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Sample records for central western carpathians

  1. The evolution of Eastern Tornquist-Paleoasian Ocean and subsequent continental collisions: A case study from the Western Tatra Mountains, Central Western Carpathians (Poland)

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    Aleksandra Gawęda; Jolanta Burda; Jan Golonka; Urs Klötzli; David Chew; Krzysztof Szopa; Michael Wiedenbeck

    2017-01-01

    The crystalline basement of the Tatra Mountains in the Central Western Carpathians, forms part of the European Variscides and contains fragments of Gondwanan provenance. Metabasite rocks of MORB affinity in the Tatra Mountains are represented by two suites of amphibolites present in two metamorphic units (the Ornak and Goryczkowa Units) intercalated with metapelitic rocks. They are interpreted as relics of ocean crust, with zircon δ18OVSMOW values of 4.97–6.96‰. Zircon REE patterns suggest ox...

  2. Paleomagnetic and AMS study of Permian and Triassic rocks from the Hronic Nappe and Paleogene rocks from the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin, Western Carpathians

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    Márton, Emö; Madzin, Jozef; Bučová, Jana; Grabowski, Jacek; Plašienka, Dušan; Aubrecht, Roman

    2017-04-01

    The Hronic (Choč) units form the highest cover nappe system of the Central Western Carpathians which was emplaced over the Fatric (Krížna) nappe system during the Late Cretaceous. The Permian (red beds and lava flows) and Triassic (sediments) rocks, the main targets of our study, were affected only by diagenetic or very low-grade, burial-related recrystallization and were tilted and transported together. The pre-late Cretaceous sequence is overlapped by Paleogene mainly flysch sequences. Three laboratories (Bratislava, Budapest and Warsaw) were involved in standard paleomagnetic processing and AMS measurements of the samples, while Curie-points were determined in Budapest. The site/locality mean paleomagnetic directions obtained were significantly different from the local direction of the present Earth magnetic field, indicating the long term stability of the paleomagnetic signal. The magnetic fabrics varied from un-oriented to dominantly schistose with well-defined lineations. The latter were normally subhorizontal, although subvertical maxima also occurred among the Triassic sediments. Shallow inclinations, after tilt corrections, suggest near-equatorial position for most of the Permian and Lower Triassic, while around 20°N for the Middle-Upper Triassic localities. The paleomagnetic declinations are interpreted in terms of CW tectonic rotations, which are normally larger for the Permian than for the Triassic samples, although there are some differences within the same age groups. This may be attributed to differential movements during nappe emplacement or subsequent tectonic disturbances. For two localities from the Paleogene cover sequence of the Hronic units, close to the main sampling area (Low Tatra Mts) of the present study documented fairly large CCW rotations, thus obtained additional evidence for the general CCW rotation of the Central Western Carpathians during the Cenozoic. Thus, we conclude that the Cenozoic CCW rotation was pre-dated by large CW

  3. Tectonic Structures of the Western Carpathians Projected in Geophysical Data

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    Bezak, V.; Bielik, M.; Soltis, T.; Pek, J.; Vajda, P.; Vozar, J.

    2013-12-01

    The major part of the Western Carpathians extends on the territory of Slovakia. Their tectonic structure is the result of long-term tectonic development. Its typical feature is incorporation of fragment of several orogens. The tectonic elements of the Western Carpathians originated in two main orogenic stages - the Hercynian and the Alpine. The Hercynian orogeny took place during the Paleozoic between Gondwana and Laurasia. The Alpine orogeny in the Mesozoic and Tertiary had several stages, which we distinguish conventionally according to closing of oceanic domains in the region between the European and African plate. The deep interpretation of main tectonic units of the Western Carpathians is based on the geophysical (seismic, gravimetric, magnetotelluric and magnetic) data. The geophysical surveys in the Western Carpathians image most of these tectonic units and structures. We are showing how the interpretations of geophysical profiles and maps are in agreement with the assumed structure of the crust. The presented profiles are for exmple magnetotelluric MT-15, gravimetric and seismic 2T, and magnetic anomalies map. The oldest tectonic elements of the Western Carpathians are fragments of Cadomian blocks in the substratum (European platform in the north, fragments in the substratum in southern Slovakia) - exhibit higher density and magnetization. Hercynian tectonic units of the crystalline basement, which are the fundamental structural units of the Western Carpathian crust are middle crustal nappes composed of complexes of metamorphosed rocks and granitoid bodies. These units can be distinguished by different conductivity. The Paleoalpine tectonic units of the Inner Carpathians are divided into two groups: near-surface nappes and crustal units. The crustal units are built up of the crystalline basement, which includes fragments of Hercynian tectonic units and of cover units of the Late Paleozoic and Mesozoic - here we can observe in seismic profiles effects of

  4. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. - architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava-Podhale basin)

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    Starek, Dušan; Fuksi, Tomáš

    2017-08-01

    A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe-system scale. This

  5. Putative forest glacial refugia in the Western and Eastern Carpathians

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    Józef Mitka

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available An examination of thermophilous species pollen deposits found in the Plenivistulian river alluvial terraces in the Polish Western Carpathians was conducted. Of the 16 palaeobotanical sites evaluated, most often noted were Alnus and Betula t. alba; Abies, Carpinus and Corylus occurred less frequently, and Quercus, Tilia and Ulmus were rare. Fagus and Fraxinus pollen were absent. Abies and Carpinus were relatively overrepresented, because their frequency of occurrence was similar to Corylus avellana, i.e. one of the most cold-resistant species. Based on a literature survey of phylogeographic studies and data regarding the forest species Aconitum moldavicum, A. variegatum, Bromus benekenii, Carpinus betulus, Lathyrus vernus, Lonicera nigra, and the moderately thermophilous Rosa pendulina, 47 cryptic refugial areas of temperate plant species are postulated. The combined analysis indicates that they could have survived the last glaciation in the W & E Carpathian microrefugia close to 650 m a.s.l., and in Podolia (north of the Eastern Carpathians along a contour of 300 m a.s.l.

  6. Distal turbidite fan/lobe succession of the Late Oligocene Zuberec Fm. – architecture and hierarchy (Central Western Carpathians, Orava–Podhale basin

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    Starek Dušan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A part of the Upper Oligocene sand-rich turbidite systems of the Central Carpathian Basin is represented by the Zuberec Formation. Sand/mud-mixed deposits of this formation are well exposed in the northern part of the basin, allowing us to interpret the turbidite succession as terminal lobe deposits of a submarine fan. This interpretation is based on the discrimination of three facies associations that are comparable to different components of distributive lobe deposits in deep-water fan systems. They correspond to the lobe off-axis, lobe fringe and lobe distal fringe depositional subenvironments, respectively. The inferences about the depositional paleoenvironment based on sedimentological observations are verified by statistical analyses. The bed-thickness frequency distributions and vertical organization of the facies associations show cyclic trends at different hierarchical levels that enable us to reconstruct architectural elements of a turbidite fan. First, small-scale trends correspond with shift in the lobe element centroid between successive elements. Differences in the distribution and frequency of sandstone bed thicknesses as well as differences in the shape of bed-thickness frequency distributions between individual facies associations reflect a gradual fining and thinning in a down-dip direction. Second, meso-scale trends are identified within lobes and they generally correspond to the significant periodicity identified by the time series analysis of the bed thicknesses. The meso-scale trends demonstrate shifts in the position of the lobe centroid within the lobe system. Both types of trends have a character of a compensational stacking pattern and could be linked to autogenic processes. Third, a largescale trend documented by generally thickening-upward stacking pattern of beds, accompanied by a general increase of the sandstones/mudstones ratio and by a gradual change of percentage of individual facies, could be comparable to lobe

  7. Rock glaciers in the Western and High Tatra Mountains, Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Uxa, Tomáš; Mida, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2017), s. 844-857 ISSN 1744-5647 Institutional support: RVO:67985530 Keywords : rock glaciers * inventory * Western and High Tatra Mts * Carpathians * Slovakia * Poland Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 2.174, year: 2016

  8. A new interpretation of seismic and magnetotelluric transect 2T across the Western Carpathians

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    Bezak, Vladimir; Pek, Josef; Vozar, Jan; Bielik, Miroslav

    2017-04-01

    The deep seismic reflection profile 2T crossing the central part of Slovakia plays an important role in the understanding of the Western Carpathians tectonic development. The profile provides images of the European Platform overlaid by the Outer Carpathian flysch in the north. To the south, the profile is crossing the following main tectonic units: the Klippen Belt, main crustal units of the Inner Carpathians (Tatric, Veporic, and Gemeric units) with superficial nappes and sedimentary and volcanic post-tectonic Tertiary formations. In addition to the seismic profile a magnetotelluric (MT) interpretation and gravity modelling were carried out along the same profile. Joint modelling of different geophysical data brings a new perspective to the understanding of deep crustal structures and of the evolution of the Western Carpathians. Particularly the MT method adds a new property of the imaged units, the electrical conductivity, which is physically different from the features obtained from the seismic and gravity modelling. The original interpretation of the profile 2T, based on seismic data, exhibits mostly sub-horizontal interfaces of contrasting units. A combination of a relatively low resolution gravity data with MT models gives a possibility to identify units with new contrasting physical properties. The north-south 2D MT profile imaged three different conductivity segments of the Western Carpathian crust. Significant differences in physical properties observed in the segments allow us to classify them as due to a different tectonics. The northern part of the profile is dominated by resistive complexes overlain by conductive sedimentary formations. A possible geological interpretation of the northern segment suggests the resistive European platform below conductive flysch sediments and, more to the south a predominance of resistive granitoids and gneiss units. The middle part of the profile contains a complex superimposition of resistive and conductive structures

  9. Neogene and Quaternary development of the Western Carpathian lithosphere: impact on georelief and geohazards

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    Minár, J.; Kováč, M.; Bielik, M.; Hók, J.; Králiková, S.; Smetanová, A.; Šabo, M.; Vojtko, R.

    2012-04-01

    Some essential features of the Western Carpathian (and adjacent regions) lithosphere and land surface were created simultaneously in the Neogene and Quaternary. Synthesis of published as well as new geophysical, sedimentological, thermochronological and geomorphological data provide following results: Our newest morphostructural division and modelling of the crustal thickness fit together very well. Newly identified distinct core root under central part of the Western Carpatians explains rise of the annular morphostructural regions. Despite of variant possible reasons of creation of the isostatic disequilibrium, coupled morphological features suggest neotectonic (post Miocene) age. Re-evaluation of geophysical and geological data from the northern Danube Basin and Turiec Basin, together with new field-work and laboratory results formed the ground-work for a new determination of particular sedimentary facies and their changes in time and space. The results enable a better correlation of depositional and denudational history including formation of the system of planation surfaces. Apatite fission track data reflects mainly older Alpine orogenetic phases. However, the last uplift connected with the rise of modern topography is reflected by newest low-temperature termochronology data from the central part of the Western Carpathians. They specify the last stages of exhumation in the Pliocene and Pleistocene and define maximum age of preserved remnants of planation surfaces. A cosmogenic nuclide dating of deglaciation of the highest mountain (Tatras) suggests their quick Quaternary uplift, too. The Neogene and Quaternary development of the Western Carpathians projects onto distribution and intensity of recent geodynamic processes and subsequently natural hazards and risks. As an example the Quaternary development of the northernmost part of the Danubian Basin is presented (including changes of tectonic regime and river network as well as estimation of the erosion and

  10. Geochemistry of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (central Western Carpathians – evidence for relics of the Variscan ophiolite complex

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    Ivan Peter

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Three small bodies of amphibolites and associated graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (Tatric Megaunit, central Western Carpathians have been studied by petrographic and geochemical methods. Isolated, fault-bounded bodies first hundreds of meters in size are located in the complex of the Early Paleozoic paragneisses and migmatites intruded by the Lower Carboniferous granitoid rocks. Amphibolites (locally actinolite schists were formed from effusive basalts, dolerites or isotropic gabbros hydrothermally altered and veined before the regional metamorphic transformation. Distribution of the trace elements relatively immobile during the metamorphic alteration (HFSE, REE, Cr, V, Sc is similar to E-MORB type in the Malá Magura Mountain or to N-MORB/E-MORB types in the Suchý Mountain. Graphitic gneisses to metacherts are rich in silica (up to 88 wt. % and Ctot, poor in other major element contents and display negative Ce-anomaly, enrichment in HREE, V, Cr and U. They were probably originally deposited as non-carbonate and silica-rich deep-sea sediments in anoxic conditions. The oceanic provenance of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses clearly indicates their oceanic crust affinity and identity with the uppermost part of the ophiolite sequence. Ophiolite bodies from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains are supposed to be relic fault blocks identical with the Upper Devonian Pernek Group which represents a Variscan ophiolite nappe preserved to large extent in the Malé Karpaty Mountains located in the Tatric Megaunit further to the southwest. All these ophiolite relics are vestiges of the original ophiolite suture created by oceanic closure in the Lower Carboniferous.

  11. Geochemistry of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (central Western Carpathians) - evidence for relics of the Variscan ophiolite complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivan, Peter; Méres, Štefan

    2015-10-01

    Three small bodies of amphibolites and associated graphitic gneisses from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains (Tatric Megaunit, central Western Carpathians) have been studied by petrographic and geochemical methods. Isolated, fault-bounded bodies first hundreds of meters in size are located in the complex of the Early Paleozoic paragneisses and migmatites intruded by the Lower Carboniferous granitoid rocks. Amphibolites (locally actinolite schists) were formed from effusive basalts, dolerites or isotropic gabbros hydrothermally altered and veined before the regional metamorphic transformation. Distribution of the trace elements relatively immobile during the metamorphic alteration (HFSE, REE, Cr, V, Sc) is similar to E-MORB type in the Malá Magura Mountain or to N-MORB/E-MORB types in the Suchý Mountain. Graphitic gneisses to metacherts are rich in silica (up to 88 wt. %) and Ctot, poor in other major element contents and display negative Ce-anomaly, enrichment in HREE, V, Cr and U. They were probably originally deposited as non-carbonate and silica-rich deep-sea sediments in anoxic conditions. The oceanic provenance of amphibolites and related graphitic gneisses clearly indicates their oceanic crust affinity and identity with the uppermost part of the ophiolite sequence. Ophiolite bodies from the Suchý and Malá Magura Mountains are supposed to be relic fault blocks identical with the Upper Devonian Pernek Group which represents a Variscan ophiolite nappe preserved to large extent in the Malé Karpaty Mountains located in the Tatric Megaunit further to the southwest. All these ophiolite relics are vestiges of the original ophiolite suture created by oceanic closure in the Lower Carboniferous.

  12. EOLIC SEDIMENTS IN WESTERN CARPATHIANS, THEIR CHARACTERIZATION AND CHRONOSTRATIGRAPHY

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    Košťálik Ján

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Loesses in Western Carpathians cover the area of 7 000 square kilometres. The difference of paleographic relations between Eastern and Western Slovakia during the course of Pleistocen is reflected in their morphology, litotype, physical, chemical, and geocnemic properties, in the composition of extraction minerals, in the content of CaCO3, in the character of malacofauna, and the typology of fossile soils. To achieve the thickness of l-5-20 m, a maximum thickness being 35 to 40 m. Eolic sands can be found in the Záhorská nížina lowlands, Podunajská rovina flatland, and East-Slovakian lowland. Morphologically, they form 5-20 m high piles of parabolic and longitudinal form. Winds from various directions were active in their formation. The association of extraction minerals proves that these had been blown out from neogene sediments of the nearby vicinity and from river sediments of the Morava, Danube, and Tisa rivers and their tributaries.

  13. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

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    Holcová, Katarína

    2017-06-01

    The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene) were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys). Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence) or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains).

  14. Calcareous nannoplankton and foraminiferal response to global Oligocene and Miocene climatic oscillations: a case study from the Western Carpathian segment of the Central Paratethys

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    Holcová Katarína

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of foraminiferal and calcareous nannoplankton assemblages to global warming and cooling events in the time intervals of ca. 27 to 19 Ma and 13.5 to 15 Ma (Oligocene and Miocene were studied in subtropical epicontinental seas influenced by local tectonic and palaeogeographic events (the Central Paratethys. Regardless of these local events, global climatic processes significantly influenced the palaeoenvironment within the marine basin. Warm intervals are characterized by a stable, humid climate and a high-nutrient regime, due primarily to increased continental input of phytodetritus and also locally due to seasonal upwelling. Coarse clastics deposited in a hyposaline environment characterize the marginal part of the basin. Aridification events causing decreased riverine input and consequent nutrient decreases, characterized cold intervals. Apparent seasonality, as well as catastrophic climatic events, induced stress conditions and the expansion of opportunistic taxa. Carbonate production and hypersaline facies characterize the marginal part of the basins. Hypersaline surface water triggered downwelling circulation and mixing of water masses. Decreased abundance or extinction of K-specialists during each cold interval accelerated their speciation in the subsequent warm interval. Local tectonic events led to discordances between local and global sea-level changes (tectonically triggered uplift or subsidence or to local salt formation (in the rain shadows of newly-created mountains.

  15. Soil Heterogeneity Reflected in Biogeography of Beech Forests in the Borderland Between the Bohemian Massif and the Outer Western Carpathians

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    Samec Pavel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil environment characteristics naturally affect the biogeographical classification of forests in central Europe. However, even on the same localities, different systems of vegetation classification de-scribe the forest types according to the naturally dominant tree species with different accuracy. A set of 20 representative natural beech stands in the borderland between the Bohemian Massif (Hercyni-an biogeographical subprovince and the Outer Western Carpathians (Westcarpathian subprovince was selected in order to compare textural, hydrostatic, physico-chemical and chemical properties of soils between the included geomorphological regions, bioregions and biotopes. Differences in the soils of the surveyed beech stands were mainly due to volume weight and specific weight, maximum capillary capacity (MCC, porosity, base saturation (BS, total soil nitrogen (Nt and fulvic acids. Specifics in the relations between these soil characteristics indicated that transient trans-Hercynian beech forests developed in the borderland between the two compared subprovinces. Soils of the investigated Hercynian beech forests were generally characterized by lower BS and lower Nt. Soils of the trans-Hercynian beech forests were more similar to the Carpathian beech forest soils than soils in the other Hercynian beech forests. Soils of the trans-Hercynian and Carpathian beech forests showed similarly higher BS, deeper occurrence of humic substances, lower specific weight and also higher MCC. Higher content of humic substances as well as MCC indicated an equal effect on forest ecology, which may contribute to more accurate classification of forests.

  16. Cretaceous—Quaternary tectonic evolution of the Tatra Mts (Western Carpathians: constraints from structural, sedimentary, geomorphological, and fission track data

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    Králiková Silvia

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Tatra Mts area, located in the northernmost part of Central Western Carpathians on the border between Slovakia and Poland, underwent a complex Alpine tectonic evolution. This study integrates structural, sedimentary, and geomorphological data combined with fission track data from the Variscan granite rocks to discuss the Cretaceous to Quaternary tectonic and landscape evolution of the Tatra Mts. The presented data can be correlated with five principal tectonic stages (TS, including neotectonics. TS-1 (~95-80 Ma is related to mid-Cretaceous nappe stacking when the Tatric Unit was overlain by Mesozoic sequences of the Fatric and Hronic Nappes. After nappe stacking the Tatric crystalline basement was exhumed (and cooled in response to the Late Cretaceous/Paleogene orogenic collapse followed by orogen-parallel extension. This is supported by 70 to 60 Ma old zircon fission track ages. Extensional tectonics were replaced by transpression to transtension during the Late Paleocene to Eocene (TS-2; ~80-45 Ma. TS-3 (~45-20 Ma is documented by thick Oligocene-lowermost Miocene sediments of the Central Carpathian Paleogene Basin which kept the underlying Tatric crystalline basement at elevated temperatures (ca. > 120 °C and < 200 °C. The TS-4 (~20-7 Ma is linked to slow Miocene exhumation rate of the Tatric crystalline basement, as it is indicated by apatite fission track data of 9-12 Ma. The final shaping of the Tatra Mts has been linked to accelerated tectonic activity since the Pliocene (TS-5; ~7-0 Ma.

  17. Magnetic fabric overprints in multi-deformed polymetamorphic rocks of the Gemeric Unit (Western Carpathians) and its tectonic implications

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    Hrouda, František; Faryad, Shah Wali

    2017-10-01

    In the Gemeric Unit of the Central West Carpathians, the magnetic fabric was investigated in Early Palaeozoic metasediments and metavolcanics, Permian to Early Triassic granites, and Late Palaeozoic (molasse) metasediments. In addition to Variscan greenschist facies metamorphism in the Early Palaeozoic basement, all rocks underwent Cretaceous (Alpine) low-grade metamorphism, which significantly modified their mineral composition and fabric; original magnetic minerals were destroyed at least partially and new, mostly paramagnetic, minerals were created. In the Early Palaeozoic metasediments, the magnetic fabric is entirely metamorphic/deformational in origin. In metavolcanics, the magnetic foliations are partly parallel to the Alpine metamorphic foliations developed in relatively incompetent lithologies such as tuffs and tuffites and partly to disjunctive foliations developed in competent rhyolites and its subvolcanic members. Their magnetic fabrics probably represent gradual transition from Variscan to Alpine fabrics. In the Permian granites, the magnetic foliations are near the Alpine mesoscopic disjunctive foliations crosscutting metamorphic schistosity in contact aureoles of granite. In the Late Palaeozoic (molasse) metasediments, the magnetic foliations are near the Alpine metamorphic foliations that are mostly parallel to the original bedding. On regional scale, the magnetic fabrics show curved pattern indicating complex interactions between the Gemeric and underlain Veporic units in the final stages of intendation and collision. The magnetic fabric pattern in the Gemeric Unit roughly resembles that in the Veporic Unit. This results from similar tectonic movements operating at least during Cretaceous collision in both the units. This tectonic process occurred subsequent to the closure of the Meliata ocean and was responsible for creation of the final structure of the Central Western Carpathians. Nevertheless, in contrast to the Veporic unit, where dominantly

  18. The occurrence of, and economic losses caused by Armillaria in the Western Carpathian Mts

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    Adam Kaliszewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An investigation carried out in the Western Carpathian Mountains (Ujsoły, Węgierska Górka, Ustroń and Wisła Forest Districts demonstrated a strong relationship between dieback in Norway spruce stands and the intensity of occurrence of Armillaria ostoyae. For the most endangered site types – mountain deciduous forest (LG and mountain mixed forest (LMG, analyses of losses of annual volume increment and of stand productivity were performed, and their financial dimensions determined. The greatest losses – of about 8 m3/ha/year for tree stands of the age of 100 years, and 400 m3/ha for the rotation period – were found for LG (Mountain broadleaved forest site type.

  19. Multiple low‐temperature thermochronology constraints on exhumation of the Tatra Mountains: New implication for the complex evolution of the Western Carpathians in the Cenozoic

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Anczkiewicz, Aneta Agnieszka; Danišík, Martin; Środoń, Jan

    2015-01-01

    ...—the Tatra Mountains— is investigated by zircon and apatite fission track and zircon (U‐Th)/He (ZHe) dating methods in order to unravel the disputed exhumation and geodynamic processes in the Western Carpathians...

  20. Subsolidus alkali metasomatism in the metamorphosed Ordovician acid volcanics and volcaniclastics of the Gelnica Group (Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians)

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    Mária Šimurková; Peter Ivan; Milan Gargulák

    2016-01-01

    The Early Paleozoic Gelnica Group (Gemeric Superunit, Western Carpathians) is composed of low-grade metamorphosed flysch-like sedimentary complexes alternated with volcanogenic complexes built up mostly by acid volcaniclastic rocks. Volcaniclastic rocks and small rhyolite bodies Ordovician in age underwent subsolidus alkali metasomatism locally overprinted by multiple stages of younger metamorphic and hydrothermal alterations. The observed variability in chemical compositions indicates that t...

  1. Morphotectonic control of the Białka drainage basin (Central Carpathians: Insights from DEM and morphometric analysis.

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    Wołosiewicz Bartosz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Białka river valley is directly related to a deep NNW-SSE oriented fault zone. According to the results of previous morphometric analyses, the Białka drainage basin is one of the most tectonically active zones in the Central Carpathians. It is also located within an area of high seismic activity.

  2. Tracking an upper limit of the "Carnian Crisis" and/or Carnian stage in the Western Carpathians (Slovakia)

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    Kohút, Milan; Hofmann, Mandy; Havrila, Milan; Linnemann, Ulf; Havrila, Jakub

    2018-01-01

    The Late Triassic timescale, especially the Carnian-Norian boundary, is poorly constrained mainly due to a paucity of high-precision radio-isotopic ages that can be related accurately to contradictions between the biostratigraphic and magnetostratigraphic correlations. LA ICP-MS dating of detrital zircons from five samples of the Lunz Formation—the Upper Triassic siliciclastic sediments from the Western Carpathians (Slovakia)—provided a wide spectrum of ages that vary from Late Archaean (ca. 2582 Ma) to Triassic (ca. 216 Ma). These marine delta sediments represent a typical product of the "Carnian Crisis"—a major climate change and biotic turnover that occurred during the Carnian stage in the Tethys Ocean within the carbonate shelf and intrashelf basins in the Northern Calcareous Alps and the Western Carpathians. The supply of clastic material in the studied Lunz Formation was derived from several sources, especially: (i) from the recycled Variscan orogen; (ii) from the remote East European Platform; and (iii) from the contemporaneous Triassic volcanic sources. Syn-sedimentary volcanic zircons with a concordia age of 221.2 ± 1.6 Ma (calculated from 12 single analyses) represent the maximum age of deposition of the Lunz Formation, and demonstrate that the upper limit of the "Carnian Crisis" and/or the Carnian stage in the Alpine-Carpathians realm is younger than the current age of the Carnian-Norian boundary at ca. 227 Ma listed on the International Chronostratigraphic Chart (International Commission on Stratigraphy 2016/12 Edition).

  3. Evaluating the Remote Sensing and Inventory-Based Estimation of Biomass in the Western Carpathians

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    Gretchen G. Moisen

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs are widely used for quantifying forest characteristics and for estimating biomass, but information may quickly become outdated in dynamic forest environments. Satellite remote sensing may provide a supplement or substitute. We tested the accuracy of aboveground biomass estimates modeled from a combination of Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM imagery and topographic data, as well as SBI-derived variables in a Picea abies forest in the Western Carpathian Mountains. We employed Random Forests for non-parametric, regression tree-based modeling. Results indicated a difference in the importance of SBI-based and remote sensing-based predictors when estimating aboveground biomass. The most accurate models for biomass prediction ranged from a correlation coefficient of 0.52 for the TM- and topography-based model, to 0.98 for the inventory-based model. While Landsat-based biomass estimates were measurably less accurate than those derived from SBI, adding tree height or stand-volume as a field-based predictor to TM and topography-based models increased performance to 0.36 and 0.86, respectively. Our results illustrate the potential of spectral data to reveal spatial details in stand structure and ecological complexity.

  4. Exhumation of the Meliata high-pressure rocks (Western Carpathians: Petrological and structural records in blueschists

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    Faryad Shah Wali

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available The Meliata unit, situated in the SE part of the Western Carpathians, represents an accretionary complex assembled during the closure of the Triassic-Jurassic Meliata oceanic basin. Blueschists, ophiolites and very low-grade metamorphosed sedimentary rocks are imbricated in a tectonic zone between the Gemericum and the Silica nappe. Petrological and microstructural analyses indicate a single progressive deformation coincident with prograde metamorphism at blueschist facies conditions. The foliation is defined by preferred orientation of mica, blue amphibole and rarely also by Na-pyroxene. The exhumation path is documented by ductite deformation, formed at blueschist-greenschist facies boundary and at greenschist facies conditions. The E-W directed thrust faults which are parallel to the foliation seem to be responsible for exhumation of the blueschists. Later stages of deformation in phyllites are documented by shear bands that crosscut the blueschist facies foliation. Low-temperature Cretaceous nappe tectonics resulted in brittle deformation and used mostly the older tectonic systems that formed at blueschist-greenschist facies conditions

  5. Influence of selected factors on bark beetle outbreak dynamics in the Western Carpathians

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    Vakula Jozef

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the period from 1992 to 2013, more than 3.8 million m3 of spruce wood from an area of 55 thousand ha of forests in the Kysuce region (Western Carpathians was affected by bark beetles. This region has had the highest volume of salvage fellings in Slovakia. While before 1991, bark-beetle outbreak usually occurred after snow and wind disturbances, since 1992 they have occurred in the years with extremely warm and dry growing seasons and the years following them. These years were also characterised by high volumes of wood affected by honey fungus (Armillaria spp., which only rarely took part in the calamities before 1992. Extreme deterioration of the situation occurred after 2003. In fragmented and sparse stands, the volume of wood damaged by wind increased. Artificial origin of spruce stands, their high occurrence, high age and even-agedness are likely pre-disposing factors of spruce forest decline. Bark beetles have become the most important factor of spruce decline. The most important factors driving the bark beetle attack on forest stands in the period 1973–2013 were the amount of unprocessed wood in the previous year; the amount of wood affected by honey fungus, precipitation total, and average temperature in the current growing season. Another important factor that complicated the situation was also the inferior quality of forest management.

  6. Geophysical anatomy of counter-slope scarps in sedimentary flysch rocks (Outer Western Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tábořík, P.; Lenart, J.; Blecha, V.; Vilhelm, J.; Turský, O.

    2017-01-01

    A multidisciplinary geophysical survey, consisting of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT), ground penetrating radar (GPR), shallow seismic refraction (SSR) and gravity survey (GS), was used to investigate the counter-slope scarps, one of the typical manifestations of the relaxed zones of rock massifs, and the possible initial stages of deep-seated landslides (DSLs). Two upper parts of the extensive DSLs within the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains (Outer Western Carpathians - OWC) built by the sedimentary flysch rock were chosen as the testing sites. A combined geophysical survey on the flysch rocks was performed on both localities to enhance our present findings. The survey revealed that the ERT is able to reliably detect underground discontinuities, which are manifested at the ground surface by one of the typical landforms (tension cracks, trenches, pseudokarst sinkholes, double-crested ridges and counter-slope scarps). Previous studies suggested that bedrock discontinuities should be depicted by high-resistivity features within ERT surveying. According to SSR and GS, expected zones of weakened rock massif were not confirmed directly underneath the superficial landforms, but they were shifted. Based on the SSR and GS measurements, the depicted high-contrast transitions between high- and low-resistivity domains within the ERT profiles were newly identified as possible manifestation of bedrock discontinuities. The results of GPR measurements give only limited information on the sedimentary flysch rocks, due to shallow penetrating depth and locally strong signal attenuation. The combined results of multidisciplinary geophysical surveying confirmed an importance of employing more than one geophysical technique for integrated interpretations of measured data. Integrated interpretations of the measured geophysical data provided a new insight into massif disintegration and the geomorphic origin of the landforms related to the DSL.

  7. Detrital zircons from the Hronicum Carboniferous-Permian sandstones (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): depositional age and provenance

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    Vozárová, Anna; Larionov, Alexander; Šarinová, Katarína; Vďačný, Marek; Lepekhina, Elena; Vozár, Jozef; Lvov, Pavel

    2017-11-01

    For the assessment of depositional age and provenance of the Hronicum Unit Pennsylvanian to Permian siliciclastic sediments, SIMS (SHRIMP) U-Pb analyses have been carried out on detrital zircons. To constrain the presumed provenance of the Hronicum Unit sediments five samples have been taken from two lithostratigraphic units, the Nižná Boca and the Malužiná formations. The detrital-zircon age spectrum demonstrates two prominent populations, the first, Late Pennsylvanian-Early Cisuralian (288-309 Ma) and the second, Famennian—Tournaisian (345-371 Ma). The probability density age peak at 297 Ma permits to estimate the maximum sedimentation age of the Nižná Boca Fm. to younger than Asselian and the beginning of the Malužiná Formation sedimentation has been assessed at least in Sakmarian. The sedimentation persisted, with the exception of a short break in the Wordian/Capitanian, through the Lopingian. Smaller zircon age clusters range within 446-541 Ma, with a dominance of the Cambrian detrital zircons (491-541 Ma). The Precambrian time-span is dominated by the two groups of detrital zircons; Ediacaran in the range of 545-612 Ma and Paleoproterozoic-Neoarchean ranging from 1.8 to 2.8 Ga. The documented zircon ages reflect derivation of the Hronicum sediments from the Variscan Western Carpathian crystalline basement, the Late Devonian/Early Mississippian magmatic arc. These data support close relations of the presumed Hronicum basement with the Armorican terranes and derivation from the Cadomian Belt, associated with the West African Craton during Neoproterozoic and Cambrian time.

  8. Structure and diversity of small mammal communities of mountain forests in Western Carpathians

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Suchomel, J.; Purchart, L.; Čepelka, L.; Heroldová, Marta

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 133, č. 3 (2014), s. 481-490 ISSN 1612-4669 R&D Projects: GA MZe QH72075 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : species diversity * Rodents * Insectivores * Mountain forests * Carpathians Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 2.095, year: 2014

  9. Magma hybridization in the Western Tatra Mts. granitoid intrusion (S-Poland, Western Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Jolanta; Gawęda, Aleksandra; Klötzli, Urs

    In the Variscan Western Tatra granites hybridization phenomena such as mixing and mingling can be observed at the contact of mafic precursors of dioritic composition and more felsic granitic host rocks. The textural evidence of hybridization include: plagioclase-K-feldspar-sphene ocelli, hornblende- and biotite-rimmed quartz ocelli, plagioclase with Ca-rich spike zonation, inversely zoned K-feldspar crystals, mafic clots, poikilitic plagioclase and quartz crystals, mixed apatite morphologies, zoned K-feldspar phenocrysts. The apparent pressure range of the magma hybridization event was calculated at 6.1 kbar to 4.6 kbar, while the temperature, calculated by independent methods, is in the range of 810°C-770°C. U-Pb age data of the hybrid rocks were obtained by in-situ LA-MC-ICP-MS analysis of zircon. The oscillatory zoned zircon crystals yield a concordia age of 368 ± 8 Ma (MSWD = 1.1), interpreted as the age of magma hybridization and timing of formation of the magmatic precursors. It is the oldest Variscan magmatic event in that part of the Tatra Mountains.

  10. Examples of Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations in the central part of the Lower Beskids, (the Polish Flysch Carpathians)

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    Zatorski, Michał

    2016-04-01

    The Lower Beskids are located between the western and eastern parts of the Carpathian flysch belt, whereas the low altitudes of passes and ridges in this region have until now been identified mainly with the differences in bedrock resistance. In the light of contemporary information regarding the geology of this area, the hypothesis of the gravitational placement of large tectonic elements has become topical again. A particularly interesting area is the ridge and foreland of the Magura Wątkowska, bordering in the north with the Sanok-Jasło Pits (a denudation valley). This edge zone of the Lower Beskids has a complicated geological structure, i.e. it constitutes a tectonic contact of the Magura Unit and the Central Carpathian Depression (the depressed part of the Silesian nappe). During the field research and analyses regarding the identification of morphostructural elements, the important role of various kinds of lineaments was observed. Some of the inventoried lineaments were, e.g. large size faults or effects of the impact of tectonic processes on bedrock. Structures in the rock (cracks, faults) accompanying them are important in determining the type of macro scale gravitational movements. The outer part of fold structures in the foreland of the Magura Wątkowska shows the rotation around the longitudinal syncline axis, and is an excellent research field for a comprehensive analysis of gravitational movements, both of the basin type and the DSGSD (Deep Seated Gravitational Slope Deformations) type. Determining the types of tectonic lineaments was based on a review of selected directions in the context of the course of tectonic structures in the study area. On that basis, lineaments were classified into two morphogenetic groups, i.e. structures that do not result in visible movements relative to the analyzed rock massif (cracks), and those causing the displacement of the rock massif (faults, overthrust). Using the directional and contour diagrams generated by

  11. Palaeohydrological changes during the mid and late Holocene in the Carpathian area, central-eastern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliuc, Aritina; Veres, Daniel; Brauer, Achim; Hubay, Katalin; Hutchinson, Simon M.; Begy, Robert; Braun, Mihaly

    2017-05-01

    Multi-proxy, high-resolution analyses (lithological, geochemical, environmental magnetism) anchored by 22 14C dates, of a 5.53 m long sediment core from Lake Ighiel (Romanian Carpathians, central-eastern Europe) allowed the reconstruction of key local, catchment-lacustrine dynamics and an appraisal of palaeohydrological and palaeoclimatic gradients acting regionally over the last 6000 years. The first sedimentological phase of the record from 6030 to 4200 cal yr BP is characterised by low productivity and high detrital input indicating surface runoff processes due to enhanced rainfall. This interpretation is in agreement with other hydrological reconstructions reporting increased precipitation also in CE Europe, NE Mediterranean and also inferred summer and winter latitudinal temperature gradients (LTG) (as defined by Davis and Brewer, 2009), showing a strong connectivity between basin-lacustrine dynamics and the establishment of the dominant, Atlantic atmospheric circulation pattern in the area. The lacustrine system was more stable between 4200 and 2500 cal yr BP when clastic inputs diminished and biological productivity increased. During this interval, the coherence of Lake Ighiel's multi-century detrital events, identified in a range of proxy-data (albeit different in frequency and magnitude), with flood activity in central Europe (the Alps) suggests a common moisture forcing (Atlantic and periodically Mediterranean influences). In contrast, different reconstructions from the NE Mediterranean indicate a distinct NW-SE hydro-climatic gradient. A more complex and variable trend is depicted in Lake Ighiel sedimentation during the last 2500 years showing a variable detrital trend likely reflecting an intriguing hydrological pattern which is in agreement with intervals of increased aridity phases during a generally moister period. Comparing our sedimentological results with published pollen records from the nearby area clearly indicates anthropogenic imprints during

  12. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

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    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  13. Landslide activity as a threat to infrastructure in river valleys - An example from outer Western Carpathians (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Wistuba, Małgorzata; Malik, Ireneusz

    2017-11-01

    Intensive development of the area of Polish Carpathians increases the scale of landslide risk. Thus detecting landslide hazards and risks became important issue for spatial planning in the area. We applied dendrochronological methods and GIS analysis for better understanding of landslide activity and related hazards in the test area (3,75 km2): Salomonka valley and nearby slopes in the Beskid Żywiecki Mts., Outer Western Carpathians, southern Poland. We applied eccentricity index of radial growth of trees to date past landslide events. Dendrochronological results allowed us to determine the mean frequency of landsliding at each sampling point which were next interpolated into a map of landslide hazard. In total we took samples at 46 points. In each point we sampled 3 coniferous trees. Landslide hazard map shows a medium (23 sampling points) and low (20 sampling points) level of landslide activity for most of the area. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide. Results of the dendrochronological study suggest that all landslides reaching downslope to Salomonka valley floor are active. LiDAR-based analysis of relief shows that there is an active coupling between those landslides and river channel. Thus channel damming and formation of an episodic lake are probable. The hazard of flooding valley floor upstream of active landslides should be included in the local spatial planning system and crisis management system.

  14. Numerical analysis of deep-seated mass movements in the Magura Nappe; Flysch Belt of the Western Carpathians (Czech Republic

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    I. Baron

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Deep-seated slope failures are common features in the mountains of the Raca Unit, Magura Nappe of the Flysch Belt of Western Carpathians. Since they represent very complicated system, understanding of their evolution and triggers still remains unclear. We tried to provide a back-analysis of their development by using a finite difference code (FDM of continua (Flac 4.0. We confirmed that such large mass movements could be triggered by water saturation of the bedrock in the three particular geological and geomorphic settings. Such situation could have been caused by heavy rainfalls in humid phases of the Holocene or permafrost melting in Late Glacial. The effects of faulting, very deep weathering of the bedrock, low geotechnical parameters of smectite-rich material and the local slope geometry have also been accounted for in numerical models, as well as the other triggering factors of slope instability. FDM modelled shear zones are in agreement with observations.

  15. The historical disturbance regime of mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians and its influence on current forest structure and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janda, Pavel; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Mikoláš, Martin; Bače, Radek; Nagel, Thomas A; Seidl, Rupert; Seedre, Meelis; Morrissey, Robert C; Kucbel, Stanislav; Jaloviar, Peter; Jasík, Marián; Vysoký, Juraj; Šamonil, Pavel; Čada, Vojtěch; Mrhalová, Hana; Lábusová, Jana; Nováková, Markéta H; Rydval, Miloš; Matějů, Lenka; Svoboda, Miroslav

    2017-03-15

    In order to gauge ongoing and future changes to disturbance regimes, it is necessary to establish a solid baseline of historic disturbance patterns against which to evaluate these changes. Further, understanding how forest structure and composition respond to variation in past disturbances may provide insight into future resilience to climate-driven alterations of disturbance regimes. We established 184 plots (mostly 1000 m 2 ) in 14 primary mountain Norway spruce forests in the Western Carpathians. On each plot we surveyed live and dead trees and regeneration, and cored around 25 canopy trees. Disturbance history was reconstructed by examining individual tree growth trends. The study plots were further aggregated into five groups based on disturbance history (severity and timing) to evaluate and explain its influence on forest structure. These ecosystems are characterized by a mixed severity disturbance regime with high spatiotemporal variability in severity and frequency. However, periods of synchrony in disturbance activity were also found. Specifically, a peak of canopy disturbance was found for the mid-19th century across the region (about 60% of trees established), with the most important periods of disturbance in the 1820s and from the 1840s to the 1870s. Current stand size and age structure were strongly influenced by past disturbance activity. In contrast, past disturbances did not have a significant effect on current tree density, the amount of coarse woody debris, and regeneration. High mean densities of regeneration with height >50 cm (about 1400 individuals per ha) were observed. Extensive high severity disturbances have recently affected Central European forests, spurring a discussion about the causes and consequences. We found some evidence that forests in the Western Carpathians were predisposed to recent severe disturbance events as a result of synchronized past disturbance activity, which partly homogenized size and age structure and made recent

  16. The Upper Cretaceous Ostravice Sandstone in the Polish sector of the Silesian Nappe, Outer Western Carpathians

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    Cieszkowski Marek

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The Ostravice Sandstone Member was identified and described as a lithostratigraphic unit in the Polish part of the Outer Carpathians. This division occurs in the lowermost part of the Godula Formation, is underlain by variegated deposits of the Mazák Formation or directly by the Barnasiówka and Lhoty formations, and overlain by the Czernichów Member of the Godula Formation. Domination by thick- and very thick-bedded sandstones, conglomeratic sandstones and conglomerates rich in calcareous clasts, mostly of the Štramberk-type limestones, is typical for the Ostravice Sandstone Member. These deposits are widespread between the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mountains in the Czech Republic and the Ciężkowice Foothills in Poland. The documentation of the Ostravice Sandstone Member occurrence as well as the petrological, sedimentological features, and inventory of the carbonate clasts are presented here.

