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Sample records for central western carpathians

  1. New constraints on the tectonic and thermal evolution of the Central-Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelluccio, Ada; Andreucci, Benedetta; Grigo, Domenico; Jankowski, Leszek; Ketcham, Richard A.; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Zattin, Massimiliano

    2014-05-01

    The Central-Western Carpathians have been studied for long time but they are a still matter of discussion. In addition, they are one of the principal East European targets for oil and gas exploration. Understanding the tectonic evolution and the spatial and temporal variation of the thermal regime is crucial for this purpose. This orogene formed after the collision between the European Platform and the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates from the Upper Jurassic to the Neogene. The widely accepted interpretation suggests the occurrence of the oceanic lithosphere subducting under the two microplates and the development of the oceanic suture in the Pieniny Klippen Belt area during the Paleocene. The subduction ends when the accretionary wedge reaches its present-day position on top of the southern border of the European Platform. The Carpathian arc can be subdivided into three tectonic domains: • Outer Carpathians made up of Upper Jurassic to Lower Miocene siliciclastic deposits intercalated with shales and sandstones; • Pieniny Klippen Belt formed by Mesozoic olistoliths and olistostromes in a sandy-clay Cretaceous sheared matrix; • Inner Carpathians consisting in Variscan allochthonous crystalline basement with its Mesozoic cover involved in the late Cretaceous folding and thrusting These deposits are unconformably overlain by the undeformed Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin successions. Cross-section balancing and sequential restoration integrated with low-temperature thermochronometry (apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He analysis) can better constrain the tectonic evolution of this area and, in particular, its exhumation history. Seven balanced sections have been constructed across the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians. The sequential restoration shows a thick-skinned tectonics during the Upper Cretaceous, involving the Inner Carpathian basin. The erosion of the Mesozoic basement cover and the sedimentation of these deposits in the foreland basin

  2. Moessbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sitek, J; Toth, I; Sulak, M; Putis, M

    2010-01-01

    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe 2+ Fe 3+ contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Moessbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  3. Moessbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitek, J; Toth, I [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Information Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, Bratislava (Slovakia); Sulak, M; Putis, M, E-mail: jozef.sitek@stuba.s [Department of of Mineralogy and Petrology, Faculty of Natural Sciences, Comenius University Bratislava, Mlynska dolina G, 842 15 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2010-03-01

    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Moessbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Moessbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe{sup 2+} Fe{sup 3+} contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Moessbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  4. Mössbauer spectra of white micas from the Central Western Carpathians Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitek, J.; Sulák, M.; Putiš, M.; Tóth, I.

    2010-03-01

    Potassium white micas from the rocks included into Cretaceous deformation zones (ca. 100-70 Ma in age) of the Central Western Carpathians were investigated by Mössbauer spectroscopy. White micas formed during a polystage evolution and changing P-T conditions of their crystallization in crustal-scale shear zones. We found criteria for distinguishing generations of celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white micas using Mössbauer spectroscopy. This method revealed contrasting spectra characterized by typical quadrupole doublets corresponding to Fe2+ Fe3+ contents in white micas. They are in the range of 2.9-3.0 mm/s for phengite, and 2.6-2.7 mm/s for muscovite. Mössbauer spectra reflect well the chemical changes in white mica aggregates, especially of those close to the end-member muscovite and (alumino-)celadonite compositions.

  5. Foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of the youngest (Late Albian through Late Cenomanian) sediments of the Tatra massif, Central Western Carpathians

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    Bąk, Krzysztof; Bąk, Marta

    2013-06-01

    Bąk, K. and Bąk M. 2013. Foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of the youngest (Late Albian through Late Cenomanian) sediments of the Tatra massif, Central Western Carpathians. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 223-237. Warszawa. The foraminiferal and radiolarian biostratigraphy of selected sections of the Zabijak Formation, the youngest sediments of the Tatra massif (Central Western Carpathians), have been studied. Benthic foraminifers, mainly agglutinated species, occur abundantly and continuously throughout the studied succession, while planktic foraminifers are generally sparse. Five planktic and two benthic foraminiferal zones have been recognized. The marly part of the Zabijak Formation comprises the Pseudothalmanninella ticinensis (Upper Albian) through the Rotalipora cushmani (Upper Cenomanian) planktic foraminiferal zones, and the Haplophragmoides nonioninoides and Bulbobaculites problematicus benthic foraminiferal zones. The radiolarians were recognized exclusively in the Lower Cenomanian part of the formation.

  6. Chemical and spectroscopic characteristics of potassium white micas related to polystage evolution of the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge

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    Sulák, Marián; Kaindl, Reinhard; Putiš, Marián; Sitek, Jozef; Krenn, Kurt; Tóth, Ignác

    2009-12-01

    Potassium white micas in sheared basement and cover rocks from the Central Western Carpathians (CWC) were investigated by PL microscopy, electron microprobe (EMP) analysis, Mössbauer and micro-Raman spectroscopy. We specified chemical and spectroscopic characteristics, which allow distinction between celadonite-poor (muscovitic) and celadonite-rich (phengitic) white mica (Wmca). Wmca generations formed during a polystage evolution in changing P- T conditions ranging from the very low to medium temperatures at medium pressure within the Alpidic CWC orogenic wedge. BSE imaging, EMP analyses and X-ray element maps indicate chemical differences between muscovite and phengite, mainly in Al, Fe and Si contents. Mössbauer spectroscopy revealed their contrasting spectra, related to different hyperfine parameters, mainly of quadrupole splitting (QS of Ms: 2.6-2.7 mm/s, or 2.9-3.0 mm/s for Phg), corresponding to Fe 2+ and Fe 3+ contents. Blastomylonitic samples with a single dominating Wmca generation and finite-strain XZ sections were suitable for micro-Raman study. These data corroborate correlation between the frequencies of two vibrational modes of Wmca and Si content. The investigated Wmca generations indicate an enhanced transformation between Wmca phases in shear zones.

  7. Distribution of natural radioactive elements in Western Carpathians granitoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katlovsky, V.

    1979-01-01

    The content of natural radioactive elements was determined using the 1024-channel analyser NTA-512 B with NaI(Tl) scintillators or with a Ge(Li) detector. The following groups of samples were processed: 1. granitoids, pegmatites and weathered rocks in the Small Carpathians; 2. acid magmatites of exotic rocks of the klippen zone; 3. granitoids of the Western Carpathians. The results of the measurements are summed up. (Ha)

  8. Neogene palaeogeography and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas

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    Kováč, Michal; Márton, Emő; Oszczypko, Nestor; Vojtko, Rastislav; Hók, Jozef; Králiková, Silvia; Plašienka, Dušan; Klučiar, Tomáš; Hudáčková, Natália; Oszczypko-Clowes, Marta

    2017-08-01

    The data on the Neogene geodynamics, palaeogeography, and basin evolution of the Western Carpathians, Northern Pannonian domain and adjoining areas (ALCAPA Mega-unit) are summarized, re-evaluated, supplemented, and newly interpreted. The proposed concept is illustrated by a series of palinspastic and palaeotopographic maps. The Miocene development of the Outer Carpathians reflects the vanishing subduction of the residual oceanic and/or thinned continental crust. A compression perpendicular to the front of the orogenic system led to the closing of residual flysch troughs and to accretionary wedge growth, as well as to the development of a foredeep on the margin of the European Platform. Docking of the Outer Western Carpathians accretionary wedge, together with the Central Western Carpathians and Northern Pannonian domain, was accompanied by stretching of the overriding microplate. An orogen parallel and perpendicular extension was associated with the opening and subsidence of the Early and Middle Miocene hinterland (back-arc) basin system that compensated counter-clockwise rotations of the individual crustal fragments of ALCAPA. The Late Miocene development relates to the opening of the Pannonian Basin System. This process was coupled with common stretching of both ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia Mega-units due to the pull exerted by subduction rollback in front of the Eastern Carpathians. The filling up of the hinterland basin system was associated with thermal subsidence and was followed by the Pliocene tectonic inversion and consequent erosion of the basin system margins, as well as part of the interior.

  9. Western Carpathians in the territory of the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Skupien, P.; Vašíček, Zdeněk

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 34, 3/1 (2008), s. 139-149 ISSN 0138-0974 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA205/07/1365 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Outer Western Carpathians * nappes * localities Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies of Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the Central Western Carpathians: new insights into paleogeographic setting and tectonic evolution of the area

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    Szaniawski, R.; Jankowski, L.; Ludwiniak, M.; Mazzoli, S.; Szczygieł, J.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Mountains were formed through progressive collision and amalgamation of the Alcapa and Tisza-Dacia microplates with the European Platform. The Central Western Carpathians (CWC) tectonic unit analyzed in this study constitutes a fragment of the Alcapa microplate - research in this area is therefore of great importance in the context of the geotectonic evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Our paleomagnetic and magnetic fabric studies were focused on Lower Triassic red sandstones from the autochthonous cover of the crystalline basement. We present new results from three mountain massifs: Low Tatra, Velka Fatra and Strazovske Vrchy, comparing them with our earlier works performed in the Tatra Mts. Rockmagnetic studies reveal similar results in all four studied regions - the dominant ferromagnetic carrier in red sandstones is hematite, while the magnetic fabric is mostly controlled by paramagnetic minerals. AMS results outline a bedding parallel foliation and a tectonic lineation. This lineation lies in the bedding plane but is somewhat oblique to the present horizontal plane. The fact that the lineation is not exactly parallel to the strike of the beds is most likely due to multistage deformation: the lineation is related to bedding parallel shortening associated with the folding and thrusting stage, while present-day bedding attitude results at least partially from rotations associated with subsequent uplift and/or faulting. Paleomagnetic analysis indicate that hematite carrier records characteristic remanent component of high unblocking temperatures (680°C) and both normal (dominant) and reversed polarity. Paleomagnetic inclinations are similar to those expected from reference paleomagnetic data from the European Platform. Declination values are rather similar in all four studied areas and imply moderate counterclockwise rotations of the CWC. These results are incompatible with some of the previous paleomagnetic studies of younger rocks from the CWC

  11. Total water content thresholds for shallow landslides, Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bil, M.; Andrašík, R.; Zahradníček, Pavel; Kubeček, J.; Sedonik, J.; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2016), s. 337-347 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-19831S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : data quality -control * debris flows * rainfall thresholds * equivalent * depth * failures * example * europe * model * Landslides * Threshold * Snowmelt * Time series * Antecedent rainfall * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.657, year: 2016

  12. Geophysical modeling across Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in Eastern Slovakia

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    Vozar, J.; Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Majcin, D.; Vajda, P.; Bilcik, D.

    2017-12-01

    We present a multidimensional geophysical modelling of Central and Eastern Slovakia in the area of contact zone between the Inner and Outer Western Carpathians, and the East Slovakian Basin. Our crustal and lithospheric studies are based on geophysical data collected during CELEBRATION 2000 project and project THERMES. The new magnetotelluric (MT) multidimensional modelling is combined with seismic 2D wide angle refraction profiles and gravimetric modelling. Together with thermal information gathered from the area we constructed new integrated geophysical models of structures included in the evolution of the Carpathian orogen. Preliminary results of MT modelling in Eastern Slovakia suggest more electrically conductive structures in the middle and lower crustal depths in comparison with Central Slovakia, where we observed structures dominated by resistive complexes overlaid by conductive sedimentary formations. The higher conductivities below the East Slovakian Basin restrict penetration depth of the geoelectrical images. The electrically conductive structures are connected with tectono-thermal development in Neogene and presence of volcanic activity. Another significant conductive anomaly is imaged along the contact zone between Inner and Outer Western Carpathians in depths of about 10 - 20km, which is known as the Carpathian Conductivity Anomaly (CCA). In order to improve the depth resolution of MT models we decided to combine geoelectrical images with density and velocity models of the area. We used integrated petrological and geophysical modeling code to obtain thermally consistent lithospheric scale models of the area. A possible preliminary geological interpretation of the northern segment of investigated area suggests a resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments. The boundary between Inner and Outer Carpthians represented by the Klippen Belt on the surface is changed to the CCA in higher depths. In the direction to the south there are

  13. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. - architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava-Podhale basin)

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    Starek, Dušan; Fuksi, Tomáš

    2017-08-01

    A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe-system scale. This

  14. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. – architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava–Podhale basin

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    Starek Dušan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe

  15. Klippen Belt, Flysch Belt and Inner Western Carpathian Paleogene Basin Relations in the Northern Slovakia by Magnetotelluric Imaging

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Majcin, D.; Bezák, V.; Klanica, Radek; Vozár, J.; Pek, Josef; Bilčík, D.; Telecký, Josef

    (2018) ISSN 0033-4553 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * Western Carpathians * Klippen Belt * Flysch Belt * Inner Carpathian Paleogene Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 1.591, year: 2016

  16. Rock glaciers in the Western and High Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 844-857 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : rock glaciers * inventory * Western and High Tatra Mts * Carpathians * Slovakia * Poland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  17. Radiogeochronologic data on rocks of crystalline massifs of Western Carpathians and their interpretation in radiogeochronologic dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.

    1979-01-01

    The results are summed up and evaluated of the measurement of the age of various crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians using the method of isotope dating. The obtained results show that the rocks in the Western Carpathians were formed in the period of the Variscian and Alpine orogenesis, ie., 90 to 550 million years ago. A list of problems is given which must be resolved using radiogeochronological methods for age determination of geological processes and for specifying the stratigraphy of crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians. (Ha)

  18. Petrology and geochemistry of a peridotite body in Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments (Sedlice, eastern Slovakia

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    Koppa Matúš

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We studied representative samples from a peridotite body situated NE of Sedlice village within the Central- Carpathian Paleogene sediments in the Central Western Carpathians. The relationship of the peridotite to the surrounding Paleogene sediments is not clear. The fractures of the brecciated peridotite margin are healed with secondary magnesite and calcite. On the basis of the presented bulk-rock and electron microprobe data, the wt. % amounts of mineral phases were calculated. Most of calculated “modal” compositions of this peridotite corresponds to harzburgites composed of olivine (∼70-80 wt. %, orthopyroxene (∼17-24 wt. %, clinopyroxene ( < 5 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 1 wt. %. Harzburgites could originate from lherzolitic protoliths due to a higher degree of partial melting. Rare lherzolites contain porphyroclastic 1-2 mm across orthopyroxene (up to 25 wt. %, clinopyroxene (∼ 5-8 wt. % and minor spinel ( < 0.75 wt. %. On the other hand, rare, olivine-rich dunites with scarce orthopyroxene porphyroclasts are associated with harzburgites. Metamorphic mineral assemblage of low-Al clinopyroxene (3, tremolite, chrysotile, andradite, Cr-spinel to chromite and magnetite, and an increase of fayalite component in part of olivine, indicate low-temperature metamorphic overprint. The Primitive Mantle normalized whole-rock REE patterns suggest a depleted mantle rock-suite. An increase in LREE and a positive Eu anomaly may be consequence of interactive metamorphic fluids during serpentinization. Similar rocks have been reported from the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe overlying the Central Western Carpathians orogenic wedge since the Late Cretaceous, and they could be a potential source of these peridotite blocks in the Paleogene sediments.

  19. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

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    Holcová Katarína

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys. Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains.

  20. Granitoids of the Mala Fatra and Velka Fatra Mts.: Rb/Sr isochron geochronology (Western Carpathians)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, R.C.; Cambel, B.; Kamenicky, L.; Macek, J.

    1992-01-01

    New data formerly lacking (with exceptions - Dubna Skala, 1990) were gained from the Western Carpathian core mountain - Mala Fatra and Velka Fatra - by the Rb/Sr method. The isochron based on 13 samples gave the age of 361±10 Ma for Mala Fatra and Velka Fatra intrusions. (author) 4 tabs., 4 figs., 8 refs

  1. Some new Eocene elasmobranch reports from the outer Western Carpathians (Moravia, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 268, č. 1 (2013), s. 113-123 ISSN 0077-7749 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Elasmobranchii * Leidybatis jugossus * Centrophorus * Eocene * Western Carpathian Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.541, year: 2013

  2. Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin: Seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Hegedűs, Endre; Kovács, Csaba Attila; Kovács, István; Keller, G. Randy; Celebration 2000 Working Group

    2011-08-01

    During the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment, the Western Carpathians and Pannonian basin region was investigated by a dense system of deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present the results of modeling refracted and reflected waves employing 2D ray tracing for seven interlocking profiles that were jointly modeled and interpreted with the constraint that the models match at the crossing points of the profiles. The resulting P-wave velocity models reveal complex structures in the crust and large variations in the depth of the Moho discontinuity (˜25-45 km). In the southern part of the area, the relatively thin Pannonian basin crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with velocities of 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the central region, the upper crust of the ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) microplate contains a high velocity body of Vp ≥ 6.4 km/s, which spatially corresponds with the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km greater than in the adjacent Tisza-Dacia microplate. To the north in the area of the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and Carpathian foredeep, we observe a 10-20 km thick upper crust with low velocity ( Vp ≤ 6.0 km/s). Sub-Moho velocities have average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin, while in the Western Carpathians, the TESZ and the East European Craton (EEC) area, they are slightly higher (8.0-8.1 km/s). Lower velocities beneath the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates could be caused by compositional variations and the significantly higher surface heat flow. Beneath some profiles, reflectors in the lithospheric mantle were found sub-parallel to the Moho but 10-20 km below it. Our integrated geophysical and geological analysis indicates that the observed structure was created by collision of two lithospheric plates with only a moderate degree of convergence. The northern plate consists of older European

  3. Heavy Metals in Brown Bears from the Central European Carpathians

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    O. Čelechovská

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to assess heavy metal load in the brown bear (Ursus arctos living in the central European Carpathians. Between 2002 and 2004, fifteen bears were examined to evaluate the distribution of cadmium, lead, mercury and copper in the animals' muscles (diaphragm, spleen, liver and kidney. The highest content of cadmium, lead and mercury was found in the kidney (17.4 ± 5.2 mg kg-1, 1.16 ± 0.39 mg kg-1, 0.39 ± 0.25 mg kg-1, whereas the lowest content of the metals was observed in the muscles (0.017 ± 0.009 mg kg-1, 0.299 ± 0.308 mg kg-1, 0.013 ± 0.011 mg kg-1. Second highest concentration of cadmium, lead and mercury was detected in the liver (0.83 ± 0.24 mg kg-1, 0.99 ± 0.61 mg kg-1, 0.11 ± 0.05 mg kg-1. Copper distributions and concentrations in bear tissues were as follows (in descending order: liver (23.9 ± 6.7 mg kg-1, > kidneys (9.0 ± 3.3 mg kg-1, > muscles (1.9 ± 1.6 mg kg-1 and > spleen (1.0 ± 0.2 mg kg-1. As compared with heavy metal load observed in bear tissues between 1988 and 1990, the concentration of cadmium in the muscles and liver was significantly lower (p p p < 0.01. Lead and copper tissue concentrations did not change substantially.

  4. Dating of retrograde metamorphism in Western Carpathians by K-Ar analysis of muscovites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Korikovskij, S.P.; Krasivskaya, I.S.; Arakelyants, M.M.

    1986-01-01

    Using the K-Ar isotope dating method of muscovites it was found that many retrogradely metamorphosed rocks are the results of Variscan retrograde metamorphism and are not pre-Cambrian or Alpine metamorphites (diaphthorites). Samples for dating were taken from the Western Carpathian crystalline formation. The content of radiogenic argon was determined by mass spectrometry using the method of isotope dilution. (M.D.)

  5. Grassland communities of traditional orchards in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia

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    Hubert Zarnovican

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Traditional orchards are a valuable feature of the rural landscape and they are specific for regions with scattered settlement such as the Myjava hilly land and White Carpathians. Here, the permanent species-rich grasslands beneath trees were regularly managed in the traditional manner until some were replaced in the 1970’s and 80’s by intensively managed orchards, some of which were abandoned in the early 1990’s. Our 2011–2015 phytosociological research followed the standard Braun-Blanquet approach. We classified 178 phytosociological relevés recorded in orchard meadows (156 relevés, former intensively managed orchards (16 relevés, and two relevés from a semi-intensively grazed orchard. Traditionally managed orchard meadows were classified in the following five units: (i Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – thermophilous variant, (ii Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris – transitional variant to Alchemillo-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iii Ranunculo bulbosi-Arrhenatheretum elatioris, (iv Onobrychido viciifoliae-Brometum erecti, and (v Brachypodio pinnati-Molinietum arundinaceae. Formerly intensively managed large-scale orchards were classified as Pastinaco sativae-Arrhenatheretum elatioris association and the semi-intensively grazed orchard as Lolio perennis-Cynosuretum cristati association. The species composition varies considerably due to tree-shading and different management treatments applied in the orchards, so the relevés of the delimited syntaxonomic units are not typical and have transitional character. Moisture, soil nutrients, and soil reaction were identified as the main environmental gradients influencing species composition. We tested four management treatments in direct gradient analysis and found that abandonment has the strongest effect on species composition. Comparison of grassland vegetation in the studied traditional orchards with that described in Germany reveals differences in species

  6. A Middle Triassic pachypleurosaur (Diapsida: Eosauropterygia) from a restricted carbonate ramp in the Western Carpathians (Gutenstein Formation, Fatric Unit): paleogeographic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čerňanský, Andrej; Klein, Nicole; Soták, Ján; Olšavský, Mário; Šurka, Juraj; Herich, Pavel

    2018-02-01

    An eosauropterygian skeleton found in the Middle Triassic (upper Anisian) Gutenstein Formation of the Fatric Unit (Demänovská dolina Valley, Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia) represents the earliest known occurrence of marine tetrapods in the Western Carpathians. The specimen represents a partly articulated portion of the postcranial skeleton (nine dorsal vertebrae, coracoid, ribs, gastral ribs, pelvic girdle, femur and one zeugopodial element). It is assigned to the Pachypleurosauria, more precisely to the Serpianosaurus-Neusticosaurus clade based on the following combination of features: (1) small body size; (2) morphology of vertebrae, ribs and femur; (3) tripartite gastral ribs; and (4) microanatomy of the femur as revealed by μCT. Members of this clade were described from the epicontinental Germanic Basin and the Alpine Triassic (now southern Germany, Switzerland, Italy), and possibly from Spain. This finding shows that pachypleurosaur reptiles attained a broader geographical distribution during the Middle Triassic, with their geographical range reaching to the Central Western Carpathians. Pachypleurosaurs are often found in sediments formed in shallow, hypersaline carbonate-platform environments. The specimen found here occurs in a succession with vermicular limestones in a shallow subtidal zone and stromatolitic limestones in a peritidal zone, indicating that pachypleurosaurs inhabited hypersaline, restricted carbonate ramps in the Western Carpathians.

  7. A Middle Triassic pachypleurosaur (Diapsida: Eosauropterygia from a restricted carbonate ramp in the Western Carpathians (Gutenstein Formation, Fatric Unit: paleogeographic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čerňanský Andrej

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available An eosauropterygian skeleton found in the Middle Triassic (upper Anisian Gutenstein Formation of the Fatric Unit (Demänovská dolina Valley, Low Tatra Mountains, Slovakia represents the earliest known occurrence of marine tetrapods in the Western Carpathians. The specimen represents a partly articulated portion of the postcranial skeleton (nine dorsal vertebrae, coracoid, ribs, gastral ribs, pelvic girdle, femur and one zeugopodial element. It is assigned to the Pachypleurosauria, more precisely to the Serpianosaurus–Neusticosaurus clade based on the following combination of features: (1 small body size; (2 morphology of vertebrae, ribs and femur; (3 tripartite gastral ribs; and (4 microanatomy of the femur as revealed by μCT. Members of this clade were described from the epicontinental Germanic Basin and the Alpine Triassic (now southern Germany, Switzerland, Italy, and possibly from Spain. This finding shows that pachypleurosaur reptiles attained a broader geographical distribution during the Middle Triassic, with their geographical range reaching to the Central Western Carpathians. Pachypleurosaurs are often found in sediments formed in shallow, hypersaline carbonate-platform environments. The specimen found here occurs in a succession with vermicular limestones in a shallow subtidal zone and stromatolitic limestones in a peritidal zone, indicating that pachypleurosaurs inhabited hypersaline, restricted carbonate ramps in the Western Carpathians.

  8. Complex local Moho topography in the Western Carpathians: Indication of the ALCAPA and the European Plate contact

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Środa, P.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 638, 7 January (2015), s. 63-81 ISSN 0040-1951 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-08971S Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : Western Carpathians * seismic modelling * crustal structure * anomalous Moho * Bohemian Massif * Pannonian Basin Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 2.650, year: 2015

  9. Integrated stratigraphy of the Jurassic-Cretaceous sequences of the Kurovice Quarry, Outer Western Carpathians: correlations and tectonic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruner, Petr; Schnabl, Petr; Čížková, Kristýna; Elbra, Tiiu; Kdýr, Šimon; Svobodová, Andrea; Reháková, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 216-216 ISSN 1017-8880. [International Symposium on the Cretaceous /10./. 21.08.2017-26.08.2017, Vienna] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09979S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : stratigraphy * Jurassic-Cretaceous sequences * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  10. Early Berriasian Ammonites from the Štramberk Limestone in the Kotouč Quarry (Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Skupien, P.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 4 (2013), s. 329-342 ISSN 0208-9068 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : ammonites * Berriasian * Štramberk area * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.727, year: 2013 http://www.asgp.pl/current

  11. Using multi-proxy palaeoecology to test a relict status of refugial populations of calcareous-fen species in the Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Horsák, M.; Hájek, Michal; Jankovská, Vlasta; Jamrichová, Eva; Moutelíková, J.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 4 (2015), s. 702-715 ISSN 0959-6836 Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : biodiversity * calcareous fen * fossil record * Holocene extinction * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2015

  12. Tectonic strain changes affecting the development of deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stemberk, Josef; Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Rybář, Jan; Krejčí, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 289, SI (2017), s. 3-17 ISSN 0169-555X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG15007; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015079 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : Deep seated gravitational slope deformations * Displacement monitoring * Tectonic strain changes * Bohemian Massif * Outer Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  13. Lower Badenian coarse-grained Gilbert deltas in the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehyba, Slavomír

    2018-02-01

    Two coarse-grained Gilbert-type deltas in the Lower Badenian deposits along the southern margin of the Western Carpathian Foredeep (peripheral foreland basin) were newly interpreted. Facies characterizing a range of depositional processes are assigned to four facies associations — topset, foreset, bottomset and offshore marine pelagic deposits. The evidence of Gilbert deltas within open marine deposits reflects the formation of a basin with relatively steep margins connected with a relative sea level fall, erosion and incision. Formation, progradation and aggradation of the thick coarse-grained Gilbert delta piles generally indicate a dramatic increase of sediment supply from the hinterland, followed by both relatively continuous sediment delivery and an increase in accommodation space. Deltaic deposition is terminated by relatively rapid and extended drowning and is explained as a transgressive event. The lower Gilbert delta was significantly larger, more areally extended and reveals a more complicated stratigraphic architecture than the upper one. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary and occurs around the Karpatian/Badenian stratigraphic limit. Two coeval deltaic branches were recognized in the lower delta with partly different stratigraphic arrangements. This different stratigraphic architecture is mostly explained by variations in the sediment delivery and /or predisposed paleotopography and paleobathymetry of the basin floor. The upper delta was recognized only in a restricted area. Its basal surface represents a sequence boundary probably reflecting a higher order cycle of a relative sea level rise and fall within the Lower Badenian. Evidence of two laterally and stratigraphically separated coarse-grained Gilbert deltas indicates two regional/basin wide transgressive/regressive cycles, but not necessarily of the same order. Provenance analysis reveals similar sources of both deltas. Several partial source areas were identified (Mesozoic

  14. Morphotectonic control of the Białka drainage basin (Central Carpathians: Insights from DEM and morphometric analysis.

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    Wołosiewicz Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity.

  15. Isotopic geochronology of the Western Carpathian crystalline complex: the present state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.; Kral, J.

    1989-01-01

    Main events in the Western Carpathian crystalline complex documented by the U-Th-Pb, Rb-Sr, K-Ar and FT methods are as follows: Regional metamorphism of sedimentary rocks from the Tatric unit documented by isotopic homogenization of the 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio took place 400 million years ago (Silurian-Devonian boundary). Subsequent metamorphism of these rocks is associated with intrusions of granitoid bodies. The age of rhyolite volcanism of Gelnica sequence in the Gemericum is identical with that of the first stage of regional metamorphism. Granitoid plutonism covers a long time interval ranging from 390 to 280 million years. The presence of late Alpine granites has not yet been proved. Cooling of rocks from the crystalline complex to a temperature of ca. 270 degC was attained in the Tatric rocks ca. 300 million years ago and in the Veporic (Gemeric) rocks ca. 90-120 million years ago. The latest post-orogenic uplift differs in the Tatricum (most often Miocene) and the Veporicum (Upper Cretaceous). (author). 8 fis., 1 tab., 51 refs

  16. The response of chironomid assemblages to mineral richness gradient in the Western Carpathian helocrenes

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    Vít Syrovátka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Chironomid assemblages of helocrene springs were investigated in the Western Carpathians in order to identify potential effect of water mineral richness on the taxonomic structure of the assemblages. A complex gradient considering water chemistry and substratum was used as a measure of basicity (mineral richness. Taxonomic structure, total abundance and abundance of most frequent taxa were related to this gradient with regards to two contrasting habitats: trickle (A and water-loged soil with standing water (B. The variance in chironomid assemblage attributable to basicity was estimated and tested via PERMANOVA as well as the possible effect of the other environmental variables. The response of individual taxa was examined using GAM. The results indicate a strong relationship between basicity and substratum characteristics, with coarser mineral substrata at basic and high amount of organic matter at acidic conditions. Although water chemistry was correlated with and inseparable from these substratum properties, it could not be substituted with them, as they discriminated well only between acidic and basic springs, but did not follow the basicity gradient in either acidic or basic group of springs. Chironomid assemblage showed a strong and systematic response to the complex gradient of mineral richness, which explained the largest portion of variance in both the habitat A and B faunal data and was projected on the first axes of both NMDS ordinations. The assemblage response could be documented by the preference of several taxa for particular mineral richness conditions, while the number of taxa seemed to be highest in the middle of the basicity gradient. As only 17 samples were analysed so far, the results are considered preliminary and, hopefully, more confident results will be available in near future.doi: 10.5324/fn.v31i0.1403.Published online: 17 October 2012.

  17. Possible causes of the recent rapid increase in the radial increment of silver fir in the Western Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bošeľa, Michal; Petráš, Rudolf; Sitková, Zuzana; Priwitzer, Tibor; Pajtík, Jozef; Hlavatá, Helena; Sedmák, Róbert; Tobin, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Silver fir is one of the most productive and ecologically valuable native European tree species, however, it has been experiencing decline which has periodically occurred over its natural range. This paper aims to investigate the recent climate–growth relationships of silver fir (Abies alba Mill.) and its temporal change along the course of its life. Long-term tree-ring databases, as well as records on climate, atmospheric SO 2 , NO 3 and acid concentrations from four different regions in the Western Carpathians were used. The results provide clear evidence of significant increase of silver fir's radial increment over the entire Western Carpathian area since 1970–1980. The results indicated that the most probable factors behind the rapid recovery of tree radial increment were reductions in emissions of NO 3 and SO 2 , alongside a significant increase in mean June, July and April temperatures. Highlights: • Silver fir radial growth was mostly related to mean month late winter temperatures. • Silver fir growth also responded to summer, especially July temperatures. • Strength of the climate–growth response has gradually increased since 1960–1980. • SO 2 , NO 3 , and recent climate change as major factor of the rapid radial growth recovery. -- Reductions of SO 2 and NO 3 emission along with climate change are the major causes of the recent recovery of Silver fir radial growth

  18. Plant communities with Pinus mugo (alliance Pinion mugo in the subalpine belt of the Western Carpathians - a numerical approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Šibík

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A syntaxonomical revision of plant communities with dominant Pinus mugo in the Western Carpathians is presented. The data set of 341 relevés was examined and analysed using the detrended correspondence analysis and the cluster analysis. Major gradients and clusters were interpreted using Ellenberg’s indicator values. The major gradient in species composition was associated with available nutrients and moisture. The authors suggest distinguishing the dwarf pine stands of the supramontanous and subalpine belts of the Western Carpathians referred to the alliance Pinion mugo Pawłowski in Pawłowski et al. 1928 of the order Junipero-Pinetalia mugo Boşcaiu 1971 and the class Roso pendulinae-Pinetea mugo Theurillat in Theurillat et al. 1995, into three separate associations: the Cetrario-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, the Homogyno alpinae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 nom. nov., and the Adenostylo alliariae-Pinetum mugo (Sillinger 1933 Šoltésová 1974. The authors also elucidated the unauthorized name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum mugo Hadač 1956, which is a younger homonym of the valid name of the association Vaccinio myrtilli-Pinetum montanae Morton 1927 that characterises the acidophilous dwarf pine stands on calcareous bedrocks in the Alps.

  19. Magma hybridization in the Western Tatra Mts. granitoid intrusion (S-Poland, Western Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Jolanta; Gawęda, Aleksandra; Klötzli, Urs

    In the Variscan Western Tatra granites hybridization phenomena such as mixing and mingling can be observed at the contact of mafic precursors of dioritic composition and more felsic granitic host rocks. The textural evidence of hybridization include: plagioclase-K-feldspar-sphene ocelli, hornblende- and biotite-rimmed quartz ocelli, plagioclase with Ca-rich spike zonation, inversely zoned K-feldspar crystals, mafic clots, poikilitic plagioclase and quartz crystals, mixed apatite morphologies, zoned K-feldspar phenocrysts. The apparent pressure range of the magma hybridization event was calculated at 6.1 kbar to 4.6 kbar, while the temperature, calculated by independent methods, is in the range of 810°C-770°C. U-Pb age data of the hybrid rocks were obtained by in-situ LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis of zircon. The oscillatory zoned zircon crystals yield a concordia age of 368 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 1.1), interpreted as the age of magma hybridization and timing of formation of the magmatic precursors. It is the oldest Variscan magmatic event in that part of the Tatra Mountains.

  20. Examples of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the central part of the Lower Beskids, (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatorski, Michał

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Beskids are located between the western and eastern parts of the Carpathian flysch belt, whereas the low altitudes of passes and ridges in this region have until now been identified mainly with the differences in bedrock resistance. In the light of contemporary information regarding the geology of this area, the hypothesis of the gravitational placement of large tectonic elements has become topical again. A particularly interesting area is the ridge and foreland of the Magura Wątkowska, bordering in the north with the Sanok-Jasło Pits (a denudation valley). This edge zone of the Lower Beskids has a complicated geological structure, i.e. it constitutes a tectonic contact of the Magura Unit and the Central Carpathian Depression (the depressed part of the Silesian nappe). During the field research and analyses regarding the identification of morphostructural elements, the important role of various kinds of lineaments was observed. Some of the inventoried lineaments were, e.g. large size faults or effects of the impact of tectonic processes on bedrock. Structures in the rock (cracks, faults) accompanying them are important in determining the type of macro scale gravitational movements. The outer part of fold structures in the foreland of the Magura Wątkowska shows the rotation around the longitudinal syncline axis, and is an excellent research field for a comprehensive analysis of gravitational movements, both of the basin type and the DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations) type. Determining the types of tectonic lineaments was based on a review of selected directions in the context of the course of tectonic structures in the study area. On that basis, lineaments were classified into two morphogenetic groups, i.e. structures that do not result in visible movements relative to the analyzed rock massif (cracks), and those causing the displacement of the rock massif (faults, overthrust). Using the directional and contour diagrams generated by

  1. Some perisphinctoid ammonites of the Štramberk Limestone and their dating with associated microfossils (Tithonian to Lower Berriasian, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Reháková, D.; Skupien, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 68, č. 6 (2017), s. 583-605 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Ammonoidea * Calpionellids * calcareous dinoflagellates * Upper Jurassic * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy OBOR OECD: Paleontology Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2016 http://www.geologicacarpathica.com/browse-journal/volumes/68-6/article-860/

  2. The structure and species richness of the diatom assemblages of the Western Carpathian spring fens along the gradient of mineral richness

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fránková, Markéta; Bojková, J.; Poulíčková, A.; Hájek, Michal

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 2 (2009), s. 355-368 ISSN 1802-5439 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : diatoms * Western Carpathians * poor-rich gradient Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.762, year: 2009

  3. Geology and Re-Os molybdenite geochronology of the Kurišková U-Mo deposit (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kohút, M.; Trubač, J.; Novotný, L.; Ackerman, Lukáš; Demko, R.; Bartalský, B.; Erban, V.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2013), s. 271-282 ISSN 1802-6222 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-15390S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : U–Mo ore deposit * Re–Os * molybdenite geochronology * genetic model * Gemeric Unit * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.744, year: 2013

  4. Siliciclastics in the Upper Triassic dolomite formations of the Krizna Unit (Maid Fatra Mountains, Western Carpathians): constraints for the Carnian Pluvial Event in the Fatric Basin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sýkora, M.; Siblík, Miloš; Soták, J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 2 (2011), s. 121-138 ISSN 1335-0552 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : Carnian event * Upper Triassic dolomites * Western Carpathians * Krizna Unit * shaly interbeds * lingulids * conchostracans Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.787, year: 2011

  5. Characterization of photoautotrophic picoplankton assemblages in turbid, alkaline lakes of the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe

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    Lajos VÖRÖS

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The photoautotrophic picoplankton (PPP of ten shallow, hyposaline soda lakes located in three different geographical regions in the Carpathian Basin (Central Europe was characterized. These lakes, which frequently dry out completely, are extremely rich in PPP. Epifluorescence microscopy was applied to determine picocyanobacterial and picoeukaryotic cell abundance and PCR-based molecular techniques (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and cloning with phylospecies delineation to identify the members of PPP. Most of these lakes were eu- and hypertrophic with varying contribution of picocyanobacteria to the total PPP cell number. We found an unusually high PPP abundance with peaks of 8.16 × 106 cells mL-1 for picoeukaryotes and 1.78 × 107 cells mL-1 for picocyanobacteria. The majority of the retrieved PPP sequences belonged to picocyanobacteria (nonmarine Synechococcus/ Cyanobium, while others showed similarity to eukaryotic algal plastids (close to Trebouxiophycean isolates. Molecular analysis revealed significant genetic diversity in the PPP fraction of these lakes and showed that the closest relatives of our picocyanobacterial clones were recovered from different habitats, indicating seemingly no correlation between the 'saline' ecotypes and their phylogenetic position. Our results also confirmed that PPP might exploit different aquatic ecosystems and be successful even in the case of abrupt changes of environmental parameters (in our case, salinity. According to our knowledge, this is the first survey focusing on the identification of the PPP community members in turbid and alkaline lakes with extraordinarily high picoplankton productivity.

  6. Landslide activity as a threat to infrastructure in river valleys - An example from outer Western Carpathians (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Malik, Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Intensive development of the area of Polish Carpathians increases the scale of landslide risk. Thus detecting landslide hazards and risks became important issue for spatial planning in the area. We applied dendrochronological methods and GIS analysis for better understanding of landslide activity and related hazards in the test area (3,75 km2): Salomonka valley and nearby slopes in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts., Outer Western Carpathians, southern Poland. We applied eccentricity index of radial growth of trees to date past landslide events. Dendrochronological results allowed us to determine the mean frequency of landsliding at each sampling point which were next interpolated into a map of landslide hazard. In total we took samples at 46 points. In each point we sampled 3 coniferous trees. Landslide hazard map shows a medium (23 sampling points) and low (20 sampling points) level of landslide activity for most of the area. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide. Results of the dendrochronological study suggest that all landslides reaching downslope to Salomonka valley floor are active. LiDAR-based analysis of relief shows that there is an active coupling between those landslides and river channel. Thus channel damming and formation of an episodic lake are probable. The hazard of flooding valley floor upstream of active landslides should be included in the local spatial planning system and crisis management system.

  7. The impact of Outer Western Carpathian nappe tectonics on the recent stress-strain state in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (Moravosilesian Zone, Bohemian Massif)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ptáček, Jiří; Grygar, R.; Koníček, Petr; Waclawik, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, č. 1 (2012), s. 3-11 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA105/08/1625 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Variscan orogeny * Upper Silesian Coal Basin * recent stress fields * Outer Western Carpathians * paleostress Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.143, year: 2012 http://versita.metapress.com/content/0326174t34663755/

  8. Tracing metamorphism, exhumation and topographic evolution in orogenic belts by multiple thermochronology: a case study from the Nízke Tatry Mts., Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Danišík, M.; Kadlec, Jaroslav; Glotzbach, Ch.; Weisheit, A.; Dunkl, I.; Kohút, M.; Evans, N. J.; Orvošová, M.; McDonald, B. J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 104, č. 2 (2011), s. 285-298 ISSN 1661-8726 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA3013201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : (U–Th–[Sm])/He dating * fission track dating * thermal modelling * exhumation * zircon * apatite * Nízké Tatry Mts. * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.879, year: 2011

  9. Crustal structure of the Western Carpathians and Pannonian Basin System: seismic models from CELEBRATION 2000 data and geological implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janik, Tomasz; Grad, Marek; Guterch, Aleksander; Vozár, Jozef; Bielik, Miroslav; Vozárova, Anna; Hegedżs, Endre; Attila Kovács, Csaba; Kovács, István.; Celebration 2000 Working Group

    2010-05-01

    During CELEBRATION 2000 experiment the area of the Western Carphathians and Pannonian Basin System on the territory of southeastern Poland, Slovak Republic and Hungary was investigated by dense system of the deep seismic sounding profiles. In this paper, we present results of modelling of refracted and reflected waves with use 2-D ray tracing technique for profiles CEL01, CEL04, CEL05, CEL06, CEL11, CEL12 and CEL28. All seven profiles were jointly interpreted with verification and control the models at crossing points. Obtained P-wave velocity models of the crust and uppermost mantle are very complex and show differentiation of the seismic structure, where the depth of the Moho discontinuity is changing from about 25 to about 45 km. In the southern part of the area the relatively thin Pannonian Basin System crust consists of 3-7 km thick sediments and two crustal layers with 5.9-6.3 km/s in the upper crust and 6.3-6.6 km/s in the lower crust. In the upper crust of ALCAPA beneath profile CEL05 a high velocity body of Vp≥ 6.4 km/s was detected in the uppermost 5 km, which corresponds to the Bükk Composite Terrane. The total thickness of the ALCAPA crust is 1-2 km bigger than in the Tisza-Dacia. In the northern part of the area we observe 10-20 km thick uppermost crust with low velocity (Vp≤6.0 km/s), connected with TESZ and Carpathian Foredeep. Together with ca. 6.2-6.5 km/s and 6.5-6.9 km/s crustal layers they have a total thickness of 30-45 km (north of the Pieniny Klippen Belt). A sub-Moho velocities have in average values of 7.8-8.0 km/s for the Pannonian basin System, while in the Western Carpathian, the Trans-European suture zone (TESZ) and the East European Craton (EEC) part they are slightly bigger, 8.0-8.1 km/s. Lower velocities beneath the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia could be caused by the different mineralogical and petrological compositions and the significant higher surface heat flow and temperature within the upper mantle. Beneath some

  10. An integrated paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy study of the Oligocene flysch from the Dukla nappe, Outer Western Carpathians, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiss Dániel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The Dukla Nappe belongs to the Outer Western Carpathians, which suffered considerable shortening due to the convergence and collision of the European and African plates. In this paper we present new paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy results from the Polish part of the Dukla Nappe, based on 102 individually oriented cores from nine geographically distributed localities. Susceptibility measurements and mineralogy investigations showed that paramagnetic minerals are important contributors to susceptibility anisotropy (AMS. The AMS fabrics are related to deposition/compression (foliation and weak tectonic deformation (lineation. The AARM fabric, that of the ferrimagnetic minerals, seems to be a less sensitive indicator of tectonic deformation than the AMS fabric. The inclination-only test points to the pre-folding age of the remanent magnetizations. Seven localities exhibit CCW rotation, a single one shows CW rotation. The CCW rotated paleomagnetic directions form two groups, one showing large, the other moderate CCW rotation. Previously published paleomagentic directions from the Slovak part of the same nappe exhibit smeared distribution between them. The declination of the overall-mean paleomagnetic direction for the Dukla nappe is similar to those observed in the neighbouring Magura and Silesian nappes, but it is of poorer quality. The AMS lineations at several localities are deviating more to the west from the present north than that of the local tectonic strikes. A possible explanation for this is that the AMS lineations were imprinted first, probably still in the Oligocene, while the sediments were soft (ductile deformation and the folding and tilting took place during the CCW rotation.

  11. The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region based on the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment and gravity modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tašárová, Alasonati; Afonso, J. C.; Bielik, M.; Götze, H.-J.; Hók, J.

    2009-10-01

    The lithospheric structure of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region was studied using 3-D modelling of the Bouguer gravity anomaly constrained by seismic models and other geophysical data. The thermal structure and density distribution in the shallow upper mantle were also estimated using a combination of petrological, geophysical, and mineral physics information (LitMod). This approach is necessary if the more complicated structure of the Pannonian Basin is to be better constrained. As a result, we have constructed the first 3-D gravity model of the region that combines various geophysical datasets and is consistent with petrological data. The model provides improved estimates of both the density distribution within the lithosphere and the depth to major density discontinuities. We present new maps of the thickness of major sedimentary basins and of the depth to the Moho and the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. In our best-fitting model, the Pannonian Basin is characterised by extremely thin crust and lithospheric mantle, both of which have low density. A low-density uppermost asthenospheric mantle layer is also included at depths of 60-100 km. The Western Carpathians have only a thin crustal root and moderate densities. In contrast, the European Platform and Eastern Alps are characterised by lithosphere that is considerably thicker and denser. This inference is also supported by stripped gravity anomalies from which sediment, Moho and asthenospheric gravity contributions have been removed. These residual anomalies are characteristically low in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region, which suggests that both the ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates are 'exotic terranes' that are markedly different to the European Platform.

  12. Changes in the channel-bed level of the western Carpathian rivers over the last 40years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata; Bucała-Hrabia, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Channel-bed level is constantly changing in time and space, and the process is dependent on both natural and anthropogenic factors. In mountain areas this is one of the more visible morphological processes. The main aim of the research was to analyze the dynamics of the position of river channel beds. Three rivers located within the western part of Polish Carpathians were chosen for the analysis: the Ropa river, the Kamienica Nawojowska river and the Ochotnica river. They are typical rivers for the Beskidy Mountains, medium Flysch mountains. To assess changes in the position of channel bed long-term series of data of minimum water stages in the river were used. The Ropa river is the biggest left tributary of the Wisłoka river (basin a of the upper Vistula River). The total length of the river amounts to 80 km, its gradient equals 58.9‰ and the water basin area amounts to 974 km2. The Kamienica Nawojowska river, with a length of 32.2 km is a right tributary of Dunajec river. The average decrease for the entire watercourse is 18.1‰. The catchment area is 238 km2. The Ochotnica river is 22.7 km long and it is a left tributary of the Dunajec river. The average slope for the entire watercourse is 36.1‰. The Ochotnica river characterized by deep valleys (catchment area 107.6 km2). Analysis of trends in minimum annual water stages in the alluvial Ropa river channel throughout the multi-year period of 1995-2014 shows an increasing trend amounting to 0.8 cm/year. In the Kamienica Nawojowska river the tendency of incision was observed starting from the 1960 to 2014. Average annual rate of increase of the minimum stages was between 0.4 to 1.2 cm/year. On the basis of the analysis of the minimum water levels in the years 1972-2011 two periods can be seen with different tendencies to change the position of the Ochotnica channel bottom. The first covers the years 1972-1996, where aggradation (3.9 cm/year) was the predominant process while in the period 1997-2011 incision

  13. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He dating of teschenite intrusions gives time constraints on accretionary processes and development of planation surfaces in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisik, Martin; Frisch, Wolfgang [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences; Panek, Tomas [Ostrava Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Matysek, Dalibor [Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Engineering; Dunkl, Istvan [Geoscience Center Goettingen (Germany). Sedimentology and Environmental Geology

    2008-09-15

    The age of planation surfaces in the Podbeskydska pahorkatina Upland in the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC, Czech Republic) is constrained by low-temperature thermochronological dating methods for the first time. Our apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He data measured on teschenite intrusions show that planation surfaces in the study area formed in post-Pannonian time (>7.1 Ma) and are therefore younger than traditionally believed. This contradicts the classical concepts, which stipulate that a large regional planation surface of Pannonian age (the so-called ''midmountain level'') developed in the whole Western Carpathians. Geodynamic implications of our data are the following: (i) the investigated Tesin and Godula nappes of the OWC were buried and thermally overprinted in the accretionary wedge in different ways, and consequently experienced different cooling histories. This indicates a dynamic basin setting with an active accretionary process in a subduction zone; (ii) accretionary processes in the OWC were active already during Late Eocene times. (orig.)

  14. Regional distribution and relevance in paleonvironmental studies of lakes in the Tatra Mts. (Western Carpathians

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    Joanna POCIASK-KARTECZKA

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Scientific limnological research in the Tatra Mountains were initiated by Stanislaw Staszic in the early XIX century.  After the World War II, the evolution of Tatra lakes was investigated by Kondracki, Klimaszewski, Baumgart-Kotarba and. Extensive paleolimnological investigations in the Tatra Mountains were started by the group of scientists led by K. Starmach in the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. There has been not much research concerned to the regional distribution of lakes and their properties in the Tatra Mountains (Pociask-Karteczka 2013. Very early division of lakes presented A. Gadomski (1922, which distinguished four types of lakes: a tarns (cirque lake or corrie loch, b bedrock-dammed lakes, c moraine lakes. This division was concerned in subsequent publications (Choiński 2007. M. Lukniš (1973, 1985 recognized additional types: kettles and landslide-dammed lakes and M. Klimaszewski (1988 – inter-sheepback lakes. J. Pacl and K. Wit-Jóźwik in Klima Tatier (Pacl, Wit-Jóźwik 1974 were focused on the temperature of water in lakes in Polish and Slovak parts and M. Borowiak (2000a,b provided a comprehensive analysis of types, dimensions, temperature and chemical composition of water in lakes in the Tatra Mountains.According to present day state of knowledge, one may distinguish following genetic types of lakes: I glacial, II not-glacial. There are four types of the glacial origin lakes in the Tatra Mountains (Fig. 1: a tarns (cirque lakes or corrie loch, b bedrock-moraine dammed lakes, c inter-sheepback lakes, d moraine lakes, e kettles.Most of lakes in the Tatra Mountains are tarns and bedrock-moraine dammed lakes, and they are located at the elevation over 1400 m a.s.l. in the Western Tatra Mountains, and over 1600 m a.s.l. in the High Tatra Mountains. Some of them are paternoster lakes – a series of stair-stepped lakes formed in individual rock basins aligned down the course of a glaciated valley. Lakes in

  15. Controls of structural inheritance on orogenic curvature and foreland basin sedimentation: Insights from the Przemyśl area, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szaniawski, Rafał; Mazzoli, Stefano; Jankowski, Leszek

    2017-10-01

    Orogenic curvatures can have various origins and are widely debated worldwide. In the Poland-Ukraine border area, the Outer Western Carpathians are characterized by a marked curvature. The origin of this curvature was analysed by integrating stratigraphic information with structural constraints and anisotropy of the magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data. Hangingwall frontal ramp domains are characterized by a relatively simple deformation dominated by layer-parallel shortening and folding around a regional NW-SE trending axis, recorded by an AMS lineation with a similar trend. On the other hand, the N-S trending hangingwall oblique ramp domain is characterized by maximum AMS axes recording transpressional strain either dominated by simple shear (sub-horizontal AMS lineation) or pure shear (steeply plunging AMS lineation) components. Early Miocene basin inversion with two distinct depocentres created a number of different detachment surfaces and thickness variations for the sedimentary successions involved in thrusting. The main depocentre of the Lower-Middle Miocene foredeep was originally located in the recess area of the curved Carpathian front. On the other hand, the occurrence of a salient to the west resulted in the axial zone of the foreland flexure being filled with allochthonous units, thereby dramatically reducing the accommodation space for foredeep sediments in this area. Our results suggest that thrust-belt geometry was controlled by the inherited Mesozoic extensional basin architecture.

  16. The use of wood anatomy features for landslide-risk assessment and early warning - an example from Western Carpathians, Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wistuba, Małgorzata; Malik, Ireneusz; Piątek, Michał; Kojs, Paweł; Kalinowski, Michał; Polowy, Marta

    2013-04-01

    Trees, which grow on active landslide slopes have stems deformed due to the impact of instable ground. Their stems become tilted and bent which results in developing mechanical stresses which influence the structure of wood formed. Deformations occur during the whole life span of a tree and are recorded year-by-year in tree rings. Therefore it is possible to analyse the activity of landslide slopes in the past - through the analysis of tree-ring sequences obtained from living trees. It is also possible to date even small ground movements, otherwise imperceptible without using specialist detectors. Within the studies conducted we have analysed features of wood anatomy of Norway spruce, diagnostic for active landslide slopes: eccentricity and compression wood. The aim of presented study was to check, if it is possible (1) to detect the presence of week, initial ground movements with the use of established dendrochronological approach, (2) to forecast the possible catastrophic landslide event following preparatory phase.In order to fulfill the aim we have analysed the anatomy of spruces growing on landslide slope in Milówska village (foots of Mt Prusów 1020 m a.s.l., southern Poland, flysch Western Carpathians). The slope, basing on geomorphic mapping and observations conducted before 2010, was considered as inactive. However in consequence of heavy rainfalls in May-June 2010 the landslide was abruptly activated. Fast ground movements were catastrophic for inhabitants and buildings in the area. In 2012, in the area affected by landsliding 2 years earlier, we have taken samples (cores) from 25 spruce trees. We have analysed samples in search for growth disturbances: eccentricity and compression wood. We have found that in sampled trees not only the heavy landsliding in 2010 was recorded, but also: (1) symptoms of earlier instability for the last 10-20 years (probable initial landsliding), (2) symptoms of older events from over 50 years ago were detected. Results show

  17. New large-scale lithospheric model of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region based on the 3-D gravity modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alasonati Tasarova, Zuzana; Bielik, Miroslav; Götze, Hans-Jürgen; Afonso, Jaun Carlos; Fullea, Javier

    2010-05-01

    A 3-D forward modelling of the Bouguer gravity field was performed for the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Basin region. The gravity model extends to depth of 220 km and includes also the surrounding units (the Eastern Alps, Bohemian Massif, Trans-European Suture Zone and East European Craton). It is constrained by seismic models, mainly from the CELEBRATION 2000 seismic experiment, and other geophysical data. Additionally, the density distribution and thermal structure in the shallow upper mantle were estimated using a combination of petrological, geophysical, and mineral physics information (LitMod). This approach is necessary in order to better constrain the more complicated structure of the Pannonian Basin. As a result, we present the first 3-D gravity model of the region that combines various geophysical datasets and is consistent with petrological data. Realistic density values within the uppermost mantle provide a better control on the regional gravity signal. In turn, this generates a model with refined and enhanced crustal structure. This means that deeper parts of the model are better accounted for, which helps to better constrain the nature of shallower crustal layers. Although not commonly applied in potential field modelling, we find that this approach is advantageous when modelling large areas with insufficient near-surface constraints. Also, a density distribution within the crust and uppermost mantle that is consistent with petrological data allows better estimates of the depth to the Moho (where it is not constrained by seismic data) and to the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. Hence, our model provides improved estimates of both the density distribution within the crust and uppermost mantle and the depth to major density discontinuities (sediments, Moho, lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary). The results of the modelling reveal a markedly different nature of the Western Carpathian-Pannonian region (ALACAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates) from the

  18. Permian A-type rhyolites of the Muráň Nappe, Inner Western Carpathians, Slovakia: in-situ zircon U-Pb SIMS ages and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ondrejka, Martin; Li, Xian-Hua; Vojtko, Rastislav; Putis, Marian; Uher, Pavel; Sobocký, Tomas

    2018-04-01

    Three representative A-type rhyolitic rock samples from the Muráň Nappe of the inferred Silicic Unit of the Inner Western Carpathians (Slovakia) were dated using the high-precision SIMS U-Pb isotope technique on zircons. The geochronological data presented in this paper is the first in-situ isotopic dating of these volcanic rocks. Oscillatory zoned zircon crystals mostly revealed concordant Permian (Guadalupian) ages: 266.6 ± 2.4 Ma in Tisovec-Rejkovo (TIS-1), 263.3 ± 1.9 Ma in Telgárt-Gregová Hill (TEL-1) and 269.5 ± 1.8 Ma in Veľká Stožka-Dudlavka (SD-2) rhyolites. The results indicate that the formation of A-type rhyolites and their plutonic equivalents are connected to magmatic activity during the Permian extensional tectonics and most likely related to the Pangea supercontinent break-up.

  19. New 3D Gravity Model of the Lithosphere and new Approach of the Gravity Field Transformation in the Western Carpathian-Pannonian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielik, M.; Tasarova, Z. A.; Goetze, H.; Mikuska, J.; Pasteka, R.

