipenem and nalidixic acid was retrospectively studied in newborns and young children treated during early (2005-2007 and late (2008-2009 study periods. Anti-bacterial susceptibility testing of the urine isolates was performed by the standard disc diffusion method. Results. 117 newborns and 294 children aged 9.3±0.7 months were treated during early (n=136 or late (n=275 study period due to the first episode of acute pyelonephritis. Escherichia coli was the most common bacterial pathogen (85.5%. Compared to children older than one month, newborns had higher degree of antibacterial resistance to 2nd and 3rd generation cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and nalidixic acid during early, and to ceftazidime, aminoglycosides and nalidixic acid during late study period. Also, multidrug resistance was more common in newborns during the early study period. Conclusion. Newborns had higher rate of antibacterial resistance than young children. The progressive increase of anti-microbial resistance in children with acute pyelonephritis is of great concern.

  2. The use of recombinant omega interferon therapy in canine atopic dermatitis: a double-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Didier Noël; Boulet, Marc; Ducret, Joël; Machicote, Gustavo; Jasmin, Pierre; Rème, Christophe A; Albouy, Maxime

    2009-10-01

    This double-blind controlled study assessed whether reduced doses of omega interferon (rFeIFN-omega) (Virbagen Omega) could improve the clinical signs of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) over a 6-month period, in comparison with cyclosporin. Thirty-one dogs diagnosed with CAD were entered in the study. Complicating infections were treated prior to entry. Dogs received 10 injections of rFeIFN-omega (1-5 million units according to bodyweight) or placebo over 6 months, and placebo capsules or cyclosporin (5 mg/kg) once daily for 2 months and then twice weekly for 4 months in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Flea control, non-medicated shampooing and ear cleansing were performed regularly. If a bacterial infection or Malassezia overgrowth developed, it was treated with oral cephalexin or with 3% chlorhexidine shampoo respectively. Oral prednisolone was used before day 90 to relieve pruritus when required for humane reasons (1 mg/kg once daily for 7 days). The CADESI-03 and a pruritus index were evaluated on day (D) 0, D14, D35, D56, D90, D120 and D180. No significant difference was detected between the groups for the time courses of lesions or pruritus over 6 months. On D90, the proportions of dogs with > or =50% improvement of pruritus and lesion scores were 56% and 72% respectively with interferon, 75% and 75% respectively with cyclosporin. Five dogs from group 1 and two dogs from group 2 were withdrawn from the study for treatment failure. Both products were well tolerated. Treatment with rfeIFN-omega at low doses may help for the long-term management of CAD.

  3. Molecular characterization of Salmonella enterica serotype Enteritidis isolates from food and human samples by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance, plasmid profiling, (GTG)5-PCR and ERIC-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fardsanei, F; Nikkhahi, F; Bakhshi, B; Salehi, T Z; Tamai, I A; Soltan Dallal, M M

    2016-11-01

    In recent years, Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis has been a primary cause of human salmonellosis in many countries. The major objective of this study was to investigate genetic diversity among Salmonella Enteritidis strains from different origins (food and human) by Enterobacterial Repetitive Intergenic Consensus (ERIC) -PCR, as well as to assess their plasmid profiling and antimicrobial resistance. A total of 30 Salmonella Enteritidis isolates, 15 from food samples (chicken, lamb, beef and duck meats) and 15 from clinical samples were collected in Tehran. Identification of isolates as Salmonella was confirmed by using conventional standard biochemical and serological tests. Multiplex-PCR was used for serotyping of isolates to identify Salmonella Enteritidis. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing to 16 agents founds drug resistance patterns among Salmonella Enteritidis isolates. No resistance was observed to cephalexin, ceftriaxone, ceftazidime and cefotaxime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem or meropenem, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. The highest resistance (96.7%) was observed to nitrofurantoin. Seven plasmid profiles (P1-P7) were detected, and a 68-kb plasmid was found in all isolates. Two different primers; ERIC and (GTG)5 were used for genotyping, which each produced four profiles. The majority of clinical and food isolates fell into two separate common types (CTs) with a similar percentage of 95% by ERIC-PCR. Using primer (GTG)5, 29 isolates incorporated in three CTs with 70% of isolates showing a single banding pattern. Limited genetic diversity among human and food isolates of Salmonella Enteritidis may indicate that contaminated foods were possibly the source of human salmonellosis. These results confirmed that ERIC-PCR genotyping has limited discriminatory power for Salmonella Enteritidis of different origin. PMID:27656286

  4. The use of recombinant omega interferon therapy in canine atopic dermatitis: a double-blind controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Didier Noël; Boulet, Marc; Ducret, Joël; Machicote, Gustavo; Jasmin, Pierre; Rème, Christophe A; Albouy, Maxime

    2009-10-01

    This double-blind controlled study assessed whether reduced doses of omega interferon (rFeIFN-omega) (Virbagen Omega) could improve the clinical signs of canine atopic dermatitis (CAD) over a 6-month period, in comparison with cyclosporin. Thirty-one dogs diagnosed with CAD were entered in the study. Complicating infections were treated prior to entry. Dogs received 10 injections of rFeIFN-omega (1-5 million units according to bodyweight) or placebo over 6 months, and placebo capsules or cyclosporin (5 mg/kg) once daily for 2 months and then twice weekly for 4 months in groups 1 and 2 respectively. Flea control, non-medicated shampooing and ear cleansing were performed regularly. If a bacterial infection or Malassezia overgrowth developed, it was treated with oral cephalexin or with 3% chlorhexidine shampoo respectively. Oral prednisolone was used before day 90 to relieve pruritus when required for humane reasons (1 mg/kg once daily for 7 days). The CADESI-03 and a pruritus index were evaluated on day (D) 0, D14, D35, D56, D90, D120 and D180. No significant difference was detected between the groups for the time courses of lesions or pruritus over 6 months. On D90, the proportions of dogs with > or =50% improvement of pruritus and lesion scores were 56% and 72% respectively with interferon, 75% and 75% respectively with cyclosporin. Five dogs from group 1 and two dogs from group 2 were withdrawn from the study for treatment failure. Both products were well tolerated. Treatment with rfeIFN-omega at low doses may help for the long-term management of CAD. PMID:20178477

  5. The stringent response and cell cycle arrest in Escherichia coli.

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    Daniel J Ferullo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The bacterial stringent response, triggered by nutritional deprivation, causes an accumulation of the signaling nucleotides pppGpp and ppGpp. We characterize the replication arrest that occurs during the stringent response in Escherichia coli. Wild type cells undergo a RelA-dependent arrest after treatment with serine hydroxamate to contain an integer number of chromosomes and a replication origin-to-terminus ratio of 1. The growth rate prior to starvation determines the number of chromosomes upon arrest. Nucleoids of these cells are decondensed; in the absence of the ability to synthesize ppGpp, nucleoids become highly condensed, similar to that seen after treatment with the translational inhibitor chloramphenicol. After induction of the stringent response, while regions corresponding to the origins of replication segregate, the termini remain colocalized in wild-type cells. In contrast, cells arrested by rifampicin and cephalexin do not show colocalized termini, suggesting that the stringent response arrests chromosome segregation at a specific point. Release from starvation causes rapid nucleoid reorganization, chromosome segregation, and resumption of replication. Arrest of replication and inhibition of colony formation by ppGpp accumulation is relieved in seqA and dam mutants, although other aspects of the stringent response appear to be intact. We propose that DNA methylation and SeqA binding to non-origin loci is necessary to enforce a full stringent arrest, affecting both initiation of replication and chromosome segregation. This is the first indication that bacterial chromosome segregation, whose mechanism is not understood, is a step that may be regulated in response to environmental conditions.

  6. Occurrence and characteristics of extended-spectrum β-lactamases producing Escherichia coli in foods of animal origin and human clinical samples in Chhattisgarh, India

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    Bhoomika

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To assess the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL (blaTEM, blaSHV, and blaCTX-M genes in Escherichia coli isolated from chicken meat, chevon meat, raw milk, and human urine and stool samples collected from tribal districts of Chhattisgarh, viz., Jagdalpur, Dantewada, Kondagaon, and Kanker. Materials and Methods: A total of 330 samples, comprising 98 chicken meat, 82 chevon meat, 90 raw milk, and 60 human urine and stool samples, were processed for isolation of E. coli. Isolates were confirmed biochemically and further tested against commonly used antibiotics to know their resistant pattern. The resistant isolates were tested for ESBL production by phenotypic method followed by characterization with molecular method using multiplex-polymerase chain reaction technique. Results: Overall 57.87% (191/330 samples were found positive for E. coli, which include 66.32% (65/98 chicken meat, 46.34% (38/82 chevon meat, 81.11% (73/90 raw milk, and 25% (15/60 human urine and stool samples. Isolates showed the highest resistance against cefotaxime (41.36% followed by oxytetracycline (34.03%, ampicillin (29.31%, cephalexin (24.60%, cefixime (16.75%, and ceftazidime (13.08%. Phenotypic method detected 10.99% (21/191 isolates as presumptive ESBL producers, however, molecular method detected 3.66% (7/191, 2.09% (4/191, and 0.00% (0/191 prevalence of blaTEM, blaCTX-M, and blaSHV, respectively. Conclusion: The present study indicates a high prevalence of E. coli in raw chicken meat, chevon meat, and milk due to poor hygienic practices. The antibiotic susceptibility test detected the presence of the resistance pattern against ESBL in E. coli isolated from raw chicken meat, chevon meat, milk, and also in human clinical samples is of great concern. The appearance of E. coli in the human food chain is alarming and requires adaptation of hygienic practices and stipulate use of antibiotics.