  17. Constraining exhumation pathway in an accretionary wedge by (U-Th)/He thermochronology—Case study on Meliatic nappes in the Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiš, Marián; Danišík, Martin; Ružička, Peter; Schmiedt, Ivan

    2014-11-01

    This study reconstructs the late stages in the exhumation history of a nappe derived from the Meliatic accretionary wedge in the Western Carpathians by means of zircon and apatite (U-Th)/He dating. The Meliatic accretionary wedge formed due to the closure of the Neotethyan Triassic-Jurassic Meliata-Hallstatt Ocean in the Late Jurassic. The studied fragments of the blueschist-bearing Meliatic Bôrka Nappe were metamorphosed at low-temperature and high- to medium-pressure conditions at ca. 160-150 Ma and included into the accretionary wedge. The time of the accretionary wedge formation constrains the beginning of the Bôrka Nappe northward thrusting over the Gemeric Unit of the evolving Central Western Carpathians (CWC) orogenic wedge. The zircon (U-Th)/He data on four samples recorded three evolutionary stages: (i) cooling through the ∼180 °C isotherm at 130-120 Ma related to starting collapse of the accretionary wedge, following exhumation of the high-pressure slices in the Meliatic accretionary wedge; (ii) postponed exhumation and cooling of some fragments through the ∼180 °C isotherm from 115 to 95 Ma due to ongoing collapse of this wedge; and (iii) cooling from 80 to 65 Ma, postdating the thrusting (∼100-80 Ma) of the Bôrka Nappe slices during the Late Cretaceous compression related to formation of the CWC orogenic wedge. The third stage already documents cooling of the Meliatic Bôrka Nappe slices in the CWC orogenic wedge. The apatite (U-Th)/He data may indicate cooling of a Bôrka Nappe slice to near-surface temperatures at ∼65 Ma. The younger AHe age clusters indicate that at least one, or possibly two, reheating events could have occurred in the longer interval from ∼40 to ∼10 Ma during the Oligocene-Miocene. These were related to sedimentary burial and/or the magmatism as documented in other parts of the CWC.

  18. Seismic Tomography of the South Carpathian System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, G. W.; Ren, Y.; Dando, B. D.; Houseman, G.; Ionescu, C.; Hegedus, E.; Radovanovic, S.; South Carpathian Project Working Group

    2010-12-01

    The South Carpathian Mountain Range is an enigmatic system, which includes one of the most seismically active regions in Europe today. That region, Vrancea in the SE Carpathians, is well studied and its deep structure may be geologically unique, but the mantle structures beneath the western part of the South Carpathian Range are not well resolved by previous tomographic studies. The South Carpathian Project (SCP) is a major temporary deployment (2009-2011) of seismic broadband systems extending across the eastern Pannonian Basin and the South Carpathian Mountains. In this project we aim to map the upper mantle structure in central Europe with the objective of testing geodynamic models of the process that produced extension in the Pannonian, synchronous with convergence and uplift in the Carpathians. Here, we describe initial results of finite-frequency tomography using body waves to image the mantle of the region. We have selected teleseismic earthquakes with magnitude greater than 5.9, which occurred between 2005 and 2010. The data were recorded on 57 temporary stations deployed in the South Carpathian Project, 56 temporary stations deployed in the earlier Carpathian Basins Project (CBP), and 41 permanent broadband stations. The differential travel times are measured in high, intermediate and low frequencies (0.5-2.0 Hz, 0.1-0.5 Hz and 0.03-0.1 Hz for both P-wave, 0.1-0.5 Hz, 0.05-0.1 Hz and 0.02-0.05 Hz for S-wave), and are inverted to produce P and S-wave velocity maps at different depths in the mantle. An extensive zone of high seismic velocities is located in the Mantle Transition zone beneath the Pannonian Basin, and is related to down-welling associated with an earlier phase of continental convergence in the Pannonian region. These results will be used in conjunction with 3D geodynamical modelling to help understand the geological evolution of this region. SCP working group: G. Houseman, G. Stuart, Y. Ren, B. Dando, P. Lorinczi, School of Earth and

  19. JURASSIC PALEOGEOGRAPHY OF THE PIENINY AND OUTER CARPATHIAN BASINS

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    JAN GOLONKA

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Jurassic history of the Pieniny/Outer Carpathian basins reflects the evolution of the Circum-Tethyan area, especially its Alpine Tethys part. The Alpine Tethys that is Ligurian, Penninic Oceans and Pieniny/Magura Basin constitute the extension of the Central Atlantic system. The synrift stage lasted in the Pieniny/Magura Basin from late Early Jurassic to Tithonian (the Magura Unit constitutes the southernmost part of the Outer Flysch Carpathians. The Pieniny rift opened during Pliensbachian – Aalenian. The central Atlantic and Alpine Tethys went into a drifting stage during the Middle Jurassic. The Late Jurassic (Oxfordian-Kimmeridgian history of the Pieniny/Magura Basin reflects strongest facial differentiation within sedimentary basin where mixed siliceous-carbonate sedimentation took place. Greatest deepening effect is indicated by widespread Oxfordian radiolarites, which occur in the all basinal successions, whereas the shallowest zone is completely devoid of siliceous intercalations at that time (sedimentation from Ammonitico Rosso facies up to coral reef limestone. The southern part of the North European Platform, north from the Pieniny/Magura realm, started to be rifted during Late Jurassic time and Silesian Basin in the Outer Western Carpathians and Sinaia Basin in the Eastern Carpathians, with black, mainly redeposited marls have been created. The outer sub-basins were differentiated during the latest (Hauterivian-Barremian phase of basinal development. The connection of Silesian Basin with Sinaia and Southern Carpathian Severin areas suggests the NW-SE direction of the basinal axis while the orientation of the Pieniny Klippen Belt/Magura Basin was SW-NE so, two Outer Carpathian perpendicular directions are possible within the basins. Major reorganization happened during the Tithonian-Berriasian time. It was reflected by both paleoceanographical and paleoclimatical changes. The Neo-Cimmerian tectonic events as well as main phase

  20. Changes in the channel-bed level of the western Carpathian rivers over the last 40years

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    Kijowska-Strugała, Małgorzata; Bucała-Hrabia, Anna

    2017-04-01

    Channel-bed level is constantly changing in time and space, and the process is dependent on both natural and anthropogenic factors. In mountain areas this is one of the more visible morphological processes. The main aim of the research was to analyze the dynamics of the position of river channel beds. Three rivers located within the western part of Polish Carpathians were chosen for the analysis: the Ropa river, the Kamienica Nawojowska river and the Ochotnica river. They are typical rivers for the Beskidy Mountains, medium Flysch mountains. To assess changes in the position of channel bed long-term series of data of minimum water stages in the river were used. The Ropa river is the biggest left tributary of the Wisłoka river (basin a of the upper Vistula River). The total length of the river amounts to 80 km, its gradient equals 58.9‰ and the water basin area amounts to 974 km2. The Kamienica Nawojowska river, with a length of 32.2 km is a right tributary of Dunajec river. The average decrease for the entire watercourse is 18.1‰. The catchment area is 238 km2. The Ochotnica river is 22.7 km long and it is a left tributary of the Dunajec river. The average slope for the entire watercourse is 36.1‰. The Ochotnica river characterized by deep valleys (catchment area 107.6 km2). Analysis of trends in minimum annual water stages in the alluvial Ropa river channel throughout the multi-year period of 1995-2014 shows an increasing trend amounting to 0.8 cm/year. In the Kamienica Nawojowska river the tendency of incision was observed starting from the 1960 to 2014. Average annual rate of increase of the minimum stages was between 0.4 to 1.2 cm/year. On the basis of the analysis of the minimum water levels in the years 1972-2011 two periods can be seen with different tendencies to change the position of the Ochotnica channel bottom. The first covers the years 1972-1996, where aggradation (3.9 cm/year) was the predominant process while in the period 1997-2011 incision

  1. Apatite fission track and (U-Th)/He dating of teschenite intrusions gives time constraints on accretionary processes and development of planation surfaces in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Danisik, Martin; Frisch, Wolfgang [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geosciences; Panek, Tomas [Ostrava Univ. (Czech Republic). Dept. of Physical Geography and Geoecology; Matysek, Dalibor [Technical Univ. of Ostrava (Czech Republic). Dept. of Geological Engineering; Dunkl, Istvan [Geoscience Center Goettingen (Germany). Sedimentology and Environmental Geology

    2008-09-15

    The age of planation surfaces in the Podbeskydska pahorkatina Upland in the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC, Czech Republic) is constrained by low-temperature thermochronological dating methods for the first time. Our apatite fission track and apatite (U-Th)/He data measured on teschenite intrusions show that planation surfaces in the study area formed in post-Pannonian time (>7.1 Ma) and are therefore younger than traditionally believed. This contradicts the classical concepts, which stipulate that a large regional planation surface of Pannonian age (the so-called ''midmountain level'') developed in the whole Western Carpathians. Geodynamic implications of our data are the following: (i) the investigated Tesin and Godula nappes of the OWC were buried and thermally overprinted in the accretionary wedge in different ways, and consequently experienced different cooling histories. This indicates a dynamic basin setting with an active accretionary process in a subduction zone; (ii) accretionary processes in the OWC were active already during Late Eocene times. (orig.)

  2. Large scale displacements and internal deformations of the Outer Western Carpathians during the Cenozoic as manifested in paleomagnetic rotations and in the magnetic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Márton, Emö; Tokarski, Antek K.

    2016-04-01

    The paleomagnetic and magnetic anisotropy results interpreted in this presentation in terms of tectonics were obtained on the fine grained members, mostly mudstones/claystones, of the flysch from the Magura, the Silesian and the Dukla rootless nappes. The results are the best from the Upper Oligocene Krosno beds, which were affected by compression soon after deposition. These beds were available for sampling in the Silesian and Dukla nappes, but absent in the Magura nappe. Thus, in the latter older Paleogene strata were tested. A common feature of all sampled sediments is the low susceptibility (in the range of 10-4 SI or lower), weak remanence and the presence of pyrite. AMS measurements point to quite strong and probably repeated deformation in the Magura nappe, and the remanence is of-post-folding age. The AMS of the Silesian and Dukla nappes indicate weaker deformation, the orientations of the AMS lineations reflect compression. The remanence is of pre-folding age in the western and central segments of the Silesian nappe and is a mixture of pre and post-folding magnetization in the eastern segment. All the so far mentioned areas must have been affected by about 60° CCW rotation which followed the internal deformation. The Dukla nappe also rotated in the CCW sense, but the angle is far from well-defined. This can be attributed to the complicated internal structure of the nappe (e.g. presence of olistoliths) and non-removable overprint magnetizations. The relationship between local tectonic strikes and AMS lineations seems to imply that the ductile deformation responsible for the AMS lineations were acquired first, and the map-scale structures came into being during the CCW rotation of the studied segment of the nappe. AARM measurements documented that the fabrics of the ferrimagnetic minerals are often different from the orientation of the AMS fabrics. In such cases, they either fail to define an ellipsoid or the general orientations of the maxima are different

  3. Tectonic strain changes affecting the development of deep seated gravitational slope deformations in the Bohemian Massif and Outer Western Carpathians

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    Stemberk, Josef; Hartvich, Filip; Blahůt, Jan; Rybář, Jan; Krejčí, Oldřich

    2017-07-01

    This paper describes a pair of intensively studied deep seated gravitational slope deformations from the Czech Republic. Structural geological mapping and the interrogation of high resolution LiDAR DEMs have been used to reassess the extent of each slope deformation and to obtain new information about their surface morphologies. Electrical resistivity tomography has been used to image the subsurface structures while rod dilatometers and permanently installed mechanical extensometers have been used to define their kinematic behaviour. Dilatometric measurements from across a fissure the edge of the Mužský Hill DSGSD show that the progressive trend has been interspersed by five periods of movement acceleration since monitoring began in 1990 while extensometric measurements from across a second fissure about 50 m from the edge of the plateau show that this discontinuity was affected by an significant period of extension from 2004 to 2006 and a significant period of compression from 2006 to 2008. These data demonstrate that the Mužský Hill DSGSD is characterised by the lateral spreading of rigid sandstone blocks across a plastic marl formation at the edge of Příhrazy Plateau. Extensometric measurements from the Kněhyně Mountain DSGSD show that a fault located at a depth of about 25 m below the surface is characterised by progressive dilation whereas a fault located at a depth of about 57.5 m below the surface is characterised by episodic vertical dip-slip displacements. Both faults are affected by horizontal dextral strike slip displacements. These data demonstrate that the Kněhyně Mountain DSGSD is characterised by translational rocksliding associated with the neotectonic uplift of the Outer Western Carpathians. The presented kinematic data have been compared to records of precipitation, groundwater level, earthquakes, and strain changes measured by the fault displacement monitoring network EU-TecNet. Strain changes induced by the widespread redistribution of

  4. From nappe stacking to extensional detachments at the contact between the Carpathians and Dinarides - The Jastrebac Mountains of Central Serbia

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    Erak, Dalibor; Matenco, Liviu; Toljić, Marinko; Stojadinović, Uroš; Andriessen, Paul A. M.; Willingshofer, Ernst; Ducea, Mihai N.

    2017-07-01

    Reactivation of inherited nappe contacts is a common process in orogenic areas affected by back-arc extension. The amount of back-arc extension is often variable along the orogenic strike, owing to the evolution of arcuated mountain chains during stages of rapid slab retreat. This evolution creates low rates of extension near rotation poles, where kinematics and interplay with the pre-existing orogenic structure are less understood. The amount of Miocene extension recorded by the Pannonian Basin of Central Europe decreases SE-wards along the inherited Cretaceous - Paleogene contact between the Dinarides and Carpathian Mountains. Our study combines kinematic data obtained from field and micro-structural observations assisted with fission track thermochronological analysis and U-Pb zircon dating to demonstrate a complex poly-phase evolution in the key area of the Jastrebac Mountains of Serbia. A first event of Late Cretaceous exhumation was followed by latest Cretaceous - Eocene thrusting and magmatism related to a continental collision that sutured the accretionary wedge containing contractional trench turbidites. The suture zone was subsequently reactivated and exhumed by a newly observed Miocene extensional detachment that lasted longer in the Jastrebac Mountains when compared with similar structures situated elsewhere in the same structural position. Such extensional zones situated near the pole of extensional-driven rotation favour late stage truncations and migration of extension in a hanging-wall direction, while directions of tectonic transport show significant differences in short distances across the strike of major structures.

  5. Quantification of carbon dioxide emissions of Ciomadul, the youngest volcano of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (Eastern-Central Europe)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglarka; Ionescu, Artur; Cardellini, Carlo; Harangi, Szabolcs; Baciu, Călin; Caracausi, Antonio; Viveiros, Fatima

    2017-04-01

    In our study we provide the first high resolution CO2 flux data in the youngest volcanic region of the Eastern-Central Europe, Carpathian-Pannonian Region and estimate the CO2 emission of the seemingly inactive Ciomadul volcanic complex. Our estimate includes data from focused emissions and diffuse CO2 emissions from soil. The CO2 fluxes of focused emissions range between 277 and 8172 g d-1, corresponding to a CO2 output into the atmosphere between 0.1 and 2.98 tons per year. The investigated areas for diffuse soil gas emissions were characterized by wide range of CO2 flux values, at Apor Baths, ranging from 1.7 to 82000 g m-2 d-1, while at Lăzărești ranging between 1.43 and 38000 g m-2 d-1. The highest CO2 focused gas fluxes at Ciomadul were found at the periphery of the youngest volcanic complex, which could be explained either by tectonic control across the brittle older volcanoes or by degassing from a deeper crustal zone resulting in CO2 flux at the periphery of the supposed melt-bearing magma body beneath Ciomadul. The estimate of the total CO2 output in the area is 8700 t y-1, and it is consistent with other volcanoes with similar age in Italy and USA. Taking into account the isotopic composition of the gases that indicate magmatic component, the CO2 emissions yield further support that Ciomadul may be considered a dormant volcano or PAMS (volcanoes with potentially active magma storage) rather than inactive and emphasize that CO2 output of such volcanic systems has to be accounted in the estimation of the global volcanic CO2 budget.

  6. Psocid taxocenoses (Insecta: Psocoptera in the forest ecosystems of the Querci-fageta s. lat. zone in the Western Carpathian Mts. and Polonic subprovincy

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    Otakar Holuša

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Structure of psocid taxocenoses (Psocoptera were intensively studied in forest ecosystems of the Western Carpathian Mts. and Polonic biogeographical subprovincy during 1997–2001 in the Czech Republic. Vegetation tiers (= altitudinal vegetation zones were used as a study frame. Only a part of material, i.e. individuals that was found in the forest ecosystems of Querci-fageta s. lat. communities (= the 3rd oak-beech vegetation tier was evaluated for purpose of this work. This vegetation tier is widespread in large part of the Opavská pahorkatina hills, in large parts of Podbeskydská pahorktina hills, in the Bílé Karpaty hills and in the foothills of the Vsetínské vrchy hills. 1201 adults comprising 29 species were found in total in the 3rd vegetation tier. As eudominant species, the following ones were found: Peripsocus subfasciatus, Caecilius flavius and Stenopsocus lachlani, as dominant species, the following ones were found: Philotarsus parviceps and Caecilius piceus. In natural geobiocenoses with the level of naturalness of 1 or 2, the following species were found: as eudominant species: Caecilius flavidus, Peripsocus phaeopterus, as dominant species, the following ones were found: Caecilius piceus, Peripsocus subfasciatus, Philotarsus parviceps and Elipsocus moebiusi. Taxocenoses of psocids were evaluated by Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA and Divisive Cluster Analysis (DvClA. This material was compared to another material gained from various vegetation tiers in the Western Carpathians Mts. The characteristic species composition of psocids in the 3rd vegetation tier was as follows – Elipsocus moebiusi – E. hyalinus – Philotarsus parviceps – Ectopsocus meridionalis – Caecilius flavidus.

  7. Effect of slope failures on river-network pattern: A river piracy case study from the flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians

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    Baroň, Ivo; Bíl, Michal; Bábek, Ondřej; Smolková, Veronika; Pánek, Tomáš; Macur, Lukáš

    2014-06-01

    Landslides are important geomorphic agents in various mountainous settings. We document here a case of river piracy from the upper part of the Malá Brodská Valley in the Vsetínské Mts., Czech Republic (Rača Unit of the flysch Magura Group of Nappes, flysch belt of the Outer Western Carpathians) controlled by mass movement processes. Based on the field geological, geomorphological and geophysical data, we found out that the landslide accumulations pushed the more active river of out of two subparallel river channels with different erosion activity westwards and forced intensive lateral erosion towards the recently abandoned valley. Apart from the landslide processes, the presence of the N-striking fault, accentuated by higher flow rates of the eastern channel as a result of its larger catchment area, were the most critical factors of the river piracy. As a consequence of the river piracy, intensive retrograde erosion in the elbow of capture and also within the upper portion of the western catchment occurred. Deposits of two landslide dams document recent minimum erosion rates to be 18.8 mm.ky- 1 in the western (captured) catchment, and 3.6 mm.ky- 1 in the eastern catchment respectively. The maximum age of the river piracy is estimated to be of the late Glacial and/or the early Holocene.

  8. High genetic differentiation in the alpine plant Campanula alpina Jacq. (Campanulaceae): evidence for glacial survival in several Carpathian regions and long-term isolation between the Carpathians and the Alps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronikier, M; Cieślak, E; Korbecka, G

    2008-04-01

    A survey of amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was conducted to elucidate the phylogeography of Campanula alpina, a key species of silicicolous alpine grasslands in the Carpathians with a disjunct distribution in the Eastern European Alps. The Carpathians experienced a different glacial history from the Alps: local glaciers were present only in the highest massifs, while alpine habitats extended over larger areas related to their present distribution in this region. We asked: (i) whether in the Carpathians a high-mountain plant exhibits a complex phylogeographical structure or rather signatures of recent migrations, and (ii) whether the disjunct part of the species' distribution in the Alps resulted from a recent colonization from the Carpathians or from a restricted expansion from separate Eastern Alpine refugia. Our study revealed a clear phylogeographical pattern in AFLPs supported by congruent groups of distinct cpDNA haplotypes. Highest genetic differentiation was observed between the Alps and the Carpathians, indicating a long-term isolation between populations from these two mountain ranges. Further genetic division within the Carpathians suggests that current species' distribution is composed of several groups which have been isolated from each other for a long period. One genetic break separates Western from Southeastern Carpathian material, which is in line with a classical biogeographical boundary. A further, strongly supported genetic group was identified at the southwestern edge of the Carpathian arch. In the Eastern Alps, genetic traces of glacial survival in separate refugial areas in the calcareous northern part and the siliceous central part were found.

  9. Geodynamics of the Carpathian-Pannonian region: Insights from low temperature thermochronology of the Polish and Ukrainian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreucci, Benedetta; Zattin, Massimiliano; Castelluccio, Ada; Mazzoli, Stefano; Szaniawski, Rafal; Jankowski, Leszek

    2013-04-01

    by erosion of the wedge during thrusting in the western area, by erosion and tectonic denudation driven by post-thrusting extension in the central sector, and by erosion of the uplifting wedge after the end of thrusting in the eastern sector. Based on the non-homogeneous burial depths inferred for the western and central sectors, we suggest the lack of a subducting slab and subsequent break-off in these areas. Furthermore, the distribution of exhumation ages along the chain is not compatible with a clockwise (E to SE ward) progressive slab break-off, the youngest ages being located in the central area, at the Polish-Ukraine boundary. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that Miocene extension of the Carpathian-Pannonian region was triggered by gravitational instability and subsequent lithosphere downwelling, below the Carpathians mountain belt, and astenosphere upwelling below the Pannonian Basin. This process is compatible with the burial-exhumation distribution observed along the study region. Furthermore, it is able to explain both the coupled crustal extension and lithospheric thickening observed in the central sector (Poland-Ukraine boundary) and the progressive transition between the extending and subsiding Pannonian Basin and the uplifting Carpathians in the eastern area.

  10. Modelling the geomorphic history of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians with the CHILD model

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    Staškovanová Veronika

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Numerical models were developed in order to provide a suitable computational framework for exploring research questions related to long-term landscape evolution. We used the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development (CHILD model to prove three hypotheses concerning the processes contributing to the neotectonic landscape evolution of the Tribeč Mts. and the Pohronský Inovec Mts. (Western Carpathians: (1 simultaneous planation and uplift; (2 temporally and spatially varying uplift; (3 exhumation of a part of the area from below Neogene sediments. Given the size of the area, its lithological variability and the insufficient knowledge of the palaeogeographical settings, using a detachment-limited model to express river incision into bedrock as well as water (rill erosion on hillslopes proved the best solution. Results of the simulations were compared with real topography through hypsographic curves and the distribution of remnants of planation surfaces. The real surface corresponds best to a combination of the hypotheses (2 and (3, with more intensive Quaternary tectonic uplift of the Pohronský Inovec Mts. and the adjacent Rázdiel part of the Tribeč Mts., and exhumation of a mature palaeosurface from below Miocene sediments in the east of the Tribeč Mts.

  11. Sunrise as a tourist attraction in the context of tourist motivation theory: a case study of the peak of Babia Góra (Western Carpathians

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    Mocior Ewelina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tourist ascents of mountain peaks before sunrise are increasingly popular. Babia Góra (Western Carpathians is a peak on the Polish-Slovak border frequently visited by a great number of tourists at sunrise. The main objective of our research, based on the case study of Babia Gora, was to answer a more general question whether the sunrise can be considered a tourist attraction. The research included the observation and description of every sunrise at summer holiday weekends during 2012 from the peak of Babia Góra as well as the collection of data on the number of tourists and weather conditions. Survey interviews, using questionnaire, with randomly selected hikers present on the peak of Babia Góra at sunrise (269 were conducted. The investigation showed that during summer holiday sunrises there were a maximum of 130 people on the summit of Babia Góra at the same time. Most of the surveyed people (84% agreed that the opportunity to observe the sunrise was one of the pull factors for them. This confirms the hypothesis that sunrise constitutes a tourist attraction.

  12. New zircon ages on the Cambrian-Ordovician volcanism of the Southern Gemericum basement (Western Carpathians, Slovakia): SHRIMP dating, geochemistry and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vozárová, Anna; Rodionov, Nickolay; Šarinová, Katarína; Presnyakov, Sergey

    2017-09-01

    The Southern Gemericum basement in the Inner Western Carpathians, composed of low-grade volcano-sedimentary rock complexes, constitutes a record of the polyphase Cambrian-Ordovician continental volcanic arc volcanism. These metavolcanic rocks are characterized by the enrichment in K, Rb, Ba, Th and Ce and Sm relative to Ta, Nb, Hf, Zr, Y and Yb that are the characteristic features for volcanic arc magmatites. The new SHRIMP U-Pb zircon data and compilation of previously published and re-evaluated zircon ages, contribute to a new constrain of the timing of the Cambrian-Ordovician volcanism that occurred between 496 and 447 Ma. The following peaks of the volcanic activity of the Southern Gemericum basement have been recognized: (a) mid-late Furongian at 492 Ma; (b) Tremadocian at 481 Ma; (c) Darriwilian at 464 Ma prolonged to 453 Ma within the early Upper Ordovician. The metavolcanic rocks are characterized by a high zircon inheritance, composed of Ediacaran (650-550 Ma), Tonian-Stenian (1.1-0.9 Ma), and, to a lesser extent, Mesoproterozoic (1.3 Ga), Paleoproterozoic (1.9 Ga) and Archaean assemblages (2.6 Ga). Based on the acquired zircon populations, it could be deduced that Cambrian-Ordovician arc crust was generated by a partial melting of Ediacaran basement in the subduction-related setting, into which old crustal fragments were incorporated. The ascertained zircon inheritances with Meso-, Paleoproterozoic and Archaean cores indicate the similarities with the Saharan Metacraton provenance.

  13. Dendrochronology as a source of data for landslide activity maps – an example from Beskid Żywiecki Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland

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    Łuszczyńska Katarzyna

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We applied dendrochronological methods for dating landslide activity in the study area (3.75 km2, on the slopes of Sucha Mountain (1040 m a.s.l., in the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains, in the Western Carpathians. 46 sampling sites were distributed throughout the study area. At each site we sampled 1-3 coniferous trees: Norway spruces (Picea abies Karst. and/or silver firs (Abies alba Mill.. From each tree 2 cores were sampled: one from the upslope and the other from the downslope side of the stem. Based on tree-ring widths measured for opposite sides of stems we have calculated eccentricity index values and dated past landslide events. Mean frequency of landslides was obtained for each sampling site. Finally, the data was interpolated into a map of landslide activity. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW interpolation has been applied. For most of the study area we found medium (19 sites and low (23 sites levels of landslide activity. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide slope and for the one small landslide. The study conducted on Sucha Mountain has shown that dendrochronology can be an effective method for analysing landslide activity and may be useful in further studies, including those for landslide hazard and risk assessments.

  14. Cretaceous transformation from passive to active continental margin in the Western Carpathians as indicated by the sedimentary record in the Infratatric unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putiš, Marián; Gawlick, Hans-Jürgen; Frisch, Wolfgang; Sulák, Marián

    2008-07-01

    The Cretaceous orogen of the Western Carpathians comprises fragments of the destructed northern Centrocarpathian domain, which is defined as Infratatric unit and formed a continental margin facing the Penninic Ocean in Jurassic and Cretaceous times. The breakup event and opening of the Penninic Ocean occurred in the Early Jurassic (Pliensbachian), which is recorded by an abrupt deepening event from shallow-water sediments to deep-water nodular limestone in the Infratatric sediment succession. The transformation of the passive into an active continental margin by the onset of subduction of the Penninic oceanic crust occurred in Santonian times and is reflected by the beginning of flysch deposition in the Infratatric Belice domain, which took the position of a forearc basin in the convergent margin setting. The forearc basin was supplied by clastic material from the more internal part of the Infratatric unit, which experienced nappe stacking, metamorphism, and subsequent exhumation in Late Cretaceous times. In the frontal part of the forearc basin an accretionary wedge was built up, which formed an outer-arc ridge and delivered detrital material into the forearc basin in Maastrichtian time. Final collision between the European and the Adriatic plate occurred in the Eocene period and is responsible for weak metamorphism in the Infratatric unit.

  15. Possible ecologically based ways of preserving and developing the Ukrainian Carpathians

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    V. І. Nikolaichuk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Ukraine has transformed into one of the most environmentally dangerous countries in the world due to the high concentration of industrial production and agriculture and predatory use of natural resources. The current ecological situation in Ukraine is characterized by a deep ecological crisis, which is caused by the laws of operation of the command economy of the former USSR. The majority of the environmental and social indicators of Ukraine are among the worst in Europe. The Carpathian Mountains are among the most significant and interesting landscapes in Europe from the geological and geomorphological, scenic and biological perspectives. The giant arc of the Carpathians begins in southern Romania and passes through Ukraine, Slovakia, Poland, the Czech Republic and Hungary to Austria, crosses all Eastern and Central Europe. A third of the forest reserves of Ukraine are located in the Ukrainian Carpathians, at 53.5% the percentage of forest cover of the area is among the highest in the country. About 50% of the gene pool of Ukraine’s plants, many species of trees and medicinal plants grows there. The geographical location and large area of the rich natural heritage of the Carpathians have multifaceted importance for the conservation of biological, phytocoenotic and landscape diversity and maintaining the ecological balance in the central part of our continent. As with the Alps mountain range, this is an important ecological corridor between Western, Central and Eastern Europe, which promotes the migration of species and their spread into lowland landscapes. In order to preserve biodiversity an inventory of virgin forest ecosystems should be made and strict measures for their protection should be enforced. It is necessary to continue the practice of establishing bilateral areas in cross-border protected areas in order to combine efforts to solve pressing environmental challenges. Conservation of the Carpathians Biodiversity is an urgent problem

  16. High-resolution multi-proxy reconstruction of Lake Ighiel (Western Carpathians, Romania): processes and controlling factors of lacustrine dynamics during the mid and late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haliuc, Aritina; Veres, Daniel; Hubay, Katalin; Begy, Robert; Brauer, Achim; Hutchinson, Simon; Braun, Mihaly

    2016-04-01

    Concerns about current and prospective environmental change have increased the interest in past climate variability and its impact on the bio-hydro-atmosphere and human society. Acting as high-resolution terrestrial archives, lacustrine sediments are the result of the complex interaction between internal and external forcing and an important tool in efforts to resolve questions related to the palaeoclimatic and palaeoenvironmental conditions of the recent past. Here we discuss a new, high-resolution sedimentary record from the Romanian Carpathians (central-eastern Europe). Lake Ighiel (46° 10'50"N, 23° 22'00"E) is a small lake located in a mid-altitude mountain belt (Trascau Mountains) at an altitude of 924 m ( lake maximum depth 9 m; catchment area 487 ha). We employ detailed 210Pb and 14C dating coupled with high-resolution X-ray fluorescence scanning (μ-XRF) measurements, long-core sedimentary logging, environmental magnetic proxies (susceptibility, natural and induced remanences) in an attempt to trace the 6000 years evolution of lake-catchment system. More specifically, we discuss: i) the temporal evolution of the main sedimentation phases of the lake based on sedimentological, geochemical and magnetic proxies; ii) the amplitude and interplay of processes (natural and/or anthropogenic) controlling the depositional environment through time; iii) assess the contribution of each controlling factors and reconstruct the evolution of lacustrine system and palaeoclimate forcing using multivariate statistics. The sedimentary record can be divided into six phases based on alternating high and low detrital fluxes, oscillating lacustrine productivity and redox conditions. A series of detrital events (5200; 4800; 5400; 5250; 4500; 4050; 3800; 3500; 3250; 3050; 2650; 2350; 2250; 1400; 1100; 500; 100 cal yr BP) were identified by microfacies analyses and X-ray fluorescence scanning (μ-XRF) analysis. These events are reflected in most of the parameters and appear

  17. Trans-Boundary Edge Effects in the Western Carpathians: The Influence of Hunting on Large Carnivore Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutal, Miroslav; Váňa, Martin; Suchomel, Josef; Chapron, Guillaume; López-Bao, José Vicente

    2016-01-01

    The conservation and management of wolves Canis lupus in the periphery of their distribution is challenging. Edges of wolf distribution are characterized by very few and intermittent occurrences of individuals, which are modulated by multiple factors affecting the overall population such as human-caused mortality, management targets and food availability. The knowledge of population dynamics in the edges becomes crucial when hunting takes place nearby the edges, which may preclude population expansion. Here, using as example the occurrence of wolves in the Beskydy Mountains (Czech-Slovak border), which are the edge distribution of the wolf and Eurasian lynx Lynx lynx populations in the West Carpathians, we explored how food availability and hunting in the Slovakian core area affected the dynamics of wolves in the edges of this population. During 2003-2012, we monitored large carnivore occurrence by snow-tracking surveys and tested potential differences in the occurrence of these species in Beskydy Mountains and potential mechanisms behind detected patterns. Despite the proximity to the core area, with several wolf reproductions being confirmed at least in recent years, the wolf was a very rare species in Beskydy and was recorded 14 times less often than the lynx. The expected abundance of wolves in the Beskydy Mountains was inversely related to prey availability in the Slovakian core area. Wolf hunting the year before influenced the expected abundance of wolves in Beskydy area. We discuss how different life histories and legal status of both species probably account for most of the observed difference of occurrence at range margins.

  18. Genetic aspects of barite mineralization related to rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit, Outer Western Carpathians, Czech Republic

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    Jirásek Jakub

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Barite is a relatively uncommon phase in vein and amygdule mineralizations hosted by igneous rocks of the teschenite association in the Silesian Unit (Western Carpathians. In macroscopically observable sizes, it has been reported from 10 sites situated only in the Czech part of the Silesian Unit. Microscopic barite produced by the hydrothermal alteration of rock matrix and also by the supergene processes is more abundant. We examined four samples of barite by mineralogical and geochemical methods. Electron microprobe analyses proved pure barites with up to 0.038 apfu Sr and without remarkable internal zonation. Fluid inclusion and sulphur isotope data suggests that multiple sources of fluid components have been involved during barite crystallization. Barite contains primary and secondary aqueous all-liquid (L or less frequent two-phase (L+V aqueous fluid inclusions with variable salinity (0.4-2.9 wt. % NaCl eq. and homogenization temperatures between 77 and 152 °C. The higher-salinity fluid endmember was probably Cretaceous seawater and the lower-salinity one was probably diagenetic water derived from surrounding flysch sediments during compaction and thermal alteration of clay minerals. The δ34S values of barite samples range between -1.0 ‰ and +16.4 ‰ CDT suggesting participation of two sources of sulphate, one with a near-zero δ34S values probably derived from wall rocks and another with high δ34S values being most probably sulphate from the Cretaceous seawater. All results underline the role of externally derived fluids during post-magmatic alteration of bodies of rock of the teschenite association.

  19. The structure of western Sicily, central Mediterranean

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    Catalano, R.; Sulli, A. [Universita di Palermo, Dip. di Geologia e Geodesia, Palermo (Italy); Merlini, S. [ENI-Divisione AGIP, San Donato Milanese (Italy)

    2002-07-01

    Western Sicily is part of the Sicilian chain, a sector of the SE-verging Alpine orogenic belt in the central Mediterranean. Interpretation of seismic reflection profiles, boreholes and recent inland geological data, have enabled us to assess the deep structural grain. A wedge of flat-lying Mesozoic-Miocene carbonate and terrigenous rocks (pre-Panormide nappes) is superimposed on NW-trending, 7-8 km thick, Mesozoic-Paleogene carbonate thrust ramps (Trapanese units), arranged in two structural levels extending from the Tyrrhenian coast to western offshore Sicily. Upper Miocene to Pleistocene terrigenous strata, often deformed, fill syntectonic basins above the thrust pile. The main tectonic transport of the thrust pile, developing from Early Miocene to Early-Middle Pleistocene times, was towards the east and southeast. Initial stacking and deformation of the pre-Panormide allochthon is bracketed between Early and Late Miocene. The Late Miocene-Early Pleistocene underthrusting of the Trapanese-Saccense units, that acted through more recent deep-seated thrusts in the carbonate platform layer, induced late stage refolding and further shortening in the early emplaced pre-Panormide nappe. Previously formed structures appear to have been dissected or reactivated by a right oblique transpression during the Late Pliocene-Pleistocene. The geometry of the carbonate bodies opens new potential perspectives on the existence of structural traps, but the uncertainties of source rock occurrence remain. (Author)

  20. The olenekian carbonates of the Bucovinian nappe (the central sector of the Haghimas syncline, Eastern Carpathians. Lithology and microfacies

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    Daniela Popescu

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Early Triassic carbonate outcrops were studied in the central sector of the Hăghimaş Syncline with regard to stratigraphy, microfacies and facies interpretation.This is the first microfacies study of these deposits. Early Triassic carbonates in the Hăghimaş Syncline are represented by two stratified successions: limestones and dolomites. The limestones overlie very rarely the detritic basal deposits (Induan which marks the beginning of the alpine transgression. The stratified dolomites underlie frequently the Early Anisian massive dolomites. The contact between the stratified limestones and stratified dolomites is only exposed on Calu brook outcrop (the western flank of the Hăghimaş Syncline. The age of the investigated carbonates is Olenekian, based on the occurrence of Meandrospira pusilla biozone (in limestones. The foraminifera are very scarce in dolomites, represented mostly by Earlandia taxa. Microfacies data indicate the existence of a carbonate platform. The Olenekian carbonates yield a broad spectrum of microfacies types, predominantly micrites and biomicrites with foraminifera associated with echinoderms, ostracods, radiolarians, calcitized gastropods etc. These facies types are also known from the carbonate platforms in other parts of the Tethys.

  1. Geological evolution of the southwestern part of the Veporic Unit (Western Carpathians: based on fission track and morphotectonic data

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    Vojtko Rastislav

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Zircon and apatite fission track (FT and morphotectonic analyses were applied in order to infer quantitative constraints on the Alpine morphotectonic evolution of the western part of the Southern Veporic Unit which is related to: (1 Eo-Alpine Cretaceous nappe stacking and metamorphism of the crystalline basement in the greenschist facies. (2 Exhumation phase due to underthrusting of the northerly located Tatric-Fatric basement (~ 90–80 Ma, followed by a passive en-block exhumation with cooling through ~ 320–200 °C during the Palaeocene (ZFT ages of ~ 61–55 Ma. (3 Slow Eocene cooling through ~ 245–90 °C, which most likely reflected erosion of the overlying cover nappes and the Gosau Group sediments. Cooling reached up to 60 °C till the Oligocene (AFT ages of ~ 37–22 Ma in association with erosion of cover nappes. The efficient Eocene erosion led to the formation of the first Cenozoic planation surface with supergene kaolinization in many places. (4 The early Miocene erosion coincided with surface lowering and resulted in the second planation surface favourable for kaolinization. (5 In the middle Miocene, the study area was covered by the Poľana, Javorie, and Vepor stratovolcanoes. (6 The late Miocene stage was related to the erosion and formation of the third Cenozoic planation surface and the final shaping of the mountains was linked to a new accelerated uplift from the Pliocene.