    2007-12-01

    The 3-D forward modeling was performed for the Western Carpathians and the Pannonian Basin system. The density model includes 31 cross-sections, extends to depth of 220 km. By means of the combined 3-D modeling, new estimates of the density distribution of the crust and upper mantle, as well as depths of the Moho were derived. These data allowed to perform gravity stripping, which in the area of the Pannonian Basin is crucial for the signal analysis of the gravity field. In this region, namely, two pronounced features (i.e. the deep sedimentary basins and shallow Moho) with opposite gravity effects make it impossible to analyze the Bouguer anomaly by field separation or filtering. The results revealed a significantly different nature of the Western Carpathian- Pannonian region (ALACAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates) from the European Platform lithosphere (i.e. these microplates to be much less dense than the surrounding European Platform lithosphere). The calculation of the transformed gravity maps by means of new method provided the additional information on the lithospheric structure. The use of existing elevation information represents an independent approach to the problem of transformation of gravity maps. Instead of standard separation and transformation methods both in wave-number and spatial domains, this method is based on the estimating of really existing linear trends within the values of complete Bouguer anomalies (CBA), which are understood as a function defined in 3D space. An important assumption that the points with known input values of CBA lie on a horizontal plane is therefore not required. Instead, the points with known CBA and elevation values are treated in their original positions, i.e. on the Earth surface.

  20. Psocid taxocenoses structure and diversity (Insecta: Psocoptera in the forest ecosystems of the Piceeti–fageta s. lat. zone in the Western Carpathian Mts.

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    Otakar Holuša

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Psocid taxocenoses (Psocoptera were studied in forest ecosystems of the Western Carpathian Mts. during 1997–2001. As a study frame, vegetation tiers (= altitudinal vegetation zones were used. Lower units of forest typological system (forest type complexes were used for a classification of ecological conditions as well. Only a part of material, i.e. individuals that was found in the forest ecosystems of Piceeti-fageta s. lat. communities (= the 6th spruce-beech vegetation tier was evaluated for purpose of this work. This vegetation tier is widespread in higher parts of mountains (the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts. and partly in the Oravské Beskydy Mts.. 554 adults comprising 17 species were found in total in the 6th vegetation tier. As eudominant species, the following ones were found: Caecilius despaxi, Caecilius burmeisteri, Mesopsocus unipunctatus, and Stenopsocus lachlani; as dominant species, the following ones were found: Caecilius flavidus and Reuterella helvimacula. In natural geobiocenoses with the level of naturalness of 1 or 2, the following species were found: as eudominant species: Mesopsocus unipunctatus, Stenopsocus lachlani, Caecilius despaxi, Amphigerontia bifasciata and Reuterella helvimacula. Dominant species was Caecilius burmeisteri and Caecilius flavidus. Taxocenoses of psocids were evaluated by Detrended Correspondence analysis (DCA and Divisive Cluster analysis (DvClA. This material was compared to another material gained from various vegetation tiers in the Western Carpathians Mts. The characteristic species composition of psocids in the 6th vegetation tier was as follows – Cecilius despaxi – Stenopsocus lachlani – Mesopsocus unipunctatus – Reuterella helvimacula.

  1. Corrigendum to "Decadal to millennial variations in water column parameters in pelagic marine environments of the Western Tethys (Carpathian realm) during Middle-Late Jurassic - Evidence from the radiolarian record" [Glob. Planet. Chang. 162 (2018) 148-162

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bąk, Marta; Bąk, Krzysztof; Michalik, Mariola

    2018-04-01

    The authors regret (Abstract. The causal link between changes in Middle-Late Jurassic radiolarian habitat group abundances, microfacies and water column conditions in the Western Tethys was studied based on the examination of siliceous limestones and cherts from the Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathians. Deposition occurred on a morphological high with incised pelagic sedimentation within a tropical zone. High-resolution quantitative analyses of millimetre-thick microlaminae show changes in microfacies constituents that most likely record the fluxes of nutrients and biological activity in superficial waters. Variability of radiolarian assemblages that are classified to represent (i) upwelling and (ii) stratified water taxa suggest successive changes in water conditions that fluctuated between periods of upwelling and periods of formation of a thick, stratified, warm superficial layer above a deep thermocline during middle Bajocian-late Oxfordian time. Such variations would be strongly influenced by ocean-atmosphere global circulation patterns, which are caused by pressure gradients and are the result of Walker circulation along the equatorial part of the Tethys and the Panthalassa Ocean, including the duration of El Niño-like and La Niña-like cycles, which affect sea surface temperature trends on decadal scales. The fluctuations in radiolarian assemblages in the sediments indicate that long-term palaeoceanographic changes occurred on multi-decadal to centennial-scales during the Bajocian, but lengthened in duration to millennial-scale during the Bathonian through the Oxfordian.)

  2. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 mm.ky- 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 mm.ky- 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  3. Geodynamics of the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Insights from low temperature thermochronology of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Benedetta; Zattin, Massimiliano; Castelluccio, Ada; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Jankowski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    by erosion of the wedge during thrusting in the western area, by erosion and tectonic denudation driven by post-thrusting extension in the central sector, and by erosion of the uplifting wedge after the end of thrusting in the eastern sector. Based on the non-homogeneous burial depths inferred for the western and central sectors, we suggest the lack of a subducting slab and subsequent break-off in these areas. Furthermore, the distribution of exhumation ages along the chain is not compatible with a clockwise (E to SE ward) progressive slab break-off, the youngest ages being located in the central area, at the Polish-Ukraine boundary. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Miocene extension of the Carpathian-Pannonian region was triggered by gravitational instability and subsequent lithosphere downwelling, below the Carpathians mountain belt, and astenosphere upwelling below the Pannonian Basin. This process is compatible with the burial-exhumation distribution observed along the study region. Furthermore, it is able to explain both the coupled crustal extension and lithospheric thickening observed in the central sector (Poland-Ukraine boundary) and the progressive transition between the extending and subsiding Pannonian Basin and the uplifting Carpathians in the eastern area.

  4. Possible ecologically based ways of preserving and developing the Ukrainian Carpathians

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    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has transformed into one of the most environmentally dangerous countries in the world due to the high concentration of industrial production and agriculture and predatory use of natural resources. The current ecological situation in Ukraine is characterized by a deep ecological crisis, which is caused by the laws of operation of the command economy of the former USSR. The majority of the environmental and social indicators of Ukraine are among the worst in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains are among the most significant and interesting landscapes in Europe from the geological and geomorphological, scenic and biological perspectives. The giant arc of the Carpathians begins in southern Romania and passes through Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to Austria, crosses all Eastern and Central Europe. A third of the forest reserves of Ukraine are located in the Ukrainian Carpathians, at 53.5% the percentage of forest cover of the area is among the highest in the country. About 50% of the gene pool of Ukraine’s plants, many species of trees and medicinal plants grows there. The geographical location and large area of the rich natural heritage of the Carpathians have multifaceted importance for the conservation of biological, phytocoenotic and landscape diversity and maintaining the ecological balance in the central part of our continent. As with the Alps mountain range, this is an important ecological corridor between Western, Central and Eastern Europe, which promotes the migration of species and their spread into lowland landscapes. In order to preserve biodiversity an inventory of virgin forest ecosystems should be made and strict measures for their protection should be enforced. It is necessary to continue the practice of establishing bilateral areas in cross-border protected areas in order to combine efforts to solve pressing environmental challenges. Conservation of the Carpathians Biodiversity is an urgent problem

  5. Dendrochronology as a source of data for landslide activity maps – an example from Beskid Żywiecki Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland

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    Łuszczyńska Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied dendrochronological methods for dating landslide activity in the study area (3.75 km2, on the slopes of Sucha Mountain (1040 m a.s.l., in the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains, in the Western Carpathians. 46 sampling sites were distributed throughout the study area. At each site we sampled 1-3 coniferous trees: Norway spruces (Picea abies Karst. and/or silver firs (Abies alba Mill.. From each tree 2 cores were sampled: one from the upslope and the other from the downslope side of the stem. Based on tree-ring widths measured for opposite sides of stems we have calculated eccentricity index values and dated past landslide events. Mean frequency of landslides was obtained for each sampling site. Finally, the data was interpolated into a map of landslide activity. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW interpolation has been applied. For most of the study area we found medium (19 sites and low (23 sites levels of landslide activity. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide slope and for the one small landslide. The study conducted on Sucha Mountain has shown that dendrochronology can be an effective method for analysing landslide activity and may be useful in further studies, including those for landslide hazard and risk assessments.

  6. Sunrise as a tourist attraction in the context of tourist motivation theory: a case study of the peak of Babia Góra (Western Carpathians

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    Mocior Ewelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourist ascents of mountain peaks before sunrise are increasingly popular. Babia Góra (Western Carpathians is a peak on the Polish-Slovak border frequently visited by a great number of tourists at sunrise. The main objective of our research, based on the case study of Babia Gora, was to answer a more general question whether the sunrise can be considered a tourist attraction. The research included the observation and description of every sunrise at summer holiday weekends during 2012 from the peak of Babia Góra as well as the collection of data on the number of tourists and weather conditions. Survey interviews, using questionnaire, with randomly selected hikers present on the peak of Babia Góra at sunrise (269 were conducted. The investigation showed that during summer holiday sunrises there were a maximum of 130 people on the summit of Babia Góra at the same time. Most of the surveyed people (84% agreed that the opportunity to observe the sunrise was one of the pull factors for them. This confirms the hypothesis that sunrise constitutes a tourist attraction.

  7. Hydromorphological parameters of natural channel behavior in conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians on the territory of the Czech Republic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanová, Kateřina; Matoušková, Milada; Kliment, Zdeněk

    2016-04-01

    A fundamental prerequisite for assessing the current ecological status of streams is the establishment of reference conditions for each stream type that serve as a benchmark. The hydromorphological reference conditions reflect the natural channel behavior, which is extremely variable. Significant parameters of natural channel behavior were determined using a combination of four selected statistical methods: Principal Component Analysis, Agglomerative Hierarchical Clustering, correlation, and regression. Macroscale analyses of data about altitude, stream order, channel slope, valley floor slope, sinuosity, and characteristics of the hydrological regime were conducted for 3197 reaches of major rivers in the Czech Republic with total length of 15,636 km. On the basis of selected significant parameters and their threshold values, channels were classified into groups of river characteristics based on shared behaviors. The channel behavior within these groups was validated using hydromorphological characteristics of natural channels determined during field research at reference sites. Classification of channels into groups confirmed the fundamental differences between channel behavior under conditions of the Hercynian System and the flysch belt of the Western Carpathians in the Czech Republic and determined a specific group in the flattened high areas of mountains in the Bohemian Massif. Validating confirmed the distinctions between groups of river characteristics and the uniqueness of each one; it also emphasized the benefits of using qualitative data and riparian zone characteristics for describing channel behavior. Channel slope, entrenchment ratio, bed structure, and d50 were determined as quantitative characteristics of natural channel behavior.

  8. Modelling the geomorphic history of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians with the CHILD model

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    Staškovanová Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models were developed in order to provide a suitable computational framework for exploring research questions related to long-term landscape evolution. We used the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD model to prove three hypotheses concerning the processes contributing to the neotectonic landscape evolution of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians: (1 simultaneous planation and uplift; (2 temporally and spatially varying uplift; (3 exhumation of a part of the area from below Neogene sediments. Given the size of the area, its lithological variability and the insufficient knowledge of the palaeogeographical settings, using a detachment-limited model to express river incision into bedrock as well as water (rill erosion on hillslopes proved the best solution. Results of the simulations were compared with real topography through hypsographic curves and the distribution of remnants of planation surfaces. The real surface corresponds best to a combination of the hypotheses (2 and (3, with more intensive Quaternary tectonic uplift of the Pohronský Inovec Mts. and the adjacent Rázdiel part of the Tribeč Mts., and exhumation of a mature palaeosurface from below Miocene sediments in the east of the Tribeč Mts.

  9. Trans-Boundary Edge Effects in the Western Carpathians: The Influence of Hunting on Large Carnivore Occupancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Váňa, Martin; Suchomel, Josef; Chapron, Guillaume; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The conservation and management of wolves Canis lupus in the periphery of their distribution is challenging. Edges of wolf distribution are characterized by very few and intermittent occurrences of individuals, which are modulated by multiple factors affecting the overall population such as human-caused mortality, management targets and food availability. The knowledge of population dynamics in the edges becomes crucial when hunting takes place nearby the edges, which may preclude population expansion. Here, using as example the occurrence of wolves in the Beskydy Mountains (Czech-Slovak border), which are the edge distribution of the wolf and Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx populations in the West Carpathians, we explored how food availability and hunting in the Slovakian core area affected the dynamics of wolves in the edges of this population. During 2003–2012, we monitored large carnivore occurrence by snow-tracking surveys and tested potential differences in the occurrence of these species in Beskydy Mountains and potential mechanisms behind detected patterns. Despite the proximity to the core area, with several wolf reproductions being confirmed at least in recent years, the wolf was a very rare species in Beskydy and was recorded 14 times less often than the lynx. The expected abundance of wolves in the Beskydy Mountains was inversely related to prey availability in the Slovakian core area. Wolf hunting the year before influenced the expected abundance of wolves in Beskydy area. We discuss how different life histories and legal status of both species probably account for most of the observed difference of occurrence at range margins. PMID:28002475

  10. Trans-Boundary Edge Effects in the Western Carpathians: The Influence of Hunting on Large Carnivore Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutal, Miroslav; Váňa, Martin; Suchomel, Josef; Chapron, Guillaume; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The conservation and management of wolves Canis lupus in the periphery of their distribution is challenging. Edges of wolf distribution are characterized by very few and intermittent occurrences of individuals, which are modulated by multiple factors affecting the overall population such as human-caused mortality, management targets and food availability. The knowledge of population dynamics in the edges becomes crucial when hunting takes place nearby the edges, which may preclude population expansion. Here, using as example the occurrence of wolves in the Beskydy Mountains (Czech-Slovak border), which are the edge distribution of the wolf and Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx populations in the West Carpathians, we explored how food availability and hunting in the Slovakian core area affected the dynamics of wolves in the edges of this population. During 2003-2012, we monitored large carnivore occurrence by snow-tracking surveys and tested potential differences in the occurrence of these species in Beskydy Mountains and potential mechanisms behind detected patterns. Despite the proximity to the core area, with several wolf reproductions being confirmed at least in recent years, the wolf was a very rare species in Beskydy and was recorded 14 times less often than the lynx. The expected abundance of wolves in the Beskydy Mountains was inversely related to prey availability in the Slovakian core area. Wolf hunting the year before influenced the expected abundance of wolves in Beskydy area. We discuss how different life histories and legal status of both species probably account for most of the observed difference of occurrence at range margins.

  11. U-Pb dating of zircons from the Modra Massif granodiorite of the Low Carpathians and from porphyroid of the Lower Paleozolic of the Spis-Gemer ore Mountains (Western Carpathians)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbak, N.P.; Bartitskij, E.N.; Mitskevitch, N.Yu.; Stepanyuk, L.M.

    1988-01-01

    The method of radioisotope dating based on the ratio of uranium isotopes and lead isotopes was used to date certain rocks and zircon which they contain in the area of the Low Carpathians and the Spis-Gemer ore mountains. Zircon separated from tonalite is ca 320 million years old, zircon from porphyroid about 403 million years old. The obtained data serve to clarify the geological development of the studied area. (M.D.). 2 figs., 2 tabs., 17 refs

  12. The Carpathians. Integrating nature and society towards sustainability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozak, Jacek; Ostapowicz, Katarzyna [Jagiellonian Univ., Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Geography and Spatial Management; Bytnerowicz, Andrzej [Pacific Southwest Research Station, Riverside, CA (United States). USDA Forest Service; Wyzga, Bartlomiej (eds.) [Polish Academy of Sciences, Krakow (Poland). Inst. of Nature Conservation

    2013-06-01

    Provides an interdisciplinary approach. Explores ways to generate value for the Carpathian mountain region. Gives a new insight into the Carpathian mountain region. The Carpathians are a distinct mountain chain in the core of Central and Eastern Europe holding valuable biological resources and a rich cultural heritage. The last twenty years have witnessed an increasing awareness of the Carpathians' value for European society and strengthened research cooperation in the region, especially after the enlargement of the European Union in 2004 and 2007. This book presents a wide range of problems related to sustainable development in the Carpathian region that were discussed during the 1{sup st} Forum Carpaticum held in 2010 in Krakow, Poland. The four sections of the book deal with various issues related to the abiotic environment, forests and biodiversity, human activities, and research methods allowing a better understanding of the past, present and future of the Carpathians.

  13. Genetic aspects of barite mineralization related to rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirásek Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Barite is a relatively uncommon phase in vein and amygdule mineralizations hosted by igneous rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit (Western Carpathians. In macroscopically observable sizes, it has been reported from 10 sites situated only in the Czech part of the Silesian Unit. Microscopic barite produced by the hydrothermal alteration of rock matrix and also by the supergene processes is more abundant. We examined four samples of barite by mineralogical and geochemical methods. Electron microprobe analyses proved pure barites with up to 0.038 apfu Sr and without remarkable internal zonation. Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope data suggests that multiple sources of fluid components have been involved during barite crystallization. Barite contains primary and secondary aqueous all-liquid (L or less frequent two-phase (L+V aqueous fluid inclusions with variable salinity (0.4-2.9 wt. % NaCl eq. and homogenization temperatures between 77 and 152 °C. The higher-salinity fluid endmember was probably Cretaceous seawater and the lower-salinity one was probably diagenetic water derived from surrounding flysch sediments during compaction and thermal alteration of clay minerals. The δ34S values of barite samples range between -1.0 ‰ and +16.4 ‰ CDT suggesting participation of two sources of sulphate, one with a near-zero δ34S values probably derived from wall rocks and another with high δ34S values being most probably sulphate from the Cretaceous seawater. All results underline the role of externally derived fluids during post-magmatic alteration of bodies of rock of the teschenite association.

  14. Tithonian-early Berriasian perisphinctoid ammonites from the Stramberk Limestone at Kotouc Quarry near Stramberk, Outer Western Carpathians (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Skupien, P.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 64, č. 64 (2016), s. 12-29 ISSN 0195-6671 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : Upper Jurassic * Lower Cretaceous * Perisphinctoidea * biostratigraphy * Central Europe Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 2.015, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0195667116300350

  15. A higher-level classification of the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands (Central and Eastern Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willner, Wolfgang; Kuzemko, Anna; Dengler, Jürgen; Chytrý, Milan; Bauer, Norbert; Becker, Thomas; Biţă-Nicolae, Claudia; Botta-Dukát, Zoltán; Čarni, Andraž; Csiky, János; Igić, Ruzica; Kącki, Zygmunt; Korotchenko, Iryna; Kropf, Matthias; Krstivojević-Ćuk, Mirjana; Krstonošić, Daniel; Rédei, Tamás; Ruprecht, Eszter; Schratt-Ehrendorfer, Luise; Semenishchenkov, Yuri; Stančić, Zvjezdana; Vashenyak, Yulia; Vynokurov, Denys; Janišová, Monika

    2017-01-01

    What are the main floristic patterns in the Pannonian and western Pontic steppe grasslands? What are the diagnostic species of the major subdivisions of the class Festuco-Brometea (temperate Euro-Siberian dry and semi-dry grasslands)? Carpathian Basin (E Austria, SE Czech Republic, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Slovenia, N Croatia and N Serbia), Ukraine, S Poland and the Bryansk region of W Russia. We applied a geographically stratified resampling to a large set of relevés containing at least one indicator species of steppe grasslands. The resulting data set of 17 993 relevés was classified using the TWINSPAN algorithm. We identified groups of clusters that corresponded to the class Festuco-Brometea . After excluding relevés not belonging to our target class, we applied a consensus of three fidelity measures, also taking into account external knowledge, to establish the diagnostic species of the orders of the class. The original TWINSPAN divisions were revised on the basis of these diagnostic species. The TWINSPAN classification revealed soil moisture as the most important environmental factor. Eight out of 16 TWINSPAN groups corresponded to Festuco-Brometea . A total of 80, 32 and 58 species were accepted as diagnostic for the orders Brometalia erecti , Festucetalia valesiacae and Stipo-Festucetalia pallentis , respectively. In the further subdivision of the orders, soil conditions, geographic distribution and altitude could be identified as factors driving the major floristic patterns. We propose the following classification of the Festuco-Brometea in our study area: (1) Brometalia erecti (semi-dry grasslands) with Scabioso ochroleucae-Poion angustifoliae (steppe meadows of the forest zone of E Europe) and Cirsio-Brachypodion pinnati (meadow steppes on deep soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central and E Europe); (2) Festucetalia valesiacae (grass steppes) with Festucion valesiacae (grass steppes on less developed soils in the forest-steppe zone of E Central

  16. Perovskite, reaction product of a harzburgite with Jurassic– Cretaceous accretionary wedge fluids (Western Carpathians, Slovakia: evidence from the whole-rock and mineral trace element data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putiš Marián

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite (Prv was discovered in an abyssal harzburgite from a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge of the Western Carpathians (Meliata Unit, Slovakia. Perovskite-1 formation in serpentinized orthopyroxene may be simplified by the mass-balance reaction: Ca2Si2O6 (Ca-pyroxene-member+2Fe2TiO4 (ulvöspinel molecule in spinel+2H2O+O2=2CaTiO3 (Prv+2SiO2+4FeOOH (goethite. Perovskite-2 occurs in a chlorite-rich blackwall zone separating serpentinite and rodingite veins, and in rodingite veins alone. The bulk-rock trace-element patterns suggest negligible differences from visually and microscopically less (“core” to strongly serpentinized harzburgite due to serpentinization and rodingitization: an enrichment in LREE(La,Ce, Cs, ±Ba, U, Nb, Pb, As, Sb, ±Nd and Li in comparison with HREE, Rb and Sr. The U/Pb perovskite ages at ~135 Ma are interpreted to record the interaction of metamorphic fluids with harzburgite blocks in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge. Our LA-ICP-MS mineral study provides a complex view on trace element behaviour during the two stages of rodingitization connected with Prv genesis. The positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, Pb, As, Sb, Pr and Nd in Cpx, Opx and Ol are combined with the negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr in these minerals. The similar positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, ±Be, As, Sb found in typical serpentinization and rodingitization minerals, with variable contents of La, Ce and Nd, and negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr suggest involvement of crustal fluids during MP-LP/LT accretionary wedge metamorphism. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv-1 to Prv-2, and a typically negative Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-1, while a positive Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-2. Our multi-element diagram depicts enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, As, Sb, Pr, Nd and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. In general, both Prv generations are very close to the

  17. Variscan thrusting in I- and S-type granitic rocks of the Tribeč Mountains, Western Carpathians (Slovakia: evidence from mineral compositions and monazite dating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Broska Igor

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The Tribeč granitic core (Tatric Superunit, Western Carpathians, Slovakia is formed by Devonian/Lower Carboniferous, calc-alkaline I- and S-type granitic rocks and their altered equivalents, which provide a rare opportunity to study the Variscan magmatic, post-magmatic and tectonic evolution. The calculated P-T-X path of I-type granitic rocks, based on Fe-Ti oxides, hornblende, titanite and mica-bearing equilibria, illustrates changes in redox evolution. There is a transition from magmatic stage at T ca. 800–850 °C and moderate oxygen fugacity (FMQ buffer to an oxidation event at 600 °C between HM and NNO up to the oxidation peak at 480 °C and HM buffer, to the final reduction at ca. 470 °C at ΔNN= 3.3. Thus, the post-magmatic Variscan history recorded in I-type tonalites shows at early stage pronounced oxidation and low temperature shift back to reduction. The S-type granites originated at temperature 700–750 °C at lower water activity and temperature. The P-T conditions of mineral reactions in altered granitoids at Variscan time (both I and S-types correspond to greenschist facies involving formation of secondary biotite. The Tribeč granite pluton recently shows horizontal and vertical zoning: from the west side toward the east S-type granodiorites replace I-type tonalites and these medium/coarse-grained granitoids are vertically overlain by their altered equivalents in greenschist facies. Along the Tribeč mountain ridge, younger undeformed leucocratic granite dykes in age 342±4.4 Ma cut these metasomatically altered granitic rocks and thus post-date the alteration process. The overlaying sheet of the altered granites is in a low-angle superposition on undeformed granitoids and forms “a granite duplex” within Alpine Tatric Superunit, which resulted from a syn-collisional Variscan thrusting event and melt formation ~340 Ma. The process of alteration may have been responsible for shifting the oxidation trend to the observed

  18. The timberline as result of the interactions among forest, abiotic environment and human activity in the Babia Gora massif, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The timberline is one of the clearest and most easily discernible boundaries in nature (Troll 1973). Among the existing conceptual models clarifying the complex nature of the relationship between the timberline and the environment and human impact, the fullest seems to be the one presented by K. Holtmeier (2009). The quoted author comprehensively characterizes the timberline, taking into account its course, appearance and ecological characteristics. The aim of the work is to quantitatively assess the factors influencing the course of timberline and its changes over the last ca. 400 years in the Babia Góra massif (1725 m a.s.l.), the highest flysch ridge in the Western Carpathians, which is formed as an asymmetric ridge of kuesta type. Forests mainly in the upper montane zone have preserved their natural character in many areas. Old spruce tree growths are a particular advantage of the Babia Góra Mt., being there on the predominant section of the altitude zone of the timberline. In the rest of this zone, spruce forests have been under a direct or indirect influence of changes resulting from grazing with its 400-year history and forestry taking place about 100 years ago. The 60 m difference between the average altitude of the timberline on the northern (1335 m a.s.l.) and the southern slope (1395 m a.s.l.) on the Babia Góra Mt. can be explained with climatic conditions of these areas. The average gradient of the slope within the timberline ecotone on the southern slope of the massif is by 100 smaller, and the amount of solar energy delivered during the growing season is 40% higher (960 kWh/m2) than on the northern slope. The higher position of the timberline on the windward southern slope is favored by the dominant winds from S-W sector, thinner snow cover and earlier melting due to the lower precipitation on the slope and also due to the winnowing of snow onto the steep northern slope of the ridge. On the southern slope of the ridge there are no larger snow

  19. Long-lived large-scale deformation under Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the past and present-day deformation pattern under Central and Western Europe through seismic anisotropy. We use all SK(K)S splitting results that have been so far presented for this region and compile an image of upper mantle deformation. A large-scale deformation pattern emerges where NE-SW fast orientations under the Aegean are smoothly changing to NW-SE beneath the Hellenides-Dinarides conjunction. NW-SE is the dominant pattern under the whole Carpathian-Pannonian region. Towards Bohemia, the pattern rotates to E-W. The rotation continues until the Rhine valley, and it continues further within the Alps, all the way to Southern France. Outside the Alpine-deformation-influenced region, we observe a jump in fast orientation, between the Ardennes and the Massif Central in France, where the fast axis orientation is back to NW-SE. That anisotropy pattern may correlate with the arcuate shape of Variscan orogeny. It agrees with the Rheic suture line, and the boarders of two main tectonic units of European Variscides, Saxothuringian and Muldanubian. Previous studies on upper mantle anisotropy have interpreted and related such pattern mainly to frozen-in deformation from the past tectonic episodes. This has so far remained ambiguous though. Here we assess the relation between deformation at depth and shallower structure, as evidenced by stress field and topography. We discuss the presence of a long-lived large-scale upper mantle deformation, which has been acting ever since the Cambrian in different orogenic phases (Caledonian, Variscan, Alpine).

  20. Quantification of carbon dioxide emissions of Ciomadul, the youngest volcano of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (Eastern-Central Europe, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercédesz; Ionescu, Artur; Cardellini, Carlo; Harangi, Szabolcs; Baciu, Călin; Caracausi, Antonio; Viveiros, Fátima

    2017-07-01

    We provide the first high-resolution CO2 flux data for the Neogene to Quaternary volcanic regions of the entire Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Eastern-Central Europe, and estimate the CO2 emission of the seemingly inactive Ciomadul volcanic complex, the youngest volcano of this area. Our estimate includes data from focused and diffuse CO2 emissions from soil. The CO2 fluxes of focused emissions range between 277 and 8172 g d- 1, corresponding to a CO2 output into the atmosphere between 0.1 and 2.98 t per year. The investigated areas for diffuse soil gas emissions were characterized by wide range of CO2 flux values, at Apor Baths, ranging from 1.7 × 101 to 8.2 × 104 g m- 2 d- 1, while at Lăzărești ranging between 1.43 and 3.8 × 104 g m- 2 d- 1. The highest CO2 focused gas fluxes at Ciomadul were found at the periphery of the youngest volcanic complex, which could be explained either by tectonic control across the brittle older volcanic edifices or by degassing from a deeper crustal zone resulting in CO2 flux at the periphery of the supposed melt-bearing magma body beneath Ciomadul. The estimate of the total CO2 output in the area is 8.70 × 103 t y- 1, and it is consistent with other long (> 10 kyr) dormant volcanoes with similar age worldwide, such as in Italy and USA. Taking into account the isotopic composition of the gases that indicate deep origin of the CO2 emissions, this yields further support that Ciomadul may be considered indeed a dormant, or PAMS volcano (volcano with potentially active magma storage) rather than an inactive one. Furthermore, hazard of CO2 outpourings has to be taken into account and it has to be communicated to the visitors. Finally, we suggest that CO2 output of dormant volcanic systems has to be also accounted in the estimation of the global volcanic CO2 budget.

  1. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of impacts by mining activities-a case study in the Certej River catchment, Western Carpathians, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Jürg; Sima, Mihaela; Dogaru, Diana; Senila, Marin; Yang, Hong; Popescu, Claudia; Roman, Cecilia; Bela, Abraham; Frei, Linda; Dold, Bernhard; Balteanu, Dan

    2009-08-01

    In the region of the Apuseni Mountains, part of the Western Carpathians in Romania, metal mining activities have a long-standing tradition. These mining industries created a clearly beneficial economic development in the region. But their activities also caused impairments to the environment, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in long-lasting heavy metal pollution of waters and sediments. The study, established in the context of the ESTROM programme, investigated the impact of metal mining activities both from environmental and socioeconomic perspectives and tried to incorporate the results of the two approaches into an integrated proposition for mitigation of mining-related issues. The small Certej catchment, situated in the Southern Apuseni Mountains, covers an area of 78 km(2). About 4,500 inhabitants are living in the basin, in which metal mining was the main economic sector. An open pit and several abandoned underground mines are producing heavy metal-loaded acidic water that is discharged untreated into the main river. The solid wastes of mineral processing plants were deposited in several dumps and tailings impoundment embodying the acidic water-producing mineral pyrite. The natural science team collected samples from surface waters, drinking water from dug wells and from groundwater. Filtered and total heavy metals, both after enrichment, and major cations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major anions in waters, measured by ion chromatography, alkalinity and acidity were determined by titration. Solid samples were taken from river sediments and from the largest tailings dam. The latter were characterised by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed after digestion. Simultaneously, the socioeconomic team performed a household survey to evaluate the perception of people related to the river and drinking water pollution by way of a logistic regression analysis

  2. Ooid turbidites from the Central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    Gravity displaced debris flows/turbidites have been observed in five box cores collected between water depths of 649 and 3,627 m from the Central Western continental margin of India. Studies on grain size, carbonate content, and coarse fraction...

  3. Geopolitical consequences of Rusophilism of Carpathian Rusyns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Przemysław

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rusophilism was an alternative for Carpathian Rusyns, including Lemkos, to Ukrainian nationalism. Russia used Interest in this ideology, for which the areas inhabited by Rusyns were geopolitically important. Positive attitude of this population could help to seize Central Europe and realize the imperial interests of Russia. The consequences are visible even today and are being used to destabilize the situation in Ukraine.

  4. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation of the Roháčská Valley in the Western Tatra Mountains, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Mentlík, Pavel; Braucher, Régis; Křížek, Marek; Pluháčková, Markéta; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim; Aster Team; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim

    2017-09-01

    10Be exposure ages from moraines and bedrock sites in the Roháčská Valley provide chronology of the last glaciation in the largest valley of the Western Tatra Mts., the Western Carpathians. The minimum apparent exposure age of 19.4 ± 2.1 ka obtained for the oldest sampled boulder and the mean age of 18.0 ± 0.8 ka calculated for the terminal moraine indicate that the oldest preserved moraine was probably deposited at the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The age of this moraine coincides with the termination of the maximum glacier expansion in other central European ranges, including the adjacent High Tatra Mts. and the Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the LGM glacier in the Roháčská Valley, estimated at 1400-1410 m a.s.l., was 50-80 m lower than in the eastern part of the range, indicating a positive ELA gradient from west to east among the north-facing glaciers in the Tatra Mts. Lateglacial glacier expansion occurred no later than 13.4 ± 0.5 ka and 11.9 ± 0.5 ka, as indicated by the mean exposure ages calculated for re-advance moraines. This timing is consistent with the exposure age chronology of the last Lateglacial re-advance in the High Tatra Mts., Alps and lower mountain ranges in central Europe. The ELA in the Roháčská Valley estimated at 1690-1770 m a.s.l. in this period was located 130-300 m lower than in the north-facing valleys in the High Tatra Mts. 10Be exposure ages obtained for a rock glacier constrains the timing of this landform stabilization in the Salatínska Valley and provides the first chronological evidence for the Lateglacial activity of rock glaciers in the Carpathians.

  5. Structural and Tectonic Composition and Origins of the Magnesite Deposit within the Dúbravský Massif near Jelšava, based on studies at the 220 m elev. Level (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julián Kondela

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Magnesite deposit Jelsava – Dubravsky Massif represents one of the foremost deposits in Europe, even in the world, in terms of itsreserves size. A geological exploration and development of new blocks between the elevation levels of 220m and 320 m allowed moredetailed studies of structural and tectonic development within the deposit, which yielded new results. As the mining continues deeper,it becomes essential to understand details of the youngest extension phase of the deposit deformation. This stage, combined withthe earlier deformation stages, completes the deposit’s complex structural development which significantly influences the distributionof mined raw materials, the stability of mine workings and the mining operations’ safety. This paper summarizes individual structuresstudied and their characteristics. A special attention was devoted to youngest structures, which most likely developed duringthe Neo-Alpine stage. These structures completed the current block composition of the deposit and thus are the proof that even the oldestunits within the Western Carpathians bear signs of the youngest deformation stages.

  6. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-02-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  7. Salient Ecological Sensitive Regions of Central Western Ghats, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, T. V.; Bharath, Setturu; Subash Chandran, M. D.; Joshi, N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Ecologically sensitive regions (ESRs) are the `ecological units' with the exceptional biotic and abiotic elements. Identification of ESRs considering spatially both ecological and social dimensions of environmental variables helps in ecological and conservation planning as per Biodiversity Act, 2002, Government of India. The current research attempts to integrate ecological and environmental considerations into administration, and prioritizes regions at Panchayat levels (local administrative unit) in Uttara Kannada district, Central Western Ghats, Karnataka state considering attributes (biological, Geo-climatic, Social, etc.) as ESR (1-4) through weightage score metrics. The region has the distinction of having highest forest area (80.48%) in Karnataka State, India and has been undergoing severe anthropogenic pressures impacting biogeochemistry, hydrology, food security, climate and socio-economic systems. Prioritisation of ESRs helps in the implementation of the sustainable developmental framework with the appropriate conservation strategies through the involvement of local stakeholders.

  8. Risk and Geodynamically active areas of Carpathian lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomil Pospíšil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an application of multidisciplinary data analysis to the Carpathian–Pannonian region and presents a verification of a Complex model of the Carpathian - Pannonian lithosphere by recent data sets and geophysical data analyses and its utilization for the determination of risk and active geodynamic and tectonic zones of Ist order . This model can be used for the analysing any Carpathian area from the point of view of the seismic risk, hazards and geodynamic activity, which is important to know for the building of a repository for the radioactive wasted material. Besides the traditionally used geological (sedimentological and volcanological data and geomorphological data (Remote Sensing, an emphasis was laid on geodetic, grav/mag data, seismic, seismological and other geophysical data (magnetotelluric, heat flow, paleomagnetic etc.. All available geonomic (geologic, geodetic, geophysical, geomorphological data were verified and unified on the basis of the same scale and in the Western Carpathians on the Remote Sensing data. The paper concentrates on two problematic areas – the so call “rebounding area” in the Eastern Carpathians and the Raba – Muran - Malcov tectonic systems.

  9. Age and origin of fluorapatite-rich dyke from Baranec Mt. (Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians: a key to understanding of the post-orogenic processes and element mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawęda Aleksandra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the southeastern slope of the Baranec Mount in the Western Tatra Mountains (Slovakia an apatite-rich pegmatite-like segregation was found in the subvertical fault zone cutting metapelitic rocks. Two zones: felsic (F and mafic (M were found, differing in mineral assemblages and consequently in chemistry. Fluorapatite crystals yield a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 328.6 ± 2.4 Ma. A temperature decrease from 634 °C to 454 °C at a pressure around 500 to 400 MPa with oxygen fugacity increasing during crystallization are the possible conditions for formation of the pegmatite-like segregation, while secondary alterations took place in the temperature range of 340 – 320 °C. The Sr-Nd isotope composition of both apatite and whole rock point toward a crustal origin of the dike in question, suggesting partial melting of (P, F, H2O-rich metasedimentary rocks during prolonged decompression of the Tatra Massif. The original partial melt (felsic component was mixed with an external (F, H2O-rich fluid, carrying Fe and Mg fluxed from more mafic metapelites and crystallizing as biotite and epidote in the mafic component of the dyke.

  10. The origin of native selenium microparticles during the oxidation of sideritic mudstones in the Veřovice Formation (Outer Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matýsek Dalibor

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles of native selenium were detected in weathered sideritic mudstones of the Veřovice Formation (Aptian of the Silesian Unit (Outer Western Carpatians, NE part of the Czech Republic. This mineral forms small needle-like crystals with lengths of up to 20 μm, and is confined to fissures in sideritic mudstones covered by goethite or rarely also by hydrated Mn-oxide minerals. The oxidized sideritic mudstones show zonal structure and resemble the initial stage of the formation of the so-called rattle stones. From the superposition of phase diagrams of selenium and Fe-oxyhydroxides, Fe apparently occupies a large field in which Se(0 and FeOOH and/or Fe(OH3 can co-exist. The reduction of selenites or selenates by pyrite or by any other phase, capable of charge transfer, is likely to have been responsible for the formation of microparticles of native selenium. The crucial factor controlling the origin of these particles is the extremely low solubility of Se(0. The source of Se is not obvious. It can be released in trace concentrations during the weathering of pyrite. Sediments of the Veřovice Formation correspond to the anoxic event OAE1b and accumulation of siderophile elements in similar sediments is very probable. A probable mechanism for the origin of Se microcrystals is gradual crystallization from solution.

  11. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Almeida, F.

    -262 255 Elsevier Science Publishers B.V., Amsterdam -- Printed in the Netherlands Letter Section Submerged Reef Systems on the Central Western Continental Shelf of India K.H. VORA and F. ALMEIDA National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403... 004 (India) (Revision accepted October 26, 1989) Abstract Vora, K.H. and Almeida, F., 1990. Submerged reef systems on the central western continental shelf of India. Mar. Geol., 91: 255-262. Echosounding and sidescan sonar data from the western...

  12. Late Pliocene Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necea, Diana; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.

    2005-12-01

    late Middle to late Pleistocene. Both large-scale deformation events affected the western Focşani basin flank, tilting the entire structure with ˜9° during the late Early Pleistocene and uplifted it as a block during the early Late Pleistocene. The late Early Pleistocene tilting resulted in ˜750 m uplift near the frontal monocline and by extrapolation in a presumed 3000 m uplift near the central parts of the Carpathians. The late Middle to late Pleistocene cumulative uplift reaches ˜250 m and correlates with a contemporaneous progradation of the uplifted areas towards the Focşani Basin. The uplifting events are separated by a second Quaternary unconformity. On the whole, the late Pliocene-Quaternary evolution of the Carpathians orogen/Focşani basin structure indicate large-scale differential uplift during the latest stages of a continuous post-collisional orogenic evolution.

  13. Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Kolomiyets, K.

    2013-01-01

    the Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2......Results are presented of a seismic wide-angle reflection/refraction survey along a profile between the Pannonian Basin (PB) and the East European Craton (EEC) called PANCAKE. The P- and S-wave velocity model derived can be divided into three sectors: the PB; the Carpathians, including.......4-3.7km/s), 17-20km thick upper crystalline crust (5.9-6.3km/s) and an up to 3km thick lower crustal layer (Vp=6.4km/s). In the central part of the Carpathians, a 10-24km thick uppermost part of the crust with Vp≤6.0km/s may correspond to sedimentary rocks of different ages; several high velocity bodies...

  14. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  15. Results of isotopic geochemical and mineralogical investigations of crystalline rocks of the Carpathian Massif in 1973-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shcherbak, N.P.; Bartnitskij, E.N.; Eliseeva, G.D.

    1979-01-01

    The most frequent accesory mineral in crystalline rocks in the Czechoslovak and Ukrainian Carpathians is zircon, the least frequent is monazite. The differences are described in the mineralogical properties of zircon of different origin. For dating volcanism, the content and the isotope composition was determined of U and Pb in zircon and of U, Pb and Th in monazite. The earliest volcanic processes occurred in the Eastern Carpathians approximately 600 to 640 million years ago, in the Western Carpathians approximately 400 million years ago. (Ha)

  16. An outline of neotectonic structures and morphotectonics of the western and central Pannonian basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, L.; Bada, G.; Csillag, G.; Horvath, E.; Ruszkiczay-Rudiger, Z.; Klara, P.; Sikhegyi, F.; Timár, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2005-01-01

    Neotectonic deformation in the western and central part of the Pannonian Basin was investigated by means of surface and subsurface structural analyses, and geomorphologic observations. The applied methodology includes the study of outcrops, industrial seismic profiles, digital elevation models,

  17. Kinematic evolution of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linzer, Hans-Gert; Frisch, Wolfgang; Zweigel, Peter; Girbacea, Radu; Hann, Horst-Peter; Moser, Franz

    1998-11-01

    The regional pattern of contraction and extension directions and the evolution of the strain field from Paleogene to Neogene times enabled a reconstruction of the migration path of the Carpathian collision front. The Carpathian nappes were thrust around the Moesian Plate during Paleogene and Early Neogene times and protruded into a small oceanic embayment between the Moesian and European plates. The arc structure of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt was formed in Late Neogene times as a result of the eastward-escaping Tisza-Dacia block, due to N-directed convergence of the Adriatic plate and the retreating subduction of an oceanic slab. Brittle deformation structures in the Romanian Carpathians suggest three tectonic events related to major plate motions: (1) Paleogene to Middle Miocene NE to ENE contraction caused right-lateral curved strike-slip faults; (2) Middle Miocene to Pliocene fan-shaped orientations of contraction directions were caused by right-lateral oblique convergence in the Southern Carpathians, frontal convergence in the southern Eastern Carpathians and left-lateral convergence in the northern Eastern Carpathians; (3) Pleistocene to Holocene general E-W extension and N-S contraction in the Carpathian arc and local ESE-WNW contraction in the Vrancea area is related to the late roll back stage and break-off of the subducted slab in the bend area.

  18. Carpathian Shear Corridor – A strike-slip boundary of an extruded crustal segment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marko, F.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Tomek, Č.; Bezák, V.; Fojtíková, Lucia; Bošanský, M.; Piovarči, M.; Reichenwalder, P.

    703-704, APR 22 (2017), s. 119-134 ISSN 0040-1951 Grant - others:Slovak Foundation Grant(SK) VEGA 2/0188/15 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : extrusion * Neo-alpine evolution * strike-slip faulting * uplift history * Western Carpathians Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure OBOR OECD: Geology Impact factor: 2.693, year: 2016

  19. Active Magmatic Underplating in Western Eger Rift, Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrubcová, Pavla; Geissler, Wolfram H.; Bräuer, Karin; Vavryčuk, Václav; Tomek, Čestmír.; Kämpf, Horst

    2017-12-01

    The Eger Rift is an active element of the European Cenozoic Rift System associated with intense Cenozoic intraplate alkaline volcanism and system of sedimentary basins. The intracontinental Cheb Basin at its western part displays geodynamic activity with fluid emanations, persistent seismicity, Cenozoic volcanism, and neotectonic crustal movements at the intersections of major intraplate faults. In this paper, we study detailed geometry of the crust/mantle boundary and its possible origin in the western Eger Rift. We review existing seismic and seismological studies, provide new interpretation of the reflection profile 9HR, and supplement it by new results from local seismicity. We identify significant lateral variations of the high-velocity lower crust and relate them to the distribution and chemical status of mantle-derived fluids and to xenolith studies from corresponding depths. New interpretation based on combined seismic and isotope study points to a local-scale magmatic emplacement at the base of the continental crust within a new rift environment. This concept of magmatic underplating is supported by detecting two types of the lower crust: a high-velocity lower crust with pronounced reflectivity and a high-velocity reflection-free lower crust. The character of the underplated material enables to differentiate timing and tectonic setting of two episodes with different times of origin of underplating events. The lower crust with high reflectivity evidences magmatic underplating west of the Eger Rift of the Late Variscan age. The reflection-free lower crust together with a strong reflector at its top at depths of 28-30 km forms a magma body indicating magmatic underplating of the late Cenozoic (middle and upper Miocene) to recent. Spatial and temporal relations to recent geodynamic processes suggest active magmatic underplating in the intracontinental setting.

  20. Migration routes and stopover sites of the Eurasian Spoonbill (Platalea leucorodia between the Carpathian Basin and wintering areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pigniczki Csaba

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the migration routes of the Central European Spoonbill population is important for their conservation. Here we analysed movements of 3186 individuals of Eurasian Spoonbills marked with colour rings in the Carpathian Basin (Hungary, Croatia and Serbia between 2003 and 2015, and a satellite tagged individual, which was equipped in Italy in 2013, and later moved to the Carpathian Basin. Migration routes of these Spoonbills predominantly followed the Adriatic Flyway, however, some birds were also found to both east and west from this flyway. We identified 59 stopover sites, 55 of which were located along the Adriatic Flyway. Colourringed juveniles (1cy, on average, spent 4.0±0.9 (SE days on the stopover sites along the Adriatic Flyway during autumn migration, while non-juveniles (> 1cy spent 2.6±1.0 (SE days during autumn and 2.1±0.4 (SE days during spring migration there. These durations were not significantly different. Duration of stops of the satellite tracked individual was between 7 and 15 days during autumn and between 1 and 12 days during spring migration. Our results indicate the existence of two alternative routes of the Adriatic Flyway between the Carpathian Basin and the wintering areas in southern Italy and the central part of coastal North-Africa. The North-Adriatic Flyway includes stopover sites in north-eastern Italy at the river mouth of River Isonzo, Lagunes of Venice and wetlands around River Po. The South Adriatic Flyway leads through the Balkan Peninsula, with stopover sites at the karst lakes of Bosnia and Herzegovina, mouth of the river Neretva (Croatia, Ulcinj Salinas (Montenegro and wetlands in Gulf of Manfredonia (Italy. This hypothesis was also supported by the migration of the satellite tagged individual, the paths of which was described here in detail. The average coordinates of spring and autumn stopover sites were located at different parts of the flyway: it was in south-western Italy during autumn

  1. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  2. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  3. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  4. Genetic variability of central-western European pine marten (Martes martes) populations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pertoldi, Cino; Elschot, Kelly; Ruiz-Gonzalez, Aritz; van de Zande, Louis; Zalewski, Andrzej; Munoz, Joaquin; Madsen, Aksel Bo; Loeschcke, Volker; de Groot, Arjen; Bijlsma, Rudolf

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies highlighted the potential role of cryptic glacial refugia for temperate taxa in Europe beyond the Mediterranean peninsulas. To further investigate phylogeographic features of the European pine marten (Martes martes) in previously identified cryptic refugia located in central-western

  5. Decapod crustacean assemblages off the West coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Fanelli

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Community structure and faunal composition of decapod crustaceans off the west coast of central Italy (western Mediterranean were investigated. Samples were collected during five trawl surveys carried out from June 1996 to June 2000 from 16 to 750 m depth. Multivariate analysis revealed the occurrence of five faunistic assemblages: 1 a strictly coastal community over sandy bottoms at depths

  6. 77 FR 8758 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species; High...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... Management of Highly Migratory Fish Stocks in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean (Convention). These regulations would implement certain decisions of the Commission for the Conservation and Management of Highly... Convention focuses on the conservation and management of HMS and the management of fisheries for HMS. As a...

  7. Chloroplast DNA variation of oaks in western Central Europe and genetic consequences of human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, A.O.; Ziegenhagen, B.; Dam, van B.C.; Csaikl, U.M.; Coart, E.; Degen, B.; Burg, K.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Petit, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Oak chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was studied in a grid-based inventory in western Central Europe, including Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the northern parts of Upper and Lower Austria. A total of 2155 trees representing 426 populations of Quercus robur

  8. LITHOSPHERIC STRUCTURE OF THE CARPATHIAN-PANNONIAN REGION BASED ON THE GRAVITY MODELING BY INTEGRATING THE CELEBRATION2000 SEISMIC EXPERIMENT AND NEW GEOPHYSICAL RESULTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bielik, M.; Alasonati Tašárová, Z.; Zeyen, H. J.; Afonso, J.; Goetze, H.; Dérerová, J.

    2009-12-01

    Two different methods for the 3-D interpretation of the gravity field have been applied to the study of the structure and tectonics of the Carpathian-Pannonian lithosphere. The first (second) method provided a set of the different stripped gravity maps (the new lithosphere thickness map). The contribution presents the interpretation of the gravity field, which takes into account the CELEBRATION2000 seismic as well as new geophysical results. The sediment stripped gravity map is characterized by gravity minima in the Eastern Alps and Western Carpathians, and gravity maxima in the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system and the European platform. The gravity low in the Eastern Alps is produced by the thick crust (more than 45 km). The Western Carpathian gravity minimum is a result of the interference of two main gravitational effects. The first one comes from the low-density sediments of the Outer Western Carpathians and Carpathian Foredeep. The second one is due to the thick low-density upper and middle crust, reaching up to 25 km. In the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system can be observed the regional gravity high which is a result of the gravity effect of the anomalously shallow Moho. The most dominant feature of the complete 3-D stripped gravity map (crustal gravity effect map) is the abrupt change of the gravity field along the Klippen Belt zone. While the European platform is characterized by positive anomalies, the Western Carpathian orogen and the Pannonian Back-arc Basin system by relatively long-wavelength gravity low (several hundred kilometers). The lowest values are associated with the thick low-density upper and middle crust of the Inner Western Carpathians. That is why we suggest that the European Platform consists of the significantly denser crust with respect to the less dense crust of the microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia. The contrast in the gravity fields over the European platform and microplates ALCAPA and Tisza-Dacia reflect also their different crustal

  9. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  10. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... invited to participate, living in three areas of Greenland and in Denmark. MEASUREMENTS: Height, weight, waist and hip circumferences were measured and body mass index (BMI in kg/m(2)) and waist-hip ratio calculated. Sociocultural information was obtained by questionnaire and interview. Westernization...... was estimated by language and place of residence. RESULTS: The prevalence of obesity (>or=30 kg/m(2)) was 16 and 22% among men and women in Greenland (P=0.004), and 12 and 11%, respectively, in Denmark (NS). Westernization was accompanied by a decrease in the proportion of obese people, in particular among...

  11. Potassium-argon age determination of crystalline complexes of West Carpathians and preliminary result interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, P.Kh.; Veselsky, I.

    1977-01-01

    Results obtained using the K-Ar method and comparing them with the results obtained by radiometric and palaeontological methods in general confirm the palaeozoic age of crystalline rocks in the Western Carpathians. The existence of Precambrian rocks in this region may be assumed although there is still no geochronological evidence to this. The solution of this problem will reguire also Rb-Sr isochronous and U-Th-Pb absolute dating. (author)

  12. Geologic setting and chemical characteristics of hot springs in central and western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.; Barnes, Ivan; Pattan, William Wallace

    1973-01-01

    Numerous hot springs occur in a variety of geologic provinces in central and western Alaska. Granitic plutons are common to all the provinces and the hot springs are spatially associated with the contacts of these plutons. Of 23 hot springs whose bedrock geology is known, all occur within 3 miles of a granitic pluton. The occurrence of hot springs, however, appears to be independent of the age, composition, or magmatic history of the pluton.

  13. Development of Innovative Tools and Models for Vocational Education and Training in Central and Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Moldovan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an initiative developed by two partner universities from Romania and Norway entitled „Innovative Tools and models for Vocational Education and Training in Central and western Romania” (MoVE-IT financed by SEE mechanism [1]. It has the priority to develop human resource through promotion of education and training, by means of distance learning. The objective, legal issues, outcome and results and envisaged impact of the project are presented.

  14. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  15. Biodiversity of deep-sea demersal megafauna in western and central Mediterranean basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Tecchio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance, biomass and diversity patterns of bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean megafauna (fishes and invertebrates were analyzed in the western Balearic Sea, the western Ionian Sea and the eastern Ionian Sea. Sampling was conducted with a Otter-trawl Maireta System (OTMS at depths ranging from 600 to 4000 m. A series of ecological indicators were computed: total abundance and biomass, Margalef species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou’s index of evenness. A multidimensional scaling was applied, indicating that the megafauna communities were grouped by depth, while geographic area had a less defined influence. Margalef richness declined with depth in all three areas, but more steeply in the western Ionian Sea. Pielou’s evenness behaved differently in the three zones, showing a V-shaped curve in the eastern Ionian while showing a decreasing pattern in the other two areas. At lower slope depths, massive presence of the fishes Alepocephalus rostratus in the western basin and Bathypterois mediterraneus in the central basin caused a sharp reduction in evenness.

  16. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  17. Comparative account of macrofouling ecology at Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay, central western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The extent and the nature of fouling were studied on mild steel, aluminum, and stainless steel panels at the Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay on the central western coast of India. In addition, cathodically protected and unprotected panels...

  18. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrios, S.; Florido, P.; Reguilon, R.

    2010-01-01

    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  19. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  20. Defining conditions of garnet growth across the central and southern Menderes Massif, western Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etzel, T. M.; Catlos, E. J.; Kelly, E. D.; Cemen, I.; Ozerdem, C.; Atakturk, K. R.

    2017-12-01

    Here we apply thermodynamic modeling using Theriak-Domino to garnet-bearing rocks from the central and southern portions of the Menderes Massif to gain insight into the dynamics of western Turkey as the region experienced a transition from collisional to extensional tectonics. To this end, we report new pressure-temperature (P-T) paths from garnet-bearing rocks collected along the Alasehir detachment fault, a prominent exhumation structure in the central portion of the Menderes Massif in western Turkey, constituting the southern margin of the Alasehir Graben. These paths are compared to those from the Selimiye shear zone in the Southern (Cine) Massif. Two Alasehir garnets collected from the same outcrop record two P-T paths: 1) a prograde path beginning at 565oC and 6.4 kbar increasing to 592 oC and 7.5 kbar; and 2) near isobaric growth initiating at 531oC and 7.1 kbar and terminating at 571oC and 7.3 kbar. High-resolution P-T paths could not be modeled for the majority of Alasehir samples due to diffusional modification of garnet. However, conditions were estimated by garnet isopleth thermobarometry at the point of highest spessartine content for each crystal. Calculated P-T values for this subset of samples range between 566-651oC and 6.2-6.8 kbar. Despite this broad range, these P-T conditions are consistent with what is observed in the modeled paths. Th-Pb ages of matrix monazite range from 35.8±3.0 to 20.6±2.4 Ma, suggesting metamorphism in the central Menderes Massif occurred over a 15 m.y. period. Selimiye shear zone rocks show distinct N-shaped P-T paths, suggesting garnets in the central and southern portion of the Menderes Massif record distinctly different tectonic histories.

  1. Does Institutional Trust in East Central Europe Differ from Western Europe?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Boda

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Compared to Western European countries, the new democracies of East Central Europe (ECE demonstrate substantially lower levels of institutional trust. Some authors consider this phenomenon as a consequence of the transition process and raise concerns about the public approval and legitimacy of ECE political systems and institutions. Based on the datasets of the European Social Survey (ESS, in this paper we aim to address this issue by shedding light on the possible differences between old and new European democracies regarding the origins and patterns of institutional trust. We especially focus on the micro-level foundations of institutional trust and through a quantitative analysis of the 2010 ESS dataset we find that, overall, similarly to Western Europe, institutional trust in ECE is positively associated with success in social and economic life. We also find that relative to westerners, ECE citizens demonstrate comparable degrees of “materialistic trust” as income levels and trust in institutions are similarly associated with each other across these countries even after controlling for several socio-economic characteristics. In addition, the citizens of new European democracies seem to be equally ready to formulate separate evaluative attitudes towards specific institutions. Our findings suggest that in order to explain the persistently low levels of trust in ECE a greater emphasis should be devoted to how people perceive institutional performance when they formulate their trust judgements towards specific institutions.