  7. Preliminary study of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus infection in Manaus Hospital, Amazonia Region, Brazil Estudo preliminar das infeccões por Staphylococcus aureus na comunidade de um Hospital em Manaus, Região do Amazonas, Brasil

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    Jesus M. Egido

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus is considered a public health problem with a strong potential for dissemination and high rates of morbidity and mortality. In this study we describe bacteriological and epidemiological characteristics of Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus (Amazon region. During the one-year study period (2000-2001, sixteen cases of acute pyogenic multiple abscess were evaluated. Community-acquired S. aureus was identified as causative agent in 10 (62.5% patients. The strains tested with antimicrobials by discs diffusion method, exhibited a high rate of sensitivity to cephalexin (100%, erythromycin (90%. Oxacillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was 90%. No isolate was resistant to Vancomycin. To our knowledge, no series of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in Manaus hospital has been published. Our partial results showed a high rate of antimicrobial sensitivity among community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus in the hospital of Tropical Medicine Institute of Manaus, Amazon Region.O Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina é considerado como um problema na saúde publica por seu grande potencial de disseminação e altas porcentagens de morbidade e mortalidade. No estudo descrevemos as características bacteriológicas e epidemiológicas do Staphylococcus aureus na cidade de Manaus. No período de um ano (2000-2001 avaliou-se dezesseis casos de abscessos piogênicos múltiplos. Em 10 (62,5% doentes o agente causal foi identificado como Staphylococcus aureus adquirido na comunidade O estudo das bacterias isoladas frente aos diferentes antimicrobianos, seguindo o método de difusão em disco, mostrou boa sensibilidade a cefalexina (100% e eritromicina (90%. Noventa porcento dos Staphylococcus aureus isolados foram sensíveis ao oxacilina. Nenhum dos isolados mostrou ser resistente a Vancomicina. Não temos informações sobre publicações dos Staphylococcus aureus adquiridos na comunidade em hospitais de Manaus

  8. Cross-sectional prospective survey to study indication-based usage of antimicrobials in animals: Results of use in cattle

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    Pyörälä Satu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indication-based data on the use of antimicrobials in animals were collected using a prospective cross-sectional survey, similarly as for surveys carried out in human medicine, but adapting the questionnaire to include veterinary-specific issues. The participating veterinarians were randomly selected from a sample population of practising veterinarians. The sampling was stratified to take into account the proportions of different types of veterinary practice in the country. All patients consulting the veterinary practice during a 1-week period were included in the study and veterinarians returned a completed questionnaire for each patient receiving antimicrobial treatment. As cattle received most of the treatments, results from the survey are given using cattle as an example species. Results The survey was sent to 681 veterinarians, of whom 262 (39% responded. In total 2850 questionnaires were completed. The largest quantities of antimicrobials, measured in kilograms, were used for cattle, followed by pigs, dogs and horses. The species that were treated most were cattle (n = 1308, dogs (n = 989 and cats (n = 311. For cattle, the most common reason for treatment was acute mastitis (52%, followed by dry-cow therapy (21%, subclinical mastitis (6% and treatment for acute enteritis (4%. The remaining treatments covered 17% of cattle patients and 15 different indications. For acute mastitis, parenteral or intramammary treatment was used in 36% and 34% of the cases, respectively. The remaining 30% received both treatments simultaneously. Of the parenteral treatments (n = 459, benzyl penicillin was used in 83% of the treated animals (n = 379, while fluoroquinolones were used in 49 cases (11%. Of the 433 cows receiving intramammary treatment, ampicillin combined with cloxacillin was most commonly used (n = 157; 36%, followed by cephalexin+streptomycin (n = 113; 26%. Conclusion This cross-sectional prospective survey provided a useful

  9. Finding of coagulase negative staphylococci in the herd with an increased number of somatic cells in milk and their antimicrobial susceptibility

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    Katić Vera

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS are generally considered to be opportunistic pathogens. Controlling CNS mastitis is difficult because the epidemiology is not clear, and the CNS group consists of about 40 different Staphylococcus species. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of coagulasenegative staphylococci in milk of the cows with subclinical mastitis, as well as to determine different CNS species isolated from quarter milk samples for their susceptibility to antimicrobials used commonly for mastitis therapy. On the farm where there was found an increase of somatic cells in bulk milk, 112 dairy cows were examined by mastitis test. From 52 udder quarters where mastitis test showed an increase of somatic cells, milk samples were taken for bacteriological examination. For isolating the causes of mastitis there was used blood agar. Identification of the causative agents of mastitis was carried out on the basis of colony appearance on blood agar and their physiological characteristics. Coagulasepositive staphylococci sensitivity which cause mastitis was tested by Kirby Bauer method. For susceptibility testing there were used commercially produced discs containing: 10 IU penicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (20 +10 μg, cloxacillin 25 μg, 30 μg amoxicillin, cephalexin 30 μg, ceftiofur 30 μg, 15 μg lincomycin, gentamicin and tetracycline 30 μg. The sensitivity of microorganisms was evaluated on the basis of inhibition zone diameter recommended by the manufacturer and was labeled as sensitive (S moderately sensitive (I or resistant (R. Coagulase-negative staphylococci were isolated from 61.53% of samples from cows with subclinical mastitis, making them the most common cause of subclinical mastitis. The highest resistance of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to penicillin G (58.33% of isolates. Full sensitivity of coagulase-negative staphylococci was found to amoxicillin / clavulanic acid (100% of

  10. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 as adjuvant treatment of inflammatory mammary carcinoma in a dog

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    Simone Domit Guérios

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Inflammatory mammary carcinoma (IMC is locally aggressive, fast growing, highly malignant tumor that affects humans and dogs. Affected dogs usually are presented with generalized edema, pain, erythema, and skin ulceration in mammary glands. Surgery is not recommended and an effective treatment has not been established [1]. Calcarea carbonica derivative complex (M8 has demonstrated anticancer properties in a murine model, by improving innate immune response against tumor cells [2,3]. M8 is a complex high diluted medication comprised of a 10%-20% concentration of Calcarea carbonica, Aconitum napellus, Arsenicum album, Asa foetida, Conium maculatum, Ipecacuanha, Phosphorus, Rhus tox, Silicea, Sulphur, and Thuya occidentalis, all in decimal dilutions of Hahnemann in distilled water and submitted to vigorous shaking. Aim: Describe an association of M8 and piroxicam (Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug to treat a dog with IMC. Discussion: A 7 years old, mixed breed intact female dog was presented to the Federal University of Parana - Veterinary Hospital, Curitiba (HV-UFPR for mammary glands examination. The owners related inflammation of mammary glands with clinical course of approximately 10 days, which was treated for mastitis (cephalexin and metergoline without clinical improvement. Clinical examination revealed erythema, increased skin warmth, pain on palpation, and plaque involving the 4th and 5th right mammary glands. Abdominal ultrasound and serum biochemistry were unremarkable. Thoracic radiographs showed suspicious images of pulmonary metastasis. Fine needle biopsy was taken for cytologic examination. Cytological interpretation was a malignant epithelial neoplasm, probably a mammary carcinoma. Diagnosis of IMC was based on clinical signs and cytopathology. Dog was treated with oral (0.5 mL and topical M8 twice a day for 15 days, and pyroxican, 0.3mg/kg, PO, q24h. Clinical improvement was observed 7 days after starting

  11. Effect of ethnomedicinal plants used in folklore medicine in Jordan as antibiotic resistant inhibitors on Escherichia coli

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    Aburjai Talal A

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Escherichia coli occurs naturally in the human gut; however, certain strains that can cause infections, are becoming resistant to antibiotics. Multidrug-resistant E. coli that produce extended-spectrum β lactamases (ESBLs, such as the CTX-M enzymes, have emerged within the community setting as an important cause of urinary tract infections (UTIs and bloodstream infections may be associated with these community-onsets. This is the first report testing the antibiotic resistance-modifying activity of nineteen Jordanian plants against multidrug-resistant E. coli. Methods The susceptibility of bacterial isolates to antibiotics was tested by determining their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs using a broth microdilution method. Nineteen Jordanian plant extracts (Capparis spinosa L., Artemisia herba-alba Asso, Echinops polyceras Boiss., Gundelia tournefortii L, Varthemia iphionoides Boiss. & Blanche, Eruca sativa Mill., Euphorbia macroclada L., Hypericum trequetrifolium Turra, Achillea santolina L., Mentha longifolia Host, Origanum syriacum L., Phlomis brachydo(Boiss. Zohary, Teucrium polium L., Anagyris foetida L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Thea sinensis L., Hibiscus sabdariffa L., Lepidium sativum L., Pimpinella anisum L. were combined with antibiotics, from different classes, and the inhibitory effect of the combinations was estimated. Results Methanolic extracts of the plant materials enhanced the inhibitory effects of chloramphenicol, neomycin, doxycycline, cephalexin and nalidixic acid against both the standard strain and to a lesser extent the resistant strain of E. coli. Two edible plant extracts (Gundelia tournefortii L. and Pimpinella anisum L. generally enhanced activity against resistant strain. Some of the plant extracts like Origanum syriacum L.(Labiateae, Trigonella foenum- graecum L.(Leguminosae, Euphorbia macroclada (Euphorbiaceae and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Malvaceae did not enhance the activity of

  12. Comparative study on pharmacokinetics of Cephradine in diabetic and normal rats

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    LIANG Jun; FU Ting; HAN Guo-zhu; LU Li