  2. Perovskite, reaction product of a harzburgite with Jurassic– Cretaceous accretionary wedge fluids (Western Carpathians, Slovakia: evidence from the whole-rock and mineral trace element data

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    Putiš Marián

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Perovskite (Prv was discovered in an abyssal harzburgite from a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge of the Western Carpathians (Meliata Unit, Slovakia. Perovskite-1 formation in serpentinized orthopyroxene may be simplified by the mass-balance reaction: Ca2Si2O6 (Ca-pyroxene-member+2Fe2TiO4 (ulvöspinel molecule in spinel+2H2O+O2=2CaTiO3 (Prv+2SiO2+4FeOOH (goethite. Perovskite-2 occurs in a chlorite-rich blackwall zone separating serpentinite and rodingite veins, and in rodingite veins alone. The bulk-rock trace-element patterns suggest negligible differences from visually and microscopically less (“core” to strongly serpentinized harzburgite due to serpentinization and rodingitization: an enrichment in LREE(La,Ce, Cs, ±Ba, U, Nb, Pb, As, Sb, ±Nd and Li in comparison with HREE, Rb and Sr. The U/Pb perovskite ages at ~135 Ma are interpreted to record the interaction of metamorphic fluids with harzburgite blocks in the Neotethyan Meliatic accretionary wedge. Our LA-ICP-MS mineral study provides a complex view on trace element behaviour during the two stages of rodingitization connected with Prv genesis. The positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, Pb, As, Sb, Pr and Nd in Cpx, Opx and Ol are combined with the negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr in these minerals. The similar positive anomalies of Cs, U, Ta, ±Be, As, Sb found in typical serpentinization and rodingitization minerals, with variable contents of La, Ce and Nd, and negative anomalies of Rb, Ba, Th, Nb and Sr suggest involvement of crustal fluids during MP-LP/LT accretionary wedge metamorphism. LA-ICP-MS study revealed strong depletion in LREE from Prv-1 to Prv-2, and a typically negative Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-1, while a positive Eu (and Ti anomaly for Prv-2. Our multi-element diagram depicts enrichment in U, Nb, La, Ce, As, Sb, Pr, Nd and decreased Rb, Ba, Th, Ta, Pb, Sr, Zr in both Prv generations. In general, both Prv generations are very close to the

  3. Geochemistry of the metasedimentary rocks from the Male Karpaty Mts. (Western Carpathians): implications for protolith, provenance, sedimentary environment and tectonic setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meres, S.; Ivan, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Male Karpaty Mts. represent connecting link between the Western Carpathians and Eastern Alps. They are composed of (1) Early Paleozoic basement and (2) Mesozoic cover. Based on lithology and basalt geochemistry the Early Paleozoic basement is divided into two lithostratigraphic groups: (1) Pernek Group represented by incomplete dismembered ophiolite sequences Pre-Visean in age and (2) Pezinok Group supposed to be a fragment of the Devonian extensional rift basin. Both groups were intruded by granitoid batoliths 348±4 My old and underwent contact or periplutonic metamorphic alterations variable in intensity. Metasedimentary rocks of the Pernek Group are represented by small amount of black shales and metacherts associated with small lenses of stratiform pyrite ores. In the Pezinok Group metasedimentary rocks are highly dominated. Phyllites and gneisses sporadically with the organic matter admixture belong to most frequent rock types. Metamorphosed limestones associated with basaltic hyaloclastites occur sporadically only. The distribution of trace elements with the limited fractionation during weathering, transport and deposition processes and immobile in metamorphosis (REE, Th, Hf, Sc) have been mainly used for protolith, provenance and depositional environment studies. Chemical composition of the black shales from the Pernek Group indicate their mixed sedimentary protolith which was formed in oceanic environment and was composed of four components: (1) pelagic chert, (2) organic matter, (3) fine-grained terrigenous component and (4) weathered/hydrothermally altered basalt close to N-MORB. Negative Ce-anomaly, LaN/YbN<6 and Th/Yb<2 are typical. Protolith of metasedimentary rocks (including rocks with organic matter admixture) from the Pezinok Group seems to be close to the immature greywackes of the ensialic island arc provenance derived from an acidic/intermediate magmatic source. They display no Ce-anomaly, negative Eu-anomaly typical for greywackes (Eu

  4. The timberline as result of the interactions among forest, abiotic environment and human activity in the Babia Gora massif, Western Carpathians

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    Lajczak, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The timberline is one of the clearest and most easily discernible boundaries in nature (Troll 1973). Among the existing conceptual models clarifying the complex nature of the relationship between the timberline and the environment and human impact, the fullest seems to be the one presented by K. Holtmeier (2009). The quoted author comprehensively characterizes the timberline, taking into account its course, appearance and ecological characteristics. The aim of the work is to quantitatively assess the factors influencing the course of timberline and its changes over the last ca. 400 years in the Babia Góra massif (1725 m a.s.l.), the highest flysch ridge in the Western Carpathians, which is formed as an asymmetric ridge of kuesta type. Forests mainly in the upper montane zone have preserved their natural character in many areas. Old spruce tree growths are a particular advantage of the Babia Góra Mt., being there on the predominant section of the altitude zone of the timberline. In the rest of this zone, spruce forests have been under a direct or indirect influence of changes resulting from grazing with its 400-year history and forestry taking place about 100 years ago. The 60 m difference between the average altitude of the timberline on the northern (1335 m a.s.l.) and the southern slope (1395 m a.s.l.) on the Babia Góra Mt. can be explained with climatic conditions of these areas. The average gradient of the slope within the timberline ecotone on the southern slope of the massif is by 100 smaller, and the amount of solar energy delivered during the growing season is 40% higher (960 kWh/m2) than on the northern slope. The higher position of the timberline on the windward southern slope is favored by the dominant winds from S-W sector, thinner snow cover and earlier melting due to the lower precipitation on the slope and also due to the winnowing of snow onto the steep northern slope of the ridge. On the southern slope of the ridge there are no larger snow

  5. Accretionary wedge harzburgite serpentinization and rodingitization constrained by perovskite U/Pb SIMS age, trace elements and Sm/Nd isotopes: Case study from the Western Carpathians, Slovakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xian-Hua; Putiš, Marián; Yang, Yue-Heng; Koppa, Matúš; Dyda, Marian

    2014-09-01

    Perovskite-bearing harzburgites occur in a “mélange” type blueschist-bearing accretionary wedge complex of the Inner Western Carpathians Meliata Unit in Slovakia. Although dark rounded, slightly hydrated relic “cores” of harzburgite boulders are perovskite-free, perovskite (Prv) occurrence in the surrounding serpentinites and rodingites enabled dating of hydration, resulting in two metamorphic-metasomatic Prv generations. Perovskite (1) grows parallel to relic clinopyroxene exsolution lamellae or forms randomly oriented grain clusters in serpentinized orthopyroxene (Opx1) porphyroclasts, often accompanied by tiny andradite lamellae clusters, or it is partly replaced by Ti-andradite. Perovskite crystallization indicates evolving rodingitization fluids pervading the boundary between the harzburgite “cores” and Prv-free serpentinite. This strictly limited occurrence of Prv (1) within a 1 to 20-cm across-zone implies slightly postponed Prv crystallization to serpentinization by LREE(Ce,La), Ca2+, Ti/Fe3+-enriched aqueous fluids. A grain scale metasomatic mechanism partitioned Ca and Ti from the host orthopyroxene porphyroclasts, spinel (Ti) and grain-boundary pervasive fluids to Prv. In contrast, Prv (2) occurs in a 1 to 3 cm across chlorite-rich blackwall zone between hosting serpentinite and rodingite veins, thus indicating channelled rodingitization fluid flow and accompanying hydraulic fracturing. Here, Prv (2) is ingrown by chlorite and apatite. Part of this Prv (2) formed in a rodingite vein mineral assemblage composed of diopside, andradite, vesuvianite, epidote/zoisite, apatite and chlorite. Both perovskite 1 and 2 are replaced by pyrophanite along the grain rims and interiors; most likely via fluid-aided coupled dissolution-reprecipitation at increased Si-Fe-Mn-Al element solubility in rodingitization fluids pervading serpentinized harzburgite. Both Prv generations, especially Prv (2), can be partly to almost totally replaced by (Ti-) Adr

  6. The pre-Cainozoic basement delineation by magnetotelluric methods in the western part of the Liptovská kotlina Depression (Western Carpathians, Slovakia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fendek, Marián; Grand, Tomáš; Daniel, Slavomír; Blanárová, Veronika; Kultan, Vincent; Bielik, Miroslav

    2017-08-01

    The geology and hydrogeology of the Liptovská Kotlina Depression were studied by means of new geophysical methods. Controlled source audio-frequency magnetotellurics enabled us to delineate the relief of the pre-Cainozoic basement in the western part of the Liptovská Kotlina Depression into two segments with different lithostratigraphic units. Our complex findings disprove the interconnection between the Bešeňová and Lúčky water bearing structures located in the study area. The results were interpreted in the form of a resistivity cross section and resistivity model. The geological interpretation of the obtained results, taking into account the other geophysical and geological constrains showed that the pre-Cainozoic basement has a tectonically disrupted, broken relief. The Bešeňová and Lúčky structures appear to be isolated by the Palaeogene sediments (sandstone, claystone) and in the deeper part also by marly carbonates and marlstones of the Jurassic age belonging to the Fatricum. It was confirmed that the structural connectivity of geothermal aquifers in the area between the Bešeňová and Lúčky-Kaľameny should not exist. The assumption of different circulation depth was also confirmed by geothermometry and existing radiocarbon analyses applied on groundwater in both areas.

  7. Quantification of carbon dioxide emissions of Ciomadul, the youngest volcano of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (Eastern-Central Europe, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis, Boglárka-Mercédesz; Ionescu, Artur; Cardellini, Carlo; Harangi, Szabolcs; Baciu, Călin; Caracausi, Antonio; Viveiros, Fátima

    2017-07-01

    We provide the first high-resolution CO2 flux data for the Neogene to Quaternary volcanic regions of the entire Carpathian-Pannonian Region, Eastern-Central Europe, and estimate the CO2 emission of the seemingly inactive Ciomadul volcanic complex, the youngest volcano of this area. Our estimate includes data from focused and diffuse CO2 emissions from soil. The CO2 fluxes of focused emissions range between 277 and 8172 g d- 1, corresponding to a CO2 output into the atmosphere between 0.1 and 2.98 t per year. The investigated areas for diffuse soil gas emissions were characterized by wide range of CO2 flux values, at Apor Baths, ranging from 1.7 × 101 to 8.2 × 104 g m- 2 d- 1, while at Lăzărești ranging between 1.43 and 3.8 × 104 g m- 2 d- 1. The highest CO2 focused gas fluxes at Ciomadul were found at the periphery of the youngest volcanic complex, which could be explained either by tectonic control across the brittle older volcanic edifices or by degassing from a deeper crustal zone resulting in CO2 flux at the periphery of the supposed melt-bearing magma body beneath Ciomadul. The estimate of the total CO2 output in the area is 8.70 × 103 t y- 1, and it is consistent with other long (> 10 kyr) dormant volcanoes with similar age worldwide, such as in Italy and USA. Taking into account the isotopic composition of the gases that indicate deep origin of the CO2 emissions, this yields further support that Ciomadul may be considered indeed a dormant, or PAMS volcano (volcano with potentially active magma storage) rather than an inactive one. Furthermore, hazard of CO2 outpourings has to be taken into account and it has to be communicated to the visitors. Finally, we suggest that CO2 output of dormant volcanic systems has to be also accounted in the estimation of the global volcanic CO2 budget.

  8. Environmental and socioeconomic assessment of impacts by mining activities-a case study in the Certej River catchment, Western Carpathians, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobrist, Jürg; Sima, Mihaela; Dogaru, Diana; Senila, Marin; Yang, Hong; Popescu, Claudia; Roman, Cecilia; Bela, Abraham; Frei, Linda; Dold, Bernhard; Balteanu, Dan

    2009-08-01

    In the region of the Apuseni Mountains, part of the Western Carpathians in Romania, metal mining activities have a long-standing tradition. These mining industries created a clearly beneficial economic development in the region. But their activities also caused impairments to the environment, such as acid mine drainage (AMD) resulting in long-lasting heavy metal pollution of waters and sediments. The study, established in the context of the ESTROM programme, investigated the impact of metal mining activities both from environmental and socioeconomic perspectives and tried to incorporate the results of the two approaches into an integrated proposition for mitigation of mining-related issues. The small Certej catchment, situated in the Southern Apuseni Mountains, covers an area of 78 km(2). About 4,500 inhabitants are living in the basin, in which metal mining was the main economic sector. An open pit and several abandoned underground mines are producing heavy metal-loaded acidic water that is discharged untreated into the main river. The solid wastes of mineral processing plants were deposited in several dumps and tailings impoundment embodying the acidic water-producing mineral pyrite. The natural science team collected samples from surface waters, drinking water from dug wells and from groundwater. Filtered and total heavy metals, both after enrichment, and major cations were analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Major anions in waters, measured by ion chromatography, alkalinity and acidity were determined by titration. Solid samples were taken from river sediments and from the largest tailings dam. The latter were characterised by X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction. Heavy metals in sediments were analysed after digestion. Simultaneously, the socioeconomic team performed a household survey to evaluate the perception of people related to the river and drinking water pollution by way of a logistic regression analysis

  9. Ooid turbidites from the Central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.

    Gravity displaced debris flows/turbidites have been observed in five box cores collected between water depths of 649 and 3,627 m from the Central Western continental margin of India. Studies on grain size, carbonate content, and coarse fraction...

  10. 10Be exposure age chronology of the last glaciation of the Roháčská Valley in the Western Tatra Mountains, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Zbyněk; Mentlík, Pavel; Braucher, Régis; Křížek, Marek; Pluháčková, Markéta; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim; Aster Team; Arnold, Maurice; Aumaître, Georges; Bourlès, Didier; Keddadouche, Karim

    2017-09-01

    10Be exposure ages from moraines and bedrock sites in the Roháčská Valley provide chronology of the last glaciation in the largest valley of the Western Tatra Mts., the Western Carpathians. The minimum apparent exposure age of 19.4 ± 2.1 ka obtained for the oldest sampled boulder and the mean age of 18.0 ± 0.8 ka calculated for the terminal moraine indicate that the oldest preserved moraine was probably deposited at the time of the global Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). The age of this moraine coincides with the termination of the maximum glacier expansion in other central European ranges, including the adjacent High Tatra Mts. and the Alps. The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the LGM glacier in the Roháčská Valley, estimated at 1400-1410 m a.s.l., was 50-80 m lower than in the eastern part of the range, indicating a positive ELA gradient from west to east among the north-facing glaciers in the Tatra Mts. Lateglacial glacier expansion occurred no later than 13.4 ± 0.5 ka and 11.9 ± 0.5 ka, as indicated by the mean exposure ages calculated for re-advance moraines. This timing is consistent with the exposure age chronology of the last Lateglacial re-advance in the High Tatra Mts., Alps and lower mountain ranges in central Europe. The ELA in the Roháčská Valley estimated at 1690-1770 m a.s.l. in this period was located 130-300 m lower than in the north-facing valleys in the High Tatra Mts. 10Be exposure ages obtained for a rock glacier constrains the timing of this landform stabilization in the Salatínska Valley and provides the first chronological evidence for the Lateglacial activity of rock glaciers in the Carpathians.

  11. Evolution of the passive margin of the peripheral foreland basin: an example from the Lower Miocene Carpathian Foredeep (Czech Republic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francírek, Michal; Nehyba, Slavomír

    2016-02-01

    The Karpatian deposits of the central part of the Carpathian Foredeep in Moravia, which are deeply buried under the Outer Western Carpathians, provide a unique opportunity to reconstruct the former evolutionary stages of this peripheral foreland basin and its paleogeography. A succession of three depositional units characterized by a distinct depositional environment, provenance, and partly also foreland basin depozone, have been identified. The first depositional unit represents a proximal forebulge depozone and consists of lagoon-estuary and barred coastline deposits. The source from the "local" crystalline basement played here an important role. The second depositional unit consists of coastline to shallow marine deposits and is interpreted as a forebulge depozone. Tidalites recognized within this unit represent the only described tide-generated deposits of the Neogene infill of the Carpathian Foredeep basin in Moravia. The source from the basin passive margin (the Bohemian Massif) has been proved. The third depositional unit is formed by offshore deposits and represents a foredeep depozone. The provenance from both passive and active basin margin (Silesian Unit of the Western Carpathian Flysch Zone) has been proved. Thus, both a stepwise migration of the foredeep basin axis and shift of basin depozones outwards/cratonwards were documented, together with forebulge retreat. The shift of the foreland basin depozones more than 50 km cratonward can be assumed. The renewed thrusting along the basin's active margin finally completely changed the basin shape and paleogeography. The upper part of the infill was deformed outside the prograding thrust front of flysch nappes and the flysch rocks together with a strip of Miocene sediments were superposed onto the inner part of the basin. The width and bathymetric gradient of the entire basin was changed/reduced and the deposition continued toward the platform. The basin evolution and changes in its geometry are interpreted

  12. Spring fen Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae in the Polish Western Carpathians – vegetation diversity in relation to soil and feeding waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Koczur

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The species composition of vegetation associated with the Carpathian fens primarily depends on the type of water present and the hydrological feeding of the soils that occur there. These, in turn, shape the fertility of the fens. Those with typically formed Carici-Agrostietum caninae and Valeriano-Caricetum flavae fundamentally differ in the properties of their soils and feeding waters. These include differences in mineral content, pH, CaCO3 levels, degree of peat decomposition, electrical conductivity and oxygenation of the waters that feed the fens. Carici-Agrostietum caninae is a homogenous plant association adapted to extreme habitat conditions. It is characterized by a very narrow range of essential soil and feeding water parameters. Valeriano-Caricetum flavae is a highly diverse association. Considerable diversity both in terms of plant species and vegetation structure reflects very wide ranges in the properties of soil and feeding water. Vegetation patches of transitory character were also identified. These contained plant species characteristic of both associations. The character of the vegetation depends mainly on fen soil pH and the degree of mineralization of the feeding waters. It is only these parameters that allow intermediate patches to be clearly distinguished. The degree of peat decomposition, mineral content and water oxygenation all differ for Carici-Agrostietum caninae and Valeriano-Caricetum flavae, whereas the values for intermediate patches display a range of parameters typical of both investigated associations. Consequently, vegetation present in these patches reflects to a greater or lesser extent one of the two analyzed plant associations.

  13. Magnetic fabrics in sub-caldera plutons recording magma ascent and fault-caldera interactions, the Etiavnica volcano-plutonic complex, Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomek, Filip; Žák, Jiří

    2013-04-01

    The Štiavnica volcano-plutonic complex in the Western Carpatians exposes a spectacular section through middle Miocene stratovolcano (50 km in diameter) built on Variscan basement and late Paleozoic to Cretaceous sedimentary rocks. The stratovolcano consists of early andesite lava flows, extrusive domes, and pyroclastic flow deposits intruded by andesite and andesite porphyry sills and laccoliths. At around 14.5-15.5 Ma, the pre-volcanic basement beneath the central portion of the stratovolcano was intruded by a diorite stock and a voluminous bell-jar granodiorite pluton followed by quartz diorite to granodiorite porphyry dikes and stocks. The pluton emplacement led to the development of a 20 km wide collapse caldera associated with late andesite and dacite extrusive domes, dome flows, pyroclastic deposits, and quartz-diorite porphyry dikes and sills. Subsequently, the central domain underwent resurgence accompanied by intrusion of small rhyolitic and granite porphyry bodies. The present-day exposure with significant vertical relief cuts through all these units including the sub-caldera plutons and their flat roof which represents the volcano basement. The sub-caldera plutons exhibit contrasting magnetic fabrics as revealed by anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS). The diorite is characterized by very low degree of magnetic anisotropy (less than 10 %) and both prolate and oblate AMS ellipsoids. Magnetic foliations are mostly sub-parallel to the nearby pluton roof margin and are associated with steep lineations. In contrast, the younger granodiorite shows slightly higher degree of magnetic anisotropy (up to 12 %) and chiefly oblate susceptibility ellipsoids for the same magnetic mineralogy (both plutons are ferromagnetic, with the AMS carried predominantly by magnetite). Unlike fabric in the diorite, magnetic foliations are homogeneously oriented and dip moderately to the W to WNW whereas magnetic lineations vary from down-dip to subhorizontal. We interpret

  14. Notes on two lichenicolous Epigloea species from Central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł Czarnota

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Taxonomic remarks, known distribution, ecological notes and new records in Central Europe for two species of Epigloea are provided. Many specimens recognized here under E. soleiformis characterize slightly wider and more ellipsoid ascospores than those described in the protologue but they are regarded as some kind of a phenetic variability of this species. E. soleiformis seems to be not only algicolous fungus but also facultatively lichenicolous on Placynthiella spp. and terricolous Peltigera spp. while E. urosperma is found to be exclusively lichenicolous on Placynthiella dasaea. E. soleiformis is new for the Western Carpathians and the Harz Mts, and E. urosperma is new for whole Carpathians.

  15. Evaluation of extensive floods in western/central Europe

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    B. Gvoždíková

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the identification and evaluation of extreme flood events in the transitional area between western and central Europe in the period 1951–2013. Floods are evaluated in terms of three variants on an extremity index that combines discharge values with the spatial extent of flooding. The indices differ in the threshold of the considered maximum discharges; the flood extent is expressed by a length of affected river network. This study demonstrates that using the index with a higher flood discharge limit changes the floods' rankings significantly. It also highlights the high severity events. In general, we detected an increase in the proportion of warm half-year floods when using a higher discharge limit. Nevertheless, cold half-year floods still predominate in the lists because they generally affect large areas. This study demonstrates the increasing representation of warm half-year floods from the northwest to the southeast.

  16. Risk and Geodynamically active areas of Carpathian lithosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomil Pospíšil

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper illustrates an application of multidisciplinary data analysis to the Carpathian–Pannonian region and presents a verification of a Complex model of the Carpathian - Pannonian lithosphere by recent data sets and geophysical data analyses and its utilization for the determination of risk and active geodynamic and tectonic zones of Ist order . This model can be used for the analysing any Carpathian area from the point of view of the seismic risk, hazards and geodynamic activity, which is important to know for the building of a repository for the radioactive wasted material. Besides the traditionally used geological (sedimentological and volcanological data and geomorphological data (Remote Sensing, an emphasis was laid on geodetic, grav/mag data, seismic, seismological and other geophysical data (magnetotelluric, heat flow, paleomagnetic etc.. All available geonomic (geologic, geodetic, geophysical, geomorphological data were verified and unified on the basis of the same scale and in the Western Carpathians on the Remote Sensing data. The paper concentrates on two problematic areas – the so call “rebounding area” in the Eastern Carpathians and the Raba – Muran - Malcov tectonic systems.

  17. Age and origin of fluorapatite-rich dyke from Baranec Mt. (Tatra Mts., Western Carpathians: a key to understanding of the post-orogenic processes and element mobility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gawęda Aleksandra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available On the southeastern slope of the Baranec Mount in the Western Tatra Mountains (Slovakia an apatite-rich pegmatite-like segregation was found in the subvertical fault zone cutting metapelitic rocks. Two zones: felsic (F and mafic (M were found, differing in mineral assemblages and consequently in chemistry. Fluorapatite crystals yield a LA-ICP-MS U-Pb age of 328.6 ± 2.4 Ma. A temperature decrease from 634 °C to 454 °C at a pressure around 500 to 400 MPa with oxygen fugacity increasing during crystallization are the possible conditions for formation of the pegmatite-like segregation, while secondary alterations took place in the temperature range of 340 – 320 °C. The Sr-Nd isotope composition of both apatite and whole rock point toward a crustal origin of the dike in question, suggesting partial melting of (P, F, H2O-rich metasedimentary rocks during prolonged decompression of the Tatra Massif. The original partial melt (felsic component was mixed with an external (F, H2O-rich fluid, carrying Fe and Mg fluxed from more mafic metapelites and crystallizing as biotite and epidote in the mafic component of the dyke.

  18. Late Cenozoic extensional faulting in Central-Western Peloponnesus, Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skourtsos, E.; Fountoulis, I.; Mavroulis, S.; Kranis, H.

    2012-04-01

    A series of forearc-dipping, orogen-parallel extensional faults are found in the central-western Peloponnesus, (south-western Aegean) which control the western margin of Mt Mainalon. The latter comprises HP/LT rocks of the Phyllites-Quartzites Unit (PQ), overlain by the carbonates and flysch of the Tripolis Unit while the uppermost nappe is the Pindos Unit, a sequence of Mesozoic pelagic sequence, topped by a Paleocene flysch. Most of the extensional structures were previously thought of as the original thrust between the Pindos and Tripolis Units. However, the cross-cutting relationships among these structures indicate that these are forearc (SW-dipping) extensional faults, downthrowing the Pindos thrust by a few tens or hundreds of meters each, rooting onto different levels of the nappe pile. In SW Mainalon the lowermost of the extensional faults is a low-angle normal fault dipping SW juxtaposing the metamorphic rocks of the PQ Unit against the non-metamorphic sequence of the Tripolis Unit. High-angle normal faults, found further to the west, have truncated or even sole onto the low-angle ones and control the eastern margin of the Quaternary Megalopolis basin. All these extensional structures form the eastern boundary of a series of Neogene-Quaternary tectonic depressions, which in turn are separated by E-W horsts. In the NW, these faults are truncated by NE to NNE-striking, NW-dipping faults, which relay the whole fault activity to the eastern margin of the Pyrgos graben. The whole extensional fault architecture has resulted (i) in the Pindos thrust stepping down from altitudes higher than 1000 m in Mainalon in the east, to negative heights in North Messinia and Southern Ilia in the west; and (ii) the gradual disappearance of the Phyllite-Quartzite metamorphics of Mainalon towards the west. The combination of these extensional faults (which may reach down to the Ionian décollement) with the low-angle floor thrusts of the Pindos, Tripolis and Ionian Units leads

  19. Eastern, Central and Western Hungary – variations of Neolithisation models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eszter Bánffy

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Until recent times, the Carpathian Basin was regarded as a uniform zone of neolithization. In the last few years it has become clear that at least three different types of transitions can be distinguished in the Eastern Plain (Alföld region: one in the Jászság area with authentic Mesolithic sites, one in the northern, one in the northeastern fringes of the Körös distribution area, and a further one in the southern part of the Danube–Tisza Interfluve where the impact of the formative Vinča culture must also be reckoned with. All regions differ from each other, concerning the contacts with Mesolithic population and the phases of neolithisation. Regarding Transdanubia, the picture becomes even more complex. The transition to the Neolithic obviously differed in each region: in the Drava valley where the Starčevo presence was very intensive, in the marshland around Lake Balaton, in the Rába valley lying close to the Alpine foreland, in the northern Transdanubian Danube valley and in the Little Hungarian Plain. Rejecting the simplifying model the assumption of a mosaic-like series of variations in the neolithisation process is offered. The process of Neolithisation is thus is far from being unified in the various regions. This short study tries to seek different models of neolithisation behind the differences.

  20. First GPS measurements across the Central-Western Mediterranean area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Saadi

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns the displacement field of the central-western part of the Mediterranean basin estimated by the analysis of three repeated GPS surveys (1995, 1996 and 1997 consisting of 8 sites of a network. This network includes for the first time the stations of Algiers and Arzew, located in Northern Algeria, an area not yet investigated by regional GPS surveys. Lampedusa station is located in the Sicily Straits rifting area while the other five stations of Cagliari, Wettzell, Madrid, Matera and Noto belong to the IGS permanent tracking network. The statistical analysis of 1995, 1996 and 1997 data show significant displacements at five stations. The displacement vectors of the African sites show a convergence between the African and the Eurasian plates at a rate of 0.8 ± 0.4 cm within a two year time span. A comparison between the displacements estimated in the present work and the ITRF96 determinations for the five permanent stations allow us to evaluate the motion of Lampedusa, Algiers and Arzew in the IERS Terrestrial Reference System.

  1. Seismic velocity model of the crust and upper mantle along profile PANCAKE across the Carpathians between the Pannonian Basin and the East European Craton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starostenko, V.; Janik, T.; Kolomiyets, K.

    2013-01-01

    the Transcarpathian Depression and the Carpathian Foredeep; and the south-western part of the EEC, including the Trans European Suture Zone (TESZ). Seismic data support a robust model of the Vp velocity structure of the crust. In the PB, the 22-23km thick crust consists of a 2-5km thick sedimentary layer (Vp=2.......4-3.7km/s), 17-20km thick upper crystalline crust (5.9-6.3km/s) and an up to 3km thick lower crustal layer (Vp=6.4km/s). In the central part of the Carpathians, a 10-24km thick uppermost part of the crust with Vp≤6.0km/s may correspond to sedimentary rocks of different ages; several high velocity bodies...... (Vp=5.35, 5.95 and 6.05km/s) within the sedimentary flysch sequences may represent volcanic sequences. The Moho depth changes from 25km to 45km over ca. 100km distance beneath the Carpathians, west of TESZ. The cratonic crust has a typical three layer structure with a pronounced thickening...

  2. Floods, droughts and anomalous weather during the late Spörer minimum in Central Europe: the examples of the Carpathian Basin, the Eastern Alpine Region and Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiss, Andrea; Enzi, Silvia; Rohr, Christian

    2017-04-01

    Central Europe suffered from a major multi-decadal environmental crisis from the early 1470s onwards. The turn of the 15th-16th centuries was characterised by an unusually high number of stress factors related to large-scale climate variability, amongst others locally manifested in the great increase of weather-related extremes such as the multiannual droughts of the 1470s, with further significant drought periods in the 1490s and 1500s; the extraordinary high frequency of hard winters in the 1470s-1490s, and a major flood-rich period from the late 1470s to the mid-1520s. From the human impact side, the recurrent crisis was greatly intensified by biological hazards such as plague epidemic cycles and devastating multi-annual locust invasions that gravely affected our investigated region. Wars and war-expenses further deepened this crisis. In our presentation we provide an overview of flood peaks on major Italian (e.g. Po, Adige) and Eastern-Alpine (e.g. Danube, Salzach, Traun), Carpathian-Basin (Danube, Danube catchment, Tisza catchment) rivers and river catchments, with special emphasis on great flood years (e.g. 1485, 1499, 1501, 1508 etc.). Further topics of the discussion are droughts and multiannual dry periods, together with related environmental problems (e.g. locust invasions, bad harvests) such as the one in the 1470s, the early-mid 1490s, 1503 and 1506-1507. The third major group of weather extremes in the period consists of hard winters. This and other extreme weather events, together with their (potential) socio-economic effects comprise the final major topic of discussion of the paper.

  3. Continental temperatures through the early Eocene in western central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglis, G. N.; Collinson, M. E.; Riegel, W.; Wilde, V.; Farnsworth, A.; Lunt, D. J.; Robson, B.; Scott, A. C.; Lenz, O.; Pancost, R.

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to the marine realm, our understanding of terrestrial temperature change during greenhouse climates is poorly constrained. Recently, branched glycerol dialkyl glycerol tetraethers (brGDGTs) have been used to successfully reconstruct mean annual air temperature (MAAT) during the early Paleogene. However, despite the potential to provide new insights into terrestrial climate, the application of this proxy in lignite and coal deposits is still limited. Using samples recovered from Schöningen, Germany ( 48°N), we provide the first detailed study into the occurrence and distribution of brGDGTs through a sequence of Early Eocene lignites and associated marine interbeds. Branched GDGTs are abundant and present in every sample. In comparison to modern studies, changes in vegetation type do not appear to significantly impact brGDGT distributions; however, there are subtle differences in these distributions between lignites and siliciclastic nearshore marine interbed sediments. Using the most recent brGDGT temperature calibration, we generate the first continental temperature record from central-western continental Europe through the Early Eocene. Lignite-derived MAAT estimates range from 23 to 26°C and those derived from the nearshore marine interbeds always exceed 20°C. These estimates are consistent with other mid-latitude palaeoclimate proxy records which indicate enhanced early Eocene warmth. In the basal part of the section, warming is recorded in both the lignites ( 2°C) and nearshore marine interbeds ( 2-3°C). This culminates in a long-term temperature maximum, likely including the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO). Although this trend is relatively well established in marginal marine sediments within the SW Pacific, it has rarely been shown in other regions or terrestrial settings. Using a suite of new climate model simulations, our warming trend is consistent with a doubling of CO2 (from 560ppmv to 1120ppmv) which broadly agrees with proxy

  4. Geodynamical evolution of the Southern Carpathians: inferences from computational models of lithospheric gravitational instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorinczi, Piroska; Houseman, Gregory

    2010-05-01

    The Carpathians are a geologically young mountain chain which, together with the Alps and the Dinarides, surround the extensional Pannonian and Transylvanian basins of Central Europe. The tectonic evolution of the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian system was controlled by convergence between the Adriatic and European plates, by the extensional collapse of thickened Alpine crust and by the retreat of the Eastern Carpathians driven by either a brief episode of subduction or by gravitational instability of the continental lithospheric mantle. The Southeast corner of the Carpathians has been widely studied due to its strong seismic activity. The distribution and rate of moment release of this seismic activity provides convincing evidence of a mantle drip produced by gravitational instability of the lithospheric mantle developing beneath the Vrancea region now. The question of why gravitational instability is strongly evident beneath Vrancea and not elsewhere beneath the Southern Carpathians is unresolved. Geological and geophysical interpretations of the Southern Carpathians emphasise the transcurrent deformation that has dominated recent tectonic evolution of this mountain belt. We use computational models of gravitational instability in order to address the question of why the instability appears to have developed strongly only at the eastern end of this mountain chain. We use a parallelised 3D Lagrangean-frame finite deformation algorithm, which solves the equations of momentum and mass conservation in an incompressible viscous fluid, assuming a non-linear power-law that relates deviatoric stress and strain-rate. We consider a gravitationally unstable system, with a dense mantle lithosphere overlying a less dense asthenosphere, subject to boundary conditions which simulate the combination of shear and convergence that are thought to have governed the evolution of the South Carpathians. This program (OREGANO) allows 3D viscous flow fields to be computed for spatially

  5. An outline of neotectonic structures and morphotectonics of the western and central Pannonian basin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fodor, L.; Bada, G.; Csillag, G.; Horvath, E.; Ruszkiczay-Rudiger, Z.; Klara, P.; Sikhegyi, F.; Timár, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2005-01-01

    Neotectonic deformation in the western and central part of the Pannonian Basin was investigated by means of surface and subsurface structural analyses, and geomorphologic observations. The applied methodology includes the study of outcrops, industrial seismic profiles, digital elevation models,

  6. Sulphur enrichment in a sediment core from the central western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, P.S.; Rao, Ch.M.

    Anomalous sulphur values in relation to organic carbon have been found in the sediments of a core collected from the central western continental margin of India. The relationship between organic carbon and sulphur is similar to that of the sediments...

  7. Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum (Cyatheaceae: Pteridophyta: a threatened tree fern from central Western Ghats, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.N. Dudani

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While studying some of the exclusive and threatened swamps overgrown with wild nutmeg trees (Myristica swamps, in the Kathalekan forest of Uttara Kannada in central Western Ghats, Cyathea nilgirensis Holttum, a southern Indian endemic tree fern was seen growing in the deep shade of the swampy forest. This is a new report of its distribution anywhere from north of Western Ghats.

  8. Decreasing overweight and central fat patterning with Westernization among the Inuit in Greenland and Inuit migrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Jørgensen, M E; Andersen, S

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse overweight, obesity and central fat patterning among the Inuit of Greenland and Inuit migrants in Denmark and their relation to Westernization. DESIGN: Cross-sectional, population-based epidemiological study. SUBJECTS: A total of 2046 adult Greenlanders (Inuit), 61% of those...... women. Adjusted for BMI, age and Inuit heritage waist circumference decreased with Westernization (among women), while hip circumference did not change. The differences were particularly pronounced for migrants compared with residents of Greenland. CONCLUSION: BMI and central fat patterning decrease...... with Westernization among Greenland Inuit women contrary to most studies of migrants. The changes were less prominent among men. This suggests a reduced cardiovascular risk profile with Westernization among Greenland Inuit....

  9. Banatitic magmatic and metallogenetic belt: metallogeny of the Romanian Carpathians segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S̡erban-Nicolae Vlad

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Carpathians sector of the Late Cretaceous Banatitic Magmatic and Metallogenetic belt (BMMB contains 1 plutons and volcano-plutonic complexes, i. e. calc-alkaline, I-type granitoids, with related ores; 2 shoshonitic plutons that lack economic interest. Two provinces have been delineated: the Apuseni Mts. Province in the North and the Western South Carpathians in the South. Apuseni Mts. Province is a non-porphyry environment related to more evolved (granodioritic-granitic magmatism. It is subdivided into three zones: Vlădeasa (Pb-Zn ores of restricted metallogenetic potential; Gilău-Bihor (Fe, Bi, Mo, Cu, W, Au, Ni, Co, Pb, Zn, Ag, U, B ores / conspicuous peri-batholitic arrangement and South Apuseni (only one minor Fe-skarn occurrence. Western South Carpathians Province occurs in Romania and extends in Eastern Serbia. It is subdivided into South Banat Mts.–Timok Zone (SBTZ and Poiana Ruscă Mts.– North Banat Mts.– Ridanj-Krepoljin Zone (PR-NB-RKZ. SBTZ is a typical porphyry environment of high metallogenetic potential (Cu, Au, Pb, Zn, while PR-NB-RKZ is a non-porphyry environment with small to medium size Pb, Zn, Fe, Cu deposits/prospects exhibiting commonly a peri-plutonic zoning. The metallogenetic model of the Romanian Carpathians segment of BMMB is conceived based on correlating magma composition/level of emplacement and ore types.

  10. Diversity of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodríguez-Rojo, Maria Pilar; Jiménez-Alfaro, Borja; Jandt, Ute; Bruelheide, Helge; Rodwell, John S.; Schaminée, Joop H.J.; Perrin, Philip M.; Kacki, Zygmunt; Willner, Wolfgang; Fernández-González, Federico; Chytrý, Milan

    2017-01-01

    Questions: Which are the main vegetation types of lowland hay meadows and pastures in Western and Central Europe? What are the main environmental gradients that drive patterns of species composition? Is it possible to classify these grasslands to phytosociological alliances that reflect management

  11. Implications of new economic policy instruments for tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yeeting, A.D.; Bush, S.R.; Ram-Bidesi, V.; Bailey, M.L.

    2016-01-01

    Tuna management in the Western and Central Pacific is complicated by the conflicting interests of countries and agents exploiting tuna resources in the region. Historically, regulatory attempts by Pacific Island Countries to control fishing effort within their Exclusive Economic Zones (EEZs) have

  12. Contemporary populism, the agrarian and the rural in Central Eastern and Western Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, S.L.; Rooduijn, M.; Strijker, D.; Voerman, G.; Terluin, I.

    2015-01-01

    Populist parties have been successful in many Central Eastern and Western European countries. Although populist parties differ from each other in many respects, they also share a common message, namely that the ‘bad’ elite is no longer, or not acting in the interests of the ‘good’ ordinary people.

  13. Land banking and Central Europe : future relevance, current initiatives, Western European past experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, T; Kopeva, D

    Central European agricultural land ownership is fragmented. An instrument that is particularly suited for solving the land fragmentation problem is land banking. Although the potential of land banking is acknowledged, details on the actual use prove to be hard to fill in. In Western Europe, a

  14. Land banking and Central Europe: future relevance, current initiatives, Western European past experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van T.; Kopeva, D.

    2006-01-01

    Central European agricultural land ownership is fragmented. An instrument that is particularly suited for solving the land fragmentation problem is land banking. Although the potential of land banking is acknowledged, details on the actual use prove to be hard to fill in. In Western Europe, a

  15. Entrepreneurship Opportunities after Military Career: Practice in Central and Eastern versus Western Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa SMALIUKIENĖ

    2014-12-01

    differences between Central and Eastern Europe (CEE and Western Europe (WE practice. The results indicate the lack of entrepreneurship development policies for early retired servicemen, while service in military often provides highly specific competencies that can be adapted as transferable expertise and knowledge for entrepreneurship.

  16. Chloroplast DNA variation of oaks in western Central Europe and genetic consequences of human influences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    König, A.O.; Ziegenhagen, B.; Dam, van B.C.; Csaikl, U.M.; Coart, E.; Degen, B.; Burg, K.; Vries, de S.M.G.; Petit, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    Oak chloroplast DNA (cpDNA) variation was studied in a grid-based inventory in western Central Europe, including Belgium, The Netherlands, Luxembourg, Germany, the Czech Republic, and the northern parts of Upper and Lower Austria. A total of 2155 trees representing 426 populations of Quercus robur

  17. Ordovician sponges from west-central and east-central Alaska and western Yukon Territory, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, J.K.; Blodgett, R.B.; Britt, B.B.

    2008-01-01

    Moderate collections of fossil sponges have been recovered over a several-year period from a few scattered localities in west-central and east-central Alaska, and from westernmost Yukon Territory of Canada. Two fragments of the demosponge agelasiid cliefdenellid, Cliefdenella alaskaensis Stock, 1981, and mostly small unidentifiable additional fragments were recovered from a limestone debris flow bed in the White Mountain area, McGrath A-4 Quadrangle in west-central Alaska. Fragments of the agelasiid actinomorph girtyocoeliids Girtyocoeliana epiporata (Rigby & Potter, 1986) and Girtyocoelia minima n. sp., plus a specimen of the vaceletid colospongiid Corymbospongia amplia Rigby, Karl, Blodgett & Baichtal, 2005, were collected from probable Ashgillian age beds in the Livengood B-5 Quadrangle in east-central Alaska. A more extensive suite of corymbospongiids, including Corymbospongia betella Rigby, Potter & Blodgett, 1988, C. mica Rigby & Potter, 1986, and C.(?) perforata Rigby & Potter, 1986, along with the vaceletiid colospongiids Pseudo-imperatoria minima? (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and Pseudoimperatoria media (Rigby & Potter, 1986), and with the heteractinid Nucha naucum? Pickett & Jell, 1983, were recovered from uppermost part of the Jones Ridge Limestone (Ashgillian), on the south flank of Jones Ridge, in the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle, in westernmost Yukon Territory, Canada. The fossil sponges from the McGrath A-4 and Livengood B-5 quadrangles were recovered from attached Siberian terranes, and those from the Sheep Mountain Quadrangle were recovered from an allochthonous Laurentian terrane in the Yukon Territory.

  18. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Wasowicz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest.

  19. Phylogeography of Arabidopsis halleri (Brassicaceae) in mountain regions of Central Europe inferred from cpDNA variation and ecological niche modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasowicz, Pawel; Pauwels, Maxime; Pasierbinski, Andrzej; Przedpelska-Wasowicz, Ewa M; Babst-Kostecka, Alicja A; Saumitou-Laprade, Pierre; Rostanski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate phylogeographical patterns present within A. halleri in Central Europe. 1,281 accessions sampled from 52 populations within the investigated area were used in the study of genetic variation based on chloroplast DNA. Over 500 high-quality species occurrence records were used in ecological niche modelling experiments. We evidenced the presence of a clear phylogeographic structure within A. halleri in Central Europe. Our results showed that two genetically different groups of populations are present in western and eastern part of the Carpathians. The hypothesis of the existence of a glacial refugium in the Western Carpathians adn the Bohemian Forest cannot be rejected from our data. It seems, however, that the evidence collected during the present study is not conclusive. The area of Sudetes was colonised after LGM probably by migrants from the Bohemian Forest.

  20. Gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System; Depositos auriferos del sector occidental del sistema Central espanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrios, S.; Florido, P.; Reguilon, R.

    2010-07-01

    The gold deposits in the western sector of the Central Spanish System can be grouped in: (1) gold quartz veins type (El Chivote, La Pedrera), (2) paleoplacers: gold nuggets in tertiary alluvial deposits (Las Cavenes, Sierro de Coria), (3) quaternary placers (Rio Erjas), (4) gold nuggets in a regolith developed on the Schist and Graywacke Complex (CEG) (Casillas de Coria). The morphological study of gold nuggets will provide physical, chemical, bacteriological and climatic characteristics. Mining works are located on these deposits from roman time to the present day. (Author)

  1. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  2. Forest refugia in Western and Central Africa as ‘museums’ of Mesozoic biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murienne, Jérôme; Benavides, Ligia R.; Prendini, Lorenzo; Hormiga, Gustavo; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2013-01-01

    The refugial speciation model, or ‘species pump’, is widely accepted in the context of tropical biogeography and has been advocated as an explanation for present species distributions in tropical Western and Central Africa. In order to test this hypothesis, a phylogeny of the cryptic arachnid order Ricinulei, based on four nuclear and mitochondrial DNA markers, was inferred. This ancient clade of litter-dwelling arthropods, endemic to the primary forests of Western and Central Africa and the Neotropics, might provide insights into the mode and tempo of evolution in Africa. Twenty-six African ricinuleid specimens were sampled from eight countries spanning the distribution of Ricinulei on the continent, and analysed together with Neotropical samples plus other arachnid outgroups. The phylogenetic and molecular dating results suggest that Ricinulei diversified in association with the fragmentation of Gondwana. The early diversification of Ricinoides in Western and Central Africa around 88 (±33) Ma fits old palaeogeographical events better than recent climatic fluctuations. Unlike most recent molecular studies, these results agree with fossil evidence, suggesting that refugia may have acted as ‘museums’ conserving ancient diversity rather than as engines generating diversity during successive episodes of climatic fluctuation in Africa. PMID:23193047

  3. Radial growth and percent of latewood in Scots pine provenance trials in Western and Central Siberia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kuzmin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Percent of latewood of Boguchany and Suzun Scots pine climatypes has been studied in two provenance trials (place of origin and trial place. For Boguchany climatype the place of origin is south taiga of Central Siberia (Krasnoyarsk Krai, the place of trial is forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia (Novosibirsk Oblast and vice versa for Suzun climatype – forest-steppe zone of Western Siberia is the place of origin, south taiga is the place of trial. Comparison of annual average values of latewood percent of Boguchany climatype in south taiga and forest-steppe revealed the same numbers – 19 %. Annual variability of this trait in south taiga is distinctly lower and equal to 17 %, in forest-steppe – 35 %. Average annual values of latewood percent of Suzun climatype in the place of origin and trial place are close (20 and 21 %. Variability of this trait for Suzun climatype is higher than for Boguchany and equal to 23 % in south taiga and 42 % in forest-steppe. Climatic conditions in southern taiga in Central Siberia in comparison with forest-steppe in Western Siberia make differences between climatypes stronger. Differences between climatypes are expressed in different age of maximal increments of diameter, different tree ring width and latewood percent values and in different latewood reaction to weather conditions.