  2. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. The input from these sources aided in the identification of significant issues, possible alternatives to the proposed actions, and potential mitigating measures

  3. Gulf of Mexico Sales 142 and 143: Central and western planning areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-11-01

    This environmental impact statement (EIS) addresses two proposed Federal actions, lease Sales 142 and 143, that will offer for lease Gulf of Mexico Outer Continental Shelf (OCS) areas that may contain economically recoverable oil and gas resources. The lease sales are proposed for 1993 and include lease blocks in the Central Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (CPA) and Western Gulf of Mexico Planning Area (WPA). Up to 10,099 blocks will be available for lease under the two proposed actions; only a small percentage is expected to be actually leased. On average, 401 blocks in the Central Gulf and 264 blocks in the Western Gulf have been leased in individual Gulf of Mexico OCS lease sales since 1984. Of the blocks that will be leased as a result of the two proposed actions, only a portion will be drilled and result in subsequent production. The scoping process was used to obtain information and comments on the proposed actions and the potential environmental effects from diverse interests, including the affected States, Federal agencies, the petroleum industry, environmental and public interest groups, and concerned individuals. This volume, Volume 2, reports on impacts from Sales 142 and 143

  4. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  5. Study of movement of the western and central belts of Peninsular Malaysia using GPS data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Siti Hafizah; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Since the large earthquakes in Sumatera and Nias, there were some tremors incidents at Bukit Tinggi. Therefore, a study on the earth’s crust movement and the effects of the earthquake in Indonesia on the tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia have been carried out using GPS data analysis. GPS data from five MyRTKnet stations within Peninsular Malaysia have been analyzed to monitor the movement of two major tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia which are the western belt represented by the Behrang (BEHR) and UPM Serdang (UPMS) stations and the central belt represented by Bentong (BENT), Jerantut (JRNT) and Temerloh (TLOH) stations. GPS data recorded from 2005 to 2010 were analysed based on horizontal and vertical displacements of the respective stations by using Trimble Business Centre (TBC) software. Based on the results of accumulated displacements of recorded GPS data from January 2006 to December 2013, it shows that the western belt which represented by UPMS has shifted 0.096m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of +0.030m while the central belt which represented by TLOH has shifted 0.080m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of −0.015m. Meanwhile, BENT station which is located on the Bentong-Raub suture zone turns to its original position as well as JRNT station. However, BEHR station which are located in western belt do not show any movements. All of these movements may be due to the influence of reactive faults in the stations area stimulated by several large earthquakes that occurred in 2005 to 2010. Study on using the GPS data analysis and combine with integrated geophysical methods are necessary to understand in detail about the tectonic evolution of Peninsular Malaysia.

  6. Shear-Wave Splitting Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2012-12-01

    trend observed in the Pannonian Basin, Eastern Carpathians, and East European and Moesian Platforms. From the delay times, which vary between 0.96 and 2.73 seconds, we infer a thickness of the anisotropic media beneath the stations to be between ~100 km and 300 km (assuming normal strength of anisotropy), i.e., clearly extending beneath the thin lithosphere of the Transylvanian Basin. We interpret the fast polarization azimuths as local mantle flow around the Vrancea seismic body (also supported by GPS velocity vectors), and as regional flow constrained to parallel the western limit of the thick and rigid East European Platform. Given the strong splitting we observe in the region, the null splitting observed at IACB likely reflects propagation of near-vertically incident SK(K)S waves through an upper mantle region with near vertical anisotropic symmetry. Both asthenospheric downwelling as a result of the sinking Vrancea body, and asthenospheric upwelling, beneath nearby the recent Ciomadul volcano, would yield little or no splitting, as we observe.

  7. Hieracium glabrescens (Asteraceae Rediscovered in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hieracium glabrescens (F. W. Schultz Murr in the Carpathians is confirmed after over a century by a new locality from the Apuseni Mountains in Romania. This locality, very significant from the phytogeographical point of view, is disjoined ca 500 km from the nearest Balkan localities of the species. The origin of H. glabrescens in the Apuseni Mountains is briefly discussed.

  8. The Transylvanian Basin (Romania) and its relation to the Carpathian fold and thrust belt: Insights in gravitational salt tectonics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krezsek, Csaba [SNGN ROMGAZ, 4 Unirii 551025 Medias (Romania); Bally, Albert W. [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Rice, 6100 South Main Street, Houston, TX 77005-1892 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    Interpretation of regional seismic profiles, stratigraphic and sedimentologic data improved insights in the evolution of the Transylvanian Basin. The basin evolution was coeval with the post-Mid-Cretaceous to recent deformation of the Carpathian Mts. Four tectonostratigraphic megasequences are differentiated: Upper Cretaceous (rift), Paleogene (sag), Lower Miocene (flexural basin) and Middle to Upper Miocene (backarc sequence dominated by gravitational tectonics). The Mid-Miocene continental collision in the Eastern Carpathians is associated with the rising Carpathians. This uplift enhanced the differential load, which, together with the high heat flow induced by Late Miocene to Pliocene arc volcanism, triggered large-scale Mio-Pliocene gravity spreading of the salt overburden. This 'mega-slide' comprises three structural domains, as follows: extensional weld (upslope), contractional folds (central) and contractional toe thrust (downslope). The diapirs in the east indicate a pre-shortening reactive/passive growth stage. The central folds are mostly the result of late shortening. Basement involved thrusting uplifted the toe thrust domain by the Late Pliocene. The Late Neogene to recent Carpathians uplift, backarc volcanism and gravity spreading are largely coeval. (author)

  9. The Central-Western Mediterranean: Anomalous igneous activity in an anomalous collisional tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustrino, Michele; Duggen, Svend; Rosenberg, Claudio L.

    2011-01-01

    The central-western Mediterranean area is a key region for understanding the complex interaction between igneous activity and tectonics. In this review, the specific geochemical character of several 'subduction-related' Cenozoic igneous provinces are described with a view to identifying the processes responsible for the modifications of their sources. Different petrogenetic models are reviewed in the light of competing geological and geodynamic scenarios proposed in the literature. Plutonic rocks occur almost exclusively in the Eocene-Oligocene Periadriatic Province of the Alps while relatively minor plutonic bodies (mostly Miocene in age) crop out in N Morocco, S Spain and N Algeria. Igneous activity is otherwise confined to lava flows and dykes accompanied by relatively greater volumes of pyroclastic (often ignimbritic) products. Overall, the igneous activity spanned a wide temporal range, from middle Eocene (such as the Periadriatic Province) to the present (as in the Neapolitan of southern Italy). The magmatic products are mostly SiO 2-oversaturated, showing calcalkaline to high-K calcalcaline affinity, except in some areas (as in peninsular Italy) where potassic to ultrapotassic compositions prevail. The ultrapotassic magmas (which include leucitites to leucite-phonolites) are dominantly SiO 2-undersaturated, although rare, SiO 2-saturated (i.e., leucite-free lamproites) appear over much of this region, examples being in the Betics (southeast Spain), the northwest Alps, northeast Corsica (France), Tuscany (northwest Italy), southeast Tyrrhenian Sea (Cornacya Seamount) and possibly in the Tell region (northeast Algeria). Excepted for the Alpine case, subduction-related igneous activity is strictly linked to the formation of the Mediterranean Sea. This Sea, at least in its central and western sectors, is made up of several young (fertile vs. refractory mineralogy), the composition of the subducting plate (i.e., the type and amount of sediment cover and the

  10. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  11. Submarine canyons along the upper Sardinian slope (Central Western Mediterranean) as repositories for derelict fishing gears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cau, Alessandro; Alvito, Andrea; Moccia, Davide; Canese, Simonepietro; Pusceddu, Antonio; Rita, Cannas; Angiolillo, Michela; Follesa, Maria C

    2017-10-15

    By means of ROV surveys, we assessed the quantity, composition and bathymetric distribution of marine litter in 17 sites along the Sardinian continental margin (Central Western Mediterranean) at depths ranging from 100 to 480m. None of the investigated sites was litter free, but the mean density of litter (0.0175±0.0022itemsm -2 ) was lower than that reported from other Tyrrhenian regions. The difference in the total litter density among sites was negligible, but the density of derelict fishing gear (DFG) items (most of which ascribable to small scale fishery) in submarine canyons was higher in submarine canyons than in other habitats. Our result suggest that submarine canyons (known to be highly vulnerable ecosystems) act as major repositories of DFGs, and, therefore, we anticipate the need of specific measures aimed at minimizing the loss and abandonment of DFGs in submarine canyons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Accretionary and collisional orogenesis in the south domain of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Keda; Long, Xiaoping; Chen, Huayong; Sun, Min; Xiao, Wenjiao

    2018-03-01

    The Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB) was the result of long-lived multi-stage tectonic evolution, including Proterozoic to Paleozoic accretion and collision, Mesozoic intracontinental modification, and Cenozoic rapid deformation and uplift. The accretionary and collisional orogenesis of its early history generated a huge orogenic collage consisting of diverse tectonic units including island arcs, ophiolites, accretionary prisms, seamounts, oceanic plateaus and micro-continents. These incorporated orogenic components preserved valuable detailed information on orogenic process and continental crust growth, which make the CAOB a key region to understanding of continental evolution, mantle-crust interaction and associated mineralization. The western CAOB refers to the west region in North Xinjiang of China and circum-Balkash of Kazakhstan, with occurrences of the spectacular Kazakhstan orocline and its surrounding mountain belts. Because orogenic fabrics of this part mostly preserve their original features caused by the interactions among the southern Siberian active margin in the north and the Tarim Craton in the south, the western CAOB can be regarded as an ideal region to study the processes of the accretionary and collisional orogenesis and associated mineralization. Since a large number of researchers have been working on this region, research advances bloom strikingly in a short-time period. Therefore, we, in this special issue, focus on these new study advances on the south domain of the western CAOB, including the Kazakhstan collage system, Tianshan orogenic belt and Beishan region, and it is anticipated that this issue can draw more attention from the international research groups to be interested in the studies on orogenesis of the CAOB.

  13. Human effects in Holocene fire dynamics of Central Western Patagonia (~44° S, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Méndez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The forest-steppe ecotone of the eastern slope of the Andes in Central Western Patagonia (43°40'-49°15' S, Chile, South America provides a unique area for assessing long and short term dynamics between humans and past environments. Central Western Patagonian was a demographically marginal zone inhabited intermittently and with low intensity by hunter-gatherers during the Holocene. This paper adopts a novel approach in order to assess the relationship between trends in the archaeological, pollen and charcoal records. The recognition of temporal and spatial scales in both archaeology and paleoecology is crucial for defining roles in paleofire records. The main goal of the paper is to assess the role of climate and human beings as potential ignitors of wildfires by acknowledging the scales in which they operate and the different roles either one played in paleofire trends. We investigated a case study in the Cisnes River Valley where the frequencies and magnitudes of fire episodes – reconstructed from macro-charcoal particles from the Lake Shaman intermoraine sequence – can be attributed to human action, while acknowledging the driving role of climate over broader time scales. The Lake Shaman charcoal record spanning the last 19000 cal years is compared to the archaeological record starting at 11500 cal years BP. After comparing paleofires, reconstructed from the charcoal record, with peaks and troughs in the radiocarbon record and archaeological evidence at local and site scales, we argue that this approach provides insights for assessing the timing and magnitude of human effects on the environment. We examine collation and correlation scenarios for comparative trends between the archaeological, pollen and charcoal records. The correlation of occupational events at the El Chueco 1 archaeological site and other sites along the Cisnes River Valley with the results obtained at Lake Shaman is suggestive of a combination of human agency and

  14. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Sang-Wook; Park, Rokjin J.; Kim, Minjoong J.; Jeong, Jaein I.; Song, Chang-Keun

    2015-09-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contribute to reducing the precipitation in the western-to-central US through atmospheric teleconnections across the Pacific. Our model experiments show some indications that both the SST forcing and the increase in regional sulphate forcing in China play a similar role in modulating the western-to-central US precipitation, especially its long-term variation. This result indicates that regional air quality regulations in China have important implications for hydrological cycles in East Asia, as well as in the US.

  15. Mesozoic to Eocene ductile deformation of western Central Iran: From Cimmerian collisional orogeny to Eocene exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargaranbafghi, Fariba; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann; Faghih, Ali; Kusky, Timothy

    2012-09-01

    To advance our understanding of the Mesozoic to Eocene tectonics and kinematics of basement units exposed in the south-western Central Iran plateau, this paper presents new structural and thermochronological data from the Chapedony metamorphic core complex and hangingwall units, particularly from the Posht-e-Badam complex. The overall Paleogene structural characteristics of the area are related to an oblique convergent zone. The Saghand area represents part of a deformation zone between the Arabian and Eurasian plates, and can be interpreted to result from the Central Iran intracontinental deformation acting as a weak zone during Mesozoic to Paleogene times. Field and microstructural evidence reveal that the metamorphic and igneous rocks suffered a ductile shear deformation including mylonitization at the hangingwall boundary of the Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex. Comparison of deformation features in the mylonites and other structural features within the footwall unit leads to the conclusion that the mylonites were formed in a subhorizontal shear zone by NE-SW stretching during Middle to Late Eocene extensional tectonics. The Chapedony metamorphic core complex is characterized by amphibolite-facies metamorphism and development of S and S-L tectonic fabrics. The Posht-e-Badam complex was deformed by two stages during Cimmerian tectonic processes forming the Paleo-Tethyan suture.

  16. Intermontane eolian sand sheet development, Upper Tulum Valley, central-western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Francisco Fuhr Dal' Bó

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe intermontane Upper Tulum eolian sand sheet covers an area of ca. 125 km² at north of the San Juan Province, central-western Argentina. The sand sheet is currently an aggrading system where vegetation cover, surface cementation and periodic flooding withhold the development of dunes with slipfaces. The sand sheet surface is divided into three parts according to the distribution of sedimentary features, which reflects the variation in sediment budget, water table level and periodic flooding. The central sand sheet part is the main area of eolian deposition and is largely stabilized by vegetation. The sedimentary succession is 4 m thick and records the vertical interbedding of eolian and subaqueous deposits, which have been deposited for at least 3.6 ky with sedimentation rates of 86.1 cm/ky. The construction of the sand sheet is associated with deflation of the sand-graded debris sourced by San Juan alluvial fan, which is available mainly in drier fall-winter months where water table is lower and wind speeds are periodically above the threshold velocity for sand transport. The accumulation of sedimentary bodies occurs in a stabilized eolian system where vegetation cover, thin mud veneers and surface cementation are the main agents in promoting accumulation. The preservation of the sand sheet accumulations is enabled by the progressive creation of the accommodation space in a tectonically active basin and the continuous burial of geological bodies favored by high rates of sedimentation.

  17. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be

  18. Report on Transparency. Final version CWE. IG Transparency. Electricity Regional Initiative Central Western Regional Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2007-12-01

    The Central Western Electricity Regional Energy Market (REM), which is a part of ERGEG's Electricity Regional Initiative, is engaged in harmonizing congestion management and transparency in the Central Western electricity market consisting of Belgium, France, Germany, Luxemburg and The Netherlands. his report contains transparency requirements based on the Congestion Management Guidelines (Commission Decision of 9 November 2006, 2006/770/EC, amending the Annex to Regulation (EC) 1228/2003 on conditions for access to transmission network for cross-border exchanges in electricity, hereinafter cited as CM Guidelines) but taking also into account ERGEG Guidelines of Good Practice on Information Management and Transparency (GGP-IMT). Generally, the basis for harmonization of the transparency rules within the Central Western REM is provided by this report. However, there are some restrictions, it has to be stressed that the report only refers to the information requirements set out in the CM Guidelines that are regularly updated. Also, national publication requirements which might go beyond what is prescribed here are not touched. Furthermore, the change of the market design or the legal background might require adoptions of the publication requirements foreseen in this report. One of the main impediments identified by the regulators was the data delivery from generation and consumption units located in the distribution grids. Market participants concerned (also generators and significant consumption units) are obliged to provide the TSOs responsible for publication of all relevant data concerning cross-border trade according to point 5.5 CM Guidelines, with the relevant data. Therefore, TSOs shall be able to get data from generators and significant consumption units connected to the transmission network. Consequently, it is proposed here that each NRA or other competent authority could oblige DSOs to provide data on generation connected to distribution grids to the TSOs

  19. Geochronology, geochemistry and tectonic evolution of the Western and Central cordilleras of Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez, Diego; Spikings, Richard; Magna, Tomas; Kammer, Andreas; Winkler, Wilfried; Beltrán, Alejandro

    2011-08-01

    Autochthonous rocks of the pre-Cretaceous continental margin of NW South America (the Tahami Terrane) are juxtaposed against a series of para-autochthonous rock units that assembled during the Early Cretaceous. Allochthonous, oceanic crust of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province collided with and accreted onto the margin during the Late Cretaceous. We present the first regional-scale dataset of zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS ages for intrusive and metamorphic rocks of the autochthonous Tahami Terrane, Early Cretaceous igneous para-autochthonous rocks and accreted oceanic crust. The U-Pb zircon data are complemented by multiphase 40Ar/ 39Ar crystallization and cooling ages. The geochronological data are combined with whole rock major oxide, trace element and REE data acquired from the same units to constrain the tectonic origin of the rock units and terranes exposed in the Western Cordillera, Cauca-Patía Valley and the Central Cordillera of Colombia. The Tahami Terrane includes lower Paleozoic orthogneisses (~ 440 Ma) that may have erupted during the active margin stage of the Rheic Ocean. Basement gneisses were intruded by Permian, continental arc granites during the final assembly of Pangea. Triassic sedimentary rocks were subsequently deposited in rift basins and partially melted during high-T metamorphism associated with rifting of western Pangea during 240-220 Ma. Continental arc magmatism during 180-145 Ma is preserved along the whole length of the Central Cordillera and was followed by an Early Cretaceous out-board step of the arc axis and the inception of the Quebradagrande Arc that fringed the continental margin. Back-stepping of the arc axis may have been caused by the collision of buoyant seamounts, which were coeval with plateau rocks exposed in the Nicoya Peninsular of Costa Rica. Rapid westward drift of South America closed the Quebradagrande basin in the late Aptian and caused medium-high P-T metamorphic rocks of the Arquía Complex to exhume and obduct onto

  20. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), Interior. ACTION: Notice of availability...

  1. Sociological Variables Perceived in the Study of Ghanaian Languages in Central and Western Regional Colleges of Education in Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaicoe, Kate; Adams, Francis Hull; Bersah, Vivian Adoboah; Baah, Kwabena Appiah

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted in two Colleges of Education in the Western and Central Regions of Ghana to find out how Colleges of Education students and tutors perceive the study of Ghanaian Languages. The target population comprised all staff and students of the Colleges of Education but the accessible population comprised students and tutors of the…

  2. Breastfeeding rates in central and western China in 2010: implications for child and population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sufang; Fu, Xulan; Scherpbier, Robert W; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Hong; Wang, Xiaoli; Hipgrave, David B

    2013-05-01

    To describe breastfeeding practices in rural China using globally recommended indicators and to compare them with practices in neighbouring countries and large emerging economies. A community-based, cross-sectional survey of 2354 children younger than 2 years in 26 poor, rural counties in 12 central and western provinces was conducted. Associations between indicators of infant and young child feeding and socioeconomic, demographic and health service variables were explored and rates were compared with the most recent data from China and other nations. Overall, 98.3% of infants had been breastfed. However, only 59.4% had initiated breastfeeding early (i.e. within 1 hour of birth); only 55.5% and 9.4% had continued breastfeeding for 1 and 2 years, respectively, and only 28.7% of infants younger than 6 months had been exclusively breastfed. Early initiation of breastfeeding was positively associated with at least five antenatal clinic visits (adjusted odds ratio, aOR: 3.48; P wealth. Surveyed rates of exclusive and continued breastfeeding were mostly lower than in other nations. Despite efforts to promote breastfeeding in China, rates are very low. A commitment to improve infant and young child feeding is needed to reduce mortality and morbidity.

  3. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the results obtained by applying the Arnason Schwartz multistate mark-recapture model to eight years of data collected in and around a small no-fishing marine protected area (MPA; 4 km2 in the central western Mediterranean. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 4044 specimens of Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787 were tagged and 317 recaptured. The most parsimonious model which best explained the data variability was that of a temporally constant rate of apparent survival and movement in each of the two strata. The absence of any temporal influence in the apparent survival rate inside the no-take area suggested that spillover and mortality are constant for each period of the study. The lower apparent survival rate in surrounding zones than inside the MPA (0.26 ± 0.04 (SE vs 0.94 ± 0.03 (SE is presumed to be a function of fishing effort. A continuous movement of P. elephas across the boundary of the small MPA was also tested. This information on retention of lobsters in the MPA contributes to our understanding of the effect of introducing MPAs into a managed commercial fishery system.

  4. Within-plate Cenozoic Volcanism and Mantle Sources Within The Western-central Mediterranean Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beccaluva, L.; Bianchini, G.; Bonadiman, C.; Coltorti, M.; Siena, F.

    An integrated study of anorogenic basic magmas and entrained mantle xenoliths rep- resents a promising approach for a comprehension of the magmatogenic events occur- ring within the lithospheric mantle in the western-central Mediterranean area. In this contribution we review the geochemical characteristics of mafic lavas and associated peridotite xenoliths from three anorogenic volcanic districts: Pliocene-Quaternary vol- canism of Sardinia; Pliocene-Quaternary volcanism of the Iblean area (eastern Sicily); Paleocene-Oligocene Veneto Volcanic Province. Investigations have been focused on 1) petrological features of parental magmas, which may contribute to infer the com- positional characteristics of mantle sources and to constrain the modes of partial melt- ing; 2) modelling the depletion events and metasomatic enrichments in mantle xeno- liths of the three volcanic districts, as well as the nature of their causative agents. Petrological features and Sr-Nd-Pb isotopic data, both of lava and xenoliths, indicate that DM+HIMU components distinguish the lithospheric mantle sections of Iblean and Veneto Volcanic Provinces. On the other hand, lavas and xenoliths from Sardinia display a significant different isotopic signature characterised by DM+EM1. Similar geochemical fingerprints, i.e. the significant presence of EM components are gener- ally recorded by mafic lavas and mantle xenoliths from the European Plate, whereas they are not observed in the stable African lithospheric domain.

  5. Soil classification based on cone penetration test (CPT) data in Western Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apriyono, Arwan; Yanto, Santoso, Purwanto Bekti; Sumiyanto

    2018-03-01

    This study presents a modified friction ratio range for soil classification i.e. gravel, sand, silt & clay and peat, using CPT data in Western Central Java. The CPT data was obtained solely from Soil Mechanic Laboratory of Jenderal Soedirman University that covers more than 300 sites within the study area. About 197 data were produced from data filtering process. IDW method was employed to interpolated friction ratio values in a regular grid point for soil classification map generation. Soil classification map was generated and presented using QGIS software. In addition, soil classification map with respect to modified friction ratio range was validated using 10% of total measurements. The result shows that silt and clay dominate soil type in the study area, which is in agreement with two popular methods namely Begemann and Vos. However, the modified friction ratio range produces 85% similarity with laboratory measurements whereby Begemann and Vos method yields 70% similarity. In addition, modified friction ratio range can effectively distinguish fine and coarse grains, thus useful for soil classification and subsequently for landslide analysis. Therefore, modified friction ratio range proposed in this study can be used to identify soil type for mountainous tropical region.

  6. Seafloor classification using artificial neural network architecture from central western continental shelf of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahale, Vasudev; Chakraborty, Bishwajit; Navelkar, Gajanan S.; Prabhu Desai, R. G.

    2005-04-01

    Seafloor classification studies are carried out at the central western continental shelf of India employing two frequency normal incidence single beam echo-sounder backscatter data. Echo waveform data from different seafloor sediment areas are utilized for present study. Three artificial neural network (ANN) architectures, e.g., Self-Organization Feature Maps (SOFM), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP), and Learning Vector Quantization (LVQ) are applied for seafloor classifications. In case of MLP, features are extracted from the received echo signal, on the basis of which, classification is carried out. In the case of the SOFM, a simple moving average echo waveform pre-processing technique is found to yield excellent classification results. Finally, LVQ, which is known as ANN of hybrid architecture is found to be the efficient seafloor classifier especially from the point of view of the real-time application. The simultaneously acquired sediment sample, multi-beam bathymetry and side scan sonar and echo waveform based seafloor classifications results are indicative of the depositional (inner shelf), non-depositional or erosion (outer shelf) environment and combination of both in the transition zone. [Work supported by DIT.

  7. Increasing large scale windstorm damage in Western, Central and Northern European forests, 1951-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregow, H.; Laaksonen, A.; Alper, M. E.

    2017-04-01

    Using reports of forest losses caused directly by large scale windstorms (or primary damage, PD) from the European forest institute database (comprising 276 PD reports from 1951-2010), total growing stock (TGS) statistics of European forests and the daily North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, we identify a statistically significant change in storm intensity in Western, Central and Northern Europe (17 countries). Using the validated set of storms, we found that the year 1990 represents a change-point at which the average intensity of the most destructive storms indicated by PD/TGS > 0.08% increased by more than a factor of three. A likelihood ratio test provides strong evidence that the change-point represents a real shift in the statistical behaviour of the time series. All but one of the seven catastrophic storms (PD/TGS > 0.2%) occurred since 1990. Additionally, we detected a related decrease in September-November PD/TGS and an increase in December-February PD/TGS. Our analyses point to the possibility that the impact of climate change on the North Atlantic storms hitting Europe has started during the last two and half decades.

  8. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  9. Stable isotopes and maize consumption in Central Western Argentina: Temporal and Spatial trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gil, Adolfo F; Neme, Gustavo A; Tykof, Roben H

    2010-01-01

    This work explores the chronological and spatial variability of collagen and apatite δ 13 C and collagen δ 15 N values for human remains, in order to evaluate the incorporation of corn in the diet in central-western Argentina, the pre-Hispanic Southern limit of American agriculture. The study includes 104 samples of archaeological human remains recovered from sites between 32 o and 40 o S and with chronologies spanning the last 6,000 years. The research also presents information on the isotopic ecology of the region. The δ 13 C results show a low correlation with both latitude and time. The individuals who appear to have a significant amount of maize in the diet are from the northemmost sector and date to the last 1,500 years. Despite that tendency, however, there is extensive variability among all individuals, including those from the same time and place. The results weaken the supposed gradual dispersion in space and time of corn, showing instead a high degree of heterogeneity for the importance of maize near the southern limit of its agricultural diffusion [es

  10. The warming trend of ground surface temperature in the Choshui Alluvial Fan, western central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W.; Chang, M.; Chen, J.; Lu, W.; Huang, C. C.; Wang, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Heat storage in subsurface of the continents forms a fundamental component of the global energy budget and plays an important role in the climate system. Several researches revealed that subsurface temperatures were being increased to 1.8-2.8°C higher in mean ground surface temperature (GST) for some Asian cities where are experiencing a rapid growth of population. Taiwan is a subtropic-tropic island with densely populated in the coastal plains surrounding its mountains. We investigate the subsurface temperature distribution and the borehole temperature-depth profiles by using groundwater monitoring wells in years 2000 and 2010. Our data show that the western central Taiwan plain also has been experiencing a warming trend but with a higher temperatures approximately 3-4 °C of GST during the last 250 yrs. We suggest that the warming were mostly due to the land change to urbanization and agriculture. The current GSTs from our wells are approximately 25.51-26.79 °C which are higher than the current surface air temperature (SAT) of 23.65 °C. Data from Taiwan's weather stations also show 1-1.5 °C higher for the GST than the SAT at neighboring stations. The earth surface heat balance data indicate that GST higher than SAT is reasonable. More researches are needed to evaluate the interaction of GST and SAT, and how a warming GST's impact to the SAT and the climate system of the Earth.

  11. Socio-economic circumstances and food habits in Eastern, Central and Western European populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boylan, Sinéad; Lallukka, Tea; Lahelma, Eero; Pikhart, Hynek; Malyutina, Sofia; Pajak, Andrzej; Kubinova, Ruzena; Bragina, Oksana; Stepaniak, Urszula; Gillis-Januszewska, Aleksandra; Simonova, Galina; Peasey, Anne; Bobak, Martin

    2011-04-01

    To assess the relationship between several socio-economic indicators and frequency of consumption of seven predefined healthy foods (consumption of fruit, vegetables, wholegrain bread, vegetable-fat spread, vegetable cooking fat, low-fat milk and low-fat cheese) in populations from Eastern, Central and Western Europe. Analysis of baseline data collected in two cross-sectional cohort studies between 2000 and 2005: the Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors In Eastern Europe (HAPIEE) study and the Finnish Helsinki Health Study (HHS). Urban populations in the Czech Republic, Russia, Poland and Finland. In the HAPIEE study, random samples of men and women aged 45-69 years were drawn from population registers and electoral lists of selected cities. In the HHS, men and women aged 40-60 years employed by the City of Helsinki were recruited. Data on 21,326 working subjects from both cohorts were analysed. Healthy food habits were, in general, positively associated with higher education, occupational position and fewer economic difficulties, but there were differences in the strength of the gradient by food and country. Fruit consumption showed the most consistent gradients, especially in relation to socio-economic status among men (country-specific relative index of inequality (RII)=2.02-5.17) and women (RII=2.09-3.57). The associations between socio-economic indicators and healthy food habits showed heterogeneity between countries. Future studies of dietary behaviours should consider multiple measures of socio-economic position.

  12. Congestion management through topological corrections: A case study of Central Western Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Jinil; Papavasiliou, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    The integration of an increasing amount of renewable generation within Europe is posing operational challenges that require various balancing actions. System operators therefore need to rely increasingly on the active control of the transmission network. Transmission topology control is a fast and economical option to add flexibility to the transmission system. We model the current methodology for controlling congestion in the Central Western European (CWE) market and quantify the benefits of topology control. We also compare the results with a nodal pricing model. Our computational results suggest that topology control can significantly reduce congestion management costs under the current market coupling regime whereas the benefits of topology control are limited under nodal pricing. Topology control emerges as an attractive and implementable means of managing congestion as it provides a significant percentage of the cost savings that would be achieved by overhauling the existing European market design and shifting to a nodal pricing regime. - Highlights: • We present the congestion management model in the CWE region. • The benefits of topology control in the CWE region are quantified. • Topology control significantly reduce congestion under the current market coupling. • The benefits of topology control are limited under the nodal pricing regime. • Network topology control is a promising option for mitigating congestion in Europe.

  13. Long-time duration of gravitaty induced caves versus landslide aktivity in the Late Glacial-Holocene. Polish Flysch Carpathians case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margielewski, W.; Urban, J.; Zernitskaya, V.; Žák, Karel; Szura, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 120 (2017), s. 30-32 ISSN 0944-4122. [Central European Geomorphology Conference /4./. 09.10.2017-13.10.2017, Bayreuth] Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : caves * Late Glacial-Holocene * Polish Flysch Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy

  14. Early anthropogenic impact on Western Central African rainforests 2,600 y ago

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcin, Yannick; Deschamps, Pierre; Ménot, Guillemette; de Saulieu, Geoffroy; Schefuß, Enno; Sebag, David; Dupont, Lydie M.; Oslisly, Richard; Brademann, Brian; Mbusnum, Kevin G.; Onana, Jean-Michel; Ako, Andrew A.; Epp, Laura S.; Tjallingii, Rik; Strecker, Manfred R.; Brauer, Achim; Sachse, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    A potential human footprint on Western Central African rainforests before the Common Era has become the focus of an ongoing controversy. Between 3,000 y ago and 2,000 y ago, regional pollen sequences indicate a replacement of mature rainforests by a forest–savannah mosaic including pioneer trees. Although some studies suggested an anthropogenic influence on this forest fragmentation, current interpretations based on pollen data attribute the ‘‘rainforest crisis’’ to climate change toward a drier, more seasonal climate. A rigorous test of this hypothesis, however, requires climate proxies independent of vegetation changes. Here we resolve this controversy through a continuous 10,500-y record of both vegetation and hydrological changes from Lake Barombi in Southwest Cameroon based on changes in carbon and hydrogen isotope compositions of plant waxes. δ13C-inferred vegetation changes confirm a prominent and abrupt appearance of C4 plants in the Lake Barombi catchment, at 2,600 calendar years before AD 1950 (cal y BP), followed by an equally sudden return to rainforest vegetation at 2,020 cal y BP. δD values from the same plant wax compounds, however, show no simultaneous hydrological change. Based on the combination of these data with a comprehensive regional archaeological database we provide evidence that humans triggered the rainforest fragmentation 2,600 y ago. Our findings suggest that technological developments, including agricultural practices and iron metallurgy, possibly related to the large-scale Bantu expansion, significantly impacted the ecosystems before the Common Era.

  15. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  16. Climate in the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes over the last 4300 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Skrzypek, Grzegorz; Chuman, Tomáš; Šefrna, Luděk; Mihaljevič, Martin

    2014-09-01

    The Distichia peat core obtained in the Carhuasanta valley near Nevado Mismi, Cordillera Chila, provides information on climatic and environmental conditions over the last ˜4300 years. The relative changes in the stable carbon isotope composition of plant remains preserved in the core reflect major temperature fluctuations in the Western Cordillera of the southern Peruvian Andes. These temperature variations can be additionally linked with the changes in precipitation patterns by analysing C% and C/N ratio in the core. Relatively warm and moist conditions prevailed from 4280 to 3040 cal. yrs BP (BC 2330-1090) with a short colder dry episode around 3850 cal. yrs BP (BC 1900). The most prominent climate changes recorded in the peat occurred between 3040 and 2750 cal. yrs BP (BC 1090-800) when the initial warming turned to a rapid cooling to temperatures at least 2 °C lower than the mean for the Late Holocene. Initially drier conditions within this event turned to a short wet phase after 2780 cal. yrs BP (BC 830) when the temperature increased again. This event coincides with significant changes in peat and ice core records in the Central Andes matching the timing of the global climate event around 2.8 cal. ka BP. Climatic conditions in the study area became relatively dry and stable after the event for about 800 years. Highly variable temperatures and humidity prevailed during the last 2000 years when an extended warm and relatively humid period occurred between 640 and 155 cal. yrs BP (AD 1310-1795) followed by predominantly colder and drier conditions. The established δ13C peat record represents the first continuous proxy for the temperature in the southern Peruvian Andes dated by the AMS 14C. Distichia peat is wide spread in the Andes and the proposed approach can be applied elsewhere in high altitudes, where no other traditional climate proxies are available.

  17. Biofacies evidence for Late Cambrian low-paleolatitude oceans, western United State and central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, M.E. (Geological Survey, Denver, CO (United States)); Cook, H.E. (Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States)); Melnikova, L. (Palaeontological Inst., Moscow (Russian Federation))

    1991-02-01

    Biofacies that formed on carbonate platform-margin slopes adjacent to an early Paleozoic, low-paleolatitude paleoocean are contained in the Upper Cambrian Swarbrick Formation, Tyby Shale, and Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician Hales Limestone of the Hot Creek Range, Nevada, and the Upper Cambrian-lowest Ordovician part of the Shabakty Suite of the Malyi Karatau, southern Kazakhstan. These in-situ limestones formed in platform-margin slope and basin-plain environments. Shoal-water faunal assemblages occur in carbonate-turbidite and debris-flow deposits interbedded with in-situ deeper water assemblages of the submarine-fan facies. Abundant sponge spicules, geographically widespread benthic trilobites, and rare ostracodes occur in some of the in-situ beds. In contrast, the shoal-water platform environments were well oxygenated and contain mainly endemic trilobite assemblages. These biofacies characteristics support an interpretation that Late Cambrian oceans were poorly oxygenated, but not anoxic, below the surface mixing layer and that benthic trilobite faunas were widely distributed in response to the more-or-less continuous deep water, low-oxygen habitats. Elements of the Late Cambrian low-oxygen biofacies are widespread in the Tien Shan structural belt of China and the Soviet Union, in central and eastern China, and along the western margin of early Paleozoic North America. This facies distribution pattern defines the transition from low-paleolatitude, shoal-water carbonate platforms to open oceans which have since been destroyed by pre-Late Ordovician and pre-middle Paleozoic Paleotectonic activity.

  18. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered. Five NUTS-2 (Nomenclature d'Unites Territoriales Statistiques) regions with high biomass production potentials in Poland, Romania, Hungary and the Czech Republic were analysed for biofuel export options. From these regions pellets from willow can be provided to destination areas in Western European countries (WEC) at costs of 105.2-219.8 EUR t -1 . Ethanol can be provided at 11.95-20.89 EUR per GJ if the biomass conversion is performed at the destination areas in the WEC or at 14.84-17.83 EUR GJ -1 J if the biomass to ethanol conversion takes place (at small scale) at the CEEC region where the biomass is produced. Short sea shipping shows most cost advantages for longer distance international transport compared to inland waterway shipping and railway. Another reason for lower biofuel supply costs are shorter distances between the regions of biomass production and the destination areas. Therefore the Szczecin region in Poland, closely located to the Baltic Sea, shows a better economic performance for long distance trade of biomass production than the selected region in Hungary ('land-locked'). It is concluded that in future key CEEC regions can supply (pre-treated) biomass and biofuels to the European market at cost levels, which are sound and attractive to current and expected diesel and gasoline prices. (author)

  19. Mineralogy and geothermometry of high-temperature rhyolites from the central and western Snake River Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, N.; Bonnichsen, B.; Leeman, W.P.; Stormer, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    Voluminous mid-Miocene rhyolitic ash-flow tuffs and lava flows are exposed along the northern and southern margins of the central and western Snake River Plain. These rhyolites are essentially anhydrous with the general mineral assemblage of plagioclase ??sanidine ?? quartz + augite + pigeonite ?? hypersthene ?? fayalitic olivine + Fe-Ti oxides + apatite + zircon which provides an opportunity to compare feldspar, pyroxene, and Fe-Ti oxide equilibration temperatures for the same rocks. Estimated pyroxene equilibration temperatures (based on the geothermometers of Lindsley and coworkers) range from 850 to 1000??C, and these are well correlated with whole-rock compositions. With the exception of one sample, agreement between the two-pyroxene thermometers tested is well within 50??C. Fe-Ti oxide geothermometers applied to fresh magnetite and ilmenite generally yield temperatures about 50 to 100??C lower than the pyroxene temperatures, and erratic results are obtained if these minerals exhibit effects of subsolidus oxidation and exsolution. Results of feldspar thermometry are more complicated, and reflect uncertainties in the thermometer calibrations as well as in the degree of attainment of equilibrium between plagioclase and sanidine. In general, temperatures obtained using the Ghiorso (1984) and Green and Usdansky (1986) feldspar thermometers agree with the pyroxene temperatures within the respective uncertainties. However, uncertainties in the feldspar temperatures are the larger of the two (and exceed ??60??C for many samples). The feldspar thermometer of Fuhrman and Lindsley (1988) produces systematically lower temperatures for many of the samples studied. The estimated pyroxene temperatures are considered most representative of actual magmatic temperatures for these rhyolites. This range of temperatures is significantly higher than those for rhyolites from many other suites, and is consistent with the hypothesis that the Snake River Plain rhyolitic magmas formed

  20. Correlation of proterozoic sediments of Western and Central Africa and South America based upon radiochronological and paleontological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonhomme, M.G.

    1982-01-01

    Nearly 70 new Rb-Sr isochron ages and many K-Ar conventional ages have been determined between 1975 and 1980 on Proterozoic sedimentary or metasedimentary sequences in western and Central Africa and South America. Some stratigraphic results have been established: (1) five formations have been dated of the Lower Proterozoic; (2) a long sedimentation gap occurs, mainly in western Africa and in some regions of Central Africa and South America between nearly 1600 and 1100 Ma; (3) the upper Riphean assemblages of stromatolites have been dated and compared to those of the Eurasian craton; (4) two main glacial events have been dated, the first one placed at ca. 950 Ma, the second during the Vendian, at ca. 650-620 Ma; (5) it can be stated that, when applied to Precambrian sequences, all stratigraphic methods must be used together. (Auth.)

  1. 77 FR 51709 - International Fisheries; Western and Central Pacific Fisheries for Highly Migratory Species...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... Migratory Species; Bigeye Tuna Catch Limit in Longline Fisheries for 2012 AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries... Fisheries of the Western Pacific Region (Pelagics FEP) developed by the Western Pacific Fishery Management... Pelagics FEP. Section 113(a) further directs the Secretary of Commerce, for the purposes of annual...

  2. Widespread Distribution of Trypodendron laeve in the Carpathian Mountains (Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolai Olenici

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Trypodendron laeve Eggers, 1939 is a species of ambrosia beetle much less known than the other three Trypodendron species occurring in Europe. Its status (native or alien in Central Europe has been a subject of debate over the past two decades. In Romania, the species was discovered in 2008 and the aim of the research presented in this paper was to investigate its distribution in the Carpathians, mainly at high altitudes (>800 m, in tree stands with Norway spruce (Picea abies [L.] H. Karst. Panel intercept traps baited with synthetic pheromone for Trypodendron lineatum (Olivier, 1795 were used in the spring of 2015, at 31 locations. Adults of T. laeve were caught in 20 of them. Additional observations were made within some studies using similar baits and T. laeve specimens were caught in eight locations. T. laeve was always trapped together with T. lineatum, and at some locations also together with T. domesticum (Linnaeus, 1758 and T. signatum (Fabricius, 1787. In all traps, fewer specimens of T. laeve were caught compared to T. lineatum. The species has a widespread distribution in the mountain regions, within forests composed of native tree species and generally located far away from commercial routes. There, it occurs together with other native species of the same taxonomic genus. It seems to be more abundant at high altitudes, but overall its populations are less abundant than those of T. lineatum.

  3. The Case of Carpathian (Transylvanian) Gold and its Use for Archaeological Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stan, D.; Constantinescu, B.; Vasilescu, A.; Radtke, M.; Reinholz, U.; Pop, D.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Romania was one of Europe's main gold-producing areas since the antiquity, especially through the ore deposits in the "Golden Quadrilateral" of the Western Carpathians. The Babeş-Bolyai University in Cluj-Napoca hosts a gold collection consisting of about 500 samples, most of them from Roşia Montană. The geochemical investigation of Romanian gold by using SR-XRF and micro-PIXE is currently in progress; some preliminary results point to interesting features. The goal of the study is to verify if Transylvanian gold was used to manufacture Romanian archaeological objects. This is realized by using information related to trace elements: Sb, Te, Pb - recognized fingerprints for Carpathian Mountains mines and Sn characteristic for the panned river-bed (alluvional) gold. To solve these issues, samples (grains, nuggets, fine gold "sand") from various Transylvanian mines and rivers and some very small (few milligrams) fragments of archaeological objects are measured. Another outcome of this SR-XRF experiment is to obtain the elemental characterization (Au, Ag and Cu) of representative gold mines, subject of interest for the assignement of any other archaeological artifacts to one of the Central European gold sources. During the experiment, point spectra for 22 natural gold samples and 18 "micronic" samples from archaeological objects were acquired at 34 keV excitation SR energy, using a spatially resolved SR-XRF set-up mounted for analyses at the hard X-ray beam line - BAMline at BESSY, Berlin. A summary for the characterization of Transylvanian native gold is the following: high (8 - 30%) Ag amounts and low (0.2 - 1%) Cu amounts; placer deposits contain as fingerprint Sn (150-300 ppm) - most probably from river bed cassiterite; primary deposits present as fingerprints Te (200-2000 ppm), Sb (150-300 ppm) - however, the samples are very inhomogeneous. The micro-PIXE experiment was performed at the AN 2000 Van de Graaff accelerator of Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro

  4. Effect of anthropogenic sulphate aerosol in China on the drought in the western-to-central US

    OpenAIRE

    Sang-Wook Yeh; Rokjin J. Park; Minjoong J. Kim; Jaein I. Jeong; Chang-Keun Song

    2015-01-01

    In recent decades, droughts have occurred in the western-to-central United States (US), significantly affecting food production, water supplies, ecosystem health, and the propagation of vector-borne diseases. Previous studies have suggested natural sea surface temperature (SST) forcing in the Pacific as the main driver of precipitation deficits in the US. Here, we show that the aerosol forcing in China, which has been known to alter the regional hydrological cycle in East Asia, may also contr...

  5. Faults in parts of north-central and western Houston metropolitan area, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Earl R.; Ratzlaff, Karl W.; Clanton, Uel S.

    1979-01-01

    Hundreds of residential, commercial, and industrial structures in the Houston metropolitan area have sustained moderate to severe damage owing to their locations on or near active faults. Paved roads have been offset by faults at hundreds of locations, butted pipelines have been distorted by fault movements, and fault-induced gradient changes in drainage lines have raised concern among flood control engineers. Over 150 faults, many of them moving at rates of 0.5 to 2 cm/yr, have been mapped in the Houston area; the number of faults probably far exceeds this figure.This report includes a map of eight faults, in north-central and western Houston, at a scale useful for land-use planning. Seven of the faults, are known, to be active and have caused considerable damage to structures built on or near them. If the eighth fault is active, it may be of concern to new developments on the west side of Houston. A ninth feature shown on the map is regarded only as a possible fault, as an origin by faulting has not been firmly established.Seismic and drill-hold data for some 40 faults, studied in detail by various investigators have verified connections between scarps at the land surface and growth faults in the shallow subsurface. Some scarps, then, are known to be the surface manifestations of faults that have geologically long histories of movement. The degree to which natural geologic processes contribute to current fault movement, however, is unclear, for some of man’s activities may play a role in faulting as well.Evidence that current rates of fault movement far exceed average prehistoric rates and that most offset of the land surface in the Houston area has occurred only within the last 50 years indirectly suggest that fluid withdrawal may be accelerating or reinitiating movement on pre-existing faults. This conclusion, however, is based only on a coincidence in time between increased fault activity and increased rates of withdrawal of water, oil, and gas from

  6. MiKlip-PRODEF: Probabilistic Decadal Forecast for Central and Western Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Mark; Haas, Rabea; Ludwig, Patrick; Pinto, Joaquim

    2013-04-01

    The demand for skilful climate predictions on time-scales of several years to decades has increased in recent years, in particular for economic, societal and political terms. Within the BMBF MiKlip consortium, a decadal prediction system on the global to local scale is currently being developed. The subproject PRODEF is part of the MiKlip-Module C, which aims at the regionalisation of decadal predictability for Central and Western Europe. In PRODEF, a combined statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) and a probabilistic forecast tool are developed and applied to the new Earth system model of the Max-Planck Institute Hamburg (MPI-ESM), which is part of the CMIP5 experiment. Focus is given on the decadal predictability of windstorms, related wind gusts as well as wind energy potentials. SDD combines the benefits of both high resolution dynamical downscaling and purely statistical downscaling of GCM output. Hence, the SDD approach is used to obtain a very large ensemble of highly resolved decadal forecasts. With respect to the focal points of PRODEF, a clustering of temporal evolving atmospheric fields, a circulation weather type (CWT) analysis, and a storm damage indices analysis is applied to the full ensemble of the decadal hindcast experiments of the MPI-ESM in its lower resolution (MPI-ESM-LR). The ensemble consists of up to ten realisations per yearly initialised decadal hindcast experiments for the period 1960-2010 (altogether 287 realisations). Representatives of CWTs / clusters and single storm episodes are dynamical downscaled with the regional climate model COSMO-CLM with a horizontal resolution of 0.22°. For each model grid point, the distributions of the local climate parameters (e.g. surface wind gusts) are determined for different periods (e.g. each decades) by recombining dynamical downscaled episodes weighted with the respective weather type frequencies. The applicability of the SDD approach is illustrated with examples of decadal forecasts of the MPI

  7. Modified mercalli intensities for nine earthquakes in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Dewey, James W.; Cassidy, John F.

    2017-08-15

    We determine Modified Mercalli (Seismic) Intensities (MMI) for nine onshore earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 and larger that occurred in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999, on the basis of effects reported in postal questionnaires, the press, and professional collaborators. The earthquakes studied include four earthquakes of M5 and larger: the M5.0 Deming earthquake of April 13, 1990, the M5.0 Point Robinson earthquake of January 29, 1995, the M5.4 Duvall earthquake of May 3, 1996, and the M5.8 Satsop earthquake of July 3, 1999. The MMI are assigned using data and procedures that evolved at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its Department of Commerce predecessors and that were used to assign MMI to felt earthquakes occurring in the United States between 1931 and 1986. We refer to the MMI assigned in this report as traditional MMI, because they are based on responses to postal questionnaires and on newspaper reports, and to distinguish them from MMI calculated from data contributed by the public by way of the internet. Maximum traditional MMI documented for the M5 and larger earthquakes are VII for the 1990 Deming earthquake, V for the 1995 Point Robinson earthquake, VI for the 1996 Duvall earthquake, and VII for the 1999 Satsop earthquake; the five other earthquakes were variously assigned maximum intensities of IV, V, or VI. Starting in 1995, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) published MMI maps for four of the studied earthquakes, based on macroseismic observations submitted by the public by way of the internet. With the availability now of the traditional USGS MMI interpreted for all the sites from which USGS postal questionnaires were returned, the four Washington earthquakes join a rather small group of earthquakes for which both traditional USGS MMI and some type of internet-based MMI have been assigned. The values and distributions of the traditional MMI are broadly similar to the internet-based PNSN intensities; we discuss some

  8. Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides: about plates, micro-plates and delaminated crustal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Before the onset of Europe-Africa continental collision in the Dinarides-Hellenides (around 60Ma) and in the Alps and Western Carpathians (around 35 Ma), and at a large scale, the dynamics of orogenic processes in the Mediterranean Alpine chains were governed by Europe-Africa plate convergence leading to the disappearance of large parts of intervening oceanic lithosphere, i.e. the northern branch of Neotethys along the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture and Alpine Tethys along the Valais-Magura suture (Schmid et al. 2008). In spite of this, two major problems concerning the pre-collisional stage are still poorly understood: (1) by now we only start to understand geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the along-strike changes in the polarity of subduction between Alps-Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides, and (2) it is not clear yet during exactly which episodes and to what extent intervening rifted continental fragments such as, for example, Iberia-Briançonnais, Tisza, Dacia, Adria-Taurides moved independently as micro-plates, and during which episodes they remained firmly attached to Europa or Africa from which they broke away. As Europe-Africa plate convergence slowed down well below 1 cm/yr at around 30 Ma ago these pre-collisional processes driven by plate convergence on a global scale gave way to more local processes of combined roll-back and crustal delamination in the Pannonian basin of the Carpathian embayment and in the Aegean (as well as in the Western Mediterranean, not discussed in this contribution). In the case of the Carpathian embayment E-directed roll back totally unrelated to Europe-Africa N-S-directed convergence, started at around 20 Ma ago, due to the presence relict oceanic lithosphere in the future Pannonian basin that remained un-subducted during collision. Due to total delamination of the crust from the eastward rolling back European mantle lithosphere the anticlockwise rotating ALCAPA crustal block, consisting of Eastern Alps and Western Carpathian

  9. Magnetic fabric and petrology of Miocene sub-volcanic sills and dykes emplaced into the SW Flysch Belt of the West Carpathians (S Moravia, Czech Republic) and their volcanological and tectonic implications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hrouda, F.; Buriánek, D.; Krejčí, O.; Chadima, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 290, č. 1 (2015), s. 38 ISSN 0377-0273 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Miocene volcanics * Outer Western Carpathian Flysch belt * magnetic fabric Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.674, year: 2015

  10. Congenital Malformations of the Central Nervous System in Rural Western Honduras: A 6-Year Report on Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez-Ordonez, Dagoberto; Dewan, Michael C; Feldman, Michael J; Montalvan-Sanchez, Eleazar E; Montalvan-Sanchez, Daniela M; Rodriguez-Murillo, Aida A; Urrutia-Argueta, Samuel A; Cherry, Charlotte B; Morgan, Douglas R; Alvarez-Rodriguez, Roberto; Bonfield, Christopher M

    2017-11-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) malformations, including neural tube defects (NTDs), are the second most common type of birth defects worldwide and are major causes of childhood disability and mortality. We report the first analysis of birth prevalence in Western Honduras of CNS malformations including NTDs over 6 consecutive years. Data from all patients with congenital CNS malformations and total live births for the period 2010-2015 were obtained through institution and regional registries from all 3 public referral hospitals in Western Honduras, representing 67 municipalities. Cases were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision CNS malformation codes. Birth prevalence was calculated as cases per 10,000 live births. From 123,903 live births, 275 cases of CNS malformations were identified (54% females, 58% NTDs). Six-year birth prevalence of CNS malformations was 13.9-31.1. Spina bifida variants and anencephaly represented 80% and 19% of reported NTDs, respectively. Total 6-year prevalence of NTDs in Western Honduras was 7.0-17.4 over years studied. In 6 municipalities, average prevalence was >30 (maximum 49.0). This is the first study reporting disease burden of CNS malformations in Western Honduras. The nationwide birth prevalence of NTDs in rural Honduras may have decreased since the implementation of prenatal health policies in 2005. However, we identified regions with unexpectedly elevated prevalence, indicating high regional prevalence that could be targeted for improved preventive efforts, ultimately decreasing the burden of these conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Analysing the teleconnection systems affecting the climate of the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristóf, Erzsébet; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2017-04-01

    Nowadays, the increase of the global average near-surface air temperature is unequivocal. Atmospheric low-frequency variabilities have substantial impacts on climate variables such as air temperature and precipitation. Therefore, assessing their effects is essential to improve global and regional climate model simulations for the 21st century. The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is one of the best-known atmospheric teleconnection patterns affecting the Carpathian Basin in Central Europe. Besides NAO, we aim to analyse other interannual-to-decadal teleconnection patterns, which might have significant impacts on the Carpathian Basin, namely, the East Atlantic/West Russia pattern, the Scandinavian pattern, the Mediterranean Oscillation, and the North-Sea Caspian Pattern. For this purpose primarily the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' (ECMWF) ERA-20C atmospheric reanalysis dataset and multivariate statistical methods are used. The indices of each teleconnection pattern and their correlations with temperature and precipitation will be calculated for the period of 1961-1990. On the basis of these data first the long range (i. e. seasonal and/or annual scale) forecast ability is evaluated. Then, we aim to calculate the same indices of the relevant teleconnection patterns for the historical and future simulations of Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) models and compare them against each other using statistical methods. Our ultimate goal is to examine all available CMIP5 models and evaluate their abilities to reproduce the selected teleconnection systems. Thus, climate predictions for the 21st century for the Carpathian Basin may be improved using the best-performing models among all CMIP5 model simulations.

  12. Superposed orogenic collision and core-complex formation at the present contact between the Dinarides and the Pannonian basin: The Bukulja and Cer Mountains in central and western Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, Liviu; Toljic, Marinko; Ducea, Mihai; Stojadinovic, Uros

    2010-05-01

    Formation of large extensional detachments during orogenic collapse can follow inherited weakness zones such as major asymmetries given by pre-existing subduction zones active during mountain building processes. This is valid in particular in low-topography foreland coupling orogens of Mediterranean type where large amounts of deformation is concentrated in their lower plates, favoring weakness zones activated during a subsequent phase of extensional collapse. One good place to study the orogenic collapse post-dating major collision is the NE margin of the Dinarides in central and western Serbia, where Cretaceous-Eocene shortening and collision was recorded in the Alpine Tethys Sava zone between the European-derived Dacia and Tisza mega-units and the lower Adriatic plate. This is the same place where the Pannonian basin formed as a Miocene back-arc basin in response to a different subduction and roll-back taking place along the external Carpathians. A lineament of Paleogene and Miocene plutons is observed at the northern and eastern margin of the Dinarides, interpreted to be the product of both syn- to post-orogenic subduction magmatism and of decompressional melting during the Pannonian extension. Two of these plutons, Cer and Bukulja, located in western and respectively central Serbia, are intruded in the Jadar-Kopaonik composite thrust sheet, part of the lower Adriatic plate, near the contact with the main suture formed during the Cretaceous-Eocene subduction of the Sava zone. The Lower Miocene age (19-17Ma) Bukulja intrusion is a S-type granite with rare aplitic veins (Cvetkovic et al., 2007). The Cer intrusive complex is a S type two mica granite of around 16Ma in age with an older I-type quartz monzonite component (Koroneos et al. in press). Both granitoids are intruded into the Jadar-Kopaonik metamorphic series, which are in direct contact along the northern, eastern and southern flank with non-metamorphosed, mainly clastic sediments of Cretaceous-Miocene in

  13. New Structural Interpretation of the Central Confusion Range, Western Utah, Based On Balanced Cross Sections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yezerski, D.; Greene, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    The Confusion Range is a topographically low mountain range in the Basin and Range of west-central Utah, located east of and in the hanging wall of the Snake Range core complex. Previous workers have used a gravity sliding model to interpret the Confusion Range as a large structural trough or synclinorium (e.g. Hose, 1977). Based on existing mapping (Hose, 1965; Hintze, 1974) and new field data, we use balanced and restored cross sections to reinterpret the structure of the Confusion Range as an east-vergent fold-and-thrust belt formed during the Sevier Orogeny. The Confusion Range consists of Cambro-Ordovician through Triassic strata, with predominantly thick-bedded, competent carbonate rocks in the lower Paleozoic (lPz) section and incompetent shales and thin-bedded carbonates in the upper Paleozoic (uPz) section. The contrasting mechanical behavior of these stratigraphic sections results in faulted folds within uPz carbonates above detachments in shale-rich units, deforming in response to ramp-flat thrust faulting of the underlying lPz units. East of the axis of the Conger Mountain (Mtn) syncline, we attribute the increase in structural elevation of lPz rocks to a subsurface thrust sheet consisting of lPz strata that advanced eastward via a high-angle ramp from a lower detachment in the Kanosh Shale to an upper detachment in the Pilot Shale. The doubling of lPz strata that resulted continues through the eastern Confusion Range where a series of small-displacement thrust faults comprising the Kings Canyon thrust system gently tilt strata to the west. In the Conger Range, west of the Conger Mtn syncline, our analysis focuses on reinterpreting the geometrically unlikely folding depicted in previous cross sections as more admissible, fault-cored, asymmetric, detached folding. In our interpretation, resistance created by a steeply-dipping thrust ramp in the lPz section west of Conger Mtn resulted in folding of uPz strata into an east-vergent anticline. Continued east

  14. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drici, Warda [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  15. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  16. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  17. Gulf of Mexico sales 147 and 150: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 2. Sections IV.D through IX. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    Contents: environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives; proposed central gulf sale 147; proposed western gulf sale 150; analysis of a large oil spill; consultation and coordination; bibliography and special references; glossary; appendices

  18. Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drici, Warda [International Technologies Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2003-08-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available transport parameter data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  19. Toward Understanding Dynamics in Shifting Biomes: An Individual Based Modeling Approach to Characterizing Drought and Mortality in Central Western Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, A. H.; Foster, A.; Rogers, B. M.; Hogg, T.; Michaelian, M.; Shuman, J. K.; Shugart, H. H., Jr.; Goetz, S. J.