    2008-01-01

    Objective To study effects of diabetes mellitus (DM) on pharmacokinetics of cephradine (CED) by comparing the difference in pharmacokinetic behaviours of CED between diabetic and normal rats. Methods DM was induced in male rats by a single iv injection of alloxan 60 mg·kg-1; rats whose blood glucose was over 16 mmol·L-1 were taken as DM group. The rats were divided into DM group and normal control (CTL) group, which were subdivided into low dose (90 mg·kg-1) and high dose (180 mg·kg-1) subgroups. CED was administered by iv or po routes. Blood samples collected at different time post dosing were analyzed by RP-HPLC to yield CED plasma concentration time course. Chromatographic separation was achieved on a Kromasil C18 column (250×4.6 mm ID, 5 μm);mobile phase, consisting of 0.025 mol·L-1 KH2PO4-MeOH-CH3CN (87; 6 : 7 v/v), was delivered at 1.0 mL·min-1; UV detector was set at 261 nm.The peak area ratio of CED to cephalexin (CEX) as internal standard vs concentraion of CED was used to construct calibration curve. 50 μL aliquots of TCA-deproteined plasma samples were injected into chromatograph. Results The methodology validation including specificity, precision, accuracy, recovery, limit of quantitation, linearity, stability, etc., showed that the HPLC assay developed by us completely met requirements of pharmacokinetic study Both DM and CTL groups showed the two-compartment model for iv dosing and extravascular one-compartment model for po dosing as well as first-order kinetics. However, in iv experiment, DM group, when compared with CTL group, presented a significantly shortened t1/2β and MRT as well as increased CL, reflected by t1/2β 84-91 vs 116-120 min, MRT 61-70 vs 103-119 min;CL 23-25 vs 18-19 mL·min-1·kg-1(P<0.05);in po experiment, a markedly shorter t1/2 K and tmax as well as greater CL and Cmax in DM group than in CTL group were found; meanwhile, DM rats suffered from remarkably increased kidney weight (KW) and KW/BW ratio relative to CTL rats

  13. 头孢氨苄与相似化合物头孢羟氨苄的拉曼光谱比较%Comparison of Raman Spectrum of Cefalexin and Its Similitude Cefadroxil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李萍; 尹利辉; 张雁

    2013-01-01

    目的:比较分析头孢氨苄及其相似化合物头孢羟氨苄的拉曼光谱,对结构特征相关性进行分析和探讨.方法:采用傅里叶拉曼光谱仪、显微拉曼光谱仪及便携式拉曼光谱仪对头孢氨苄进行光谱检测,并对相似化合物头孢羟氨苄进行了傅立叶拉曼光谱检测.结果:在3台不同的拉曼仪的3种不同的激发光光源的激发下,头孢氨苄的大部分特征峰的峰位基本一致,但相对峰强却有区别;头孢氨苄与头孢羟氨苄的傅立叶拉曼光谱存在一定的差异,体现了化学结构差异与拉曼光谱差异的相关性.结论:拉曼光谱相对峰强的差异反映了激发光对不同基团或骨架结构的选择性激发.该法简单、快速、可靠、专属性强,可实现自动识别,对样品无损,有望成为药品日常监督中一种有效的鉴别手段.%Objective: To compare the differences of Raman spectrum of cefalexin and its similitude cefadroxil to explore the structural property relationship. Method: Cefalexin was detected using a Fourier Raman spectrometer,a micro-Raman spectrometer and a portable Raman spectrometer,and cefadroxil was studied using a Fourier Raman spectrometer. Result: The major characteristic peaks of cefalexin were basically consistent under the three different excitation light sources in the three different Raman spectrometer, while the relative intensity of the characteristic peaks showed difference. There were differences in the Fourier Raman spectrum of cephalexin and cefadroxil,suggesting the correlation of chemical structure and Raman spectrum. Conclusion: The differences in the relative intensity of Raman characteristic peaks reflect the selective excitation of the source to different groups and skeleton structure. The method is reliable, rapid, accurate and specific with automatic identification and without sample damage, and may be an effective identification method in the daily inspection.

  14. Isolation, identification and antibiotic resistance of pathogenic E.coli%仔猪致病性大肠杆菌的分离鉴定与耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢为天; 徐春厚; 陈晗

    2011-01-01

    Forty Escherichia coli strains were isolated from 40 fecal samples of white scour and yellow scour of piglets from 3 pig farms of Zhanjiang city. Seven strains of them were pathogenic. The isolation rate of the pathogenic E. coli in 3 pig farms were 15.4%, 10% and 43% respectively. The antibiotic resistance of these seven strains showed that they were all sensitive to enrofloxacin, ceftriaxone and amikacin and resistant to cotrimoxazole, amoxicillin, ampicillin, tetracycline and gentamicin. 85.7% strains were resistant to chloramphenicol, cephalexin, furazolidone and 14.3% strains were resistant to norfloxacin and ciprofloxacin. So the sensitive drugs to pathogens should be selected and applied to prevention and control of the disease.%由湛江市3个养猪场采集到40份仔猪黄痢、白痢腹泻粪便样品,共分离到40株大肠杆菌,其中7株是致病性大肠杆菌,三个猪场致病性大肠杆菌的分离率分别为15.4%、10%和43%。对7株致病l挂大肠杆菌进行药物敏感性试验,结果表明:它们均对恩诺沙星、菌必治和丁胺卡那霉素敏感,而对复方新诺明、阿莫西林、氨苄青霉素、四环素和庆大霉素的耐药率为100%,对氯霉素、头孢氨苄和痢特灵的耐药率为85.7%,对卡那霉素和链霉素的耐药率为57.1%,对氟哌酸和环丙沙星的耐药率为14.3%。猪场选用较敏感药物来防治仔猪大肠杆菌病,使疫病得到了有效控制。

  15. Separation of bases,phenols and pharmaceuticals on ionic liquid-modified silica stationary phase with pure water as mobile phase%咪唑离子液体键合硅胶固定相纯水洗脱分离碱基、酚类和药物化合物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王旭生; 邱洪灯; 刘霞; 蒋生祥

    2011-01-01

    采用N-甲基咪唑和氯丙基咪唑反应的方法制备得到了离子液体键合硅胶固定相,并利用该固定相中的咪唑环阳离子和被分析物之间存在的多重作用机理如疏水作用、静电吸引和排斥及氧键作用等,以纯水作为流动相,成功地分离了碱基(胞嘧啶、胸腺嘧啶、2-氨基嘧啶和6-氯鸟嘌呤)、酚类化合物(间氨基酚、间苯二酚和间硝基酚)以及3种药物化合物(盐酸吗啉呱、阿昔洛韦和头孢氨苄).采用没有添加任何有机溶剂和缓冲液的纯水作流动相,既绿色环保,又节约经济,简单方便.对该固定相分离这些化合物的保留机理做了探讨.%N-methylimidazolium ionic liquid(IL)-modified silica was prepared with the reaction of 3-chloropropyl modified silica and N-methylimidazole using toluene as solvent. Based on the multiple interactions between N-methylimidazolium IL-modified silica and analytes such as hydrophobic interaction, electrostatic attraction, repulsion interaction, hydrogen-bonding,etc., the bases (cytosine, thymine, 2-aminopyrimidine and 6-chloroguanine ), phenols (m-aminophenol, resorcinol and m-nitrophenol) and three pharmaceuticals (moroxydine hydrochloride, acyclovir and cephalexin hydrate) were separated successfully with only pure water as the mobile phase. These chromatographic separations are environmental friendly, economical and convenient, without any organic solvent or buffer additive. The retention mechanism of these samples on the stationary phase was also investigated.

  16. Etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and epidemiological aspects in canine otitis: a retrospective study of 616 casesEtiologia, perfil de sensibilidade aos antimicrobianos e aspectos epidemiológicos na otite canina: estudo retrospectivo de 616 casos

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    Verônica Baldim de Oliveira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study of etiology, antimicrobial susceptibility profile and multiple drug resistance, and major epidemiological aspects were investigated in 616 cases of canine otitis. Staphylococcus ? hemolitic (26.27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12.35%, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.8% were the most common microorganisms identified. The isolates were susceptible mainly to norfloxacin (89.62%, gentamicin (83.25%, and ofloxacin (80.16%. High occurrence of resistance of isolates was observed to neomicin (30.84% and cephalexin (27.63%. Multiple drug resistance to three or more and five or more of antimicrobials tested was observed in 34.9% and 15.5% of isolates, respectively. The cases of canine otitis occurred predominantly in first years of age, in mixed breeds animals, at autumn season. The presence of itch, bad smell, and secretion in ear conduct were the major signs observed at clinical examination. Estudo retrospectivo da etiologia, perfil de sensibilidade microbiana, ocorrência de multirresistência dos isolados e os principais aspectos epidemiológicos foram investigados em 616 casos de otite canina. Staphylococcus ? hemolítico (26,27%, Malassezia pachydermatis (12,35% e Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8,8% foram os micro-organismos mais frequentes. Os isolados foram sensíveis “in vitro” principalmente a norfloxacina (89,62%, gentamicina (83,25% e ofloxacina (80,16%. Alta ocorrência de resistência das linhagens foi observada frente à neomicina (30,84% e cefalexina (27,63%. A ocorrência de resistência múltipla a três ou mais e cinco ou mais dos antimicrobianos foi observada em, respectivamente, 34,9% e 15,5% dos isolados. Os casos ocorreram predominantemente nos primeiros anos de idade, em animais sem raça definida, no período do outono. A presença de prurido, mau cheiro e secreção no conduto auditivo foram os principais sinais observados ao exame clínico.