  4. Stand structure of a primate rich rainforest region in the central Western Ghats of southern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Roy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The Western Ghats of southern India are one of the most important biodiversity regions in the world, not only due to their faunal diversity and abundance but also due to different habitat types, floral diversity and the presence of several endemic plant species. The rainforests in the central Western Ghats are inhabited by several primate species. We investigated the vegetation pattern and tree species occupancy of one of the prime primate habitats in the central Western Ghats. Lion-tailed Macaque (Macaca silenus, Bonnet Macaque (Macaca radiata, Hanuman Langur (Semnopithecus entellus achates and Malabar Slender Loris (Loris lydekkerianus malabaricus inhabit the study area. We studied the density, dominance, frequency and Importance Value Index (IVI of different tree species, using the belt transect method on randomly selected plots covering 4.1ha. We found that all the plant species that emerged to be the most dominant species with high IVI in the forest were also used by the diurnal primates for foraging. Knema attenuata and Syzygium gardneri were found to be the ‘keystone’ species. Since the forests of the study area do not come under the ‘protected area network’ for wildlife, the data obtained during this study will be helpful in the forestry management practices with a view for wildlife conservation of the region.

  5. Regional and Seasonal Diet of the Western Burrowing Owl in South-Central Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derek B. Hall, Paul D. Greger, Jeffrey R. Rosier

    2009-04-01

    We examined diets of Western Burrowing Owls (Athene cunicularia hypugaea) based on contents of pellets and large prey remains collected year-round at burrows in each of the 3 regions in south central Nevada (Mojave Desert, Great Basin Desert, and Transition region). The most common prey items, based on percent frequency of occurrence, were crickets and grasshoppers, beetles, rodents, sun spiders, and scorpions. The most common vertebrate prey was kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.). True bugs (Hemiptera), scorpions, and western harvest mice (Reithrodontomys megalotis) occurred most frequently in pellets from the Great Basin Desert region. Kangaroo rats (Dipodomys spp.) and pocket mice (Perognathinae) were the most important vertebrate prey items in the Transition and Mojave Desert regions, respectively. Frequency of occurrence of any invertebrate prey was high (>80%) in samples year-round but dropped in winter samples, with scorpions and sun spiders exhibiting the steepest declines. Frequency of occurrence of any vertebrate prey peaked in spring samples, was intermediate for winter and summer samples, and was lowest in fall samples. With the possible exception of selecting for western harvest mice in the Great Basin Desert region, Western Burrowing Owls in our study appeared to be opportunistic foragers with a generalist feeding strategy.

  6. Biodiversity of deep-sea demersal megafauna in western and central Mediterranean basins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuele Tecchio

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abundance, biomass and diversity patterns of bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean megafauna (fishes and invertebrates were analyzed in the western Balearic Sea, the western Ionian Sea and the eastern Ionian Sea. Sampling was conducted with a Otter-trawl Maireta System (OTMS at depths ranging from 600 to 4000 m. A series of ecological indicators were computed: total abundance and biomass, Margalef species richness, Shannon-Wiener diversity and Pielou’s index of evenness. A multidimensional scaling was applied, indicating that the megafauna communities were grouped by depth, while geographic area had a less defined influence. Margalef richness declined with depth in all three areas, but more steeply in the western Ionian Sea. Pielou’s evenness behaved differently in the three zones, showing a V-shaped curve in the eastern Ionian while showing a decreasing pattern in the other two areas. At lower slope depths, massive presence of the fishes Alepocephalus rostratus in the western basin and Bathypterois mediterraneus in the central basin caused a sharp reduction in evenness.

  7. "Mediterranean volcanoes vs. chain volcanoes in the Carpathians"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chivarean, Radu

    2017-04-01

    or dome complexes. Dacitic volcanoes are smaller in size and consist of lava dome complexes, in places with associated pyroclastic cones and volcanic aprons. The volcanic history of Carpathian volcanic chain lasts since ca. 15 Ma, with the youngest occurring in the southern chain-terminus; the last eruption of Ciomadu volcano (Harghita) was ca. 10000 years ago. Using the knowledge acquired during the compulsory curriculum and complementary activities we we consider that the outdoor education is the best way to establish a relationship between the theory and the landscape reality in the field. As a follow up to our theoretical approach for the Earth's crust we organized two study trips in our region. During the first one the students could walk in a real crater, see scoria deposits and admire the basalt columns from Racos. In the second activity they could climb the Ciomadu volcano and go down to observe the crater lake St. Anna, the single volcanic lake in central Europe.

  8. Comparative account of macrofouling ecology at Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay, central western coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    The extent and the nature of fouling were studied on mild steel, aluminum, and stainless steel panels at the Vijaydurg Harbor and Musakazi-Jaitapur Bay on the central western coast of India. In addition, cathodically protected and unprotected panels...

  9. WRF simulations of two extreme snowfall events associated with contrasting extratropical cyclones over the western and central Himalaya

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norris, J; Carvalho, L. M. V; Jones, C; Cannon, F

    2015-01-01

    Two extreme snowfall events associated with extratropical cyclones, one interacting with the western and one with the central Himalaya, are simulated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model over 8 days...

  10. New species of woolly lemur Avahi (primates: lemuriformes) in Bemaraha (Central Western Madagascar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalmann, Urs; Geissmann, Thomas

    2005-11-01

    There are at least three distinct taxa of woolly lemurs (genus Avahi) in western Madagascar. The range of Avahi occidentalis extends north and east of the Betsiboka River to the Bay of Narinda. Avahi unicolor occurs well to the north, including the Ampasindava peninsula and the Manongarivo Special Reserve. Here we describe a third Avahi population in central western Madagascar, which was discovered in the Bemaraha Strict Nature Reserve in the Tsingy de Bemaraha region, north of the Manambolo River. The description is based on a released type individual from which we obtained hair samples, photographs, and tape and video recordings. Its entire range is believed to be less than 5,000 km(2), and forest loss, along with an observed continuing decline in numbers, indicates that this species should be considered Endangered or even Critically Endangered, according to the Red List criteria of the World Conservation Union-IUCN.

  11. Origins and genetic diversity of pygmy hunter-gatherers from Western Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdu, Paul; Austerlitz, Frederic; Estoup, Arnaud; Vitalis, Renaud; Georges, Myriam; Théry, Sylvain; Froment, Alain; Le Bomin, Sylvie; Gessain, Antoine; Hombert, Jean-Marie; Van der Veen, Lolke; Quintana-Murci, Lluis; Bahuchet, Serge; Heyer, Evelyne

    2009-02-24

    Central Africa is currently peopled by numerous sedentary agriculturalist populations neighboring the largest group of mobile hunter-gatherers, the Pygmies [1-3]. Although archeological remains attest to Homo sapiens' presence in the Congo Basin for at least 30,000 years, the demographic history of these groups, including divergence and admixture, remains widely unknown [4-6]. Moreover, it is still debated whether common history or convergent adaptation to a forest environment resulted in the short stature characterizing the pygmies [2, 7]. We genotyped 604 individuals at 28 autosomal tetranucleotide microsatellite loci in 12 nonpygmy and 9 neighboring pygmy populations. We found a high level of genetic heterogeneity among Western Central African pygmies, as well as evidence of heterogeneous levels of asymmetrical gene flow from nonpygmies to pygmies, consistent with the variable sociocultural barriers against intermarriages. Using approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) methods [8], we compared several historical scenarios. The most likely points toward a unique ancestral pygmy population that diversified approximately 2800 years ago, contemporarily with the Neolithic expansion of nonpygmy agriculturalists [9, 10]. Our results show that recent isolation, genetic drift, and heterogeneous admixture enabled a rapid and substantial genetic differentiation among Western Central African pygmies. Such an admixture pattern is consistent with the various sociocultural behaviors related to intermariages between pygmies and nonpygmies.

  12. Constrasting styles of erosion along the western slope of the Central Andean Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoke, G. D.; Isacks, B. L.; Jordan, T. E.

    2002-12-01

    We examine the western slope of the central Andes Mountains between 17S and 30S in an effort to elucidate the effects of along strike climate variability on landscape process and form. This region is most opportune for study because the mountain front is, to a first order, a relatively simple monoclinal structure and several lines of evidence point towards the general stability of today's observed climatic zones since 15 Ma. In the central part of the study region (22-25S), relict landscape preservation is extremely good, much of the relict middle Miocene surface (erosional and depositional) between 18S and 25S remains intact. This surface becomes progressively more dissected moving north and south of the central segment. We present data from satellite imagery and geomorphic analyses of a 90 m digital elevation model, which suggest that three independent erosion styles exist in the study area (excluding the central region where no significant rivers exist). The first order differences in erosional style are accounted for predominantly by where precipitation is falling. In southern Peru and northern Chile, almost all moisture is in the form of high elevation, easterly-sourced precipitation falling on the Altiplano Plateau and Western Cordillera. This results in groundwater controlled drainage networks in northern Chile and the existence of a large active salar, the Salar de Atacama, which apparently has trapped groundwater originating from the plateau. Available geologic evidence shows that these features are of greater antiquity than the Pleistocene glacial period in the Central Andes. South of 27S, westerly derived, orographically enhanced precipitation falls directly on the mountain front producing an erosional regime more typical of actively eroding mountain fronts.

  13. Porphyry copper assessment of western Central Asia: Chapter N in Global mineral resource assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Mars, John L.; Denning, Paul D.; Phillips, Jeffrey D.; Hammarstrom, Jane M.; Zientek, Michael L.; Dicken, Connie L.; Drew, Lawrence J.; with contributions from Alexeiev, Dmitriy; Seltmann, Reimar; Herrington, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey conducted an assessment of resources associated with porphyry copper deposits in the western Central Asia countries of Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Tajikistan and the southern Urals of Kazakhstan and Russia as part of a global mineral resource assessment. The purpose of the study was to (1) delineate permissive areas (tracts) for undiscovered porphyry copper deposits; (2) compile a database of known porphyry copper deposits and significant prospects; (3) where data permit, estimate numbers of undiscovered deposits within those permissive tracts; and (4) provide probabilistic estimates the amounts of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), gold (Au), and silver (Ag) that could be contained in those undiscovered deposits.

  14. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Volume 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.A.

    1982-08-01

    Existing data in western and central New York indicates the possibility of a low-temperature, direct-use geothermal resource. This report evaluates the heat flow and provides a representation of temperatures at depth in this area. This has been done by: (1) analyzing known temperature distributions, (2) measuring the thermal conductivity of sedimentary rock units. Based on this information, areas of higher-than-normal heat flow and temperatures in possible geothermal source reservoirs are described to aid in targeting areas for the exploitation of geothermal energy in New York.

  15. Evaluation of potential geothermal reservoirs in central and western New York State. Volume 3. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-06-01

    Computer processed geophysical well logs from central and western New York State were analysed to evaluate the potential of subsurface formations as a source for low-temperature geothermal water. The analysis indicated that porous sandstone sections at the top of the Ordovician Theresa Formation and at the base of the Cambrian Potsdam Formation have the required depth, porosity, and permeability to act as a source for geothermal fluids over a relatively large area in the central part of the state. The fluid potential plus an advantageous geothermal gradient and the results of the test well drilled in the city of Auburn in Cayuga County suggest that low temperature geothermal energy may ba a viable alternative to other more conventional forms of energy that not indigenous to New York State.

  16. Hieracium glabrescens (Asteraceae Rediscovered in the Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szeląg Zbigniew

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Hieracium glabrescens (F. W. Schultz Murr in the Carpathians is confirmed after over a century by a new locality from the Apuseni Mountains in Romania. This locality, very significant from the phytogeographical point of view, is disjoined ca 500 km from the nearest Balkan localities of the species. The origin of H. glabrescens in the Apuseni Mountains is briefly discussed.

  17. OUTLINE OF METALLOGENESIS OF THE WEST CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Rozložnik

    1989-12-01

    Full Text Available Metallogenesis of the West Carpathians appears to be polycyclic and polygenetic. Its characteristic feature is a superposition of younger mineralization acts on older ones. These processes in some places are accompanied by regenerations. A variability and multicyclic character of the metallogenesis accords with a permanent tectonical mobility of the area which was only interrupted by short episodes of relative stillness in its early Paleosoic to Quaternary development.

  18. Pinus cembra distribution in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Blada

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A map with the distribution of the Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. in Romania was never made. However, long time ago, some poor or confused data collected from the Romanian Carpathians were inserted in a compiled at European level map; but this map do not reflects the species real geographic distribution in the Romanian Carpathians. Consequently, a initiative to build up a not to far from realitymap was made. A comprehensive literature and field survey concerning Swiss stone pine natural distribution in Romania was made. Two other sources of information were used, such as: the senior author's direct field survey to localize the species populations and information obtained from people involved in this issue. Based on the acquired data, the species digital distribution map of the Romanian Carpathians, was in premiere made. Because the distribution boundary of the species encompasses a large area, it does not mean that all hachured mountains and valley on the map are fully occupied by species.

  19. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  20. Study of movement of the western and central belts of Peninsular Malaysia using GPS data analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramli, Siti Hafizah; Samsudin, Abdul Rahim [Geology Programme, School of Environmental and Natural Resource Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2014-09-03

    Since the large earthquakes in Sumatera and Nias, there were some tremors incidents at Bukit Tinggi. Therefore, a study on the earth’s crust movement and the effects of the earthquake in Indonesia on the tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia have been carried out using GPS data analysis. GPS data from five MyRTKnet stations within Peninsular Malaysia have been analyzed to monitor the movement of two major tectonic blocks of Peninsular Malaysia which are the western belt represented by the Behrang (BEHR) and UPM Serdang (UPMS) stations and the central belt represented by Bentong (BENT), Jerantut (JRNT) and Temerloh (TLOH) stations. GPS data recorded from 2005 to 2010 were analysed based on horizontal and vertical displacements of the respective stations by using Trimble Business Centre (TBC) software. Based on the results of accumulated displacements of recorded GPS data from January 2006 to December 2013, it shows that the western belt which represented by UPMS has shifted 0.096m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of +0.030m while the central belt which represented by TLOH has shifted 0.080m towards northwest with changes of ellipsoidal height of −0.015m. Meanwhile, BENT station which is located on the Bentong-Raub suture zone turns to its original position as well as JRNT station. However, BEHR station which are located in western belt do not show any movements. All of these movements may be due to the influence of reactive faults in the stations area stimulated by several large earthquakes that occurred in 2005 to 2010. Study on using the GPS data analysis and combine with integrated geophysical methods are necessary to understand in detail about the tectonic evolution of Peninsular Malaysia.

  1. Pedological Characteristics of the Central Eastern Area of Ploiesti Plain (Western Part of Ploiesti City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAZVAN OPREA

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the soils in an area situated at the western edge of Ploie ş ti city (the central-eastern part of the Ploie ş ti Plain. In order to map the 58 hectares expected to be turned into a municipal park we perfo rmed five soil profiles, which were analyzed both morphologically (color, texture, structure, ne oformations, skeleton, gleyzation, pseudo- gleyzation, morphological thickness, consistency in dry state and compactness and analytically (calcium carbonate, pH, organic carbon and total hu mus content. Based on our findings, we were able to divide the soils into two ecological gro ups (chernozems soils and thin soils, which reflect properly their physical, chemical and biolo gical properties, as well as their specific utilization and management (Florea, 2003.

  2. Otolith atlas for the western Mediterranean, north and central eastern Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor M. Tuset

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The sagittal otolith of 348 species, belonging to 99 families and 22 orders of marine Teleostean fishes from the north and central eastern Atlantic and western Mediterranean were described using morphological and morphometric characters. The morphological descriptions were based on the otolith shape, outline and sulcus acusticus features. The morphometric parameters determined were otolith length (OL, mm, height (OH, mm, perimeter (P; mm and area (A; mm2 and were expressed in terms of shape indices as circularity (P2/A, rectangularity (A/(OL×OH, aspect ratio (OH/OL; % and OL/fish size. The present Atlas provides information that complements the characterization of some ichthyologic taxa. In addition, it constitutes an important instrument for species identification using sagittal otoliths collected in fossiliferous layers, in archaeological sites or in feeding remains of bony fish predators.

  3. Tectonic reversal of the western Doruneh Fault System: Implications for Central Asian tectonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javadi, Hamid Reza; Esterabi Ashtiani, Marzieh; Guest, Bernard; Yassaghi, Ali; Ghassemi, Mohammad Reza; Shahpasandzadeh, Majid; Naeimi, Amir

    2015-10-01

    The left-lateral Doruneh Fault System (DFS) bounds the north margin of the Central Iranian microplate and has played an important role in the structural evolution of the Turkish-Iranian plateau. The western termination of the DFS is a sinistral synthetic branch fault array that shows clear kinematic evidence of having undergone recent slip sense inversion from a dextral array to a sinistral array in the latest Neogene or earliest Quaternary. Similarly, kinematic evidence from the Anarak Metamorphic complex suggests that this complex initially developed at a transpressive left-stepping termination of the DFS and that it was inverted in the latest Neogene to a transtensional fault termination. The recognition that the DFS and other faults in NE Iran were inverted from dextral to sinistral strike slip in the latest Neogene and the likely connection between the DFS and the Herat Fault of Afghanistan suggests that prior to the latest Miocene, all of the north Iranian and northern Afghan ranges were part of a distributed dextral fault network that extended from the west Himalayan syntaxes to the western Alborz. Also, the recognition that regional slip sense inversion occurred across northern and northeastern Iran after the latest Miocene invalidates tectonic models that extrapolate Pleistocene to recent fault slip kinematics and rates back beyond this time.

  4. The ecology of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in the Central Valley of California, 1945-1985.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, J L

    1987-11-01

    Reeves' concept of the summer transmission cycle of western equine encephalomyelitis virus in 1945 was that the virus was amplified in a silent transmission cycle involving mosquitoes, domestic chickens, and possibly wild birds, from which it could be transmitted tangentially to and cause disease in human and equine populations. Extensive field and laboratory studies done since 1945 in the Central Valley of California have more clearly defined the specific invertebrate and vertebrate hosts involved in the basic virus transmission cycle, but the overall concept remains unchanged. The basic transmission cycle involves Culex tarsalis as the primary vector mosquito species and house finches and house sparrows as the primary amplifying hosts. Secondary amplifying hosts, upon which Cx. tarsalis frequently feeds, include other passerine species, chickens, and possibly pheasants in areas where they are abundant. Another transmission cycle that most likely is initiated from the Cx. tarsalis-wild bird cycle involves Aedes melanimon and the blacktail jackrabbit. Like humans and horses, California ground squirrels, western tree squirrels, and a few other wild mammal species become infected tangentially with the virus but do not contribute significantly to virus amplification.

  5. Early Pleistocene climate in western arid central Asia inferred from loess-palaeosol sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wei, Haitao; Taheri, Mehdi; Khormali, Farhad; Danukalova, Guzel; Chen, Fahu

    2016-01-01

    Arid central Asia (ACA) is one of the most arid regions in the mid-latitudes and one of the main potential dust sources for the northern hemisphere. The lack of in situ early Pleistocene loess/dust records from ACA hinders our comprehensive understanding of the spatio-temporal record of aeolian loess accumulation and long term climatic changes in Asia as a whole. Here, we report the results of sedimentological, chronological and climatic studies of early Pleistocene loess-palaeosol sequences (LPS) from the northeastern Iranian Golestan Province (NIGP) in the western part of ACA. Our results reveal that: 1) Accumulation of loess on the NIGP commenced at ~2.4–1.8 Ma, making it the oldest loess known so far in western ACA; 2) the climate during the early Pleistocene in the NIGP was semi-arid, but wetter, warmer, and less windy than during the late Pleistocene and present interglacial; 3) orbital-scale palaeoclimatic changes in ACA during the early Pleistoceneare in-phase with those of monsoonal Asia, a relationship which was probably related to the growth and decay of northern hemisphere ice sheets. PMID:26839045

  6. Molecular systematics and biodiversity of oniscidean isopods in the groundwater calcretes of central Western Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javidkar, Mohammad; Cooper, Steven J B; King, Rachael A; Humphreys, William F; Bertozzi, Terry; Stevens, Mark I; Austin, Andrew D

    2016-11-01

    Groundwater calcrete aquifers of central Western Australia have been shown to contain a high diversity of stygobiont (subterranean aquatic) invertebrates, with each species confined to an individual calcrete and the entire system resembling a 'subterranean archipelago' containing hundreds of isolated calcretes. Here, we utilised alternative sampling techniques above the water table and uncovered a significant fauna of subterranean terrestrial oniscidean isopods from the calcretes. We explored the diversity and evolution of this fauna using molecular analyses based on one mitochondrial gene, Cytochrome C Oxidase Subunit I (COI), two Ribosomal RNA genes (28S and 18S), and one protein coding nuclear gene, Lysyl-tRNA Synthetase (LysRS). The results from 12 calcretes showed the existence of 36 divergent DNA lineages belonging to four oniscidean families (Paraplatyarthridae, Armadillidae, Stenoniscidae and Philosciidae). Using a combination of phylogenetic and species delimitation methods, we hypothesized the occurrence of at least 27 putative new species of subterranean oniscideans, of which 24 taxa appeared to be restricted to an individual calcrete, lending further support to the "subterranean island hypothesis". Three paraplatyarthrid species were present on adjacent calcretes and these exceptions possessed more ommatidia and body pigments compared with the calcrete-restricted taxa, and are likely to represent troglophiles. The occurrence of stenoniscid isopods in the calcretes of central Western Australia, a group previously only known from the marine littoral zone, suggests a link to the marine inundation of the Eucla basin during the Late Eocene. The current oniscidean subterranean fauna consists of groups known to be subtropical, littoral and benthic, reflecting different historical events that have shaped the evolution of the fauna in the calcretes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. How is Biomass Burning Affected by Grazing and Drought in Central and Western Asia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W. M.; Nordgren, B.; Petkov, A.; Corley, R.; Urbanski, S. P.; Balkanski, Y.; Ciais, P.; Mouillot, F.

    2016-12-01

    Biomass burning is a recurring natural process in many ecosystems and most of the fires are caused by human activity. The trace gases, aerosol particles, and black carbon emitted from biomass fires can affect air quality, climate, and public health. In addition, black carbon emitted from wildfires in high latitudes transports and is deposited in the Arctic, accelerating the ice and snow melt. As the climate becomes warmer and drier, more wildfires will occur in high-latitude ecosystems, a region highly sensitive to global warming. We mapped the area burned daily in Northern Eurasia at a 500m x 500m resolution from 2002 to 2015 in different ecosystems over different geographic regions. The mapping was based on the MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) products from NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. From the Northern Eurasia dataset, we report the driving forces for the inter-annual variability of fire activity in Central and Western Asia during a period of 14 years from 2002 to 2015. Grassland dominated the region (>95%). Our results showed the area burned in this region has decreased about 65% from 1.4 x 105 km2 in 2002 to 0.5 x 105 km2 in 2015 during this period. The decrease is correlated with (1) the decrease of MODIS Drought Severity Index (DSI), and (2) the increase of the number of goats, sheep and cattle. The DSI decreased substantially from +1.0 in 2002 to -0.4 in 2011. The numbers of grazers in this region have decreased drastically in the mid-1990s because of economic collapse of the Soviet Union. However, the number of grazers have recovered and have increased steadily since 2000. Grazing by domestic animals on grassland reduces fuel loadings and thus emissions from biomass burning. The interactions of drought-economy-grazing-extent of biomass burning-emissions of black carbon and atmospheric pollutants in Central and Western Asia in the past 14 years will be summarized.

  8. A Late Pleistocene ice field in the Godeanu Mountains, Southern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ádám IGNÉCZI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The possible existence of plateau type glaciations – ice caps, ice fields or plateau glaciers - in the Godeanu Mountains, Southern Carpathians during the Late Pleistocene is the main topic of this investigation. The Godeanu Mountains is one of the westernmost mountain range of the Southern Carpathians. It is located north of the River Cerna and south of the Ţarcu and Retezat Mountains. The question about the existence of former plateau type glaciers in the Godeanu Mountains emerged due to the widespread presence of the Borăscu surface in the region. The Borăscu surface, which was described for the first time in the early 20th century by Martonne (1907, is an uplifted peneplain, which could be found in many mountain ranges in the Southern Carpathians. It’s main features are a quite small relief and a high elevation range of 1800- 2200 m a.s.l.. The most typical appearance of it is located in the Godeanu Mountains, where shallow glacial valleys surround the central plateaus.

  9. Balanced geological cross-section of the outer ukrainian carpathians along the pancake profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelukh, M.; Bubniak, I.; Yegorova, T.; Murovskaya, A.; Gintov, O.; Shlapinskyi, V.; Vikhot, Yu

    2017-07-01

    The Outer Ukrainian Carpathians (OUC) are part of the Eastern Carpathians, which is a segment of the European Alpine belt. The OUC is crossed by recently acquired WARR (wide angle reflection and refraction) PANCAKE profile (Starostenko et al., 2013). To study the basin architecture of the OUC along the profile a balanced geological cross-section was onstructed. Reconstruction of the balanced geological cross-section has shown that the present day fold-and-thrust belt of the Outer (Flysch) Carpathians was formed in the Miocene from the deposits of the sedimentary basin ∼ 460 km in width. Evolution of the sedimentary basin to the present fold-and-thrust belt 70 km in width occurred in two stages, characterized by accelerating the shortening rate of the basin from 11.5 km/Ma between ∼ 32 and 22 Ma to 22.5 km/Ma between ∼ 22 and 12 Ma. The detachment of the flysch complexes of the OUC occurred on the top of the basement located at a depth of 10 - 12 km. The main phase of Miocene thrusting was followed by significant exhumation and erosion during the period of 12 - 2 Ma related to isostatic uplift in the OUC, which reached a maximum (up to 7 km) in the central nappes (Krosno and Dukla-Chornohora). The collision regime, obviously, followed the subduction one; this could happen approximately at 22 Ma which is evident after changing the shortening rate of the basin.

  10. Active tectonics and Quaternary landscape evolution across the western Panama block, Costa Rica, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Jeffrey Scott

    Three aspects of active tectonism are examined across central Costa Rica: (1) fault kinematics; (2) volcanic arc retreat; and (3) spatially variable coastal uplift. Diffuse faulting along the Central Costa Rica Deformed Belt (CCRDB) defines the western margin of the Panama block and aligns with the rough-smooth boundary (RSB) on the subducting Cocos plate. Sub-horizontal subduction of rough, hotspot thickened crust (Cocos Ridge and seamounts) shifts active shortening into the volcanic arc along the CCRDB. Mesoscale faults express variable kinematics across three domains: transtension in the forearc, transcurrent motion across the volcanic arc, and transpression in the back arc. Fault kinematics agree with seismicity and GPS data, and isotopic ages confirm that faulting postdates the late Neogene onset of shallow subduction. Stratigraphic correlation augmented by 40Ar/39Ar dating constrain the timing of Quaternary arc migration from the Neogene Aguacate range to the modern Cordillera Central. The Valle Central basin, between the cordilleras, filled with thick sequences of lavas, pyroclastic flows, and lahars. Middle Pleistocene drainage capture across the Aguacate arc linked the Valle Central with the Pacific slope and ash flows descended onto the coastal Orotina debris fan. Arc retreat reflects slab shallowing and enhanced tectonic erosion as rough crust entered the subduction zone. Differing subduction parameters across the RSB (crustal age, slab dip, roughness) produce marked contrasts in coastal tectonism. Varying uplift rates across coastal faults reflect sub-horizontal subduction of seamount roughness. Three groups (I--III) of fluvial terraces are correlated along the coast by isotopic ages and geomorphic characteristics. Base level fluctuations and terrace genesis reflect interaction between eustatic sea level and spatially variable rock uplift. Low uplift rates (north of RSB), yield one surface per terrace group, whereas moderate rates (south of RSB

  11. Intermontane eolian sand sheet development, Upper Tulum Valley, central-western Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Francisco Fuhr Dal' Bó

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe intermontane Upper Tulum eolian sand sheet covers an area of ca. 125 km² at north of the San Juan Province, central-western Argentina. The sand sheet is currently an aggrading system where vegetation cover, surface cementation and periodic flooding withhold the development of dunes with slipfaces. The sand sheet surface is divided into three parts according to the distribution of sedimentary features, which reflects the variation in sediment budget, water table level and periodic flooding. The central sand sheet part is the main area of eolian deposition and is largely stabilized by vegetation. The sedimentary succession is 4 m thick and records the vertical interbedding of eolian and subaqueous deposits, which have been deposited for at least 3.6 ky with sedimentation rates of 86.1 cm/ky. The construction of the sand sheet is associated with deflation of the sand-graded debris sourced by San Juan alluvial fan, which is available mainly in drier fall-winter months where water table is lower and wind speeds are periodically above the threshold velocity for sand transport. The accumulation of sedimentary bodies occurs in a stabilized eolian system where vegetation cover, thin mud veneers and surface cementation are the main agents in promoting accumulation. The preservation of the sand sheet accumulations is enabled by the progressive creation of the accommodation space in a tectonically active basin and the continuous burial of geological bodies favored by high rates of sedimentation.

  12. A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Antibodies in Central and Western Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leendertz, Siv Aina J; Stern, Daniel; Theophil, Dennis; Anoh, Etile; Mossoun, Arsène; Schubert, Grit; Wiersma, Lidewij; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Muyembe-Tamfum, Jean-Jacques; Karhemere, Stomy; Pauly, Maude; Schrick, Livia; Leendertz, Fabian H; Nitsche, Andreas

    2017-09-29

    Since the eradication of smallpox and the subsequent discontinuation of the worldwide smallpox vaccination program, other Orthopoxviruses beside Variola virus have been increasingly representing a risk to human health. To investigate the extent of natural contact with Orthopoxviruses and possible demographic risk factors for such an exposure, we performed a cross-sectional serosurvey of anti-Orthopoxvirus IgG antibodies in West and Central Africa. To this end, people living in forest regions in Côte d'Ivoire (CIV, n = 737) and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD, n = 267) were assigned into groups according to their likely smallpox vaccination status. The overall prevalence of anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies was 51% in CIV and 60% in COD. High rates of seropositivity among the vaccinated part of the population (80% in CIV; 96% COD) indicated a long-lasting post vaccination immune response. In non-vaccinated participants, seroprevalences of 19% (CIV) and 26% (COD) indicated regular contact with Orthopoxviruses. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the antibody level in the vaccinated part of the population was higher in COD than in CIV, increased with age and was slightly higher in females than males. In the unvaccinated part of the population none of these factors influenced antibody level significantly. In conclusion, our results confirm expectedly high anti-Orthopoxvirus seroprevalences in previously smallpox-vaccinated people living in CIV and the COD but more unexpectedly imply regular contact with Orthopoxviruses both in Western and Central Africa, even in the absence of recognized outbreaks.

  13. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda) in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Annamaria; Mona, Stefano; Sà, Rui M; D'Onghia, Gianfranco; Maiorano, Porzia

    2015-01-01

    Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i) the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii) a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be particularly relevant to

  14. Population genetic history of Aristeus antennatus (Crustacea: Decapoda in the Western and Central Mediterranean Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Marra

    Full Text Available Aristeus antennatus is an ecologically and economically important deep-water species in the Mediterranean Sea. In this study we investigated the genetic variability of A. antennatus sampled from 10 sampling stations in the Western and Central Mediterranean. By comparing our new samples with available data from the Western area, we aim to identify potential genetic stocks of A. antennatus and to reconstruct its historical demography in the Mediterranean. We analyzed two regions of mitochondrial DNA in 319 individuals, namely COI and 16S. We found two main results: i the genetic diversity values consistent with previous data within the Mediterranean and the absence of barriers to gene flow within the Mediterranean Sea; ii a constant long-term effective population size in almost all demes but a strong signature of population expansion in the pooled sample about 50,000 years B.P./ago. We propose two explanation for our results. The first is based on the ecology of A. antennatus. We suggest the existence of a complex meta-population structured into two layers: a deeper-dwelling stock, not affected by fishing, which preserves the pattern of historical demography; and genetically homogeneous demes inhabiting the fishing grounds. The larval dispersal, adult migration and continuous movements of individuals from "virgin" deeper grounds not affected by fishing to upper fishing areas support an effective 'rescue effect' contributing to the recovery of the exploited stocks and explain their genetic homogeneity throughout the Mediterranean Sea. The second is based on the reproduction model of this shrimp: the high variance in offspring production calls for a careful interpretation of the data observed under classical population genetics and Kingman's coalescent. In both cases, management policies for A. antennatus will therefore require careful evaluation of the meta-population dynamics of all stocks in the Mediterranean. In the future, it will be

  15. Stable isotope evidence for shifting Mediterranean climatic influences in Western Romania, East-Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Aurel; Viorica, Nagavciuc; Carmen, Bădăluţă

    2015-04-01

    The stable isotopic composition of oxygen and hydrogen in precipitation, preserved in various sedimentary archives (speleothems, cave ice, tree rings) is being intensively used to reconstruct past climatic variability in western Romania. These studies heavily rely on the assumption that air temperature is the main factor controlling the isotopic composition of precipitation and hence this climatic parameter is the one reconstructed. However, ongoing monitoring studies are increasingly showing that this, especially along Romania's western border, moisture source is playing an important role in determining the isotopic composition of precipitation, hence complicating the simplistic picture outlined above. One of the main factors influencing climate variability in Romania is the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a measure of the strength of the Icelandic Low and Azores High. Over During the positive NAO phase, the Atlantic storms are displaced northward and, although reduced in strength, Mediterranean cyclones penetrate further north. During the negative phase however, the Atlantic storms track is displaced southward, restricting the area receiving Mediterranean precipitation to the SW corner of Romania. Here we present isotopic evidence for a shift in the source of precipitation from North Atlantic to Mediterranean ones in SW Romania that masks the temperature signal recorded in the stable isotopic composition of precipitation. Between April 2012 and 2014 we have collected monthly samples of precipitation along a N-S transect in Western Romania and have analyzed them for their δ18O and δ2H. Precipitation in NW Romania are derived solely from North Atlantic sources, while those in SW Romania mix moisture evaporated from both the North Atlantic and the Mediterranean Sea. The northern boundary of the Mediterranean influence is shifting in phase with the NAO index and the position of the jet-stream. As a result, during periods with high NAO index, the stable isotope

  16. The age and rate of displacement along the Main Central Thrust in the western Bhutan Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobgay, Tobgay; McQuarrie, Nadine; Long, Sean; Kohn, Matthew J.; Corrie, Stacey L.

    2012-02-01

    In western Bhutan, the Main Central Thrust (MCT) is broadly folded, creating multiple exposures of the fault surface over a ~ 70 km across-strike distance. This unusual map pattern presents a unique opportunity to map the MCT and document both the magnitude and age of displacement. In situ Th-Pb (SIMS and LA-ICP-MS) geochronology of metamorphic monazite from the immediate hanging wall of the MCT indicates that prograde monazite growth in Greater Himalayan (GH) rocks continued until 20.8 ± 1.1 Ma, whereas crystallization of in situ melts, characterized by high Y monazite overgrowths, occurred during cooling from ca. 15-10 Ma. Prograde monazite growth at 15 Ma in Lesser Himalaya (LH) rocks in the immediate footwall requires that LH footwall strata began to be buried at this time, and the MCT had reached its southernmost, exposed extent. By combining prograde monazite ages in the immediate hanging wall and footwall, the duration of MCT displacement is bracketed between 20.8 ± 1.1 and 15.0 ± 2.4 Ma. Immediately north of our study area, a published estimate of shearing along the outer-South Tibetan detachment (STD) argues for displacement between 20 and 15 Ma, coeval with the age range for MCT displacement that we document in this study. However retrograde monazite grains as young as 10 Ma suggest that GH rocks were cooling until ~ 10 Ma, 5 Myr later than motion on the outer-STD immediately to the north. This cooling was either the result of continued displacement on the MCT, or growth of a duplex that passively folded the MCT. Using a sequential reconstruction, we estimate a total displacement of ~ 230 km, which is the sum of displacements on the MCT and the structurally-lower Paro Thrust, over a duration of 5.8 ± 2.6 Myr. This indicates a horizontal shortening rate of 4.0 + 3.2/- 1.3 cm/yr, which exceeds present rates estimated from geodetic measurements across the Himalaya, and MCT displacement rates (c. 2 cm/yr) inferred from petrologic and thermal models in

  17. 77 FR 40081 - Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-06

    ... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Gulf of Mexico, Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Western Planning Area (WPA) and Central Planning Area (CPA), Oil and Gas Lease Sales for 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean... effort to better understand the environmental impacts resulting from the Deepwater Horizon event, BOEM...

  18. What do we know about the amphibians from the Kenyan central and western highlands? A faunistic and taxonomic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, S.; Rotich, D.; Koester, T.E.; Kosuch, J.; Muchai, V.; Scheelke, K.; Schick, S.; Teege, P.; Wasonga, D.V.; Veith, M.K.H.

    2006-01-01

    We reviewed the pertinent faunistic and taxonomic knowledge available from literature and scientific collections on the amphibians from the central and western highlands of Kenya. Fifty-four anuran species in 19 genera and 12 families were recognized. Higher taxa are those also found in adjacent

  19. Large-scale patterns of Quercus ilex, Quercus suber, and Quercus pyrenaica regeneration in central-western Spain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Rolo, Víctor; Moreno, Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    In Central-Western Spain, forests and woodlands composed of Quercus sp. support outstanding levels of biodiversity, but there is increasing concern about their long-term persistence due to a lack of regeneration. We hypothesize that this regenerative lack is operating on a large geographic scale;...

  20. A Cross-Sectional Serosurvey of Anti-Orthopoxvirus Antibodies in Central and Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siv Aina J. Leendertz

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Since the eradication of smallpox and the subsequent discontinuation of the worldwide smallpox vaccination program, other Orthopoxviruses beside Variola virus have been increasingly representing a risk to human health. To investigate the extent of natural contact with Orthopoxviruses and possible demographic risk factors for such an exposure, we performed a cross-sectional serosurvey of anti-Orthopoxvirus IgG antibodies in West and Central Africa. To this end, people living in forest regions in Côte d’Ivoire (CIV, n = 737 and the Democratic Republic of the Congo (COD, n = 267 were assigned into groups according to their likely smallpox vaccination status. The overall prevalence of anti-Orthopoxvirus antibodies was 51% in CIV and 60% in COD. High rates of seropositivity among the vaccinated part of the population (80% in CIV; 96% COD indicated a long-lasting post vaccination immune response. In non-vaccinated participants, seroprevalences of 19% (CIV and 26% (COD indicated regular contact with Orthopoxviruses. Multivariate logistic regression revealed that the antibody level in the vaccinated part of the population was higher in COD than in CIV, increased with age and was slightly higher in females than males. In the unvaccinated part of the population none of these factors influenced antibody level significantly. In conclusion, our results confirm expectedly high anti-Orthopoxvirus seroprevalences in previously smallpox-vaccinated people living in CIV and the COD but more unexpectedly imply regular contact with Orthopoxviruses both in Western and Central Africa, even in the absence of recognized outbreaks.

  1. Determining the spacing of ridge terraces on arable land in central and south-western Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baryła Anna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The practice of many countries has shown that terraces can significantly prevent land degradation processes such as excessive soil erosion, landslides. Condition is good layout, proper construction, and then proper maintenance. Practical application in many countries showed that terraces can significantly prevent processes leading to the degradation of land, such as the excessive erosion of soils and landslides. The requirement for this is well-planned, adequate construction, and later – proper conservation. In Poland this is a little popular method. In the article, the dorsal spacing terraces were calculated for two catchments – in the central and south-western parts of Poland. Meteorological and soil data were used for Puczniew station (Ner catchment and Boleścin station (Mielnica catchment. Kolmogorov–Smirnov test was performed to assess the compatibility of a given feature with a normal distribution, then the distribution of the probability distribution was developed. For probability 1, 50 and 90% the spacing of terraces was calculated using Ramser and Morgan method. The results obtained were combined with the results from the USLE model. Hydraulic methods have shown greater spacing for the Mielnica catchment (loess soils compared to the Ner basin (clay loam. For the USLE model, the larger spacing was calculated for the Ner basin. From the practical application to the acceptance of land user will be the maximum distance calculated by different methods. The highest terrace spacing values were obtained using the Morgan method for the Mielnica catchment, for the Ner catchment model USLE.

  2. The Megafaunal Communities of Mn-crusted Guyots in the Central and Western Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, C.; France, S.; Gerringer, M.; Pomponi, S. A.; Amon, D.; Mundy, B.; Molodtsova, T.; Matsumoto, A. K.; Watling, L.; Baco-Taylor, A.

    2016-12-01

    The NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research (OER) recently completed the second year of its 3 year CAPSTONE initiative to explore the deep waters of the U.S Pacific Monuments. At the preparation of this abstract, six ROV cruises were completed in the Papahanaumokuakea Marine National Monument (PMNM), the Mariana Trench Marine National Monument (MTMNM) and the Johnston Atoll unit of the Pacific Remote Islands Marine National Monument (PRIMNM). A seventh ROV cruise is scheduled for July 27 through August 9 in the Wake unit of PRIMNM. Manganese (Mn)-crusted guyots have been one of the priorities of these cruises. Sixteen guyots have been surveyed to date with 11 more targeted for the dives around Wake. A major science objective has been to gain a better understanding of the megafaunal communities on this type of seamount because interest is building in mining manganese crusts in the Central and Western Pacific, an area referred to as the Prime Crust Zone (PCZ). These surveys revealed the presence of unique animals and in some locations, high density communities of deepwater corals and sponges living on Mn crusts that could be severely impacted by deep sea mining operations. This presentation will summarize the initial findings from the surveys on all 27 guyots and will hopefully raise awareness of the need for cautious and responsible development of the deep sea mining industry.

  3. Recent Seismic Activity at the Western end of the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, J.; Jimenez, Z.; Espindola, V. H.

    2008-12-01

    Beginning 31 July through 13 August 2006 a series of earthquakes (Mc 3.5-5.9) hit the western end of the Central Mexican Volcanic Belt. The most prominent earthquake (Mc 5.9) occurred on 11 August 2006 at 14:30 local time (19:30 UTC) approximately at 18.32° N, 101°W and 51 km depth. The epicenter was less than 40 km from Huetamo, Michoacan a 41,250 inhabitants city and 60 km from the Infiernillo dam the third largest hydroelectric plant in Mexico. This earthquake was widely felt trough out the region with minor to moderate reported damage. In Mexico City 240 km away from the epicenter the earthquake produced alarm among the population and several buildings were evacuated. First-motion data and regional and teleseismic waveform modeling indicate that the rupture occurred as normal faulting along a fault plane striking roughly east-west. In the present paper a global analysis of the earthquake series is made in an effort to correlate with the known geotectonic features of the region.