    2017-12-01

    The Arctic-Boreal zone is known be warming at an accelerated rate relative to other biomes. Persistent warming has already affected the high northern latitudes, altering vegetation productivity, carbon sequestration, and many other ecosystem processes and services. The central-western Canadian boreal forests and aspen parkland are experiencing a decade long drought, and rainfall has been identified as a key factor controlling the location of the boundary between forest and prairie in this region. Shifting biome with related greening and browning trends are readily measureable with remote sensing, but the dynamics that create and result from them are not well understood. In this study, we use the University of Virginia Forest Model Enhanced (UVAFME), an individual-based forest model, to simulate the changes that are occurring across the southern boreal and parkland forests of west-central Canada. We present a parameterization of UVAFME for western central Canadian forests, validated with CIPHA data (Climate Change Impacts on the Productivity and Health of Aspen), and improved mortality. In order to gain a fine-scale understanding of how climate change and specifically drought will continue to affect the forests of this region, we simulated forest conditions following CMIP5 climate scenarios. UVAFME predictions were compared with statistical models and satellite observations of productivity across the landscape. Changes in forest cover, forest type, aboveground biomass, and mortality and recruitment dynamics are presented, highlighting the high vulnerability of this region to vegetation transitions associated with future droughts.

  20. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  1. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  2. Road kills of amphibians in different land use areas from Sharavathi river basin, central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.S. Seshadri

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of amphibian mortality on roads was carried out in the Sharavathi river basin in the central Western Ghats. Road kills in three different land use areas: agricultural fields, water bodies and forests were recorded for four days along three 100m stretches in each type of area. One-hundred-and-forty-four individuals belonging to two orders, eight families, 11 genera and 13 species were recorded in the survey. Kills/km observed were: in forest 55, agricultural fields 38 and water bodies 27, for an overall average of 40 kills/km. Kill species compositions varied significantly between land use areas, but not overall kill rates.

  3. Large-scale patterns of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Quercus pyrenaica regeneration in central-western Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Rolo, Víctor; Moreno, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale....... Regeneration was positively correlated with tree cover and density, especially of small and medium-sized trees, and negatively correlated with the presence of large trees, indicating that regeneration failure is mostly associated with more open, uniform, and/or aged woodlands. Regeneration densities of Q. ilex...

  4. Advances in the utilisation of renewable energy resources and research in the Central and Western Regions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yakubu, H.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text. An overview of the renewable energy development and research in the Central and Western regions of Ghana is presented. A focus is made on the growing awareness of a necessary change in the Ghanaian energy scene by the introduction of solar photovoltaic systems into the telecommunication industry, rural health centres and hospitals. A survey of installed solar photovoltaic systems and their impact on the society as a whole is undertaken. Also, attention is drawn to educational and training programmes in renewable energy at the University of Cape Coast, other institutions and NGOs. Finally, the prospects of solar thermal, wind and mini-hydro in the two regions are also discussed. (author)

  5. Plate tectonic reconstruction of the Carpathian-Pannonian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csontos, L.; Vörös, A.

    2003-04-01

    Plate tectonics of the Carpathian area is controlled by microcontinents between the European and African margins and the relative movements of these margins. Beside the generally accepted Apulian (Austroalpine, West Carpathian, Dinaric) microcontinents two others: the Bihor-Getic (Tisza) and Drina-Ivanjica are introduced. The first was attached to the European margin, the second to the Apulian microcontinent. During Permian a major ocean was obliquely subducted south of the Apulian microcontinents. Drina-Ivanjica rifted off the Apulian microcontinent in the Late Permian-Middle Triassic, as a consequence of back-arc rifting. Short-lived oceans subducted by the end of Jurassic, causing Drina-Ivanjica to collide with the internal Dinaric-West Carpathian and Bihor-Getic margins. An external Penninic-Váhic ocean tract began opening in the Early Jurassic, separating the East Alpine-West Carpathian microcontinent (and its fauna) from the European shelf. Further south, the Severin-Ceahlau-Magura also began opening in the Early Jurassic, but final separation of the Bihor-Getic (and its fauna) from the European shelf did not take place until the Middle-Late Jurassic. Two oroclinal bends: the Alcapa on the Dinaric margin and the Tisza-Dacia on the South Carpathian-Getic margin are essential elements of these reconstructions. Their bending (Aptian and Albian-Maastrichtian, respectively) are suggested by paleomagnetic and tectonic transport data. The two oroclinal bends are finally opposed and pushed into the Carpathian embayment by the Paleogene. In Miocene a back-arc basin develops on older tectonic elements. Differential rotations affect the wealded microcontinents.

  6. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  7. The Mythical Power of the Dual River-System of the Carpathian Basin: The Notion of a Hungarian Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Keményfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyula Prinz is responsible for the notion of “Magyar Mezopotámia” [Hungarian Mesopotamia]. The natural basis for this idea is that Hungarian culture developed on the surface of an alluvial plains area. This sort of natural environment was the precondition of great civilizations based on agriculture. In other words, the intrinsic Duna-Tisza [Danubius-Tibiscus] river structure, which is similar to that of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, would elevate Hungary to the status of a mesopotamic country. This is how the central Hungarian area could become the distributing core of culture and how this culture could be radiated towards the neighboring peoples who also lived together with us in the Carpathian Basin. Our “cultural power” therefore “elevated” the cultural level of other peoples who lived with us on the edges of the Carpathian Basin. Accordingly, the end, or the borderline, of the highbrow “core culture” is located where the territory populated by Hungarians ends, or where the plains area shifts into the Carpathian Mountains.

  8. The Kazanga festival : ethnicity as cultural mediation and transformation in central western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural dynamics of ethnicity in the context of a postcolonial African State, Zambia. The opening sections define ethnicity and pinpoint its central dilemma: while unmistakably constructed and thus selectively empowering the brokers coordinating the construction process,

  9. Changes in temperature and precipitation extremes in western central Africa, Guinea Conakry, and Zimbabwe, 1955-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, E.; Aziz Barry, A.; Brunet, M.; Ekang, L.; Fernandes, A.; Massoukina, M.; Mbah, J.; Mhanda, A.; Do Nascimento, D. J.; Peterson, T. C.; Thamba Umba, O.; Tomou, M.; Zhang, X.

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how extremes are changing globally, regionally, and locally is an important first step for planning appropriate adaptation measures, as changes in extremes have major impacts. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change's synthesis of global extremes was not able to say anything about western central Africa, as no analysis of the region was available nor was there an adequate internationally exchanged long-term daily data set available to use for analysis of extremes. This paper presents the first analysis of extremes in this climatically important region along with analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe. As per many other parts of the world, the analysis shows a decrease in cold extremes and an increase in warm extremes. However, while the majority of the analyzed world has shown an increase in heavy precipitation over the last half century, central Africa showed a decrease. Furthermore, the companion analysis of Guinea Conakry and Zimbabwe showed no significant increases.

  10. Disparities in Mortality Rates of Working-Age Population in Eastern, Central and Western Europe – A Comparative Quantitative Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lackó Mária

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Even two decades after the start of transition, mortality rates in Central and Eastern Europe are much higher than in Western Europe. This study presents and quantifies the impact on mortality of factors beyond the usual explanations. These factors are the advantageous and disadvantageous health effects of the geographical location of individual countries, as well as the economic structure, price structure and political priorities of the pre-transition systems in Central and Eastern Europe associated with anomic, self-destructive lifestyles. For adult males, mortality results show significant impact from level of development, health expenditure, latitude of countries, spirit consumption, education and air pollution. The impact of development, health expenditure, latitude, air pollution appear the same for both gender’s mortality.

  11. Geochemical mineralogical and nuclear survey of petrogenetic formations of the Czechoslovak Carpathians in the years 1970-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cambel, B.

    1979-01-01

    A brief review is given of the works performed including the application of nuclear methods. The radioactivity was studied of granitoid rocks and the determination of uranium content using tracks from its decay. For chemical analysis of the minerals and rocks several methods were applied including X-ray fluorescence analysis and atomic absorption. In cooperation with institutes in the USSR work was started on the radiometric dating of samples from the Western Carpathians. In cooperation with Poland research was started of minerals using uranium fission tracks. (Ha)

  12. Bottom to top lithosphere structure and evolution of western Eger Rift (Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Fiala, Jiří; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2010), s. 891-907 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : western Bohemian Massif * Eger (Ohře) Rift * lithosphere structure and development * mantle seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.980, year: 2010

  13. Pattern of Maxillofacial fracture in Western and Central Nepal: An experience in 3 tertiary level health institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Subedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are only few studies regarding the pattern and causes of maxillofacial fractures till date in Nepal and no such study in western and central Nepalese population has been conducted. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to describe the causes and the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in western and central part of Nepal over the period of 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of maxillofacial fractures was conducted on 328 patients who were treated in the department of maxillofacial surgery. Data was extracted and analyzed based on age, sex, cause of injury and anatomic location. RESULT Young males of 3rd decade of life most commonly sustained the maxillofacial trauma. The commonest site involved was the zygomatic complex (42% when only mid face fractures was considered and parasymphysis (32% when only mandible was considered.The most common cause of injuries was road traffic accidents (289 patients; 88.1% followed by interpersonal violence (25 patients; 7.6 % and falls accounting for 4.2% of the all injuries. CONCLUSION The findings of this study suggest the need for expansion of the motorway network, ensuring compliance of strict traffic rules and regulations, replacing old vehicles without safety measures and implement school education in alcohol abuse.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12771 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 8-13

  14. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viviana Bojanich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households.

  15. Does Europe have a centre? Reflections on the history of Western and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mout, Nicolette

    2006-05-01

    Any definition of Central Europe based on geographical and/or historical facts causes difficulties. The line dividing Europe during the Cold War has a very limited use because it does not take into account Central Europe as a special part of the continent. Historians such as Geoffrey Barraclough, Hugh Seton-Watson and Oskar Halecki discussed the idea of a separate identity of Central Europe during the Cold War. Especially after the fall of the Berlin Wall, this discussion was re-opened. From a historian's point of view, the most important contributions came from Piotr Wandycz and Jeno Szucs. An imaginary centre of Europe can only be found in the continent's common history.

  16. Dangerous liaisons: Western involvement in the nuclear power industry of central and eastern Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-12-01

    The state of the nuclear industry in central and eastern Europe is an issue of global concern. However, despite all the political talk and corporate hype since the collapse of communist regimes in the region, this study demonstrates that little has so far been done to change the situation. Moreover, the limited level of finance and support which has been offered has tended to support the expansion of nuclear power programmes in central and eastern Europe, rather than address immediately safety concerns relating to existing nuclear reactors and develop more environmentally acceptable and economically efficient energy systems. (author)

  17. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m−3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (<5 μg m−3; PM2.5) and coarse (<10 μg m−3; PM2.5–10) fractions monitored at or near four sites. Standard air-quality measurements for PM2.5 and PM10 apparently do not capture the large majority of mineral-particulate pollution in the remote western interior U.S.

  18. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  19. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  20. Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Szalai, Sándor; Zingstra, Henk; Kőpataki, Éva; Beckmann, Andreas; Bos, Ernst; Civic, Kristijan; Hlásny, Tomas; Hulea, Orieta; Jurek, Matthias; Koch, Hagen; Kondor, Attila Csaba; Kovbasko, Aleksandra; Lakatos, M.; Lambert, Stijn; Peters, Richard; Trombik, Jiří; De Velde, Van Ilse; Zsuffa, István

    2016-01-01

    The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural

  1. Ticks (Ixodidae) from passerine birds in the Carpathian region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spitalska, E.; Literák, I.; Sparagano, O. A .E.; Golovchenko, Maryna; Kocianová, E.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 118, 23/24 (2006), 759-764 ISSN 0043-5325 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Passerine birds * Ixodes ricinus * Borrelia * Rickettsia * Ehrlichia * Carpathians Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 0.804, year: 2006

  2. Large carnivores in the Carpathian Mountains: status and conservation problems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Okarma, H.; Dovchanych, Y.; Findo, S.; Ionescu, O.; Koubek, Petr; Szemethy, L.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 59, - (2002), s. 33-39 ISSN 0078-3250 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6093917 Keywords : carnivores * conservation * Carpathians Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  3. Contribution to the lichen biota of the Romanian Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malíček, J.; Bouda, F.; Liška, Jiří; Palice, Zdeněk; Peksa, O.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 2 (2015), s. 713-735 ISSN 0018-0971 R&D Projects: GA MK(CZ) DF12P01OVV025 Keywords : The Balkans * biodiversity * Southern and Eastern Carpathians Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.821, year: 2015

  4. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  5. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... influence of Russia, and the war in Ukraine? What could comparative post-communist media studies add to our analysis and understanding of the new CEE realities? These were some of the questions tackled by a recent public roundtable discussion entitled "Media, Democracy and Authoritarianism in Central......), Péter Bajomi-Lázár (Professor of Media Communications, and Head of the Institute of Social Science at the Budapest Business School, Hungary), and Václav Štětka (Senior Researcher, Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism, Faculty of Social Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic...

  6. Age and significance of core complex formation in a very curved orogen: Evidence from fission track studies in the South Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fügenschuh, B.; Schmid, S. M.

    2005-07-01

    Twenty-four new zircon and apatite fission track ages from the Getic and Danubian nappes in the South Carpathians are discussed in the light of a compilation of published fission track data. A total of 101 fission track ages indicates that the Getic nappes are generally characterized by Cretaceous zircon and apatite fission track ages, indicating cooling to near-surface temperatures of these units immediately following Late Cretaceous orogeny. The age distribution of the Danubian nappes, presently outcropping in the Danubian window below the Getic nappes, depends on the position with respect to the Cerna-Jiu fault. Eocene and Oligocene zircon and apatite central ages from the part of the Danubian core complex situated southeast of this fault monitor mid-Tertiary tectonic exhumation in the footwall of the Getic detachment, while zircon fission track data from northwest of this fault indicate that slow cooling started during the Latest Cretaceous. The change from extension (Getic detachment) to strike-slip dominated tectonics along the curved Cerna-Jiu fault allowed for further exhumation on the concave side of this strike-slip fault, while exhumation ceased on the convex side. The available fission track data consistently indicate that the change to fast cooling associated with tectonic denudation by core complex formation did not occur before Late Eocene times, i.e. long after the cessation of Late Cretaceous thrusting. Core complex formation in the Danubian window is related to a larger-scale scenario that is characterized by the NNW-directed translation, followed by a 90° clockwise rotation of the Tisza-Dacia "block" due to roll-back of the Carpathian embayment. This led to a complex pattern of strain partitioning within the Tisza-Dacia "block" adjacent to the western tip of the rigid Moesian platform. Our results suggest that the invasion of these southernmost parts of Tisza-Dacia started before the Late Eocene, i.e. significantly before the onset of Miocene

  7. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuber, Andrzej; Chowaniec, Jozef

    2009-01-01

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by δ 18 O and δ 2 H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na + in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na + during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl - contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl - contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl - contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO 2 flow from great depths, they form chloride CO 2 -rich waters. Common CO 2 -rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO 3 -Ca type for modern waters to HCO 3 -Mg-Ca, HCO 3 -Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg 2+ and/or Na - contents for old waters reaching even those of glacial age. Bedrocks of the flysch are

  8. Diagenetic and other highly mineralized waters in the Polish Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zuber, Andrzej, E-mail: andrzej.zuber@pgi.gov.pl [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland); Chowaniec, Jozef [Polish Geological Institute, Carpathian Branch, PL-31560 Krakow, ul. Skrzatow 1 (Poland)

    2009-10-15

    Highly mineralized waters of different chemical types and origin occur in the flysch formations and their bedrocks in the western part of the Polish Carpathians. The marine sedimentation water of the flysch formations is not preserved, as the most mineralized and the heaviest isotopic values of flysch waters are characterized by {delta}{sup 18}O and {delta}{sup 2}H values in the ranges of 5-7 per mille and -(20-30) per mille , respectively. Their origin is related to the dehydration of clay minerals during burial diagenesis, with molecules of marine water completely removed by molecules of released bound water. They are relatively enriched in Na{sup +} in respect to the marine water, supposedly due to the release of Na{sup +} during the illitization of smectites and preferable incorporation of other cations from the primary brine into newly formed minerals. In some parts of younger formations, i.e. in the Badenian sediments, brines occur with isotopic composition close to SMOW and Cl{sup -} contents greatly exceeding the typical marine value of about 19.6 g/L, supposedly due to ultrafiltration. Most probably, the marine water of the flysch formations was similarly enriched chemically in its initial burial stages. Final Cl{sup -} contents in diagenetic waters depend on different Cl{sup -} contents in the primary brines and on relationships between diagenetic and further ultrafiltration processes. In some areas, diagenetic waters migrate to the surface along fault zones and mix with young local meteoric waters becoming diluted, with the isotope composition scattering along typical mixing lines. In areas with independent CO{sub 2} flow from great depths, they form chloride CO{sub 2}-rich waters. Common CO{sub 2}-rich waters are formed in areas without near-surface occurrences of diagenetic waters. They change from the HCO{sub 3}-Ca type for modern waters to HCO{sub 3}-Mg-Ca, HCO{sub 3}-Na-Ca and other types with elevated TDS, Mg{sup 2+} and/or Na{sup -} contents for

  9. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  10. A new golden frog species of the genus Diasporus (Amphibia, Eleutherodactylidae from the Cordillera Central, western Panama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hertz

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe the frog species Diasporus citrinobapheus sp. n. from the Cordillera Central of western Panama. The new species differs from all other species in its genus in coloration, disk cover and disk pad shape, skin texture, advertisement call, and size. It is most similar to D. tigrillo, from which it differs in dorsal skin texture, relative tibia length, number of vomerine teeth, ventral coloration, dorsal markings, and relative tympanum size, and to D. gularis, from which it can be distinguished by the lack of membranes between the toes, adult size, posterior thigh coloration, and position of the choanae. We provide data on morphology, vocalization, and distribution of the new species, as well as brief information on its natural history.

  11. A new golden frog species of the genus Diasporus (Amphibia, Eleutherodactylidae) from the Cordillera Central, western Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertz, Andreas; Hauenschild, Frank; Lotzkat, Sebastian; Köhler, Gunther

    2012-01-01

    We describe the frog species Diasporus citrinobapheussp. n. from the Cordillera Central of western Panama. The new species differs from all other species in its genus in coloration, disk cover and disk pad shape, skin texture, advertisement call, and size. It is most similar to Diasporus tigrillo, from which it differs in dorsal skin texture, relative tibia length, number of vomerine teeth, ventral coloration, dorsal markings, and relative tympanum size, and to Diasporus gularis, from which it can be distinguished by the lack of membranes between the toes, adult size, posterior thigh coloration, and position of the choanae. We provide data on morpho- logy, vocalization, and distribution of the new species, as well as brief information on its natural history.

  12. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  13. Ranging and grouping patterns of a western lowland gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remis, M J

    1997-01-01

    The ranging and grouping patterns of a gorilla group were studied during 27 months from 1990-1992 at the Bai Hokou study site, Central African Republic. The study group ranged far daily (average = 2.3 km/day) and had a large home range (22.9 km2), relative to mountain gorillas, and ranging patterns differed between years. During 1990-1992, the bimale study group foraged less cohesively and had more flexible grouping patterns than mountain gorillas. The study group sometimes split into two distinct foraging subgroups, each led by a silverback, and these subgroups occasionally slept apart (mean = 950 m apart). Lowland gorillas rely on many of the same fruit resources as sympatric chimpanzees, and under certain demographic situations gorillas, like sympatric chimpanzees, may adapt their foraging group size to reduce intragroup feeding competition. However, the fiber content of the lowland gorilla diet likely relaxes constraints on foraging party size and facilitates group cohesion relative to chimpanzees.

  14. Law and Space: Juridical Organisation and Central Places in Banat, Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMIN FLAVIUS COSTAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between the juridical system and the hierarchy of settlements in Banat, Romania. The historical development of the law institutions is presented, highlighting the peculiarities of the region. The present juridical organisation is also thoroughly analysed. Emphasis is laid on the importance of the Appellate Court in Timişoara, the county courts and the trial courts, and their magistrates. The number and territorial distribution of the auxiliaries of justice, the lawyers and notaries public, sheds light on the significance of certain settlements for the law system. The hierarchy of central places in Banat is studied from the perspective of the juridical organisation. In conclusion, the established hierarchy is uncontested for the first four levels, including the cities of Timişoara, Arad, Reşiţa, Lugoj and Caransebeş. Nevertheless, there are significant differences between the smaller towns of the lower levels.

  15. Geoelectrical and geological structure of the crust in Western Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bezák, V.; Pek, Josef; Vozár, J.; Bielik, M.; Vozár, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 3 (2014), s. 473-488 ISSN 0039-3169 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : magnetotellurics * MT15 profile * Western Carpathians * applied geophysics * Earth ’s crust Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.806, year: 2014

  16. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  17. THE GEOMORPHOLOGIC FEATURES OF INTRUSIVE MAGMATIC STRUCTURES FROM BÂRGĂU MOUNTAINS (EASTERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Bâca

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Igneous intrusive structures from Bârgău Mountains belong to the group of central Neogene volcanic chain of the Eastern Carpathians of Romania. The evolution of the relief developed on these structures are three main stages: the stage of injection of structures (Pannonian, the stage of uncovering of igneous intrusive bodies from Oligo-Miocene sedimentary cover (Pliocene, and the stage of subaerial modeling of magmatic bodies (Pliocene-current.In those circumstances, the geodiversity of intrusive magmatic structures from Bârgău Mountains is represented by several types of landforms such as: polycyclic landforms (erosional levels, structural landforms (the configuration of igneous intrusive structures, petrographic landforms (andesites, lithological contact, fluvial landforms (valleys, slopes, ridges, periglacial landforms (cryogenic and crionival landforms, biogenic and anthropogenic landforms. This study highlights certain features of the landforms modeled on igneous intrusive bodies with the aim of developing some strategy for tourism recovery by local and county authorities.

  18. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  19. Early neogene history of the central American arc from Bocas del Toro, western Panama

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, Anthony G.; Aubry, Marie-Pierre; Berggren, William A.; Collins, Laurel S.; Kunk, Michael J.

    2003-01-01

    A newly discovered sequence of lower to middle Miocene rocks from the eastern Bocas del Toro archipelago, western Panama, reveals the timing and environment of the earliest stages in the rise of the Isthmus of Panama in this region. Two new formations, the Punta Alegre Formation (lower Miocene, Aquitanian to Burdigalian) and the Valiente Formation (middle Miocene, Langhian to Serravallian), are here named and formally described. The Punta Alegre Formation contains a diagnostic microfauna of benthic and planktic foraminifera and calcareous nannofossils that indicate deposition in a 2000-m-deep pre-isthmian neotropical ocean from as old as 21.5–18.3 Ma. Its lithology varies from silty mudstone to muddy foraminiferal ooze with rare thin microturbidite layers near the top. The Valiente Formation, which ranges in age from 16.4 to ca. 12.0 Ma, lies with slight angular unconformity on the Punta Alegre Formation and consists of five lithofacies: (1) columnar basalt and flow breccia, (2) pyroclastic deposits, (3) coarse-grained volcaniclastic deposits, (4) coral-reef limestone with diverse large coral colonies, and (5) marine debris-flow deposits and microturbidites. These lithofacies are interpreted to indicate that after ca. 16 Ma a volcanic arc developed in the region of Bocas del Toro and that by ca. 12 Ma an extensively emergent archipelago of volcanic islands had formed. 39Ar/40Ar dating of basalt flows associated with the fossiliferous sedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Valiente Formation strongly confirms the ages derived from planktic foraminifera and nannofossils. Paleobathymetric analysis of the two new formations in the Valiente Peninsula and Popa Island, in the Bocas del Toro archipelago, shows a general shallowing from lower- through upper-bathyal to upper-neritic and emergent laharic and fluviatile deposits from ca. 19 to 12 Ma. The overlying nonconformable Bocas del Toro Group contains a lower transgressive sequence ranging from basal nearshore

  20. Agro-pastoral expansion and land use/land cover (LU/LC) change dynamics in Central-western Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanga-Ngoie, K.; Yoshikawa, S.; Kanae, S.

    2011-12-01

    In Brazil, large-scale land cover changes following extensive deforestations are expected to generate big impacts onto the climate and the environment over this area, with eventually many negative feedbacks on the global scale. Mato Grosso State, located in the central western Brazil, is known to be the Brazilian state with the highest deforestation rate. Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes have been reported to occur over large areas in this state due to the introduction of large-scale mechanized agriculture, extensive cattle ranching and uncontrolled slash-and-burn cultivation since the 1980s. In this study, we specifically aim at doing more detailed analysis for the causes of deforestation and savannization in this area, with special attention to agriculture and cattle ranching industry at the municipal district level in this state. Using GIS techniques and remotely-sensed NOAA/AVHRR data, we created 5-year Digital Vegetation Model Maps characterizing LU/LC features for every five years during the 1981-2001 periods using the PCA first components of the NOAA/AVHRR multi-spectral data. Our results make it clear that: (1) LU/LC changes among the phases are of the following 3 major types: degradation, recovery or transition; (2) The changes in LU/LC features are concomitant with the advance of cattle ranching and corn production activities toward the northern parts of the state, and with the expansion of soybean production in the central and western Mato Grosso; (3) Most of the agro-pastoral business are found in the southern Mato Grosso where about 46% of the state's deforestation during the 1981-2001 period occurred; (4) Rates of vegetation change are larger over non-inhabited areas (56%), especially in the north, than over the populated zones in the south (42%). Moreover, this work sheds some new light on the patterns of the changes in LU/LC features (deforestation and savannization) for each municipal district of Mato Grosso. In general, the following activities

  1. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

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    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Western Central African Convection from Infrared Observations

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    Derbetini A. Vondou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has used Meteosat infrared brightness temperature images to investigate the regional and interannual variability of Central African cloudiness. Spatial and temporal variability were investigated using half–hourly data from the Meteosat-7 during June–July–August (JJA of 1998–2002. The full domain of study (1.5E–17E, 1N–15N was divided into six regions and statistics in each region were derived. Analysis of the dependence of cloud fraction to the brightness temperature threshold is explored both over land and ocean. Three diurnal cycle regimes (continental, oceanic, and coastal are depicted according to the amplitude and peak time. Over regions of relatively flat terrain, results indicate enhancement of deep convection in the afternoon followed by a gradual decrease in the night. The diurnal cycle of convection is characterised by afternoon and early evening (around 15:00–18:00 LST maxima located mainly downwind of the major mountain chains, and a more rapid nighttime decay. In terms of the harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the Adamaoua Plateau and the weakest near the South Cameroon Plateau. This remarkable spatial dependence is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Oceanic region exhibits weak activity of convective cloudiness with a maximum at noon. It is suggested that daytime heating of the land surface and moist environment may play a role in determining the spatial distribution of cloud fraction. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Cameroon coastline concavity and coastal mountains in regulating regional frequencies of convection and their initialization. The strength of the diurnal cycle of convective activity depends on mountain height, mean flow, coastal geometry.

  3. Periodic input of dust over the Eastern Carpathians during the Holocene linked with Saharan desertification and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jack; Veres, Daniel; Ersek, Vasile; Salzmann, Ulrich; Hubay, Katalin; Bormann, Marc; Wennrich, Volker; Schäbitz, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Reconstructions of dust flux have been used to produce valuable global records of changes in atmospheric circulation and aridity. These studies have highlighted the importance of atmospheric dust in marine and terrestrial biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling. By investigating a 10 800-year-long paleoclimate archive from the Eastern Carpathians (Romania) we present the first peat record of changing dust deposition over the Holocene for the Carpathian-Balkan region. Using qualitative (X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning) and quantitative inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES) measurements of lithogenic (K, Si, Ti) elements, we identify 10 periods of major dust deposition between 9500-9200, 8400-8100, 7720-7250, 6350-5950, 5450-5050, 4130-3770, 3450-2850, 2000-1450, 800-620, and 60 cal yr BP to present. In addition, we used testate amoeba assemblages preserved within the peat to infer local palaeohydroclimatic conditions. Our record highlights several discrepancies between eastern and western European dust depositional records and the impact of highly complex hydrological regimes in the Carpathian region. Since 6100 cal yr BP, we find that the geochemical indicators of dust flux have become uncoupled from the local hydrology. This coincides with the appearance of millennial-scale cycles in the dust input and changes in geochemical composition of dust. We suggest that this is indicative of a shift in dust provenance from local-regional (likely loess-related) to distal (Saharan) sources, which coincide with the end of the African Humid Period and the onset of Saharan desertification.

  4. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

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    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  5. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  6. Heavy metal pollution and forest health in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shparyk, Y.S.; Parpan, V.I.

    2004-01-01

    The Ukrainian Carpathians are characterized by high air pollution caused by emissions from numerous industries. We have been monitoring the state of forests in this region since 1989. The highest levels of tree defoliation (>30%) are found close to industrial emission sources and in the upper mountain forests of the Ivano-Frankivsk and Chernivtsi regions. This is caused by a combination of strong anthropogenic influences (pollution, illegal uses, recreation) as well as poor site and climatic conditions. In the Ivano-Frankivsk region, Cd and Mo accumulate in forest soils; Cr, Mo and Zn soil concentrations are higher than their limit levels; and Pb concentrations exceed toxic levels close to industrial areas (10% of the region territory). Local background levels of heavy metals are greatly exceeded in snow close to industrial regions. Analysis of correlation matrices shows that the chemical elements Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn occur at pollution levels in natural ecosystems in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Maximum concentrations of toxic elements occur in the oak forest zone; the most industrially developed area of the region. Toxic heavy metals in the Ukrainian Carpathians forests enter with precipitation and dustfall, then become fixed in soil and accumulate in leaves, needles of vascular plants and mosses. Concentrations of these metals decrease with altitude: highest in the oak forests, less in beech, and lowest in the spruce forest zones. However, some chemical elements have the highest concentrations in spruce forests; V in needles, As in snow, and Ba and Al in soils. - Local industrial emissions of heavy metal pollution and the condition of Ukrainian Carpathians forests are examined

  7. The peculiarities of bear numbers dynamics in the Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Khoyetskyy, Pavlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum – of about 1100 individuals – in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching.

  8. The peculiarities of bear numbers dynamics in the Eastern Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Khoyetskyy, Pavlo

    2013-01-01

    There have been two periods of change in the dynamics of bear population in the Eastern Carpathians. The first period lasted over 50 years, starting in the late 1940s and ending in the year 2001. The second period started in the early 21st century. The bear population reached its maximum- of about 1100 individuals - in the early 1970s. Over 85% of recorded bear deaths have resulted from poaching. Przemysław Szmit

  9. Cladonia metacorallifera, a lichen species new to the Eastern Carpathians

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    Piotr Osyczka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available A rare lichen Cladonia metacorallifera was found in the Bieszczady Mts. and this is the first report of the species from the Eastern Carpathians. In Poland, its occurrence is probably limited to small populations scattered in high mountain situations. The data of distribution of the species in Poland, ecological characterization of the new locality and some taxonomical remarks concerning the recorded specimen, as well as a photograph of its habit are provided.

  10. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

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    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  11. Attenuation tomography in the western central Andes: A detailed insight into the structure of a magmatic arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Christian; Rietbrock, Andreas

    2001-06-01

    High-quality data from 1498 local earthquakes recorded by the PISCO '94 (Proyecto de Investigatión Sismológica de la Cordillera Occidental, 1994) and ANCORP '96 (Andean Continental Research Project, 1996) temporary seismological networks allowed the detailed determination of the three-dimensional (3-D) attenuation structure (Qp-1) beneath the recent magmatic arc in the western central Andes (20° to 24°S). Assuming a frequency-independent Qp-1 in a frequency band between 1 and 30 Hz, whole path attenuation (t*) was estimated from the amplitude spectra of the P waves using spectral ratios and a spectral inversion technique. The damped least squares inversion (tomography) of the data reveals a complex attenuation structure. Crust and mantle of the forearc and subducting slab are generally characterized by low attenuation (Qp > 1000). Crust and mantle beneath the magmatic arc show elevated attenuation. The strongest anomaly of extremely low Qp is found in the crust between 22° and 23°S beneath the recent volcanic arc (Qp < 100). N-S variations can be observed: The western flank of the crustal attenuation anomaly follows the curved course of the volcanic front. North of 21°S the attenuation is less developed. In the northern part of the study area the low-Qp zone penetrates in the forearc mantle down to the subducting slab. In the south a deeper zone of high attenuation is resolved between 23° and 24°S directly above the subducting slab. Low Qp in the mantle correlates with earthquake clusters. The strong crustal attenuation is confined to the distribution of young ignimbrites and silicic volcanism and is interpreted as a thermally weakened zone with partial melts. The attenuation pattern in the upper mantle might reflect the variable extent of the asthenosphere and maps variations of subduction-related hydration processes in the mantle wedge from slab-derived fluids.

  12. Climate and environmental changes during the past millennium in central western Guizhou, China as recorded by Stalagmite ZJD-21

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tz-Shing; Liu, Zi-Qi; Li, Hong-Chun; Wan, Nai-Jung; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ku, Teh-Lung

    2011-04-01

    Stalagmite ZJD-21 (12.3-cm long) was collected from Zhijin Cave in Zhijin County, Guizhou, China. Its 210Pb profile and seven 230Th/ 234U dates indicate that the stalagmite has grown continuously for the past 1100 years. The δ18O record of ZJD-21 indicates that δ18O in the stalagmite was mainly influenced by rainfall amount and/or summer/winter rain ratio, with lighter values corresponding to wetter climatic conditions and/or more summer monsoonal rains. The ZJD-21 δ18O record suggests: (1) dry/warm climates during AD 950-1100 (overlapping with most of the Medieval Warm Period, MWP, in Europe); (2) strengthening of the summer monsoon from the MWP toward the beginning of the Little Ice Age (LIA) at AD 1250; (3) relatively wet/cold conditions occurred between AD 1250 and 1500, shown by relatively light δ18O values; (4) the summer monsoon intensity strongly declined referred by the increase δ18O trend from AD 1500 to AD 1600, perhaps resulting in dry/cold conditions; and (5) a strongly enhancement of the summer monsoon intensity appeared from AD 1700 to 1950, reflecting wet/cold conditions during the late period of the LIA. On decadal scales the monsoonal climate of central western Guizhou can be either warm/wet and cold/dry, or warm/dry and cold/wet. The δ13C variations in ZJD-21 on decadal-to-centennial scales respond mainly to vegetation changes with heavier values reflecting lesser amount of forest coverage. Prior to AD 1700, the δ13C generally co-varied with δ18O reflecting the expected more extensive vegetation growth (lighter δ13C) under wetter climate (lighter δ18O). However, during the past 300 years the δ13C increased sharply showing an opposite trend to that of δ18O. This observation strongly suggests that a decline of surface vegetation due to an artificial deforestation might have occurred - an occurrence coincident with the large-scale immigration into central western Guizhou in connection with copper-mining activities during the reign of

  13. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus in Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 1: Description of history and clinical evolution.

    OpenAIRE

    van Galen, Gaby; Saegerman, Claude; Rijckaert, Joke; Amory, Hélène; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshoj Delany, Rikke; Fouche, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus. DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). SETTING: Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. ANIMALS: One hundred fifty-five adult equids (>6 months) and 21 foals (

  14. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus in Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000–2014). Part 1: Description of history and clinical evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Galen, G.; Westermann, C.M.

    2017-01-01

    Objective – To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus.Design – Multicenter retrospective study (2000–2014).Setting – Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referralcenters.Animals – One hundred fifty-five adult

  15. The bright spot in the West Carpathian upper mantle: a trace of the Tertiary plate collision-and a caveat for a seismologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Środa, Piotr

    2010-07-01

    The 2-D full waveform modelling of the mantle arrivals from the CELEBRATION 2000 profiles crossing the Carpathian orogen suggests two possible tectonic models for the collision of ALCAPA (Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian) and the European Plate in the West Carpathians in southern Poland and Slovakia. Due to an oblique (NE-SW) convergence of plates, the character of the collision may change along the zone of contact of the plates: in the western part of the area an earlier collision might have caused substantial crustal shortening and formation of a crocodile-type structure, with the delaminated lower crust of ~100km length acting as a north-dipping reflecting discontinuity in the uppermost mantle. In the eastern part, a less advanced collision only involved the verticalization of the subducted slab remnant after a slab break-off. The lower crustal remnant of ~10km size in the uppermost mantle acts as a pseudo-diffractor generating observable mantle arrivals. Due to the similarity of synthetic data generated by both models, the question of the non-uniqueness of seismic data interpretation, that may lead to disparate tectonic inferences, is also discussed.

  16. Late Quaternary vegetation and climate history of the central Bering land bridge from St. Michael Island, western Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.

    2003-01-01

    Pollen analysis of a sediment core from Zagoskin Lake on St. Michael Island, northeast Bering Sea, provides a history of vegetation and climate for the central Bering land bridge and adjacent western Alaska for the past ???30,000 14C yr B.P. During the late middle Wisconsin interstadial (???30,000-26,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was dominated by graminoid-herb tundra with willows (Salix) and minor dwarf birch (Betula nana) and Ericales. During the late Wisconsin glacial interval (26,000-15,000 14C yr B.P.) vegetation was graminoid-herb tundra with willows, but with fewer dwarf birch and Ericales, and more herb types associated with dry habitats and disturbed soils. Grasses (Poaceae) dominated during the peak of this glacial interval. Graminoid-herb tundra suggests that central Beringia had a cold, arid climate from ???30,000 to 15,000 14C yr B.P. Between 15,000 and 13,000 14C yr B.P., birch shrub-Ericales-sedge-moss tundra began to spread rapidly across the land bridge and Alaska. This major vegetation change suggests moister, warmer summer climates and deeper winter snows. A brief invasion of Populus (poplar, aspen) occurred ca. 11,000-9500 14C yr B.P., overlapping with the Younger Dryas interval of dry, cooler(?) climate. During the latest Wisconsin to middle Holocene the Bering land bridge was flooded by rising seas. Alder shrubs (Alnus crispa) colonized the St. Michael Island area ca. 8000 14C yr B.P. Boreal forests dominated by spruce (Picea) spread from interior Alaska into the eastern Norton Sound area in middle Holocene time, but have not spread as far west as St. Michael Island. ?? 2003 University of Washington. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

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    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  18. Coccolith Assemblages and Primary Productivity Variations in the Central Western Pacific Warm Pool Over the Last 380 kyr

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Dan; Liu, Chuanlian

    2018-06-01

    Coccolith assemblages in two gravity cores (KX21-2 and KX12-1) from the central Western Pacific Warm Pool (WPWP) have been analyzed with SYRACO. The variations of nutricline and primary productivity ( PP) have been reconstructed based on these assemblages. The results show that the coccolith assemblages were dominated by Florisphaera profunda, Gephyrocapsa and Emiliania huxleyi over the last 380 kyr. Variations of nutricline and primary productivity can be divided into three intervals. Interval I (about 380-300 kyr): PP was high and nutricline was shallow; Interval II (about 300-160 kyr): PP decreased dramatically for a short time after the acme of G. caribbeanica in Mid-Brunhes while nutricline became deeper; Interval III (about 160 kyr-present): PP fluctuated at low levels and nutricline was deep. Variations of each coccolith taxon and PP were highly correlated in the two cores, which means that the geological environment is similar in the two cores. Spectrum analysis is performed for all coccolith taxons and PP, and the 19-kyr cycle is the most prominent. It means that the production of coccolithophores in the WPWP is mainly controlled by precession.

  19. Diagenesis and reservoir properties of Cretaceous-Lower Tertiary sandstones: the GANT-1 well, western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierkegaard, Thomas

    1998-08-01

    The main purpose of this study is to describe the diagenetic alterations occurring in the Cretaceous to Lower Paleocene sedimentary succession of the GANT-1 well, and to determine the diagenetic and detrital factors which control present porosity and permeability. The GANT-1 well is located on north-western Nuussuaq, central West Greenland. The West Greenland margin is a continental margin subdivided into linked basins where Cretaceous to Lower Tertiary and probably older sediments have been deposited. In the Nuussuaq area these sediments are overlain by a succession of Early Tertiary basaltic volcanic rocks which reaches a combined thickness of around 2-2.5 km. Although the reservoir properties of the sandstone intervals in the GANT-1 and GANE-1 wells are generally relatively poor, it is suggested that moderate to good properties may be found in certain intervals within the Maastrichtian-Paleocene succession. However, the reason for the locally enhanced reservoir properties in GANT-1 was not clarified by this study due to the lack of regional petrographical data. (EG) EFP-96. 41 refs., 3 maps

  20. Estuarine use and movement patterns of seven sympatric Mugilidae fishes: The Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Wei; Iizuka, Yoshiyuki

    2012-06-01

    By combining the spatio-temporal distribution of fish abundance and their size structure, and a detailed lifetime Sr/Ca ratio analysis in their otoliths, this study delineates the estuarine use and the movement patterns of seven sympatrical occurring adult mullets in the Tatu Creek estuary, central western Taiwan. In the estuary Mugil cephalus are the most dominant species, whereas Liza subviridis, Liza macrolepis and Liza haematocheilus are common, and Liza affinis, Liza dussumieri and Valamugil seheli are rare. They have adapted a size-related salinity preference. A mean Sr/Ca ratio of (7.5-10.2) × 10-3 in the otolith cores demonstrated that all seven mullet species spawned in the sea. After recruiting to the estuary (mean ratios of (3.6-6.4) × 10-3 at the estuarine check in the otoliths), the ratios fluctuate between (0.1-3.5) × 10-3 and (9.5-19.5) × 10-3 indicating that the mullet shared a common movement between marine and brackish waters and probably even freshwater habitats. However, the profiles fluctuated substantially among individuals. There was high intra-specific variation among M. cephalus and L. subviridis, intermediate intra-specific variation among L. macrolepis and L. affinis, and relatively little among L. haematocheilus, L. dussumieri and V. seheli. Persistent residency in high or low saline environments was found to vary among species, and the extent of their catadromy is discussed.

  1. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  2. Projected Motorway Construction in the Central and North-Western Regions of Romania between 2013-2021

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Istvan Csutak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways and expressways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. The 21st Century has brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways and expressways. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central and North-Western regions of Romania. The aim of this paper is presenting the two regions’ motorways as compared to the national average, determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction, as well as a comparative study of the works planned to be carried out between 2013-2021 as compared to the ones planned between the years 2004-2012. It was proven that highways in these two regions have been built using mainly state funds, thus these works are progressing slowly due to lack of consistent funding. The results of this study also relate to how fast the construction works will be finished on parts where construction has already begun, as well as whether construction works will be conducted in a higher pace than the ones between 2004 and 2012.

  3. On the formation and evolution of the Pannonian basin: constraints derived from the orogenic collapse recorded at the junction between Carpathians and Dinarides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matenco, L. C.; Radivojevic, D.

    2012-04-01

    Formation and evolution of back-arc basins is related to the evolution of subduction zones, resulting geometries being dependent on the interplay between the velocity of retreating slabs and boundary conditions that often limit rapid subduction systems. Classical models of evolution in the Alps-Carpathians-Dinaridic domain assume that the formation of the Pannonian back-arc basin is related to the rapid roll-back of an European slab and the invasion of Tisza-Dacia and ALCAPA upper plate blocks into the so-called Carpathians embayment starting at ~20Ma. The general mechanism assumes a gradual evolution, an initial mechanical phase of extensional detachments being recognized near the transition between the Alps and the Pannonian basin was subsequently followed by upper crustal normal faulting and a thermal phase during the Middle-late Miocene times that affected the central part of the Pannonian basin. A key area of the entire system often neglected by kinematic studies is the connection between South Carpathians and Dinarides. Here, regional seismic lines traversing the entire Serbian part of the Pannonian basin were calibrated with well data in order to derive an evolutionary model. The deformation is dominantly expressed by the formation of extensional (half-)grabens that are the brittle expression of large-scale extensional detachments. In contrast with previous interpretation restricting the syn-rift phase to the Middle Miocene, the geometry of normal faults and the associated syn-kinematic sedimentation allows the definition of a continuous Early to Late Miocene extensional evolution that was followed by the formation of isolated uplifted areas during the subsequent Pliocene - Quaternary inversion. The orientation of these (half-)grabens changes gradually from W-E to NW-SE and then to N-S, suggesting that the present-day strike of faults is the effect of a clockwise rotational mechanism of South Carpathians and Apuseni Mountains in respect to Dinarides. The S

  4. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915......, the first Western discussion of Sufism was printed in 1480, and Western interest in some of the ideas that are central to Sufi thought goes back to the thirteenth century. Sedgwick starts with the earliest origins of Western Sufism in late antique Neoplatonism and early Arab philosophy, and traces later......, the year in which the first Western Sufi order based not on the heritage of the European Middle Ages, Renaissance and Enlightenment, but rather on purely Islamic models, was founded. Later developments in this and other orders are also covered. Western Sufism shows the influence of these origins...

  5. Simulated trends of extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin using outputs of different regional climate models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongracz, R.; Bartholy, J.; Szabo, P.; Pieczka, I.; Torma, C. S.

    2009-04-01

    Regional climatological effects of global warming may be recognized not only in shifts of mean temperature and precipitation, but in the frequency or intensity changes of different climate extremes. Several climate extreme indices are analyzed and compared for the Carpathian basin (located in Central/Eastern Europe) following the guidelines suggested by the joint WMO-CCl/CLIVAR Working Group on climate change detection. Our statistical trend analysis includes the evaluation of several extreme temperature and precipitation indices, e.g., the numbers of severe cold days, winter days, frost days, cold days, warm days, summer days, hot days, extremely hot days, cold nights, warm nights, the intra-annual extreme temperature range, the heat wave duration, the growing season length, the number of wet days (using several threshold values defining extremes), the maximum number of consecutive dry days, the highest 1-day precipitation amount, the greatest 5-day rainfall total, the annual fraction due to extreme precipitation events, etc. In order to evaluate the future trends (2071-2100) in the Carpathian basin, daily values of meteorological variables are obtained from the outputs of various regional climate model (RCM) experiments accomplished in the frame of the completed EU-project PRUDENCE (Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects). Horizontal resolution of the applied RCMs is 50 km. Both scenarios A2 and B2 are used to compare past and future trends of the extreme climate indices for the Carpathian basin. Furthermore, fine-resolution climate experiments of two additional RCMs adapted and run at the Department of Meteorology, Eotvos Lorand University are used to extend the trend analysis of climate extremes for the Carpathian basin. (1) Model PRECIS (run at 25 km horizontal resolution) was developed at the UK Met Office, Hadley Centre, and it uses the boundary conditions from the HadCM3 GCM. (2) Model Reg

  6. Large-scale landslide triggering mechanisms in Debre Sina area, Central Ethiopian Highlands at the western Afar rift margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiros, T.; Wohnlich, S.; Hussien, B.

    2017-12-01

    The Central Highlands of Ethiopia have repeatedly experiencing large-scale landslide events. Debre Sina area is one of the most landslide prone areas located along the western Afar rift margin of Ethiopia, which is frequently affected by large-scale and deep-seated landslides. Despite that, urban and rural development is currently taking place in almost all constricted valleys as well as on the imposing cliffs. Therefore, understanding the major triggering factors and failure mechanisms in the Debre Sina area and surroundings is of critical importance. In the present study, we investigate the landslide in the area using geological and topographic analysis, structural settings, geophysical investigation (seismic refraction), rainfall data and seismicity. Furthermore, petrographical as well as X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis are conducted to explain the mineral composition of parent rock and its weathering products. The topographic analysis result revealed that the slope range from 100 - 400, with elevation of 1,800 - 2,500m, with aspect to east and southeast are highly prone to landslide. The seismic refraction method identified four main layers of geomaterials which contained a subsurface landslides anomaly within the layers. The results consist of clay, loosely cemented colluvial sediments and highly weathered agglomerates (1000-1500m/s) 7-15m, highly to moderately fractured porphyritic basalt, ignimbrite, rhyolite/trachyte and volcanic ash (1500-2500m/s) 10-30m, moderately to slightly fractured ignimbrite, rhyolite/trachyte and basalt (2500-3500m/s) 30-50m and very strong, massive, fresh rock/bed rock (>3500m/s) from 45m depth. The large-scale and deep-seated landslides problem in the study area appears to be caused by heavy rainfall, complex geology and rugged topography, the presence of geological structures oriented parallel to the rift margin N-S fault (NNE-SSW trending) of the central Ethiopian highlands and coinciding with the head scarp of the slides and

  7. The role of natural vegetative disturbance in determining stream reach characteristics in central Idaho and western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, B.B.; Jarvis, B.; Kershner, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between natural vegetative disturbance and changes in stream habitat and macroinvertebrate metrics within 33 randomly selected minimally managed watersheds in central Idaho and western Montana. Changes in stream reach conditions were related to vegetative disturbance for the time periods from 1985 to 1993 and 1993 to 2000, respectively, at the following three spatial scales; within the stream buffer and less than 1 km from the evaluated reach, within the watershed and within 1 km of the stream reach, and within the watershed. Data for stream reaches were based on field surveys and vegetative disturbance was generated for the watershed above the sampled reach using remotely sensed data and geographical information systems. Large scale (>100 ha) vegetative disturbance was common within the study area. Even though natural vegetative disturbance rates were high, we found that few of the measured attributes were related to the magnitude of vegetative disturbance. The three physical habitat attributes that changed significantly were sinuosity, median particle size, and percentage of undercut bank; each was related to the disturbance in the earlier (1985-1993) time frame. There was a significant relationship between changes in two macroinvertebrate metrics, abundance and percent collectors/filterers, and the magnitude of disturbance during the more recent time period (1993-2000). We did not find a consistent relationship between the location of the disturbance within the watershed and changes in stream conditions. Our findings suggest that natural vegetative disturbance within the northern Rocky Mountains is complex but likely does not result in substantial short-term changes in the characteristics of most stream reaches. ?? 2007 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  8. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haase Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps. Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more

  9. Improving estimates of N2O emissions for western and central Europe using a Bayesian inversion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Gerbig, C.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) mixing ratio has been increasing in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution, from 270 ppb in 1750 to 320 ppb in 2007 with a steady growth rate of around 0.26% since the early 1980's. The increase in N2O is worrisome for two main reasons. First, it is a greenhouse gas; this means that its atmospheric increase translates to an enhancement in radiative forcing of 0.16 ± 0.02 Wm-2 making it currently the fourth most important long-lived greenhouse gas and is predicted to soon overtake CFC's to become the third most important. Second, it plays an important role in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Human activities are the primary cause of the atmospheric N2O increase. The largest anthropogenic source of N2O is from the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture but fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes, such as adipic and nitric acid production, are also important. We present a Bayesian inversion approach for estimating N2O fluxes over central and western Europe using high frequency in-situ concentration data from the Ochsenkopf tall tower (50 °01′N, 11 °48′, 1022 masl). For the inversion, we employ a Lagrangian-type transport model, STILT, which provides source-receptor relationships at 10 km using ECMWF meteorological data. The a priori flux estimates used were from IER, for anthropogenic, and GEIA, for natural fluxes. N2O fluxes were retrieved monthly at 2 x 2 degree spatial resolution for 2007. The retrieved N2O fluxes showed significantly more spatial heterogeneity than in the a priori field and considerable seasonal variability. The timing of peak emissions was different for different regions but in general the months with the strongest emissions were May and August. Overall, the retrieved flux (anthropogenic and natural) was lower than in the a priori field.

  10. Contrasting Permo - Carboniferous Evolution of Resita and Sirinia - Presacina Basins (South Carpathians, Romania); an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, M.; Seghedi, I.; Nutu, L. M.; Nicolae, I.

    2009-04-01

    Two important Permo-Carboniferous molasses basins Resita and Sirinia - Presacina occur in Romanian Banat (south-western part of Carpathian chain), unconformable overlie the Getic and Danubian domains with different pre-Variscan and Variscan geodynamic history. They show differences in their lithology reflecting various geotectonic settings and evolutions. In the Resita domain the Upper Carboniferous deposits (Westphalian - Stephanian in age, according to the previous paleobotanic and palynological data) are important in volume and they contain terrigeneous siliciclastic rocks represented by sandy - conglomerate and argillaceous - sandy rocks variable in thickness with siltstone, carbonaceous shale and coal beds interlayering. There are not volcanic rocks present in Upper Carboniferous of Resita domain. In contrast with Resita in the Sirinia - Presacina basins the Upper Carboniferous deposits are volumetrically more restrictive. These deposits transgresively overlie pre-Sudetian formations and consist of continental - lacustrine terrigeneous formations, rarely associated with limnic carbonatic rocks. In this association the alternating conglomerate, siliceous sandstone, siltstone and clay with lens - like coal inter-layers prevails. In two small areas Dragosela - Tulinecea - Camenita (in the western part) and Baia Noua - Cucuiova (in the eastern part) the terrigeneous deposits are associated with basaltic andesite and andesite rocks with alkaline affinity. In both of these basins the Lower Permian deposits (according to the paleobotanic data) unconformably overlie the Upper Carboniferous formations and/or pre-Sudetian basements. The Lower Permian deposits in the Resita basin occur in two superposed formations (Nastaseanu, 1987): (1) Walchia Beds dominated by black argillaceous shales, slightly bituminous with rare sandy-conglomerate interlayers and (2) Red Beds composed by sandy-conglomerate deposits with some argillaceous intercalations, all red in color, with

  11. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  12. The significance of the Sun, Moon and celestial bodies to societies in the Carpathian basin during the Bronze Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pásztor, Emília

    2011-06-01

    Celestial events often exerted a great or even decisive influence on the life of ancient communities. They may provide some of the foundations on which an understanding of the deeper meaning of mythologies, religious systems and even folk tales can be based. These influences are reflected and may be detected in the archaeological material as well. There is good evidence that celestial (especially solar and perhaps lunar) phenomena played a particularly important rôle in the worldview of prehistoric Europe. To reveal the social and ideational significance of concepts relating to the celestial bodies in the prehistory of the Carpathian Basin, complex investigations on orientations of houses and graves, prestige archaeological finds and iconography have been accomplished. The results indicate ideological and/or social changes, which developed into a likely organized ideological system in large part of Central Europe including the Carpathian Basin by the Late Bronze Age. It might also be the first period in prehistory when people became really interested in celestial phenomena.

  13. Geomorphic evidence for post-10 Ma uplift of the western flank of the central Andes 18°30'-22°S

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, Gregory D.; Isacks, Bryan L.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Blanco, NicoláS.; Tomlinson, Andrew J.; Ramezani, Jahandar

    2007-10-01

    The western Andean mountain front forms the western edge of the central Andean Plateau. Between 18.5° and 22°S latitude, the mountain front has ˜3000 m of relief over ˜50 km horizontal distance that has developed in the absence of major local Neogene deformation. Models of the evolution of the plateau, as well as paleoaltimetry estimates, all call for continued large-magnitude uplift of the plateau surface into the late Miocene (i.e., younger than 10 Ma). Longitudinal river profiles from 20 catchments that drain the western Andean mountain front contain several streams with knickpoint-bounded segments that we use to reconstruct the history of post-10 Ma surface uplift of the western flank of the central Andean Plateau. The generation of knickpoints is attributed to tectonic processes and is not a consequence of base level change related to Pacific Ocean capture, eustatic change, or climate change as causes for creating the knickpoint-bounded stream segments observed. Minor valley-filling alluvial gravels intercalated with the 5.4 Ma Carcote ignimbrite suggest uplift related river incision was well under way by 5.4 Ma. The maximum age of river incision is provided by the regionally extensive, approximately 10 Ma El Diablo-Altos de Pica paleosurface. The river profiles reveal that relative surface uplift of at least1 km occurred after 10 Ma.