  17. Separation and Determination of Five β-Lactam Antibiotics by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography%胶束电动毛细管电泳法分离检测5种β-内酰胺类抗生素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晔; 邓宁; 余沐洋; 何建波

    2011-01-01

    采用毛细管电泳法,基于胶束电动模式与有机添加剂协同作用,分离检测5种β-内酰胺类抗生素。考察运行缓冲液的构成及各组分浓度、pH值、分离电压等因素对电泳分离的影响。优化后的电泳运行缓冲液包含20mmol/L Na2HPO4-20mmol/L NaH2PO4(pH8.5),20mmol/L十二烷基硫酸钠和体积分数25%甲醇。在18kV电压下5种抗生素在15min内达到基线分离。各组分线性关系良好,检出限5.3~8.1mg/L,进样精密度RSD 3.8%~5.5%。研究表明,对分子结构特别相近的抗生素,通过表面活性剂胶束准固定相与有机添加剂协同作用来改善分离效果是可行的。%Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography(MECC) coupled with the addition of methanol to the running buffer was used for the separation and determination of five β-lactam antibiotics,ceftiofur,cephazoline,cephalexin,ampicillin and penicillin G.The running buffer was optimized to consist of 20 mmol/L Na2HPO4,20 mmol/L NaH2PO4(pH 8.5),20 mmol/L SDS and 0.25(V/V) methanol.Under the voltage of 18 kV,baseline separation was achieved for the five antibiotics within 15 min,and their concentrations and peak areas exhibited a good linear relationship.The detection limits for these antibiotics were between 5.3 and 8.1 mg/L.The precision of the method was found to be 3.8%-5.5%.The results indicate that the combination of micellar pseudostationary phase and organic additives enables highly efficient chromatographic separation of antibiotics of very similar structures.

  18. Cardiac Electrophysiology Laboratories: A Potential Target for Antimicrobial Stewardship and Quality Improvement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branch-Elliman, Westyn; Stanislawski, Maggie; Strymish, Judith; Barón, Anna E; Gupta, Kalpana; Varosy, Paul D; Gold, Howard S; Ho, P Michael

    2016-09-01

    BACKGROUND Infections following cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) procedures, including pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, are devastating and costly. Preimplantation prophylactic antimicrobials are effective for reducing postprocedural infections. However, routine postprocedural antimicrobials are not associated with improved outcomes, and they may be harmful. Thus, we sought to characterize antimicrobial use patterns following CIED procedures. DESIGN All patients who underwent CIED procedures from October 1, 2007 to September 30, 2013 and had procedural information entered into the VA Clinical Assessment Reporting and Tracking (CART) software program were included in this study. All antibiotic prescriptions lasting more than 24 hours following device implantation or revision were identified using pharmacy databases, and postprocedural antibiotic use lasting more than 24 hours was characterized. RESULTS In total, 3,712 CIED procedures were performed at 34 VA facilities on 3,570 patients with a mean age of 71.7 years (standard deviation [SD], 11.1 years), 98.4% of whom were male. Postprocedural antibiotics >24 hours were prescribed following 1,579 of 3,712 CIED procedures (42.5%). The median duration of therapy was 5 days (interquartile range [IQR], 3-7 days). The most commonly prescribed antibiotic was cephalexin (1,152 of 1,579; 72.9%), followed by doxycycline (118 of 1,579; 7.47%) and ciprofloxacin (93 of 1,579; 5.9%). Vancomycin was used in 73 of 1,579 prescriptions (4.62%). Among the highest quartile of procedural volume, prescribing practices varied considerably, ranging from 3.2% to 77.6%. CONCLUSIONS Nearly 1 in 2 patients received prolonged postprocedural antimicrobial therapy following CIED procedures, and the rate of postprocedural antimicrobial therapy use varied considerably by facility. Given the lack of demonstrated benefit of routine prolonged antimicrobial therapy following CIED procedures, antimicrobial use

  19. Antimicrobial sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. Isolated from clinical mastitis

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    Thamires Martins

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Inflammation of the mammary gland, which is also known as mastitis, occupies a prominent place among the diseases that affect dairy cattle, having a great economic importance in the dairy sector. Mastitis may have different origins, however, infectious mastitis is the most frequent and represents a risk to public health due to the propagation of microorganisms through milk. Staphylococcus spp. are considered the microorganisms that cause the greatest losses in milk production, being that Staphylococcus aureus is the pathogen of major importance because they present high resistence to antimicrobials. Empirical treatment, without prior identification of the pathogens and their resistance profile, may contribute to the emergence of multidrug-resistant strains and risk the efficiency of the antimicrobial. In that scenery, the study aimed to evaluate the resistance profile of Staphylococcus spp. against some antimicrobials used in the treatment of cows with clinical mastitis. The study was conducted on a property in the state of São Paulo from January 2011 to June 2012. We evaluated 29 lactating cows that present clinical mastitis in, at least, one mammary quarter. The diagnosis of clinical mastitis was performed by evaluating the clinical signs and also by Tamis test. Samples of milk from mammary quarters were collected aseptically in sterile tubes for microbiological evaluation. Microorganisms were isolated on sheep blood agar 5% and Sabouraud agar with chloramphenicol. The sensitivity profile of Staphylococcus spp. to the antibiotics ampicillin, cephalexin, ceftiofur, cefaclor, gentamicin, kanamycin, neomycin, penicillin G and oxacillin, was tested by disk diffusion test on Mueller-Hinton agar. From a total of 106 samples of milk analyzed, 64 (60.38% presented microbiological growth, being observed isolation of Streptococcus spp. 29 (34.52%, Staphylococcus spp. 28 (33.33%, Corynebacterium spp. 17 (20.24%, filamentous fungi 4 (4.76%, yeast 4 (4

  20. Salmonella enteritidis and antibiotic resistance patterns: a study on 1950 children with diarrhea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Eshraghi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Salmonellosis is a bacterial gasteroenteritis caused by different serovars of Salmonella. In the recent years, Salmonella enterica subspecies. Enterica serovar enteritidis is a major cause of gastroenteritis and food poisoning in the worldwide.  Different genus of salmonella is increasingly being resistant to common antibiotics. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and the antibiotic resistance patterns of Salmonella enterica isolated from medical health centers in Tehran. "n"nMethods: In this descriptive cross- sectional study from April to December 2008, 1950 fecal specimens from children with diarrhea were cultivated to identify Salmonella enteritidis. We used Clinical and Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI protocol to determine resistance patern of the isolates to 16 different antibiotics. "n"nResults: In this study, out of 26 isolates 14(54% were S. enteritidis, 2(8% S. para B, 6(23% S. para C, 3(11% S. arizonea and 1(4% S. para A. all of them were sensitive to ceftazidime, cephalexin, cefotaxime, ceftiraxone, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, meropenem, gentamicin and colistin sulfate. All of the isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin whereas 71.4% of them were resistant to nalidixic acid

  1. Comparison of different methods in the treatment of adult secretory otitis media ( an 86 case report)%不同方法治疗成人分泌性中耳炎对比评价86例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽华; 赵新涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore and evaluate the efficacy of different treatments in adult secretory otitis media (SOM). Methods 86 adult SOM patients(92 ears) were randomly divided into two groups. We used an integrated approach for 46 patients in the experimental group, including oral cefetamet pivoxil hydrchloride tablets, glucocorti-coids, Myrtol Standardized, 1% ephedrine furacilline solution nasal drops, tympanic drainning with the injection of dexamethasone plus a-chymotrypsin, and eustachian tube insufflation. The control group, in which 40 patients (43 ears) were enrolled, was treated with conventional therapy, such as oral cephalexin,glucocorticoids,Myrtol Standardized , 1 % ephedrine furacilline solution nasal drops, and paracentesis treatment of tympanum. Results Total efficiency of the experimental group was 98% , while that of the control group was 81.4% (P < 0. 05). There was no adverse reaction in either group. Conclusion Comprehensive treatment of adult SOM effect is significant, which is worth promotion.%目的 探讨不同方案治疗成人分泌性中耳炎( SOM)的疗效差异,并分别进行评价.方法 对成人SOM患者86例(92耳)随机分成2组,研究组46例(49耳)采用综合方法治疗,口服头孢他美酯、糖皮质激素、稀化黏素等药物,1%呋麻滴鼻液滴鼻,鼓膜穿刺抽液并注入(地塞米松+a糜蛋白酶),咽鼓管吹张术治疗.对照组40例(43耳)采用常规治疗,口服头孢氨苄、糖皮质激素、稀化黏素等药物,1%呋麻滴鼻液滴鼻,鼓膜穿刺抽液治疗.结果 研究组总有效率98%,对照组总有效率81.4%,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),两组患者治疗中均无不良反应.结论 综合方案治疗成人SOM疗效显著,值得推广.

  2. [Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Resistance Mutations in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Isolates from Human and Meat Sources].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Akira; Murakami, Koichi; Etoh, Yoshiki; Sera, Nobuyuki; Horikawa, Kazumi

    2015-03-01

    Recently, there has been a marked increase in the number of reports of fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance and its genetic determinants in Campylobacter species isolated from meat and human subjects in Fukuoka Prefecture, Japan. Between 2011 and 2013, 55 and 64 isolates were collected from meat (chicken meat and beef liver) and humans, respectively, in this prefecture. Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were conducted using the agar dilution method in accordance with the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines, using the following 11 antimicrobial agents : cephalexin, cefoxitin, nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, tetracycline, minocycline, ampicillin, streptomycin, kanamycin and erythromycin. The susceptibility rates of the isolates to three quinolones (nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin) were 43.7%, 41.2%, 40.3%, respectively. All the isolates were multidrug resistant. Whereas 46.9%-51.6% of the human isolates were resistant to one or more of the quinolones, only 32.7%-34.5% of the meat isolates were resistant to one or more of the drugs. DNA sequencing showed that of the 50 quinolone resistant isolates 44 had position 86 isoleucine (Ile) substituted for threonine (Thr) in the GyrA protein (Thr86Ile). This amino acid substitution resulted from ACA to ATA and ACT to ATT mutations of codon 86 in C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. Furthermore, two of the four C. jejuni isolates lacking the Thr86Ile mutation had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser substitutions, while the remaining two isolates had combined Ser22Gly-Asn203Ser-Ala 206Val substitutions. These four isolates also had cmeABC sequences that differed from the quinolone sensitive C. jejuni ATCC33560(T) strain. In conclusion, C. jejuni and C. coli have relatively high quinolone resistance, and are resistant to other antibiotics. The new combination of amino acid

  3. Current status of Staphylococcus aureus causing neonatal nosocomial infection and analysis of drug resistance%新生儿医院感染金黄色葡萄球菌的现状及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙卫

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the neonatal hospital infection in our hospital, and the drug resistance of Staphylococcus aureus causing neonatal infection. METHODS In our hospital from Jan 2007 to Dec 2010 neonatal nosocomial infection in children with 138 cases of clinical data were analyzed retrospectively, and the pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity testing were performed for statistical analysis, analysis of the infection and drug resistance were performed. RESULTS Investigation of strain 118 lines, the number of drug sensitive test showed that detection of S. Aureus isolates from 61, occupy 51. 7%, neonatal nosocomial infection pathogen was S. Aureus, all for baby room of hospital infection caused by strains. The genus Staphylococcus to penicillin and norfloxacin was most sensitive and resistant to most severe for cotrimoxazole; followed by cephalexin, cefazolin. S. Aureus causes of neonatal nosocomial infection rate showed ascendant trend. CONCLUSION S. Aureus is a leading cause of neonatal nosocomial infection risk factors, main and clinical antibiotic abuse related, according to the disease, pathogenic bacteria and drug sensitivity results of rational use of drugs, can slow down the growth of bacterial drug resistance.%目的 调查新生儿医院感染情况并对金黄色葡萄球菌致新生儿感染的耐药性进行分析.方法 对医院2007年1月-2010年12月180例新生儿医院感染临床资料进行回顾性分析,并对病原菌及药敏结果进行统计,分析其感染及耐药性.结果 调查病原菌180株,检出金黄色葡萄球菌61株,占33.9%,新生儿医院感染的病原菌主要为金黄色葡萄球菌;金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素和诺氟沙星最为敏感,耐药最严重的为磺胺甲噁唑/甲氧苄啶;其次为头孢氨苄、头孢唑林.结论 金黄色葡萄球菌是导致新生儿医院感染的主要病原菌,其与临床滥用抗菌药物有关,根据病情、病原菌及药敏结果合理选用抗菌药物,

  4. 头孢克洛治疗上呼吸道感染的临床观察%Clinical Effect of Cefaclor in the Treatment of Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛苏恩

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical effect of cefaclor in the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection. Methods 76 patients with upper respiratory tract infection in our hospital from January 2O11 to August 2O13 were randomly di-vided into observation group and control group,38 cases in each group. Control group was treated with cephalexin,observation group was treated with cefaclor,to observe the clinical symptoms,signs disappeared time and clinical effect. Results After treatment,the time of clinical symptoms and signs disappeared in observation group were less than control group,the difference was statistically significant(P O. O5). Conclusion Cefaclor in the treatment of upper respiratory tract in-fection has better clinical effect,can improve the clinical symptoms and signs,which is worthy of further clinical application.%目的:探讨头孢克洛治疗上呼吸道感染的临床疗效。方法选取本院2O11年1月-2O13年8月收治的76例上呼吸道感染患者,将患者随机分为观察组和对照组,每组38例。对照组患者给予口服头孢氨苄治疗,观察组患者给予口服头孢克洛治疗,观察两组患者的临床症状、体征消失时间及临床疗效。结果观察组患者治疗后的临床症状及体征消失时间均少于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P O. O5)。结论头孢克洛治疗上呼吸道感染临床疗效好,能够促进患者临床症状及体征的消失,值得临床进一步推广使用。

  5. 新型高效液相色谱流动相手性添加剂法拆分头孢氨苄对映体%Separation of Cefalexin Enantiomers by a New Chiral HPLC Mobile Phase Additives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈静茹; 王伟; 余学红; 蔡薇; 张祎; 刘武林

    2013-01-01

      用双[-6-氧-(3-脱氧柠檬酸单酯-4)]-β-环糊精为手性流动相添加剂,以有机弱酸的形式和三乙胺组成缓冲体系,在高效液相色谱(HPLC)中实现了头孢氨苄对映体的手性拆分.结合碳18硅胶键合(ODS-BP)柱为固定相,该缓冲液与不同比例乙腈混合形成流动相,考察了流动相配比、pH值、手性流动相添加剂浓度等因素对头孢氨苄2对对映体手性分离的影响.结果表明:在pH 8.8,流速0.6 mL/min,检测波长310 nm,添加剂浓度为5.0 mmol/L缓冲液的最佳条件下,可实现头孢氨苄4个对映异构体色谱峰的基线分离,最佳条件下4峰中相邻两峰分离度Rs 分别为3.41、5.34和8.93.%Using bis-[6-oxygen-(3-deoxycitric acid monoester-4)]-β-cyclodextrin as the chiral HPLC mobile phase additive, an organic weak acid(β-cyclodextrin derivative) and triethylamine as buffer system, enantioseparation of cefalexin enantiomers was achieved. Based on an ODS-BP column stationary phase and a mixed mobile phase of acetonitrile and the additive-triethylamine buffer, the effects of the ratio of mobile phase, pH value and the concentration of the chiral additive concentration on the separation of cephalexin 2 enantiomers were discussed. The results showed that under the optimum conditions:pH8. 8, 0. 6mL/min flow rate, ultraviolet detection wavelength of 310 nm, additive concentration of 5. 0 mmol/L, baseline separation of 4 peaks of cefalexin enantiomers could be obtained, with the Rs of adjacent peaks being 3. 41, 5. 34 and 8. 93,respectively.

  6. Antimicrobial susceptibility of community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens isolated from patients in primary hospitals in Shanghai from 2007 to 2010%2007-2010年上海市社区医院呼吸道感染常见病原菌及其耐药性调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周春妹; 胡必杰; 高晓东; 鲍容; 谢红梅; 黄声雷; 陶黎黎; 何礼贤

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the etiology of community-acquired respiratory tract infections (CARTI) and the antimicrobial resistance of the major pathogens in primary hospitals in Shanghai.Methods Patients with CARTI were prospectively recruited from 30 primary hospitals from December 2007 to July 2010.Those who had used antimicrobials within previous 2 weeks were excluded from the study.The clinical information such as temperature,white blood cell (WBC) count and percentage of neutrophils was recorded,and throat swab or deep cough sputum was collected to isolate pathogens.The specimens were collected and couriered to the Zhongshan Hospital microbiology laboratory within 2 h for bacterial culture.The minimal inhibition concentrations (MIC) of penicillin G,amoxicillin,cephradine,cephalexin,cefadroxil,sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim and azithromycin were determined using the agar dilution test.Results Totally 806 qualified cases were enrolled in this study.Fever (T ≥ 38 ℃) was present in 51.7% (n =417),and increased WBC count (> 10 × 109/L) was noted in 68.5% (n =552 cases)of the patients.For bacterial culture,184 strains were isolated from throat swabs of 688 patients with upper respiratory infection;the most frequently isolated bacteria were Haemophilus influenzae (44,23.9%),Staphylococcus aureus (44,23.9%) and Group G streptococcus (43,23.0%).Thirty-three strains were isolated from 118 patients with lower respiratory infections,with Haemophilus influenza (21,63.6%),Group G streptococcus (6,18.2%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (3,9.1%) as the leading pathogens.All strains of Haemophilus influenzae were susceptible to azithromycin.The susceptibility rate of Streptococcus pneumoniae to penicillin was as high as 94.7%,while that to azithromycin was significantly decreased (21.1%).The MIC90 values of cephalexin,cefadroxil and ceftazidime for β-hemolytic streptococcus spp were ≤2 mg/L.Conclusions Upper respiratory infections were responsible for

  7. Microbiological Study On Respiratory Tract Infections In Libya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *A. H. Eldeeb and **E.M. Khashan

    2006-09-01

    .48%, amoxycillin-clavulanic (62.34%, cefuroxime (62.09%, lincomycin (61.83%, vancomycin (61.07%, chloramphenicol (57%, cephalexin (48.35%, cephapirin (45.29%, erythromycin (44.78%, and trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole (43%. Amoxycillin and tetracycline were the least active ((36.64% and 32.06% respectively. Staphylococcus aureus strains resistant to amoxycillin were tested for B-lactamase production. Out of the tested strains, 62.5% were B- lactamase producers and it may be responsible for the resistance to amoxycillin. In conclusion, the study revealed that evaluation of respiratory tract infections and antimicrobial susceptibility is still in need for more studies. This is due to the continuous development of newly resistant strains and the relatively little number of isolates in some species. Moreover, the differences in the previous antimicrobial treatment, the history of subclinical infections and the immune status of patients involved in each study have increased the difficulty in evaluation.