  4. Emigration and retention of Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 in a central western Mediterranean marine protected area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the results obtained by applying the Arnason Schwartz multistate mark-recapture model to eight years of data collected in and around a small no-fishing marine protected area (MPA; 4 km2 in the central western Mediterranean. From 1997 to 2004, a total of 4044 specimens of Palinurus elephas (Fabr., 1787 were tagged and 317 recaptured. The most parsimonious model which best explained the data variability was that of a temporally constant rate of apparent survival and movement in each of the two strata. The absence of any temporal influence in the apparent survival rate inside the no-take area suggested that spillover and mortality are constant for each period of the study. The lower apparent survival rate in surrounding zones than inside the MPA (0.26 ± 0.04 (SE vs 0.94 ± 0.03 (SE is presumed to be a function of fishing effort. A continuous movement of P. elephas across the boundary of the small MPA was also tested. This information on retention of lobsters in the MPA contributes to our understanding of the effect of introducing MPAs into a managed commercial fishery system.

  5. The smelting of metals in the Romanian Carpathians throughout the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2016-04-01

    In Europe the characteristics, distribution and effects of recent pollution are well known, with monitoring observations existing at a continental scale. However, estimates of long-term pollution are restricted to central-western Europe, the British Isles and Scandinavia. In Eastern Europe in particular, the lack of such estimates has led to incomplete understanding of regional differences. When coupled to the insufficient knowledge of past emission sources and isotopic signatures of various ores, it is clear there are gaps in our knowledge of the history of pollution in this area. As a result, the causal relationship between humans and the environment are insufficiently explored, particularly within the Carpathian region- one with mineral wealth and a long history of human presence. Peat bogs have long been used as an archive for environmental and climatic imprints, with research using climate indicators from bogs burgeoning in recent decades, and a range of proxies for past hydrological change have been developed. The potential for utilising the geochemistry of archives such as peat bogs to resolve the input of metals from the atmosphere has long been known, and has been used to distinguish the background levels from the anthropogenic imprint. Here we present initial results from a multi-proxy study into the geochemical history of a collection of ombrotrophic peat bogs located in the Romanian section of the study region. We present elemental concentrations for a number of the base metals associated with metal mining, smelting and subsequent pollution. These data (base metal concentrations) display the first such study in the region and indicate a pollution history hitherto unseen in the records from Western Europe, with peaks in metal production over time periods during which production was thought to be low. This includes a large, likely medieval Pb peak, and extended periods of metal production in the region after the Roman occupation. These early peaks are

  6. Geodynamical model of development the gold ore deposit Muruntau in Central Kyzylkums /Western Uzbekistan/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, I. P.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advances in geology and sciences dealing with planets resulted in ever-growing information on the internal structure and composition of upper and lower mantle and its role in the development of mineral deposits. Thus, the analysis of geologic-geophysical velocity sections on DSS-MOVZ profiles, that cross Central Kyzylkum, has revealed a number of features, which are characteristic of the upper mantle rocks, related to morphology of bodies, their physical properties, consisting mainly in their contrasting values for contiquous blocks, and general increased velocity and density of the rocks they contain. Petrologic-geophysical analysis of the same profiles proved the previous conclusions, and besides it allowed us to create the geodinamical model of development of a complicated continental lithosphere within Central Kyzylkum Ore Magmatic Concenter (CKOMC). CKOMC is a part of Western Uzbekistan's territory, that has maximum concentration of gold ore deposits of different scale, including the gigantic one- Muruntau. There are two main factors, that condition the area of the concenter: 1.Obduction of crust of the ocean to continental one during the Upper Paleozoic collision of Kyrgiz-Kazakh and Karakum-Tadjik microcontinents; 2.Geochemical gold specialization of Turkestan paleo-ocean's lithosphere. As a result of obduction of doubled, and sometimes even trebled crust of the ocean to continental, the front of rock granitization shifted to the sphere of ocean sediments development, and granite-gneiss layer of the continental crust went down to granulite zone. The latter factor provoked mass penetration of fluids from the former granite-gneiss and sedimentary-metamorphic layers, which due to their uprush to the surface, formed fluid-hydrothermal system , enriched with gold, in the new upper crust. This, in its turn, conditioned the formation of numerous gold ore deposits of different facies and formations observed in Central Kyzylkums. Abrupt increase in the crust

  7. Heat flow and subsurface temperature distributions in central and western New York. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hodge, D.S.; Fromm, K.

    1984-01-01

    Initiation of a geothermal energy program in western and central New York requires knowledge of subsurface temperatures for targeting areas of potential resources. The temperature distribution in possible geothermal reservoirs, calculated from heat flow measurements and modeling techniques, shows that a large area of New York can be considered for exploitation of geothermal resources. Though the temperatures at currently accessible depths show the availability of only a low-temperature (less than 100/sup 0/C), direct-use resource, this can be considered as an alternative for the future energy needs of New York State. From analysis of bottom-hole-temperature data and direct heat flow measurements, estimates of temperatures in the Cambrian Sandstones provide the basis of the economic evaluation of the reservoir. This reservoir contains the extractable fluids needed for targeting a potential geothermal well site in the low-temperature geothermal target zone. In the northern section of the Appalachian basin, reservoir temperatures in the Cambrian are below 50/sup 0/C but may be over 80/sup 0/C in the deeper parts of the basin in southern New York State. Using a minimum of 50/sup 0/C as a useful reservoir temperature, temperatures in excess of this value are encountered in the Theresa Formation at depths in excess of 1300 meters. Considering a maximum depth for economical drilling to be 2500 meters with present technology, the 2500 meters to the Theresa (sea level datum) forms the lower limit of the geothermal resource. Temperatures in the range of 70/sup 0/C to 80/sup 0/C are predicted for the southern portion of New York State.

  8. Composition, provenance and source weathering of Mesozoic sandstones from Western-Central Mediterranean Alpine Chains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perri, F.

    2014-03-01

    Forty-two Mesozoic sandstone samples from three different sedimentary successions of the Internal Domains along the Western-Central Mediterranean Alpine Chains (Betic Cordillera, Rif Chain and Calabria-Peloritani Arc) were chemically analyzed to characterize their composition and the degree of weathering in the source area(s). The Rif Chain sandstones have SiO2 contents higher than those of the Calabria-Peloritani Arc and Betic Cordillera sandstones, whereas Al2O3 contents are higher in the Calabria-Peloritani Arc sandstones rather than in the Rif Chain and Betic Cordillera sandstones. The indices of compositional variability (ICV) of the studied samples are generally less than 1, suggesting that the samples are compositionally mature and were likely dominated by recycling. Recycling processes are also shown by the Al-Zr-Ti diagram indicating zircon addition and, thus, recycling processes. The Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA) values are quite homogeneous for the Calabria-Peloritani Arc (mean = 76) and Betic Cordillera sandstones (mean = 55), whereas the Rif Chain sandstones are characterized by CIA values ranging from 54 to 76. The CIW and PIA values are high for all the studied sandstones indicating intense weathering at the source areas. The different values of weathering rates among the studied sandstones may be related to variations of paleoclimatic conditions during the Mesozoic, that further favored recycling processes. Thus, these differences among the studied samples, may be related to an increase in continental palaeoweathering conditions and sediment recycling effects from the Middle Triassic to the earliest Jurassic due to rising humidity. In addition, regional tectonic movements promoted structural changes that allowed sedimentary recycling and subsidence, which in turn caused diagenetic K-metasomatism. These processes could significantly affect the CIW and PIA weathering indices, which likely monitor a cumulative effect, including several cycles of

  9. Crustal modeling of the central part of the Northern Western Desert, Egypt using gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrefaee, H. A.

    2017-05-01

    The Bouguer anomaly map of the central part of the Northern Western Desert, Egypt was used to construct six 2D gravity models to investigate the nature, physical properties and structures of the crust and upper mantle. The crustal models were constrained and constructed by integrating results from different geophysical techniques and available geological information. The depth to the basement surface, from eight wells existed across the study area, and the depth to the Conrad and Moho interfaces as well as physical properties of sediments, basement, crust and upper mantle from previous petrophysical and crustal studies were used to establish the gravity models. Euler deconvolution technique was carried on the Bouguer anomaly map to detect the subsurface fault trends. Edge detection techniques were calculated to outlines the boundaries of subsurface structural features. Basement structural map was interpreted to reveal the subsurface structural setting of the area. The crustal models reveals increasing of gravity field from the south to the north due to northward thinning of the crust. The models reveals also deformed and rugged basement surface with northward depth increasing from 1.6 km to 6 km. In contrast to the basement, the Conrad and Moho interfaces are nearly flat and get shallower northward where the depth to the Conrad or the thickness of the upper crust ranges from 18 km to 21 km while the depth to the Moho (crustal thickness) ranges from 31.5 km to 34 km. The crust beneath the study area is normal continental crust with obvious thinning toward the continental margin at the Mediterranean coast.

  10. Ethnomedicinal plants used to treat bone fracture from North-Central Western Ghats of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upadhya, Vinayak; Hegde, Harsha V; Bhat, Shripad; Hurkadale, Pramod J; Kholkute, S D; Hegde, G R

    2012-07-13

    North Central Western Ghats in India comprises rich bio-cultural diversity and is also home to varied ethnomedicinal practices. The study was taken up for documentation and analysis of traditional knowledge regarding the practice and use of plants in the treatment of bone fracture. This is an effort to preserve the vanishing wealth of traditional knowledge. Key informants identified in a preliminary survey and collection of information was through semi structured, open ended interviews. The details on age, place of practice, experience of key informants and learning of practice, disease they treat and mode of diagnosis, storage and usage of plants were collected. The identity of plants and their information was confirmed through repeated guided transect walks in different seasons with the informants and focus group discussions. Identified plants were deposited at the herbaria of Regional Medical Research Centre, Belgaum. Forty four key informants providing treatment for bone fracture in this region were identified. Thirty eight plant species belonging to 24 families have been documented in the present study. Highest number of species representation is found in families Euphorbiaceae and Fabaceae. The habit of the species showed that 45% of the herbal drugs were obtained from trees, followed by herbs, shrubs and climbers and majority of plants used were collected from wild (76%). The stem or stem bark (33%) was most commonly used plant part to prepare medicine. Twenty six formulations of 30 plant species were directly used in treating bone fracture, where Cissus quadrangularis has the highest use-value (0.14). Eleven plants were found to be administered for bone strengthening, pain relieving, inflammation reduction and speedy recovery and Gmelina arborea has the highest use value (0.27). The results indicated the importance of traditional herbal practices in community for their health needs. Both conservational strategies and further validation studies are the need

  11. Application of NOAA-AVHRR for desertification monitoring in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Aixia; Wang, Changyao; Liu, Zhengjun; Niu, Zheng; Wang, Junbang

    2004-02-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to estimate the boundary between vegetated and non-vegetated areas and to assess the condition of desertification in central Asia and western China located in arid and semiarid regions. Remote sensing data used in this study are a time-series of 10-day maximum Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) composites derived from Global Area Coverage of Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) from 1982 to 2000. Taking place and development of desertification in the arid and semiarid regions directly influence the density and growth status of vegetation, making surface vegetation a most important indicator to desertification assessment. Vegetation is very sparse in desert and therefore onset of green-up in the desert was undetectable with AVHRR NDVI data. The occurrence of onset of green-up, as determined with time series NDVI data was used to identify desert and non-desert areas. The coefficient of variation (CoV) of the monthly NDVI (maximum-value composite) is used as a parameter to characterize the changes of vegetation in this work. The CoV can be used to compare the amount of variation in different sets of samples data. Changes in the value of the pixel-level CoV over time can be interpreted as a measure of vegetative biomass change over that time. The method to detect and quantify changes in CoV values for each pixel over 20-year period for which data was available is based on linear regression. If the CoV values exhibit a statistically significant decrease over time, it is possible to conclude that the area imaged in that pixel is under desertification.

  12. Status and future transition of rapid urbanizing landscape in central Western Ghats - CA based approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharath, S..; Rajan, K. S.; Ramachandra, T. V.

    2014-11-01

    The land use changes in forested landscape are highly complex and dynamic, affected by the natural, socio-economic, cultural, political and other factors. The remote sensing (RS) and geographical information system (GIS) techniques coupled with multi-criteria evaluation functions such as Markov-cellular automata (CA-Markov) model helps in analysing intensity, extent and future forecasting of human activities affecting the terrestrial biosphere. Karwar taluk of Central Western Ghats in Karnataka state, India has seen rapid transitions in its forest cover due to various anthropogenic activities, primarily driven by major industrial activities. A study based on Landsat and IRS derived data along with CA-Markov method has helped in characterizing the patterns and trends of land use changes over a period of 2004-2013, expected transitions was predicted for a set of scenarios through 2013-2022. The analysis reveals the loss of pristine forest cover from 75.51% to 67.36% (1973 to 2013) and increase in agriculture land as well as built-up area of 8.65% (2013), causing impact on local flora and fauna. The other factors driving these changes are the aggregated level of demand for land, local and regional effects of land use activities such as deforestation, improper practices in expansion of agriculture and infrastructure development, deteriorating natural resources availability. The spatio temporal models helped in visualizing on-going changes apart from prediction of likely changes. The CA-Markov based analysis provides us insights into the localized changes impacting these regions and can be useful in developing appropriate mitigation management approaches based on the modelled future impacts. This necessitates immediate measures for minimizing the future impacts.

  13. Amount and distribution of neustonic micro-plastic off the western Sardinian coast (Central-Western Mediterranean Sea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucia, Giuseppe Andrea; Caliani, Ilaria; Marra, Stefano; Camedda, Andrea; Coppa, Stefania; Alcaro, Luigi; Campani, Tommaso; Giannetti, Matteo; Coppola, Daniele; Cicero, Anna Maria; Panti, Cristina; Baini, Matteo; Guerranti, Cristiana; Marsili, Letizia; Massaro, Giorgio; Fossi, Maria Cristina; Matiddi, Marco

    2014-09-01

    A plethora of different sampling methodologies has been used to document the presence of micro-plastic fragments in sea water. European Marine Strategy suggests to improve standard techniques to make future data comparable. We use Manta Trawl sampling technique to quantify abundance and distribution of micro-plastic fragments in Sardinian Sea (Western Mediterranean), and their relation with phthalates and organoclorine in the neustonic habitat. Our results highlight a quite high average plastic abundance value (0.15 items/m(3)), comparable to the levels detected in other areas of the Mediterranean. "Site" is the only factor that significantly explains the differences observed in micro-plastic densities. Contaminant levels show high spatial and temporal variation. In every station, HCB is the contaminant with the lowest concentration while PCBs shows the highest levels. This work, in line with Marine Strategy directives, represents a preliminary study for the analysis of plastic impact on marine environment of Sardinia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Alps, Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides: about plates, micro-plates and delaminated crustal blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    Before the onset of Europe-Africa continental collision in the Dinarides-Hellenides (around 60Ma) and in the Alps and Western Carpathians (around 35 Ma), and at a large scale, the dynamics of orogenic processes in the Mediterranean Alpine chains were governed by Europe-Africa plate convergence leading to the disappearance of large parts of intervening oceanic lithosphere, i.e. the northern branch of Neotethys along the Sava-Izmir-Ankara suture and Alpine Tethys along the Valais-Magura suture (Schmid et al. 2008). In spite of this, two major problems concerning the pre-collisional stage are still poorly understood: (1) by now we only start to understand geometry, kinematics and dynamics of the along-strike changes in the polarity of subduction between Alps-Carpathians and Dinarides-Hellenides, and (2) it is not clear yet during exactly which episodes and to what extent intervening rifted continental fragments such as, for example, Iberia-Briançonnais, Tisza, Dacia, Adria-Taurides moved independently as micro-plates, and during which episodes they remained firmly attached to Europa or Africa from which they broke away. As Europe-Africa plate convergence slowed down well below 1 cm/yr at around 30 Ma ago these pre-collisional processes driven by plate convergence on a global scale gave way to more local processes of combined roll-back and crustal delamination in the Pannonian basin of the Carpathian embayment and in the Aegean (as well as in the Western Mediterranean, not discussed in this contribution). In the case of the Carpathian embayment E-directed roll back totally unrelated to Europe-Africa N-S-directed convergence, started at around 20 Ma ago, due to the presence relict oceanic lithosphere in the future Pannonian basin that remained un-subducted during collision. Due to total delamination of the crust from the eastward rolling back European mantle lithosphere the anticlockwise rotating ALCAPA crustal block, consisting of Eastern Alps and Western Carpathian

  15. Seroprevalence rates of antibodies against Theileria equi in team roping horses from central-western region of Paraná

    OpenAIRE

    Prochno,Hanna Carolina; Scorsin, Lucas Milléo; De Melo, Fatiane Rodrigues; Baldani,Cristiane Divan; Falbo, Margarete Kimie; Aquino,Lucia Cury Thomaz de; Lemos, Karen Regina

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Theileria equi in horses from central western region of Paraná state, Brazil. The presence of antibodies IgG against T. equi was determined in serum samples obtained from 400 team roping horses of the district of Guarapuava by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results showed that 242 (61%) animals were positive which demonstrates that equine piroplasmosis is widespread and therefore it might be a contributing factor for ...

  16. Modified mercalli intensities for nine earthquakes in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brocher, Thomas M.; Dewey, James W.; Cassidy, John F.

    2017-08-15

    We determine Modified Mercalli (Seismic) Intensities (MMI) for nine onshore earthquakes of magnitude 4.5 and larger that occurred in central and western Washington between 1989 and 1999, on the basis of effects reported in postal questionnaires, the press, and professional collaborators. The earthquakes studied include four earthquakes of M5 and larger: the M5.0 Deming earthquake of April 13, 1990, the M5.0 Point Robinson earthquake of January 29, 1995, the M5.4 Duvall earthquake of May 3, 1996, and the M5.8 Satsop earthquake of July 3, 1999. The MMI are assigned using data and procedures that evolved at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and its Department of Commerce predecessors and that were used to assign MMI to felt earthquakes occurring in the United States between 1931 and 1986. We refer to the MMI assigned in this report as traditional MMI, because they are based on responses to postal questionnaires and on newspaper reports, and to distinguish them from MMI calculated from data contributed by the public by way of the internet. Maximum traditional MMI documented for the M5 and larger earthquakes are VII for the 1990 Deming earthquake, V for the 1995 Point Robinson earthquake, VI for the 1996 Duvall earthquake, and VII for the 1999 Satsop earthquake; the five other earthquakes were variously assigned maximum intensities of IV, V, or VI. Starting in 1995, the Pacific Northwest Seismic Network (PNSN) published MMI maps for four of the studied earthquakes, based on macroseismic observations submitted by the public by way of the internet. With the availability now of the traditional USGS MMI interpreted for all the sites from which USGS postal questionnaires were returned, the four Washington earthquakes join a rather small group of earthquakes for which both traditional USGS MMI and some type of internet-based MMI have been assigned. The values and distributions of the traditional MMI are broadly similar to the internet-based PNSN intensities; we discuss some

  17. Geologic and Isotopic Models for the Carpathian Crystalline Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan Coriolan Balintoni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The majority of Carpathian metamorphics protoliths have TDM model Sm/Nd ages between 1.6 and 2.0 Ga. This suggests an important episode of continental crust formation after the 2.0 Ga. The Biharia lithogroup (Apuseni Mountains and the Tulghes lithogroup (East Carpathians furnished Zircon U/Pb ages from metagranitoids and acid metavolcanics, respective, around 500 Ma; this is a sign of existence of some Lower Proterozoic protoliths among Carpathian metamorphics. The bimodal intrusions which are piercing the volcano-sedimentary sequence of Paiuseni lithogroup in Highiş Massif (Apuseni Mountains have given Permian ages on Zircon U/Pb data. The Paiuseni lithogroup probably represents the fill of a rift basin of the same age. The Arieseni, Muntele Mare and Vinta granitoid intrusions from Apuseni Mountains, with U/Pb ages between Lower Devonian and Permian, indicates some contractional and extensional processes, in connection with Variscan Orogeny.

  18. Climate Change Scenarios of Precipitation Extremes in the Carpathian Region Based on an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Gaál

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study examines projected changes in precipitation extremes, aggregated on several time scales (1 hour, 1 day, and 5 days, in simulations of 12 regional climate models (RCMs with high spatial resolution (~25 km. The study area is the Carpathian Basin (Central and Southeastern Europe which has a complex topography and encompasses the whole territory of Slovakia and Hungary as well as major parts of Romania and western Ukraine. We focus on changes in mean seasonal maxima and high quantiles (50-year return values projected for the late 21st century (time slice 2070–2099 in comparison to the control period (time slice 1961–1990, for summer and winter. The 50-year return values are estimated by means of a regional frequency analysis based on the region-of-influence method, which reduces random variability and leads to more reliable estimates of high quantiles. In winter, all examined characteristics of precipitation (seasonal totals, mean seasonal maxima, and 50-year return values for both short-term and multi-day aggregations show similar patterns of projected increases for the late 21st century. In summer, by contrast, drying is projected for seasonal totals in all RCMs while increases clearly prevail for the 50-year return values. The projected increases are larger for short-term (hourly extremes that are more directly related to convective activity than multiday extremes. This suggests that the probability of occurrence of flash floods may increase more than that of large-scale floods in a warmer climate. The within-ensemble variability (and associated uncertainty is, nevertheless, much larger in summer than in winter.

  19. Hydrologic Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drici, Warda [Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2004-02-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available hydrologic data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  20. Steller sea lion satellite telemetry data used to determine at-sea distribution in the western-central Aleutian Islands, 2000-2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset was used for an analysis of the at-sea distribution of Steller sea lions in the western-central Aleutian Islands, Alaska. This analysis was prepared to...

  1. AFSC/NMML: Killer whale surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  2. Contaminant Transport Parameters for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drici, Warda [International Technologies Corporation, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2003-08-01

    This report documents the analysis of the available transport parameter data conducted in support of the development of a Corrective Action Unit (CAU) groundwater flow model for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: CAUs 101 and 102.

  3. Soil anthropization in Carpathian region on central Moravia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Obršlík

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper asseses knowledge about dynamic changes of soil cover by anthropogenic influences. A dynamism of changes is evaluted with a comparison of the first soil survey realized in the investigated area in the year 1962 and the present state on the base of survey in years 2002–2003. The fundamental conclusions are:• the dominant long-term historical influencing factor of a negative soil anthropization exerting in precollectivization era of the past century was a tillage and a cultivation after the declivity. A cultivation according to the contour line occurred on maximum area of 15% at slopes to 6 grades (it was found out on the base of aerial photographs from the year 1938 and maps of investigated area,• modal chernozems are conserved only at slopes to 2 grades,• sloupes to 7 grades have largely eroded tchernozems and slopes above 7 grades have largely regosoils on loess,• leptosols and anthrosoils are extended on areas after total erosion of loess, a occurrence of fluvisoils and phaeozems.The previous found out facts give this evaluational prognosis: substitution of modal chernozems will be reduced and eroded chernozems, but above all regosoils, will be extended, on slopes above 7 grades will dominate leptosols and anthrosoils.

  4. The Mythical Power of the Dual River-System of the Carpathian Basin: The Notion of a Hungarian Mesopotamia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Keményfi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Gyula Prinz is responsible for the notion of “Magyar Mezopotámia” [Hungarian Mesopotamia]. The natural basis for this idea is that Hungarian culture developed on the surface of an alluvial plains area. This sort of natural environment was the precondition of great civilizations based on agriculture. In other words, the intrinsic Duna-Tisza [Danubius-Tibiscus] river structure, which is similar to that of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates, would elevate Hungary to the status of a mesopotamic country. This is how the central Hungarian area could become the distributing core of culture and how this culture could be radiated towards the neighboring peoples who also lived together with us in the Carpathian Basin. Our “cultural power” therefore “elevated” the cultural level of other peoples who lived with us on the edges of the Carpathian Basin. Accordingly, the end, or the borderline, of the highbrow “core culture” is located where the territory populated by Hungarians ends, or where the plains area shifts into the Carpathian Mountains.

  5. Deep-sea distribution, biological and ecological aspects of Aristeus antennatus ( Risso, 1816 in the western and central Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Sardà

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the DESEAS Project, funded by the EC, was to gather preliminary data on the abundance and maximum depth distribution of the rose shrimp Aristeusantennatus in the Mediterranean Sea. An exploratory survey was therefore designed with that goal in mind and conducted on the R/V García del Cid, sampling the maximum depths in three specific areas in the central and western Mediterranean, one off Ibiza (Balearic Islands, one off Calabria (western Ionian Sea, and one off the southern Peloponnesian Peninsula (Gulf of Kalamata, eastern Ionian Sea. The depths sampled ranged from 600 to 4000 m, with specimens of A. antennatus being collected down to 3300 m. There were three distinct boundaries marking the abundance of this species: 1500 m, relatively low abundance (

  6. The flight periodicity, attack patterns, and life history of Dryocoetes confusus Swaine (Coleoptera: Curculionida: Scolytinae), the western balsam bark beetle, in north central Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose F. Negron; John B. Popp

    2009-01-01

    Dryocoetes confusus Swaine, the western balsam bark beetle, is an important bark beetle associated with Abies lasiocarpa (Hook.) Nutt. (subalpine fir) in western North America. Little information is available on the life cycle and ecology of this insect in Colorado. In this study in north central Colorado, we examined its...

  7. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  8. Insights into the crustal structure and magmatic evolution of the High and Western Plateau of the Manihiki Plateau, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hochmuth, Katharina; Gohl, Karsten; Uenzelmann-Neben, Gabriele

    2014-05-01

    The Manihiki Plateau is a Large Igneous Province (LIP) located in the Central Pacific. It is assumed, that the formation of the Manihiki Plateau took place during the early Cretaceous in multiple volcanic stages as part of the "Super-LIP" Ontong-Java-Nui. The plateau consists of several sub-plateaus of which the Western Plateau und High Plateau are the largest. In addressing the plateau's magmatic evolutionary history, one of the key questions is whether all sub-plateaus experienced the same magmatic history or if distinct phases of igneous or tectonic processes led to its fragmentation. During the RV Sonne cruise SO-224 in 2012; we collected two deep crustal seismic refraction/wide-angle reflection lines, crossing the two main sub-plateaus. Modeling of P- and S-wave phases reveals the different crustal nature of both sub-plateaus. On the High Plateau, the 20 km thick crust is divided into four seismic units, interpreted to range from basaltic composition in the uppermost crust to peridotitic composition in the middle and lower crust. The Western Plateau on the other hand shows multiple rift structures and no indications of basalt flows. With a maximum of 17 km crustal thickness, the Western Plateau is also thinner than the High Plateau. The upper basement layers show relatively low P-wave velocities (3.0 - 5.0 km/s), which infers that on the Western Plateau these layers consist of volcanoclastic and carbonatic rocks rather than basaltic flow units. Later volcanic stages may be restricted to the High Plateau with a possible eastward trend in the center of volcanic activity. Extensive secondary volcanism does not seem to have occurred on the Western Plateau, and its later deformation is mainly caused by tectonic extension and rifting.

  9. Contributions to the phytosociological study of Sessile and Turkey oak forests in the Orastie area (Central-Western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Petru BURESCU; Valeriu Ioan VINTAN

    2012-01-01

    In the current paper we present a phytosociological study of the phytocoenoses of the association Quercetum petraeae-cerris Soó 1963 (Syn.: Quercetum polycarpae-cerris G. Popescu 1988) identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the phytosociological table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the Turkey and Sessile oak forests of...

  10. Solute load concentrations in some streams in the Upper Osun and Owena drainage basins, central western Nigeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeje, L. K.; Ogunkoya, O. O.; Oluwatimilehin, J. M.

    1999-12-01

    The solute load dynamics of 12 third-order streams in central western Nigeria are presented, during storm and non-storm runoff events. The relevance of the Walling and Foster model for explaining storm period solute load dynamics in the humid tropical environment was assessed and it was found that this model was generally applicable to the study area. Exceptions appear to be streams draining settlements and/or farms where fertilizers are applied heavily. The solute load ranged from 5 mg l -1 to 580 mg l -1 with streams draining basins with tree-crop plantations ( Theobroma cacao, Cola sp.) as the dominant land cover having the highest solute load.

  11. Trend and variability in western and central Africa streamflow, and their relation to climate variability between 1950 and 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidibe, Moussa; Dieppois, Bastien; Mahé, Gil; Paturel, Jean-Emmanuel; Rouché, Nathalie; Amoussou, Ernest; Anifowose, Babatunde; Lawler, Damian

    2017-04-01

    Unprecedented drought episodes that struck western and central Africa between the late 1960s and 1980s. This triggered many studies investigating rainfall variability and its impacts on food production systems. However, most studies were focused at the catchment scale. In this study, we examine how rainfall variability has impacted on river flow at the subcontinental scale between 1950 and 2010, as well as the key large-scale controls on this relationship. For the first time, we establish a complete, gap-filled, monthly streamflow data set, which extends from 1950 to 2010, over the western and central African region. To achieve this, we used linear regression modelling across and between 600 flow gauging stations (see initial database information at http://www.hydrosciences.fr/sierem/index_en.htm). Streamflow trend and variability are then seasonally assessed at this subcontinental scale and compared to those observed in three different rainfall data sets (i.e. CRU TS3.24, GPCC V7, IRD-HSM). Long-term trends and variability in streamflow are mainly consistent with trends in rainfall. However, these relationships may have been moderated by: i) changes in land use; and ii) contributions from groundwater resources. In particular, we note that the recent post 1990s partial recovery in Sahel rainfall could have, at least partially, positively impacted river flows (e.g. the Senegal and Niger rivers). Using multi-temporal trend and continuous wavelet analysis, the time-evolution of western and central African river flows are analysed, and are all characterized by very strong decadal fluctuations, which can be interpreted as modulations in the baseflow. These decadal fluctuations, which are also significantly detected in rainfall, are likely related to large-scale sea-surface temperature (SST) anomaly patterns, such as the tropical Atlantic SST variability, the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation, the Interdecadal Pacific Oscillation and/or the Pacific Decadal Oscillation

  12. Transplanting a Western-Style Journalism Education to the Central Asian Republics of the Former Soviet Union: Experiences and Challenges at the American University of Central Asia in Kyrgyzstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skochilo, Elena; Toralieva, Gulnura; Freedman, Eric; Shafer, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Western standards of journalism education, as well as western professional journalistic practices, have had difficulty taking root in the five independent countries of formerly Soviet Central Asia. This essay examines the experience of one university's Department of Journalism and Mass Communication since 1997 and the challenges it faces,…

  13. The Kazanga festival : ethnicity as cultural mediation and transformation in central western Zambia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binsbergen, van W.M.J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the cultural dynamics of ethnicity in the context of a postcolonial African State, Zambia. The opening sections define ethnicity and pinpoint its central dilemma: while unmistakably constructed and thus selectively empowering the brokers coordinating the construction process,

  14. The South Central Overland Trail in western Utah, 1850-1900

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The following report is a discussion of the South Central Overland Trail, which goes west from Salt Lake City and skirts the worst of the salt desert, stopping at...

  15. Contributions to the phytosociological study of Sessile and Turkey oak forests in the Orastie area (Central-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BURESCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a phytosociological study of the phytocoenoses of the association Quercetum petraeae-cerris Soó 1963 (Syn.: Quercetum polycarpae-cerris G. Popescu 1988 identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the phytosociological table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the Turkey and Sessile oak forests of the lower and central parts of the Orastie river basin (Culoarul Orăştiei.This paper aims at analysing the phytocoenoses of the association Quercetum petraeae-cerris Soó 1963 in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  16. Different mixtures of Norway spruce, silver fir, and European beech modify competitive interactions in central European mature mixed forests

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tobin, Brian; Larocque, Guy R; Petráš, Rudolf; Bosela, Michal; Šebeň, Vladimír

    2015-01-01

    ...–spruce forests, mostly because of a lack of long-term experimental research. In the 1960s, long-term sample plots were established in the Western Carpathians to develop region-specific yield models...

  17. Bottom to top lithosphere structure and evolution of western Eger Rift (Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babuška, Vladislav; Fiala, Jiří; Plomerová, Jaroslava

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 4 (2010), s. 891-907 ISSN 1437-3254 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/07/1088; GA AV ČR IAA300120709 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515; CEZ:AV0Z30130516 Keywords : western Bohemian Massif * Eger (Ohře) Rift * lithosphere structure and development * mantle seismic anisotropy Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.980, year: 2010

  18. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m-3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (air-quality measurements for PM2.5 and PM10 apparently do not capture the large majority of mineral-particulate pollution in the remote western interior U.S.

  19. Concentrations of mineral aerosol from desert to plains across the central Rocky Mountains, western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard L.; Munson, Seth M.; Fernandez, Daniel; Goldstein, Harland L.; Neff, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Mineral dusts can have profound effects on climate, clouds, ecosystem processes, and human health. Because regional dust emission and deposition in western North America are not well understood, measurements of total suspended particulate (TSP) from 2011 to 2013 were made along a 500-km transect of five remote sites in Utah and Colorado, USA. The TSP concentrations in μg m−3 adjusted to a 24-h period were relatively high at the two westernmost, dryland sites at Canyonlands National Park (mean = 135) and at Mesa Verde National Park (mean = 99), as well as at the easternmost site on the Great Plains (mean = 143). The TSP concentrations at the two intervening montane sites were less, with more loading on the western slope of the Rocky Mountains (Telluride, mean = 68) closest to the desert sites compared with the site on the eastern slope (Niwot Ridge, mean = 58). Dust concentrations were commonly highest during late winter-late spring, when Pacific frontal storms are the dominant causes of regional wind. Low concentrations (10), as revealed by relatively low average daily concentrations of fine (western interior U.S.

  20. Climate Change Adaptation in the Carpathian Mountain Region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werners, Saskia Elisabeth; Szalai, Sándor; Zingstra, Henk; Kőpataki, Éva; Beckmann, Andreas; Bos, Ernst; Civic, Kristijan; Hlásny, Tomas; Hulea, Orieta; Jurek, Matthias; Koch, Hagen; Kondor, Attila Csaba; Kovbasko, Aleksandra; Lakatos, M.; Lambert, Stijn; Peters, Richard; Trombik, Jiří; De Velde, Van Ilse; Zsuffa, István

    2016-01-01

    The Carpathian mountain region is one of the most significant natural refuges on the European continent. It is home to Europe’s most extensive tracts of montane forest, the largest remaining virgin forest and natural mountain beech-fir forest ecosystems. Adding to the biodiversity are semi-natural

  1. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojanich, María Viviana; Alonso, José Mario; Caraballo, Nadina Ayelén; Schöller, Mercedes Itatí; López, María de los Ángeles; García, Leandro Martín; Basualdo, Juan Ángel

    2015-01-01

    With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households. PMID:25651329

  2. ASSESSMENT OF THE PRESENCE OF Toxocara EGGS IN SOILS OF AN ARID AREA IN CENTRAL-WESTERN ARGENTINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Viviana Bojanich

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of studying the contamination of soils with eggs of Toxocara spp. in an arid area in the central-western region of Argentina, 76 soil samples were collected from 18 towns belonging to six provinces of central-western Argentina. They were processed by the centrifugal flotation method. No eggs of Toxocara spp. were found. It can be concluded that the negative results are directly related to the characteristics of the environment and climate present in the studied area. The finding of eggs in soils depends on several factors: the presence of canine or feline feces, the hygienic behavior of pet owners, the presence of stray animals without veterinary supervision, the weather and environmental conditions, and laboratory techniques used; and all these circumstances must be considered when comparing the results found in different geographical regions. In order to accurately define the importance of public spaces in the transmission of infection to humans, it is important to consider the role of backyards or green spaces around housing in small towns, where the population is not used to walking pets in public spaces, and in such cases a significant fraction of the population may acquire the infection within households.

  3. Pattern of Maxillofacial fracture in Western and Central Nepal: An experience in 3 tertiary level health institutions

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    S Subedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are only few studies regarding the pattern and causes of maxillofacial fractures till date in Nepal and no such study in western and central Nepalese population has been conducted. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to describe the causes and the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in western and central part of Nepal over the period of 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of maxillofacial fractures was conducted on 328 patients who were treated in the department of maxillofacial surgery. Data was extracted and analyzed based on age, sex, cause of injury and anatomic location. RESULT Young males of 3rd decade of life most commonly sustained the maxillofacial trauma. The commonest site involved was the zygomatic complex (42% when only mid face fractures was considered and parasymphysis (32% when only mandible was considered.The most common cause of injuries was road traffic accidents (289 patients; 88.1% followed by interpersonal violence (25 patients; 7.6 % and falls accounting for 4.2% of the all injuries. CONCLUSION The findings of this study suggest the need for expansion of the motorway network, ensuring compliance of strict traffic rules and regulations, replacing old vehicles without safety measures and implement school education in alcohol abuse.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12771 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 8-13

  4. Climate change in the Carpathian-Balkan Area. Advancing research and cooperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains are considered to be one of Europe’s last “wilderness” areas, but are nevertheless under heavy pressure from human activities. Examples range from large-scale activities (e.g. metal and coal mining and ecological disasters (e.g. tailing dam failures in the Toroiaga and Baia Mare areas to cross-border pollution (e.g. Chernobyl nuclear accident. The current political thrust for economic development is accelerating the pace of industrial activities, exploitation of natural resources and tourism. Romania has just recently been integrated into the European Union and many community-based projects were initiated to evaluate problems related to climatic and anthropogenic impacts.The diversity of landforms that characterize the Carpathian region encompassing mountain ranges and large spans of adjacent lowlands and the dynamic interplay between North Atlantic, continental, and Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns in southeastern Europe, have resulted in extremely fragmented habitats and exceptional biodiversity (Veres and Mindrescu, 2013. However, the Carpathian Mountains remain the least studied mountain environment in Europe, as reflected for example by the low number of well-dated and high-resolution paleorecords (e.g. Buczkó et al. 2009. Rose et al. (2009 published a pollution history study from a lake in the Retezat Mountains at the western extremity of the Southern Carpathians, but no paleoenvironmental studies exist for the rest of the mountain range, despite the abundance of suitable sites (Akinyemi et al., 2013.An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field (geosciences, as innovative science is increasingly stimulated by studies that cross disciplinary boundaries and thus benefit from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by creating “meeting places” where geoscience

  5. Options of biofuel trade from Central and Eastern to Western European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dam, J.; Faaij, A.P.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/10685903X; Lewandowski, I.M.; Van Zeebroeck, B.

    2009-01-01

    Central and Eastern European countries (CEEC) have a substantial biomass production and export potential. The objective of this study is to assess whether the market for biofuels and trade can be profitable enough to realize a supply of biofuels from the CEEC to the European market and to estimate

  6. Systematics of the Podarcis hispanicus complex (Sauria, Lacertidae) III: valid nomina of the western and central Iberian forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniez, Philippe; Sá-Sousa, Paulo; Guillaume, Claude P; Cluchier, Alexandre; Crochet, Pierre-André

    2014-05-05

    Recent genetic works have suggested that the Iberian wall lizard Podarcis hispanicus (Steindachner, 1870) sensu lato is a species complex. Several forms have already been elevated to species rank and linked to available nomina, but at least three still have to be formally named, including the western Iberian forms currently designated as Podarcis hispanicus "type 1A", "type 1B" and "type 2". The aim of the present work is to assign a valid nomen to these taxa. Using multivariate analyses, we first checked that the morphological differences reported in Portugal between type 1 and type 2 are maintained over their distribution range. We then investigated phenotypic differentiation between type 1A and type 1B, which were found to be so similar that identification based on phenotype is currently not advisable. We propose to treat type 1 and type 2 as distinct species because of their level of genetic and phenotypic divergence, large area of distribution and ample evidence for reduced or absent introgression in contact zones. We maintain type 1A and 1B as subspecies for the time being, pending further analyses of their contact zone. The valid nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 1 (sensu lato)" is Lacerta muralis guadarramae Boscá, 1916 which becomes Podarcis guadarramae (Boscá, 1916). Lineage type 1A is here described as a new taxon: P. guadarramae lusitanicus ssp. nov., inhabiting northern Portugal and northwestern Spain. The type 1B lineage corresponds to the nominotypical subspecies that inhabits Spain, mostly the Central Iberian Mountains. We were unable to locate an available nomen for "Podarcis hispanica type 2", which is here described as Podarcis virescens sp. nov. This species is widely distributed in the plains and plateaus of central and parts of south-western Spain as well as central and southern Portugal.

  7. Population structure of humpback whales in the western and central South Pacific Ocean as determined by vocal exchange among populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Ellen C; Goldizen, Anne W; Lilley, Matthew S; Rekdahl, Melinda L; Garrigue, Claire; Constantine, Rochelle; Hauser, Nan Daeschler; Poole, M Michael; Robbins, Jooke; Noad, Michael J

    2015-08-01

    For cetaceans, population structure is traditionally determined by molecular genetics or photographically identified individuals. Acoustic data, however, has provided information on movement and population structure with less effort and cost than traditional methods in an array of taxa. Male humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) produce a continually evolving vocal sexual display, or song, that is similar among all males in a population. The rapid cultural transmission (the transfer of information or behavior between conspecifics through social learning) of different versions of this display between distinct but interconnected populations in the western and central South Pacific region presents a unique way to investigate population structure based on the movement dynamics of a song (acoustic) display. Using 11 years of data, we investigated an acoustically based population structure for the region by comparing stereotyped song sequences among populations and years. We used the Levenshtein distance technique to group previously defined populations into (vocally based) clusters based on the overall similarity of their song display in space and time. We identified the following distinct vocal clusters: western cluster, 1 population off eastern Australia; central cluster, populations around New Caledonia, Tonga, and American Samoa; and eastern region, either a single cluster or 2 clusters, one around the Cook Islands and the other off French Polynesia. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that each breeding aggregation represents a distinct population (each occupied a single, terminal node) in a metapopulation, similar to the current understanding of population structure based on genetic and photo-identification studies. However, the central vocal cluster had higher levels of song-sharing among populations than the other clusters, indicating that levels of vocal connectivity varied within the region. Our results demonstrate the utility and value of

  8. Single nucleotide polymorphisms reveal genetic structuring of the carpathian newt and provide evidence of interspecific gene flow in the nuclear genome.

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    Piotr Zieliński

    Full Text Available Genetic variation within species is commonly structured in a hierarchical manner which may result from superimposition of processes acting at different spatial and temporal scales. In organisms of limited dispersal ability, signatures of past subdivision are detectable for a long time. Studies of contemporary genetic structure in such taxa inform about the history of isolation, range changes and local admixture resulting from geographically restricted hybridization with related species. Here we use a set of 139 transcriptome-derived, unlinked nuclear single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP to assess the genetic structure of the Carpathian newt (Lissotriton montandoni, Lm and introgression from its congener, the smooth newt (L. vulgaris, Lv. Two substantially differentiated groups of Lm populations likely originated from separate refugia, both located in the Eastern Carpathians. The colonization of the present range in north-western and south-western directions was accompanied by a modest loss of variation; admixture between the two groups has occurred in the middle of the Eastern Carpathians. Local, apparently recent introgression of Lv alleles into several Lm populations was detected, demonstrating increased power for admixture detection in comparison to a previous study based on a limited number of microsatellite markers. The level of introgression was higher in Lm populations classified as admixed than in syntopic populations. We discuss the possible causes and propose further tests to distinguish between alternatives. Several outlier loci were identified in tests of interspecific differentiation, suggesting genomic heterogeneity of gene flow between species.