  14. (Plio-)Pleistocene alluvial-lacustrine basin infill evolution in a strike-slip active zone (Northern Andes, Western-Central Cordilleras, Colombia)

    OpenAIRE

    SUTER, F.; NEUWERTH, R.; GORIN, G.; GUZMÁN, C.

    2009-01-01

    The (Plio)-Pleistocene Zarzal Formation was deposited in the Cauca Depression and Quindío-Risaralda Basin between the Western and Central Cordilleras (Northern Andes). This area is structurally located on the transcurrent Romeral Fault System (RFS). Because of the interaction between the Nazca plate and the Chocó-Panamá block (an active indenter), the RFS strike-slip component changes direction around the study zone (dextral in the south, senestral in the north). Zarzal sediments are the olde...

  15. An Empirical Ocean Colour Algorithm for Estimating the Contribution of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in North-Central Western Adriatic Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandra Campanelli; Simone Pascucci; Mattia Betti; Federica Grilli; Mauro Marini; Stefano Pignatti; Stefano Guicciardi

    2017-01-01

    The performance of empirical band ratio models were evaluated for the estimation of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM) using MODIS ocean colour sensor images and data collected on the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea). Relationships between in situ measurements (2013–2016) of CDOM absorption coefficients at 355 nm (aCDOM355) with several MODIS satellite band ratios were evaluated on a test data set. The prediction capability of the different linear models was assess...

  16. Bootstrapping data envelopment analysis of efficiency and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the public hospital reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Li; Fang, Hai-Qing; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Miao; Xu, Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2017-10-01

    China implemented the public hospital reform in 2012. This study utilized bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the 2012 public hospital reform. Data from 127 county public hospitals (39, 45, and 43 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, respectively) were collected during 2012-2015. Changes of TE and productivity over time were estimated by bootstrapping DEA and bootstrapping Malmquist. The disparities in TE and productivity among public hospitals in the three regions of China were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. The average bias-corrected TE values for the four-year period were 0.6442, 0.5785, 0.6099, and 0.6094 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, and the entire country respectively, with average non-technical efficiency, low pure technical efficiency (PTE), and high scale efficiency found. Productivity increased by 8.12%, 0.25%, 12.11%, and 11.58% in China and its three regions during 2012-2015, and such increase in productivity resulted from progressive technological changes by 16.42%, 6.32%, 21.08%, and 21.42%, respectively. The TE and PTE of the county hospitals significantly differed among the three regions of China. Eastern and Western China showed significantly higher TE and PTE than Central China. More than 60% of county public hospitals in China and its three areas operated at decreasing return scales. There was a considerable space for TE improvement in county hospitals in China and its three regions. During 2012-2015, the hospitals experienced progressive productivity; however, the PTE changed adversely. Moreover, Central China continuously achieved a significantly lower efficiency score than Eastern and Western China. Decision makers and administrators in China should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase the efficiency of county

  17. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armelle T. Mbaveng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2 as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1, human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae, Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr. Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51

  18. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbaveng, Armelle T.; Kuete, Victor; Efferth, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA) regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp), multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs), breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2) as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1), human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams) A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae), Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr.) Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern) Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal) A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51), two

  19. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  20. Evaluation of landslide monitoring in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Baum, Rex L.; Mrozek, Teresa; Nescieruk, Piotr; Perski, Zbigniew; Raczkowski, Wojciech; Graniczny, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the June 15, 2010 request from the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for assistance and advice regarding real-time landslide monitoring, landslide specialists from the USGS Landslide Hazard Program visited PGI headquarters and field sites in September 2010. During our visit we became familiar with characteristics of landslides in the Polish Carpathians, reviewed PGI monitoring techniques, and assessed needs for monitoring at recently activated landslides. Visits to several landslides that are monitored by PGI (the Just, Hańczowa, Szymbark, Siercza and Łasńica landslides) revealed that current data collection (monthly GPS and inclinometer surveys, hourly piezometers readings) is generally sufficient for collecting basic information about landslide displacement, depth, and groundwater conditions. Large landslides are typically hydrologically complex, and we would expect such complexity in Carpathian landslides, given the alternating shale and sandstone stratigraphy and complex geologic structures of the flysch bedrock. Consequently groundwater observations could be improved by installing several piezometers that sample the basal shear zone of each landslide being monitored by PGI. These could be supplemented by additional piezometers at shallower depths to help clarify general flow directions and hydraulic gradients. Remedial works at Hańczowa

  1. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Someşu Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Someşu Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the

  2. Six hundred years of agricultural activity in the Gorce Mountains (Polish Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The role of human activity on agricultural land use were studied in the Ochotnica village (105 km2) with Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (the Gorce Mountains in Polish Carpathians) from the beginning of human settlement to present-day with special emphasise on the period 1846-2009. The visual interpretation of cadastral maps and air photos, combined with palynological and radiocarbon data as well as analysis of historical and census reports indicates more permanent conversion of land-cover of the Gorce Mountains were started by the expansion of Wallachian shepherds at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the years 1846-2009, there was an increase in the forest area of Ochotnica by 77%, and in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchment by 29% and 43%, respectively. The arable land decreased in that period by 94% in both catchments. The period of 163 years shows diverging trends and dynamics of land use, referring to the three stages of the socio-economic development observed in the Polish Carpathians. Until World War II, agriculture was the main source of income of the growing rural population. The contribution of the agricultural land was approximately 70% in the 1930s., reaching the highest level in the history of human activity in the Gorce Mountains. After World War II, because of a shortage of food in the communist economy, the pressure on land cultivation resulted in the keep of the land use structure inherited from the past. The transition from the communist economy to a free market after 1989 and the accession of Poland to the European Union, forced a rapid increase in forest area at the expense of the agricultural land. They were the most significant land use changes from the time of the Wallachians' colonization of the Gorce Mountains. The changes in land use contributed to a decrease in the intensity of soil erosion on the slopes and an increase of channel incision in the both streams and Ochotnica river, draining the area of 107.6 km2 of the Gorce Mountains

  3. Use of linkage mapping and centrality analysis across habitat gradients to conserve connectivity of gray wolf populations in western North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Carlos; McRae, Brad H; Brookes, Allen

    2012-02-01

    Centrality metrics evaluate paths between all possible pairwise combinations of sites on a landscape to rank the contribution of each site to facilitating ecological flows across the network of sites. Computational advances now allow application of centrality metrics to landscapes represented as continuous gradients of habitat quality. This avoids the binary classification of landscapes into patch and matrix required by patch-based graph analyses of connectivity. It also avoids the focus on delineating paths between individual pairs of core areas characteristic of most corridor- or linkage-mapping methods of connectivity analysis. Conservation of regional habitat connectivity has the potential to facilitate recovery of the gray wolf (Canis lupus), a species currently recolonizing portions of its historic range in the western United States. We applied 3 contrasting linkage-mapping methods (shortest path, current flow, and minimum-cost-maximum-flow) to spatial data representing wolf habitat to analyze connectivity between wolf populations in central Idaho and Yellowstone National Park (Wyoming). We then applied 3 analogous betweenness centrality metrics to analyze connectivity of wolf habitat throughout the northwestern United States and southwestern Canada to determine where it might be possible to facilitate range expansion and interpopulation dispersal. We developed software to facilitate application of centrality metrics. Shortest-path betweenness centrality identified a minimal network of linkages analogous to those identified by least-cost-path corridor mapping. Current flow and minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality identified diffuse networks that included alternative linkages, which will allow greater flexibility in planning. Minimum-cost-maximum-flow betweenness centrality, by integrating both land cost and habitat capacity, allows connectivity to be considered within planning processes that seek to maximize species protection at minimum cost

  4. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  5. Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189

  6. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-05

    Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and

  7. Petrographic and geochemical analyisis for determination of provenance of the Slovenj Gradec Miocene Basin fill (Western Central Paratethys)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančič, Kristina; Trajanova, Mirka; Skaberne, Dragomir; Šmuc, Andrej

    2017-04-01

    The Slovenj Gradec Basin (SGB) is located in northern Slovenia between eastern margin of the Northern Karavanke and the western Pohorje Mts. Structurally, it belongs to Eastern Alps. It is filled with Miocene clastic sediments. Modal composition of sandstones was determined on thin sections by point-counter and presented with the QFL and QmFLt diagrams. Their geochemical composition was determined by classical method and by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Based on petrography, sedimentary fill of the SGB consists mostly of lithic grains and quartz, derived from metamorphic and carbonate rocks. Locally, fragments of granitoids occur. Binder consists of carbonate, subordinately quartz cement, and carbonate matrix. Recycled orogen (lithic and transitional recycled) provenance of the grains was determined. Geochemical composition shows that: - Sandstones from the SGB belong to the fields of shale, wacke, litharenite, arkose and subarkose (Pettijohn, 1972). - In the ternary diagram of weathering trends (cf. Nesbitt & Young 1984), the samples group near the CaO+Na2OAl2O3 conjunctive. Calculated minimum CIA (Fedo et al., 1995) is 40.06, indicating that the source rocks were not subjected to considerable weathering. - According to discriminant function (cf. Roser & Korsch, 1988) all samples from SGB originate from quartzose sedimentary rocks. - For determination of tectonic setting of source rocks (Verma & Armstrong-Altrin, 2013) the studied samples plot in the field of collision zone. - In the multidimensional discriminant function diagram for the discrimination of active and passive margin after Verma and Armstrong (2016), the samples plot into the field of passive margin. The data indicate that source rocks of the SGB sedimentary fill were derived from Eastern Alps and Southern Alps. It is suggested that SGB was detached from the Styrian and Mura-Zala Basins in the course of the Pohorje Mts. oblique transpressive uplift during the late Miocene to Pliocene

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-20-12: Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Jeff [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Well ER-20-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada National Security Administration Nevada Field Office in support of the Underground Test Area Activity. The well was drilled from October 2015 to January 2016 as an addition to the Central and Western Pahute Mesa corrective action units 101 and 102 the Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-12 was identified based on recommendations of the Pahute Mesa Guidance Team as a result of anomalous tritium detections in groundwater samples collected from Well PM-3 in 2011 and 2013. The primary purpose of the well was to provide information on the hydrogeology in the area downgradient of select underground tests on Western Pahute Mesa and define hydraulic properties in the saturated Tertiary volcanic rocks. The main 46.99-centimeter (cm) (18.5-inch [in.]) borehole was drilled to a depth of 765.14 meters (m) (2,510.3 ft) and the hole opened to 66.04 cm (26 in.); followed by the 50.80-cm (20-in.) surface casing, which was installed and sealed with cement; and a piezometer (p4) was set in the Timber Mountain welded-tuff aquifer (TMWTA) between the casing and the open borehole. The borehole was continued with a 46.99-cm (18.5-in.) drill bit to a depth of 1,326.53 m (4,352.16 ft), and an intermediate 24.44-cm (9.625-in.) casing was installed and sealed to 1,188.72 m (3,900.00 ft) A piezometer (p3) was installed across the Calico Hills zeolitic composite unit (CHZCM) (lava-flow aquifer [LFA]) in the annulus of the open borehole. Two additional piezometers were installed and completed between the intermediate casing and the borehole wall, one (p2) in the CHZCM and one (p1) in the Belted Range aquifer (BRA). The piezometers are set to monitor groundwater properties in the completed intervals. The borehole was continued with a 21.59-cm (8.5-in.) drill bit to a total depth of 1,384.80 m (4,543.33 ft), and the main completion 13.97-cm (5.5-in.) casing was installed in the open borehole across the Pre-Belted Range

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-20-12: Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurtz, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Well ER-20-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada National Security Administration Nevada Field Office in support of the Underground Test Area Activity. The well was drilled from October 2015 to January 2016 as an addition to the Central and Western Pahute Mesa corrective action units 101 and 102 the Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-12 was identified based on recommendations of the Pahute Mesa Guidance Team as a result of anomalous tritium detections in groundwater samples collected from Well PM-3 in 2011 and 2013. The primary purpose of the well was to provide information on the hydrogeology in the area downgradient of select underground tests on Western Pahute Mesa and define hydraulic properties in the saturated Tertiary volcanic rocks. The main 46.99-centimeter (cm) (18.5-inch) borehole was drilled to a depth of 765.14 meters (m) (2,510.3 ft) and the hole opened to 66.04 cm (26 in.); followed by the 50.80-cm (20-in.) surface casing, which was installed and sealed with cement; and a piezometer (p4) was set in the Timber Mountain welded-tuff aquifer (TMWTA) between the casing and the open borehole. The borehole was continued with a 46.99-cm (18.5-in.) drill bit to a depth of 1,326.53 m (4,352.16 ft), and an intermediate 24.44-cm (9.625-in.) casing was installed and sealed to 1,188.72 m (3,900.00 ft) A piezometer (p3) was installed across the Calico Hills zeolitic composite unit (CHZCM) (lava-flow aquifer [LFA]) in the annulus of the open borehole. Two additional piezometers were installed and completed between the intermediate casing and the borehole wall, one (p2) in the CHZCM and one (p1) in the Belted Range aquifer (BRA). The piezometers are set to monitor groundwater properties in the completed intervals. The borehole was continued with a 21.59-cm (8.5-in.) drill bit to a total depth of 1,384.80 m (4,543.33 ft), and the main completion 13.97-cm (5.5-in.) casing was installed in the open borehole across the Pre-Belted Range composite

  10. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  11. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, John

    2004-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102.

  12. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    the plants flowering in early spring show data comparable with other localities. Selected data were compared with the averages of flowering from 1993 to 2008 at the localities close to the stations. The differences showed flowering of plants 1 - 3 weeks sooner. This corresponds to the higher temperature from February to June by 1.0 -1.5 ?C. The inventory of phenological records from the period of 1871-1885 from Carpathian region showed pretty fragmented data set that are not suitable for standard statistical evaluation. Some possibilities of phenological evaluations are in spatial and time analysis of the development of different plants in particular years/seasons that either represent the average climatic conditions or include also some climatic extremes. Deeper analysis of such phenological events will require daily climatologic/temperature data. The advantage of above discussed data sets is the fact that one methodology of observations was applied and that they cover big area of Central Europe and a part of Balkan. Further development of phenological observations in the region after the break-down of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was based on the conditions in a particular country. It means changes in the methods of observations and the number of stations. The recent cooperation in creating phenological databases brought considerable difficulties as some networks were cancelled and re-established again in the 20th century.

  13. Postglacial recolonization in a cold climate specialist in western Europe: patterns of genetic diversity in the adder (Vipera berus) support the central-marginal hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ursenbacher, Sylvain; Guillon, Michaël; Cubizolle, Hervé; Dupoué, Andréaz; Blouin-Demers, Gabriel; Lourdais, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the impact of postglacial recolonization on genetic diversity is essential in explaining current patterns of genetic variation. The central-marginal hypothesis (CMH) predicts a reduction in genetic diversity from the core of the distribution to peripheral populations, as well as reduced connectivity between peripheral populations. While the CMH has received considerable empirical support, its broad applicability is still debated and alternative hypotheses predict different spatial patterns of genetic diversity. Using microsatellite markers, we analysed the genetic diversity of the adder (Vipera berus) in western Europe to reconstruct postglacial recolonization. Approximate Bayesian Computation (ABC) analyses suggested a postglacial recolonization from two routes: a western route from the Atlantic Coast up to Belgium and a central route from the Massif Central to the Alps. This cold-adapted species likely used two isolated glacial refugia in southern France, in permafrost-free areas during the last glacial maximum. Adder populations further from putative glacial refugia had lower genetic diversity and reduced connectivity; therefore, our results support the predictions of the CMH. Our study also illustrates the utility of highly variable nuclear markers, such as microsatellites, and ABC to test competing recolonization hypotheses. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  15. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  16. Gulf of Mexico Sales 157 and 161: Central and western planning areas final environmental impact statement, Volume I: Sections I through IV.C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1996 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 157 (March 1996) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 161 (August 1996)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their potential effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities

  17. Gulf of Mexico sales 147 and 150: Central and western planning areas. Draft environmental impact statement. Volume 1. Sections I through IV.C. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-04-01

    The Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales (Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)). The document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the description of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities

  18. Accommodation of missing shear strain in the Central Walker Lane, western North America: Constraints from dense GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bormann, Jayne M.; Hammond, William C.; Kreemer, Corné; Blewitt, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    We present 264 new interseismic GPS velocities from the Mobile Array of GPS for Nevada Transtension (MAGNET) and continuous GPS networks that measure Pacific-North American plate boundary deformation in the Central Walker Lane. Relative to a North America-fixed reference frame, northwestward velocities increase smoothly from ∼4 mm/yr in the Basin and Range province to 12.2 mm/yr in the central Sierra Nevada resulting in a Central Walker Lane deformation budget of ∼8 mm/yr. We use an elastic block model to estimate fault slip and block rotation rates and patterns of deformation from the GPS velocities. Right-lateral shear is distributed throughout the Central Walker Lane with strike-slip rates generally Bodie Hills, Carson Domain, and Mina Deflection are between 1-4°/Myr, lower than published paleomagnetic rotation rates, suggesting that block rotation rates have decreased since the Late to Middle Miocene.

  19. An Empirical Ocean Colour Algorithm for Estimating the Contribution of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter in North-Central Western Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Campanelli

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The performance of empirical band ratio models were evaluated for the estimation of Coloured Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM using MODIS ocean colour sensor images and data collected on the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea (Mediterranean Sea. Relationships between in situ measurements (2013–2016 of CDOM absorption coefficients at 355 nm (aCDOM355 with several MODIS satellite band ratios were evaluated on a test data set. The prediction capability of the different linear models was assessed on a validation data set. Based on some statistical diagnostic parameters (R2, APD and RMSE, the best MODIS band ratio performance in retrieving CDOM was obtained by a simple linear model of the transformed dependent variable using the remote sensing reflectance band ratio Rrs(667/Rrs(488 as the only independent variable. The best-retrieved CDOM algorithm provides very good results for the complex coastal area along the North-Central Western Adriatic Sea where the Po River outflow is the main driving force in CDOM and nutrient circulation, which in winter mostly remains confined to a coastal boundary layer, whereas in summer it spreads to the open sea as well.

  20. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-01-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71. km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to

  1. Distal microbiome composition of habituated western lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Dzanga Sangha, Central African Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gomez, A.; Petrželková, Klára Judita; Yeoman, C. J.; White, B. A.; Stumpf, R. M.; Nelson, K. E.; Gillis, M.; Torralba, M.; Wilson, B. A.; Leigh, S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 75, S1 (2013), s. 72 ISSN 0275-2565. [Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists /36./. 19.06.2013-22.06.2013, San Juan] Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Gorilla * Central African Republic Subject RIV: EG - Zoology http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajp.22188/pdf

  2. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.A.; Tryggvason, A.; Panea, I; Mocanu, V.I.; Hauser, F

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the

  3. Burial history, thermal history and hydrocarbon generation modelling of the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Polish Carpathian Foredeep and Outer Carpathians (SE Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosakowski, Paweł; Wróbel, Magdalena

    2012-08-01

    Burial history, thermal maturity, and timing of hydrocarbon generation were modelled for the Jurassic source rocks in the basement of the Carpathian Foredeep and marginal part of the Outer Carpathians. The area of investigation was bounded to the west by Kraków, to the east by Rzeszów. The modelling was carried out in profiles of wells: Będzienica 2, Dębica 10K, Góra Ropczycka 1K, Goleszów 5, Nawsie 1, Pławowice E1 and Pilzno 40. The organic matter, containing gas-prone Type III kerogen with an admixture of Type II kerogen, is immature or at most, early mature to 0.7 % in the vitrinite reflectance scale. The highest thermal maturity is recorded in the south-eastern part of the study area, where the Jurassic strata are buried deeper. The thermal modelling showed that the obtained organic matter maturity in the initial phase of the "oil window" is connected with the stage of the Carpathian overthrusting. The numerical modelling indicated that the onset of hydrocarbon generation from the Middle Jurassic source rocks was also connected with the Carpathian thrust belt. The peak of hydrocarbon generation took place in the orogenic stage of the overthrusting. The amount of generated hydrocarbons is generally small, which is a consequence of the low maturity and low transformation degree of kerogen. The generated hydrocarbons were not expelled from their source rock. An analysis of maturity distribution and transformation degree of the Jurassic organic matter shows that the best conditions for hydrocarbon generation occurred most probably in areas deeply buried under the Outer Carpathians. It is most probable that the "generation kitchen" should be searched for there.

  4. Some regularities in the distribution of kenophytes in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zając Maria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.

  5. Speciation on the rocks: integrated systematics of the Heteronotia spelea species complex (Gekkota; Reptilia from Western and Central Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzy Pepper

    Full Text Available The isolated uplands of the Australian arid zone are known to provide mesic refuges in an otherwise xeric landscape, and divergent lineages of largely arid zone taxa have persisted in these regions following the onset of Miocene aridification. Geckos of the genus Heteronotia are one such group, and have been the subject of many genetic studies, including H. spelea, a strongly banded form that occurs in the uplands of the Pilbara and Central Ranges regions of the Australian arid zone. Here we assess the systematics of these geckos based on detailed examination of morphological and genetic variation. The H. spelea species complex is a monophyletic lineage to the exclusion of the H. binoei and H. planiceps species complexes. Within the H. spelea complex, our previous studies based on mtDNA and nine nDNA loci found populations from the Central Ranges to be genetically divergent from Pilbara populations. Here we supplement our published molecular data with additional data gathered from central Australian samples. In the spirit of integrative species delimitation, we combine multi-locus, coalescent-based lineage delimitation with extensive morphological analyses to test species boundaries, and we describe the central populations as a new species, H. fasciolatus sp. nov. In addition, within the Pilbara there is strong genetic evidence for three lineages corresponding to northeastern (type, southern, and a large-bodied melanic population isolated in the northwest. Due to its genetic distinctiveness and extreme morphological divergence from all other Heteronotia, we describe the melanic form as a new species, H. atra sp. nov. The northeastern and southern Pilbara populations are morphologically indistinguishable with the exception of a morpho-type in the southeast that has a banding pattern resembling H. planiceps from the northern monsoonal tropics. Pending more extensive analyses, we therefore treat Pilbara H. spelea as a single species with

  6. Hydrogeochemical Investigations of Historic Mining Districts, Central Western Slope of Colorado, Including Influence on Surface-Water Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, J. Thomas

    2002-01-01

    This report describes reconnaissance hydrogeochemical investigations of 22 mining districts on the Western Slope of Colorado in the Gunnison and Uncompahgre National Forests and adjacent public lands administered by the Bureau of Land Management. Sources and fates of contaminants from historic mines, mine waste, and mill tailings are interpreted from chemical analyses for 190 samples of surface waters; 185 samples of mined rocks, mill tailings, and altered rocks; and passive leach analyses of 116 samples of those mineralized materials. Short reaches of several headwater streams show relatively low level effects of historic mining; the headwaters of the Uncompahgre River are highly contaminated by mines and unmined altered rocks in the Red Mountain district. There is encouraging evidence that natural processes attenuate mine-related contamination in most districts.

  7. Crustal Structure in the Western Part of Romania from Local Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Popa, Mihaela; Oros, Eugen; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-12-01

    The inner part of the Carpathians in Romania belongs to the Carpathians-Pannonian system bordered by the Eastern Carpathians to the north and east, Southern Carpathians to the south and Pannonian Basin to the west. It is a complex tectonic region with differential folding mechanisms, post-collisional kinematics, rheology and thermal properties, including within its area the Apuseni Mountains and the Transylvanian Basin. The purpose of this study is to map the 3-D structure of the crust over this region on the basis of local earthquake data. Input data were recorded during the South Carpathian Project (2009-2011), a successful collaboration between the Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics of the University of Leeds and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. A temporary array of 32 broadband seismic stations (10 CMG-40T, 8 CMG-3T and 14 CMG-6TD) was installed across the western part of Romania (spaced at 40 to 50 km intervals) during the project. In addition, 25 stations deployed in the eastern Hungary and Serbia was considered. P- and S-wave arrivals are identified for all the selected events (minimum 7 phases per event with reasonable signal/noise ratio). All the events are first relocated using Joint Hypocentre Determination (JHD) technique. Then the well-located events were inverted to determine the crustal structure using LOTOS algorithm. The lateral variations of the crustal properties as resulted from the tomography image are interpreted in correlation with the station corrections estimated by JHD algorithm and with the post-collisional evolution of the Carpathians-Pannonian system.

  8. Source-to-sink constraints on tectonic and sedimentary evolution of the western Central Range and Cenderawasih Bay (Indonesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babault, Julien; Viaplana-Muzas, Marc; Legrand, Xavier; Van Den Driessche, Jean; González-Quijano, Manuel; Mudd, Simon M.

    2018-05-01

    The island of New Guinea is the result of continent-arc collision that began building the island's Central Range during the late Miocene. Recent studies have shown that rapid subduction, uplift and exhumation events took place in response to rapid, oblique convergence between the Pacific and the Australian plates. The tectonic and sedimentary evolution of Cenderawasih Bay, in the northwestern part of the New Guinea Island is still poorly understood: this bay links a major structural block, the Kepala Burung block, to the island's Central Ranges. Previous studies have shown that Cenderawasih Bay contains a thick (>8 km) sequence of undated sediments. One hypothesis claims that the embayment resulted from a 3 Ma opening created by anticlockwise rotation of the Kepala Burung block with respect to the northern rim of the Australian plate. Alternatively, the current configuration of Cenderawasih Bay could have resulted from the southwest drift of a slice of volcanics and oceanic crust between 8 and 6 Ma. We test these hypotheses using (i) a geomorphologic analysis of the drainage network dynamics, (ii) a reassessment of available thermochronological data, and (iii) seismic lines interpretation. We suggest that sediments started to accumulate in Cenderawasih Bay and onshore in the Waipoga Basin in the late Miocene since the inception of growth of the Central Range, beginning at 12 Ma, resulting in sediment accumulation of up to 12,200 m. This evidence is more consistent with the second hypothesis, and the volume of sediment accumulated means it is unlikely that the embayment was the result of recent (2-3 Ma) rotation of structural blocks. At first order, we predict that infilling is mainly composed of siliciclastics sourced in the graphite-bearing Ruffaer Metamorphic Belt and its equivalent in the Weyland Overthrust. Ophiolites, volcanic arc rocks and diorites contribute minor proportions. From the unroofing paths in the Central Range we deduce two rates of solid phase

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  10. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  11. Atmosphere aerosol/dust composition over central Asia and western Siberia derived from snow/ice core records and calibrated with NASA remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aizen, V. B.; Aizen, E. M.; Joswiak, D. R.; Surazakov, A. B.; Takeuchi, N.

    2007-12-01

    The vast arid and semi-arid regions of central Asia, Mongolia, and Northern China are the world's second largest source of atmospheric mineral dust. In recent years, severe dust storms in Asia have intensified in frequency, duration, and areal coverage. However, limited spatial and temporal extent of aerosol measurements precludes definitive statements to be made regarding relationship between the Asian aerosol generation and climate. It has been well known that glaciers are the natural archives of environmental records related to past climate and aerosol generation. In our research, we utilized central Asian and western Siberia shallow ice-core records recovered from Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir mountain glaciers. Despite the fact that ice-core data may extend climate/aerosol records back in time, their sparse coverage is inadequate to document aerosol spatial distribution. The NASA products from Aura, Terra and Aqua satellite missions address this gap identifying aerosol sources, transport pathways, and area of deposition. The main objective of our research is to evaluate an affect of climate variability on dynamics of Asian aerosol loading to atmosphere and changes in aerosol transport pathways. Dust particle, major and rare earth element analysis from dust aerosols deposited and accumulated in Altai, Tien Shan and Pamir glaciers suggests that loess from Tajikistan, Afghanistan and north-western China are main sources of aerosol loading into the upper troposphere over the central Asia and western Siberia. At the same time, the soluble ionic component of the ice-cores, related to aerosol generated from evaporate deposits, demonstrated both anthropogenic and natural impacts on atmospheric chemistry over these regions. Large perturbations of Ca2+ derived from CaCO3- rich dust transported from Goby Desert to Altai and Tien Shan. Origin and pathway of the ice-core aerosol depositions for the last 10-years were identified through calibrating ice-core records with dust

  12. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  13. Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the southern hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross Sea area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross Sea; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Energy efficient school buildings in central-western Argentina: an assessment of alternative typologies for the classroom tier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, C.; Basso, M.; Fernandez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda, Mendoza (AR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Four energy-efficient demonstration school buildings were built in the western province of Mendoza, Argentina, in 1999, as part of a massive building program required to implement the new Federal Education Plan. The buildings should make medium use of bioclimatic strategies and daylighting. The aspects of typology of the classroom tiers became immediately apparent as one of the main conditioners of the overall scheme. Three different alternative schemes were designed and built. A deeper analysis of these and other possible alternatives were thought essential for future constructions of the type. Four typologies of the classroom tier, using the same, locally available technology, are being comparatively assessed in the aspects of energy efficiently, thermal and luminous comfort, construction and operation costs and environmental impact (LCA). The paper presents the provisional results of the two first items only: energy efficiency and thermal comfort. While all four schemes evaluated are believed to be ''workable'', differences will tend to favour some the other according to context situations. Volumetric Loss Coeff. range from 1.09 to 1.24 W/Km{sup 3}. Solar savings fractions for the school operation hours vary between: 82.83 and 91.58%. Work is being continued to cover all the analysis items in a combined way. (author)

  15. Structural features of the southern Tulum Fault System, western central Argentina, through gravimetric data and geomorphologic analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Aixa I.; Christiansen, Rodolfo O.; Suvires, Graciela M.; Lince Klinger, Federico; Martinez, M. Patricia

    2016-12-01

    A gravimetric analysis over the Tulum Valley was made. This data was used to reveal the structural setting of the Tulum Fault System situated in the southeastern part of San Juan province in the arid western part of Argentina. This system is the boundary between two geological provinces, the eastern Precordillera Oriental and the Sierras Pampeanas Occidentales. Gravity data was processed using upward continuation and vertical derivative filters and all the results were compared with the geomorphological and the drainage systems maps of the area. Our assessment confirms the presence of two structures in the Pampeano basement with positive anomalies similar to those found in Valdivia and Barboza hills, two important depocenters with low gravimetric gradients separated by a zone with higher gravity anomalies than the depocenters to the east and west. In view of this, a structural map is proposed for the area. This system is important not only because it is the boundary between two geological provinces and has significance regarding regional tectonic issues but also because it controls the surface drainage, soils distribution and groundwater flow of the Tulum basin conditioning the land use distribution.

  16. A new species of the neopterygian fish Enchodus from the Duwi Formation, Campanian, Late Cretaceous, Western Desert, central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waymon L. Holloway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neopterygian fish Enchodus was a widespread, speciose genus consisting of approximately 30 recognized species that were temporally distributed from the late Early Cretaceous through the Paleocene. Many Enchodus specimens are fragmentary cranial remains or isolated dental elements, as is the case for previously reported occurrences in Egypt. Here, we present the most complete specimen of Enchodus recovered from the Late Cretaceous of northeast Africa. The specimen was collected from the upper Campanian Duwi Formation, near the village of Tineida (Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The new species, Enchodus tineidae sp. nov., consists of right and left dentaries, a partial ectopterygoid, and other cranial bones. The size of the specimen places it into the upper body-size range for the genus. The palatine tooth, an element often useful for diagnosing Enchodus to the species level, is not preserved, but a combination of other cranial characters supports the referral of this specimen to Enchodus. In particular, the dentary preserves three symphysial rostroventral prongs and two tooth rows, the lateral of which consists of small denticles, whereas the medial row comprises large, mediolaterally-compressed teeth. The rostral-most tooth exhibits the highest crown, whereas the rest of the teeth are of lower, variable crown heights. The eight robust, caudal-most medial-row teeth are distributed in a cluster pattern never before observed in Enchodus. Additionally, the dentary and preopercle are both without dermal ornamentation, and the mandibular sensory canal is closed. Phylogenetic analysis recovers this new species as the sister species to E. dirus from North America. Along with previously described materials from Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Italy, Morocco, and Libya, this specimen represents a thirteenth species from the northwestern Tethyan geographic distribution of Enchodus.

  17. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  18. Ármin Vámbéry (1832-1913 as a Historian of Early Hungarian Settlement in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Dreisziger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the English-speaking world Ármin Vámbéry is known as a traveler in Central Asia and a student of Turkic cultures and languages. In his native Hungary he is also known for his disagreement with linguists who believed that Hungarian belonged to the Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric languages—a part of the Uralic linguistic family. Rather than accepting this theory, Vámbéry contended that Hungarian was largely a Turkic language that belonged more to the Altaic family. Few people know that Vámbéry also expressed strong opinions about the genesis of the Hungarian nation. The most important aspect of Vámbéry’s theory about Hungarian origins is the thesis that Hungarian ethnogenesis took place—beginning with late Roman times or even earlier—in the Carpathian Basin. A corollary of this proposition is that the nomadic tribes that conquered the Carpathian Basin at the end of the ninth century were Turkic peoples who were few in numbers and were assimilated by the region’s autochthonous—and by then Hungarian-speaking—population. This paper outlines Vámbéry’s arguments and describes to what extent research on this subject in the century since Vámbéry’s death has confirmed or contradicted his unconventional ideas.

  19. Effects of projected climate (2011–50) on karst hydrology and species vulnerability—Edwards aquifer, south-central Texas, and Madison aquifer, western South Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahler, Barbara J.; Stamm, John F.; Poteet, Mary F.; Symstad, Amy J.; Musgrove, MaryLynn; Long, Andrew J.; Norton, Parker A.

    2015-12-22

    Karst aquifers—formed by the dissolution of soluble rocks such as limestone—are critical groundwater resources in North America, and karst springs, caves, and streams provide habitat for unique flora and fauna. Springflow and groundwater levels in karst terrane can change greatly over short time scales, and therefore are likely to respond rapidly to climate change. How might the biological communities and ecosystems associated with karst respond to climate change and accompanying changes in groundwater levels and springflow? Sites in two central U.S. regions—the Balcones Escarpment of south-central Texas and the Black Hills of western South Dakota (fig. 1)—were selected to study climate change and its potential effects on the local karst hydrology and ecosystem. The ecosystems associated with the Edwards aquifer (Balcones Escarpment region) and Madison aquifer (Black Hills region) support federally listed endangered and threatened species and numerous State-listed species of concern, including amphibians, birds, insects, and plants. Full results are provided in Stamm and others (2014), and are summarized in this fact sheet.

  20. Admixture of Eastern and Western European Red Deer Lineages as a Result of Postglacial Recolonization of the Czech Republic (Central Europe).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krojerová-Prokešová, Jarmila; Barančeková, Miroslava; Koubek, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Due to a restriction of the distributional range of European red deer (Cervus elaphus L.) during the Quaternary and subsequent recolonization of Europe from different refugia, a clear phylogeographical pattern in genetic structure has been revealed using mitochondrial DNA markers. In Central Europe, 2 distinct, eastern and western, lineages of European red deer are present; however, admixture between them has not yet been studied in detail. We used mitochondrial DNA (control region and cytochrome b gene) sequences and 22 microsatellite loci from 522 individuals to investigate the genetic diversity of red deer in what might be expected to be an intermediate zone. We discovered a high number of unique mtDNA haplotypes belonging to each lineage and high levels of genetic diversity (cyt b H = 0.867, D-loop H = 0.914). The same structuring of red deer populations was also revealed by microsatellite analysis, with results from both analyses thus suggesting a suture zone between the 2 lineages. Despite the fact that postglacial recolonization of Central Europe by red deer occurred more than 10000 years ago, the degree of admixture between the 2 lineages is relatively small, with only 10.8% admixed individuals detected. Direct translocations of animals by humans have slightly blurred the pattern in this region; however, this blurring was more apparent when using maternally inherited markers than nuclear markers. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Parasitism of dolfinfhishes, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Carbonell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.

  2. The geometry of the active strike-slip El Tigre Fault, Precordillera of San Juan, Central-Western Argentina: integrating resistivity surveys with structural and geomorphological data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazzito, Sabrina Y.; Cortés, José M.; Rapalini, Augusto E.; Terrizzano, Carla M.

    2013-07-01

    The geometry and related geomorphological features of the right-lateral strike-slip El Tigre Fault, one of the main morphostructural discontinuities in the Central-Western Precordillera of Argentina, were investigated. Achievements of this survey include: recognition of structural and geometrical discontinuities along the fault trace, identification and classification of landforms associated with local transpressional and transtensional sectors, observation of significant changes in the fault strike and detection of right and left bends of different wavelength. In the Central Segment of the El Tigre Fault, 2D electrical resistivity tomography surveys were carried out across the fault zone. The resistivity imaging permitted to infer the orientation of the main fault surface, the presence of blind fault branches along the fault zone, tectonic tilting of the Quaternary sedimentary cover, subsurface structure of pressure ridges and depth to the water table. Based on this information, it is possible to characterize the El Tigre Fault also as an important hydro-geological barrier. Our survey shows that the main fault surface changes along different segments from a high-angle to a subvertical setting whilst the vertical-slip component is either reverse or normal, depending on the local transpressive or transtensive regime induced by major bends along the trace. These local variations are expressed as sections of a few kilometres in length with relatively homogeneous behaviour and frequently separated by oblique or transversal structures.

  3. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  4. Genetic and morphological divergence among Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in north-central and western North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonsthagen, Sarah A.; Rosenfield, Robert N.; Bielefeldt, John; Murphy, Robert K.; Stewart, Andrew C.; Stout, William C.; Driscoll, Timothy G.; Bozek, Michael A.; Sloss, Brian L.; Talbot, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Cooper's Hawk (Accipiter cooperii) populations breeding in the northern portion of the species' range exhibit variation in morphological traits that conforms to predictions based on differences in prey size, tree stand density, and migratory behavior. We examined genetic structure and gene flow and compared divergence at morphological traits (PST) and genetic markers (FST) to elucidate mechanisms (selection or genetic drift) that promote morphological diversification among Cooper's Hawk populations. Cooper's Hawks appear to conform to the genetic pattern of an east-west divide. Populations in British Columbia are genetically differentiated from north-central populations (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and North Dakota; pairwise microsatellite FST= 0.031-0.050; mitochondrial DNA ΦST = 0.177-0.204), which suggests that Cooper's Hawks were restricted to at least two Pleistocene glacial refugia. The strength of the Rocky Mountains—Great Plains area as a barrier to dispersal is further supported by restricted gene-flow rates between British Columbia and other sampled breeding populations. Divergence in morphological traits (PST) was also observed across study areas, but with British Columbia and North Dakota differentiated from Wisconsin and Minnesota, a pattern not predicted on the basis of FST and ΦST interpopulation estimates. Comparison of PSTand FSTestimates suggests that heterogeneous selection may be acting on Cooper's Hawks in the northern portion of their distribution, which is consistent with hypotheses that variation in prey mass and migratory behavior among populations may be influencing overall body size and wing chord. We were unable to distinguish between the effects of genetic drift and selection on tail length in the study populations.

  5. Geophysical anatomy of counter-slope scarps in sedimentary flysch rocks (Outer Western Carpathians)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Tábořík, Petr; Lenart, J.; Blecha, V.; Vilhelm, J.; Turský, O.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 276, JAN 1 (2017), s. 59-70 ISSN 0169-555X Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : multidisciplinary geophysical survey * deep-seated landslide * integrated interpretation * counter-slope scarp * underground discontinuities * flysch rock Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography OBOR OECD: Physical geography Impact factor: 2.958, year: 2016

  6. Rare earths from uranium mineralization occurrences in the Permian of the Gemericum, the Western Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rojkovic, I.; Medved, J.; Walzel, E.; Posta, S.; Sulovsky, P.

    1989-01-01

    Uranium mineralization in the Permian of the Gemericium is accompanied by apatite, monazite and xenotime. The study of rare earth elements distribution is based on the results of instrumental neutron activation analysis and optical emission spectroscopy analysis of rocks and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalyses of minerals. The main light rare earth elements bearing mineral is monazite; for heavy rare earth elements it is xenotime. The rocks accompanying uranium mineralization have increased rare earth elements contents. The mobilization and concentration of uranium mineralization took place during the Alpine metallogenic processes. These processes were also associated with rare earth elements mobilization is which total and selective enrichment in light rare earth elements and heavy rare earth elements was observed. (author). 12 figs., 6 tabs., 5 refs

  7. Forest conservation in a changing world: natural or cultural? Example from the Western Carpathians forests, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelica Feurdean

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to plan for the future management of some of the most biodiverse forests of Europe, it is essential that we understand under which condition they arose and the time and processes responsible for their variability. Here, I highlight the main findings from the palaeoecological (pollen and charcoal, archaeological and historical investigation comprising the last 6000 years, in the Apuseni Natural Park, NW Romania and discuss the effect of the past land use and forest management on these forests. I then ask what does it mean in term of conservation values if these forests are not natural but a human product and bring up the relevance of cultural landscape for conservation.

  8. Formation and changes of groundwater chemical composition of the western Carpathian carbonate systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flakova, R.

    1998-01-01

    Karst-fissure water, genetically related to the Mesozoic carbonate complexes, participates in the formation of drinking water supplies in Slovakia. There were evaluated 13 drinking water resources which are built up from originating in the valley of the Starohorsky potok brook and the Harmanecka dolina valley in the Velka Fatra mountain range. These sources represent an important part of the Jergaly branch and the Harmanec branch of the public water supply 'Pohronsky skupinovy vodovod'. As starting data 538 chemical analyses of the checking process for period from 1981 to 1994 and also the results of own groundwater sampling from the April 1992 and October 1995 were used. Basic hydrogeochemical evaluation has shown that observed sources represented typical carbonatogenic water. Evaluation of carbonate equilibria confirmed the assumption supposing that in conditions of karst-fissure and karst circulation the water is non-saturated with carbonate minerals. Based on obtained data the quality regime of groundwater was described. Chemical composition of groundwater shows typical changes in certain time of a year, short-term. seasonal and long-term changes can be observed. The trend analysis of HCO 3 - , SO 4 2+ , NO 3 - , Cl - , ChSK Mn and dissolved O 2 were used to evaluation of stability of chemical composition. Increasing amounts of nitrate concentrations in all sources, sulphate pollution in the sources of Jergaly branch and chloride pollution in groundwater of Harmanec branch confirmed anthropogenic influences. The main problem of water remains often the microbial pollution. Obtained results showed high vulnerability of karst-fissure water and the continuously threatening danger of its pollution. (author)

  9. Evaluating the remote sensing and inventory-based estimation of biomass in the western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Main-Knorn; Gretchen G. Moisen; Sean P. Healey; William S. Keeton; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Patrick Hostert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs) are widely used for...

  10. Rb-Sr isochronous dating of granitoids of Dumbier zone of Low Tatras (Western Carpathians)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagdasaryan, G.P.; Gukasyan, R.Kh.; Cambel, B.; Vesel'skij, J.

    1985-01-01

    The results are discussed of isotopic-geochronological research and age determination of characteristic samples of granitoid rocks, obtained by the Rb/Sr isochronous method. The samples were biotite granodiorites and granites taken from various parts of the Dumbier massif and small granite bodies of the Kralicka type. Rb/Sr isochrones of the rock samples show identical age values: 362+-21 m.y. for the Dumbier massif and 365+-17 m.y. correspnding to the Middle - Upper Devonian. Initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratios equal to 0.7079 and 0.7157, respectively, allow to make a presumption that the rocks of the Dumbier massif may have been derived both from crustal and from mantle sources while granites of the Kralicka type are close to the rocks of the crustal origin

  11. Geomorphological aspects of slope deformations in Outer Western Carpathians (Eastern Moravia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kirchner, Karel; Roštínský, P.; Krejčí, O.

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 1 (2003), s. 38-38 ISSN 1335-9541 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/03/0211 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3086906 Keywords : svahové pohyby * sesuvy * vývoj reliéfu Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography

  12. Divergent growth of Norway spruce on Babia Góra Mountain in the western Carpathians

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buras, Allan; Spyt, Barbara; Janecka, Karolina; Kaczka, Ryszard

    2018-01-01

    Growth divergence – i.e. the expression of divergent growth trends of neighboring trees – has certain implications for dendrochronological research, for instance in the context of climate reconstructions but also in terms of estimating net ecosystem productivity. Thus, understanding the underlying

  13. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    2014-01-01

    The breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age (NBA) c. 1600 bc as a koiné within Bronze Age Europe can be historically linked to the Carpathian Basin. Nordic distinctiveness entailed an entanglement of cosmology and warriorhood, albeit represented through different media in the hotspot zone (bronze) ...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  14. Gravity and magnetic modelling in the Vrancea Zone, south-eastern Carpathians: Redefinition of the edge of the East European Craton beneath the south-eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, A.; Stephenson, R.; Matenco, L.; Mocanu, V.

    2013-11-01

    A 2D gravity and magnetic data model has been constructed along a 71 km densely observed profile, called DACIA PLAN GRAV MAN's. The profile crosses part of the nappe pile of the south-eastern Carpathians and includes the seismically active Vrancea Zone and was acquired with the objective to illuminate the basement structure and affinity in this area. The modelling approach was to create an initial model from well constrained geological information, integrate it with previous seismic ray tracing and tomographic models and then alter it outside the a priori constraints in order to reach the best fit between observed and calculated potential field anomalies. The results support a realignment of the position of the TTZ (Tornquist-Teisseyre Zone), the profound tectonic boundary within Europe that separates Precambrian cratonic lithosphere of the East European Craton (EEC) from younger accreted lithosphere of Phanerozoic mobile belts to its west. The TTZ is shown to lie further to the south-west than was previously inferred within Romania, where it is largely obscured by the Carpathian nappes. The crust of the EEC beneath the south-eastern Carpathians is inferred to terminate along a major crustal structure lying just west of the Vrancea seismogenic zone. The intermediate depth seismicity of the Vrancea Zone therefore lies within the EEC lithosphere, generally supporting previously proposed models invoking delamination of cratonic lithosphere as the responsible mechanism.

  15. A toadfish (Batrachoidiformes) from the Oligocene of the Eastern Carpathians (Piatra Neamt, Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Grădianu, I.; Georgescu, V.; Carnevale, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 2 (2018), s. 241-248 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-21523S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Batrachoidiformes * toadfish * Bituminous Marls Formation * Eastern Carpathians * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  16. Ozone air pollution in the Ukrainian Carpathian Mountains and Kiev region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleg Blum; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; William Manning; Ludmila Popovicheva

    1998-01-01

    Ambient concentrations of ozone (O3) were measured at five highland forest locations in the Ukrainian Carpathians and in two lowland locations in the Kiev region during August to September 1995 by using O3 passive samplers. The ozone passive samplers were calibrated against a Thermo Environmental Model 49 ozone monitor...

  17. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  18. The Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogenic system: correlation and evolution of tectonic units

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmid, S.M.; Bernoulli, D.; Fügenschuh, B.; Matenco, L.C.; Schefer, S.; Schuster, R.; Tischler, M.; Ustaszewski, K.

    2008-01-01

    A correlation of tectonic units of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic system of orogens, including the substrate of the Pannonian and Transylvanian basins, is presented in the form of a map. Combined with a series of crustal-scale cross sections this correlation of tectonic units yields a clearer

  19. Crustal Structure Within the Southeastern Carpathian Arc, Transylvanian Basin, Romania from Teleseismic Receiver Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, A. C.; Russo, R. M.; Mocanu, V. I.; Munteanu, L.

    2013-05-01

    We present new measurements of receiver functions at 4 broadband stations temporarily deployed in the Transylvanian Basin within the Carpathian Arc, Romania. Receiver functions can reveal depths to sharp crustal seismic velocity boundaries, which in complex tectonic environments such as the study area provide a good diagnostic for the regional tectonics. As a result of Africa (Adria) collision with Europe and subduction of a part of Tethys Ocean, Tisza-Dacia and Alcapa blocks escaped the collision and were emplaced in an embayment of this ocean, and form today the basement of the Transylvanian Basin. The collision of these terranes with the European continent culminated in the formation, in the Romanian part, of the Eastern Carpathians at the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the East European Platform along the Tornquist-Teisseyre Suture zone, and of Southern Carpathians at the contact with Moesian Platform. In the foreland of the Carpathian Bend Zone, connecting the two mountain chains, in a very constrained area, a high velocity seismic body was contoured by hypocenters between 70 and 200 km depth. We constructed receiver functions using teleseismic P waves generated by events located between 30 and 95 degrees epicentral angle using the method of Ligorria and Ammon (1999) for individual measurements. We used the H-K method of Zhu and Kanamori (2000) to derive boundary interfaces depths and receiver function complexity from binned stacks. Preliminary results show a relatively shallow Moho depth beneath the Transylvanian Basin.

  20. Fractal dimension estimations of drainage network in the Carpathian-Pannonian system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombradi, E.; Timar, G.; Bada, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2007-01-01

    The development of drainage network in the intra-Carpathian realm is influenced by a complex Quaternary tectonic evolution manifested with differential vertical motions. The present-day configuration of the left-hand side tributary system of the Tisza river was studied by means of fractal analysis.

  1. A new endemic focus of Chagas disease in the northern region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azael Saldaña

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 - July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens, where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens. In one small sub-region (El Macho, 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161 had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138 of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136, with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136 and 50.7% (69/136 were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056 was found in this population. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama.

  2. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  3. Concurrent and opposed environmental trends during the last glacial cycle between the Carpathian Basin and the Black Sea coast: evidence from high resolution enviromagnetic loess records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Obreht, Igor; Bösken, Janina; Marković, Slobodan B.; Eckmeier, Eileen; Fischer, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian dust sediments (loess) are beside marine/lacustrine sediments, speleothemes and arctic ice cores the key archives for the reconstruction of the Quaternary palaeoenvironment in the Eurasian continental mid-latitudes. The Eurasian loess-belt has its western end in the Middle (Carpathian) and the Lower Danube Basin where one can find true loess plateaus dating back more than one million years and comprising a semi-continuous record of Pleistocene environmental change. The loess-palaeosol sequences (LPSS) of the region allow inter-regional and trans-regional comparison and, even more importantly, the analysis of temporal and spatial trends in Pleistocene environments, even on a hemispheric scale. However, the general temporal resolution of the LPSS seems mostly limited to the orbital scale patterns, enabling the general comparision of their well documented palaeoclimate record to the marine isotope stages (MIS) and thus to the course of the global ice volume with time. Following the widespread conventional wisdom in loess research, cold and more importantly dry conditions are generally assumed to lead to relatively high accumulation rates of loess, whereas during warmer and more humid environmental conditions the vegetation cover prevents ablation and clastic silt production. Moreover, synsedimentary pedogenesis prevails and hence, (embryonic) soils are formed which are rapidly buried by loess as soon as the climate returns to drier conditions. In the last decades, mineral magnetic parameters became fundamental palaeoclimate proxies in loess research. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) and its dependence on the frequency of the applied field (χfd) turned out to be beside grain size and geochemical indices a highly sensitive proxy especially for soil humidity during loess accumulation. Here we present the first results of an ongoing study on two Late Pleistocene LPSS from the southern Carpathian Basin (Titel-Plateau, Vojvodina, Serbia) and the eastern Lower

  4. Canyon incision chronology based on ignimbrite stratigraphy and cut-and-fill sediment sequences in SW Peru documents intermittent uplift of the western Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; Jicha, Brian R.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Braucher, Régis

    2017-12-01

    Based on an 40Ar/39Ar- and U/Pb-based chronostratigraphy of ignimbrite sheets and the geomorphological features of watersheds, river profiles and slope deposits in the Ocoña-Cotahuasi-Marán (OCM) and Colca valleys of southwest Peru, we reconstruct the valley incision history of the western Central Andes over the last c. 25 Myr. We further document the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of deep valleys on the basis of 14 10Be surface-exposure ages obtained on debris-avalanche deposits and river straths. The data suggest that uplift was gradual over the past 25 Myr, but accelerated after c. 9 Ma. Valley incision started around 11-9 Ma and accelerated between 5 and 4 Ma. Incision was followed by several pulses of valley cut-and-fill after 2.3 Ma. Evidence presented suggest that the post-5 Ma sequence of accelerated canyon incision probably resulted from a combination of drainage piracy from the Cordilleran drainage divide towards the Altiplano, accentuated flexural tilting of the Western Cordillera towards the SE, and increased rainfall on the Altiplano after late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The valley deepening and slope steepening driven by tectonic uplift gave rise to large occurrences of rockslope failure. The collapsed rock masses periodically obstructed the canyons, thus causing abrupt changes in local base levels and interfering with the steadiness of fluvial incision. As a result, channel aggradation has prevailed in the lower-gradient, U-shaped Pacific-rim canyons, whereas re-incision through landslide deposits has occurred more rapidly across the steeper V-shaped, upper valleys. Existing canyon knickpoints are currently arrested at the boundary between the plutonic bedrock and widespread outcrops of middle Miocene ignimbritic caprock, where groundwater sapping favouring rock collapse may be the dominant process driving headward erosion.

  5. Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Brian E; Mallory, J P

    2004-07-01

    Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Täklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road. Copyright

  6. Palaeoenvironmental and geochemical approach of Archaeocyath-rich facies from Lower Cambrian of Western Gondwana margin at Central Iberian Zone (Urda, Toledo Mountains, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Moreno-Eris, Elena; Perejón, Antonio; Reitner, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Archaeocyath-rich facies are located in a quarry close to Urda village, at Toledo Mountains, Spain. The outcrops belong to the Caliza de los Navalucillos Formation and they record a considerably high diverse archaeocyath assemblage in the Lower Cambrian successions from the Central Iberian Zone (Julivert et al. 1972 [1974]). In fact, it is first time recorded the presence of Agyrekocyathus, Dokidocyathus, and Plicocyathus in the Central Iberian Zone. Therefore Plicocyathus is no longer exclusive to biozone VI in Spain. The presence of Anthomorpha is characteristic for the early Botomian, presently early Stage 4 (ICS, 2009), and the assemblage corresponds to the biozone VII (late Ovetian, following the biozonation of Perejón & Moreno-Eiris, 2006). The fossiliferous part of the succession is formed by seven lithofacies, all of them tectonically folded and with a low grade metamorphic overprint. They are comprised by two main groups of facies: (a) mound-shaped to massive lithofacies (A1, A2, A3, A4) and (b) massive to bedded and nodular lithofacies (B1, B2, B3). Archaeocyaths occur in several facies: (A1) mound-shaped white marble with irregular to stromatactoid cavities; (A2) massive mottled white to grey limestone; (A3) massive grey limestone with slumps levels; (A4) massive archaeocyath-rich orange limestone; as well as in carbonate nodules embedded in siltstones and cherts (B1, B2 and B3). The best preserved assemblage comes from the nodule record, where fossils are partially pyritized. This type of preservation is exceptional and has never been described before. XRD and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses reveal the presence of pyrite and pyrrotine partially altered to iron oxides and hydroxides (hematite and goethite) surrounding the archaeocyath cups. In Central Iberian Zone, the development of mounds and nodular facies like those described here is unusual, although the Botomian marks the peak for Early Cambrian archaeocyathan-microbial mounds

  7. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary the possibilities of pedagogical support of gifted students from vocational schools, living in the mountainous areas of the Carpathians. Education of talented and gifted students requires pedagogical support. The specific conditions, in which Carpathian students live, require the development of pedagogical support of their abilities. New approaches to teaching science, which led to the selection of topics of this article are described. Gifted personalities differ from their peers by same criterias. The social aspect of the problem remains in the shadow: not to be ashamed of your talent and not to compare it with cliches. And goals of educators and psychologists have to be slightly different as is common. Widespread  Carpathian crafts include: embroidery, artistic textiles producing, carpet manufacture, carving, pottery, metalworking, fabric painting, knitting, lace, artistic weaving, artistic working of  leather, stones, bones and horns. Nowadays, some detachment of mountainous regions has significantly reduced due to new means of communication, including the Internet. The possibilities of colleges in mountainous regions still cannot reach the level of the colleges in capital. In Carpathian and Prykrpattya regions there is a number of vocational schools of art direction. During the execution of creative work in class industrial training necessary for students to comply with the rules of relationships form and decoration in various ways: decorative motif obeys the functional form, enriching it artistic and creative solutions, utilitarian function obeys the decorative motif Products, the form of the product can be extremely decorative, artistic and creative product solutions focused on practical value and decorative value of the product. Pedagogical support of gifted students from art colleges in the Carpathian region has extremely wide range of opportunities. The problem of finding and nurturing

  8. Chemical and morphological characteristics of key tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovska, Blanka; Godzik, Barbara; Badea, Ovidiu; Shparyk, Yuri; Moravcik, Pavel

    2004-01-01

    Concentrations of Al, B, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S and Zn in the foliage of white fir (Abies alba), Norway spruce (Picea abies) and common beech (Fagus sylvatica) from 25 sites of the Carpathian Mts. forests (Czech Republic, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Ukraine) are discussed in a context of their limit values. S/N ratio was different from optimum in 90% of localities when compared with the European limit values. Likewise we found increase of Fe and Cu concentrations compared with their background levels in 100% of locations. Mn concentrations were increased in 76% of localities. Mn mobilization values indicate the disturbance of physiological balance leading to the change of the ratio with Fe. SEM-investigation of foliage waxes from 25 sites in the Carpathian Mts. showed, that there is a statistically significant difference in mean wax quality. Epistomatal waxes were damaged as indicated by increased development of net and amorphous waxes. The most damaged stomata in spruce needles were from Yablunitsa, Synevir and Brenna; in fir needles from Stoliky, and in beech leaves from Mala Fatra, Morske Oko and Beregomet. Spruce needles in the Carpathian Mts. had more damaged stomata than fir needles and beech leaves. Spruce seems to be the most sensitive tree species to environmental stresses including air pollution in forests of the Carpathian Mountains. Foliage surfaces of three forest tree species contained Al, Si, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, Cl, Mn, Na, Ni and Ti in all studied localities. Presence of nutrition elements (Ca, Fe, Mg, K and Mn) on foliage surface hinders opening and closing stomata and it is not physiologically usable for tree species. - Chemical composition of foliage and structure of epicuticular waxes indicated phytotoxic effects of air pollution in many forest sites of the Carpathian Mountains

  9. Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Interior — The paper version of Map Showing Geologic Terranes of the Hailey 1°x2° Quadrangle and the western part of the Idaho Falls 1°x2° Quadrangle, south-central Idaho was...