  8. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  9. 白内障术前结膜囊菌群分布和药敏试验研究%The Research about the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛梅民; 张小娟; 黄怀洁; 李克勤; 廖忠; 杨怡; 陈振南; 陈琼志

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨白内障术前结膜囊细菌种类和药物敏感情况,为临床用药提供依据.方法 对白内障术前205例(205眼)结膜囊采集标本进行细菌培养,观察培养阳性的细菌对常用抗菌药物的敏感性变化.结果 细菌培养阳性26例(26眼),阳性率为12.68%.白内障患者术前结膜囊主要细菌构成为革兰阳性球菌(96.15%),其中以表皮葡萄球菌为主(69.23%),其次为溶血性葡萄球菌、产色葡萄球菌、腐生葡萄球菌;革兰阴性杆菌为洋葱假单胞菌.大多数细菌对万古霉素、阿米卡星、替考拉宁、克林霉素、莫匹罗星、呋喃妥因、吗啉唑酮敏感,耐药性小于20%,普遍对氨苄西林、四环素、头孢西丁、苯唑西林、红霉素明显耐药(68.0%以上).结论 表皮葡萄球菌是白内障术前结膜囊存在的最常见条件致病菌,预防感染或抗感染可以选用阿米卡星、克林霉素、呋喃妥因等常用抗菌药物.%Objective To research the distribution of conjunctival sac bacterial flora & experiment of drug sensitivity before cataract surgery,base on this research,provide the basis for clinical medication.Methods Collect Conjunctival sac of 205 eyes from 205 cases and make germiculture,observe the movement of positive Gram' s sensibility which effect by common antibacterial.Results There were 26 eyes with cultured positive Gram from 205 case,the ratio of positive was 12.68%.The preoperative conjunctival sac of cataract patients was mainly made up of Gram positive bacteria(96.15%),and most of them were Staphylococcus epidermidi(69.23%),there were also Staphylococcus haemolyticus,Staphylococcus chromogenes and Staphylococcus saprophyticus,Gram negative bacilli was the Pseudomonas cepaci.Most of grams were sensitive to Vancomycin,Amikacin,Teicoplanin,Clindamycin,Mupirocin,Furadantin and Morpholine trazodone,the tolerance was less than 20%,and they usually had higher tolerance to Cephalexin Penicillin

  10. Isolation,Identification and Drug Susceptibility Test of Salmonella and Shigella from the Intestine of Carp(Cyprinus carpio)%鲤鱼肠道中沙门氏菌、志贺氏菌分离鉴定及药敏试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡秀彩; 胡宏晓; 吕爱军

    2011-01-01

    从江苏省某市菜市场采集商品规格(体重0.5~0.6kg)的鲤鱼(Cyprinus carpio),利用SS选择培养基分离纯化获得107株肠道细菌,对其中2个典型菌株(编号CS-1、CS-2)进行细菌形态学观察、生化试验及药敏试验等研究.结果表明,CS-1、CS-2菌株均为革兰氏阴性小杆菌,均能利用葡萄糖产气,MR试验阳性、氧化酶和VP试验阴性;其中CS-1菌株吲哚产生阴性,硫化氢、半固体试验阳性;CS-2菌株则相反,初步鉴定CS-1为沙门氏菌,CS-2为志贺氏菌.药敏试验结果显示,CS-1、CS-2两菌株对先锋必素、先锋霉素Ⅳ、头孢孟多、头孢噻吩、呋喃妥因、氧哌嗪青霉素等药物高度敏感;对氯沽霉素、洁霉素、灭滴灵、利福平、红霉素等药物不敏感.该研究对水产品食品安全检疫及鱼类疾病防治等具有重要参考价值.%In this study, SS agar was used for selective isolation of bacteria from the intestine of carp (Cyprinus carpio) (body weight 0.5 to 0.6 kg) sold in the open-air market of Jiangsu province. One hundred and seven strains of bacteria were gained, of which two typical strains were named CS-1 and CS-2, respectively. The results of the physiobiochemical characteristics and the antimicrobial susceptibility assay showed that they were all Gram staining negative and small rod-shaped bacteria, and produce acids and gas by using glucose, MR test were positive, oxidase and VP test were negative. The motility test and H2 S were positive, and indole was negative for CS-1 strain, while CS-2 strain were reversed. Preliminary identification of the strains of bacteria, CS-1 and CS-2 belong to Salmonellas and Shigella species, respectively. Further drug sensitivity test results revealed that two strains were highly sensitive to cefoperazone, cephalexin Ⅳ, cefamandole, cephalothin, nitrofurantoin and piperacillin, but they were resistant to clindamycin, lincomycin, metronidazole, rifampin, erythromycin. This study may provide

  11. 青海省某奶牛场顽固性乳房炎主要病原菌的分离鉴定与耐药性研究%Isolation,Identification and Drug-resistance of Main Pathogens from Milk of Dairy Cows with Intractable Mastitis in Qinghai Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林杰; 李建喜; 王旭荣; 杨志强; 王磊; 张景艳; 孔晓军; 王学智; 秦哲; 王孝武

    2015-01-01

    为了明确青海省某奶牛场顽固性乳房炎的病原菌,并制定有效的防控措施,本试验采用细菌分离、16 S rDNA 序列分析、细菌基因分型等方法对病牛乳样中的病原菌进行分离鉴定,并进行17种药物的敏感性试验。试验从15份乳样中分离到10株金黄色葡萄球菌、1株表皮葡萄球菌和2株化脓隐秘杆菌,其中10株金黄色葡萄球菌均为荚膜多糖5型分离株;所分离金黄色葡萄球菌对青霉素 G、红霉素、头孢氨苄和呋喃妥因耐药率分别为100%、90%、10%和10%;表皮葡萄球菌对青霉素 G、复方新诺明和甲氧苄氨嘧啶耐药,而对其他14种抗菌药物敏感;化脓隐秘杆菌对四环素和甲氧苄氨嘧啶耐药,对强力霉素和复方新诺明中度敏感,对其他13种抗菌药物敏感。该牛场顽固性乳房炎是多种病原菌混合感染所致,但以荚膜多糖5型金黄色葡萄球菌为主。不同的病原菌的药物敏感性不同,故而治疗困难,建议使用恩诺沙星治疗病牛并加强隐性乳房炎的筛查与防治,病情得到控制。%In order to determine the main pathogens from milk of dairy cows with intractable mastitis in Qinghai province,and to develop effective prevention and control measures,the pathogens were isolated and identificated by16 S rDNA sequence analysis and genotyping.And then we performed a sensitivity test of 17 kinds of antimicrobials.The results showed 13 bacterial isolates were isolated from 15 milk samples,in-cluding ten isolates of Staphylococcus aureus ,one isolate of Staphylococcus epidermidis and two isolates of Trueperella pyogenes .All of the Staphylococcus aureus were type 5 of capsular polysaccharide.Staphy-lococcus aureus was resistant to penicillin G(100%),erythromycin(90%),cephalexin(10%)and nitro-furantoin(10%).Staphylococcus epidermidis was resistant to penicillin G,cotrimoxazole and trimethoprim while sensitive to other 14 kinds of

  12. 社区医院门急诊抗菌药物应用情况调查分析%Investigation and Analysis of Antibiotic of Community Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘焱; 杜淑贤

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our center in 2009 on the application of antimicrobial agents were analyzed in order to promptly identify problems, to better promote the hospital's scientific management and rational antimicrobial agents in clinical use. Method: January to December in 2009, Centre for Emergency Department a total of 47,578 electronic prescriptions, the number of prescriptions with antibiotics, the use of antibiotic type and quantity of sales amount of DDDs ( DDDs ), average daily costs ( DDDc ) value, etc. statistical analysis. Result: Antibiotic prescription 10952, 23.02% of the total number of prescriptions, involving a total of seven classes of antibiotics 36 species; antibacterial drug sales amount to the total amount of medicine sales 31.04%; which eephalosporins antibiotics annual retail sales exceeded 38% of the retail value, dominant; DDDs sort of gatifloxacin capsules, cephradine capsules and cephalexin capsules of the top three. Conclusion:The center basically rational use of antimicrobial drugs, but still need attention to their security, to further enhance the level of rational drug use.%目的:对我社区卫生服务中心2009年抗菌药物应用情况进行统计分析,以便及时发现问题,更好地促进医院的科学管理和抗菌药物在临床的合理使用.方法:收集2009年1月至12月中心门急诊电子处方共47578张,对含抗菌药物的处方数、所用抗菌素种类和数量、销售金额、用药频度(DDDs) 、日均费用(DDDc)值等进行统计分析.结果:使用抗菌药物处方10952张,占总处方数的23.02%,涉及抗菌药物共7类36种;抗菌药销售金额占西药销售总金额的31.04%;其中头孢菌素类零售金额超过全年抗菌药物零售金额38%,占主导地位;DDDs排序中加替沙星胶囊、头孢拉定胶囊和头孢氨苄胶囊居前3位.结论:我社区卫生服务中心使用抗菌药物基本合理,但仍需重视其安全性,进一步提高合理用药水平.

  13. 超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法同时检测地表水中18种药物与个人护理品的残留量%Simultaneous determination of 18 pharmaceuticals and personal care products in surface water by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱赛嫦; 王静; 邵卫伟; 陈红

    2013-01-01

    An analytical method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of 18 Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) , including antibiotics (tri-methoprim, erythromycin · 2H2O, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, pencilline G, penicillin V potassium salt, cephalexin and sulfamethoxazole) , β-bloker (atenolol), anophelifuge (N, N-diethyl-3-methylbenzoylamide, DEET) , antiepileptics ( carbamazepine) , central nervous system stimulant (caffeine) , lipid modifying agent ( clofibric acid) , non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (ibuprofen, naproxen and diclofenac sodium salt) and antimicrobial agents (triclosan and tri-clocarban). The detection and qualification of the target compounds were performed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The optimized mobile phases were methanol as organic phase, 0. 3% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium acetate for positive electrospray ionization (ESI+ ) and 5 mmol/L ammonium acetate for ESI- as inorganic phase. Water samples were concentrated by solid phase extraction at 2 mL/min, and all the target PPCPs were efficiently extracted at pH 7. The extracted PPCPs were eluted by the mixture of methanol and acetonitrile (1:1, v/v). The average recoveries of the target compounds in the spiked pure water samples ranged from 53. 9% - 112%. The average recoveries of the target compounds ranged from 45. 1% - 156. 6% with the relative standard deviations ranged from 2. 4% - 15. 7%, in the surface water samples spiked at 100 ng/L. The surface water samples collected from Yu Hangtang River in Hangzhou were detected. The results showed that nine PPCPs were detected including caffeine that reached a maximum concentration of 550. 7 ng/L. It proved that this analytical method is reliable and acceptable.%采用固相萃取对水样进行预处理,建立了同时检测地表水中包括抗生素、β-阻滞剂、驱蚊剂、抗癫痫药、中枢神经兴奋剂、血脂调节剂、非甾体抗炎

  14. 制药废水中头孢类抗生素残留检测方法及环境风险评估%Residue analysis method and environmental risk assessment of cephalosporin antibiotics in pharmaceutical wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤薪瑶; 左剑恶; 余忻; 杨波; 王凯军