  9. Vegetation and Terrain Relationships in South-Central New Mexico and Western Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-11-01

    Ledeb (salt cedar) CONVOLVULACEAE (Morning Glory Family ) Ipornoea sp. (morning glory) VERBEt4ACEAE (Verbain Family ) A.toyz-La QWighti (Gray) Heller...Central New Mexico Plant Community.I POLYPODIACEAB (True Ferns) II heitizWh WghtiZ Hook (Wright liptern) PINACEAE (Pine Family ) JwzipcAuA monospt’tma...Engeim.) Sarg - (oneseeded juniper; cedar) = PinU6 edLUlt Engeim. (pinyon pine) EPHEDRACEAE (Ephedra Family ) Epze&t abp&I Engeim. (popotillo; Mormon

  10. Igneous activity and related ore deposits in the western and southern Tushar Mountains, Marysvale volcanic field, west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven, Thomas A.

    1984-01-01

    16 m.y. old may exist near Indian Creek just west of the Mount Belknap caldera. Geophysical evidence confirms the probability of a buried pluton near Indian Creek, and also indicates that another buried pluton probably exists beneath the 9-m.y.-old mineralized area at Sheep Rock. The mineral potential of the different hydrothermal systems, and the types of minerals deposited probably vary considerably from one period of mineralization to another and from one depth environment to another within a given system. PART B: The Big John caldera, on the western flank of the Tushar Mountains in the Marysvale volcanic field in west-central Utah, formed 23-22 m.y. ago in response to ash-flow eruptions of the Delano Peak Tuff Member of the Bullion Canyon Volcanics. These eruptions were near the end of the period of Oligocene-early Miocene calc-alkalic igneous activity that built a broad volcanic plateau in this part of Utah. About 22 m.y. ago, the composition of rocks erupted changed to a bimodal assemblage of mafic and silicic volcanics that was erupted episodically through the remainder of Cenozoic time. The alkali rhyolites are uranium rich in part, and are associated with all the known uranium deposits in the Marysvale volcanic field. The Big John caldera was a broad drained basin whose floor was covered by a layer of stream gravels when ash flows from the western source area of the Mount Belknap Volcanics filled the caldera with the Joe Lott Tuff Member about 19 m.y. ago. Devitrified and zeolitized rocks in the caldera fill have lost one-quarter to one-half of the uranium contained in the original magma. This mobilized uranium probably moved into the hydrologic regime, and some may have been redeposited in stream gravels underlying the Joe Lott within the caldera, or in gravels filling the original drainage channel that extended south from the caldera.

  11. A new species of Stenocercus (Squamata, Iguania from central-western Brazil with a key to Brazilian Stenocercus

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    Omar Torres-Carvajal

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available A new species of Stenocercus from central-western Brazil differs from other Stenocercus by the following combination of characters: head and body scales strongly keeled, posthumeral and postfemoral mite pockets absent, nostrils laterally oriented, supraciliary scales not enlarged or projected, and caudal fracture planes absent. Morphologically, the new species more closely resembles S. prionotus and S. caducus. The latter species has been reported in Brazil based on misidentified specimens from Mato Grosso that correspond to the new species described herein. However, it is very likely that S. caducus occurs in Brazil because it has been reported from geographically close areas. Therefore, I recognize seven species of Stenocercus from Brazil and provide a dichotomous key to assist in the identification of specimens.

  12. Evolutionary Relationships of the Triatoma matogrossensis Subcomplex, the Endemic Triatoma in Central-Western Brazil, Based on Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardim, Sueli; Rocha, Cláudia S.; Almeida, Carlos E.; Takiya, Daniela M.; da Silva, Marco T. A.; Ambrósio, Daniela L.; Cicarelli, Regina M. B.; da Rosa, João A.

    2013-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships among species of Triatoma matogrossensis subcomplex ( T. baratai, T. guazu, T. matogrossensis, T. sordida, T. vandae, and T. williami) was addressed by using fragments of cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 16S rDNA (16S), and cytochrome b (Cytb) through Bayesian and parsimony analyses. We did not recover a monophyletic T. matogrossensis subcomplex, and their members were found clustered in three strongly supported clades, as follows: i) T. jurbergi + T. matogrossensis + T. vandae + T. garciabesi + T. sordida; ii) with T. guasayana as the sister group of clade (i); and iii) T. williami + T. guazu, however not closely related to the clade formed by the previously mentioned species. The other two endemic species from Central-Western Brazil, T. baratai and T. costalimai, were not recovered with strong clade support as related to other members of this subcomplex. Results call for a further revision in the classification of the subcomplexes within the genus Triatoma. PMID:24002487

  13. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants in western part of central Taurus Mountains: Aladaglar (Nigde - Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Ebru; Alpınar, Kerim

    2015-05-26

    With this study, we aimed to document traditional uses of medicinal plants in the western part of Aladaglar/Nigde. This study was conducted between 2003 and 2005. The research area was in the western part of the Aladaglar mountains. The settlements in Aladaglar (5 towns and 10 villages) were visited during the field work. The plants collected by the help of medicinal plant users. The plants were identified and voucher specimens prepared. These voucher specimens were kept at the Herbarium of Istanbul University Faculty of Pharmacy (ISTE). We collected the information by means of semi-structured interviews with 170 informants (90 men and 80 women). In addition, the relative importance value of the species was determined and the informant consensus factor (FIC) was calculated for the medicinal plants researched in the study. According to the results of the identification, among 126 plants were used by the inhabitants and 110 species belonging to 40 families were used for medicinal purposes. Most of the medicinal plants used in Aladaglar/Nigde belong to the families Lamiaceae (25 species), Asteraceae (16 species), Apiaceae (7 species), Fabaceae (6 species) and Brassicaceae (5 species). The most commonly used plant species were Hypericum perforatumThymus sipyleus var. sipyleus, Rosa canina, Urtica dioica, Malva neglecta, Thymus leucotrichus, Salix alba, Mentha longifolia, Berberis crataegina, Juniperus oxycedrus, Viscum album subsp. abietis, Allium rotundum and Taraxacum stevenii. The most common preparations were infusion and decoction. The traditional medicinal plants have been mostly used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases (86%), hemorrhoids (79%), urinary diseases (69%), diabetes (68%) and respiratory diseases (61%). The use of traditional medicine was still widespread among the inhabitants of Aladaglar mountains/Nigde region. Due to the lack of medical facilities in the villages of Aladaglar mountains, local people prefer herbal treatment rather than

  14. Creation of unification RS and geophysical data in Central Kyzylkum-Western Uzbekistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Elena

    2014-05-01

    In the report describes the state of the art of remote sensing and geophysical studies- seismic, magnetic data on the covered Mz-Kz deposits area of Central Kyzylkum. The complex data interpretation includes three steps: (i) creation geophysical data base in ArcGIS 10.1 software; (ii) processing RS data and Erdas Imagine 9.2 software (indication method, PCA analysis and etc.); (iii) integration geophysical and RS data in to ArcGIS&RS model. Materials of seismic and magnetic studies were used for the identification of anomalous objects and their heterogeneities in deep horizons of the consolidated crust as the basis for further correlation with RS data observed on the Earth's surface. As results of collaboration between GIS and RS data analysis the new prospect areas were extracted from the study areas. Were revealed the geological structures in 3-D model, associated with mineralization, lineaments and ring structures. The complex analysis of model allowed proposing new potential ore areas for statement of prospecting work. As example, we present results of correlation between Tamdy ring structure and high velocity object on the deep 4 km, which in the which also link with large gold deposit Muruntau in Central Kyzylkum.

  15. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  16. Epidemiology of tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) in international travellers to Western/Central Europe and conclusions on vaccination recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffen, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Tick-borne encephalitis (TBE) endemicity is spreading in Europe becoming an increasing health risk also for travellers. Previous reviews on TBE in civilian travellers lacked of numerator data and offered at most rough estimates on denominator data. An evidence-based quantification of the risk so far has been impossible; that resulted in fundamentally differing vaccination recommendations. A standard internet search was conducted with a focus on the data used to formulate vaccination recommendations. As TBE became notifiable at the European Union (EU) level the databases of European Center for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC) were analysed for cases imported from abroad 2012. Since these included only 19 EU countries, individual experts were contacted in countries, which had not submitted data and additional surveillance databases were investigated to obtain a comprehensive account on travel-associated TBE in Central and Western Europe. In 2012, the ECDC and other data sources included 38 reported cases of internationally acquired TBE. Basing on estimates of the exposed number of visitors, the attack rate for an undefined period of time could be very roughly extrapolated to be 0.5-1.3 per 100,000 (1 per 77,000-200.000) overall in Western/Central Europe endemic areas for the exposed at-risk population. As advised by the World Health Organization (WHO) travellers exposed outdoors in rural endemic areas to a risk of TBE during the period of transmission should be recommended immunization. In contrast, the advice to recommend TBE vaccination for all visitors of endemic areas is inappropriate. Implementation of the risk strategy is compromised by the fact that many at-risk travellers are unaware of the risk, thus they will not consult competent health professionals. Others may consult late, and in some countries of origin no TBE vaccine is marketed. © International Society of Travel Medicine, 2016. All rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press. For

  17. Rare wetland grass Coleanthus subtilis in Central and Western Europe – current distribution, habitat types, and threats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elke Richert

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The moss grass Coleanthus subtilis (Tratt. Seidl is a rare, diminutive grass which grows on wet muddy bottoms of drained water bodies displaying a high degree of water level dynamics, such as fishponds or water reservoirs. Due to the temporal character of its habitat, C. subtilis has a very short life cycle of only a few weeks. Therefore, the species and its habitats are legally protected on both national and international levels. This paper focuses on habitats and the conservation of C. subtilis in Central and Western Europe. For the period of 2000–2013, the Czech Republic with more than 200 sites represents the main distribution area of this species in Central and Western Europe. During the same period, C. subtilis was recorded from 45 sites in three regions of Germany (33 Lusatia, 11 Ore Mountains, 1 Mid-Elbe River, 16 sites in France, 13 sites in Poland, and four sites in Austria. Since 2000, the number of records within these seven regions seems to have followed different trends: whereas two regions (Lusatia, Germany and southern Poland became newly colonized and many populations established, in one region (Ore Mountains, Germany the number of records diminished. Owing to its specific life cycle, both reproduction success and maintenance of C. subtilis populations are closely linked to the prevailing water level regime, mainly dependent on the management of the water body. Management for the conservation of C. subtilis populations should consider the entire complex of water bodies, as well as individual ponds. For the preservation of the species, at least one pond in each complex should be drained every year and each pond should be drained at least once within 5 years. Depending on local climatic conditions, ponds should be drained for 8–10 weeks during the time period from mid-March to mid-November.

  18. Petrology, geochemistry and Sm-Nd analyses on the Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite (BCO - Romania, Serbia, Bulgaria): Remnants of a Devonian back-arc basin in the easternmost part of the Variscan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plissart, Gaëlle; Monnier, Christophe; Diot, Hervé; Mărunţiu, Marcel; Berger, Julien; Triantafyllou, Antoine

    2017-04-01

    The pre-Alpine basement of the Southern Carpathians/Western Balkans contains four ophiolitic massifs dismembered by Alpine tectonics, which define the ;Balkan-Carpathian Ophiolite; (BCO) for which the tectonic setting and age of formation are still debated (Precambrian or Early Devonian). In this contribution, we demonstrate that, in light of a Pre-Alpine restoration, the four massifs belonged to a unique slice of very complete, obducted oceanic lithosphere and we re-evaluate its tectonic setting. Large chromitite volumes with Al-rich spinel compositions (Cr# = 0.39-0.48), as well as major and trace geochemical results on basalts (slightly enriched N-MORBs with low negative Nb anomaly associated with calk-alkaline BABBs), point to a formation in a back-arc basin. Mantle spinel composition (Cr# = 0.49-0.51) and melting modeling indicate mean melting extents of 8.5-11% favouring intermediate spreading rate. New Sm-Nd dating on lower gabbroic rocks give a whole rock isochron, interpreted as the age of formation of the BCO crust at 409 ± 38 Ma, thus confirming an Early Devonian oceanic crust. The previous ∼563 Ma U-Pb zircon age can be interpreted as casual inheritance indicating the proximity of an old continental lithosphere. Taking into account the lithological evidences and paleocontinental affinities of the two recognized terranes separated by the BC oceanic basin (Balkans and Sredna Gora) and by analogy with other Variscan ophiolites in Western/Central Europe, we suggest that the BC ophiolite belong to the ∼400 Ma ophiolites group obducted between West and East Galatia and belonging to the southern Variscan suture. However, the BC ophiolite is the only one of this group obducted to the north and not involved in the Lower Allochthon/ophiolite/Upper Allochthon thrust pile, likely explaining its exceptional preservation. Finally, we tentatively propose a new unifying tectonic model where different terrane drift rates and highly oblique displacements create two

  19. Composition, complexity, and tree mortality in riparian forests in the central Western Cascades of Oregon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Steve A.; Gregory, S.V.; Lienkaemper, G.; McKee, W.A.; Swanson, F.J.; Miller, S.D.

    2003-01-01

    Riparian forests contribute to the diversity and function of both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. To assess some of these contributions, we compared tree composition, stand complexity, and temporal patterns of tree mortality on permanent plots in seven mature and old-growth stands representing upland forests and forests along low- and mid-order streams in the Western Cascade Range of Oregon. We also assessed recruitment of large wood into stream channels due to tree mortality, both by direct measurement and by estimation from tree mortality and location data. Stands differed in composition due to both stream order and successional stage. Stands on mid-order streams had high abundance of hardwood trees and/or Thuja plicata. Stand complexity (variability in tree diameters, tree life-form diversity, and tree species diversity), was high in stands on mid-order streams and in the upland, old-growth stand. Tree mortality was exceptionally high in six of the seven stands in 1996, the year in which the largest flood during the study occurred. However, only in the one stand on an unconstrained reach of a mid-order stream was mortality primarily due to flooding. Estimated recruitment of wood was much higher from the stand on the unconstrained reach than from the other stands on mid-order streams, suggesting that unconstrained reaches may be important for efforts to maintain or restore large wood in streams.

  20. Slope-failure features on deep-seated landslides in the Flysch Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, I.; Krejci, O.; Hubatka, F.

    2003-04-01

    Several geomorphic features were recognised and mapped on selected deep-seated slope failures in the Western Carpathians Flysch region (E Czech Republic). These landslides affected flysch bedrock, containing smectite and expanding assemblages of smectite with other clay minerals, to the depth of several tens of meters. Block type of rotational movement prevails in the upper part of the landslides. Rotated blocks up to 200m in diameter occur there and form a ridge structure. Their surface usually slopes opposite to original surface and back depressions develop. Frontal scarps of the blocks are usually affected by relatively shallow slides forming several generations of accumulations. Presently creeping rotated blocks are bounded with elongated pressure ridges in mixed colluvial accumulations down the slope. These accumulations are substrate for shallow secondary translational slides. Present and fossil lake basins were identified behind the rotated rock-blocks, before the accumulations and in the valley floor as dammed lakes. Crack caves occur in the competent rocks in several parts of the landslides. The observed features were additionally analysed with the ground penetrating radar and dendroinclinometric methods. Based on the order we focused our geological investigations on the area in which the slope movements began to develop to such an extent that human lives and properties were considerably jeopardised. The complementary research differs in individual localities and their topical situations and is accompanied by a geotechnical assessment of the locality and a proposal of rescue measures. An alternative solution should consist of an assessment of necessary changes in the area plans of affected villages, prospects of their future habitability, and displacements of engineering networks and roads. The unusually high number of landslides in the Carpathian Flysch mountains and highlands was caused by a combination of the lithological rock properties, regional

  1. The Far Right in Europe: A summary of attempts to define the concept, analyze its identity, and compare the Western European and Central European far right.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lubomír Kopeček

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the far right with emphasis on summing up some of its more widespread definitions, evaluating the reasons for classifying it as a distinctive family of parties, and comparing of the Western European and (post-Communist Central European far right. The text presents the theories of Piero Ignazi, Hans-Georg Betz, Cas Mudde, and other authors. The best working definition of the contemporary far right may be the four-element combination of nationalism, xenophobia, law and order, and welfare chauvinism proposed for the Western European environment by Cas Mudde. This concept allows for a basic ideological classification within a unified party family, despite the heterogeneity of the far right parties. Comparison of Central European far right parties with those of Western Europe shows that these four elements are present in Central Europe as well, though in a somewhat modified form, despite differing political, economic, and social influences.

  2. Oligarchization, de-Westernization and vulnerability: Media between democracy and authoritarianism in Central and Eastern Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balčytienė, Auksė; Bajomi-Lázár, Péter; Štětka, Václav

    2015-01-01

    What are the major trends of media change in contemporary Central and Eastern Europe (CEE)? How do these media transformations relate to economic, political, social and cultural currents in the region? After a decade of democratic optimism from the early 1990s to the 2000s, why did democratic media...... variation in the level of media freedom within and across the former communist countries? What are the direct and indirect effects of the global financial crisis on the trends of democratization vs. authoritarianism in CEE? How could eminent newly democratized countries in CEE backslide dramatically to semi......), Péter Bajomi-Lázár (Professor of Media Communications, and Head of the Institute of Social Science at the Budapest Business School, Hungary), and Václav Štětka (Senior Researcher, Institute of Communication Studies and Journalism, Faculty of Social Science, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic...

  3. Law and Space: Juridical Organisation and Central Places in Banat, Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COSMIN FLAVIUS COSTAŞ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyzes the relationship between the juridical system and the hierarchy of settlements in Banat, Romania. The historical development of the law institutions is presented, highlighting the peculiarities of the region. The present juridical organisation is also thoroughly analysed. Emphasis is laid on the importance of the Appellate Court in Timişoara, the county courts and the trial courts, and their magistrates. The number and territorial distribution of the auxiliaries of justice, the lawyers and notaries public, sheds light on the significance of certain settlements for the law system. The hierarchy of central places in Banat is studied from the perspective of the juridical organisation. In conclusion, the established hierarchy is uncontested for the first four levels, including the cities of Timişoara, Arad, Reşiţa, Lugoj and Caransebeş. Nevertheless, there are significant differences between the smaller towns of the lower levels.

  4. Interdisciplinary cooperation and studies in geoscience in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel MINDRESCU

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary approach to geoscience is particularly important in this vast research field, as the more innovative studies are increasingly crossing discipline boundaries and thus benefitting from multiple research methods and viewpoints. Grasping this concept has led us to encourage interdisciplinary cooperation by supporting and promoting the creation of “meeting places” able to provide a framework for researchers and scholars involved in geoscience research to find common grounds for discussion and collaboration. Most recently, this was achieved by organizing the 1st Workshop on “Interdisciplinarity in Geosciences in the Carpathian Basin” (IGCB held in the Department of Geography at the University of Suceava (Romania, between the 18th and 22nd October 2012. This event brought together both an international group of scientists and local researchers which created opportunities for collaboration in research topics such as geography, environment, geology and botany, biology and ecology in the Carpathian Basin.

  5. Periodic input of dust over the Eastern Carpathians during the Holocene linked with Saharan desertification and human impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jack; Veres, Daniel; Ersek, Vasile; Salzmann, Ulrich; Hubay, Katalin; Bormann, Marc; Wennrich, Volker; Schäbitz, Frank

    2017-07-01

    Reconstructions of dust flux have been used to produce valuable global records of changes in atmospheric circulation and aridity. These studies have highlighted the importance of atmospheric dust in marine and terrestrial biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling. By investigating a 10 800-year-long paleoclimate archive from the Eastern Carpathians (Romania) we present the first peat record of changing dust deposition over the Holocene for the Carpathian-Balkan region. Using qualitative (X-ray fluorescence (XRF) core scanning) and quantitative inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES) measurements of lithogenic (K, Si, Ti) elements, we identify 10 periods of major dust deposition between 9500-9200, 8400-8100, 7720-7250, 6350-5950, 5450-5050, 4130-3770, 3450-2850, 2000-1450, 800-620, and 60 cal yr BP to present. In addition, we used testate amoeba assemblages preserved within the peat to infer local palaeohydroclimatic conditions. Our record highlights several discrepancies between eastern and western European dust depositional records and the impact of highly complex hydrological regimes in the Carpathian region. Since 6100 cal yr BP, we find that the geochemical indicators of dust flux have become uncoupled from the local hydrology. This coincides with the appearance of millennial-scale cycles in the dust input and changes in geochemical composition of dust. We suggest that this is indicative of a shift in dust provenance from local-regional (likely loess-related) to distal (Saharan) sources, which coincide with the end of the African Humid Period and the onset of Saharan desertification.

  6. Different trends in euthanasia acceptance across Europe. A study of 13 western and 10 central and eastern European countries, 1981-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Joachim; Van Landeghem, Paul; Carpentier, Nico; Deliens, Luc

    2013-06-01

    We examined how acceptance of euthanasia among the general public has changed between 1981 and 2008 in western and central and eastern European (CEE) countries using data of the European Values Surveys. Data were collected in 1981, 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 13 western European countries and in 1990, 1999 and 2008 for 10 CEE countries. Euthanasia acceptance increased each decade up until 2008 in 11 of 13 western European countries; in CEE countries, it decreased or did not increase between 1999-2008 in 8 of 10 countries. A number of explanations for and implications of this apparent east-west polarization are suggested.

  7. Geomorphometry of the glacial lakes in the Romanian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrei ZAMOSTEANU

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to make an inventory and a database comprising of all glacial lakes in the Romanian Carpathians based on information provided by Gâştescu (1960, Pişota (1968, 1971, Decei (1981, Mindrescu (2006, and the data obtained in the field and laboratory by employing GIS techniques (ArcView, Global Mapper, Map Maker, Google Earth.

  8. Renewable energy sources for sustainable tourism in the Carpathian region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandryk, O. M.; Arkhypova, L. M.; Pobigun, O. V.; Maniuk, O. R.

    2016-08-01

    The use of renewable energy in sustainable tourism development of the region is grounded in the paper. There are three stages of selecting areas for projects of renewable energy sources: selection of potentially suitable area; consideration of exclusion criteria, detailed assessment of potential sites or areas. The factors of impact on spatial constraints and opportunities for building wind, solar and small hydro power plants on the parameters of sustainable tourism development in the Carpathian region were determined.

  9. Carpathian mountain forest vegetation and its responses to climate stressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoran, Maria A.; Savastru, Roxana S.; Savastru, Dan M.; Tautan, Marina N.; Baschir, Laurentiu V.; Dida, Adrian I.

    2017-10-01

    Due to anthropogenic and climatic changes, Carpathian Mountains forests in Romania experience environmental degradation. As a result of global climate change, there is growing evidence that some of the most severe weather events could become more frequent in Romania over the next 50 to 100 years. In the case of Carpathian mountain forests, winter storms and heat waves are considered key climate risks, particularly in prealpine and alpine areas. Effects of climate extremes on forests can have both short-term and long-term implications for standing biomass, tree health and species composition. The preservation and enhancement of mountain forest vegetation cover in natural, semi-natural forestry ecosystems is an essential factor in sustaining environmental health and averting natural hazards. This paper aims to: (i) describe observed trends and scenarios for summer heat waves, windstorms and heavy precipitation, based on results from satellite time series NOAA AVHRR, MODIS Terra/Aqua and Landsat TM/ETM+/OLI NDVI and LAI data recorded during 2000-2016 period correlated with meteorological parameters, regional climate models, and other downscaling procedures, and (ii) discuss potential impacts of climate changes and extreme events on Carpathian mountain forest system in Romania. The response of forest land cover vegetation in Carpathian Mountains, Romania to climatic factors varies in different seasons of the years, the diverse vegetation feedbacks to climate changes being related to different vegetation characteristics and meteorological conditions. Based on integrated analysis of satellite and field data was concluded that forest ecosystem functions are responsible of the relationships between mountain specific vegetation and climate.

  10. Dating the beginning of the Roman viticultural model in the Western Mediterranean: The case study of Chianti (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aversano, Riccardo; Basile, Boris; Buonincontri, Mauro Paolo; Carucci, Francesca; Carputo, Domenico; Frusciante, Luigi; Di Pasquale, Gaetano

    2017-01-01

    Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L.) has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy) is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a) the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b) a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties. In this period, the Etruscans settlers in Chianti were stimulated by northward-expanding Roman culture to use novel vineyard management practices. We hypothesize that one of the most important innovations may have been the introduction of pruning, inducing vine physiological conditions more favorable to pip growth. Such changes were the consequence of specific entrepreneurial choices made by the Romans in a period of economic investment in grape cultivation and wine making to satisfy the increased trade demand after the conquest of the Central-Western Mediterranean basin.

  11. Dating the beginning of the Roman viticultural model in the Western Mediterranean: The case study of Chianti (Central Italy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Aversano

    Full Text Available Although domestication of the grapevine (Vitis vinifera L. has been extensively documented, the history of genotype selection and evolution of vineyard management remain relatively neglected fields of study. The find of 454 waterlogged grapevine pips from a well-dated Etrusco-Roman site in the Chianti district (Tuscany, Central Italy is an extraordinary chance to gain insights into the progress of viticulture occurring in a key historical period in one of the world's most famous wine regions. The molecular and geometrical analyses of grape seeds showed (a the presence in the site of different grapevine individuals and (b a sudden increase in pip size, occurring at around 200 BC, whic explainable by the selection and introduction of new varieties. In this period, the Etruscans settlers in Chianti were stimulated by northward-expanding Roman culture to use novel vineyard management practices. We hypothesize that one of the most important innovations may have been the introduction of pruning, inducing vine physiological conditions more favorable to pip growth. Such changes were the consequence of specific entrepreneurial choices made by the Romans in a period of economic investment in grape cultivation and wine making to satisfy the increased trade demand after the conquest of the Central-Western Mediterranean basin.

  12. Preliminary report on seismic-reflection studies of crustal structure in the western, central, and southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roller, J.C.; Strozier, O.P.; Jackson, W.H.; Healy, J.H.

    1963-01-01

    During 1963 the U.S. Geological Survey, with the assistance of United ElectroDynamics, Inc., recorded five separate reversed seismic profiles. In addition to these profiles, the U.S. Geological Survey participated in a seismic-calibration program for the DRIBBLE experiment at Tatum Dome, Mississippi, a 20,000-pound shot near Dexter, Missouri, and in a cooperative seismic experiment in the Lake Superior region. This work is a continuation of the program started in 1961; however, the emphasis has shifted from a detailed study of the earth's crust in the western United States to a study of crustal structure in various geologic environments including the Wyoming thrust belt, Colorado Plateau, Central Lowlands, the Gulf Coastal Plain, and the southern part of the Canadian Shield. The U.S. Geological Survey has now completed reversed seismic-refraction profiles in nine different geologic provinces. These data present a promising indication that it may be possible to predict the crustal structure in unexplored areas by considering the regional geologic and physiographic environment. The following Pn velocities have been determined: 8.2 km/sec in the Wyoming thrust belt, 7.9 km/sec in the Colorado Plateau, 8.1 km/sec in the Central Lowlands, and about 8.2 km/sec in the Gulf Coastal Plain. The data from the Lake Superior region have not yet been interpreted.

  13. Study of Extreme Climatological Events Occurred In The Carpathian Basin During The Last Millenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongrácz, R.; Bartholy, J.

    Extreme meteorological events result significant impacts on human activities. There- fore in historical documents, diaries, letters or other written reports usually extremes are mentioned and possibly more or less objectively recorded. These historical sources can be used to evaluate the extreme climatic events of the past centuries. Antal Réthly (Hungarian meteorologist from the 20th century) made detailed documentary research on the meteorological extremes occurred in the Carpathian Basin in the last millenium. He collected the historical documents related to meteorology into a four-volume-long book, titled "Meteorological events and natural disasters in Hungary". In order to facil- itate the computational research of these documentary sources a special code system has been applied to the almost 15000 items. First, we focused on precipitation, tem- perature and other climatic variables separately. Spatial and temporal distribution of extremes have been investigated. Then, various combinations of these climatic vari- ables have been analyzed spatially and temporally. The second part of the paper will focus on the extremes of climate of the Carpathian Basin of the last century. Monthly and daily temperature and precipitation data have been analyzed. In the Central European region precipitation trends evaluated during the last decades seemed to be inconsistent. Beyond extreme value analysis of precipi- tation, variability and fluctuation characteristics have been determined. Spatial distri- butions of several statistical characteristics have been mapped for all seasons. Time series have been also analyzed separately as robust and extreme. Distributions of ex- treme, robust and full time series have been compared. Asymptotic approach have been applied to precipitation and temperature time series using Gumbel distribution model. Model parameters have been estimated by method of moments. Return values have been determined for pre-set periods, these thresholds are

  14. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from south-western Chad, Central Africa

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    Etang Josiane

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indoor residual spraying and insecticide-treated nets (ITN are essential components of malaria vector control in Africa. Pyrethroids are the only recommended compounds for nets treatment because they are fast-acting insecticides with low mammalian toxicity. However, there is growing concern that pyrethroid resistance may threaten the sustainability of ITN scaling-up programmes. Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. Methods Susceptibility to 4% DDT, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion was assessed using the WHO standard procedures for adult mosquitoes. Tests were carried out with two to four days-old, non-engorged female mosquitoes. The An. gambiae Kisumu strain was used as a reference. Knockdown effect was recorded every 5 min and mortality scored 24 h after exposure. Mosquitoes were identified to species and molecular form by PCR-RFLP and genotypes at the kdr locus were determined in surviving specimens by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA. Results During this survey, full susceptibility to malathion was recorded in all samples. Reduced susceptibility to bendiocarb (mortality rate of 96.1% was found in one sample out of nine assayed. Increased tolerance to pyrethroids was detected in most samples (8/9 with mortality rates ranging from 70.2 to 96.6% for deltamethrin and from 26.7 to 96.3% for permethrin. Pyrethroid tolerance was not associated with a significant increase of knock-down times. Anopheles arabiensis was the predominant species of the An. gambiae complex in the study area, representing 75 to 100% of the samples. Screening for kdr mutations detected the L1014F mutation in 88.6% (N = 35 of surviving An. gambiae sensu stricto S form mosquitoes. All surviving An. arabiensis (N = 49 and M form An. gambiae s.s. (N = 1 carried the susceptible allele

  15. DRY CALCAREOUS GRASSLAND COMMUNITIES (FILIPENDULA VULGARIS-HELICTOTRICHON PRATENSE IN WESTERN AND CENTRAL LATVIA

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    S. RUSINA

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The dry calcareous grassland vegetation of Westem and Central Latvia is described based on 93 rclevés, Ali relevés could be assigned to one community type Filipendula vulgaris-Helictotrichon pratense named according to dominant species. Four variants were distinguished: typicum, Viscaria vulgaris, Astragalus danicus and Carex flacca. Ellenberg indìcator values were calculated to study the ecology of communities. Floristic differences among variants are associated mainly with soil reaction (Ellenberg indicator values for soil pH range from 6.0 to 7.6, but conditions of moisture and fertility are similar among the variants. The calcareous grassland vegetation in Latvia represents transition vegetation between the c1asses Molinio-Arrhenatheretea and Festuco-Brometea. However, ecologically and floristically, these communities are closer to the class Festuco-Brometea and could be assigned to the order Brometalia. For designation to alliance and associations, more data is required. The results are compared with similar communities in other European countries.

  16. Spatio-Temporal Variability of Western Central African Convection from Infrared Observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derbetini A. Vondou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study has used Meteosat infrared brightness temperature images to investigate the regional and interannual variability of Central African cloudiness. Spatial and temporal variability were investigated using half–hourly data from the Meteosat-7 during June–July–August (JJA of 1998–2002. The full domain of study (1.5E–17E, 1N–15N was divided into six regions and statistics in each region were derived. Analysis of the dependence of cloud fraction to the brightness temperature threshold is explored both over land and ocean. Three diurnal cycle regimes (continental, oceanic, and coastal are depicted according to the amplitude and peak time. Over regions of relatively flat terrain, results indicate enhancement of deep convection in the afternoon followed by a gradual decrease in the night. The diurnal cycle of convection is characterised by afternoon and early evening (around 15:00–18:00 LST maxima located mainly downwind of the major mountain chains, and a more rapid nighttime decay. In terms of the harmonic amplitude, the diurnal signal shows significant regional contrast with the strongest manifestation over the Adamaoua Plateau and the weakest near the South Cameroon Plateau. This remarkable spatial dependence is clear evidence of orographic and heterogeneous land-surface impacts on convective development. Oceanic region exhibits weak activity of convective cloudiness with a maximum at noon. It is suggested that daytime heating of the land surface and moist environment may play a role in determining the spatial distribution of cloud fraction. This study further demonstrates the importance of the Cameroon coastline concavity and coastal mountains in regulating regional frequencies of convection and their initialization. The strength of the diurnal cycle of convective activity depends on mountain height, mean flow, coastal geometry.

  17. Genesis of the Pieniny Klippen Belt in the Carpathians: Possible effects of a major paleotransform fault in the Neo-Tethyan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chorowicz, Jean

    2016-01-01

    The Pieniny Klippen Belt (PKB) is a narrow, discontinuous zone rich in olistostromes and olistoliths (Klippen) in the western Carpathians. This paper, based on prior works including tectonic and stratigraphic evidences, suggests that the PKB rocks were deposited from the Triassic to the Early Paleogene along the eastern footwall of a major Split-Karlovac-Initial PKB-Crustal-Zone (SKICZ) paleotransform fault zone. This transform fault was then separating the continental crust of the Austro-Alpine zone in the west and a Carpathian Embayment Ocean in the east. It was only during the Late Paleogene-Early Miocene that the PKB rocks were integrated into the accretionary prism that formed at the front of the eastward-extruded ALCAPA units. This interpretation therefore supports the existence of a major paleotransform fault zone in the Neo-Tethys during the Triassic-Early Paleogene. This paleotransform had been previously suggested to explain the observed reversal in obduction and subduction at the junction between the eastern-southern Alps and the Carpathians-Dinarides.

  18. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  19. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

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    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  20. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Luiz Claudio Pereira; Gonçalves, Cassia Cristina Alves; Slater, Carla Maria Sena Andrade; Carvalho, Silvia Maia Farias de; Puccioni-Sohler, Marzia

    2013-09-01

    Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) antibodies (Abs) represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) patients. Western blotting (WB) for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF) indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I) and gag (p24) proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  1. The Neogene-Quaternary geodynamic evolution of the central Calabrian Arc: A case study from the western Catanzaro Trough basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutto, F.; Muto, F.; Loreto, M. F.; Paola, N. De; Tripodi, V.; Critelli, S.; Facchin, L.

    2016-12-01

    The Catanzaro Trough is a Neogene-Quaternary basin developed in the central Calabrian Arc, between the Serre and the Sila Massifs, and filled by up to 2000 m of continental to marine deposits. It extends from the Sant'Eufemia Basin (SE Tyrrhenian Sea), offshore, to the Catanzaro Basin, onshore. Here, onshore structural data have been integrated with structural features interpreted using marine geophysical data to infer the main tectonic processes that have controlled the geodynamic evolution of the western portion of the Catanzaro Trough, since Upper Miocene to present. The data show a complex tectonostratigraphic architecture of the basin, which is mainly controlled by the activity of NW-SE and NE-SW trending fault systems. In particular, during late Miocene, the NW-SE oriented faults system was characterized by left lateral kinematics. The same structural regime produces secondary fault systems represented by E-W and NE-SW oriented faults. The ca. E-W lineaments show extensional kinematics, which may have played an important role during the opening of the WNW-ESE paleo-strait; whereas the NE-SW oriented system represents the conjugate faults of the NW-SE oriented structural system, showing a right lateral component of motion. During the Piacenzian-Lower Pleistocene, structural field and geophysical data show a switch from left-lateral to right-lateral kinematics of the NW-SE oriented faults, due to a change of the stress field. This new structural regime influenced the kinematics of the NE-SW faults system, which registered left lateral movement. Since Middle Pleistocene, the study area experienced an extensional phase, WNW-ESE oriented, controlled mainly by NE-SW and, subordinately, N-S oriented normal faults. This type of faulting splits obliquely the western Catanzaro Trough, producing up-faulted and down-faulted blocks, arranged as graben-type system (i.e Lamezia Basin). The multidisciplinary approach adopted, allowed us to constrain the structural setting of

  2. Discovery of new Ohbayashinema spp. (nematoda: heligomosomoidea) in Ochotona princeps and O. cansus (lagomorpha: ochotonidae) from western North America and central Asia, with considerations of historical biogeography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new species of Ohbayashinema (Nematoda, Heligmosomoidea) are described from localities in western North America and central Asia. Two of these species, Ohbayashinema nearctica n. sp and O. aspeira n. sp. are parasitic in American pika, Ochotona princeps. Ohbayashinema nearctica is differentiat...

  3. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus from Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000–2014). Part 2: Prognostic assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westermann, C.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304828858; van Galen, G.

    2017-01-01

    Objective – To identify prognostic variables for adult equids and foals with tetanus. Design – Multicenter retrospective study (2000–2014). Setting – Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. Animals – One hundred fifty-five adult

  4. Water-level changes in the Flevo area, central Netherlands (5300-1500 BC) : implications for relative mean sea-level rise in the Western Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Plassche, O; Bohncke, SJP; Makaske, B; van der Plicht, J

    The younger (post 4000 cal BC) part of the water-level curve for the eastern Flevo area, central Netherlands runs below the relative mean sea-level (MSL) curve for the western and northern Netherlands (Mededelingen Rijks Geologische Dienst 36(l) (1982) 93pp). We investigated if this difference can

  5. Spatial patterns of erosion and landscape evolution in the central Menderes Massif (Western Turkey) revealed by cosmogenic ^{10}Be

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heineke, Caroline; Hetzel, Ralf; Nilius, Nils-Peter; Glotzbach, Christoph; Wölfler, Andreas; Hampel, Andrea; Akal, Cüneyt; Christl, Marcus

    2017-04-01

    In regions undergoing active crustal shortening, rock exhumation occurs exclusively by erosion, whereas in extensional tectonic settings rocks are exhumed by both erosion and normal faulting (e.g. Ring et al., 1999). An ideal region to study the relative contribution of normal faulting vs. erosion to rock exhumation is the central Menderes Massif in Western Turkey, which is bounded by the low-angle Gediz and Büyük Menderes detachment faults (e.g. Gessner et al., 2013). Recent thermochronological data show that the two detachments faults were active contemporaneously during the Pliocene (Buscher et al., 2013; Wölfler et al., in revision). Here we present 10Be erosion rates for 37 catchments to resolve the spatial pattern of erosion across the central Menderes Massif. Our results show that erosion rates for catchments located in the footwall of the Gediz detachment range from 40 to 150 mm/kyr. These relatively low rates indicate that the thick (20-50 m) cataclasites associated with this detachment fault have protected the footwall from significant erosion, which explains why the Gediz detachment is such an outstanding geomorphic feature. A comparison with thermochronological data (Buscher et al., 2013) shows that erosion contributed 10-20% to rock exhumation (0.6-2.0 km/Myr). In contrast, erosion rates from catchments in the footwall of the Büyük Menderes detachment are generally higher, with rates ranging from 140 to 400 mm/kyr. These higher rates are consistent with the observation that the respective catchments expose mechanically weak mica schists and phyllites and have rather steep hillslopes. Together with the fact that the Büyük Menderes detachment is associated with only a relatively thin layer of fault gouge and cataclasite, this explains why the Büyük Menderes detachment is less well preserved than the Gediz detachment despite the contemporaneous activity of both detachments. Furthermore, our data show that erosion contributed 20-40% to the total

  6. Bloodstream infection in patients with end-stage renal disease in a teaching hospital in central-western Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Trelha Gauna

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Vascular access in patients undergoing hemodialysis is considered a critical determinant of bloodstream infection (BSI and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the occurrence of BSI in patients with end-stage renal disease using central venous catheters for hemodialysis. Methods A cohort study was conducted in a public teaching hospital in central-western Brazil from April 2010 to December 2011. For every patient, we noted the presence of hyperemia/exudation upon catheter insertion, as well as fever, shivering, and chills during hemodialysis. Results Fifty-nine patients were evaluated. Thirty-five (59.3% patients started dialysis due to urgency, 37 (62.7% had BSI, and 12 (20% died. Hyperemia at the catheter insertion site (64.9% was a significant clinical manifestation in patients with BSI. Statistical analysis revealed 1.7 times more cases of BSI in patients with hypoalbuminemia compared with patients with normal albumin levels. The principal infective agents identified in blood cultures and catheter-tip cultures were Staphylococcus species (24 cases, non-fermentative Gram-negative bacilli (7 cases of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and 5 cases of Chryseobacterium indologenes, and Candida species (6. Among the Staphylococci identified, 77.7% were methicillin-resistant, coagulase-negative Staphylococci. Of the bacteria isolated, the most resistant were Chryseobacterium indologenes and Acinetobacter baumannii. Conclusions Blood culture was demonstrated to be an important diagnostic test and identified over 50% of positive BSI cases. The high frequency of BSI and the isolation of multiresistant bacteria were disturbing findings. Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently isolated microorganism, although Gram-negative bacteria predominated overall. These results highlight the importance of infection prevention and control measures in dialysis units.

  7. Remote sensing, paleoecology, and the archaeology of human migration during the Pleistocene in central Asia and western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glantz, Michelle M.; Todd, Lawrence

    2003-07-01

    Remote sensing used in the context of global information systems has enormous applications within archaeology. This technology enables the discovery of new archaeological features and promotes an understanding of the relationship between ecosystem and cultural dynamics. Archaeologists are able to add a time dimension to 'creeping environmental changes' that other areas of scientific inquiry concerned with climate change often lack. Remote sensing and other aerial prospecting has been used successfully to model land use and population expansions during relatively recent archaeological eras, such as the Bronze and Iron Ages. Although satellite image databases exist for numerous areas of the New and Old World, very little research has been conducted in Central Asia or western China. This region is historically significant because of its position along the important trading route called the Silk Road. The purpose of the present research is to investigate another poorly understood period of human history that would benefit from the application of remote sensing and associated ground truthing techniques. The migration of hominids out of Africa during the late Pliocene/early Pleistocene and their subsequent colonization of north-central, east, and south-east Asia is relatively well documented in the archaeological record and marks the beginning of the long-term process of human impacts on the region. However, the trajectory of dispersal of Homo erectus, Neandertals, and early modern humans and the ways by which ecosystem vagaries affected this dispersal across Eurasia is unknown. Our purpose is to summarize what is currently known about the geological indicators of ecosystem changes that remote sensing techniques provide and how ecosystem variables may allow us to model human migration as that of an invasive species through this important geographic crossroads of the Old World.