  10. Late Pliocene-Quaternary tectonics in the frontal part of the SE Carpathians: Insights from tectonic geomorphology.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Necea, D.; Fielitz, W.; Matenco, L.C.

    2005-01-01

    The Romanian East Carpathians display large-scale heterogeneities along the mountain belt, unusual foredeep geometries, significant post-collisional and neotectonic activity, and major variations in topography, mostly developed in the aftermath of late Miocene (Sarmatian; ∼11 Ma)

  11. Spatio-temporal changes of Munida Rutllanti Zariquiey-Alvarez, 1952 (Decapoda: Galatheidae in the North-Western Ionian Sea (Central Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. MAIORANO

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal pattern of Munida rutllanti distribution in the north-western Ionian Sea has been studied. Data were collected during 14 experimental trawl surveys conducted from 1997 to 2010 as part of the international MEDITS project. The hauls were carried out during day-light hours between depths of 10 and 800 m in the spring season. A progressive increase in the abundance index (N/km2 of M. rutllanti was observed from 2000 to 2008, then a sharp decrease was shown in the last two years. The greatest and lowest abundance indices were observed in the Apulian and central Calabrian sub-areas, respectively. The species was collected between 107 and 795 m in depth, with a significant increase and decrease over time in the maximum and minimum depth of finding, respectively. A highly significant increase over time in the mean carapace length was also observed in the whole study area. The widespread occurrence and increasing abundance of this species in the Ionian Sea could be related to the increase in temperature and the variation in hydrographic conditions which occurred in the Ionian basin during the EMT-BiOS phenomenon.

  12. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosimere Xavier Amaral

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA. Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97 within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  13. Effects of group dynamics and diet on the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cipolletta, Chloé

    2004-10-01

    This study describes how group dynamics and diet have influenced the ranging patterns of a western gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. The results are compared with those from an earlier study [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], when the same group was larger and undergoing the process of habituation to humans. Data were obtained from maps of the gorillas' travel routes, direct observations, and analysis of fecal samples. Through the years, the group has experienced a decrease in size, from eight to three individuals, with periods of membership fluctuation. The male's search for new mates resulted in a larger home range than was recorded when the group consisted of more individuals. Moreover, despite an average group size of three throughout this study, the monthly range and mean daily path length (DPL) were also larger when the group was acquiring/losing members in new areas, than when no new members joined or left the group. Fruit was consumed year-round, although more heavily so during wet months. The influence of fruit consumption on the ranging patterns was concealed initially by the effect of habituation [Cipolletta, International Journal of Primatology, 2003], and later (at least partially) by the male's search for new mates. In the last 14 months of the study, when the group numbered only three individuals and was ranging in a restricted area, the average DPL, but not the monthly range, increased when the gorillas were consuming more fruit.

  14. Molecular detection of Leishmania spp. in road-killed wild mammals in the Central Western area of the State of São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richini-Pereira, Virginia Bodelão; Marson, Pamela Merlo; Hayasaka, Enio Yoshinori; Victoria, Cassiano; da Silva, Rodrigo Costa; Langoni, Hélio

    2014-01-01

    Road-killed wild animals have been classified as sentinels for detecting such zoonotic pathogens as Leishmania spp., offering new opportunities for epidemiological studies of this infection. This study aimed to evaluate the presence of Leishmania spp. and Leishmania chagasi DNA by PCR in tissue samples (lung, liver, spleen, kidney, heart, mesenteric lymph node and adrenal gland) from 70 road-killed wild animals. DNA was detected in tissues of one Cavia aperea (Brazilian guinea pig), five Cerdocyon thous (crab-eating fox), one Dasypus septemcinctus (seven-banded armadillo), two Didelphis albiventris (white-eared opossum), one Hydrochoerus hydrochoeris (capybara), two Myrmecophaga tridactyla (giant anteater), one Procyon cancrivorus (crab-eating raccoon), two Sphiggurus spinosus (porcupine) and one Tamandua tetradactyla (lesser anteater) from different locations in the Central Western part of São Paulo state. The Leishmania chagasi DNA were confirmed in mesenteric lymph node of one Cerdocyon thous. Results indicated common infection in wild animals. The approach employed herein proved useful for detecting the environmental occurrence of Leishmania spp. and L. chagasi, as well as determining natural wild reservoirs and contributing to understand the host-parasite interaction.

  15. Rb-Sr dating of strain-induced mineral growth in two ductile shear zones in the western gneiss region of Nord-Troendelag, Central Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piasecki, M.A.; Cliff, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    In the Bjugn district of the northern part of the Western Gneiss Region, Nord-Troendelag, a basement gneiss-cover nappe boundary is marked by a thick zone of ductile shearing. In this zone a layer-parallel mylonitic fabric with related new mineral growth overprints and retrogresses a previous fabric associated with a granulite facies mineral assemblage. Related minor shear belts contain abundant new minerals and vein systems, including pegmatites, believed to represent strain-induced products formed at the time of the shearing movements. Central parts of two large muscovite books from such a pegmatite yielded Rb-Sr, Early to Middle Devonian ages of 389±6 Ma and 386±6 Ma, interpreted as indicating the approximate time of pegmatite formation and of the shearing. Small, matrix-size muscovite and biotite grains from the host mylonite gave ages of 378±6 Ma and 365±5 Ma, respectively, supposed to relate to post-shearing uplift and cooling

  16. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  17. Factors influencing specialist outreach and support services to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts of the Western Cape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoevers, Johan; Jenkins, Louis

    2015-04-21

    Access to health care often depends on where one lives. Rural populations have significantly poorer health outcomes than their urban counterparts. Specialist outreach to rural communities is one way of improving access to care. A multifaceted style of outreach improves access and health outcomes, whilst a shifted outpatients style only improves access. In principle, stakeholders agree that specialist outreach and support (O&S) to rural populations is necessary. In practice, however, factors influence whether or not O&S reaches its goals, affecting sustainability.Aim and setting: Our aim was to better understand factors associated with the success or failure of specialist O&S to rural populations in the Eden and Central Karoo districts in the Western Cape. An anonymous parallel three-stage Delphi process was followed to obtain consensus in a specialist and district hospital panel. Twenty eight specialist and 31 district hospital experts were invited, with response rates of 60.7%-71.4% and 58.1%-74.2% respectively across the three rounds. Relationships, communication and planning were found to be factors feeding into a service delivery versus capacity building tension, which affects the efficiency of O&S. The success of the O&S programme is dependent on a site-specific model that is acceptable to both the outreaching specialists and the hosting district hospital. Good communication, constructive feedback and improved planning may improve relationships and efficiency, which might lead to a more sustainable and mutually beneficial O&S system.

  18. Automated recognition of quasi-planar ignimbrite sheets and paleo-surfaces via robust segmentation of DTM - examples from the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, B.; Karátson, D.; Koma, Zs.; Dorninger, P.; Wörner, G.; Brandmeier, M.; Nothegger, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Western slope of the Central Andes between 22° and 17°S is characterized by large, quasi-planar landforms with tilted ignimbrite surfaces and overlying younger sedimentary deposits (e.g. Nazca, Oxaya, Huaylillas ignimbrites). These surfaces were only modified by tectonic uplift and tilting of the Western Cordillera preserving minor now fossilized drainage systems. Several deep, canyons started to form from about 5 Ma ago. Due to tectonic oversteepening in a arid region of very low erosion rates, gravitational collapses and landslides additionally modified the Andean slope and valley flanks. Large areas of fossil surfaces, however, remain. The age of these surfaces has been dated between 11 Ma and 25 Ma at elevations of 3500 m in the Precordillera and at c. 1000 m near the coast. Due to their excellent preservation, our aim is to identify, delineate, and reconstruct these original ignimbrite and sediment surfaces via a sophisticated evaluation of SRTM DEMs. The technique we use here is a robust morphological segmentation method that is insensitive to a certain amount of outliers, even if they are spatially correlated. This paves the way to identify common local planar features and combine these into larger areas of a particular surface segment. Erosional dissection and faulting, tilting and folding define subdomains, and thus the original quasi-planar surfaces are modified. Additional processes may create younger surfaces, such as sedimentary floodplains and salt pans. The procedure is tuned to provide a distinction of these features. The technique is based on the evaluation of local normal vectors (perpendicular to the actual surface) that are obtained by determination of locally fitting planes. Then, this initial set of normal vectors are gradually classified into groups with similar properties providing candidate point clouds that are quasi co-planar. The quasi co-planar sets of points are analysed further against other criteria, such as number of minimum

  19. Paleomagnetic and geochronologic constraints on the geodynamic evolution of the Central Dinarides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Leeuw, Arjan; Mandic, Oleg; Krijgsman, Wout; Kuiper, Klaudia; Hrvatović, Hazim

    2012-01-01

    The geodynamic evolution of the Dinaride Mountains of southeastern Europe is relatively poorly understood, especially in comparison with the neighboring Alps and Carpathians. Here, we construct a new chronostratigraphy for the post-orogenic intra-montane basins of the Central Dinarides based on

  20. Flowage differentiation in an andesitic dyke of the Motru Dyke Swarm (Southern Carpathians, Romania) inferred from AMS, CSD and geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkono, Collin; Féménias, Olivier; Diot, Hervé; Berza, Tudor; Demaiffe, Daniel

    2006-06-01

    Two dykes of different thickness (5.5 m for TJ31 and 23 m for TJ34) from the late Pan-African calc-alkaline Motru Dyke Swarm (S. Carpathians, Romania) have been studied by electron microprobe (mineral chemistry), crystal size distribution (CSD), anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) and whole-rock geochemistry. All the physical and chemical variations observed across the dyke's width point to concordant results and show that the variations of both modal abundance and size of the amphibole and biotite microphenocrysts inside the dykes (deduced from the classical CSD measurements) are the result of a mechanical segregation of suspended crystals during magmatic transport. Despite a pene-contemporaneous regional tectonic, the flow-induced differentiation in the thicker dyke is characterized by the concentration of pre-existing Ti-rich pargasite-tschermakite, clinopyroxene and plagioclase crystals in the core of the dyke and of the extracted differentiated liquid near the walls. This mechanical differentiation induces a chemical differentiation with a basaltic andesite composition for the core of the dyke whereas the margins are andesitic. Thus the chilled margins appear as a slightly more evolved liquid with a Newtonian behaviour when compared to the average composition of the dyke. The localization of the liquid on both sides of the dyke has certainly facilitated the ascent of the central part of the dyke that behaved as a Binghamian mush.

  1. Miocene volcanism in the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone, Eastern Carpathians, Romania: Relationship to geodynamic processes in the Transcarpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovacs, Marinel; Seghedi, Ioan; Yamamoto, Masatsugu; Fülöp, Alexandrina; Pécskay, Zoltán; Jurje, Maria

    2017-12-01

    We present the first comprehensive study of Miocene volcanic rocks of the Oaş-Gutâi Volcanic Zone (OGVZ), Romania, which are exposed in the eastern Transcarpathian Basin (TB), within the Eastern Alpine-Western Carpathian-Northern Pannonian (ALCAPA) block. Collision between the ALCAPA block and Europe at 18-16 Ma produced the Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt. This was followed by clockwise rotation and an extensional regime forming core complexes of the separated TB fragment. Based on petrographic and geochemical data, including Srsbnd Nd isotopic compositions and Ksbnd Ar ages, we distinguish three types of volcanic activity in the OGVZ: (1) early Miocene felsic volcanism that produced caldera-related ignimbrites in the Gutâi Mountains (15.4-14.8 Ma); (2) widespread middle-late Miocene intermediate/andesitic volcanism (13.4-7.0 Ma); and (3) minor late Miocene andesitic/rhyolitic volcanism comprising the Oraşu Nou rhyolitic volcano and several andesitic-dacitic domes in the Oaş Mountains (11.3-9.5 Ma). We show that magma evolution in the OGVZ was controlled by assimilation-fractional crystallization and magma-mixing processes within an interconnected multi-level crustal magmatic reservoir. The evolution of volcanic activity within the OGVZ was controlled by the geodynamics of the Transcarpathian Basin. The early felsic and late intermediate Miocene magmas were emplaced in a post-collisional setting and were derived from a mantle source region that was modified by subduction components (dominantly sediment melts) and lower crust. The style of volcanism within the eastern TB system exhibits spatial variations, with andesitic composite volcanoes (Gutâi Mountains) observed at the margins, and isolated andesitic-rhyolitic monogenetic volcanoes (Oaş Mountains) in the center of the basin.

  2. Origin of marls from the Polish Outer Carpathians: lithological and sedimentological aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górniak, Katarzyna

    2012-10-01

    Outcrops of marls, occurring within the sandstone-shaly flysch deposits of the Polish part of Outer Carpathians, considered to be locus typicus of these rocks, were described, measured and sampled. Lithologic features of marls, representing 15 complexes of different age and occurring in 15 complexes of various tectonic units, are presented (Fig. 1, 2). The present studies were concerning Jurassic marls from the Silesian Unit (Goleszów Marls), Upper Cretaceous marls from the Skole and Sub-Silesian Units (Siliceous-Fucoid and Węgierka Marls and Węglowka, Frydek, Jasienica and Zegocina Marls respectively), and Eocene-Oligocene marls from the Magura, Fore-Magura and Skole Units (Łącko, Zembrzyce, Budzów, Leluchów and Niwa, as well as Grybów and Sub-Cergowa and Dynów Marls respectively). The former opinions on lithology, age, formal subdivision, sedimentation conditions and genesis of these rocks are discussed (Table 1, 2; Fig. 1). Detailed description of the above mentioned marl-bearing complexes are presented and for each of them the typical lithological features are determined (Tables 3 - 20). The results of profiling are presented against the background of geological studies of the Carpathian marls. The results of lithologic studies are compared to form a classification scheme and are used as the basis of distinguishing genetic types of marls. Moreover, the interpretation of the conditions of sedimentation of these rocks is presented. According to the present author’s studies, in the outcrops of marls considered to be locus typicus of the above mentioned rocks, there are both monolithic and polylithic complexes exposed. The polylithic complexes contain apart from marls intercalations of arenaceous-shaly flysch (Table 19). Event sedimentation of marly facies, appearing at different times and in various parts of the Carpathian basin is the result of periodically repeating conditions favouring the sedimentation of marls. Carpathian marls seem to be

  3. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luzardo, Octavio P; Boada, Luis D; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N=575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus in Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 1: Description of history and clinical evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Gaby; Saegerman, Claude; Rijckaert, Joke; Amory, Helene; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshøj Delany, Rikke; Fouché, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika; Picavet, Tresemiek; Roscher, Katja; Verwilghen, Denis; Wehrli Eser, Meret; Westermann, Cornélie; Mair, Tim

    2017-11-01

    To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus. Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. One hundred fifty-five adult equids (>6 months) and 21 foals (tetanus. None. Information on geographic, annual and seasonal data, demographic- and management-related data, clinical history, clinical examination and blood analysis on admission, complications, treatments, and outcomes were described and statistically compared between adults and foals. The described cases were often young horses. In 4 adult horses, tetanus developed despite appropriate vaccination and in 2 foals despite preventive tetanus antitoxin administration at birth. Castration, hoof abscesses, and wounds were the most common entry sites for adults; umbilical cord infections and wounds for foals. Stiffness was the commonest observed initial clinical sign. Blood analyses frequently revealed an inflammatory response, hemoconcentration, muscle damage, azotemia, negative energy balance, liver damage, and electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Common complications or clinical signs developing during hospitalization included dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency, hyperthermia, seizures, hyperlipemia, gastrointestinal impactions, dysuria, and laryngeal spasms. Cases were supported with wound debridement, antimicrobial treatment, tetanus antitoxin, muscle spasm and seizure control, analgesia, anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid therapy, and nutritional support. Mortality rates were 68.4% in adult horses and 66.7% in foals. Foals differed from adult horses with respect to months of occurrence, signalment, management-related data, potential causative events, clinical signs on admission, blood analysis, complications, and severity grades. This is the first study that rigorously describes a large population of equids affected by tetanus. The information provided is potentially useful to

  5. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus from Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 2: Prognostic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Gaby; Rijckaert, Joke; Mair, Tim; Amory, Helene; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshøj Delany, Rikke; Fouché, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika; Picavet, Tresemiek; Roscher, Katja; Verwilghen, Denis; Westermann, Cornélie; Saegerman, Claude

    2017-11-01

    To identify prognostic variables for adult equids and foals with tetanus. Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. One hundred fifty-five adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus. None. Variables from history and clinical examination were statistically compared between survivors and nonsurvivors (adults: 49 survivors, 85 nonsurvivors; foals: 7 survivors, 10 nonsurvivors). Cases euthanized for financial reasons were excluded. Mortality rates in adults and foals were 68.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Variables associated with survival in adults included: standing, normal intestinal sounds and defecation, voluntarily drinking, eating soft or normal food, lower heart and respiratory rates, high base excess on admission, longer diagnosis time, treatment and hospitalization delay, and mild severity grade. Variables associated with death included: anorexia, dysphagia, dyspnea, low blood potassium concentration on admission, moderate and severe disease grading, development of dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency and seizures during hospitalization, treatment with glycerol guaiacolate, intravenous fluids, and intravenous glucose solutions. Variables associated with survival in foals included standing on admission, voluntarily eating soft food and drinking, older age, and longer hospitalization delay. Outcome was not different between different tetanus antitoxin (TAT) dosages, although there was a trend of increasing survival rate with increasing TAT dosages. Cases with appropriate vaccination prior to development of tetanus were rare, but had improved outcome and shorter hospitalization. Prognosis for equine tetanus is poor with similar outcome and prognostic factors in foals and adults. The prognostic assessment of cases with tetanus provides clinicians with new evidence-based information related to patient management. Several prognostic indicators relate to the ability to

  6. [Identification of anopheles breeding sites in the residual foci of low malaria transmission «hotspots» in Central and Western Senegal].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sy, O; Konaté, L; Ndiaye, A; Dia, I; Diallo, A; Taïrou, F; Bâ, E L; Gomis, J F; Ndiaye, J L; Cissé, B; Gaye, O; Faye, O

    2016-02-01

    Malaria incidence has markedly declined in the Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey districts (central and western Senegal) thanks to a scaling up of effective control measures namely LLINs (Long Lasting Insecticide Treated Net), ACTs (Artesunate Combination Therapy) and promoting care seeking. However malaria cases are now maintained by foci of transmission called hotspots. We evaluate the role of anopheles breeding sites in the identification of malaria hotspots in the health districts of Mbour, Fatick, Niakhar and Bambey. Surveys of breeding sites were made in 6 hotspot villages and 4 non-hotspot villages. A sample was taken in each water point with mosquito larvae by dipping method and the collected specimens were identified to the genus level. Additional parameters as name of the village and breeding sites, type of collection, original water turbidity, presence of vegetation, proximity to dwellings, geographic coordinates, sizes were also collected. Sixty-two water collections were surveyed and monitored between 2013 and 2014. Temporary natural breeding sites were predominant regardless of the epidemiological status of the village. Among the 31 breeding sites located within 500 meters of dwellings in hotspots villages, 70% carried Anopheles larvae during the rainy season while 43% of the 21 breeding sites located at similar distances in non-hotspot villages carried Anopheles larvae during the same period (P = 0.042). At the end of the rainy season, the trend is the same with 27% of positive breeding sites in hotspots and 14% in non-hotspots villages. The breeding sites encountered in hotspots villages are mostly small to medium size and are more productive by Anopheles larvae than those found in non-hotspot area. This study showed that the high frequency of smallest and productive breeding sites around and inside the villages can create conditions of residual transmission.

  7. Recurrence quantification analysis of extremes of maximum and minimum temperature patterns for different climate scenarios in the Mesochora catchment in Central-Western Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagoulia, Dionysia; Vlahogianni, Eleni I.

    2018-06-01

    A methodological framework based on nonlinear recurrence analysis is proposed to examine the historical data evolution of extremes of maximum and minimum daily mean areal temperature patterns over time under different climate scenarios. The methodology is based on both historical data and atmospheric General Circulation Model (GCM) produced climate scenarios for the periods 1961-2000 and 2061-2100 which correspond to 1 × CO2 and 2 × CO2 scenarios. Historical data were derived from the actual daily observations coupled with atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). The dynamics of the temperature was reconstructed in the phase-space from the time series of temperatures. The statistically comparing different temperature patterns were based on some discriminating statistics obtained by the Recurrence Quantification Analysis (RQA). Moreover, the bootstrap method of Schinkel et al. (2009) was adopted to calculate the confidence bounds of RQA parameters based on a structural preserving resampling. The overall methodology was implemented to the mountainous Mesochora catchment in Central-Western Greece. The results reveal substantial similarities between the historical maximum and minimum daily mean areal temperature statistical patterns and their confidence bounds, as well as the maximum and minimum temperature patterns in evolution under the 2 × CO2 scenario. A significant variability and non-stationary behaviour characterizes all climate series analyzed. Fundamental differences are produced from the historical and maximum 1 × CO2 scenarios, the maximum 1 × CO2 and minimum 1 × CO2 scenarios, as well as the confidence bounds for the two CO2 scenarios. The 2 × CO2 scenario reflects the strongest shifts in intensity, duration and frequency in temperature patterns. Such transitions can help the scientists and policy makers to understand the effects of extreme temperature changes on water resources, economic development, and health of ecosystems and hence to proceed to

  8. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luzardo, Octavio P.; Boada, Luis D.; Carranza, Cristina; Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María; Arellano, José Luis Pérez

    2014-01-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  9. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  10. New zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skyttä

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New U-Th-Pb zircon data (SIMS from three intrusive phases of the Palaeoproterozoic Viterliden intrusion in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield, dates igneous emplacement in a narrow time interval at about 1.89 Ga. A locally occurring quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite, here dated at 1889 ± 3 Ma, is considered the youngest of the intrusive units, based on the new age data and field evidence. This supports an existing interpretation of its fault-controlled emplacement after intrusion of the dominating hornblende-tonalite units, in this study dated at 1892 ± 3 Ma. The Viterliden magmatism was synchronous with the oldest units of the Jörn type early-orogenic intrusions in the eastern part of the district (1.89–1.88 Ga; cf. Gonzàles Roldán, 2010. A U-Pb zircon age for a felsic metavolcanic rock from the hanging-wall to the Kristineberg VMS deposit, immediately south of the Viterliden intrusion, is constrained at 1883 ± 6 Ma in this study. It provides a minimum age for the Kristineberg ore deposit and suggests contemporaneous igneous/volcanic activity throughout the Skellefte District. Furthermore, it supports the view that the Skellefte Group defines a laterally continuous belt throughout this "ore district". Tentative correlation of the 1889 ± 3 Ma quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite with the Kristineberg "mine porphyry" suggests that these units are coeval at about 1.89 Ga. Based on the new age determinations, the Viterliden intrusion may equally well have intruded into or locally acted as a basement for the ore-hosting Skellefte Group volcanic rocks.

  11. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. 2010 Wiley

  12. Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-06-01

    The Pahute Mesa groundwater flow model supports the FFACO UGTA corrective action strategy objective of providing an estimate of the vertical and horizontal extent of contaminant migration for each CAU in order to predict contaminant boundaries. A contaminant boundary is the model-predicted perimeter that defines the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing above background conditions exceeding Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) standards. The contaminant boundary will be composed of both a perimeter boundary and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary. Additional results showing contaminant concentrations and the location of the contaminant boundary at selected times will also be presented. These times may include the verification period, the end of the five-year proof-of-concept period, as well as other times that are of specific interest. The FFACO (1996) requires that the contaminant transport model predict the contaminant boundary at 1,000 years and “at a 95% level of confidence.” The Pahute Mesa Phase I flow model described in this report provides, through the flow fields derived from alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) and recharge models, one part of the data required to compute the contaminant boundary. Other components include the simplified source term model, which incorporates uncertainty and variability in the factors that control radionuclide release from an underground nuclear test (SNJV, 2004a), and the transport model with the concomitant parameter uncertainty as described in Shaw (2003). The uncertainty in all the above model components will be evaluated to produce the final contaminant boundary. This report documents the development of the groundwater flow model for the Central and Western Pahute Mesa CAUs.

  13. Viewls - Possibilities and performance of international biofuel trade from CEEC to WEC[Central and Eastern European Countries; Western European Countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dam, J. van; Faaij, A.; Lewandowski, I. [Utrecht Univ., Dept. of Science, Technology and Society, Utrecht (Netherlands); Zeebroeck, B. van [Transport and Mobility Leuven, Leuven (Belgium); Falkenberg, D.; Hein, M.; Schroeder, G.; Thraen, D.; Weber, M. [Inst. of Energy and Environment, Leipzig (Germany)

    2006-05-13

    The EU has set high targets to increase the use of renewable energy sources from which a large part has to come from biomass. To meet these targets, a large amount of biomass resources is needed, which requires large areas of land in the EU for energy crop production. However, the availability of good land for energy crop production is limited in Western European countries (WEC). This means that the potential from indigenous biomass resources is not sufficient to meet the set bioenergy targets. At the same time, the expansion of the EU and the inclusion of the Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) in agricultural and energy EU policies create potential difficulties as well as opportunities. Agriculture plays an important role in the CEEC furthermore, the share of agricultural employment is still large. In the future rationalization of the current agriculture in the CEEC is expected. This will lead to increased productivity and economic performance. On the other hand, unemployment and an increase in abandoned land are expected as well. A study of the technical biomass production potentials in the CEEC shows that in some scenarios the biomass production potential exceeds the current final energy consumption on a country level. The main objectives of this study are: 1) Define the critical factors to set up a stable international biofuel trade between CEEC and WEC, 2) Estimate the cost performance of the energy carriers delivered in the WEC from the CEEC, 3) Analyze the regional differences in cost performance of the energy carriers in the CEEC. (BA)

  14. [Genetic polymorphism of Gentiana lutea L. (Gentianaceae) populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosula, M Z; Konvaliuk, I I; Mel'nyk, V M; Drobyk, N M; Tsaryk, I V; Nesteruk, Iu I; Kunakh, V A

    2014-01-01

    The features of genetic structure and level of diversity were investigated for G. lutea populations from Chornohora Ridge of Ukrainian Carpathians using RAPD- and ISSR-PCR. We have shown a high level of genetic diversity for investigated populations. The differences between populations account for 59-72% of the total genetic variation, whereas intrapopulation polymorphism makes up 28-41%. The relationships among genetic variability level and ecological-geographical conditions as well as biological features of the species were assumed to be possible. The obtained results indicate the genetic isolation of G. lutea Chornohora populations from Ukrainian Carpathians. Pozhyzhevska agropopulation was characterized by a high level of polymorphism that means the possibility to use artificial plantings of the investigated species for its conservation.

  15. Cenozoic structural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelyukh, Mykhaylo; Bubniak, Ihor; Bubniak, Andriy; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    The Carpathians are part of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogen surrounding the Pannonian basin. Their Ukrainian part constitutes an ancient subduction-accretion complex that evolved into a foreland fold-thrust belt with a shortening history that was perpendicular to the orogenic strike. Herein, we constrain the evolution of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt by apatite fission-track dating of sedimentary and volcanic samples and cross-section balancing and restoration. The apatite fission-track ages are uniform in the inner―southwestern part of the fold-thrust belt, implying post-shortening erosion since 12-10 Ma. The ages in the leading and trailing edges record provenance, i.e., sources in the Trans-European suture zone and the Inner Carpathians, respectively, and show that these parts of the fold-thrust were not heated to more than 100 °C. Syn-orogenic strata show sediment recycling: in the interior of the fold-thrust belt―the most thickened and most deeply eroded nappes―the apatite ages were reset, eroded, and redeposited in the syn-orogenic strata closer to the fore- and hinterland; the lag times are only a few million years. Two balanced cross sections, one constructed for this study and based on field and subsurface data, reveal an architecture characterized by nappe stacks separated by high-displacement thrusts; they record 340-390 km shortening. A kinematic forward model highlights the fold-thrust belt evolution from the pre-contractional configuration over the intermediate geometries during folding and thrusting and the post-shortening, erosional-unloading configuration at 12-10 Ma to the present-day geometry. Average shortening rates between 32-20 Ma and 20-12 Ma amounted to 13 and 21 km/Ma, respectively, implying a two-phased deformation of the Ukrainian fold-thrust belt.

  16. Electrical resistivity tomography (ERT surveys on glacial deposits in Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZAMOSTEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The study presents preliminary results regarding the use of electrical resistivity surveys in the assessment of the internal structure of the glacial deposits from the Romanian Carpathians.ERT is a geophysical method used to quantify changes in electrical resistivity of the ground towards passing electric current across an array of electrodes and simultaneous measurement of the induced potential gradient. Using specific software the measurements are further processed and correlated with the topography in order to obtain bedrock resistivity features. Therefore, the method is useful to evaluate the characteristics of geological strata and is widely used for mapping shallow subsurface geological structures. In the mountain regions ERT studies have been applied in different glacial and periglacial geomorphological studies - for permafrost detection (in Romanian Carpathians - Urdea et. al., 2008; Vespremeanu-Stroe et al., 2012, slope deformation analysis, the assessment of slip surface depths, sediment thickness, groundwater levels etc. One of the most commonly 2-D array used is the Wenner electrode configuration, which is moderately sensitive to both horizontal and vertical ground structures.Due to their elevations and Pleistocene’s climatic conditions, the Romanian Carpathians have been partially affected by Quaternary glaciations. The glaciers descended to about 1050-1200 m a.s.l. (Urdea and Reurther, 2009 in the Transylvanian Alps and Rodna Mountains (Eastern Carpathians carving a large number of U-shaped valleys and glacial cirques (Mîndrescu, 2006 and forming accumulations of unconsolidated glacial debris (moraines. Our study areas are two sites located in the northern (Rodna Mts. and southern (Iezer Păpuşa Mts. part of the mountain range.

  17. Active stress field and seismotectonic features in Intra-Carpathian region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Diaconescu, Mihai; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-04-01

    The Romanian Intra-Carpathian Region is located on the eastern half of Tisa-Dacia geodynamic block from the Neogene Carpathian-Pannonian Basin. The distribution of seismicity displays clear clusters and narrower zones with seismogenic potential confirmed by the damaging earthquakes recoded in the region, e.g. July 01, 1829 (Mw=6.2), October 10, 1834 (Mw=5.6), January 26, 1916 (Mw=6.4), July 12, 1991 (Mw=5.7), December 2, 1991 (Mw=5.5). The state of recent stress and deformation appears to be controlled by the interaction of plate-boundary and intraplate forces, which include the counterclockwise rotation and N-NE-directed indentation of the Adria microplate and buoyancy forces associated with differential topography and lithospheric heterogeneities. The stress field and tectonic regime are investigated at regional and local scales by the formal inversion of focal mechamisms. There can be observed short-scale lateral changes of i) tectonic regimes from compressive (reverse and strike-slip faultings) to pure extensive (normal faultings) and ii) variation of stress directions (SHmax) from NE-SW to EW and WNW-ESE towards Southern Carpathians and NS within Easter Carpathians. The changes in stress directions occur over a distance that is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the lithosphere. A comparative analysis of stress tensor with GPS velocity/displacememt vectors shows variations from paralellism to orthogonality, suggesting different mechanisms of crustal deformations.The major seismic activity (Mw≥5.0) appears to be generally concentrated along the faults systems bordering de Tisa-Dacia Block, intersections of faults of different ages, internal shear zones and with the border of the former structural terrains, old rifts and neostructures.

  18. Features of secondary birch young stands in low mountain Pokuttya (Ukrainian Carpathian Mts. )

    OpenAIRE

    MILEVSKAYA S.Y.

    2015-01-01

    Forest landscapes of the region during the last 3–5 centuries undergone the profound anthropogenic transformation. Secondary young stands occupy 25% of the total forest area. The problem of derivatives is particularly relevant for the modern forest typology in the Carpathian region. It requires the reflection in its dynamic trends shaping the stands, especially mixed young stands. The aim of our study consisted in getting the knowledge of the structural features of the secondary phytocoenosis...

  19. Large Late Pleistocene landslides from the marginal slope of the Flysch Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pánek, T.; Hartvich, Filip; Jankovská, Vlasta; Klimeš, Jan; Tábořík, Petr; Bubík, M.; Smolková, V.; Hradecký, J.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 6 (2014), s. 981-992 ISSN 1612-510X R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2010008 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 ; RVO:67985939 Keywords : fossil landslide * radiocarbon dating * electrical resistivity tomography * pollen analysis * Late Pleistocene * Flysch Carpathians * Marine Isotope Stage 3 Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography; EF - Botanics (BU-J) Impact factor: 2.870, year: 2014

  20. The BioREGIO Carpathians project: aims, methodology and results from the “Continuity and Connectivity” analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Favilli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BioREGIO Carpathians is a transnational cooperation project, co-financed under the second call of the EU South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, priority area “Protection and Improvement of the Environment”. BioREGIO Carpathians run for three years (2011–2013 and is a flagship project for the Carpathian Convention (article four dealing with landscape and biological diversity, its Biodiversity Protocol and the Biodiversity Working Group. The project is built on the conservation, restoration and valorisation of the Carpathians ecological continuum to enable large herbivores and carnivores to live in coexistence with modern society. The Carpathian countries are expecting a massive pressure to modernize and extend their road infrastructures. If not considering the requirements of ecological network, this run-to-development will enhance landscape fragmentation, limit dispersal and genetic exchange of wildlife species. BioREGIO applied a multi-disciplinary approach (physical, legal and socio-economic in order to identify the most influencing barriers regarding connectivity throughout the Carpathians. Using two ArcGIS 10.0 tools in a three-step approach and a series of site visits, the continuity and connectivity analysis identified not only physical barriers but also legal aspects and socio-economic behaviour that are influencing ecological connectivity and playing a major role to conserve wildlife population. The investigation on the ground together with local experts and stakeholders enabled the adaptation of the GIS results and the development of feasible solutions to overcome the detected barriers with recommended priorities for implementing appropriate measurements to maintain connectivity and to sustain large carnivores, herbivores and biodiversity in the Carpathians.

  1. Revised crustal architecture of the southeastern Carpathian foreland from active and passive seismic data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enciu, Dana M.; Knapp, Camelia C.; Knapp, James H.

    2009-08-01

    Integration of active and passive source seismic data is employed in order to study the nature of the relationships between crustal seismicity and geologic structures in the southeastern (SE) Carpathian foreland of Romania and the possible connection with the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of intermediate-depth seismicity, one of the most active earthquake-prone areas in Europe. Crustal epicenters and focal mechanisms are correlated with four deep industry seismic profiles, the reprocessed Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics (DACIA PLAN) profile and the Deep Reflection Acquisition Constraining Unusual Lithospheric Activity II and III (DRACULA) profiles in order to understand the link between neotectonic foreland deformation and Vrancea mantle seismicity. Projection of crustal foreland hypocenters onto deep seismic profiles identifies several active crustal faults in the SE Carpathian foreland and suggests a mechanical coupling between the mantle located VSZ and the overlying foreland crust. The coupled associated deformation appears to take place on the Trotus Fault, the Sinaia Fault, and the newly detected Ialomita Fault. Seismic reflection imaging reveals the absence of west dipping reflectors in the crystalline crust and a slightly east dipping to horizontal Moho in the proximity of the Vrancea area. These findings argue against previously purported mechanisms to generate mantle seismicity in the VSZ including oceanic lithosphere subduction in place and oceanic slab break off, furthermore suggesting that the Vrancea seismogenic body is undetached from the overlying crust in the foreland.

  2. Methane leakage during the evolution of petroleum systems in the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin and the Central Graben area of the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berbesi, L. A.; di Primio, R.; Anka, Z.; Horsfield, B.

    2012-04-01

    Around 500 to 600 Tg (1 Tg = 1012 g) of methane enter the atmosphere every year, mainly as product of microbial processes and combustion of fossil fuels and burning biomass. The importance of another source, the geologic emissions of methane, is up to now only loosely constrained. In this study, we addressed the potential methane emissions during the geological evolution of the Western Canada sedimentary basin (WCSB), which holds the largest oil sand accumulations in the world, and the Central Graben area of the North Sea. In the case of the WCSB, thermogenic gas generation and leakage at the sediment surface were addressed through 3D petroleum systems modeling. In this basin, the accumulated oil experienced intense biodegradation that resulted in large masses of biogenic methane. We quantified this latter mass though a two-step mass balance approach. Firstly, we estimated the rate of petroleum degradation and the magnitude of petroleum loss. After this, we calculated the mass of biogenic methane generated using a model that assumes hexadecane (C16H34) as representative of the saturated compounds (Zengler et al., 1999). Our 3D model suggests that 90000-150000 Tg of dry gas (mostly methane) could have leaked during the interval from 80 Ma to 60 Ma. Therefore, uniform leakage rates would have been in the order of 10-3-10-2 Tg yr-1. Biogenic methane generation could have taken place at rates of 10-4 to 10-2 Tg yr-1. However, the effective mass of thermogenic and biogenic methane reaching the atmosphere might have been up to 90% lower than calculated here due to methanotrophic consumption in soils (Etiope and Klusman, 2002). We addressed the thermogenic gas generation and leakage in the Central Graben through two different methods. The first is based on a previous 3D petroleum system modeling of the region (Neumann, 2006). The second consisted of calculating the mass of generated petroleum based on source rock extension and properties (Schmoker, 1994), and then

  3. Seismic investigations of the Earth's lithosphere and asthenosphere in two unique convergent margin settings: The Carpathians, Romania, and U.S. Cordillera, Idaho-Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanciu, Adrian Christian

    Proposed mechanisms for the unusual seismicity ~100 km southeast of the contact between the Transylvanian Basin and the Eastern Carpathians in Romania have included tearing and rollback of a subducted slab of oceanic lithosphere and gravitational instability and delamination of continental lithosphere. We examined the upper mantle fabrics using shear wave splitting of SK(K)S phases recorded at four broadband seismic stations in the Transylvanian Basin. Our results indicate a regional NW-SE splitting trend, with measurements that reflect an abrupt change from this regional flow field in the vicinity of the Vrancea body to a NE-SW trend that is consistent with redirection of mantle flow. Crustal thickness measurements show 28-30 km in the western part of the Transylvanian Basin, 34-39 km at the contact with the Eastern Carpathians, and 40-45 km further east. These results, along with previous estimates, constrain the locus of the inferred Miocene suture between the southeastern-most portion of the Tisza-Dacia terrane and the East European Platform. The second convergent margin system represented here is in the North American Cordillera in Idaho and Oregon, where subduction and accretion of exotic terranes have modified the western margin of North America. We used teleseismic receiver functions from 85 broadband stations to analyze the geometry of the Salmon River suture zone, the western Idaho shear zone, and the Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. Results show a clear break in crustal thickness from ~28 km beneath the accreted terranes to 36 km east of the surface expression of the WISZ. A strong mid-crustal converter at ~20 km depth is consistent with tectonic wedging during accretion of the Blue Mountains terranes. An eastern Moho offset of ~6 km is consistent with the Archean Grouse Creek-Farmington zone boundary. We used deep converted phases generated beneath the study area to image the mantle transition zone. We observe a continuous high amplitude P410s

  4. Neogene deformation of thrust-top Rzeszów Basin (Outer Carpathians, Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uroda, Joanna

    2015-04-01

    The Rzeszów Basin is a 220 km2 basin located in the frontal part of Polish Outer Carpathians fold-and-thrust belt. Its sedimentary succession consist of ca. 600 m- thick Miocene evaporates, litoral and marine sediments. This basin developed between Babica-Kąkolówka anticline and frontal thrust of Carpathian Orogen. Rzeszów thrust-top basin is a part of Carpathian foreland basin system- wedge-top depozone. The sediments of wedge -top depozone were syntectonic deformed, what is valuable tool to understand kinematic history of the orogen. Analysis of field and 3D seismic reflection data showed the internal structure of the basin. Seismic data reveal the presence of fault-bend-folds in the basement of Rzeszów basin. The architecture of the basin - the presence of fault-releated folds - suggest that the sediments were deformed in last compressing phase of Carpathian Orogen deformation. Evolution of Rzeszów Basin is compared with Bonini et.al. (1999) model of thrust-top basin whose development is controlled by the kinematics of two competing thrust anticlines. Analysis of seismic and well data in Rzeszów basin suggest that growth sediments are thicker in south part of the basin. During the thrusting the passive rotation of the internal thrust had taken place, what influence the basin fill architecture and depocentre migration opposite to thrust propagation. Acknowledgments This study was supported by grant No 2012/07/N/ST10/03221 of the Polish National Centre of Science "Tectonic activity of the Skole Nappe based on analysis of changes in the vertical profile and depocentre migration of Neogene sediments in Rzeszów-Strzyżów area (Outer Carpathians)". Seismic data by courtesy of the Polish Gas and Oil Company. References Bonini M., Moratti G., Sani F., 1999, Evolution and depocentre migration in thrust-top basins: inferences from the Messinian Velona Basin (Northern Apennines, Italy), Tectonophysics 304, 95-108.

  5. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime

  6. 2.5D seismic velocity modelling in the south-eastern Romanian Carpathians Orogen and its foreland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocin, Andrei; Stephenson, Randell; Tryggvason, Ari; Panea, Ionelia; Mocanu, Victor; Hauser, Franz; Matenco, Liviu

    2005-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappe system and the architecture of the Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the Vrancea zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly WNW-ESE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous south-eastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube River. A high resolution 2.5D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN first arrival data. The results show that the data fairly accurately resolve the transition from sediment to crystalline basement beneath the Focsani Basin, where industry seismic data are available for correlation, at depths up to about 10 km. Beneath the external Carpathians nappes, apparent basement (material with velocities above 5.8 km/s) lies at depths as shallow as 3-4 km, which is less than previously surmised on the basis of geological observations. The first arrival travel-time data suggest that there is significant lateral structural heterogeneity on the apparent basement surface in this area, suggesting that the high velocity material may be involved in Carpathian thrusting.

  7. Dissolved nitrates in the groundwater of the Cecina Plain (Tuscany, Central-Western Italy): Clues from the isotopic signature of NO3-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nisi, B.; Vaselli, O.; Delgado Huertas, A.; Tassi, F.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Nitrate pollution in the Cecina Plain (Tuscany, Italy) multi-aquifer system. ► Anthropogenic pollution by fertilizers, manure and sewage. ► δ 15 N–NO 3 and δ 18 O–NO 3 to recognize NO 3 sources and processes. ► Monitoring of δ 15 N–NO 3 and δ 18 O–NO 3 for remediation programs. - Abstract: Anthropogenic NO 3 - is one of the most serious pollutants in the groundwaters from the multi-aquifer system of the Cecina Plain (Tuscany, central-western Italy). According to the EC Directive (91/676/CEE), the local administration of Tuscany has declared the Cecina Plain as “vulnerable by nitrates”. Determining the origin and the source(s) of NO 3 - contamination is an important step prior to any remediation program. In the present work a geochemical survey was carried out on 92 groundwater samples collected in June and October 2006 to highlight the natural and anthropogenic features that concur with the observed chemical composition. The geochemical facies of the water samples is dominated by Ca(Mg)–HCO 3 and Ca(Mg)–SO 4 (Cl) and, subordinately, by Na(Ca)–Cl(SO 4 ), likely resulting by water–rock interaction processes between meteoric-derived groundwaters with the sedimentary formations characterizing the Cecina Plain, at which ingression of seawater in the coastal area is also added. A mixing model, based on ionic ratios (NO 3 /Na, Cl/Na, Cl/Br), was applied to distinguish the anthropogenic sources (e.g. sewage, agriculture input) from natural sources (e.g. seawater intrusion). Selected samples were analyzed for the isotopic composition of NO 3 - (δ 15 N–NO 3 and δ 18 O–NO 3 ) to formulate hypotheses on its origin and the processes this component may suffer in the water system. Nitrate concentrations range from ∼0.01 to 354 mg/L. About 35% and 19% of the sampled wells in June and October 2006, respectively, had levels of NO 3 - higher that those recommended by the World Health Organization (<50 mg/L). The δ 18 O–e δ 15

  8. Translation vs. Rotation: The Battle for Accommodation of Dextral Shear at the Northern Terminus of the Central Walker Lane, Western Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, C. W.; Faulds, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    Positioned between the Sierra Nevada microplate and Basin and Range in western North America, the Walker Lane (WL) accommodates ~20% of the dextral motion between the North American and Pacific plates on predominately NW-striking dextral and ENE to E-W-striking sinistral fault systems. The Terrill Mountains (TM) lie at the northern terminus of a domain of dextral faults accommodating translation of crustal-blocks in the central WL and at the southeast edge of sinistral faults accommodating oroclinal flexure and CW rotation of blocks in the northern WL. As the mechanisms of strain transfer between these disparate fault systems are poorly understood, the thick Oligocene to Pliocene volcanic strata of the TM area make it an ideal site for studying the transfer of strain between regions undergoing differing styles of deformation and yet both accommodating dextral shear. Detailed geologic mapping and paleomagnetic study of ash-flow tuffs in the TM region has been conducted to elucidate Neogene strain accommodation for this transitional region of the WL. Strain at the northernmost TM appears to be transferred from a system of NW-striking dextral faults to a system of ~E-W striking sinistral faults with associated CW flexure. A distinct ~23 Ma paleosol is locally preserved below the tuff of Toiyabe and provides an important marker bed. This paleosol is offset with ~6 km of dextral separation across the fault bounding the NE flank of the TM. This fault is inferred as the northernmost strand of the NW-striking, dextral Benton Spring fault system, with offset consistent with minimums constrained to the south (6.4-9.6 km, Gabbs Valley Range). Paleomagnetic results suggest counter-intuitive CCW vertical-axis rotation of crustal blocks south of the domain boundary in the system of NW-striking dextral faults, similar to some other domains of NW-striking dextral faults in the northern WL. This may result from coeval dextral shear and WNW-directed extension within the left

  9. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (Nematoda: Heligmosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and Ochotona cansus (Lagomorpha: Ochotonidae) from western North America and Central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durette-Desset, M-C; Galbreath, K E; Hoberg, E P

    2010-06-01

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp. and Ohbayashinema aspeira n. sp., are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiated from the 5 known species of the genus parasitic in Ochotonidae from the Old World by very long spicules and an oblique axis of orientation for the ridges composing the synlophe. Ohbayashinema aspeira, described only from females, is similar to Oh. nearctica based on the number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body. It is mainly differentiated by an uncoiled anterior extremity and by near equal dimensions of the vestibule and the uterus. The third species, Ohbayashinema patriciae n. sp., is parasitic in Gansu pika, Ochotona cansus , from China. It is similar to Ohbayashinema erbaevae parasitic in Ochotona dauurica from Buriatia and Ohbayashinema ochotoni in Ochotona macrotis from Nepal, based on the length of the spicules and the ratio of spicule length to body length. It differs from the former species by possessing a smaller number of cuticular ridges and in the comparative length of the vestibule and infundibulum. Related to Oh. ochotoni by an identical number of cuticular ridges at the mid-body, it differs from this species in having smaller ridges in the dorsal rather than ventral field and in the dimensions of the dorsal ray where rays 9 are less than rays 10. Species of Ohbayashinema appear to be host-specific among the Ochotonidae but had not been previously reported in pikas from the Nearctic. Although much remains to be demonstrated about the diversity for helminths in pikas, it is apparent that factors associated with the assembly and structure of parasite faunas have been complex, involving episodic processes for geographic and host colonization along with coevolutionary mechanisms. Understanding the historical factors, particularly climate

  10. Radon, carbon dioxide and fault displacements in central Europe related to the Tohoku earthquake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briestensky, M.; Stemberk, J.; Rowberry, M.D.; Thinova, L.; Knejflova, Z.; Praksova, R.

    2014-01-01

    Tectonic instability may be measured directly using extensometers installed across active faults or it may be indicated by anomalous natural gas concentrations in the vicinity of active faults. This paper presents the results of fault displacement monitoring at two sites in the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians. These data have been supplemented by radon monitoring in the Mladec Caves and by carbon dioxide monitoring in the Zbrasov Aragonite Caves. A significant period of tectonic instability is indicated by changes in the fault displacement trends and by anomalous radon and carbon dioxide concentrations. This was recorded around the time of the catastrophic M W = 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake, which hit eastern Japan on 11 March 2011. It is tentatively suggested that the Tohoku Earthquake in the Pacific Ocean and the unusual geodynamic activity recorded in the Bohemian Massif and Western Carpathians both reflect contemporaneous global tectonic changes. (authors)

  11. Organic geochemistry and petrology of oil source rocks, Carpathian Overthrust region, southeastern Poland - Implications for petroleum generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruge, M.A.; Mastalerz, Maria; Solecki, A.; Stankiewicz, B.A.

    1996-01-01

    The organic mailer rich Oligocene Menilite black shales and mudstones are widely distributed in the Carpathian Overthrust region of southeastern Poland and have excellent hydrocarbon generation potential, according to TOC, Rock-Eval, and petrographic data. Extractable organic matter was characterized by an equable distribution of steranes by carbon number, by varying amounts of 28,30-dinor-hopane, 18??(H)-oleanane and by a distinctive group of C24 ring-A degraded triterpanes. The Menilite samples ranged in maturity from pre-generative to mid-oil window levels, with the most mature in the southeastern portion of the study area. Carpathian petroleum samples from Campanian Oligocene sandstone reservoirs were similar in biomarker composition to the Menilite rock extracts. Similarities in aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbon distributions between petroleum asphaltene and source rock pyrolyzates provided further evidence genetically linking Menilite kerogens with Carpathian oils.

  12. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones colectadas en las regiones occidental, oriental y central de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of accessions collected in the western, eastern and central regions of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron dos misiones de colecta durante el 2007 (regiones occidental y oriental y el 2009 (región central en Cuba, que comprendió zonas puntuales de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Río, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus y Villa Clara. Se colectaron semillas de 88 accesiones de leguminosas (52 arbóreas y 36 herbáceas. Posteriormente a todas se les realizó una prueba de germinación en placas de Petri con arena de río, previo corte de la cubierta, para conocer su calidad. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión, en correspondencia con el tamaño de la muestra, y solo se empleó una réplica. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Se obtuvo una alta calidad en las semillas de las especies arbóreas y arbustivas (70-100%, lo cual no ocurrió en las caobas (Swietenia sp. de Granma (0 y 8% ni en Jatropha curcas colectada en Pinar del Río, Guantánamo (0% y Banao (8%, tampoco en Albizia lebbeck procedente de Guantánamo y en Guazuma ulmifolia (24% de Villa Clara. Para las leguminosas herbáceas la germinación varió entre 80 y 100%, excepto en Macroptilium atropurpureum (60% y en Teramnus (12% procedentes de Granma, en Neonotonia wightii (20% de Matanzas, en Calopogonium sp. (52% de Banao y en Glycine sp. (50% de Sancti Spíritus. Se concluye que la calidad de las semillas estuvo en dependencia del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la maduración de las legumbres. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta en otras zonas del país, lo que permitirá una mayor diversidad en los sistemas de producción agropecuarios.Two collection missions were conducted during 2007 (western and eastern regions and 2009 (central region in Cuba, which comprised certain zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Rio, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Villa Clara. Seeds from 88 accessions (52 tree

  13. Reconstructing multiple arc-basin systems in the Altai-Junggar area (NW China): Implications for the architecture and evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Di; He, Dengfa; Tang, Yong

    2016-05-01

    The Altai-Junggar area in northwestern China is a critical region to gain insights on the tectonic framework and geological evolution of the western Central Asian Orogenic Belt (CAOB). In this study, we report results from integrated geological, geochemical and geophysical investigations on the Wulungu Depression of the Junggar Basin to determine the basement nature of the basin and understand its amalgamation history with the Chinese Altai, within the broad tectonic evolution of the Altai-Junggar area. Based on borehole and seismic data, the Wulungu Depression is subdivided into two NW-trending tectonic units (Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High) by southward-vergent thrust faults. The Suosuoquan Sag consists of the Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesite, andesite, dacite, tuff, tuffaceous sandstone and tuffite, and the overlying Early Carboniferous volcano-sedimentary sequence with lava flows and shallow marine sediments from a proximal juvenile provenance (zircon εHf(t) = 6.0-14.9), compared to the Late Carboniferous andesite and rhyolite in the Hongyan High. Zircon SIMS U-Pb ages for dacites and andesites indicate that these volcanics in the Suosuoquan Sag and Hongyan High erupted at 376.3 Ma and 313.4 Ma, respectively. The Middle-Late Devonian basaltic andesites from well LC1 are calc-alkaline and exhibit primitive magma-like MgO contents (7.9-8.6%) and Mg# values (66-68), with low initial 87Sr/86Sr (0.703269-0.704808) and positive εNd(t) values (6.6-7.6), and relatively high Zr abundance (98.2-116.0 ppm) and Zr/Y ratios (5.1-5.4), enrichment in LREEs and LILEs (e.g., Th and U) and depletion in Nb, Ta and Ti, suggesting that they were probably derived from a metasomatized depleted mantle in a retro-arc extensional setting. The well LC1 andesitic tuffs, well L8 dacites, well WL1 dacitic tuffs and well L5 andesites belong to calc-alkaline and metaluminous to peraluminous (A/CNK = 0.8-1.7) series, and display low Mg# values (35-46) and variably positive εNd(t) (4

  14. Changes in grassland management and plant diversity in a marginal region of the Carpathian Mts. in 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halada, Ľuboš; David, Stanislav; Hreško, Juraj; Klimantová, Alexandra; Bača, Andrej; Rusňák, Tomáš; Buraľ, Miroslav; Vadel, Ľuboš

    2017-12-31

    The political change from socialism to democracy in countries of Central and Eastern Europe at the end of the 20th century induced broad changes in agriculture mostly due to land ownership changes and strong reduction of subsidies to agriculture. This resulted in agricultural decline, including grassland abandonment, which influenced grassland biodiversity and conservation. Between 1999 and 2015 we studied the grasslands in the area depopulated in the early 1980's in the Poloniny National Park (NE Slovakia, Carpathian Mts.). The aim of the study was to examine influence of environmental factors and grassland management driven by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to plant community structure and taxonomical diversity. We identified altitude and soil properties as the main environmental factors: altitude determines climate gradient and probably also management intensity gradient and soil properties express soil fertility via A-horizon depth. We identified remarkable increase of proportion of managed grasslands from only 8% in 1999 to 40% in 2012-2015; other 7% of sampled grasslands were recently restored and prepared for future management. The average species richness in grasslands managed in 2012-2015 increased from 47.5 species per record in 1999 to 54.2 species in 2012-2015, the increase was found statistically significant. In 2012-2015, we observed statistically significant difference in the average species richness between managed (54.2) and abandoned grasslands (46.3). The agricultural subsidies of the CAP drive the grassland management in the study area. Therefore, we conclude that CAP enabled grassland biodiversity maintenance in significant part of the Poloniny National Park following start of its application in 2004 and above provided figures can be considered as indicators of the CAP effectiveness in our study area. However, the conservation of mountain meadows remains a challenge because of their poor accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  16. Bat guano deposit Holocene datings in the south Carpathian mountains (Romania). Tectonic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbonnel, J.P.; Olive, Ph.; Klein, D.

    1999-01-01

    Two 14 C datings in a 2.5 m thick bat guano deposit indicate the Boreal period for the beginning of the deposit. The bat colony of the cave of Adam (Pestera lui Adam, Baile Herculane, south Carpathian Mountains) is one of the oldest permanent bat colonies in Europe, probably established just after the last Ice Age. Evidence of palaeo-seismic activity inside the guano deposit allow a chronology of regional seismic events during the Holocene Period to be drawn up. (authors)

  17. Continental Delamination of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians: A Lower Crustal Origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillerup, M. A.; Knapp, J. H.; Knapp, C. C.