    2014-01-01

    Based on solid phase extraction (SPE) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS), a testing method for 9 cephalosporin antibiotics, i.e., cefaclor, ceftriaxone, cephalexin, cefotaxime, cefazolin, cefuroxime, cefoxitin, cefalotin and cefradine, in pharmaceutical wastewater was established. The limit of quantitation was from 27.5 to 131.8ng/L, and the recovery efficiencies for different analytes ranged from 72.8% to 102.2%. With this method, cephalosporin antibiotics in the effluent of each processing unit of a pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plant (P-WWTP), which adopted two-stage biological oxidation processes, were tested. Ceftriaxone, cefazolin, cefotaxime and cefuroxime were found in the pharmaceutical wastewater. Their average concentrations in influents were 7.6, 12.9, 5.6 and 91.6µg/L, in effluents of first-stage oxidation unit were 4.2, 5.2, 2.2 and 37.4µg/L, and in effluents of second-stage oxidation unit were 2.0, 2.7, 0.6 and 24.4µg/L, respectively. Risk quotient method was utilized to evaluate the environmental risks of these four antibiotics in the effluents, and all the results were high risk levels.%基于固相萃取-超高效液相色谱-两级串联质谱(SPE-UPLC/MS/MS)技术,建立了制药废水中头孢克洛、头孢曲松、头孢氨苄、头孢噻肟、头孢唑啉、头孢呋辛、头孢西丁、头孢噻吩和头孢拉定共9种头孢类抗生素的测试方法,定量限为27.5~131.8ng/L,目标物回收率为72.8%~102.2%;利用该技术,检测某采用两级生物氧化工艺的制药废水处理厂各级单元出水,共检测出头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟和头孢呋辛4种头孢类抗生素,其在进水中平均浓度分别为7.6,12.9,5.6,91.6µg/L,在一级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为4.2,5.2,2.2,37.4µg/L,在二级氧化出水中平均浓度分别为2.0,2.7,0.6,24.4µg/L;风险商值法评估制药废水出水中残留的头孢曲松、头孢唑啉、头孢噻肟

  15. 中药联合次髎穴注射痰热清治疗慢性盆腔炎的临床研究%Clinical study of traditional Chinese drug united with Tanreqing Ciliao acupoint injection on chronic pelvic inflammatory disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李涛; 张瑞红; 贾庆宇

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察中药联合次髎穴注射痰热清治疗慢性盆腔炎的疗效.方法 选择符合中医辨证分型属于湿热蕴结型的慢性盆腔炎患者200例.随机分为4组,A组50例单用次髎穴注射痰热清治疗,B组50例单口服中药治疗,C组50例予中药联合次髎穴注射痰热清治疗,D组50例予口服甲硝唑+头孢氨苄治疗.4组在治疗前和治疗后2周分别抽取外周静脉血测定C反应蛋白水平,治疗前后行盆腔B超检查了解炎性包块大小且进行对比,同时观察不良反应.结果 A组总有效率90%,B组92%,C组98%,D组76%,4组比较均有显著性差异(P均<0.01).结论 中药联合次髎穴注射痰热清治疗慢性盆腔炎疗效显著.%Objective It is to observe the curative effect of traditional Chinese drug united with Tanreqing Ciliao acupoint injection on chronic pelvic inflammatory disease. Methods 200 patients with chronic pelvic inflammatory disease whose Zheng differentiation - classification in traditional Chinese medicine belonged to dampness-heat heap note type were chosen and randomly divided into four groups in which there were 50 cases. Group A was treated with Tanreqing Ciliao acupoint injection only. Group B was treated with traditional Chinese drug taken orally only. Group C was treated with traditional Chinese drug united with Tanreqing Ciliao acupoint injection. Group D was treated with metronidazole and cephalexin taken orally. All the patients were taken blood from peripheral vein to determine C reactive protein level before treatment and after treatment for two weeks. All the patients were examined cavitas pelvis type B ultrasonic to get the message of the size of inflammatory mass and compare each other before and after treatment. At the same time the untoward reaction was observed. Results The total effective rate of group A was 90% , that of group B was 92% , that of group C was 98% and that of group D was 76% . There were all significant differences among the

  16. Addition of meloxicam to the treatment of clinical mastitis improves subsequent reproductive performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDougall, S; Abbeloos, E; Piepers, S; Rao, A S; Astiz, S; van Werven, T; Statham, J; Pérez-Villalobos, N

    2016-03-01

    A blinded, negative controlled, randomized intervention study was undertaken to test the hypothesis that addition of meloxicam, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, to antimicrobial treatment of mild to moderate clinical mastitis would improve fertility and reduce the risk of removal from the herd. Cows (n=509) from 61 herds in 8 regions (sites) in 6 European countries were enrolled. Following herd-owner diagnosis of mild to moderate clinical mastitis within the first 120 d of lactation in a single gland, the rectal temperature, milk appearance, and California Mastitis Test score were assessed. Cows were randomly assigned within each site to be treated either with meloxicam or a placebo (control). All cows were additionally treated with 1 to 4 intramammary infusions of cephalexin and kanamycin at 24-h intervals. Prior to treatment and at 14 and 21 d posttreatment, milk samples were collected for bacteriology and somatic cell count. Cows were bred by artificial insemination and pregnancy status was subsequently defined. General estimating equations were used to determine the effect of treatment (meloxicam versus control) on bacteriological cure, somatic cell count, the probability of being inseminated by 21 d after the voluntary waiting period, the probability of conception to first artificial insemination, the number of artificial insemination/conception, the probability of pregnancy by 120 or 200 d postcalving, and the risk of removal by 300 d after treatment. Cox's proportional hazards models were used to test the effect of treatment on the calving to first insemination and calving to conception intervals. Groups did not differ in terms of age, clot score, California Mastitis Test score, rectal temperature, number of antimicrobial treatments given or bacteria present at the time of enrollment, but cows treated with meloxicam had greater days in milk at enrollment. Cows treated with meloxicam had a higher bacteriological cure proportion than those treated with

  17. Estabelecimento de protocolo para micropropagação de Lippia gracilis Schauer Establishment of protocol for Lippia gracilis Schauer micropropagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.J.M Marinho

    2011-01-01

    onto MS medium plus plant growth regulators in order to establish the best dose for the development of explants. Due to high levels of contamination, the effect of cephalexin was evaluated. Although the antibiotic decreased the bacterial contamination, the percentage of oxidation was high. Then, activated charcoal, ascorbic acid, citric acid and half the salts of MS were tested for their effectiveness to control oxidation. In conclusion, the used antibiotic concentration resulted in oxidation of explants. Furthermore, plant growth regulators and antioxidant methods did not show consistent results for a better development of explants and control of oxidation, respectively.

  18. Evaluation of the Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test for the detection of antibiotics in ewe and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, M C; Romero, T; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P

    2013-05-01

    The Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects β-lactam or tetracycline drugs in raw commingled cow milk at or below European Union maximum residue levels (EU-MRL). The Charm MRL BLTET test procedure was recently modified (dilution in buffer and longer incubation) by the manufacturers to be used with raw ewe and goat milk. To assess the Charm MRL BLTET test for the detection of β-lactams and tetracyclines in milk of small ruminants, an evaluation study was performed at Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Animal of Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain). The test specificity and detection capability (CCβ) were studied following Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Specificity results obtained in this study were optimal for individual milk free of antimicrobials from ewes (99.2% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) and goats (97.9% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) along the entire lactation period regardless of whether the results were visually or instrumentally interpreted. Moreover, no positive results were obtained when a relatively high concentration of different substances belonging to antimicrobial families other than β-lactams and tetracyclines were present in ewe and goat milk. For both types of milk, the CCβ calculated was lower or equal to EU-MRL for amoxicillin (4 µg/kg), ampicillin (4 µg/kg), benzylpenicillin (≤ 2 µg/kg), dicloxacillin (30 µg/kg), oxacillin (30 µg/kg), cefacetrile (≤ 63 µg/kg), cefalonium (≤ 10 µg/kg), cefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), desacetylcefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), cefazolin (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefoperazone (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefquinome (20 µg/kg), ceftiofur (≤ 50 µg/kg), desfuroylceftiofur (≤ 50µg/kg), and cephalexin (≤ 50 µg/kg). However, this test could neither detect cloxacillin nor nafcillin at or below EU-MRL (CCβ >30 µg/kg). The

  19. Evaluation of the Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test for the detection of antibiotics in ewe and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, M C; Romero, T; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P

    2013-05-01

    The Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test (Charm MRL BLTET; Charm Sciences Inc., Lawrence, MA) is an immunoreceptor assay utilizing Rapid One-Step Assay lateral flow technology that detects β-lactam or tetracycline drugs in raw commingled cow milk at or below European Union maximum residue levels (EU-MRL). The Charm MRL BLTET test procedure was recently modified (dilution in buffer and longer incubation) by the manufacturers to be used with raw ewe and goat milk. To assess the Charm MRL BLTET test for the detection of β-lactams and tetracyclines in milk of small ruminants, an evaluation study was performed at Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnologia Animal of Universitat Politècnica de València (Spain). The test specificity and detection capability (CCβ) were studied following Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Specificity results obtained in this study were optimal for individual milk free of antimicrobials from ewes (99.2% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) and goats (97.9% for β-lactams and 100% for tetracyclines) along the entire lactation period regardless of whether the results were visually or instrumentally interpreted. Moreover, no positive results were obtained when a relatively high concentration of different substances belonging to antimicrobial families other than β-lactams and tetracyclines were present in ewe and goat milk. For both types of milk, the CCβ calculated was lower or equal to EU-MRL for amoxicillin (4 µg/kg), ampicillin (4 µg/kg), benzylpenicillin (≤ 2 µg/kg), dicloxacillin (30 µg/kg), oxacillin (30 µg/kg), cefacetrile (≤ 63 µg/kg), cefalonium (≤ 10 µg/kg), cefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), desacetylcefapirin (≤ 30 µg/kg), cefazolin (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefoperazone (≤ 25 µg/kg), cefquinome (20 µg/kg), ceftiofur (≤ 50 µg/kg), desfuroylceftiofur (≤ 50µg/kg), and cephalexin (≤ 50 µg/kg). However, this test could neither detect cloxacillin nor nafcillin at or below EU-MRL (CCβ >30 µg/kg). The