  8. Western Central Asia - Uzbekistan:new insights into the basin architecture and lithosphere structures from geophysical data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Irina

    2014-05-01

    This report was prepared as one part of joint Uzbekistan's Working Group results by DARIUS programme, provided in Uzbekistan during the 2009-2013 years. The special attention is devoted to potential geophysical fields and results of interpretation of seismic profiles, which was the base for conclusions about deep lithosphere structure of the DARIUS domains in Uzbekistan.For four last years 12 field expeditions in Uzbekistan were organized by the DARIUS projects - were studied new geological sections and now the new ideas developing about geodynamical evolution in Western Central Asia. The state of art reveals a very heterogeneous set of data. These data commonly deal either with particular basins or mountain belts, or specific basin investigations. Our aim was to combine all available seismic, magnetic and geothermal data with the revealed of the tectonically objects, geological structures, and to show their interrelated temporal and spatial development for general understanding of the inner structure of lithosphere and upper layers of Earth's crust. In link of this, the detailed studying structure of Paleozoic crystal basement on representative basic sites and the crossing faults, accompained by drawing up of level-by-level and summary sections, large-scale geological and geophysical mapping was conducted. Our study elucidated the lithosphere-scale processes driving forces for kinematic of blocks between southern Tien Shan and Pamir. All our data were integrated in the DARIUS database GEOLIS.

  9. TRMM Based Studies of MJO Convection over the Central Indian Ocean, Maritime Continent, and Western Pacific Warm Pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S. A.; Xu, W.

    2014-12-01

    The structure and organization of precipitating cloud populations related to the initiation and evolution of several MJO events have been fully investigated using data collected from the 2011-2012 DYNAMO field campaign over the Central Indian Ocean (CIO). Since DYNMO monitored the MJO behavior for only a few months, it is important to know how the DYNAMO-recorded characteristics compare to the long-term climatology, such as viewed by TRMM satellite measurements. TRMM observations are also capable of providing the regional variability of the convection as the MJO envelope propagates eastward. The objective of this study is to quantify MJO convective characteristics using 15 years of TRMM satellite measurements over three specific regions affected by the MJO including the CIO, Maritime Continent (MC), and Western Pacific (WP). TRMM data are used to quantify not only the precipitating cloud population categorized by radar echo tops and feature size (as have been previously documented), but also their convective intensity, lightning activity, precipitation structures, bulk microphysical properties, and rainfall contributions. Specifically, the radar, ice scattering (microwave), and lightning observations from TRMM are analyzed for the convective spectrum as a function of MJO stage and geographical location. Furthermore, radar characteristics of MJO events based on TRMM PR are quantitatively compared to that of the shipborne radars deployed during TOGA COARE over the WP and DYNAMO over the CIO.

  10. A Bayesian inversion estimate of N2O emissions for western and central Europe and the assessment of aggregation errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gerbig

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian inversion approach was used to retrieve temporally and spatially resolved N2O fluxes for western and central Europe using in-situ atmospheric observations from the tall tower site at Ochsenkopf, Germany (50°01' N, 11°48' E. For atmospheric transport, the STILT (Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model was employed, which was driven with ECMWF analysis and short term forecast fields. The influence of temporal aggregation error, as well as the choice of spatial and temporal correlation scale length, on the retrieval was investigated using a synthetic dataset consisting of mixing ratios generated for the Ochsenkopf site. We found that if the aggregation error is ignored, then a significant bias error in the retrieved fluxes ensues. However, by estimating this error and projecting it into the observation space, it was possible to avoid bias errors in the retrieved fluxes. Using the real observations from the Ochsenkopf site, N2O fluxes were retrieved every 7 days for 2007 at 2 by 2 degrees spatial resolution. Emissions of N2O were strongest during the summer and autumn months, with peak emissions in August and September, while the regions of Benelux and northern United Kingdom had strongest annual mean emissions.

  11. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

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    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae, Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae, Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. March. (Burseraceae, as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  12. Preliminary study of E-W interseismic coupling variations on the Main Himalayan Thrust from western Nepal to central Bhutan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernant, Philippe; Cattin, Rodolphe; Thinley, Kinzang; Mazzotti, Stéphane; Nath Sapkota, Soma; Berthet, Théo; Pelgay, Phuntsho; Bollinger, Laurent; Champollion, Cédric; Drukpa, Dowchu; Jouanne, François; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Bilham, Roger; Flouzat, Mireille; Chéry, Jean; Hetény, György

    2013-04-01

    Compared to Nepal, seismogenic potential of Bhutan remains enigmatic due to its low present-day seismicity rate. Over the last three centuries, the only large reported event in this area is a Mw=8.1 earthquake in 1897 that occurred further south of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) near the Shillong Plateau. New insights from a GPS network in Bhutan surveyed in 2003, 2006 and 2012 permit us to evaluate the convergence rate across the Bhutan Himalaya. Taking advantage of previously published GPS and levelling data in Nepal and Sikkim, we combine this new dataset with all the available velocity fields in a consistent India fixed reference frame. We also take into account the independent motion of the Shillong plateau relative to India and further evaluate the slip rate of the fault probably responsible for the 1897 earthquake. Assuming that interseismic deformations are related to dislocations in a homogeneous elastic half space, we invert surface displacements to assess the pattern of interseimic coupling on the MHT from western Nepal to central Bhutan. Our preliminary results indicate no major lateral variation in the coupling along the Himalayan arc in the study area. This suggests that elastic strain is building up along the front of Sikkim and Bhutan Himalaya similarly to what is observed along the Nepal Himalaya. Large earthquakes are probably required to release this strain. Despite the low historical seismicity of Sikkim and Bhutan, the seismic hazard might actually be as high there as along the rest of the Himalayan arc.

  13. Thermal and exhumation history of the central Rwenzori Mountains, Western Rift of the East African Rift System, Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, F. U.; Glasmacher, U. A.; Ring, U.; Schumann, A.; Nagudi, B.

    2010-10-01

    The Rwenzori Mountains (Mtns) in west Uganda are the highest rift mountains on Earth and rise to more than 5,000 m. We apply low-temperature thermochronology (apatite fission-track (AFT) and apatite (U-Th-Sm)/He (AHe) analysis) for tracking the cooling history of the Rwenzori Mtns. Samples from the central and northern Rwenzoris reveal AFT ages between 195.0 (±8.4) Ma and 85.3 (±5.3) Ma, and AHe ages between 210.0 (±6.0) Ma to 24.9 (±0.5) Ma. Modelled time-temperature paths reflect a protracted cooling history with accelerated cooling in Permo-Triassic and Jurassic times, followed by a long period of constant and slow cooling, than succeeded by a renewed accelerated cooling in the Neogene. During the last 10 Ma, differentiated erosion and surface uplift affected the Rwenzori Mtns, with more pronounced uplift along the western flank. The final rock uplift of the Rwenzori Mtns that partly led to the formation of the recent topography must have been fast and in the near past (Pliocene to Pleistocene). Erosion could not compensate for the latest rock uplift, resulting in Oligocene to Miocene AHe ages.

  14. Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas (Fabricius, 1787 from a central western Mediterranean protected area

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    Maria Cristina Follesa

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Movement patterns of the spiny lobster Palinurus elephas were determined from 389 individuals (total tagged 5666 tag-recaptured inside a no-take area of the central western Mediterranean and its surrounding zone. High site association and limited movements in tagged lobsters was observed; 60.4% of lobsters moved less than 2 km from the centre of the area (site of release. No clear relationship between lobster movement pattern and sex or size was observed; however, it seemed that the largest males and females tended to be more resident, thus contributing to the rebuilding of the biomass of local lobsters. Most lobsters undertook migrations in the southwest direction. The increased availability of shelters and food towards the southwest could have contributed to the lobsters’ movement. The results of our research indicate that the small size of the protected area and the scale of the movement exhibited by tagged lobsters allows a proportion of the lobster population to move out of the protected area and become susceptible to capture in the adjacent fishery.

  15. Mesozoic and Eocene ductile deformation of western Central Iran: from Cimmerian collisional orogeny to Eocene extension and exhumation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargaranbafghi, Fariba; Neubauer, Franz; Genser, Johann

    2010-05-01

    To advance our understanding of the Mesozoic to Eocene tectonics and kinematics of basement units exposed in the south-western Central Iran plateau, this paper presents new structural and thermochronological data from the Chapedony metamorphic core complex and hangingwall units, particularly from the Posht-e-Badam complex. The overall Paleogene structural characteristics of the area are related to an oblique convergent zone. The Saghand area represent part of a deformation zone between the Arabia and Eurasia plates, and can be interpreted as a product of the Central Iran intracontinental deformation as a weak zone during Mesozoic to Paleogene times. Field and microstructural evidence reveals that the metamorphic and igneous rocks in the study area suffered a ductile shear deformation including mylonitization at the hangingwall boundary of the Eocene Chapedony metamorphic core complex. The shear zone is subhorizontal low-angle normal fault and the shear direction of the hangingwall unit is towards NE, based on the attitude of foliation and lineation of ductility deformed rocks and shear sense indicators. Comparison of deformation features in the described mylonites and other structural features within the footwall unit lead to the conclusion that the mylonites were formed in a subhorizontal shear zone by NE-SW stretching in the extension tectonics during Middle to Late Eocene. The Chapedony metamorphic core complex is characterized by amphibolite-facies metamorphism and development of S and S-L tectonic fabrics. The Posht-e-Badam complex is deformed by two stages during Cimmerian tectonic processes forming the Paleo-Tethyan suture. The Posht-e-Badam complex is overprinted by two stages of metamorphism. White mica ages at 203 and 181 Ma are related to cooling after medium-grade metamorphism respectively ductile shearing. These ages are variably overprinted by low-grade metamorphism also affecting Jurassic metasediments in the Polo area. Consequently, these are

  16. Southern Carpathian rock glaciers: Inventory, distribution and environmental controlling factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaca, Alexandru; Ardelean, Florina; Urdea, Petru; Magori, Brigitte

    2017-09-01

    Rock glaciers are valuable diagnostic landforms indicating permafrost creeping during their genesis and activity. Based on the analysis of high quality air-orthophoto and field work, a first polygon-based inventory of rock glaciers from the Southern Carpathians has been elaborated. In total, 306 rock glaciers were included in the inventory comprising 79 debris and 227 talus rock glaciers. Most of these landforms were classified as relict (258), while only 48, covering 2.81 km2, were considered intact. The size of rock glaciers, considered as a proxy for past environmental conditions, and the relationships with the predictor variables (lithology, aspect, contributing area, geographic coordinates, elevation and slope range) were analysed using bivariate statistics, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and various post hoc tests. The statistical analysis revealed that the rock glaciers occurring in the highest mountain ranges in areas composed of granites and granodiorites are considerably larger than the others, because their duration of activity is greater. Strong dependences between rock glacier size and other topographic attributes (contributing area, aspect and slope range) were also confirmed. The rock glacier distribution in the Southern Carpathians is clearly controlled by topography, lithology and debris availability. The abundance of rock glaciers increases with altitude, but their size decreases slightly. In mountain units where granites and granodiorites predominate (Retezat and Parâng Mountains), the density of rock glaciers and the mean specific area covered by these spectacular landforms are considerably higher than in other areas. The higher continentality effects of the Southern Carpathians enabled the formation of rock glaciers at substantially lower elevations than in the Alps. The mean altitude of intact rock glaciers front, which could be used as a morphological indicator of discontinuous permafrost, is located at 2088 m.

  17. Quantitative morphotectonic analysis of the South-Eastern Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ionuţ Cristea, Alexandru

    2015-04-01

    South-Eastern Carpathians (Vrancea Region) have received an increasing scientific attention during the past years, mostly resulting in a detailed reconstruction of their exumation history. Moreover structural and thermocronological data suggest that the frontal part of the SE Carpathians conserves the youngest topography in the Romanian Carpathians resulting from a deformational process occurring during the late Pliocene - Early Pleistocene. This significant tectonic activity continues to the present time as it is confirmed by the geodetic measurements and by the frequency of crustal earthquakes. The specific effects of the Quaternary deformations on the regional fluvial system were associated so far with an increased incision and the formation of the degradational (strath) terraces, downstream tiling of terraces, the establishment of local drainage divides and young longitudinal river profiles. Our study further investigates the possible influence of the recent tectonic activity on the characteristics of the drainage basins in the area and the distribution of the over-steepened stream reaches using spatial autocorrelation techniques (Getis Ord Gi* statistics and Anselin's Local Moran's I). For the first, hypsometric integrals (Hi) and transverse topographic symmetry factor were analyzed. For the last, we used locally computed normalized channel steepness index (ksn). Due to the highly variable lithology in the region (specific to the Flysch areas), additional correlations of the determined values with the geological units and rock types have been made in order to assess the effects. The results show that the geographic clustering of the high Hi and ksn values is more significant than the lithological one, and, although the rock strength have local influences, this is not sufficient to explain the regional distribution of the values, generally between 26.5o and 26.66o E (p

  18. Contrasting Permo - Carboniferous Evolution of Resita and Sirinia - Presacina Basins (South Carpathians, Romania); an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatu, M.; Seghedi, I.; Nutu, L. M.; Nicolae, I.

    2009-04-01

    Two important Permo-Carboniferous molasses basins Resita and Sirinia - Presacina occur in Romanian Banat (south-western part of Carpathian chain), unconformable overlie the Getic and Danubian domains with different pre-Variscan and Variscan geodynamic history. They show differences in their lithology reflecting various geotectonic settings and evolutions. In the Resita domain the Upper Carboniferous deposits (Westphalian - Stephanian in age, according to the previous paleobotanic and palynological data) are important in volume and they contain terrigeneous siliciclastic rocks represented by sandy - conglomerate and argillaceous - sandy rocks variable in thickness with siltstone, carbonaceous shale and coal beds interlayering. There are not volcanic rocks present in Upper Carboniferous of Resita domain. In contrast with Resita in the Sirinia - Presacina basins the Upper Carboniferous deposits are volumetrically more restrictive. These deposits transgresively overlie pre-Sudetian formations and consist of continental - lacustrine terrigeneous formations, rarely associated with limnic carbonatic rocks. In this association the alternating conglomerate, siliceous sandstone, siltstone and clay with lens - like coal inter-layers prevails. In two small areas Dragosela - Tulinecea - Camenita (in the western part) and Baia Noua - Cucuiova (in the eastern part) the terrigeneous deposits are associated with basaltic andesite and andesite rocks with alkaline affinity. In both of these basins the Lower Permian deposits (according to the paleobotanic data) unconformably overlie the Upper Carboniferous formations and/or pre-Sudetian basements. The Lower Permian deposits in the Resita basin occur in two superposed formations (Nastaseanu, 1987): (1) Walchia Beds dominated by black argillaceous shales, slightly bituminous with rare sandy-conglomerate interlayers and (2) Red Beds composed by sandy-conglomerate deposits with some argillaceous intercalations, all red in color, with

  19. Palinspastic reconstruction of the Alpine thrust belt at the Alpine-Carpathian transition - A geological Sudoku

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beidinger, A.; Decker, K.; Zamolyi, A.; Hölzel, M.; Hoprich, M.; Strauss, P.

    2009-04-01

    The palinspastic reconstruction of the Austroalpine thrust belt is part of the project Karpatian Tectonics, which is funded by OMV Austria. The objective is to reconstruct the evolution of the thrust belt through the Early to Middle Miocene in order to obtain information on the palaeogeographic position of the Northern Calcareous Alps (NCA) in the region of the present Vienna Basin. A particular goal of the study is to constrain the position of reservoir rocks within the Rhenodanubic Flysch units and the NCA with respect to the autochthonous Malmian source rocks overlying the European basement below the Alpine-Carpathian thrust wedge, and to constrain the burial history of these source rocks. Reconstruction uses regional 2D seismic lines crossing from the European foreland into the fold-thrust belt, 3D seismic data covering the external thrust sheets, and lithostratigraphic data from a total of 51 selected wells, which were drilled and provided by OMV Austria. The main criterion, whether a well was suitable for palinspastic reconstruction or not, was its penetration of Alpine thrust sheets down to the Autochthonous Molasse of the foreland. Additional wells, which do not penetrate the entire Alpine thrust complex but include the Allochthonous Molasse or the external Alpine-Carpathian nappes (Waschberg and Roseldorf thrust unit, Rhenodanubic Flysch nappes) in their well path, were also taken into account. The well data in particular comprise stratigraphic information on the youngest overthrust sediments of the different thrust units and the underlying Autochthonous foreland Molasse. These data allow constraining the timing of thrust events in the allochthonous thrust units and overthrusting of the Autochthonous Molasse. In the particular case of overthrust Autochthonous Molasse, additionally to the timing of overthrusting, which can be derived from the youngest overthrust sediments, the palaeogeographic position of the Alpine Carpathian thrust front could directly be

  20. Diversity and distribution patterns of the Oligocene and Miocene decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca of the Western and Central Paratethys

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    Hyžný Matúš

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats throughout the Cenozoic when the major diversification of the group occurred. In this respect, the circum-Mediterranean area is of particular interest due to its complex palaeogeographic history. During the Oligo-Miocene, it was divided in two major areas, Mediterranean and Paratethys. Decapod crustaceans from the Paratethys Sea have been reported in the literature since the 19th century, but only recent research advances allow evaluation of the diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Altogether 176 species-level taxa have been identified from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Western and Central Paratethys. Using the three-dimensional NMDS analysis, the composition of decapod crustacean faunas of the Paratethys shows significant differences through time. The Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod associations were similar to each other both taxonomically and in the mode of preservation, and they differed taxonomically from the Badenian ones. The Early Badenian assemblages also differed taxonomically from the Late Badenian ones. The time factor, including speciation, immigration from other provinces and/or (local or global extinction, can explain temporal differences among assemblages within the same environment. High decapod diversity during the Badenian was correlated with the presence of reefal settings. The Badenian was the time with the highest decapod diversity, which can, however, be a consequence of undersampling of other time slices. Whereas the Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod assemblages are preserved virtually exclusively in the siliciclastic “Schlier”-type facies that originated in non-reefal offshore environments, carbonate sedimentation and the presence of reefal environments during the Badenian in the Central Paratethys promoted thriving of more diverse reef-associated assemblages. In general, Paratethyan decapods exhibited homogeneous distribution

  1. Diversity and distribution patterns of the Oligocene and Miocene decapod crustaceans (Crustacea: Malacostraca) of the Western and Central Paratethys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyžný, Matúš

    2016-10-01

    Decapod associations have been significant components of marine habitats throughout the Cenozoic when the major diversification of the group occurred. In this respect, the circum-Mediterranean area is of particular interest due to its complex palaeogeographic history. During the Oligo-Miocene, it was divided in two major areas, Mediterranean and Paratethys. Decapod crustaceans from the Paratethys Sea have been reported in the literature since the 19th century, but only recent research advances allow evaluation of the diversity and distribution patterns of the group. Altogether 176 species-level taxa have been identified from the Oligocene and Miocene of the Western and Central Paratethys. Using the three-dimensional NMDS analysis, the composition of decapod crustacean faunas of the Paratethys shows significant differences through time. The Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod associations were similar to each other both taxonomically and in the mode of preservation, and they differed taxonomically from the Badenian ones. The Early Badenian assemblages also differed taxonomically from the Late Badenian ones. The time factor, including speciation, immigration from other provinces and/or (local or global) extinction, can explain temporal differences among assemblages within the same environment. High decapod diversity during the Badenian was correlated with the presence of reefal settings. The Badenian was the time with the highest decapod diversity, which can, however, be a consequence of undersampling of other time slices. Whereas the Ottnangian and Karpatian decapod assemblages are preserved virtually exclusively in the siliciclastic "Schlier"-type facies that originated in non-reefal offshore environments, carbonate sedimentation and the presence of reefal environments during the Badenian in the Central Paratethys promoted thriving of more diverse reef-associated assemblages. In general, Paratethyan decapods exhibited homogeneous distribution during the Oligo

  2. The Bi'r Tawilah deposit, central western Saudi Arabia: Supergene enrichment of a Pan-African epithermal gold mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surour, Adel A.; Harbi, Hesham M.; Ahmed, Ahmed H.

    2014-01-01

    The Bi'r Tawilah gold deposit in central western Saudi Arabia represents a Pan-African example of gold mineralization in which both hypogene and supergene ores are recorded. The sulphidic gold ore is hosted in intermediate to felsic intrusions that occur along the N-S trending thrust-fault zone within the so-called “Nabitah orogenic zone”. There are four rock units present (from oldest to youngest): serpentinites and related listwaenites, diorites, granitic rocks and porphyries. Hydrothermal alteration consists of chloritization, sericitization, carbonatization and silicification and affects all rock types. Chloritization of biotite results in abundant rutile, whereas sulphidization coincides with carbonatization. The Bi'r Tawilah ore is confined to NW-trending shears (Riedel fractures) related to N-S slip of the pre-existing Tawilah thrust due to activation within the Najd fault system. Samples from the boreholes show macro- and microscopic evidence of shearing such as micro-shear planes and strain shadows of pyrite. Sulphides and gold are present in most rock types. Paragenetically, the sulphides consist of abundant pyrite and relatively lesser amounts of arsenopyrite, in addition to very minor chalcopyrite, sphalerite and galena. In all boreholes, it was noticed that the abundance of arsenopyrite increases with depth. The elevated silver content of electrum (∼13-22 wt%) at Bi'r Tawilah is typical of gold deposits and low-sulphidation epithermal deposits. The early mineralization stage took place in proximity to hydrothermally altered intermediate to felsic intrusions. The aerially restricted hydrothermal alteration by carbon-aqueous fluids led to ore remobilization in which gold amounts up to 4.3 g/t. Finally, gold enrichment (up to 5.4 g/t) resulted from supergene alteration that took place during weathering above the water table at a depth of ∼20-25 m.

  3. Improving estimates of N2O emissions for western and central Europe using a Bayesian inversion approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, R. L.; Gerbig, C.; Roedenbeck, C.; Heimann, M.

    2009-04-01

    The nitrous oxide (N2O) mixing ratio has been increasing in the atmosphere since the industrial revolution, from 270 ppb in 1750 to 320 ppb in 2007 with a steady growth rate of around 0.26% since the early 1980's. The increase in N2O is worrisome for two main reasons. First, it is a greenhouse gas; this means that its atmospheric increase translates to an enhancement in radiative forcing of 0.16 ± 0.02 Wm-2 making it currently the fourth most important long-lived greenhouse gas and is predicted to soon overtake CFC's to become the third most important. Second, it plays an important role in stratospheric ozone chemistry. Human activities are the primary cause of the atmospheric N2O increase. The largest anthropogenic source of N2O is from the use of N-fertilizers in agriculture but fossil fuel combustion and industrial processes, such as adipic and nitric acid production, are also important. We present a Bayesian inversion approach for estimating N2O fluxes over central and western Europe using high frequency in-situ concentration data from the Ochsenkopf tall tower (50 °01′N, 11 °48′, 1022 masl). For the inversion, we employ a Lagrangian-type transport model, STILT, which provides source-receptor relationships at 10 km using ECMWF meteorological data. The a priori flux estimates used were from IER, for anthropogenic, and GEIA, for natural fluxes. N2O fluxes were retrieved monthly at 2 x 2 degree spatial resolution for 2007. The retrieved N2O fluxes showed significantly more spatial heterogeneity than in the a priori field and considerable seasonal variability. The timing of peak emissions was different for different regions but in general the months with the strongest emissions were May and August. Overall, the retrieved flux (anthropogenic and natural) was lower than in the a priori field.

  4. Trophic position increases with thermocline depth in yellowfin and bigeye tuna across the Western and Central Pacific Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houssard, Patrick; Lorrain, Anne; Tremblay-Boyer, Laura; Allain, Valérie; Graham, Brittany S.; Menkes, Christophe E.; Pethybridge, Heidi; Couturier, Lydie I. E.; Point, David; Leroy, Bruno; Receveur, Aurore; Hunt, Brian P. V.; Vourey, Elodie; Bonnet, Sophie; Rodier, Martine; Raimbault, Patrick; Feunteun, Eric; Kuhnert, Petra M.; Munaron, Jean-Marie; Lebreton, Benoit; Otake, Tsuguo; Letourneur, Yves

    2017-05-01

    Estimates of trophic position are used to validate ecosystem models and understand food web structure. A consumer's trophic position can be estimated by the stable nitrogen isotope values (δ15N) of its tissue, once the baseline isotopic variability has been accounted for. Our study established the first data-driven baseline δ15N isoscape for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean using particulate organic matter. Bulk δ15N analysis on 1039 muscle tissue of bigeye and yellowfin tuna were conducted together with amino acid compound-specific δ15N analysis (AA-CSIA) on a subset of 21 samples. Both particulate organic matter and tuna bulk δ15N values varied by more than 10‰ across the study area. Fine-scaled trophic position maps were constructed and revealed higher tuna trophic position (by ∼1) in the southern latitudes compared to the equator. AA-CSIA confirmed these spatial patterns for bigeye and, to a lesser extent, yellowfin tuna. Using generalized additive models, spatial variations of tuna trophic positions were mainly related to the depth of the 20°C isotherm, a proxy for the thermocline behavior, with higher tuna trophic position estimates at greater thermocline depths. We hypothesized that a deeper thermocline would increase tuna vertical habitat and access to mesopelagic prey of higher trophic position. Archival tagging data further suggested that the vertical habitat of bigeye tuna was deeper in the southern latitudes than at the equator. These results suggest the importance of thermocline depth in influencing tropical tuna diet, which affects their vulnerability to fisheries, and may be altered by climate change.

  5. Fishery management, development and food security in the Western and Central Pacific in the context of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Kevin C.; Glazier, Ed; Nicol, Simon J.; Hobday, Alistair J.

    2015-03-01

    In the coming decades, fishery resource managers and policy-makers in Pacific Island countries and territories (PICTs) will be increasingly challenged by the need to ensure food security in the context of a changing climate, increasing human pressure on the marine environment, and limited understanding of marine ecosystems and associated resources. These decision-makers must address a pressing and overarching question - how will pelagic resources and pressures on such resources change over time and space? Answering this question requires ongoing inquiry into critical dimensions of pelagic species and systems, for both the commercial tuna species that are managed by Regional Fishery Management Organizations (RFMOs), as well as nearshore pelagic fishes that support many small-scale fisheries and are managed at national and local levels. Research priorities include generating further insight into life history and physiology, oceanographic context, movement and migration, food webs, ecosystem dynamics and stock status. Concurrently, socioeconomic research is needed to tailor fisheries management strategies to local, national and regional conditions; and improve understanding of incentive structures among players in RFMOs such as the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission. PICT-based scientists and managers are ideally situated to generate new fisheries-relevant data; however, investments are needed to expand the capacity for research, management, and sustainable fisheries development within PICTs. Such capacity building can be accelerated through collaboration between PICTs, RFMOs, and scientific centers of excellence in Distant Water Fishing Nations. Without increased capacity development, this region will be adversely affected by the impacts of climate change and less able to take advantage of opportunities for economic development.

  6. From the Western Alps across Central Europe: Postglacial recolonisation of the tufa stream specialist Rhyacophila pubescens (Insecta, Trichoptera

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    Haase Peter

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dispersal rates, i.e. the effective number of dispersing individuals per unit time, are the product of dispersal capacity, i.e. a species physiological potential for dispersal, dispersal behaviour, i.e. the decision to leave a habitat patch in favour of another, and connectivity of occupied habitat. Thus, dispersal of species that are highly specialised to a certain habitat is limited by habitat availability. Species inhabiting very stable environments may also adopt a sedentary life-style. Both factors should lead to strong genetic differentiation in highly specialised species inhabiting stable environments. These two factors apply to our model species Rhyacophila pubescens a highly specialised freshwater insect that occurs in tufa springs, a very stable habitat. Results We examined the genetic population structure and phylogeography using range-wide mtCOI sequence and AFLP data from 333 individuals of R. pubescens. We inferred the location of Pleistocene refugia and postglacial colonisation routes of R. pubescens, and examined ongoing local differentiation. Our results indicate intraregional differentiation with a high number of locally endemic haplotypes, that we attributed to habitat specificity and low dispersal rates of R. pubescens. We observed high levels of genetic diversity south of the Alps and genetic impoverishment north of the Alps. Estimates of migrants placed the refugium and the source of the colonisation in the Dauphiné Alps (SW Alps. Conclusions This is the first example of an aquatic insect with a colonisation route along the western margin of the Alps to the Central European highlands. The study also shows that specialisation to a stable environment may have promoted a behavioural shift to decreased dispersal rates, leading to stronger local population differentiation than in less specialised aquatic insects. Alternatively, the occurrence of highly specialised tufa spring habitats may have been more

  7. Evaluation of landslide monitoring in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Brian D.; Baum, Rex L.; Mrozek, Teresa; Nescieruk, Piotr; Perski, Zbigniew; Raczkowski, Wojciech; Graniczny, Marek

    2011-01-01

    In response to the June 15, 2010 request from the Polish Geological Institute (PGI) to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for assistance and advice regarding real-time landslide monitoring, landslide specialists from the USGS Landslide Hazard Program visited PGI headquarters and field sites in September 2010. During our visit we became familiar with characteristics of landslides in the Polish Carpathians, reviewed PGI monitoring techniques, and assessed needs for monitoring at recently activated landslides. Visits to several landslides that are monitored by PGI (the Just, Hańczowa, Szymbark, Siercza and Łasńica landslides) revealed that current data collection (monthly GPS and inclinometer surveys, hourly piezometers readings) is generally sufficient for collecting basic information about landslide displacement, depth, and groundwater conditions. Large landslides are typically hydrologically complex, and we would expect such complexity in Carpathian landslides, given the alternating shale and sandstone stratigraphy and complex geologic structures of the flysch bedrock. Consequently groundwater observations could be improved by installing several piezometers that sample the basal shear zone of each landslide being monitored by PGI. These could be supplemented by additional piezometers at shallower depths to help clarify general flow directions and hydraulic gradients. Remedial works at Hańczowa

  8. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Someşu Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Someşu Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the

  9. Bootstrapping data envelopment analysis of efficiency and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the public hospital reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Man-Li; Fang, Hai-Qing; Tao, Hong-Bing; Cheng, Zhao-Hui; Lin, Xiao-Jun; Cai, Miao; Xu, Chang; Jiang, Shuai

    2017-10-01

    China implemented the public hospital reform in 2012. This study utilized bootstrapping data envelopment analysis (DEA) to evaluate the technical efficiency (TE) and productivity of county public hospitals in Eastern, Central, and Western China after the 2012 public hospital reform. Data from 127 county public hospitals (39, 45, and 43 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, respectively) were collected during 2012-2015. Changes of TE and productivity over time were estimated by bootstrapping DEA and bootstrapping Malmquist. The disparities in TE and productivity among public hospitals in the three regions of China were compared by Kruskal-Wallis H test and Mann-Whitney U test. The average bias-corrected TE values for the four-year period were 0.6442, 0.5785, 0.6099, and 0.6094 in Eastern, Central, and Western China, and the entire country respectively, with average non-technical efficiency, low pure technical efficiency (PTE), and high scale efficiency found. Productivity increased by 8.12%, 0.25%, 12.11%, and 11.58% in China and its three regions during 2012-2015, and such increase in productivity resulted from progressive technological changes by 16.42%, 6.32%, 21.08%, and 21.42%, respectively. The TE and PTE of the county hospitals significantly differed among the three regions of China. Eastern and Western China showed significantly higher TE and PTE than Central China. More than 60% of county public hospitals in China and its three areas operated at decreasing return scales. There was a considerable space for TE improvement in county hospitals in China and its three regions. During 2012-2015, the hospitals experienced progressive productivity; however, the PTE changed adversely. Moreover, Central China continuously achieved a significantly lower efficiency score than Eastern and Western China. Decision makers and administrators in China should identify the causes of the observed inefficiencies and take appropriate measures to increase the efficiency of county

  10. Six hundred years of agricultural activity in the Gorce Mountains (Polish Carpathians)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucała, Anna

    2016-04-01

    The role of human activity on agricultural land use were studied in the Ochotnica village (105 km2) with Jaszcze and Jamne catchments (the Gorce Mountains in Polish Carpathians) from the beginning of human settlement to present-day with special emphasise on the period 1846-2009. The visual interpretation of cadastral maps and air photos, combined with palynological and radiocarbon data as well as analysis of historical and census reports indicates more permanent conversion of land-cover of the Gorce Mountains were started by the expansion of Wallachian shepherds at the turn of the 14th and 15th centuries. In the years 1846-2009, there was an increase in the forest area of Ochotnica by 77%, and in the Jaszcze and Jamne catchment by 29% and 43%, respectively. The arable land decreased in that period by 94% in both catchments. The period of 163 years shows diverging trends and dynamics of land use, referring to the three stages of the socio-economic development observed in the Polish Carpathians. Until World War II, agriculture was the main source of income of the growing rural population. The contribution of the agricultural land was approximately 70% in the 1930s., reaching the highest level in the history of human activity in the Gorce Mountains. After World War II, because of a shortage of food in the communist economy, the pressure on land cultivation resulted in the keep of the land use structure inherited from the past. The transition from the communist economy to a free market after 1989 and the accession of Poland to the European Union, forced a rapid increase in forest area at the expense of the agricultural land. They were the most significant land use changes from the time of the Wallachians' colonization of the Gorce Mountains. The changes in land use contributed to a decrease in the intensity of soil erosion on the slopes and an increase of channel incision in the both streams and Ochotnica river, draining the area of 107.6 km2 of the Gorce Mountains

  11. Estimating cetacean density and abundance in the Central and Western Mediterranean Sea through aerial surveys: Implications for management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panigada, Simone; Lauriano, Giancarlo; Donovan, Greg; Pierantonio, Nino; Cañadas, Ana; Vázquez, José Antonio; Burt, Louise

    2017-07-01

    Systematic, effective monitoring of animal population parameters underpins successful conservation strategy and wildlife management, but it is often neglected in many regions, including much of the Mediterranean Sea. Nonetheless, a series of systematic multispecies aerial surveys was carried out in the seas around Italy to gather important baseline information on cetacean occurrence, distribution and abundance. The monitored areas included the Pelagos Sanctuary, the Tyrrhenian Sea, portions of the Seas of Corsica and Sardinia, the Ionian Seas as well as the Gulf of Taranto. Overall, approximately 48,000 km were flown in either spring, summer and winter between 2009-2014, covering an area of 444,621 km2. The most commonly observed species were the striped dolphin and the fin whale, with 975 and 83 recorded sightings, respectively. Other sighted cetacean species were the common bottlenose dolphin, the Risso's dolphin, the sperm whale, the pilot whale and the Cuvier's beaked whale. Uncorrected model- and design-based estimates of density and abundance for striped dolphins and fin whales were produced, resulting in a best estimate (model-based) of around 95,000 striped dolphins (CV=11.6%; 95% CI=92,900-120,300) occurring in the Pelagos Sanctuary, Central Tyrrhenian and Western Seas of Corsica and Sardinia combined area in summer 2010. Estimates were also obtained for each individual study region and year. An initial attempt to estimate perception bias for striped dolphins is also provided. The preferred summer 2010 uncorrected best estimate (design-based) for the same areas for fin whales was around 665 (CV=33.1%; 95% CI=350-1260). Estimates are also provided for the individual study regions and years. The results represent baseline data to develop efficient, long-term, systematic monitoring programmes, essential to evaluate trends, as required by a number of national and international frameworks, and stress the need to ensure that surveys are undertaken regularly and

  12. Morphometric analysis of Eocene nummulitids in Western and Central Cuba - inferences on taxonomy, biostratigaphy and evolutionary trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives Torres-Silva, Ana; Eder, Wolfgang; Hohenegger, Johann; Briguglio, Antonino

    2017-04-01

    None other larger benthic foraminifera (LBF) group in the Caribbean realm has led to such diverse opinions and controversy about their classification than the nummulitids. Unlike the Tethys species, where delimitation and details of evolutionary changes within species are well known, intraspecific evolution in the Caribbean remains understudied and generic nomenclature has not reached consensus yet. Morphometric studies appear to be the most appropriate methods in solving this unsatisfactory taxonomical situation. For every proposed species, morphological variations correlating with paleoecological factors and precise stratigraphic occurrence and range has to be studied in detail. Thus, the morphology in equatorial sections of nummulitids without chamber partitions was quantified at seven localities from Western and Central Cuba and interpreted by eleven growth-independent and/or growth-invariant characters and attributes. 102 isolated megalospheric individuals originating from Cuban localities, spanning the time interval from lower Middle Eocene to lower Oligocene, were classified by nonmetric multidimensional scaling and cluster analysis. Thirteen Caribbean specimens, which are considered as type material, were included. Two clearly differentiated morphogroups could be differentiated according to cluster and ordination analysis into the genera Nummulites and Palaeonummulites. Main differences in morphological characters between the morphogroups were confirmed by discriminant analysis. Nummulites differs from Palaeonummulites in a weak increase of the marginal radius and weak backbend angles. All specimens of Nummulites s.stricto from different localities were regarded as Nummulites striatoreticulatus. Based on discriminant analysis, N. striatoreticulatus specimens with similar depositional environments, but of different stratigraphic occurrence, are strongly separated. The older forms have a smaller backbend angle, perimeter ratio and proloculus nominal diameter

  13. Potential of Central, Eastern and Western Africa Medicinal Plants for Cancer Therapy: Spotlight on Resistant Cells and Molecular Targets

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    Armelle T. Mbaveng

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cancer remains a major health hurdle worldwide and has moved from the third leading cause of death in the year 1990 to second place after cardiovascular disease since 2013. Chemotherapy is one of the most widely used treatment modes; however, its efficiency is limited due to the resistance of cancer cells to cytotoxic agents. The present overview deals with the potential of the flora of Central, Eastern and Western African (CEWA regions as resource for anticancer drug discovery. It also reviews the molecular targets of phytochemicals of these plants such as ABC transporters, namely P-glycoprotein (P-gp, multi drug-resistance-related proteins (MRPs, breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP, ABCG2 as well as the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR/ErbB-1/HER1, human tumor suppressor protein p53, caspases, mitochondria, angiogenesis, and components of MAP kinase signaling pathways. Plants with the ability to preferentially kills resistant cancer cells were also reported. Data compiled in the present document were retrieved from scientific websites such as PubMed, Scopus, Sciencedirect, Web-of-Science, and Scholar Google. In summary, plant extracts from CEWA and isolated compounds thereof exert cytotoxic effects by several modes of action including caspases activation, alteration of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP, induction of reactive oxygen species (ROS in cancer cells and inhibition of angiogenesis. Ten strongest cytotoxic plants from CEWA recorded following in vitro screening assays are: Beilschmiedia acuta Kosterm, Echinops giganteus var. lelyi (C. D. Adams A. Rich., Erythrina sigmoidea Hua (Fabaceae, Imperata cylindrical Beauv. var. koenigii Durand et Schinz, Nauclea pobeguinii (Pobég. ex Pellegr. Merr. ex E.M.A., Piper capense L.f., Polyscias fulva (Hiern Harms., Uapaca togoensis Pax., Vepris soyauxii Engl. and Xylopia aethiopica (Dunal A. Rich. Prominent antiproliferative compounds include: isoquinoline alkaloid isotetrandrine (51

  14. Characterization of bottom hydrodynamic conditions on the central western Portuguese continental shelf based on benthic foraminifera and sedimentary parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Maria Virgínia Alves; Quintino, Victor; Tentúgal, Rita Marques; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Miranda, Paulo; Mattos Laut, Lazaro Luiz; Martins, Roberto; Rodrigues, Ana Maria

    2015-08-01

    Dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the central western Portuguese continental shelf have been studied to identify the prevalent oceanographic processes in the study area. Sediment samples collected at 46 stations along transepts perpendicular to the coastal line, between the latitudes of 38-40 °N and 17-190 m water depth, in April/May 2008, were analysed for selected physicochemical parameters (temperature, redox potential), grain size, organic matter content, and benthic foraminifera. Statistical analysis identified two main groups of stations, the Inshore/Offshore groups, which are not only defined by their geographical positions, but easily distinguishable by different hydrodynamic conditions. The Offshore Group is mainly represented by deeper stations characterized by a higher percentage of fines and TOM, negative values of redox potential and by the higher foraminiferal density and species diversity than the Inshore one. Foraminiferal assemblages of the Offshore Group are dominated/represented by species (such as Cassidulina laevigata/Cassidulina carinata, Bolivina spathulata, Bolivina ordinaria, Globocassidulina minuta, Bulimina elongata/Bulimina gibba and Bulimina marginata) common in areas with significant concentrations of organic matter. The benthic foraminiferal assemblages of the Inshore Group are instead characterized by epifaunal species such as Lobatula lobatula, Cibicides ungerianus, Planorbulina mediterranensis, Gavelinopsis praegeri and Quinqueloculina seminula. Both the sedimentary and foraminiferal results suggest that this group of stations is subjected to stronger bottom hydrodynamic conditions, caused by waves and swell activity and coastal currents, than the Offshore Group. Bray-Curtis similarity comparison between the stations of both groups reveals that the Offshore Group has a higher internal similarity than the Inshore Group. These differences seem to stem from topographic forcing, from the presence of rocky outcrops, from

  15. First Plant Phenological Records in the Carpathians and their Possible Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tekusova, M.; Horecká, V.; Mikulová, K.

    2009-04-01

    the plants flowering in early spring show data comparable with other localities. Selected data were compared with the averages of flowering from 1993 to 2008 at the localities close to the stations. The differences showed flowering of plants 1 - 3 weeks sooner. This corresponds to the higher temperature from February to June by 1.0 -1.5 ?C. The inventory of phenological records from the period of 1871-1885 from Carpathian region showed pretty fragmented data set that are not suitable for standard statistical evaluation. Some possibilities of phenological evaluations are in spatial and time analysis of the development of different plants in particular years/seasons that either represent the average climatic conditions or include also some climatic extremes. Deeper analysis of such phenological events will require daily climatologic/temperature data. The advantage of above discussed data sets is the fact that one methodology of observations was applied and that they cover big area of Central Europe and a part of Balkan. Further development of phenological observations in the region after the break-down of the Austro-Hungarian Empire was based on the conditions in a particular country. It means changes in the methods of observations and the number of stations. The recent cooperation in creating phenological databases brought considerable difficulties as some networks were cancelled and re-established again in the 20th century.