    2006-12-01

    Two lithosphere-scale, explosive-source seismic reflection profiles (DRACULA I and DACIA PLAN), inclusive of the hinterland and foreland of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, provide new evidence for the geodynamic origin of the Vrancea Seismogenic Zone (VSZ) of Romania. These data, collected to evaluate existing subduction-related and delamination geodynamic models proposed to explain the intermediate depth seismicity associated with the Vrancea zone, show evidence of continental crust extending continuously above the VSZ from the Carpathian foreland well into the Transylvanian hinterland. Crustal thicknesses inferred from these data based on reflectivity show a 40-45 km crust below the Transylvanian basin abruptly shallowing to 32 km for ~120 km beneath the fold and thrust belt of the main Carpathian orogen and thickening again to 38-42 km crust in the foreland. This thinned crust outlines an apparent lower crustal sub-orogenic cavity that is overlain by a relatively subhorizontal reflective fabric absent of dipping reflectivity. The northwest dipping Vrancea seismogenic body, a 30x70x200 km volume of intermediate depth earthquakes, is located on the eastern flank of the apparently thin crust beneath the Carpathian orogen. Amplitude decay curves show penetration of seismic energy to a depth of ~60 km in the vicinity of the sub-orogenic cavity, implying this non- reflective zone is a geologic signature. Rotation of the VSZ about a hinge beneath the foreland basin at a depth of ~50 km restores to fill the lower-crustal cavity under the orogen, suggesting the VSZ represents a portion of brittle lower crust delaminated during continental lithospheric delamination which may have caused regional uplift of the Transylvanian basin. The lack of through-going, dipping crustal-scale boundaries along this composite lithospheric transect would appear to preclude subduction as an explanation for seismicity in the VSZ, consistent with abundant surface geologic data. These

  18. HUMAN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE PETROŞANI DEPRESSION (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA COSTACHE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the changes in ecosystem services in the most important coal field from the Southern Carpathians (Romania. The time horizon considered is the interval 1950-2010, characterized by two major processes: intensive development of the mining industry (1950-1989 and subsequent restructuring of mining, with significant consequences since 1996. Socio-economic phenomena associated with these two stages in the evolution of the region have generated major changes in ecosystem services, leading to increased human vulnerability, both to extreme events (natural hazards and pressure from economic factors.

  19. THE ANALYSIS OF THE WASTE PROBLEM IN TOURIST DESTINATIONS ON THE EXAMPLE OF CARPATHIAN REGION IN UKRAINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliia Murava

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study is to identify waste generated within the territories of tourist destinations in Carpathian Mountains in Ukraine and to classify it for the use of effective waste management methods. The dynamics of municipal waste generation in tourist destinations in Carpathian region has been analyzed. The sources of waste generation in tourist activities have been identified and classified by the criterion of their further use. The methods of waste management within the tourist destinations in Carpathian region have been proposed. The problem of tourist destinations waste has been identified as one of the significant environmental aspects of tourism industry. Recommendations for implementation of the waste management methods can form the basis of waste management programs within the tourist destinations in the Carpathians. To achieve the goal and to solve the identified tasks a range of research methods have been used in the study: praximetric method (analysis of research experience and summarizing the information of printed sources on environmental aspects of the tourism industry and the problems of waste management within tourist destinations; comparative analysis has been used for identification of quantitative indicators and dynamics of municipal waste generation; specific search method has been used for identifying, selecting, theoretical analysis, classification of the waste generated in tourist destinations and calculation of their generated amount.

  20. MEDIA ENVIRONMENT AS FACTOR OF REALIZATION OF CREATIVE POTENTIAL OF FUTURE TEACHERS` IN THE MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Lebedieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows up “media environment” as a factor of future teachers` creative potential realization in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The problem of using media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the ways of its optimization is the main point of this research. Highlights ways to modernize social and professional orientation training of students in the creative process of nature is situates in information education and educational environment of high school. We consider the causal link use media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential and complexity of the teacher in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The basic function of the media environment are extensity, instrumental, communicative, interactive, multimedia. Reveals some aspects of training students to creatively active teaching process we describe subjects with objective possibilities in the formation of professional skills of future teachers` and which directly affect the realization of creative potential – “Ukrainian folk art”, “Basic recitation and rhetoric”, “The basis of pedagogical creativity”. The necessity of creating a full-fledged media environment in higher education is important condition of successful education as an important factor that allows the efficiency of the creative potential of future teachers` in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  1. Dating of speleothems in non-karst caves - methodological aspects and practical application, Polish Outer Carpathians case study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, J.; Margielewski, W.; Hercman, H.; Žák, Karel; Zernitska, V.; Pawlak, J.; Schejbal-Chwastek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 59, Supplement 1 (2015), s. 185-210 ISSN 0372-8854 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : non-karst caves * speleothem dating * landslide * Polish Outer Carpathians Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.103, year: 2015

  2. 2D Seismic Velocity Modelling in the Southeastern Romanian Carpathians and its Foreland (Vrancea Zone and Focsani Basin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, R.; Bocin, A.; Tryggvason, A.

    2003-12-01

    The DACIA-PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Processes in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic reflection survey was performed in August-September 2001, with the objective of obtaining of new information on the deep structure of the external Carpathians nappes and the architecture of Tertiary/Quaternary basins developed within and adjacent to the seismically-active Vrancea Zone, including the rapidly subsiding Focsani Basin. The DACIA-PLAN profile is about 140 km long, having a roughly NW-SE direction, from near the southeast Transylvanian Basin, across the mountainous southeastern Carpathians and their foreland to near the Danube Dalta. A high resolution 2D velocity model of the upper crust along the seismic profile has been determined from a first-arrival tomographic inversion of the DACIA-PLAN data. The shallowing of Palaeozoic-Mesozoic basement, and related structural heterogeneity within it, beneath the eastern flank of the Focsani Basin is clearly seen. Velocity heterogeneity within the Carpathian nappe belt is also evident and is indicative of internal structural complexity, including the presence of salt bodies and basement involvement in thrusting, thus favouring some current geological models over others. The presence of basement involvement implies the compressional reactivation of pre-existing basement normal faults. Members of the DACIA-PLAN/TomoSeis Working Group (see poster) should be considered as co-authors of this presentation.

  3. The significance of Gosau-type basins for the Late Cretaceous tectonic history of the Alpine-Carpathian Belt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willingshofer, E.; Neubauer, F.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A key feature of Late Creataceous tectonics throughout the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian (ALCAPA) region is the synchronous formation of sedimentary basins (Gosau basins) and exhumation of metamorphic domes. Initial subsidence, spatially varying in time (Cenomanian-Santonian), within Gosau-type basins

  4. Middel Pleistocene to Holocene fluvial terrace development and uplift-driven valley incision in the SE Carpathians, Romania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Necea, D.; Fielitz, W.; Andriessen, P.A.M.; Dinu, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study reveals that in the SE Carpathians terrace development and fluvial incision during the Middle Pleistocene-Holocene are predominantly controlled by tectonic uplift as shown by terrace distributions and uplift amounts and rates. The work focuses on a transect from the internal nappes and

  5. A molecular organic geochemical study of black shales associated with diatomites from the Oligocene Meinilite Shale (Flysch Carpathians, SE Poland)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Koster, J.; Rospondek, M.; Zubrzycki, A.; Kolouba, M.; Leeuw, J.W. de

    1995-01-01

    Black shales of the Menilite Formation, the source rock for oils in the Carpathian overthrust belt, display a large variability in their bulk and molecular geochemical parameters. Biomarker and stable carbon isotope analyses indicate a variable contribution from different algae (particularly

  6. READINESS OF SENIOR STUDENTS FROM THE CARPATHIAN TERRAIN TO CHOOSE TEACHING PROFESSION: PEDAGOGICAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetyana Blyznyuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presented at the conference is the study of the problems of upbringing and education of senior pupils from the Carpathian mountain area. Namely the author investigates the students’ readiness for choosing the teaching profession and willingness to work at rural mountain schools. Despite the big number of teachers in the labor market of Ukraine, now the system of education meets an acute issue dealing with the selection to the pedagogical specialties talented creative young people who actually choose teaching profession by nature and strong personal will. Today there are very few teachers whose level of commitment to perform professional duties in Ukrainian education is really high, and this is especially true about mountain school teachers. This phenomenon can be partially explained by the fact that teaching profession has low prestige in our society for the recent decades (Ukrainian teachers are not well-paid, their working conditions in rural Carpathian schools leave much to be desired. Therefore the problem of readiness of high school students to perform professional-pedagogical duties is of particular relevance. The author analyzes the psychological and pedagogical basis of the presented problem, defines the essence and structure of the notion “readiness for choosing the teaching profession”. In the context of solving this issue one of the important conditions the author considers the comprehensive development of senior school students, particularly the development of their creative abilities.

  7. Uranium, radium and 40K isotopes in bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians, Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlowska, B.; Walencik, A.; Dorda, J.; Przylibski, T.A.

    2007-01-01

    Radioactivity content in commercially bottled mineral waters from Outer Carpathians was investigated on the basis of 28 samples. Activity concentration results for radium isotopes 226,228 Ra, uranium isotopes 234,238 U and isotopic ratios 234 U/ 238 U were determined. The correlations between investigated isotopes and calculated potassium 40 K ions dissolved in water were carried out. The results show a correlation between TDS (total dissolved solids) values and dissolved radionuclides. High correlation coefficients were observed between total radium content and 40 K. The isotopic ratio of 234 U/ 238 U varies in the range from 1.6 to 7 in all investigated waters which means that there is no radioactive equilibrium between the parent nuclide 238 U and its daughter 234 U. The effective radiation dose coming from studied radium and uranium radionuclides consumed with mineral water from the Outer Carpathians obtained by a statistical Pole is equal to 4.3μSv/year (58 l/year water consumption) and do not exceed the permissible limit equal to 100μSv/year. Assuming 0.5 l consumption per day, i.e. 182.5 l/year, the effective dose is equal to 13.4μSv/year, what is still below the unit

  8. Geography and trends of developing ethnic festival tourism in the Ukrainian Part of the Carpathian Euroregion

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    Maria Jaroslavivna Topornytska

    2015-07-01

    41, Doroshenko St., UA – 79000 L’viv, Ukraine, Topornytska_Maria@i.ua   Abstract   Ethnic festivals are the motive basis as well as a resource of tourism, hence they are the object of studying the geography of tourism. Their development is of great importance for the region, results in new tourist destinations and growth of income in the countryside. The statistics proves that more and more tourists are coming to the region due to ethnic festivals. The number of ethnic festivals is increasing and their geography is expanding. Over 2000 - 2011 (in the pre-crises period of the state’s development the number of ethnic festivals in the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian Euroregion grew from 55 to 228. About 100 new popular tourist destinations appeared in the tourist map. The article describes geographic, ethno-cultural and organizational principles of ethnic festival tourism development in the Carpathian region of Ukraine.   Key words: ethnic tourism, festival, ethnic festival tourism, regional development, geography of ethnic festivals.

  9. GENETIC POLYMORPHISM OF SOME PROTEINS IN THE MILK OF CARPATHIAN GOAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MIHAELA ZAULET

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some aspects of the polymorphism of some Carpathian goat milk proteins. The Carpathian breed is the main breed of goats reared in Romania. The optimal working conditions were determined for the identification of the casein phenotypes. The technique of the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used. The milk samples were processed to remove the fat and whey and the migration was done in the presence of a standard sample which contained proteins with different molecular weights. The interpretation of the electrophoresis migrations revealed the presence of two genotypes, the homozygous genotype β-Cn BB and the heterozygous β-Cn AB. The homozygous genotype β-Cn AA was not identified in any individual. The heterozygous genotype β-Cn AB displayed a high frequency (59% and it was observed in 10 individuals. The homozygous genotype β-Cn BB was observed in 7 individuals and it had a frequency of 41%. The homozygous genotype β-Cn AA has not been identified in the studied population. The distribution of these genotypes showed that allele β-CnB was predominant (70% over allele β-can (30%.

  10. Near-surface structure of the Carpathian Foredeep marginal zone in the Roztocze Hills area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majdański, M.; Grzyb, J.; Owoc, B.; Krogulec, T.; Wysocka, A.

    2018-03-01

    Shallow seismic survey was made along 1280 m profile in the marginal zone of the Carpathian Foredeep. Measurements performed with standalone wireless stations and especially designed accelerated weight drop system resulted in high fold (up to 60), long offset seismic data. The acquisition has been designed to gather both high-resolution reflection and wide-angle refraction data at long offsets. Seismic processing has been realised separately in two paths with focus on the shallow and deep structures. Data processing for the shallow part combines the travel time tomography and the wide angle reflection imaging. This difficult analysis shows that a careful manual front mute combined with correct statics leads to detailed recognition of structures between 30 and 200 m. For those depths, we recognised several SW dipping tectonic displacements and a main fault zone that probably is the main fault limiting the Roztocze Hills area, and at the same time constitutes the border of the Carpathian Forebulge. The deep interpretation clearly shows a NE dipping evaporate layer at a depth of about 500-700 m. We also show limitations of our survey that leads to unclear recognition of the first 30 m, concluding with the need of joint interpretation with other geophysical methods.

  11. Surface waves tomography and non-linear inversion in the southeast Carpathians

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raykova, R.B.; Panza, G.F.

    2005-11-01

    A set of shear-wave velocity models of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in the southeast Carpathians is determined by the non-linear inversion of surface wave group velocity data, obtained from a tomographic analysis. The local dispersion curves are assembled for the period range 7 s - 150 s, combining regional group velocity measurements and published global Rayleigh wave dispersion data. The lithosphere-asthenosphere velocity structure is reliably reconstructed to depths of about 250 km. The thickness of the lithosphere in the region varies from about 120 km to 250 km and the depth of the asthenosphere between 150 km and 250 km. Mantle seismicity concentrates where the high velocity lid is detected just below the Moho. The obtained results are in agreement with recent seismic refraction, receiver function, and travel time P-wave tomography investigations in the region. The similarity among the results obtained from different kinds of structural investigations (including the present work) highlights some new features of the lithosphere-asthenosphere system in southeast Carpathians, as the relatively thin crust under Transylvania basin and Vrancea zone. (author)

  12. Bioecological principles of maintaining stability in mountain forest ecosystems of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Parpan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The forest cover of the Carpathians has been deeply transformed by productive activities over the past centuries. The forest cover, age and species structure of its ecosystems have been changed. Beech and fir forests were replaced by spruce monocultures. Consequently, nitrogen and mineral elements cycles changed, the genetic and population structures altered and the eco-stabilizing function of forests decreased. These negative trends make it desirable to process the bioecological principles of maintenance the stability of mountain forest ecosystems. The proposed bioecological principles of support and recovery of stability of forest ecosystems are part of the paradigm of mountain dendrology and silviculture. The strategy is based on maintaining bio-ecological and population-genetical features of the main forest forming species, evolutionary typological classification of the forests, landscape and environmental specifics of the mountain part of the Ukrainian Carpathians, features of virgin, old growth and anthropogenically disturbed forest structures, as well as performing the functional role of forest ecosystems. Support for landscape ecosystem stability involves the conservation, selective, health and gradual cutting, formation of forest stands which are close to natural conditions and focusing on natural regeneration (a basis for stable mountain forest ecosystems.

  13. Detrital events and hydroclimate variability in the Romanian Carpathians during the mid-to-late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are located at the confluence of three major atmospheric pressure fields: the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Siberian. Despite its importance for understanding past human impact and climate change, high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Holocene hydroclimate variability, and in particular records of extreme precipitation events in the area, are rare. Here we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic change and human impact recorded in a peatbog from the Southern Carpathians, integrating palynological, geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Natural climate fluctuations appear to be dominant until 4500 years before present (yr BP), followed by increasing importance of human impact. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses document regular minerogenic deposition within the bog, linked to periods of high precipitation. Such minerogenic depositional events began 4000 yr BP, with increased depositional rates during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and during periods of societal upheaval (e.g. the Roman conquest of Dacia). The timing of minerogenic events appears to indicate a teleconnection between major shifts in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and hydroclimate variability in southeastern Europe, with increased minerogenic deposition correlating to low NAO index values. By linking the minerogenic deposition to precipitation variability, we state that this link persists throughout the mid-to-late Holocene.

  14. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  15. The Amazon-Laurentian connection as viewed from the Middle Proterozoic rocks in the central Andes, western Bolivia and northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosdal, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Middle Proterozoic rocks underlying the Andes in western Bolivia, western Argentina, and northern Chile and Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif in southern Peru?? from the Arequipa-Antofalla craton. These rocks are discontinuously exposed beneath Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks, but abundant crystalline clasts in Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the western altiplano allow indirect samples of the craton. Near Berenguela, western Bolivia, the Oligocene and Miocene Mauri Formation contains boulders of granodiorite augen gneiss (1171??20 Ma and 1158??12 Ma; U-Pb zircon), quartzose gneiss and granofels that are inferred to have arkosic protoliths (1100 Ma source region; U-Pb zircon), quartzofeldspathic and mafic orthogneisses that have amphibolite- and granulite-facies metamorphic mineral assemblages (???1080 Ma metamorphism; U-Pb zircon), and undeformed granitic rocks of Phanerozoic(?) age. The Middle Proterozoic crystalline rocks from Berenguela and elsewhere in western Bolivia and from the Middle Proterozoic Bele??n Schist in northern Chile generally have present-day low 206Pb/204Pb ( 15.57), and elevated 208Pb/204Pb (37.2 to 50.7) indicative of high time-averaged Th/U values. The Middle Proterozoic rocks in general have higher presentday 206Pb/204Pb values than those of the Early Proterozoic rocks of the Arequipa massif (206Pb/204Pb between 16.1 and 17.1) but lower than rocks of the southern Arequipa-Antofalla craton (206Pb/204Pb> 18.5), a difference inferred to reflect Grenvillian granulite metamorphism. The Pb isotopic compositions for the various Proterozoic rocks lie on common Pb isotopic growth curves, implying that Pb incorporated in rocks composing the Arequipa-Antofalla craton was extracted from a similar evolving Pb isotopic reservoir. Evidently, the craton has been a coherent terrane since the Middle Proterozoic. Moreover, the Pb isotopic compositions for the Arequipa-Antofalla craton overlap those of the Amazon craton, thereby supporting a link

  16. A Comparison and Evaluation of Hong Kong Air Pollution Data Measured in the Central Western District by the Hong Kong Government Versus Data Measured in Cyberport by the Independent Schools Foundation Academy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajjar, G.; Gu, M.; Lee, K. K.

    2017-12-01

    Air pollution, a leading cause of global warming and many respiratory diseases, has become a global and prevalent concern in today's society. Thus, air pollution is a significant topic that we need to investigate and research, especially in highly-dense and busy cities like Hong Kong. The data collected will be based in Hong Kong. I will collect air pollutant concentrations data from a Central Western station set up by the Hong Kong government and compare it with air pollution data collected by the ISF Academy located in Cyberport. Levels of PM2.5 and PM10.0 will be measured by a TEOM, CH4 and CO2 by a Gasmet DX4015, and SO2, NOx, O3, and CO3 with an Airpointer. To compare pollution level in Hong Kong to the rest of the world, data collected will first be measured against international standards set by the World Health Organization. A mathematical analysis of the two sets of data obtained will then be conducted to determine the environmental circumstances that coincide with times with high levels of pollutants, as well as the types of pollutants that Cyberport has more of, compared to the Central Western district, and vice versa. Finally, an evaluation of the reasons behind the results presented will follow.

  17. Cretaceous sedimentation in the outer Eastern Carpathians: Implications for the facies model reconstruction of the Moldavide Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roban, R. D.; Krézsek, C.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    The mid Cretaceous is characterized by high eustatic sea-levels with widespread oxic conditions that made possible the occurrence of globally correlated Oceanic Red Beds. However, very often, these eustatic signals have been overprinted by local tectonics, which in turn resulted in Lower Cretaceous closed and anoxic basins, as in the Eastern Carpathians. There, the black shale to red bed transition occurs in the latest Albian up to the early Cenomanian. Although earlier studies discussed the large-scale basin configuration, no detailed petrography and sedimentology study has been performed in the Eastern Carpathians. This paper describes the Hauterivian to Turonian lithofacies and interprets the depositional settings based on their sedimentological features. The studied sections crop out only in tectonic half windows of the Eastern Carpathians, part of the Vrancea Nappe. The lithofacies comprises black shales interbedded with siderites and sandstones, calcarenites, marls, radiolarites and red shales. The siliciclastic muddy lithofacies in general reflects accumulation by suspension settling of pelagites and hemipelagites in anoxic (black shale) to dysoxic (dark gray and gray to green shales) and oxic (red shales) conditions. The radiolarites alternate with siliceous shales and are considered as evidence of climate changes. The sandstones represent mostly low and high-density turbidite currents in deep-marine lobes, as well as channel/levee systems. The source area is an eastern one, e.g., the Eastern Carpathians Foreland, given the abundance of low grade metamorphic clasts. The Hauterivian - lower Albian sediments are interpreted as deep-marine, linear and multiple sourced mud dominated systems deposited in a mainly anoxic to dysoxic basin. The anoxic conditions existed in the early to late Albian, but sedimentation changed to a higher energy mud/sand-dominated submarine channels and levees. This coarsening upwards tendency is interpreted as the effect of the

  18. The Carboniferous-Permian boundary in the central western Argentinean basins: paleontological evidences El límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina: evidencias paleontológicas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela A Cisterna

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The central western Argentinean basins of Río Blanco, Calingasta-Uspallata and western Paganzo, enclose the most complete marine successions used for examining the Carboniferous-Permian boundary in Gondwana. A detailed review of the key stratigraphical sections has allowed the identification of the latest Carboniferous assemblages; NBG, Interval megafloristic Zone and DM (Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata Palynological Zone in the lower part, and the earliest Permian T-S (Tivertonia jachalensis-Streptorhynchus inaequiornatus invertebrate Zone and FS (Pakhapitesfusus-Vittatina subsaccata Palynological Zone in the upper part. This diagnostic mega/microflora and marine invertebrate paleontological evidence provides a biostratigraphical framework for the definition of the Carboniferous-Permian boundary inside the basins of central western Argentina.Las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina, Río Blanco, Calingasta-Uspallata y el sector oeste de la cuenca Paganzo, contienen las secuencias marinas más completas para el estudio del límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en Gondwana. Un estudio detallado de secciones estratigráficas claves ha permitido la identificación de las asociaciones megaflo-rísticas NBG y de Intervalo, y de la palinozona DM (Raistrickia densa-Convolutispora muriornata, del Carbonífero Tardío, en la parte inferior de dichas secciones; en tanto, en la parte media superior de las secciones estudiadas, se han identificado la biozona de invertebrados T-S (Tivertonia jachalensis-Streptorhynchus inaequiornatus y la palinozona FS (Pakhapites fusus-Vittatina subsaccata, ambas asignadas al Pérmico Temprano. El registro de estas asociaciones diagnósticas de mega/microflora e invertebrados marinos provee un esquema bioestratigráfico integrado que permite ubicar el límite Carbonífero-Pérmico en las cuencas del centro oeste de Argentina.

  19. Discussion on the genesis and mineralization of sandstone type uranium deposit in the southern-central Longchuanjiang basin, western Yunnan province

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Yuqi; Li Mangen

    2002-01-01

    The author mainly discusses the character of the depositional systems, geological structures and ore-bearing series in the south-central Longchuanjiang basin, and points out that the uranium mineralization is closely related to the two depositional discontinuities caused by the tectonic evolution. Based on the characteristics of uranium mineralization in the area, pitchblende, uranium blacks and phosphuranylite are discovered in No. 382 uranium deposit and radiometric super-micro-minerals in No. 381 deposit. The research on the uranium mineralization age in No. 382 deposit shows that the mineralization in the south-central part of the basin has genetically multi-staged

  20. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to compare coral bank and seafloor seepage area-related characterization along the central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; VishnuVardhan, Y.; Haris, K.; Menezes, A.A.A.; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Fernandes, W.A.; Kurian, J.

    ], [9]. In the western continental margin off Malpe, Karnataka coast, India, two living coral banks were identified using an EM 1002 multibeam echo sounder (MBES), namely, 1) the Gaveshani bank [10] and 2) an unnamed coral bank [11]. The other important.... MATERIALS AND METHODS The MBES data system for the present study was used to acquire a dataset during a survey (in 2006) onboard coastal research vessel (CRV) Sagar Sukti. The EM 1002 system operates at a frequency of 95 kHz and acquires the bathymetry 1545...

  1. Contribution to the Geology of the Central and Western Cordillera of Colombia in the sector between Ibagué and Cali

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, H.W.

    1957-01-01

    Het Westelijk gedeelte van de Republiek Columbia (Zuid Amerika) wordt ingenomen door de Cordilleras de los Andes, welke in genoemde republiek uit drie hoofdketens bestaat, t. w. de West Cordillera, de Centrale Cordillera en de Oost Cordillera. Een studie werd gemaakt van een centraal gelegen Strook

  2. Report on the 4th Conference on Environmental Science of the Carpathian Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiss, A.Z.

    2008-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. The main organizers of the conference were the Faculty of Science and Technology of the University of Debrecen and the Sapientia - Hungarian University of Transylvania, Faculty of Science and Art, Cluj-Napoca, Romania (the proposer of this series of conferences). The Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (ATOMKI) took part in the organization as its Hertelendi Ede Environmental Research Laboratory and the Ion Beam Application Laboratory are engaged in the study of the environment of the Carpathian Basin. Moreover the Department of Environmental Physics, run jointly by the University of Debrecen and ATOMKI, plays an important role in teaching environmental physics at the university. The conference was held on 28-29 March, 2008, in the building of the Regional Committee of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences (HAS) in Debrecen. The aim of the conference was to bring together scientists and students from different countries, involved in various aspects of environmental science and technology, since the common environmental problems of the Carpathian Basin to be solved make necessary the cooperation between them, living and working in different parts of the basin. The conference gave an opportunity to show the latest results in these fields, and in the same time it was an occasion for the young scientists to be introduced and to exchange experience. The scientific sections were the followings: environmental science and education, environmental chemistry, environmental physics, environmental geography, environmental protection and environmental technology, environmental biology and nature protection, landscape ecology and urban ecology. The number of registered participants (161) was the largest since the beginning (2005) of the conference series. They arrived from five countries (Hungary, Rumania, Slovakia, Croatia and Serbia), several institutions from 27 towns of the Carpathian Basin. The number of oral

  3. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of projected water use for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer, western and central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John H.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Graves, Grant M.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Fuhrig, Leland T.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Sanford, Jon E.

    2017-02-13

    This report describes a study of the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer in western and central Oklahoma conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The report (1) quantifies the groundwater resources of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer by developing a conceptual model, (2) summarizes the general water quality of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer groundwater by using data collected during August and September 2013, (3) evaluates the effects of estimated equal proportionate share (EPS) on aquifer storage and streamflow for time periods of 20, 40, and 50 years into the future by using numerical groundwater-flow models, and (4) evaluates the effects of present-day groundwater pumping over a 50-year period and sustained hypothetical drought conditions over a 10-year period on stream base flow and groundwater in storage by using numerical flow models. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer is a Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace unit consisting of beds of clay, silt, sand, and fine gravel sediments unconformably overlying Tertiary-, Permian-, and Pennsylvanian-age sedimentary rocks. For groundwater-flow modeling purposes, the Canadian River was divided into Reach I, extending from the Texas border to the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), and Reach II, extending downstream from the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), to the confluence of the river with Eufaula Lake. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer spans multiple climate divisions, ranging from semiarid in the west to humid subtropical in the east. The average annual precipitation in the study area from 1896 to 2014 was 34.4 inches per year (in/yr).A hydrogeologic framework of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer was developed that includes the areal and vertical extent of the aquifer and the distribution, texture variability, and hydraulic properties of

  4. Alpine treeline and timberline dynamics during the Holocene in the Northern Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anca GEANTĂ

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available High altitude environments (treeline and alpine communities are particularly sensitive to climate changes, disturbances and land-use changes due to their limited tolerance and adaptability range, habitat fragmentation and habitat restriction. The current and future climate warming is anticipated to shift the tree- and timberlines upwards thus affecting alpine plant communities and causing land-cover change and fragmentation of alpine habitats. An upslope movement of some trees, shrubs and cold adapted alpine herbs as a response to the current climate warming has already been noted in many montane and subalpine regions.Four Holocene peat and lacustrine sediment sequences located between 1670 and 1918 m a.s.l. (Fig.1, in the Rodna Mountains (Northern Romania, Eastern Carpathians are used with the aim to determine: i the sensitivity of high mountain habitats to climate, fire and land use changes; ii tree- and timberline shifts: and iii the influence of landscape topography on trees and shrubs.

  5. The Aquatic And Marshy Flora Of The Lotru River Basin (Southern Carpathians, Romania

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    Drăgulescu Constantin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper continues the series of floristic inventories of the main Romanian rivers in the Carpathian Mountains (from which have been published those of Mureş, Sadu, Olt, Someş, Criş, Târnave, Tisa. In this work the author lists 204 plant taxa (hydrophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic identified by the author or by other botanists in the Lotru Valley basin. Noted for each species were life form, floral element, ecological preferences for humidity (U, temperature (T, soil reaction (R, corology and coenology. Bibliographical sources are coded with numbers (see the references at the end of the paper. The sign “!” indicates that the author has seen the plant in that locality.

  6. NEW ASPECTS OF THE ALPINE VEGETATION OF PARÂNG MOUNTAINS (SOUTH CARPATHIANS

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    SIMON TIBOR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 4 plant communities unknown in the the European syntaxonomy are described from the alpine and subalpine belts of Parâng Mountains, based on vegetation studies of the authors during 1955–1960. These are: Arabis alpina-Saxifraga aizoides, Arabis alpina-Delphinium elatum, Dianthus tenuifolius-Festuca dalmatica and the Primula minima-Dryas octopetala communities. These communities could be described later as new associations in the possession of more relevés from different localities. The East and South Carpathian Doronico carpatici-Festucetum pictae association is distinguished under this new name from the Festucetum pictae Krajina described from the Tatra Mountains. 7 further associations are found as new to the Parâng Mountains.

  7. Drivers of Holocene treeline and timberline changes in the Retezat Mountains (South Carpathians, Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ildiko VINCZE

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Four high-altitude lake sediment sequences (Lake Brazi, 1740 m .as.l., Lake Gales 1990 m a.s.l., Lake Bucura, 2040 m a.s.l. and Lake Lia, 1910 m a.s.l. were analyzed using multi-proxy methods (pollen, stomata, plant macrofossil and micro- and macrocharcoal in order to study responses of treeline and alpine/subalpine vegetation to climate change and human impact during the last 15000 years. Observing and reconstructing the changes of the position and structure of the treeline can provide valuable information on biotic and other factors such as human activities. Sediment cores were taken from two lakes on the northern slope (Lake Brazi and Lake Gales and two lakes from the southern slope (Lake Lia and Lake Bucura in the Retezat Mountains, South Carpathians (Romania.

  8. A drought severity climatology for the Carpathian Region using Sc-PDSI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antofie, Tiberiu; Naumann, Gustavo; Spinoni, Jonathan; Weynants, Melanie; Szalai, Sandor; Szentimrey, Tamas; Bihari, Zita; Vogt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Monthly grids of the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI) have been calculated for the period 1961-2010 for the Carpathian Region (17˚-27˚E, 44˚-50˚N) with a spatial resolution of 0.1˚x 0.1˚. Using the Sc-PDSI and the assumptions of the Palmer Drought Model (PDM), the approximated precipitation required for drought termination (achieved when the Sc-PDSI turns back above -0.5) and amelioration (achieved when the Sc-PDSI value turns back above -2.0) are computed for periods of 1, 3, 6, and 9 months. The Sc-PDSI is based on a modified version of the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI), first introduced by Palmer (1965) with the intent to measure the cumulative departure (related to local normal conditions) of moisture supply and demand. Due to its empirically derived climatic characteristic (K) and duration factors - limited to U.S. climatic conditions - Wells et al. (2004) improved it and transformed the PDSI into the Sc-PDSI, which is more appropriate for spatial comparisons in different climatic regions. The Sc-PDSI is based on the supply-and-demand concept of a complex water budget system based on precipitation and temperature records and also on the soil characteristics at any location. The inputs used in this study are the Available Water Capacity of the soil (AWC) derived from the soil texture (European Soil Database of JRC) with a spatial resolution of 0.1˚x0.1˚, Potential Evapo-Transpiration (PET), and 6 hydrological parameters of the soil water balance: recharge, runoff, loss, and their potential values (used in the calculation of Palmer's constants to define the normal climate for the specific location, i.e. the so called CAFEC). PET has been computed using the 0.1˚x 0.1˚ gridded monthly precipitation and mean temperature for 1961-2010 provided by the CARPATCLIM project in the framework of the construction of a Climate Atlas for the Carpathian Region. The Sc-PDSI focuses on the monthly anomalies of the soil moisture, thus it

  9. An overview of the recent palaeolimnology of selected lakes in the Romanian Carpathians

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    Simon M. HUTCHINSON

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Lakesediments can act as sensitive monitors of environmental change and human impacts. The Romanian Carpathians hold a significant number of glacial lakes and transverse a region of considerable environmental concerns, but relatively sparse environmental data and little recent lake sediment based research. Findings from selected lakes in two of the highest sections of these mountains inRomaniaare presented. In addition the palaeolimnological record held in the surficial sediments of other lower elevations sites in theEastern Carpathiansis also discussed. These sites are situated in contrasting sites comprising a volcanic crater lake (Lacul Sfânta Ana,HarghitaMountains and a lake dammed by land sliding (Lacul Iezer-Feredeu, Obcina Feredeului. 

  10. DRĂGOIASA-TULGHEȘ DEPRESSION ALIGNMENT. APPROACH MODEL FOR THE SMALL DEPRESSIONS OF THE ROMANIANS CARPATHIANS

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    GEORGE-BOGDAN TOFAN

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Drăgoiasa-Tulgheș Depression Alignment. Approach Model for the Small Depressions of the Romanians Carpathians. The depressions of Romania have been studied lately from a physical-geographic perspective, as well as from a human perspective, leading to a series of aspects of theoretical and practical nature, such as: the diversity of the depression relief or its genetic and evolutionary complexity, the identification, inventory and classification of all depressions, the localisation of surface and underground water sources, the distribution and composition of plant associations and soil types, the evolution of demographic structures, the social-economic development or the geographic space’s organisation and management. All these studies combined allow for a series of general conclusions regarding their positional or morphological type or other morphographic, morphometric and even statistical aspects.

  11. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

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    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  12. The geological position, sedimentary record and composition of the Tylicz Conglomerate (Late Eocene-Oligocene): stratigraphical and paleogeographical implications (Magura Nappe, Polish Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszewska, Barbara; Oszczypko, Nestor

    2010-02-01

    During the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene the Magura Basin was supplied with clastic material from, non-existing today, source areas situated on the northern and southern margins of the basin. The northern source area is traditionally connected with Silesian Ridge, whereas the position of the southern one is still under discussion. The Upper Eocene-Oligocene pebbly mudstones of the Tylicz/Krynica facies zone contain exotic material derived from the south-Magura source area. The studied pebbles and clasts contain fragments of crystalline rocks, derived from a continental type of crust, and frequent clasts of Mesozoic to Paleogene deep and shallow-water limestones. Volcanites, rarely granitoides as well as schists, gneisses, quartzites and cataclasites were found in the group of crystalline exotic pebbles. The isotopic ages of "exotic" pebbles from the Tylicz section document a Variscan age of plutonic and metamorphic rocks. The composition of the Tylicz exotic conglomerates occupied the transitional position between the Jarmuta/Proč (Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene) and Strihovce (Eocene) exotic pebbles. The provenance of these rocks could be connected with Eocene exhumation of the SE sector of the Magura Basin basement. Another possibility can be explain by supply of siliciclastic material from a SE source area (Dacia and Tisza Mega-Units) and carbonate material from a S source area (ALCAPA Mega-Unit: Central Carpathian Block and Pieniny Klippen Belt).

  13. The challenges and opportunities of transboundary cooperation through the lens of the East Carpathians Biosphere Reserve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya D. Taggart-Hodge

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant challenge of our time is conserving biological diversity while maintaining economic development and cultural values. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization has established biosphere reserves within its Man and the Biosphere program as a model means for accomplishing this very challenge. The East Carpathians Biosphere Reserve (ECBR, spreading across Poland, Slovakia, and Ukraine, represents a large social-ecological system (SES that has been protected under the biosphere reserve designation since 1998. We have explored its successes and failures in improving human livelihoods while safeguarding its ecosystems. The SES framework, which includes governance system, actors, resources, and external influences, was used as a frame of analysis. The outcomes of this protected area have been mixed; its creation led to national and international collaboration, yet some actor groups remain excluded. Implementation of protocols arising from the Carpathian Convention has been slow, while deforestation, hunting, erosion, temperature extremes, and changes in species behavior remain significant threats but have also been factors in ecological adaptation. The loss of cultural links and traditional knowledge has also been significant. Nevertheless, this remains a highly biodiverse area. Political barriers and institutional blockages will have to be removed to ensure this reserve fulfills its role as a model region for international collaboration and capacity building. These insights drawn from the ECBR demonstrate that biosphere reserves are indeed learning sites for sustainable development and that this case is exemplary in illustrating the challenges, but more importantly, the opportunities that arise when ensuring parallel care and respect for people and ecosystems through the model of transboundary protected areas around the world.

  14. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  15. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  16. Using spatial metrics to assess the efficacy of biodiversity conservation within the Romanian Carpathian Convention area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrişor Alexandru-Ionuţ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The alpine region is of crucial importance for the European Union; as a result, the Carpathian Convention aims at its sustainable development. Since sustainability implies also conservation through natural protected areas, aimed at including regions representative for the national biogeographical space, this article aims at assessing the efficiency of conservation. The methodology consisted of using spatial metrics applied to Romanian and European data on the natural protected areas, land cover and use and their transitional dynamics. The findings show a very good coverage of the Alpine biogeographical region (98% included in the Convention area, and 43% of it protected within the Convention area and of the ecological region of Carpathian montane coniferous forests (88% included in the Convention area, and 42% of it protected within the Convention area. The dominant land cover is represented by forests (63% within the Convention area, and 70% of the total protected area. The main transitional dynamics are deforestation (covering 50% of all changes area within the Convention area and 46% from the changed area within its protected area and forestations – including afforestation, reforestation and colonization of abandoned agricultural areas by forest vegetation (covering 44% of all changes area within the Convention area and 51% from the changed area within its protected area during 1990-2000 and deforestation (covering 97% of all changes area within the Convention area and 99% from the changed area within its protected area during 1990-2000. The results suggest that the coverage of biogeographical and ecological zones is good, especially for the most relevant ones, but deforestations are a serious issue, regardless of occurring before or after achieving the protection status.

  17. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  18. The onset of the volcanism in the Ciomadul Volcanic Dome Complex (Eastern Carpathians): Eruption chronology and magma type variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnár, Kata; Harangi, Szabolcs; Lukács, Réka; Dunkl, István; Schmitt, Axel K.; Kiss, Balázs; Garamhegyi, Tamás; Seghedi, Ioan

    2018-04-01

    Combined zircon U-Th-Pb and (U-Th)/He dating was applied to refine the eruption chronology of the last 2 Myr for the andesitic and dacitic Pilişca volcano and Ciomadul Volcanic Dome Complex (CVDC), the youngest volcanic area of the Carpathian-Pannonian region, located in the southernmost Harghita, eastern-central Europe. The proposed eruption ages, which are supported also by the youngest zircon crystallization ages, are much younger than the previously determined K/Ar ages. By dating every known eruption center in the CVDC, repose times between eruptive events were also accurately determined. Eruption of the andesite at Murgul Mare (1865 ± 87 ka) and dacite of the Pilişca volcanic complex (1640 ± 37 ka) terminated an earlier pulse of volcanic activity within the southernmost Harghita region, west of the Olt valley. This was followed by the onset of the volcanism in the CVDC, which occurred after several 100s kyr of eruptive quiescence. At ca. 1 Ma a significant change in the composition of erupted magma occurred from medium-K calc-alkaline compositions to high-K dacitic (Baba-Laposa dome at 942 ± 65 ka) and shoshonitic magmas (Malnaş and Bixad domes; 964 ± 46 ka and 907 ± 66 ka, respectively). Noteworthy, eruptions of magmas with distinct chemical compositions occurred within a restricted area, a few km from one another. These oldest lava domes of the CVDC form a NNE-SSW striking tectonic lineament along the Olt valley. Following a brief (ca. 100 kyr) hiatus, extrusion of high-K andesitic magma continued at Dealul Mare (842 ± 53 ka). After another ca. 200 kyr period of quiescence two high-K dacitic lava domes extruded (Puturosul: 642 ± 44 ka and Balvanyos: 583 ± 30 ka). The Turnul Apor lava extrusion occurred after a ca. 200 kyr repose time (at 344 ± 33 ka), whereas formation of the Haramul Mic lava dome (154 ± 16 ka) represents the onset of the development of the prominent Ciomadul volcano. The accurate determination of eruption dates shows that the

  19. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Pradhan, Pranil Man Singh

    2015-01-01

    Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking. Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT) products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design. Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%), Moldova (51.1%), Ukraine (52%), Azerbaijan (49.8 %), Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 %) and Albania (42.52%) but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81%) and Jordan (17.96%). The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %). Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single. Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  20. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  1. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desantis, S.; Corriero, A.; Cirillo, F.; Deflorio, M.; Brill, R.; Griffiths, M.; Lopata, A.L.; Serna, J.M. de la; Bridges, C.R.; Kime, D.E.; De Metrio, G.

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans

  2. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenisch, Chantal; Keller, Kathrin M.; Salvisberg, Melanie; Amann, Benjamin; Bauch, Martin; Blumer, Sandro; Brázdil, Rudolf; Brönnimann, Stefan; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fleitmann, Dominik; Glaser, Rüdiger; González-Rouco, Fidel; Grosjean, Martin; Hoffmann, Richard C.; Huhtamaa, Heli; Joos, Fortunat; Kiss, Andrea; Kotyza, Oldřich; Lehner, Flavio; Luterbacher, Jürg; Maughan, Nicolas; Neukom, Raphael; Novy, Theresa; Pribyl, Kathleen; Raible, Christoph C.; Riemann, Dirk; Schuh, Maximilian; Slavin, Philip; Werner, Johannes P.; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate affected human societies throughout the last millennium. While European cold periods in the 17th and 18th century have been assessed in detail, earlier cold periods received much less attention due to sparse information available. New evidence from proxy archives, historical documentary sources and climate model simulations permit us to provide an interdisciplinary, systematic assessment of an exceptionally cold period in the 15th century. Our assessment includes the role of internal, unforced climate variability and external forcing in shaping extreme climatic conditions and the impacts on and responses of the medieval society in north-western and central Europe.Climate reconstructions from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives indicate that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century. This decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers resulting in a strong seasonal cycle in temperature. Results from comprehensive climate models indicate consistently that these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system. External forcing like volcanic eruptions tends to reduce simulated temperature seasonality and cannot explain the reconstructions. The strong seasonal cycle in temperature reduced food production and led to increasing food prices, a subsistence crisis and a famine in parts of Europe. Societies were not prepared to cope with failing markets and interrupted trade routes. In response to the crisis, authorities implemented numerous measures of supply policy and adaptation such as the installation of grain storage capacities to be prepared for future food production shortfalls.

  3. The Trace Fossil Chondrites in Uppermost Jurasic-Lower Cretaceous Deep Cavity Fills from the Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uchman, A.; Mikuláš, Radek; Houša, Václav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 3 (2003), s. 1-7 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/00/0118 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z3013912 Keywords : jurassic * Cretaceous * trace fossils Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.397, year: 2003 http://www.geologicacarpathica.sk/src/main.php

  4. Lower Cretaceous succession and biostratigraphy near overthrust plane of Silesian Nappe (Ostravice River Channel, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Halasová, E.; Vašíček, Zdeněk; Jansa, L.; Reháková, D.; Skupien, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 2 (2012), s. 383-406 ISSN 1214-1119 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : Silesian Unit * Lower Cretaceous * thin sections * calcareous nannofossils * dinoflagellates Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.141, year: 2012 http://www.geology.cz/bulletin/fulltext/1326_Halasova.pdf

  5. Sphagnum-mediated successional pattern in the mixed mire in the Muránska planina Mts (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, P.; Hájek, Michal

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2004), s. 65-74 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114; GA ČR GA206/02/0568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : Sphagnum ecology * brown mosses * niche breadth Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.207, year: 2004

  6. Forest vegetation on the last full-glacial period in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia and Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jankovská, Vlasta; Pokorný, Petr

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 3 (2008), s. 307-324 ISSN 0032-7786 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA205/06/0587; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA6005309; GA AV ČR(CZ) IAAX00020701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516; CEZ:AV0Z80020508 Keywords : palaeoecologie * Weichselian Pleniglacial * taiga Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.396, year: 2008 http://www.ibot.cas.cz/preslia/P083Jan.pdf

  7. Modern distribution patterns of snails and plants in the Western Carpathian spring fens: is it a result of historical development?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horsák, M.; Hájek, Michal; Dítě, D.; Tichý, L.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 73, č. 1 (2007), s. 53-60 ISSN 0260-1230 Grant - others:GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB601630501; GA AV ČR(CZ) KJB6163302 Program:KJ Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : Snails * plants * rich fens Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.032, year: 2007

  8. Altitudinal changes in composition and structure of mountain-temperate vegetation: a case study from the Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doležal, J.; Šrůtek, Miroslav

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 158, - (2003), s. 201-221 ISSN 1385-0237 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK6005114 Keywords : floristic calssification * gradient analysis * tree spatial pattern Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.000, year: 2003

  9. Stratigraphy, plankton communities, and magnetic proxies at the Jurassic/Cretaceous boundary in the Pieniny Klippen Belt (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Michalík, J.; Reháková, D.; Grabowski, J.; Lintnerová, O.; Svobodová, Andrea; Schlögl, J.; Sobien, K.; Schnabl, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 4 (2016), s. 303-328 ISSN 1335-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-09979S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : J/K boundary * pelagic limestones * microfauna * nannoplankton * stable C and O isotopes * magnetic susceptibility * northern Tethys Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2016

  10. Recent Discoveries of Tithonian Ammonites in the Štramberk Limestone (Kotouč Quarry, Outer Western Carpathians)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vašíček, Zdeněk; Skupien, P.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 2 (2014), s. 131-141 ISSN 0208-9068 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : ammonites * Richterella * Tithonian * Štramberk area * Silesian Unit Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.633, year: 2014 https://geojournals.pgi.gov.pl/asgp/article/view/16469/13653

  11. Tourmalines from the siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins, Gemeric unit, western Carpathians, Slovakia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačík, P.; Uher, P.; Dikej, J.; Puškelová, Ľ.

    2018-02-01

    Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in a large number of Cretaceous siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins in the Gemeric Unit, Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovakia, such as Dobšiná, Vlachovo, Rožňavské Bystré, Hnilčík, Rakovnica, Novoveská Huta, Gretla, Rudňany, and Bindt. In this study we combine by electron microprobe analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the range of tourmaline compositions in the deposits and constrain the mechanisms of its precipitation. Selected samples from the mentioned deposits belong mostly to the alkali group, schorl to dravite series, rarely dominant X-site vacant foititic tourmaline (Vlachovo and Bindt) and oxy-dravite compositions (Hnilčík) were detected. Rim zones of some schorlitic tourmalines show high concentrations of Ti (up to 2.35 wt.% TiO2, 0.30 apfu; Rožňavské Bystré). The chemical composition is mostly controlled by alkali-deficient X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe2+)-1 and proton-deficient AlO(Mg,Fe2+)-1(OH)-1 substitutions. Titanium is incorporated into the structure by Y Ti Y (Mg,Fe) Y Al-2, Y Ti Z Mg Y Al-1 Z Al-1, Y TiO( Y AlOH), and X Ca Y Ti Z MgO2 X □-1 Y,Z Al-2(OH)-2 substitutions. Along trace elements, Sr and V attain concentrations of 80-450 and 70-320 ppm, respectively. The unit-cell parameter a varies between 15.960 and 15.985 Å; variations in c are larger, between 7.177 and 7.236 Å indicating the presence of Fe3+ and Mg2+ at Z site. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown variable Fe3+ proportions (0.17 -0.55 apfu) in all samples. The gathered dataset suggests some qualitative considerations on the mechanisms controlling tourmaline compositions at the regional scale. The highest Fe3+ concentrations occur in samples from Rudňany and Gretla in the external part of Gemeric unit, suggesting higher oxidation during longer transport of fluids. We propose that the determined XFe in the samples are correlated with the compositions of the host rocks, as schorlitic to foititic tourmalines occur in veins located in the meta-rhyolites host, and tourmalines with the highest Mg contents occur in metabasalts.

  12. Diversity of Calthion wet meadows in the western part of flysch Carpathians: regional classification based on national formal definitions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Hájek, Michal

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 15, - (2005), s. 85-116 ISSN 1210-0420 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/05/0020 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : meadows * classification * ecology Subject RIV: EF - Botanics

  13. Timing of glacier advances and climate in the High Tatra Mountains (Western Carpathians) during the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makos, Michał; Dzierżek, Jan; Nitychoruk, Jerzy; Zreda, Marek

    2014-07-01

    During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), long valley glaciers developed on the northern and southern sides of the High Tatra Mountains, Poland and Slovakia. Chlorine-36 exposure dating of moraine boulders suggests two major phases of moraine stabilization, at 26-21 ka (LGM I - maximum) and at 18 ka (LGM II). The dates suggest a significantly earlier maximum advance on the southern side of the range. Reconstructing the geometry of four glaciers in the Sucha Woda, Pańszczyca, Mlynicka and Velicka valleys allowed determining their equilibrium-line altitudes (ELAs) at 1460, 1460, 1650 and 1700 m asl, respectively. Based on a positive degree-day model, the mass balance and climatic parameter anomaly (temperature and precipitation) has been constrained for LGM I advance. Modeling results indicate slightly different conditions between northern and southern slopes. The N-S ELA gradient finds confirmation in slightly higher temperature (at least 1 °C) or lower precipitation (15%) on the south-facing glaciers during LGM I. The precipitation distribution over the High Tatra Mountains indicates potentially different LGM atmospheric circulation than at the present day, with reduced northwesterly inflow and increased southerly and westerly inflows of moist air masses.

  14. Bryophyte and vascular plant responses to base-richness and water level gradients in Western Carpathian Sphagnum-rich mires

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hájková, Petra; Hájek, Michal

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, č. 4 (2004), s. 335-351 ISSN 1211-9520 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA206/02/0568 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6005908 Keywords : fen * poor-rich gradient * water table Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.968, year: 2004

  15. Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys (Polish Carpathians – preliminary results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zydroń Tymoteusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides in Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys (Polish Carpathians - preliminary results. Preliminary shallow landslide susceptibility mapping of the Jamne and Jaszcze stream valleys, located in the Polish Flysch Carpathians, is presented in the paper. For the purpose of mapping, there were used SINMAP and Iverson’s models integrating infiltration and slope stability calculations. The calibration of the used models parameters, obtained from limited field and laboratory tests, was performed using data from 8-9 July 1997, when as a consequence of a very intense rainfall, 94 shallow landslides were observed on meadows and arable lands. A comparison of the slope stability calculation results and the localisation of the noticed shallow landslides showed satisfactory agreement between localisation of the observed and computed unstable areas. However, it was concluded that better simulation results were obtained using Iverson’s model.

  16. Moho depth variations over the Maldive Ridge and adjoining Arabian and Central Indian Basins, Western Indian Ocean, from three dimensional inversion of gravity anomalies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunnummal, Priyesh; Anand, S. P.; Haritha, C.; Rama Rao, P.

    2018-05-01

    Analysis of high resolution satellite derived free air gravity data has been undertaken in the Greater Maldive Ridge (GMR) (Maldive Ridge, Deep Sea Channel, northern limit of Chagos Bank) segment of the Chagos Laccadive Ridge and the adjoining Arabian and Central Indian Basins. A Complete Bouguer Anomaly (CBA) map was generated from the Indian Ocean Geoidal Low removed Free Air Gravity (hereinafter referred to as "FAG-IOGL") data by incorporating Bullard A, B and C corrections. Using the Parker method, Moho topography was initially computed by inverting the CBA data. From the CBA the Mantle Residual Gravity Anomalies (MRGA) were computed by incorporating gravity effects of sediments and lithospheric temperature and pressure induced anomalies. Further, the MRGA was inverted to get Moho undulations from which the crustal thickness was also estimated. It was found that incorporating the lithospheric thermal and pressure anomaly correction has provided substantial improvement in the computed Moho depths especially in the oceanic areas. But along the GMR, there was not much variation in the Moho thickness computed with and without the thermal and pressure gravity correction implying that the crustal thickness of the ridge does not depend on the oceanic isochrones used for the thermal corrections. The estimated Moho depths in the study area ranges from 7 km to 28 km and the crustal thickness from 2 km to 27 km. The Moho depths are shallower in regions closer to Central Indian Ridge in the Arabian Basin i.e., the region to the west of the GMR is thinner compared to the region in the east (Central Indian Basin). The thickest crust and the deepest Moho are found below the N-S trending GMR segment of the Chagos-Laccadive Ridge. Along the GMR the crustal thickness decreases from north to south with thickness of 27 km below the Maldives Ridge reducing to ∼9 km at 3°S and further increasing towards Chagos Bank. Even though there are similarities in crustal thickness between

  17. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.

    2018-03-01

    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  18. Monitoring and modelling of landslide and debris flow impact on transport and building infrasructure in the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanik, Olena; Shevchuk, Viktor; Yahno, Evgen

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms and factors of formation of landslide and debris flow processes are examined in terms of model objects in the Carpathians. The study area is within Eastern Carpathians and Transcarpathian depression (Tisa river basin). There were investigated more than 220 stabilized and active landslides. The analysis of water-gravitational processes in this region with complex heterogeneous geological structure confirmed the priority nature of occurrence of structural landslides in rheologically different geological environments, and made it possible to create a new classification of structural landslides and conditions of their formation with the decisive influence of destructive zones. This classification is the basis for constructing geological, physical and mathematical models of landslide slopes, and subsequent modeling of the landslide hazard based on the determination of the stress-strain state of slopes. Under the proposed mathematical model, the examined phenomenon is described as thermoelastic-plastic equilibrium of the isotropic matrix under effect of applied mass (gravitational field of the Earth) and surface efforts, inhomogeneous stationary temperature field. In addition, it is assumed that the Young modulus at each point of the matrix depends on the water saturation. Debris and mudflows in the Carpathians have a stage character, non-stationary and avalanche movements. The territory is prone to be affected by debris and mudflows, due to the geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions. Therefore the main conditions of the mudflow formation are as follows: the presence of the rock destruction products which could be a solid phase of debris mudflow; presence of the enough quantity of the rainfall runoff for the unconsolidated material removal; ruggedness of relief that provides simultaneous movement of the big values of the water-soil mass with the big velocities. The algorithm calculating the mudflow impact on infrastructure objects in Carpathians

  19. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  20. Westerns fra hele verden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2014-01-01

    Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014).......Om den amerikanske western, spaghettiwesterns, kommunistiske westerns og danske westerns - i forbindelse med Kristian Levrings The Salvation (2014)....

  1. Deeply subducted continental fragments - Part 1: Fracturing, dissolution-precipitation, and diffusion processes recorded by garnet textures of the central Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuntoli, Francesco; Lanari, Pierre; Engi, Martin

    2018-02-01

    Contiguous continental high-pressure terranes in orogens offer insight into deep recycling and transformation processes that occur in subduction zones. These remain poorly understood, and currently debated ideas need testing. The approach we chose is to investigate, in detail, the record in suitable rock samples that preserve textures and robust mineral assemblages that withstood overprinting during exhumation. We document complex garnet zoning in eclogitic mica schists from the Sesia Zone (western Italian Alps). These retain evidence of two orogenic cycles and provide detailed insight into resorption, growth, and diffusion processes induced by fluid pulses in high-pressure conditions. We analysed local textures and garnet compositional patterns, which turned out remarkably complex. By combining these with thermodynamic modelling, we could unravel and quantify repeated fluid-rock interaction processes. Garnet shows low-Ca porphyroclastic cores that were stable under (Permian) granulite facies conditions. The series of rims that surround these cores provide insight into the subsequent evolution: the first garnet rim that surrounds the pre-Alpine granulite facies core in one sample indicates that pre-Alpine amphibolite facies metamorphism followed the granulite facies event. In all samples documented, cores show lobate edges and preserve inner fractures, which are sealed by high-Ca garnet that reflects high-pressure Alpine conditions. These observations suggest that during early stages of subduction, before hydration of the granulites, brittle failure of garnet occurred, indicating high strain rates that may be due to seismic failure. Several Alpine rims show conspicuous textures indicative of interaction with hydrous fluid: (a) resorption-dominated textures produced lobate edges, at the expense of the outer part of the granulite core; (b) peninsulas and atoll garnet are the result of replacement reactions; and (c) spatially limited resorption and enhanced transport

  2. Occurrence of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. spores in Western, Northern and Central-Eastern Poland in 2004-2006 and relation to some meteorological factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinn-Gofroń, Agnieszka; Rapiejko, Piotr

    2009-08-01

    The concentration of airborne spores of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. has been investigated at three monitoring stations situated along the west-north and central-east transect in Poland (Szczecin, Olsztyn, Warszawa,) i.e. from a height of 100 m to 149 m above sea level. The aerobiological monitoring of fungal spores was performed by means of three Lanzoni volumetric spore traps. Cladosporium spp. spores were dominant at all the stations. The highest Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. numbers of spores were observed at all the cities in July and August. Statistically significant correlations have been found between the Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. concentration in the air and the mean air temperature, amount of precipitation, air pressure and relative air humidity. The spore count of Cladosporium spp. and Alternaria spp. is determined by the diversity of local flora and weather conditions, especially by the air temperature. The identification of factors, which influence and shape spore concentrations, may significantly improve the current methods of allergy prevention.