  20. Investigation on the mechanism of drug resistance mediated by class I integron in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae%Ⅰ类整合子介导大肠埃希菌与肺炎克雷伯菌耐药机制的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立涛; 万莉红; 邵振俊; 谭显曙; 匡文娟; 周黎明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the distribution and the characterization of class I integron in clinical isolates of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae and explore the relationship between class I integron and their drug resistance. Methods Agar dilution method and double disk diffusion method were used to analyze the 82 strains of clinical isolates; class Ⅰ integron and drug resistance gene cassettes integrated by integron Ⅰ were analyzed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screening, DNA sequencing and sequence analysis in 36strains of Escherichia coli and 46 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Results Ten of 82 clinical isolates were were observed in class Ⅰ integron, and all of them carried the integrated drug resistance gene. Susceptibility test showed the Escherichia coifs resistance rate were as follows, 61% of cefixime, 86% of cefaclor, 86% of cephalexin, 50% of piperacillin-tazobactam, 75% of ceftazidime, 64% of cefotaxime sodium, 39% of amoxicillin/sulbactam, 47% of ampicillin sodium/sulbactam sodium, 30% of cefoperazone sodium/sulbactam sodiumis, respectively, while the Klebsiella pneumoniae's resistance rate were 65%, 63%, 78%, 52%, 67%, 54%, 48%, 41%, 28%. There were 10 strains of ESBLs-producing in them, Escherichia coli 4 strain, Klebsiella pneumoniae 6 strains, and all were detected to havel integron, the gene cassettes's marshaling sequence was 100% similar to the strain and its genbank number was NC010410, and all contained blaVEB-1 resistance gene cassettes.Conclusion Class Ⅰ integron and integrated gene cassettes are prevalent among the ESBLs-producing strains of Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae. Integrons are important molecular mechanism in the development of drug resistance.%目的 了解临床分离的大肠埃希茵、肺炎克雷伯菌中Ⅰ类整合子的分布情况,探讨整合子与细菌耐药之间的关系.方法 琼脂平皿稀释法进行药敏试验;双纸片法筛选出产ESBLs的菌株;运用PCR扩增、DNA测

  1. Analysis of Drug Resistance and Resistant Genes of Salmonella toβ-lactams Antimicrobial Agents Isolated from Pigs in Guizhou Province%贵州省猪源沙门氏菌对β-内酰胺类药耐药性及耐药基因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹正花; 谭艾娟; 吕世明; 王雄; 杜国琴

    2016-01-01

    In order to analyse the resistance toβ-lactams antimicrobial agents and the prevalence of resistant genes of Salmonella in Guizhou province,130 Salmonella strains were isolated and iden-tified from 9 different regions of scale pig farms.The drug sensitivity to 8 kinds ofβ-lactams anti-microbial agents were determined by using the broth microdilution method.Allβ-lactams resistant isolates were detected for the presences of TEM,OXA,CTX-M and SHV genes by PCR.The re-sults showed that drug resistance of Salmonella to the commonly usedβ-lactams antimicrobial agents was very serious,and the resistance rate to ceftazidime was the highest (100%),followed by ampicillin and amoxicillin,were 76.15% and 80.77%,respectively.The resistance rates of ceft-iofur and cephalexin were the lowest (46.15%).Salmonella strains were all of multiple drug re-sistance,of which double resistance was at lowest (2.31%),and eightfold resistance was highest (4.62%),multidrug resistance mainly concentrated in fourfold to sevenfold,accounted for 88.46%.PCR results showed that TEM,OXA,CTX-M genes detection rate were 85%,75% and 46%,respectively,while the SHV gene was not inspected.Resistant phenotype was basically con-sistent with resistant genes.The results indicated that the resistance of Salmonella stains from pig toβ-lactams antimicrobial agents were widespread,and ceftazidime was particularly serious. The TEM,OXA and CTX-M genes were mainly carriedβ-lactams resistant genes in Salmonella isolates from Guizhou province.It had a great relationship between the prevalence of resistance genes and growth of antimicrobial resistance.%为了解贵州省猪源沙门氏菌对β-内酰胺类抗菌药物耐药性及其耐药基因的流行情况,本试验从贵州省9个地区规模养猪场中分离鉴定130株沙门氏菌,采用微量肉汤稀释法测定其对常用的8种β-内酰胺类抗菌药物的敏感性,并用PCR法对β-内酰胺酶耐药基因进行检测。结果显示,沙门氏菌对常

  2. 2012年北京市海淀医院肺炎克雷伯菌致血流感染14例患者的耐药分析%Analysis of drug resistance to Klebsiella pneumoniae in 14 cases of bloodstream infection in 2012 of Beijing Haidian Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董建平; 田国保; 李明明; 李明慧; 张璐

    2014-01-01

    hospital (Haidian Section of Peking University Third Hospital) and provide a reference for the clinical treatment of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Methods Clinical data and antibiotic resistance of the patients infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae of bloodstream from January to December in 2012 were collected, retrospectively. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS 12.0. Results All the 14 clinical isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae infection were widely distributed in various hospital departments. The infection were more common in the elderly, cancer, uremia, cerebrovascular diseases and other critical patients. All the 14 cases were secondary BSI and mostly secondary to pulmonary infection and hepatobiliary tract infection. The rate of bacterial resistance to ampicillin (85.7%), piperacillin (57.1%), cefazolin (42.9%), cephalexin and sulbactam (57.1%), cefuroxime (42.9%), gentamicin (42.9%) and cotrimoxazole (42.9%), were more than 40%; the rate to ceftriaxone (21.4%), ceftazidime (21.4%), piperacillin and tazobactam (28.6%), ciprofloxacin (28.6%) and aztreonam (21.4%) were 20%-30%;and the rate to cefepime (7.1%), cefotetan (7.1%), levolfoxacin (14.3%), amikacin (7.1%), tobramycin (15.6%) and nitrofurantoin (7.1%) were all less than 20%. No resistance to carbapenems and cefoperazone/sulbactam were found. Conclusions Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the common pathogens of secondary BSI. The different degree of drug resistance was found to some commonly used antibiotics based on clinical experience. Bacterial resistance monitoring should be strengthened in the region or hospital and could guide anti-infection treatment in clinical experience.

  3. 门诊处方抗菌药物使用情况调查分析%Analysis of Utilization of Antibacterials in the Outpatient of Our Hospital from 2008 to 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 李林; 王龙飞; 苏强

    2011-01-01

    , and otolaryngology were the top three ranked prescription. A joint utilization of antimicrobial increased by 68. 73% to 89. 77% and second joint utilization of antimicrobial from 30. 15% down to 10. 23% from 2008 to 2009. Outpatient antibiotic sales in top 3 was the cephalospo-rins. Macrolides and quinolones. Clarithromycin tablets, azithromycin capsules and levofloxacin capsules were the top three kinds of DDDs in 2008,and Cefixime capsule, cefuroxime axetil tablets and cephalexin tablets were the top three in 2009. Irrational use of antimicrobial drug prescription rates were 6. 41% and 4. 95%. Conclusion The utilization of antibacterials in the outpatient in our hospital was rational on the whole , but there were irrational prescriptions. The management on the rational use of antibacterials should be further strengthened in hospital to improve the rational level of drug use.

  4. 1株鸽源鸡杆菌复合群3的分离和鉴定%Isolation and identification of one pigeon-origin Gallibacterium genomo sp3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓林; 陈英; 余松城; 邹年莉; 吴瑞婷; 夏静; 牛婷; 王富妍; 黄勇

    2014-01-01

    .This disease had caused great economic losses to the pigeon farm.In order to propose a proper treatment program for this disease,representative samples were collected from disease pigeons for bacteria isolation and virus detection. The bacteria were isolated by blood agar and were identified by following test:morphological observation, biochemical identification,animal experiment,antibiotic sensitive experiment,1 6S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Animal experiments were conducted by infecting mice and pigeons to observe its pathogenicity.For the virus detection,the nucleotide sequences of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV),avian influenza virus subtype (H 9 N2) and Newcastle disease virus (NDV) were detected by RT-PCR. The results showed that NDV was detected from the lung and trachea of some sick pigeons,and one bacterial strain was isolated from the livers and lungs of sick pigeons and named as SC01.The SC01 strain was gram-negative (G-),short rod-shaped bacteria.It was pathogenic to mice,and the median lethal dose to mice was 1.26 × 10 9 CFU/mL.Biochemical test showed that it can ferment most sugars and alcohols.Sensitive drug screen revealed that the SC01 strain was sensitive to ceftriaxone sodium,cefoperazone sodium,florfenicol,cephalexin,cefazolin,and resistant to neomycin,streptomycin,erythromycin,sulfafurazole,etc.The 1 6S rRNA gene sequence of the SC01 strain was blasted in GenBank,and the results showed that the nucleotide sequence homologies of SC01 and Gallibacterium ,Pasteurella , Haemophilus ,Actinobacillus were relatively high. The 1 6S rRNA nucleotide sequence homologies of SC01 and four G.genomo sp.3 strains were 98.5% 99.5%,and the highest homology (99.5%) came from the comparison between the sequences of SC01 and EU423996.Phylogenetic analysis showed that SC01 strain and nine Gallibacterium strains formed an independent big branch in phylogenetic tree.The SC01 strain and G. genomo sp. 3 fell into the same small branch. Meanwhile, Pasteurella , Haemophilus and