  3. Exotic clasts, debris flow deposits and their significance for reconstruction of the Istebna Formation (Late Cretaceous - Paleocene, Silesian Basin, Outer Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strzeboński, Piotr; Kowal-Kasprzyk, Justyna; Olszewska, Barbara

    2017-08-01

    The different types of calcareous exotic clasts (fragments of pre-existing rocks), embedded in the Paleocene siliciclastic deposits of the Istebna Formation from the Beskid Mały Mountains (Silesian Unit, Western Outer Carpathians), were studied and differentiated through microfacies-biostratigraphical analysis. Calcareous exotics of the Oxfordian- Kimmeridgian age prevail, representing a type of sedimentation comparable to that one documented for the northern Tethyan margin. The Tithonian exotic clasts (Štramberk-type limestones), which are much less common, were formed on a carbonate platform and related slope. The sedimentary paleotransport directions indicate the Silesian Ridge as a main source area for all exotics, which were emplaced in the depositional setting of the flysch deposits. The exotics constitute a relatively rare local component of some debrites. Proceedings of the sedimentological facies analysis indicate that these mass transport deposits were accumulated en-masse by debris flows in a deep-water depositional system in the form of a slope apron. Exotics prove that clasts of the crystalline basement and, less common, fragments of the sedimentary cover, originated from long-lasting tectonic activity and intense uplift of the source area. Mass transport processes and mass accumulation of significant amounts of the coarse-grained detrital material in the south facial zone of the Silesian Basin during the Early Paleogene was due to reactivation of the Silesian Ridge and its increased denudation. Relative regression and erosion of the emerged older flysch deposits were also forced by this uplift. These processes were connected with the renewed diastrophic activity in the Alpine Tethys.

  4. Elemental characterization and source apportionment of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the western coastal area of central Taiwan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Chin-Yu; Chiang, Hung-Che [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Lin, Sheng-Lun [Super Micro Mass Research and Technology Center, Cheng Shiu University, No. 840, Chengcing Rd., Kaohsiung 83347, Taiwan (China); Chen, Mu-Jean; Lin, Tzu-Yu [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yu-Cheng, E-mail: yucheng@nhri.org.tw [National Environmental Health Research Center, National Health Research Institutes, 35 Keyan Road, Zhunan Town, Miaoli 35053, Taiwan (China); Department of Occupational Safety and Health, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan (China)

    2016-01-15

    ABSTRACT: This study investigated seasonal variations in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} mass and associated trace metal concentrations in a residential area in proximity to the crude oil refinery plants and industrial parks of central Taiwan. Particle measurements were conducted during winter, spring and summer in 2013 and 2014. Twenty-six trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were analyzed using ICP-MS. Multiple approaches of the backward trajectory model, enrichment factor (EF), Lanthanum enrichment and positive matrix fraction (PMF) were used to identify potential sources of particulate metals. Mean concentrations of PM{sub 10} in winter, spring and summer were 76.4 ± 22.6, 33.2 ± 9.9 and 37.4 ± 17.0 μg m{sup −3}, respectively, while mean levels of PM{sub 2.5} in winter, spring and summer were 47.8 ± 20.0, 23.9 ± 11.2 and 16.3 ± 8.2 μg m{sup −3}, respectively. The concentrations of carcinogenic metals (Ni, As and adjusted Cr(VI)) in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} exceeded the guideline limits published by WHO. The result of EF analysis confirmed that Mo, Sb, Cd, Zn, Mg, Cr, As, Pb, Cu, Ni and V were attributable to anthropogenic emission. PMF analysis demonstrated that trace metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} were from the similar sources, such as coal combustion, oil combustion and traffic-related emission, except for soil dust and crustal element emissions only observed in PM{sub 10} and secondary aluminum smelter only observed in PM{sub 2.5}. Considering health-related particulate metals, the traffic-related emission and coal combustion for PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5}, respectively, are important to control for reducing potential carcinogenic risk. The results could aid efforts to clarify the impact of source-specific origins on human health. - Highlights: • Multiple approaches to identify sources of PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} metals were used. • Four similar sources contributed to metals in PM{sub 10} and PM{sub 2.5} in the study area. • Six

  5. Source constraints on the genesis of Danubian granites in the South Carpathians Alpine Belt (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne, Jean-Clair; Laurent, Oscar; Gerdes, Axel; Bonin, Bernard; Liégeois, Jean-Paul; Tatu, Mihai; Berza, Tudor

    2017-12-01

    The pre-Alpine basement of the Lower Danubian nappes in the South Carpathians is made up of two Precambrian terranes (Drăgşan and Lainici-Păiuş) that were intruded by Pan-African/Cadomian and Variscan granitoid massifs. We focus on the major and trace element geochemistry (1) in the Drăgşan terrane, of the Variscan Retezat and Parâng intrusions; (2) in the Lainici-Păiuş terrane, of the Variscan Furcǎtura, Petreanu and Frumosu intrusions and of the Pan-African Vârful Pietrii, Şuşiţa and Olteţ granites and granitic leucosomes of migmatites; and (3) in the Upper Danubian nappes basement, of the Variscan Muntele Mic, Sfârdin, Cherbelezu and Ogradena intrusions. For each intrusion, in which a range of composition is observed, we decipher the differentiation mechanisms (fractional crystallization, hybridization, melt laden with restite minerals, etc.) in order to define the parental liquid compositions. The latter are calc-alkaline to alkali-calcic (except Olteţ that is calcic) and medium to high-K in composition. With [La/Yb]N > 10 and Sr/Y > 15, most melts display the so-called "continental adakite" affinities. The parental melt compositions are compared with experimental data to determine the melting conditions and the nature of the source rock. When the P-T conditions can be estimated, the temperatures range between 850 °C and 875 °C and the pressure between 5 and 15 kbar regardless of the ages of the granites and the terrane in which they have intruded. The source rock composition is dominated by a variety of mafic igneous compositions or metasediments rich in volcanic components. Clay-rich (pelitic) protoliths have not been identified. We confirm a Variscan age (c. 300 Ma) for the Frumosu intrusion granite and inherited Precambrian ages (c. 1.7-1.9 and 2.6-2.9 Ga) for the Motru dyke swarm. Thus, both Drăgşan and Lainici-Păiuş together with the Upper Danubian basement terranes were affected by Variscan post-collisional granitic plutonism. In

  6. WATER RESOURCES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS – GENESIS, TERRITORIAL DISTRIBUTION, MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. GÂȘTESCU

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Water resources in Romanian Carpathians-genesis, territorial distribution, management. Discussing water resources in Romania implies a twofold approach: water as a sine qua non of life itself and water as an important factor for the development of the contemporary society. Lying in a temperate zone, Romania’s water resources are rather modest compared with other countries in Europe. Inland rivers span 78,905 km (referred only to the 4,864 codified watercourses at an average density: 0.38 km/km2 and an annual volume: 40.6 billion m3, which means 1,765 m3/capita. To knowledge ground waters are put at 9.62 billion m3/year, of which 6 billion can be used in optimal technological and economic conditions. According to a recent UN statistical report, Romania lists at position 21 among the 34 European. Natural lakes are replenished from precipitation and springs water every year and the reserves are estimated at around 1 billion m3/year and are of local importance for water management schemes. The Black Sea (in the Romanian sector could become a major source if sea water desalting could be economical.The water resources of the drainage network were calculated on the basis of the mean liquid flow map (scale 1: 500,000 releves picture of river-water resources in the major relief units: the Carpathian, which occupies only 27.9% of the Romanian territory, 65.3% (26.48 billion mc from a total of 40.61 billion m3 of the water is formed and regenerated every year; the hill unit, which includes the Subcarpathians, the tablelands and the piedmont hills, and occupies 42.4% of Romania’s territory, only 28.0% of the water volume is formed (11.38 billion m3, of which 8.7% (3.51 billion m3 in the Subcarpathians and 19.4% (7.87 billion m3 in the other two units; the plain unit, which covers 29.7% of the country’s territory, the water volume formed there is small (6.7%

  7. EVALUATION OF SOCIAL SUSTAINABILITY OF AGRICULTURE WITHIN THE CARPATHIANS IN THE REPUBLIC OF SERBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonel SUBIĆ

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available By transition process, which is presented in the Republic of Serbia for many years, rural areas are also covered in great extent. Changes in national agricultural policy, in terms of orientation towards rural development and multifunctional agriculture, have led to situation that process of development must involve all stakeholders, from governmental institutions, via local community, to population of rural areas. Such approach to rural development could initiate easier integration into international institutions and European Union, as well as to strengthening of cross-border cooperation within the mentioned area of economy. The most part of the Carpathians in the Republic of Serbia is taken by the national park „Đerdap“ and its protected zone. Within the mentioned protected area, sustainable use of agricultural land is based on traditional system of mountain agriculture that provides a high degree of ecological rationality and represents a very good foundation for development of integral and organic production.Opening toward the international community and peculiarly clear commitment of Serbia to European integrations,requires a new definition of role and importance of agricultural sector. Therefore, it is estimated that now is the perfect time for establishment of concrete conceptual framework and Strategy that will answer to key questions within the agro-food sector. In this context, authors’ intention (they are also the members of the research team of IAE Belgrade which is the holder of the project III 46006 - Sustainable agriculture and rural development in function of Republic of Serbia strategic goals achievement within the Danube region is to evaluate a social sustainability of agriculture in the area of the Carpathians in Serbia. Because of that, research is focused to administrative area of next municipalities: Golubac, Kučevo, Majdanpek, Kladovo and Negotin. Considering microeconomic character of research, it was used the

  8. National minorities and the question of the autonomy in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Szilágyi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century is the age of globa-lisation. It is also the time of minorities, identities moving back towards nationality-consciousness, minority rights and autonomies. These factors have a significant influence on the multinational state structures in both the developed and semi-peripheral areas of the world. The transformation of the unitarian centralised states and territorial systems carried out by devolutional, decentralised and region-regulatory processes as well as the development of the local councils and self-governing systems representing territorial autonomies of different levels indicate general tendencies. In the life of national minorities living in the territories of multinational states the mother tongue is the primary representative of national identity and serves as an increasingly powerful factor in the lives of national mi-norities. On the basis of the National Censuses in 2011, the study analyses the possible frame-work, circumstances and the demographic factors in the Carpathian Basin.Keywords: National minorities, National identities, self-government, Autonomy models, Spain, Federalism, Catalonian experiences, Carpathian Basin, Seklerland, Hungarian minorities, Rumania._________________El siglo XXI es la edad de la globalización. Es también el tiempo de las minorías, las identidades de nuevo en movimiento hacia la conciencia nacional, los derechos de las minorías y las autonomías. Estos factores tienen una influencia significativa en las estructuras estatales multinacionales, tanto en las zonas desarrolladas como en las periferias del mundo. La transformación de los Estados centralizados unitarios y los sistemas territoriales, llevados a cabo por procesos evolutivos, descentralizados y de cada región reguladora, así como el desarrollo de los consejos locales y los sistemas autónomos que representan a las autonomías territoriales de diferentes niveles indican tendencias generales. En la vida de las minor

  9. Preliminary stable isotope results from the Mohos peat bog, East-Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túri, Marianna; Palcsu, László; Futó, István; Hubay, Katalin; Molnár, Mihály; Rinyu, László; Braun, Mihály

    2016-04-01

    This work provides preliminary results of an isotope investigation carried out on a peat core drilled in the ombrotrophic Mohos peat bog, Ciomadul Mountain, (46°8'3.60"N, 25°54'19.43"E, 1050 m.a.s.l.), East Carpathians, Romania. The Ciomadul is a single dacitic volcano with two craters: the younger Saint Ana and the older Mohos which is a peat bog, and surrounded by a number of individual lava domes as well as a narrow volcaniclastic ring plain volcano. A 10 m long peat core has been taken previously, and is available for stable oxygen and carbon isotope analysis. It is known from our previous work (Hubay et al., 2015) that it covers a period from 11.500 cal year B.P. to present. The peat bog is composed mainly of Sphagnum, which has a direct relationship with the environment, making it suitable for examine the changes in the surrounding circumstances. Isotopic analysis of the prepared cellulose from Sphagnum moss has the attribute to provide such high resolution quantitative estimates of the past climate and there is no such climate studies in this area where the past climate investigations based on oxygen isotope analysis of the Sphagnum. Oxygen and carbon stable isotope analysis were carried out on the hemicellulose samples, which were chemically prepared for 14C dating and taken from every 30 cm of the 10 m long peat core. The oxygen isotope composition of the precipitation can be revealed from the δ18O values of the prepared cellulose samples, since, while carbon isotope ratio tells more about the wet and dry periods of the past. Studying both oxygen and carbon isotope signatures, slight fluctuations can be seen during the Holocene like some of the six periods of significant climate changes can be seen in this resolution during the time periods of 9000-8000, 6000-5000, 4200-3800, 3500-2500, 1200-1000, and 600-150 cal yr B.P. Additionally, the late Pleistocene - early Holocene environmental changes can be clearly observed as Pleistocene peat samples have

  10. Species composition and fauna distribution of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae and its importance for vector-borne diseases in a rural area of Central Western - Mato Grosso, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Alexandre Leal-Santos

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. This study describes ecological data obtained in a rural area in the State of Mato Grosso, including the insects belonging to the family Culicidae, especially those framed as potential vectors of tropical diseases. In 2015, we collected adult mosquitoes in fragments of forest in a rural area located in Mato Grosso Central West of Brazil. We captured 18,256 mosquitoes of the sub-families Culicinae and Anophelinae and have identified 34 species belonging to 12 genera: Aedes (1 species, Anopheles (8 species, Coquillettidia (1 species, Haemagogus (1 species, Culex (5 species, Psorophora  (5 species, Ochlerotatus (4 species, Deinocerites (1 species,  Mansonia (4 species, Sabethes (2 species, Limatus (1 species, Wyeomyia (1 species. The family Culicidae presented high richness and abundance, established by diversity indexes (Margalef α =3.26; Shannon H' = 2.09; Simpson D = 0.19 with dominance of the species Anopheles (Nyssorhyncus darlingi Root (89.8%. This species has considerable epidemiological value, considered the main vector of malaria in Mato Grosso. Many species of mosquitoes are vectors of pathogens that cause disease in humans and domestic animals, transmitting pathogens including viruses (arboviruses, filaria worms (helminths and protozoa. Composição de espécies e distribuição da fauna de mosquitos (Diptera: Culicidae e sua importância para doenças transmitidas por vetores em uma área rural do centro-ocidental - Mato Grosso, Brasil Resumo. Este estudo descreve dados ecológicos de uma área rural do Estado de Mato Grosso e dos insetos da família Culicidae especialmente aqueles enquadrados como vetores potenciais de doenças tropicais. Em 2015, coletamos mosquitos adultos em fragmentos de floresta em localidades de áreas rurais no Mato Grosso região Centro Oeste do Brasil. Foram capturados 18.256 exemplares alados de mosquitos das subfamílias Culicinae e Anophelinae e identificadas 34 espécies pertencentes a 12 g

  11. Comparison of natural gases accumulated in Oligocene strata with hydrous pyrolysis gases from Menilite Shales of the Polish Outer Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotarba, M.J.; Curtis, John B.; Lewan, M.D.

    2009-01-01

    kerogen less enriched in 13C. The typically assumed linear trend for ??13C of methane, ethane and propane versus their reciprocal carbon number for a single sourced natural gas is not observed in the experimental gases. Instead, the so-called "dogleg" trend, exemplified by relatively 13C depleted methane and enriched propane as compared to ethane, is observed for all the kerogen types and at both experimental conditions. Three of the natural gases from the same thrust unit had similar "dogleg" trends indicative of Menilite source rocks with Type III kerogen. These natural gases also contained varying amounts of a microbial gas component that was approximated using the ????13C for methane and propane determined from the experiments. These approximations gave microbial methane components that ranged from 13-84%. The high input of microbial gas was reflected in the higher gas:oil ratios for Outer Carpathian production (115-1568 Nm3/t) compared with those determined from the experiments (65-302 Nm3/t). Two natural gas samples in the far western part of the study area had more linear trends that suggest a different organic facies of the Menilite Shales or a completely different source. This situation emphasizes the importance of conducting hydrous pyrolysis on samples representing the complete stratigraphic and lateral extent of potential source rocks in determining specific genetic gas correlations. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Geochemistry and provenance of some detrital heavy minerals of alluvial sediments from Neagra Şarului River, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciortescu, Catalina; Iancu, Ovidiu Gabriel; Bulgariu, Dumitru; Popa, Ciprian

    2014-05-01

    The present work focuses on the analyses of a selection of heavy mineral assemblages sampled from the Neagra Şarului River's alluvia, in order to determine their provenance and distribution, using their geochemical and physical characteristics. The study focused on a mountain river of about 30 km long, located in the north-western part of the Eastern Carpathians, an important tributary of the Bistria River. The bedrocks in the river drainage basin are constituted mainly by igneous rocks from Călimani Volcanic Complex in the west, and secondarily by a small area of low to medium grade metamorphic rocks, part of Crystalline-Mesozoic Zone, in the east. In order to trace the source of each individual mineral species, we prepared our samples via field separation and subsequent laboratory sieving using 8 different size fractions. An electromagnetic separator (Frantz Isodynamic) was used to separate and classify each heavy minerals species, depending on their magnetic susceptibility. Thus prepared, more than 500 grains per samples (from the 0.5-1 mm size fraction) were mounted on thin sections and analyzed using a Cambridge Microscan M9 with EDS system. These analyses served for mineral identification and relative abundance determination. The classification of the minerals and the nature of their inclusions are derived from the major element compositions computed from SEM-EDX analysis. We also used a stereo microscope in order to determine complementary properties of the grains, such as: color, degree of roundness and degree of alteration. In order of abundance, the main heavy minerals are magnetite, hematite, pyroxene, pyrite, manganese oxides, garnet, apatite, titanium oxides (ilmenite, titanite and rutile/anatase), chlorite, olivine, epidote, biotite and rhodochrosite. A particularity of the studied area is the presence of an altered magnetite caused first by the hydrothermal alteration and strong weathering of the source rocks and second by the river's acid water

  13. Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabówka composite section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiński, M. Adam; Olshtynska, Alexandra; Uchman, Alfred

    2013-12-01

    Gasiński, M.A., Olshtynska, A. and Uchman, A. 2013. Late Maastrichtian foraminiferids and diatoms from the Polish Carpathians (Ropianka Formation, Skole Nappe): a case study from the Chmielnik-Grabowka composite section. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63(4), 515-525. Warszawa. Well-preserved foraminiferids have been found in the Chmielnik-Grabowka section (Skole Nappe, Polish Carpathians). The Abathomphalus mayaroensis (late Maastrichtian) and Racemiguembelina fructicosa (earlylate Maastrichtian) standard planktonic foraminiferal biozones have been recognized, based on the occurrence of their respective index species. Sediments of the R. fructicosa Zone contain diatoms, which are a rare component of Cretaceous flysch microfossil assemblages in the Carpathians. The diatom frustules and some foraminiferid tests are pyritized, probably after burial in the sediment, below the redox boundary or in the oxygen- deficient microenvironment inside the frustules or tests of microfossils; the presence of trace fossils and bioturbational structures in the same bed indicate an oxygenated sea floor.

  14. Sharing common pool resources at the border of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANA-IRINA DINCA

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The common pool resources are a very actual topic a pproached by both scientists and practitioners preoccupied nowadays of gradually incr easing environmental problems. Protected areas in Romania and especially in Romanian Carpath ians of national and natural park type (IUCN II and V represent areas of particular interes t in the light of the common pool resources theory imposing conservation laws on areas meeting a n increased pressure from human communities around them. The important socio-econom ic and ownership changes that Romania met in the last decades changed its previous state unique ownership into a multiple stakeholder ownership. At the same time vulnerable human communi ties located in fragile mountain areas and depending to a high extent on natural resources met an increased stress when exploiting natural resources at the border of protected areas. Consequently sharing the common pool of resources in the buffer zone of protected areas in the Romanian Carpathians represents a very actual and important topic to be treated in the pre sent study.

  15. Radiocarbon dating of Sphagnum cellulose from Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubay, Katalin; Braun, Mihály; Harangi, Sándor; Palcsu, László; Túri, Marianna; Rinyu, László; Molnár, Mihály

    2015-04-01

    This work focuses on building a high-resolution age-depth model for quantitative paleoclimate study from the Mohos peat bog, East Carpathians. Peats are important archives for Quaternary science, because they preserve environmental changes. To study the chronology of peat profiles the key is in the precise coring and reliable dating. However, many studies dealing with coring and radiocarbon dating of peat deposits they often shown problems with the proper methods and material. With our novel coring technique we reached undisturbed and uncompressed peat cores from the Mohos bog. A 10 meter deep peat profile was drilled in 2012 using a modified technique of a piston corer. The core presents a continuous peat profile from the last 11.500 cal. yr BP. The chronology was based on AMS radiocarbon analyses of the separated Sphagnum samples from different depths of the profile. The peat samples were wet sieved (40-280 μm) to avoid contamination by rootlets. Dry Sphagnum samples for AMS dating were prepared using the classical acid-base-acid (ABA) method completed with an oxidative bleaching step to get clean cellulose. Sphagnum cellulose samples were converted to CO2 and later graphite and measured by EnvironMICADAS accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) in Hertelendi Laboratory (Debrecen, Hungary). Fine peat accumulation rate changes (sections with lowest accumulation values) were observed along the profile. Based on the chronology in further studies we want to focus special intervals to investigate environmental changes in the Holocene. Key words: peat, radiocarbon, cellulose

  16. Isochron reassessment of K-Ar dating from the West Carpathian crystalline complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burchart, J.; Cambel, B.; Kral, J.

    1987-01-01

    Published K-Ar ages from the West Carpathian crystalline complex show an extreme dispersion of values. Therefore agreement of model data with Harper's (1970) isochron models was confronted and verified. On the basis of this analysis only a few numbers -isochron data which have real importance from the point of view of geological conditions - can be presented: 1. 394±24 m.y. -amphiboles, Male Karpaty Mts.; 2. 265±18 m.y. - amphiboles, gemerides; 3. 302±40 m.y. - biotites, core mountains; 4. 94±18 m.y. - biotites, veporides. Only isochron K-Ar ages of amphiboles approximate the time of their recrystallization. Isochron ages of biotites belong to the category of cooling ages and they represent the period since transition through isotherm of ca. 270 degC. The results of muscovite and feldspar dating cannot be interpreted by Harper's models. A substantial part of analyzed material is represented by analyses of whole rocks which are inapplicable to geochronological purposes. (author). 15 figs., 4 tabs., 53 refs

  17. Application of microbiological methods for secondary oil recovery from the Carpathian crude oil reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaskiewicz, J

    1974-01-01

    The investigation made it possible to isolate from different ecologic environmental (soil, crude oil, formation water, industrial wastes) bacteria cultures of the genus Arthrobacter, Clostridium, Mycobacterium, Peptococcus, and Pseudomonas. These heterotrophic bacteria are characterized by a high metabolic and biogeochemical activity hydrocarbon transformation. Experiments on a technical scale were conducted from 1961 to 1971 in 20 wells; in this study, only the 16 most typical examples are discussed. The experiments were conducted in Carpathian crude oil reservoirs. To each well, a 500:1 mixture of the so-called bacteria vaccine (containing an active biomass of cultures obtained by a specific cultivation method and holding 6 x 10/sup 5/ bacteria cells in 1 ml of fluid, 2,000 kg of molasses, and 50 cu m of water originating from the reservoir submitted to treatment) was injected at 500 to 1,200 m. The intensification of the microbiological processes in the reservoir was observed. This phenomenon occurred not only in the wells to which the bacteria vaccine was injected, but also in the surrounding producing wells. At the same time, an increase in the crude oil production occurred on the average within the range from 20 to 200% and the surpluses of crude oil production continued for 2 to 8 yr. (92 refs.)

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF LANDSCAPE AND CLIMATIC CONDITIONS IN THE CARPATHIANS ON THE FORMATION OF LINGUISTIC PERSONALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alisa Pavliuk

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the current stage of development of our country globalization and integration processes are becoming more powerful. In these circumstances, the problem of preserving Ukrainian national identity becomes urgent. The article deals with conditions of the linguistic identity as the bearer of the Ukrainian national cultural space. Based on the analysis of current researches of individual language learning the author concludes that linguistic identity is a social phenomenon. The development and establishment of the linguistic personality arises in the process of education, training, communication, i.e. in different activities depending on the nature of the social environment in general and speech environment in particular. However, some scientific research allow to affirm the need to incorporate formative influence of the nature on the linguistic identity. The focus of the article is Carpathian region as an environment in which ethnic culture and language were almost no external influences. An important conclusion from this research is that learning the problem of linguistic identity should take into account forming impact of the environment - both natural and linguistic.

  19. Reconstructing recent environmental change in the Carpathian Basin; advocating an interdisciplinary approach for 2020 environmental science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon HUTCHINSON

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to environmental science is particularly important in the field of palaeoenvironmental research. Indeed, while the majority of such studies employ a range of proxies in their investigation, the more innovative studies tend to truly cross discipline boundaries. The investigation of depositional environments (e.g., lake sediments and mires as archives of environmental history has a long tradition in the Carpathian region. However, glacial lakes across the region have also been described as under-investigated despite their potential for palaeolimnological study (Buczko et al. 2009. Studies have also largely focused on relatively early (Late Glacial and Early Holocene environmental change.  Nevertheless, there is an increasing interest in the reconstruction of more human-driven impacts on the environment and events in the very recent past on a century to decade timescale e.g., post Industrial Revolution and following political change from the mid 1940s and in the late 1980s. Furthermore, efforts have are also being made to inform the debate about future climate and environmental changes linking palaeoenvironmental records to predictive computer modelling.

  20. Genetic effects of air pollution on forest tree species of the Carpathian Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longauer, Roman; Goemoery, Dusan; Paule, Ladislav; Blada, Ioan; Popescu, Flaviu; Mankovska, Blanka; Mueller-Starck, Gerhard; Schubert, Roland; Percy, Kevin; Szaro, Robert C.; Karnosky, David F.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of air pollution on the genetic structure of Norway spruce, European silver fir and European beech were studied at four polluted sites in Slovakia, Romania and Czech Republic. In order to reduce potential effects of site heterogeneity on the health condition, pair-wise sampling of pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was applied. Genotypes of sampled trees were determined at 21 isozyme gene loci of spruce, 18 loci of fir and 15 loci of beech. In comparison with Norway spruce, fewer genetic differences were revealed in beech and almost no differentiation between pollution-tolerant and sensitive trees was observed in fir. In adult stands of Norway spruce, sensitive trees exhibited higher genetic multiplicity and diversity. The decline of pollution-sensitive trees may result thus in a gradual genetic depletion of pollution-exposed populations of Norway spruce through the loss of less frequent alleles with potential adaptive significance to altered stressing regimes in the future. Comparison of the subsets of sensitive and tolerant Norway spruce individuals as determined by presence or absence of discolorations (''spruce yellowing'') revealed different heterozygosity at 3 out of 11 polymorphic loci. - Genetic effects of air pollution on main forest trees of the Carpathians are species- and site-specific

  1. How do management and restoration needs of mountain grasslands depend on moisture regime? Experimental study from north-western Slovakia (Western Carpathians)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galvánek, D.; Lepš, Jan

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 12, č. 3 (2009), s. 273-282 ISSN 1402-2001 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06073 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA206/06/0098 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : hay meadows * management planning * nature conservation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.349, year: 2009

  2. Investigation of the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein in lymphoid and central nervous system tissues from elk and sheep using the Western blotting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongsheng; Soutyrine, Andrei; Rendulich, Jasmine; O'Rourke, Katherine; Balachandran, Aru

    2011-01-01

    Tissues unsuitable for standard immunohistochemical and histopathological examinations for chronic wasting disease (CWD) in cervids and for scrapie in sheep are frequently submitted for testing. This study investigated the effects of experimental autolysis on the detection of abnormal prion protein (PrPsc) in lymphoid and central nervous system (CNS) tissues from elk and sheep. The PrPsc was detected using a Western blotting (WB) test following PrPsc enrichment using sodium phosphotungstic acid (PTA) precipitation (PTA-WB). A commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used as a reference test for quantitative measurement. This study showed that the amount of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tssues from elk and sheep decreased gradually as a result of autolysis, but PrPsc was still detectable after 5 and 15 d incubation at 37°C by PTA-WB for all lymphoid and CNS samples. The results of the ELISA supported those of PTA-WB, particularly for CNS tissues. In conclusion, autolysis at 37°C for 15 d would not significantly affect the detection of PrPsc in lymphoid and CNS tissues by WB and ELISA and, particularly, PTA-WB is a valuable and alternative confirmatory test to detect PrPsc in autolyzed lymphoid and CNS samples.

  3. Investigation of Alaska's uranium potential. Part 1. Reconnaissance program, West-Central Alaska and Copper River basin. Part 2. Uranium and thorium in granitic and alkaline rocks in Western Alaska

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eakins, G.R.; Jones, B.K.; Forbes, R.B.

    1977-02-01

    A 6-week reconnaissance program was conducted in west-central Alaska and in the Copper River basin--Chitina River valley area to aid in determining the uranium potential of the state. Division personnel also submitted samples from the Healy, Eagle, and Charley River quadrangles. Collected were 916 stream-sediment samples and 427 bedrock samples for uranium, thorium, and potassium oxide determinations, and 565 water samples for uranium analyses. A statistical analysis of the determinations was made using a computer at the University of Alaska. Thresholds, anomalies, and U:Th ratios were calculated for eight separate regions. Anomalous values of the U, Th, and K 2 O, and radiometric measurements are discussed. A combination of all uranium exploration techniques is needed to locate potential uranium deposits in Alaska. Correlations between aerial and ground radiometric surveys and geochemical surveys were often lacking, indicating that each method may or may not be effective, depending on local conditions. One hundred and eight rock samples were selected from traverses across five plutons in western Alaska and analyzed for uranium, thorium, and potassium. The highest uranium concentrations detected were 86 and 92 ppM from a mineralized dike intrusion zone in the Selawik Lake Complex. Analysis of individual plutons yields strong correlations between mineralogy and radioactivity. The mineralogical variable that correlates with uranium or thorium varies from one pluton to the next. Based on these correlations, mineralogical guidelines are offered for the selection of uranium enriched variants in four of the five plutons

  4. The wind and fire disturbance in Central European mountain spruce forests: the regeneration after four years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Budzáková

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A strong windstorm in November 2004 resulted in a huge blown-down spruce forest area in the southern part of the Tatra National Park in the Western Carpathians in Slovakia, Central Europe. The aim of this work is to study the vegetation composition of spruce forest at differently managed sites four years after this disturbance. Four study areas were selected for this purpose: (i an area where the fallen trees were extracted and new seedlings were planted; (ii an area, which was hit by a forest fire after the extraction; (iii an area where no active management was applied; (iv a reference forest unaffected by such disturbance. A total of 100 plots were selected, 25 of each area type. The result of DCA and CCA analyses consistently indicated that after this short period the non-extracted and extracted areas are currently most similar to the reference forest area, while the fire affected area differed. A one-way ANOVA comparing species cover for the different plot sizes indicated some significant differences between the extracted and non-extracted plots. The abundance of certain species commonly occurring in spruce forests, such as Dyopteris carthusiana agg., Vaccinium myrtillus and Avenella flexuosa, correlated weli with the non-extracted plots, compared to the extracted plots. Coverage of these species was lowest on burned plots. The lowest Shannon-Wiener’s diversity values were recorded in burned plots. This was most likely a consequence of mono-dominant competitive species spread, (mainly Chamerion angustifolium which profited from the altered ecological conditions following the fire. Although some differences were also registered in the Shannon-Wiener diversity index between the remaining research plots, however these were not statistically significant. The most important results of our investigations include the extensive influence of fire disturbance on vegetation. Study revealed that the wind-disturbed area is able to regenerate

  5. Luminescence dating of the lacustrine record of Vršac (Carpathian Basin, Serbia) - implications for a palaeoenvironmetal reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasen, N.; Zeeden, C.; Markovic, S.; Fischer, P.; Lehmkuhl, F.; Schulte, P.; Bösken, J.; Hambach, U.; Vött, A.

    2017-12-01

    The Carpathian Basin is one of the key areas to investigate the influence of the continental, Mediterranean and Atlantic climate interaction over Europe. The available Upper Pleistocene and Holocene geoarchives in the region are mainly loess-paleosol records. Long lacustrine records are sparse and do not always span the whole last glacial cycle. In the area around Vršac, we drilled a 10 m core to contribute to the palaeoenvironmental reconstruction of the Carpathian Basin. Electrical Resistivity Tomography (ERT) was used to find the best-suited drilling location. We applied luminescence and radiocarbon dating, because a robust chronology is important for the interpretation of the sedimentary record. Pulsed OSL measurements were carried out to identify the best sampling positions. We expect runoff from the catchment being the main source of the lacustrine sediments, because coarse fluvial input is absent. Knowledge about the depositional conditions is important in luminescence dating to evaluate partial bleaching prior to deposition, which may cause age overestimation. Therefore, we compared infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) signals with post infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIRIR) signals, which bleach at different rates. Estimation of a representative water content has major influence on the age estimate, but remains challenging in luminescence dating. We measured the present day water content as well as the saturation water content, to account for variations over time. Luminescence and radiocarbon ages differ greatly from each other. According to the laboratory experiments, luminescence dating was reliable and we conclude that radiocarbon ages were underestimated because of an intrusion of younger organic material. The initial results demonstrated the potential of the drill core. Integrating more proxy data will be useful to enhance the importance of the geoarchive at Vršac for a better understanding of the last glacial cycle in the Carpathian

  6. and three-dimensional gravity modeling along western continental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    weaknesses (lineaments) along the path of Indian plate motion over the Réunion hotspot. .... Tectonic map of western and central parts of peninsular India showing the western continental ... basaltic layers and their theoretical gravitational.

  7. Extending the area of investigation of fine versus coarse quartz optical ages from the Lower Danube to the Carpathian Basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Timar-Gabor, Alida; Constantin, Daniela; Marković, S.B.

    2015-01-01

    mm) grains and coarse (63e90 mm) grains respectively. The current study aims at expanding these investigations, both by extending the area of study from the Lower Danube Basin to the Carpathian Basin and by applying time-resolved optically stimulated luminescence (TR-OSL) on quartz, in order to gain...... is observed for both continuous wave (CW-OSL) and pulsed OSL (POSL), where the dose response (up to 1000 Gy) is well described by a sum of two saturating exponential functions. TR-OSL measurements show one single, characteristic quartz lifetime for both natural as well as regenerative signals in the entire...

  8. Heavy rainfalls, floods and landslides in the small catchment of the Bend Carpathians and Subcarpathians (Romania)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balteanu, Dan; Serban, Mihaela

    2004-01-01

    The small catchments of the Bend Carpathians and of the adjacent hilly region are affected by a great diversity of geomorphic processes differing in terms of geological structure, terrain configuration, seismic activity and human pressure. The region is developed on Paleogene flysch and Neogene molasse deposits and is characterised by an intense tectonic mobility (neotectonic uplift movements, strong earthquakes). We have chosen two catchments with a surface of 20-30 km 2 in which we tried to evaluate the sediments transfers during extreme events on the slope, from the slope downwards the channels and along the channels. The two catchments are characterised by some of the highest sediment yield in the region. Long-term measurements carried out in the region have revealed that landslides and mud flows are the most common processes of sediment transfer on the slopes. The reactivation of the mass movements is related to heavy rainfalls (over 100 mm in 24 hours) to long lasting rainy periods and to combined rainfalls and rapid snow melting. The denudation rates through mass movements were estimated in 6 experimental plots, indicating values between 1-10 mm in the years with high amount of,precipitations with a return period of 5-7 years and 40-70 mm in extreme conditions with a return period of 50 years. Sediment delivery ratios are controlled by rock erodibility and the runoff regime. A sediment yield multivariate statistical analysis of 27 third order drainage basins on flysch and molasse deposits indicates that total erosion is four times higher in the hilly region than in the flysch mountains (Ichim, Raldoane, 1987).(Author)

  9. Main flood peaks in the medieval Carpathian Basin (1000-1500): Annual and decadal overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2013-04-01

    The analysis of over 140 reported floods is mainly based on contemporary legal evidence (charters), partly on other types of contemporary documentary evidence. Majority of sources contains data on individual flood events (i.e. occurrence, seasonality, magnitude). Concerning main flood peaks, evidence on annual and multi-annual (decadal, multi-decadal) level is also available. Despite data increase in the 13th century, only in the 14th-15th centuries documentation is representative enough to draw further conclusions. Apart from secondary flood peaks (probably in the mid-13th century and the turn of the 13th-14th centuries), three main periods with high flood frequencies are detected: 1330s-1350s, 1390s-1430s, and the late 1480s-1490s (continuing in the early 16th century). The first major flood peak was primarily reported in the eastern Carpathian Basin (the Tisa catchment), and can be characterised by a number of high-intensity flood events (with 1342-1343 in centre). During the second major, prolonged flood peak of 1390s-1430s, and that of the third, late 15th century one the importance of floods occurred on the Danube and in the Danube catchment area has to be as well highlighted. Moreover, in the first half of the 15th century long-term hydrological problems (prolonged high water-level and high flood frequency problems) can be identified. In some cases high flood-frequency periods were accompanied by documented hydromorphological impacts and some impacts on society can be also detected. Results show good agreement with the decadal precipitation reconstruction based on speleothem investigations carried out in North-Hungary.

  10. Assessment of projected climate change in the Carpathian Region using the Holdridge life zone system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szelepcsényi, Zoltán; Breuer, Hajnalka; Kis, Anna; Pongrácz, Rita; Sümegi, Pál

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, expected changes in the spatial and altitudinal distribution patterns of Holdridge life zone (HLZ) types are analysed to assess the possible ecological impacts of future climate change for the Carpathian Region, by using 11 bias-corrected regional climate model simulations of temperature and precipitation. The distribution patterns of HLZ types are characterized by the relative extent, the mean centre and the altitudinal range. According to the applied projections, the following conclusions can be drawn: (a) the altitudinal ranges are likely to expand in the future, (b) the lower and upper altitudinal limits as well as the altitudinal midpoints may move to higher altitudes, (c) a northward shift is expected for most HLZ types and (d) the magnitudes of these shifts can even be multiples of those observed in the last century. Related to the northward shifts, the HLZ types warm temperate thorn steppe and subtropical dry forest can also appear in the southern segment of the target area. However, a large uncertainty in the estimated changes of precipitation patterns was indicated by the following: (a) the expected change in the coverage of the HLZ type cool temperate steppe is extremely uncertain because there is no consensus among the projections even in terms of the sign of the change (high inter-model variability) and (b) a significant trend in the westward/eastward shift is simulated just for some HLZ types (high temporal variability). Finally, it is important to emphasize that the uncertainty of our results is further enhanced by the fact that some important aspects (e.g. seasonality of climate variables, direct CO2 effect, etc.) cannot be considered in the estimating process.

  11. β-Estradiol and ethinyl-estradiol contamination in the rivers of the Carpathian Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avar, Péter; Zrínyi, Zita; Maász, Gábor; Takátsy, Anikó; Lovas, Sándor; G-Tóth, László; Pirger, Zsolt

    2016-06-01

    17β-Estradiol (E2) and 17α-ethinyl estradiol (EE2), which are environmental estrogens, have been determined with LC-MS in freshwater. Their sensitive analysis needs derivatization and therefore is very hard to achieve in multiresidue screening. We analyzed samples from all the large and some small rivers (River Danube, Drava, Mur, Sava, Tisza, and Zala) of the Carpathian Basin and from Lake Balaton. Freshwater was extracted on solid phase and derivatized using dansyl chloride. Separation was performed on a Kinetex XB-C18 column. Detection was achieved with a benchtop orbitrap mass spectrometer using targeted MS analysis for quantification. Limits of quantification were 0.05 ng/L (MS1) and 0.1 ng/L (MS/MS) for E2, and 0.001 ng/L (MS1) and 0.2 ng/L (MS/MS) for EE2. River samples contained n.d.-5.2 ng/L E2 and n.d.-0.68 ng/L EE2. Average levels of E2 and EE2 were 0.61 and 0.084 ng/L, respectively, in rivers, water courses, and Lake Balaton together, but not counting city canal water. EE2 was less abundant, but it was still present in almost all of the samples. In beach water samples from Lake Balaton, we measured 0.076-0.233 E2 and n.d.-0.133 EE2. A relative high amount of EE2 was found in river Zala (0.68 ng/L) and in Hévíz-Páhoki canal (0.52 ng/L), which are both in the catchment area of Lake Balaton (Hungary).

  12. Long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western Lowland Gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) at different stages of habituation in Dzanga Sangha Protected Areas, Central African Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sak, Bohumil; Petrzelkova, Klara J; Kvetonova, Dana; Mynarova, Anna; Shutt, Kathryn A; Pomajbikova, Katerina; Kalousova, Barbora; Modry, David; Benavides, Julio; Todd, Angelique; Kvac, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Infectious diseases pose one of the greatest threats to endangered species, and a risk of gastrointestinal parasite transmission from humans to wildlife has always been considered as a major concern of tourism. Increased anthropogenic impact on primate populations may result in general changes in communities of their parasites, and also in a direct exchange of parasites between humans and primates. To evaluate the impact of close contact with humans on the occurrence of potentially zoonotic protists in great apes, we conducted a long-term monitoring of microsporidia, Cryptosporidium and Giardia infections in western lowland gorillas at different stages of the habituation process, humans, and other wildlife in Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. We detected Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotypes I and II (7.5%), Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D and three novel genotypes (gorilla 1-3) (4.0%), Giardia intestinalis subgroup A II (2.0%) and Cryptosporidium bovis (0.5%) in gorillas, whereas in humans we found only G. intestinalis subgroup A II (2.1%). In other wild and domestic animals we recorded E. cuniculi genotypes I and II (2.1%), G. intestinalis assemblage E (0.5%) and C. muris TS03 (0.5%). Due to the non-specificity of E. cuniculi genotypes we conclude that detection of the exact source of E. cuniculi infection is problematic. As Giardia intestinalis was recorded primarily in gorilla groups with closer human contact, we suggest that human-gorilla transmission has occurred. We call attention to a potentially negative impact of habituation on selected pathogens which might occur as a result of the more frequent presence of humans in the vicinity of both gorillas under habituation and habituated gorillas, rather than as a consequence of the close contact with humans, which might be a more traditional assumption. We encourage to observe the sections concerning hygiene from the IUCN best practice guidelines for all sites where increased human

  13. DEVELOPING COMMUNICATIVE COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS ON THE BASIS OF ETHNIC AND CULTURAL VALUES INTRINSIC TO HIGHLANDERS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stakhiv

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article presents challenges and methods of teacher training activities aimed to develop communicative competence and prepare teachers for work in mountain area schools in the Ukrainian Carpathians. Research shows that specifics of social and cultural environment should be taken into account in the process of teaching native language and developing communicative competence of future teachers. Sociocultural approach defines language teaching strategies in the light of national culture, traditions of ethnic regions and the Ukrainian Carpathians in particular. Teacher training programs should include studies on material, cultural and spiritual values of highlanders. Such topics can be incorporated in the main native language course. Study and analysis of fiction pieces, especially those that reflect the socio-cultural peculiarities of linguistic community of the Ukrainian Carpathians can be of great value in achieving the goal. Small classes in mountain schools also place a demand upon educators to constantly upgrade approaches, forms and methods of teaching. The article offers an integral teacher training system aimed at developing communicative competence and preparing teachers to work in the mountain areas schools. A special place in this system is given to folk pedagogy, which accumulates the national and regional spiritual values. The author presents the components of communicative and socio-cultural competence of future teachers. The suggested algorithm for training primary school teachers insures reaching an appropriate level of socio-cultural, historical, linguistic and communicative competencies necessary for language teaching at primary schools in mountain regions of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  14. Long-term monitoring of air pollution effects on selected forest ecosystems in the Bucegi-Piatra Craiului and Retezat Mountains, southern Carpathians (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    O. Badea; S. Neagu; Andrzej Bytnerowicz; D. Silaghi; I. Barbu; C. Iacoban; F. Popescu; M. Andrei; E. Preda; C. Iacob; I. Dumitru; H. Iuncu; C. Vezeanu; V. Huber

    2011-01-01

    The monitoring studies carried out in the southern Romanian Carpathians (Retezat and Bucegi - Piatra Craiului Mts) provide a scientific support for long term ecosystem research (LTER). Their general objective is to characterize the air pollution and its potential effects upon forest ecosystems' status and biodiversity in close connection with climatic changes. Two...

  15. Near-vertical seismic reflection image using a novel acquisition technique across the Vrancea Zone and Foscani Basin, south-eastern Carpathians (Romania).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panea, I; Stephenson, R.A.; Knapp, C.; Mocanu, V.I.; Drijkoningen, G.; Matenco, L.C.; Knapp, J.; Prodehl, K.

    2005-01-01

    The DACIA PLAN (Danube and Carpathian Integrated Action on Process in the Lithosphere and Neotectonics) deep seismic sounding survey was performed in August-September 2001 in south-eastern Romania, at the same time as the regional deep refraction seismic survey VRANCEA 2001. The main goal of the

  16. Late Neogene low-angle thrusting on the northwestern margin of the South Carpathians (Poiana Rusca, West Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oczlon, Martin S.; Onescu, Dan

    2005-12-01

    Mineral exploration drillholes and geoelectric prospecting provide for the first time evidence for thrusting of the South Carpathian Paleozoic basement over northerly adjacent Middle Miocene sediments. Investigations were carried out in two locations, 30 km apart, along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, Romania, southwestern Carpathians. Drill holes in both locations encountered weakly consolidated Middle Miocene clay, sand, and fine gravel below Paleozoic low-grade metamorphic rocks. Intersections from various drill holes demonstrate the presence of low-angle thrusting. Kinematic indicators are so far lacking, but with a thrust direction oriented roughly normal to strike of the Poiana Rusca Mountains, minimum displacement is 1-1.4 km in northwestern or northern direction, respectively. Thrusting occurred most likely during the Late Miocene-Pliocene, whereafter Quaternary regional uplift dissected the thrust plane. In the tectonic framework of Neogene dextral translation of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the southerly adjacent Moesian Platform, transtension appears responsible for Middle Miocene basin formation along the northern margin of the Poiana Rusca region. Proceeding collision of the Tisza-Dacia Block with the East European Craton introduced stronger impingement of the Tisza-Dacia Block against the Moesian Platform, leading to a Late Miocene-Pliocene transpressional regime, in which the northern Poiana Rusca basement was thrust over its adjacent Middle Miocene sediments.

  17. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kędzior, Artur; Popa, Mihai E.

    2013-06-01

    Kędzior, A. and Popa, E.M. 2013. Sedimentology of the Early Jurassic terrestrial Steierdorf Formation in Anina, Colonia Cehă Quarry, South Carpathians, Romania. Acta Geologica Polonica, 63 (2), 175-199. Warszawa. The continental, coal bearing Steierdorf Formation, Hettangian - Sinemurian in age, is included in the Mesozoic cover of the Reşiţa Basin, Getic Nappe, South Carpathians, Romania. The Steierdorf Formation can be studied in Anina, a coal mining center and an exceptional locality for Early Jurassic flora and fauna, occurring in the middle of the Reşiţa Basin. This paper presents the results of sedimentological, stratigraphical and paleobotanical researches undertaken in Colonia Cehă open cast mine in Anina, where the Steierdorf Formation outcrops widely. Several sedimentary facies associations have been described, these associations permitting the reconstruction of various depositional systems such as alluvial fans, braided and meandering river systems, as well as lacustrine and coal generating marsh systems of the Steierdorf Formation. The sedimentary associations recorded within the Steierdorf Formation show a gradual fining upward trend, pointing to a rising marine water table and a decreasing relief within the source area.

  18. Floristic diversity in relation to geomorphological and climatic factors in the subalpinealpine belt of the Rodna Mountains (the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coldea, G.

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available As a part of the GLORIA-EUROPE project, the floristic diversity, frequency and species coverage in relation to the main ecological gradients (altitude,aspect were studied in the alpine pasture (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi and subalpine dwarf shrub communities (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinetum of the four summits from the Pietrosul Rodnei massif (Romanian Carpathians. Floristic diversity is higher in the plant communities from lower altitude summits (Golgota, Gropile, while it decreases in communities, to higher summits (Buhaiescu, Rebra. For each 100 m increase in the altitude of subalpine-alpine summits, a decrease of approximately 10% was found in the number of vascular plant species. Arctic-Alpine species (Carex curvula, ¡uncus trifidus, Hieracium alpinum, Oreochloa disticha, etc. and a Carpatho-Balkanic regional species (Rhododendron myrtifolium have the highest frequency and coverage in these plant communities. In northern and eastern slope areas, where the vegetation cover is 15-30% lower than on western and southern slopes and the soil temperature is generally 1-3°C lower during the vegetative season (June-August, the mean number of species per square meter is 25% higher than in southern and western slope areas.

    [fr] Dans le cadre du projet GLORIA EUROPE on a étudié la diversité floristique, la fréquence et le recouvrement des espèces, par rapport aux principaux gradients écologiques (altitude, exposition, au sein des associations de prés alpins (Primulo-Caricetum curvulae, Oreochloo-Juncetum trifidi et des buissons subalpins de petite taille (Rhododendro myrtifolii - Vaccinietum, sur quatre sommets dans le massif Pietrosul Mare (Les Carpates Roumaines. La diversité floristique est plus grande chez les associations de plantes des sommets avec des altitudes plus basses (Golgota, Gropile et elle s'abaisse chez les associations des sommets plus hauts (Buhaiescu

  19. Linking microstructures, petrology and in situ U-(Th)-Pb geochronology to constrain P-T-t-D evolution of the Greather Himalyan Sequences in Western Nepal (Central Himalaya)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Langone, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Last advances in forward modelling of metamorphic rocks and into the understanding of accessories minerals behaviour, suitable for geochronology (e.g. zircon and monazite), during metamorphism, bring new insights for understanding the evolution of metamorphic tectonites during orogenic cycles (Williams and Jercinovic, 2012 and reference therein). One of the best exposure of high- to medium grade- metamorphic rocks, is represented by the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Himalayan Belt, one of the most classic example of collisional orogen. Recent field work in Mugu Karnali valley, Western Nepal (Central Himalaya), identified a compressional top to the South ductile shear zone within the core of the GHS, named Magri Shear Zone (MSZ), developed in a high temperature regime as testified by quartz microstructures and syn-kinematic growth of sillimanite. In order to infer the tectono-metamorphic meaning of MSZ, a microstructural study coupled with pseudosection modelling and in situ U-(Th)-Pb monazite geochronology was performed on selected samples from different structural positions. Footwall sample constituted by (Grt + St ± Ky) micaschist shows a prograde garnet growth (cores to inner rims zoning), from ~500°C, ~0.60GPa (close to garnet-in curve) to ~580°C, ~1.2 GPa temporal constrained between 21-18 Ma, by medium Y cores to very low Y mantles monazite micro-chemical/ages domain . In this sample garnet was still growing during decompression and heating at ~640°C, ~0.75 GPa (rims), and later starts to be consumed, in conjunction with staurolite growth at 15-13 Ma, as revealed by high Y rims monazite micro-chemical/ages domain. Hanging-wall mylonitic samples have a porphyroclastic texture, with garnet preserve little memory of prograde path. Garnet near rim isoplets and matrix minerals intersect at ~700°C and ~0.70 GPa. A previous higher P stage, at ~1.10 GPa ~600°C, is testified by cores of larger white mica porhyroclasts. Prograde zoned allanite (Janots

  20. Western blotting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurien, Biji T; Scofield, R Hal

    2006-04-01

    Western blotting (protein blotting or immunoblotting) is a powerful and important procedure for the immunodetection of proteins post-electrophoresis, particularly proteins that are of low abundance. Since the inception of the protocol for protein transfer from an electrophoresed gel to a membrane in 1979, protein blotting has evolved greatly. The scientific community is now confronted with a variety of ways and means to carry out this transfer. This review describes the various procedures that have been used to transfer proteins from a gel to a membrane based on the principles of simple diffusion, vacuum-assisted solvent flow and electrophoretic elution. Finally, a brief description of methods generally used to detect antigens on blots is also described.

  1. Calibration of Crustal Historical Earthquakes from Intra-Carpathian Region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Rogozea, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The main task of the presented study is to elaborate a set of relations of mutual conversion macroseismic intensity - magnitude, necessary for the calibration of the historical crustal earthquakes produced in the Intra - Carpathian region of Romania, as a prerequisite for homogenization of the parametric catalogue of Romanian earthquakes. To achieve the goal, we selected a set of earthquakes for which we have quality macroseismic data and the Mw moment magnitude obtained instrumentally. These seismic events were used to determine the relations between the Mw and the peak/epicentral intensity, the isoseist surface area for I=3, I=4 and I=5: Mw = f (Imax / Io), Mw = f (Imax / Io, h), Mw = f (A3, A4; A5). We investigated several variants of such relationships and combinations, taking into account that the macroseismic data necessary for the re-evaluation of historical earthquakes in the investigated region are available in several forms. Thus, a number of investigations provided various information resulted after revising initial historical data: 1) Intensity data point (IDP) assimilated or not with the epicentre intensity after analysis of the correlation level with recent seismicity data and / or active tectonics / seismotectonics, 2) Sets of intensities obtained in several localities (IDPs) with variable values having maxims that can be considered equal to epicentral intensity (Io), 3) Sets of intensities obtained in several localities (IDPs) but without obvious maximum values, assimilable with the epicentral intensity, 4) maps with isoseismals, 5) Information on the areas in which the investigated earthquake was felt or the area of perceptiveness (e.g. I = 3 EMS during the day and I = 4 EMS at night) or the surfaces corresponding to a certain degree of well-defined intensity. The obtained relationships were validated using a set of earthquakes with instrumental source parameters (localization, depth, Mw). These relationships lead to redundant results meaningful in

  2. Multidimensionality and scale in a landscape ethnoecological partitioning of a mountainous landscape (Gyimes, Eastern Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Traditional habitat knowledge is an understudied part of traditional knowledge. Though the number of studies increased world-wide in the last decade, this knowledge is still rarely studied in Europe. We document the habitat vocabulary used by Csángó people, and determine features they used to name and describe these categories. Study area and methods Csángó people live in Gyimes (Carpathians, Romania). The area is dominated by coniferous forests, hay meadows and pastures. Animal husbandry is the main source of living. Data on the knowledge of habitat preference of 135 salient wild plant species were collected (2908 records, 44 interviewees). Data collected indoors were counterchecked during outdoor interviews and participatory field work. Results Csángós used a rich and sophisticated vocabulary to name and describe habitat categories. They distinguished altogether at least 142–148 habitat types, and named them by 242 habitat terms. We argue that the method applied and the questions asked (‘what kind of place does species X like?’) helped the often implicit knowledge of habitats to be verbalized more efficiently than usual in an interview. Habitat names were highly lexicalized and most of them were widely shared. The main features were biotic or abiotic, like land-use, dominant plant species, vegetation structure, successional stage, disturbance, soil characteristics, hydrological, and geomorphological features. Csángós often used indicator species (28, mainly herbaceous taxa) in describing habitats of species. To prevent reduction in the quantity and/or quality of hay, unnecessary disturbance of grasslands was avoided by the Csángós. This could explain the high number of habitats (35) distinguished dominantly by the type and severity of disturbance. Based on the spatial scale and topological inclusiveness of habitat categories we distinguished macro-, meso-, and microhabitats. Conclusions Csángó habitat categories were not organized

  3. Hydraulic conditions of flood flows in a Polish Carpathian river subjected to variable human impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radecki-Pawlik, Artur; Czech, Wiktoria; Wyżga, Bartłomiej; Mikuś, Paweł; Zawiejska, Joanna; Ruiz-Villanueva, Virginia

    2016-04-01

    Channel morphology of the Czarny Dunajec River, Polish Carpathians, has been considerably modified as a result of channelization and gravel-mining induced channel incision, and now it varies from a single-thread, incised or regulated channel to an unmanaged, multi-thread channel. We investigated effects of these distinct channel morphologies on the conditions for flood flows in a study