  16. Crust-mantle decoupling in the Alps, Carpathians, Dinarides and Hellenides - the next targets of AlpArray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handy, Mark R.; Kissling, Eduard; Spakman, Wim; Ustaszewski, Kamil; Le Breton, Eline; Giese, Joerg

    2017-04-01

    The junctions of the Alps, Carpathians, Dinarides and Hellenides have disparate subsurface and surface structures that indicate decoupling of the crust and lithospheric mantle during Adria-Europe convergence. The complexity of subsurface structures at these orogenic junctions make them inviting targets for the next generation of integrated seismological-structural studies. Travel-time and receiver-function tomography at the Alps-Carpathians junction suggest that the NE-dipping "Lippitsch" positive anomaly beneath the Eastern Alps may connect eastward to a subvertical positive anomaly reaching down to the Mantle Transition Zone beneath the Pannonian Basin. The length of this slab-like anomaly exceeds known Neogene shortening in the overlying crust which is masked by Miocene Pannonian upper-plate extension. This suggests that either Neogene N-S shortening in the eastern Alps, western Carpathians and northern Dinarides has been underestimated and/or that this anomaly is an amalgam of subduction of both European and Adriatic lithospheres; these may have melded during a Miocene switch in subduction polarity beneath the eastern Alps. Neogene crustal deformation north of the Periadriatic Fault in the Tauern Window (Austria) involved north-directed crustal wedging and eastward orogenic escape, whereas south of this fault deformation involved large (≤ 130°) clockwise block rotations, S-directed thrusting and overturned Eocene Dinaric thrusts (Medvenica mountains, northern Croatia). Most global P-wave tomographic models indicate no Adriatic slab anomaly in the northern Dinarides and only a short (≤ 150 km long) NE-dipping anomaly in the southern Dinarides. The short length probably reflects the obliquity of Neogene Adria-Europe convergence, whereas the lack of an anomaly may be due to thermal erosion during asthenospheric flow since late Paleogene slab delamination or breakoff. At the Dinarides-Hellenides junction, the NE-dipping Adriatic slab has retreated SW

  17. Temporal properties of seismicity and largest earthquakes in SE Carpathians

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    S. Byrdina

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the hazard rate distribution of the largest seismic events in Vrancea, South-Eastern Carpathians, we study temporal properties of historical and instrumental catalogues of seismicity. First, on the basis of Generalized Extreme Value theory we estimate the average return period of the largest events. Then, following Bak et al. (2002 and Corral (2005a, we study scaling properties of recurrence times between earthquakes in appropriate spatial volumes. We come to the conclusion that the seismicity is temporally clustered, and that the distribution of recurrence times is significantly different from a Poisson process even for times largely exceeding corresponding periods of foreshock and aftershock activity. Modeling the recurrence times by a gamma distributed variable, we finally estimate hazard rates with respect to the time elapsed from the last large earthquake.

  18. Cirque development and the glaciation of the Carpathians

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    Ian S. EVANS

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The moderate altitudes of the Carpathian Mountains limited glaciation to cirque and short valley glaciers, but these were widespread: well-developed cirques are found inRomania,Ukraine,SlovakiaandPoland.  The ‘marginal’ nature of glaciation means that glaciers formed first on the most favourable (shadiest and leeward mountain slopes, giving valuable indications of former wind directions (from west-northwest inRomania.  Some cirques are completely isolated from others, but several mountain ranges rose sufficiently high above snowline that glaciers and cirques developed on all slopes, as in the Retezat, Făgăraş¸ and especially the High Tatra.  However, differences in snowline (palaeo-ELA are found between different slopes there also. The Low Tatra, by contrast, are strongly asymmetric, with many north-facing cirques.

  19. Kinematic evolution of Internal Getic nappes (Serbian Carpathians, eastern Serbia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstekanic, Nemanja; Stojadinovic, Uros; Toljic, Marinko; Matenco, Liviu

    2017-04-01

    The tectonic evolution of the Carpatho - Balkanides Mountains is less understood in the critical segment of the Serbian Carpathians due to lack of available kinematic data. We have performed a field kinematic analysis combined with existing information from previous local and regional studies by focusing on the internal part of this orogenic segment, where the three highest most units of the nappe stack are exposed and separated by large offsets thrusts, i.e. the Supragetic, Upper Getic and Lower Getic. These units expose their metamorphic basement and Permo-Mesozoic cover penetrated by syn- and post-kinematic plutons and overlain or otherwise in structural contact with the Neogene fill of intramontane basins and the one of the Morava river corridor located in the prolongation of the much larger Pannonian basin. The kinematic analysis demonstrates seven superposed tectonic events of variable magnitudes and effects. Available superposition criteria and the correlation with the regional evolution demonstrate that four events are major tectonic episodes, while three others have a more limited influence or are local effects of strain partitioning and rotations. The first deformation event observed is the late Early Cretaceous cataclastic to brittle thrusting and shearing associated with the emplacement of the Supragetic nappe over the Getic unit. The observed paleostress NW-SE to SW-NE compressional directions were affected by the subsequent Cenozoic oroclinal bending of the Carpathians nappe stack. The first event was followed by Late Cretaceous E-W compression associated with significant strike-slip and transpression, the paleostress orientation being affected by the same subsequent rotations. The Paleogene - Early Miocene activation of the Cerna - Jiu and Timok faults system that cumulates an observed offset of 100 km is associated with large strikes-slip deformation with presently observed NNE-SSW oriented compressional directions in the study area. The formation

  20. Environmental Challenges Related to the Acquisition of the Trans Carpathian Wide Angle Reflection and Refraction Line

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragut, Dorina-Alina; Schultz, Gehrig; Mocanu, Victor; Stephenson, Randell; Janik, Tomasz; Starostenko, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Complex structures like the Carpathian Orogen and its neighbouring platforms and related inter-orogenic basin system can be understood only by complex integration of complementary investigative tools. Most of regional geoscientific investigations in Romania have targeted the very intricate, high intermediate-depth seismicity, clustered Carpathian Bend Zone: Vrancea. Despite huge geological and geophysical efforts, the area remains a matter of robust debate, at least from the point of view of geodynamic driving mechanisms. However, other areas outside Vrancea remained somehow "orphaned". However, a large wide angle refraction and reflection (WARR) survey was carried out in the summer of 2014 by a large international partnership in order to study the transition from the East European Platform to the northern part of the Romanian Eastern Carpathians, Transylvanian Basin and the Apuseni Mountains. The main scientific objectives of the WARR project relate to three main investigation domains: crustal architecture; affinity of crystalline basement and sedimentary basins architecture. The profile is about 700 km in total, in Ukraine and Romania. Recorders were placed at 1.75 - 2.0 km intervals along an alignment forming the Romanian segment. Recorders used were stand-alone DSS Cubes from the Helmholz Center of GFZ Potsdam and from the Institute of Geophysics of the Polish Academy of Sciences. The seismic sources were explosives ("Riogel" and "Riodet" by Maxam), with shotpoints spaced at 20 - 65 km with a total of 800 - 1200 kg explosives/site in clusters of drill-holes loaded with 50 kg explosive/hole, average depth of 25 m. Very complicated and legally-challenging environmental permitting requirements represented a real issue for successful implementation of the project. The main concern of local and central authorities related to potential pollution of sensitive components. Here, we present the strategy, actions and results concluded in order to reach the scientific and

  1. Slanic Tuff and associated Miocene evaporite deposits, Eastern Carpathians, Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojar, Ana-Voica; Halas, Stanislaw; Barbu, Victor; Bojar, Hans-Peter; Wojtowicz, Artur; Duliu, Octavian

    2017-04-01

    Miocene tuffs of calcalkaline composition are widespread in the Carpathians, Pannonian and Eastern Alpine realm. Their occurrences are described in outcrops as well as in the subsurface. The presence of such tuffs may offer important criteria for stratigraphic correlations and help to establish the absolute age of deposits and associated climatic and environmental changes. The Green Stone Hill (Muntele Piatra Verde) is situated to the north of Slanic-Prahova salt mine, in the bend region of the Eastern Carpathians, Romania. From bottom to top the section is composed of: marls with Globigerina followed by the so called Slanic tuff, gypsum and salt breccia and, on the top, radiolarian bearing shales. The stratigraphic age of the section is Middle to Upper Badenian (nannoplankton zones NN5 to NN6). XRD investigations of the green Slanic tuff show that the main mineralogical component is clinoptilolite (zeolite) followed by quartz and plagioclase. For this type of tuff there is no crystalline phase, which may be used for radiometric dating. In the middle part of the green tuff interval, we found discrete layers of a much coarser white tuff, with mineralogy consisting of quartz, plagioclase, biotite and clinoptilolite. The white tuff forming distinct layers within the green tuff, has an andesitic composition. 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite concentrates from the white tuff gives an age of 13.6±0.2Ma, the dated layer being situated below the gypsum and salt breccia. We consider that the age is well constraining the time when the green tuffs were formed at the border of the basin. From this level upwards discrete gypsum layers occurs within the green tuffs, the age may be considered as indicating the base of the evaporitic sequence. To the south-east, from this level upwards evaporites, mainly salt formed. The age suggests that evaporitic deposits formed after the Mid Badenian climatic optimum, evaporitic formation being related to restricted circulation due the drop of sea

  2. Food composition of some low altitude Lissotriton montandoni (Amphibia, Caudata populations from North-Western Romania

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    Covaciu-Marcov S.D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of some populations of Lissotriton montandoni from north-western Romania is composed of prey belonging to 20 categories. The food components of the Carpathian newts are similar to those of other species of newts. Most of the prey are aquatic animals, but terrestrial prey also has a high percentage abundance. The consumed prey categories are common in the newts' habitats as well, but in natural ponds the prey item with the highest abundance in the diet is not the most frequent one in the habitat. Thus, although the Carpathian newts are basically opportunistic predators, they still display a certain trophic selectivity.

  3. Trend in an isolated population of the red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus at the edge of its breeding range (south-western Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slobodník Roman

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The population of the red-footed falcon in Slovakia inhabits the north-western edge of the species' breeding range. This breeding population is relatively small and came near to extinction during the population decline of this species in central Europe in recent decades. Thanks to increasing numbers of breeding pairs in Hungary, the Slovak population began to grow again. Moreover, some differences in breeding biology associated with breeding in nest boxes were found. Here we describe the dependence of the small isolated breeding population in Slovakia on the core population in the more eastern parts of the Carpathian Basin, and the impact of supporting activities (nest boxes on this raptor species in Slovakia.

  4. Periodic input of dust over the Eastern Carpathians during the Holocene linked with Saharan desertification and human impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Longman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Reconstructions of dust flux have been used to produce valuable global records of changes in atmospheric circulation and aridity. These studies have highlighted the importance of atmospheric dust in marine and terrestrial biogeochemistry and nutrient cycling. By investigating a 10 800-year-long paleoclimate archive from the Eastern Carpathians (Romania we present the first peat record of changing dust deposition over the Holocene for the Carpathian–Balkan region. Using qualitative (X-ray fluorescence (XRF core scanning and quantitative inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer(ICP-OES measurements of lithogenic (K, Si, Ti elements, we identify 10 periods of major dust deposition between 9500–9200, 8400–8100, 7720–7250, 6350–5950, 5450–5050, 4130–3770, 3450–2850, 2000–1450, 800–620, and 60 cal yr BP to present. In addition, we used testate amoeba assemblages preserved within the peat to infer local palaeohydroclimatic conditions. Our record highlights several discrepancies between eastern and western European dust depositional records and the impact of highly complex hydrological regimes in the Carpathian region. Since 6100 cal yr BP, we find that the geochemical indicators of dust flux have become uncoupled from the local hydrology. This coincides with the appearance of millennial-scale cycles in the dust input and changes in geochemical composition of dust. We suggest that this is indicative of a shift in dust provenance from local–regional (likely loess-related to distal (Saharan sources, which coincide with the end of the African Humid Period and the onset of Saharan desertification.

  5. Temporal evolution of the Western and Central volcanism of the Aeolian Island Arc (Italy, southern Tyrhhenian Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.-Y.; Peccerillo, A.

    2009-04-01

    The Aeolian Archipelago is a volcanic arc in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. The Aeolian volcanism occurs in a very complex geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of the European and African plates. For that reason, it is strongly related to regional tectonic lineaments, such as the NW-SE trending Tindari-Letojani (TL) fault. The archipelago consists of seven main islands and several seamounts, which extend around the Marsili Basin, forming a ring-like shape, typical for an island arc. While the seamounts began their activities around 1 Ma , the emerged part is active since about 400 ka. The magmatic products of the whole arc range from typical island arc calc-alkaline (CA) and shoshonitic series, to slightly silica undersaturated potassic alkaline series that are typical of post-collisional settings. Furthermore, the TL fault, along which the Lipari and Vulcano islands are developed, separates a calc-alkaline western sector (Alicudi, Filicudi and Salina islands) from the calc-alkaline to potassic eastern system (Panarea and Stromboli islands) (Peccerillo,1999). This makes of the Aeolian Islands a complex volcanism, with a still controversial origin. In this context, the aim of this work is to constrain the sources and spatio-temporal evolution of this magmatism. We present here new K-Ar ages based on the accurate Cassignol-Gillot technique devoted to the dating of very young rocks (Gillot et Cornette, 1986). These geochronological data were used together with new geochemical data on the same samples. In this study, we attempt to understand the origin of those magmatic events and the relationship between the deep processes and the shallow structures. Our results allow us to define specific periods of very quick geomechemical changes. In the case of Filicudi island, the first rocks range in composition from CA basalts to andesites. This period ended with the edification of the Mte Guardia at 189

  6. Well Completion Report for Well ER-20-11, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-02-27

    Well ER-20-11 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September 2012 as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-11 was constructed to further investigate the nature and extent of radionuclidecontaminated groundwater encountered in two nearby UGTA wells, to help define hydraulic and transport parameters for the contaminated Benham aquifer, and to provide data for the UGTA hydrostratigraphic framework model. The 44.5-centimeter (cm) surface hole was drilled to a depth of 520.0 meters (m) and cased with 34.0-cm casing to 511.5 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 31.1 cm, and the borehole was drilled to a total depth of 915.6 m. The hole was completed to allow access for hydrologic testing and sampling in the target aquifer, which is a lava-flow aquifer known as the Benham aquifer. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 904.3 m, consists of a string of 6 5/8-inch (in.) stainless-steel casing hanging from a string of 7 5/8-in. carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has one slotted interval at 796.3 to 903.6 m. One piezometer string was installed, which consists of 2 7/8-in. stainless-steel tubing that hangs from 2 3/8-in. carbon-steel tubing via a crossover sub. This string was landed at 903.8 m and is slotted in the interval 795.3 to 903.1 m. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, fluid samples (for groundwater chemistry analysis and tritium measurements), and water-level measurements. The well penetrated 915.6 m of Tertiary volcanic rock, including one saturated lava flow aquifer. Measurements on

  7. Petrographic and geochemical analyisis for determination of provenance of the Slovenj Gradec Miocene Basin fill (Western Central Paratethys)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivančič, Kristina; Trajanova, Mirka; Skaberne, Dragomir; Šmuc, Andrej

    2017-04-01

    The Slovenj Gradec Basin (SGB) is located in northern Slovenia between eastern margin of the Northern Karavanke and the western Pohorje Mts. Structurally, it belongs to Eastern Alps. It is filled with Miocene clastic sediments. Modal composition of sandstones was determined on thin sections by point-counter and presented with the QFL and QmFLt diagrams. Their geochemical composition was determined by classical method and by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry. Based on petrography, sedimentary fill of the SGB consists mostly of lithic grains and quartz, derived from metamorphic and carbonate rocks. Locally, fragments of granitoids occur. Binder consists of carbonate, subordinately quartz cement, and carbonate matrix. Recycled orogen (lithic and transitional recycled) provenance of the grains was determined. Geochemical composition shows that: - Sandstones from the SGB belong to the fields of shale, wacke, litharenite, arkose and subarkose (Pettijohn, 1972). - In the ternary diagram of weathering trends (cf. Nesbitt & Young 1984), the samples group near the CaO+Na2OAl2O3 conjunctive. Calculated minimum CIA (Fedo et al., 1995) is 40.06, indicating that the source rocks were not subjected to considerable weathering. - According to discriminant function (cf. Roser & Korsch, 1988) all samples from SGB originate from quartzose sedimentary rocks. - For determination of tectonic setting of source rocks (Verma & Armstrong-Altrin, 2013) the studied samples plot in the field of collision zone. - In the multidimensional discriminant function diagram for the discrimination of active and passive margin after Verma and Armstrong (2016), the samples plot into the field of passive margin. The data indicate that source rocks of the SGB sedimentary fill were derived from Eastern Alps and Southern Alps. It is suggested that SGB was detached from the Styrian and Mura-Zala Basins in the course of the Pohorje Mts. oblique transpressive uplift during the late Miocene to Pliocene

  8. Completion Report for Well ER-EC-14, Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-03-05

    Well ER-EC-14 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Management Operations Underground Test Area (UGTA) Activity at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS; formerly Nevada Test Site), Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in September and October 2012, as part of the Central and Western Pahute Mesa Corrective Action Unit Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to provide detailed hydrogeologic information for the Fortymile Canyon composite hydrostratigraphic unit in the Timber Mountain moat area, within the Timber Mountain caldera complex, that will help address uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa–Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model. The main 55.9-centimeter (cm) hole was drilled to a total depth of 325.5 meters (m) and cased with 40.6-cm casing to 308.1 m. The hole diameter was then decreased to 37.5 cm, and drilling continued to a total depth of 724.8 m. The completion casing string, set to the depth of 690.9 m, consists of 16.8-cm stainless-steel casing hanging from 19.4-cm carbon-steel casing. The stainless-steel casing has two slotted intervals open to the Rainier Mesa Tuff. Two piezometer strings were installed in Well ER-EC-14. Both piezometer strings, each with one slotted interval, consist of 6.0-cm carbon-steel tubing at the surface, then cross over to 7.3-cm stainless-steel tubing just above the water table. The shallow piezometer string was landed at 507.8 m, and the deep piezometer string was landed at 688.6 m. Both piezometer strings are set to monitor groundwater within moderately to densely welded Rainier Mesa Tuff. Data collected during and shortly after hole construction include composite drill cuttings samples collected every 3.0 m, various geophysical logs, water quality (including tritium and other radionuclides) measurements, and water level measurements. The well penetrated 15.2 m of alluvium and

  9. Completion Report for Well ER-20-12: Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurtz, Jeff [Navarro-Intera, LLC (N-I), Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2016-08-01

    Well ER-20-12 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada National Security Administration Nevada Field Office in support of the Underground Test Area Activity. The well was drilled from October 2015 to January 2016 as an addition to the Central and Western Pahute Mesa corrective action units 101 and 102 the Phase II drilling program. Well ER-20-12 was identified based on recommendations of the Pahute Mesa Guidance Team as a result of anomalous tritium detections in groundwater samples collected from Well PM-3 in 2011 and 2013. The primary purpose of the well was to provide information on the hydrogeology in the area downgradient of select underground tests on Western Pahute Mesa and define hydraulic properties in the saturated Tertiary volcanic rocks. The main 46.99-centimeter (cm) (18.5-inch [in.]) borehole was drilled to a depth of 765.14 meters (m) (2,510.3 ft) and the hole opened to 66.04 cm (26 in.); followed by the 50.80-cm (20-in.) surface casing, which was installed and sealed with cement; and a piezometer (p4) was set in the Timber Mountain welded-tuff aquifer (TMWTA) between the casing and the open borehole. The borehole was continued with a 46.99-cm (18.5-in.) drill bit to a depth of 1,326.53 m (4,352.16 ft), and an intermediate 24.44-cm (9.625-in.) casing was installed and sealed to 1,188.72 m (3,900.00 ft) A piezometer (p3) was installed across the Calico Hills zeolitic composite unit (CHZCM) (lava-flow aquifer [LFA]) in the annulus of the open borehole. Two additional piezometers were installed and completed between the intermediate casing and the borehole wall, one (p2) in the CHZCM and one (p1) in the Belted Range aquifer (BRA). The piezometers are set to monitor groundwater properties in the completed intervals. The borehole was continued with a 21.59-cm (8.5-in.) drill bit to a total depth of 1,384.80 m (4,543.33 ft), and the main completion 13.97-cm (5.5-in.) casing was installed in the open borehole across the Pre-Belted Range

  10. Unclassified Source Term and Radionuclide Data for the Groundwater Flow and Contaminant Transport Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCord, John

    2004-08-01

    This report documents the evaluation of the information and data available on the unclassified source term and radionuclide contamination for Central and Western Pahute Mesa: Corrective Action Units (CAUs) 101 and 102.

  11. Shrimp Trap Report data collected by NOAA research vessel Townsend Cromwell from 1980 to 1989 in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean and chartered fishing vessel Pesquedot in 1984 in waters off Guam

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Shrimp trapping operations were conducted by NOAA research vessel Townsend Cromwell from 1980 to 1989 in the Central and Western Pacific Ocean to determine...

  12. Killer whale surveys conducted in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska by Alaska Fisheries Science Center, National Marine Mammal Laboratory from 2001-07-01 to 2010-07-12 (NCEI Accession 0137766)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is a compilation of line-transect data collected on surveys in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea, and western and central Gulf of Alaska, 2001 - 2010....

  13. 76 FR 14040 - Outer Continental Shelf (OCS), Central and Western Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... possible conflicts between future OCS oil and gas activities that may result from the proposed sales and... Western Gulf of Mexico, Oil and Gas Lease Sales for Years 2012-2017 AGENCY: Bureau of Ocean Energy... (GOM) Planning Areas to be included in the OCS Oil and Gas Leasing Program for 2012-2017. Ten lease...

  14. Long- and short-term determinants of party preferences: inter-generational differences in Western and East Central Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Walczak, A.; van der Brug, W.; de Vries, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we study differences between generations in the degree to which long-term and short-term factors affect party preferences in established and consolidating European democracies. Scholarly literature has shown that younger cohorts in Western Europe are less likely to be guided by social

  15. Gulf of Mexico Sales 147 and 150: Central and Western planning areas. Final environmental impact statement, Volume 1: Sections 1 through 4.C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-01

    This Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) covers the proposed 1994 Gulf of Mexico OCS oil and gas lease sales [Central Gulf of Mexico Sale 147 (March 1994) and Western Gulf of Mexico Sale 150 (August 1994)]. This document includes the purpose and background of the proposed actions, the alternatives, the descriptions of the affected environment, and the potential environmental impacts of the proposed actions and alternatives. Proposed mitigating measures and their effects are analyzed, in addition to potential cumulative impacts resulting from proposed activities.

  16. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of pure european beech forests in Oraştie river basin (central-western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Petru BURESCU; Valeriu Ioan VINŢAN

    2012-01-01

    În the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Festuco drymejaeFagetum Morariu et al. 1968 (Syn.: Fagetum sylvaticae transylvaticum facies with Festuca drymeja I. Pop et al. 1974), found in the pure European beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, lying in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done byselecting the most representa...

  17. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the beech forests of the Luzulo-Fagetum type in the Oraştie river basin (Central-Western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Petru BURESCU; Valeriu Ioan VINTAN

    2012-01-01

    n the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955 (Syn.: Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1963) Täuber 1987, Dechampsio flexuosae-Fagetum Soó 1962, Luzulo-Fagetum silvaticae Beldie 1951) Morariu et al. 1968) identified in the acidophylous beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the pre...

  18. Some regularities in the distribution of kenophytes in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zając Maria

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Polish Carpathians and their northern foreland are a rewarding object for the kenophyte distribution research. The study, using the cartogram method, showed that the number of kenophyte species decreases with increasing altitude. Only few kenophytes were found in the lower forest zone. This regularity concerns also the species that reach higher altitudes in the mountains of their native lands. A number of species migrated into the Carpathians through rivers and streams. River valleys generate many open habitats, which are easily colonized by kenophytes due to the lack of competition. In the Carpathians, towns used to be founded in the mountain valleys and this was also a favouring factor of kenophyte propagation. The arrangement of mountain ranges in the Polish Carpathians, including their foreland, hindered the migration of some species and allowed to discover the possible migration routes into the area covered by research. Tracing these migration routes was possible only for those species that have not occupied the whole available area yet. Additionally, the study indicated the most dangerous invasive species in the Polish Carpathians and their foreland.

  19. Analysis of the use of antibiotics in antibiograms of urine carried out by a clinical laboratory of the central-western region of Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodríguez-Salazar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Antibiotics are bactericidal/bacteriostatic molecules that control bacterial infections, its misuse favors multidrug or therapeutic failure in the case of naturally resistant bacterial strains, thus generating a health risk. Objective: To analyze the use of antibiotics in urine antibiograms carried out by a clinical laboratory (central-western region, Colombia. Materials and methods: A descriptive-retrospective study was made. Urine and antibiograms data were collected from April 2014 to June 2015 by a clinical laboratory in the central-western region of Colombia. The obtained data was confronted with the protocols described by the National Institute of Health of Colombia. Results: 1815 reports of urine and antibiograms were analyzed, identifying 18 bacterial species. In the 22.3% (403 of cases, antibiotics were evaluated and reported on naturally resistant microorganisms. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed greater resistance and the antibiotic with the highest resistance was nalidixic acid (66.7%. Conclusion: The study showed that there is a problem in managing, reporting and interpreting antibiograms against naturally resistant microorganisms, which could favor the development of multidrug in sensitive microorganisms of bacterial flora. A review of national and international bibliography showed similar reports; however, no author mentions intrinsic resistances, so the data of antibiotic resistance would be over evaluated.

  20. Low-altitude remote sensing and GIS-based analysis of cropmarks: classification of past thermal-contraction-crack polygons in central western Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewertowski, Marek W.; Kijowski, Andrzej; Szuman, Izabela; Tomczyk, Aleksandra M.; Kasprzak, Leszek

    2017-09-01

    The examination of low-altitude aerial photographs reveals the presence of more than 400 polygonal nets in central western Poland. Polygons range from 5 to almost 70 m in diameter. Based on the polygons' diameter and intersection angles, we identified seven main types of nets geometry. Based on ground verification, we interpreted them as past thermal-contraction-cracks, filled mostly with sand (i.e. sand-wedge casts). As favourable weather conditions and a proper land cover (i.e. cultivated land) are necessary for identifying polygonal nets, the observed number of polygons is probably much underestimated. The broad occurrence of former thermal-contraction-cracks' polygons indicates that continuous permafrost was widespread in central western Poland after the termination of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Preliminary dating of the cracks' infilling as well as polygon geometry suggest that thermal-contraction-cracking occurred in several different phases and that a time frame of a few thousand years is sufficient to form complex, mature nets.

  1. Vegetation response to climate forcing during the last glacial maximum and deglaciation in the East Carpathians: attenuated response to maximum cooling and increased biomass burning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eniko M. MAGYARI

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Carpathian Mountains were one of the main mountain reserves of the boreal and cool temperate flora during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM in East-Central Europe. Previous studies demonstrated late glacial vegetation dynamics in this area; however, our knowledge on the LGM vegetation composition is limited due to the scarcity of suitable sedimentary archives. Here we present a new record of vegetation, fire and lacustrine sedimentation from the youngest volcanic crater of the Carpathians (Lake St Anne, Lacul Sfânta Ana, Szent-Anna-tó to examine environmental change in this region during the LGM and the subsequent deglaciation. Our record indicates the persistence of boreal forest steppe vegetation (Pinus sylvestris, Pinus mugo, Pinus cembra, Betula, Salix, Populus, Picea abies in the foreland and low mountain zone of the East Carpathians and Juniperus shrubland at higher elevation. We demonstrate attenuated response of the regional vegetation to maximum global cooling. Between ~22,870 and 19,150 cal yr BP we find increased regional biomass burning that is antagonistic with the global trend. Increased regional fire activity suggests extreme continentality likely with relatively warm and dry summers. We also demonstratexerophytic steppe expansion directly after the LGM, from ~19,150 cal yr BP, and regional increase in boreal woodland cover with Pinus and Betula from 16,300 cal yr BP. Plant macrofossils indicate local (950 m a.s.l. establishment of Betula nana and B. pubescens at 15,150 cal yr BP, Pinus sylvestris at 14,700 cal yr BP and Larix decidua at 12,870 cal yr BP. Pollen data furthermore hints at the regional presence of some temperate deciduous trees during the LGM (Fagus sylvatica, Carpinus betulus, Corylus avellana, Fraxinus excelsior, Ulmus. We also present pollen based quantitative climate reconstruction from this site and discuss its connection with other climate reconstructions and climate modeling results. 

  2. Deep-sea decapod crustaceans in the western and central Mediterranean Sea: preliminary aspects of species distribution, biomass and population structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan B. Company

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Three deep-sea areas in the Mediterranean Sea were sampled using a bottom otter trawl during the DESEAS oceanographic survey carried out from early June to early July 2001, covering an area in the western Mediterranean from 600 to 2800 m in depth and two areas in the central Mediterranean, the western and eastern Ionian Sea from 600 to 4000 m in depth. Decapod crustaceans were one of the dominant megafaunal groups, together with fishes, in terms of both biomass and abundance. A total of 2799 decapod specimens belonging to 32 species were collected. Abundance and biomass of the decapod crustaceans decreased with depth. For depths below 1000 m, a decrease in total decapod biomass was recorded from west to east. From the data reported in this study and data from the available literature, decapod crustaceans display differential depth distributions in the different areas. For the most abundant species, size and sex distributions versus depth gradient were examined to compare intraspecific population structures between the sampling areas. Despite differences, among areas, in the species biomass compositions by depth strata and differences in their overall bathymetric ranges of distribution, intraspecific population structures of the most abundant species seem to follow similar trends for size and sex distribution versus depth gradient between the western and central areas. This might be an indication that the individual species structure their populations according to a similar basic pattern regardless of differences in local environmental features. The results have been discussed in the general context of the environmental features encountered by the species in each of the sampling areas.

  3. The first Neanderthal tooth found North of the Carpathian Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbanowski, Mikołaj; Socha, Paweł; Dąbrowski, Paweł; Nowaczewska, Wioletta; Sadakierska-Chudy, Anna; Dobosz, Tadeusz; Stefaniak, Krzysztof; Nadachowski, Adam

    2010-04-01

    An upper second permanent molar from a human was found alongside numerous tools of the Micoquian tradition and was excavated in Stajnia Cave, which is located over 100 km North of the Carpathian Mountains in southern Poland. The age of these finds has been established within a time-span of late Saalian to early Weichselian, most likely to OIS 5c or 5a, according to the palaeontological, geological, archaeological and absolute dating of the layer from which they were obtained. An examination of the morphology of the human molar indicates that this tooth exhibits many traits frequently occurring in Neanderthal upper molars. Although the occurrence of derived Neanderthal traits in the Stajnia molar cannot be firmly established because of degradation of its cusps, the presence of the above-mentioned features allows the assertion that this tooth belonged to a Neanderthal. The age of the Stajnia tooth and the archaeological context of this find also indicate that this molar is of Neanderthal origin.

  4. Research Concerning the Reproduction Seasonality in Carpathian Buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stelian Sertu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Fertility in buffalo is low. That could be a question of species adaptation in new climate or a genetic trait. Scientists think buffaloes entered the South-est of Europe on two ways one with the Hune and Avar people coming trough the North of Black Sea up to the intra Charpathian Hils and a later one more prolonged with penetratio trough Egypt, Small Asia and Greece at the time when some people migrated up to the Danube River. Buffaloes which originated from Egypt were domesticated before the ones that came through the North of Black Sea. That means in Romania there are two different buffalo populations: the Carpathian Buffalo adapted to reproduce in a cold and wet climate, outside the area of its wild ancestors and a Danube Buffalo that underwent more influence domestication apart. These two populations reproduced separately by territorial state insulation. All buffalo breeds including the ones in the native domestication area show grouped calving. The present paper has to answer if grouped calving in buffalo is due to photoperiodic exchange along the year or to the poor feeding in some seasons. The answer to this question will decide the actions needed to improve buffalo cows’ fertility.

  5. Petrology of Badenian ignimbrites, Gutai Mts. (Eastern Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandrina Fulop

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Gutâi Mts., part of inner Carpathians volcanic arc, consist of products of felsic and intermediate volcanism. The previously known “Badenian Rhyodacitic Formation”, expression of the felsic explosive volcanism, is composed of a well-defined basal unit of ignimbrites, overlain by a sequence of resedimented volcaniclastics of similar origin, interlayered with mudstones. The petrography of ignimbrites shows matrix-supported lapilli tuffs having a heterogeneous composition with insignificant lateral variations. The juvenile components, pumice, glass shards and crystals of plagioclase, quartz and biotite are predominant; cognate nonvesicular glassy clasts are rare, unlike accidental clasts of sedimentary and metamorphic rocks which are abundant. Pyroxene andesite accidental lithic clasts and pyroxene crystal clasts are scarce. The geochemical study of ignimbrites pointed out their rhyolitic character and geochemical signatures resembling subduction-related volcanics. Petrogenesis of ignimbrites involves complex evolution in the crustal magma chamber of some enriched (by subduction components mantle melts. Magmagenesis could be related to the uprise of the astenospheric mantle during the back-arc opening of the Intracarpathian region.

  6. Pre-Variscan evolution of the Western Tatra Mountains: new insights from U-Pb zircon dating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burda, Jolanta; Klötzli, Urs

    2011-10-01

    In situ LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon geochronology combined with cathodoluminescence imaging were carried out to determine protolith and metamorphic ages of orthogneisses from the Western Tatra Mountains (Central Western Carpathians). The metamorphic complex is subdivided into two units (the Lower Unit and the Upper Unit). Orthogneisses of the Lower Unit are mostly banded, fine- to medium-grained rocks while in the Upper Unit varieties with augen structures predominate. Orthogneisses show a dynamically recrystallised mineral assemblage of Qz + Pl + Bt ± Grt with accessory zircon and apatite. They are peraluminous (ASI = 1.20-1.27) and interpreted to belong to a high-K calc-alkaline suite of a VAG-type tectonic setting. LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb zircon data from samples from both units, from crystals with oscillatory zoning and Th/U > 0.1, yield similar concordia ages of ca. 534 Ma. This is interpreted to reflect the magmatic crystallization age of igneous precursors. These oldest meta-magmatics so far dated in the Western Tatra Mountains could be linked to the fragmentation of the northern margin of Gondwana. In zircons from a gneiss from the Upper Unit, cores with well-developed oscillatory zoning are surrounded by weakly luminescent, low contrast rims (Th/U grade metamorphic event, connected with the formation of crustal-scale nappe structures and collision-related magmatism.

  7. Speciation on the rocks: integrated systematics of the Heteronotia spelea species complex (Gekkota; Reptilia from Western and Central Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitzy Pepper

    Full Text Available The isolated uplands of the Australian arid zone are known to provide mesic refuges in an otherwise xeric landscape, and divergent lineages of largely arid zone taxa have persisted in these regions following the onset of Miocene aridification. Geckos of the genus Heteronotia are one such group, and have been the subject of many genetic studies, including H. spelea, a strongly banded form that occurs in the uplands of the Pilbara and Central Ranges regions of the Australian arid zone. Here we assess the systematics of these geckos based on detailed examination of morphological and genetic variation. The H. spelea species complex is a monophyletic lineage to the exclusion of the H. binoei and H. planiceps species complexes. Within the H. spelea complex, our previous studies based on mtDNA and nine nDNA loci found populations from the Central Ranges to be genetically divergent from Pilbara populations. Here we supplement our published molecular data with additional data gathered from central Australian samples. In the spirit of integrative species delimitation, we combine multi-locus, coalescent-based lineage delimitation with extensive morphological analyses to test species boundaries, and we describe the central populations as a new species, H. fasciolatus sp. nov. In addition, within the Pilbara there is strong genetic evidence for three lineages corresponding to northeastern (type, southern, and a large-bodied melanic population isolated in the northwest. Due to its genetic distinctiveness and extreme morphological divergence from all other Heteronotia, we describe the melanic form as a new species, H. atra sp. nov. The northeastern and southern Pilbara populations are morphologically indistinguishable with the exception of a morpho-type in the southeast that has a banding pattern resembling H. planiceps from the northern monsoonal tropics. Pending more extensive analyses, we therefore treat Pilbara H. spelea as a single species with

  8. Paleomagnetic stratigraphy and geochronology of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) from the Middle Atlas and Western Meseta, Morocco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownlee, S. J.; Renne, P. R.; Marzoli, A.; Callegaro, S.; Cuppone, T.; Mahmoudi, A.; Youbi, N.; Bertrand, H.

    2008-12-01

    The Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is one of the largest igneous provinces (LIPs) on earth, and was emplaced as part of the pre-rift stage of the Central Atlantic Ocean at ~200 Ma. Like other LIPs, CAMP coincided closely with a mass extinction event. In order to further test the temporal correlation between the CAMP and the Triassic-Jurassic (T-J) boundary, four new sections of CAMP lavas in central and northern Morocco, each 110-140m thick with 14-16 flows, were sampled for paleomagnetic stratigraphy and geochronology. Preliminary paleomagnetic data are consistent with previous results (Knight et al. 2004) and record dominantly if not exclusively normal polarity, and also appear to record distinct pulses of magmatism with at least 4 directional groupings with discrete declinations and inclinations. 40Ar/39Ar analyses of plagioclase from 2 sections near Maaziz and Agourai yield plateau ages that are mutually indistinguishable and consistent with previous results. Collectively, these new paleomagnetic and geochronologic data provide further evidence of the brevity and synchrony of CAMP magmatism at the T-J boundary throughout Morocco.

  9. Soils derived from Pieniny andesite, Wdżar hill, Outer Carpathians (Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajdas, Bartlomiej; Zaleski, Tomasz; Mazurek, Ryszard

    2016-04-01

    of hydrothermal alteration, mainly the presence of clay minerals developed at the expense of primary plagioclases. In investigated soils it is possible to distinguish two generations of clay minerals. Coarse clays (< 2.0 μm), which were developed during hydrothermal alteration of andesite, contain mainly vermiculite. In fine clays (< 0.2 μm), derived during weathering of rocks and development of soil, smectite is the main component. Quartz, which is present in investigated soil is eolian in origin. References Michalik M., Ladenberger A., Skublicki Ł ., Warzecha M., Zych B. 2004. Petrological characteristics of the Pieniny andesite. Mineralogia Polonica - Special Papers, 24, 283-286. Nejbert K., Jurewicz E., Macdonald R. 2012. Potassium-rich magmatism in the Western Outer Carpathians: Magmagenesis in the transitional zone between the European Plate and Carpathian-Pannonian region. Lithos, 146-147, 34-47.

  10. Crustal Structure in the Western Part of Romania from Local Seismic Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, Bogdan; Grecu, Bogdan; Popa, Mihaela; Oros, Eugen; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-12-01

    The inner part of the Carpathians in Romania belongs to the Carpathians-Pannonian system bordered by the Eastern Carpathians to the north and east, Southern Carpathians to the south and Pannonian Basin to the west. It is a complex tectonic region with differential folding mechanisms, post-collisional kinematics, rheology and thermal properties, including within its area the Apuseni Mountains and the Transylvanian Basin. The purpose of this study is to map the 3-D structure of the crust over this region on the basis of local earthquake data. Input data were recorded during the South Carpathian Project (2009–2011), a successful collaboration between the Institute of Geophysics and Tectonics of the University of Leeds and the National Institute for Earth Physics (NIEP), Romania. A temporary array of 32 broadband seismic stations (10 CMG-40T, 8 CMG-3T and 14 CMG-6TD) was installed across the western part of Romania (spaced at 40 to 50 km intervals) during the project. In addition, 25 stations deployed in the eastern Hungary and Serbia was considered. P- and S-wave arrivals are identified for all the selected events (minimum 7 phases per event with reasonable signal/noise ratio). All the events are first relocated using Joint Hypocentre Determination (JHD) technique. Then the well-located events were inverted to determine the crustal structure using LOTOS algorithm. The lateral variations of the crustal properties as resulted from the tomography image are interpreted in correlation with the station corrections estimated by JHD algorithm and with the post-collisional evolution of the Carpathians-Pannonian system.

  11. Completion Report for Well ER-20-4 Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2011-04-30

    Well ER-20-4 was drilled for the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office in support of the Nevada Environmental Restoration Project at the Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada. The well was drilled in August and September 2010 as part of the Pahute Mesa Phase II drilling program. The primary purpose of the well was to investigate the possibility of radionuclide transport from up-gradient underground nuclear tests conducted in central Pahute Mesa. This well also provided detailed hydrogeologic information in the Tertiary volcanic section that will help reduce uncertainties within the Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley hydrostratigraphic framework model.

  12. Marine pollution originating from purse seine and longline fishing vessel operations in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean, 2003-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Kelsey; Haynes, David; Talouli, Anthony; Donoghue, Michael

    2017-03-01

    Fisheries observer data recorded between 2003 and 2015 on-board purse seine and longline vessels operating in the Western and Central Pacific Ocean reported more than 10 000 pollution incidents within the exclusive economic zones (EEZs) of 25 Pacific countries and territories, and in international waters. A majority of the reported purse seine pollution incidents related to dumping of plastics waste. Other common pollution incidents related to oil spillages and to abandoned, lost or dumped fishing gear. Data analysis highlighted the need for increased monitoring, reporting, and enforcement of pollution violations by all types of fishing vessels operating in the Pacific region; a regional outreach and compliance assistance programme on marine pollution prevention and improvements in Pacific port waste reception facilities.

  13. Anatoliacodium gen. nov. (Halimedaceae, Green algae) from the Ilerdian-Cuisian in the Eskişehir region (Western Central Turkey)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erdem, Nazire Özgen; Radoicic, Rajka

    2009-08-01

    A new genus Anatoliacodium (Halimedaceae, Green algae) is described from the Ilerdian-Cuisian shallow-water sediments of Eskişehir region, central-western Turkey. These sequences consist of limestones, clayey limestones, sandy limestones and claystones. Anatoliacodium gen. nov. is characterized by erected calcareous segments with well differentiated inner structure: prevailing with large medulla of more or less densely set parallel filaments and cortical zone of prevailing horizontal to subhorizontal cortical filaments, once branching and without constriction. It is supposed that poorly and rarely preserved noncalcareous structures on the skeleton surface could be reproductive structures. The type species of the new genus is Anatoliacodium xinanmui gen. nov. sp. nov. A further new species is also described: Anatoliacodium merici gen. nov. sp. nov. Finally Gymnocodium nummuliticum Pfender, 1966 is emended and transferred to the genus Anatoliacodium.

  14. A retrospective study of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus from Western, Northern and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Galen, Gaby; Rijckaert, Joke; Mair, Tim

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify prognostic variables for adult equids and foals with tetanus. Design Multicenter retrospective study (2000–2014). Setting Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. Animals One hundred fifty-five adult equids...... and 21 foals with tetanus. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Variables from history and clinical examination were statistically compared between survivors and nonsurvivors (adults: 49 survivors, 85 nonsurvivors; foals: 7 survivors, 10 nonsurvivors). Cases euthanized for financial reasons...... were excluded. Mortality rates in adults and foals were 68.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Variables associated with survival in adults included: standing, normal intestinal sounds and defecation, voluntarily drinking, eating soft or normal food, lower heart and respiratory rates, high base excess...

  15. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the beech forests of the Luzulo-Fagetum type in the Oraştie river basin (Central-Western Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru BURESCU

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available n the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Luzulo albidae-Fagetum sylvaticae Zólyomi 1955 (Syn.: Hieracio rotundati-Fagetum (Vida 1963 Täuber 1987, Dechampsio flexuosae-Fagetum Soó 1962, Luzulo-Fagetum silvaticae Beldie 1951 Morariu et al. 1968 identified in the acidophylous beech forests of the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania. The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevées performed in the beech forests of the Luzulo-Fagetum type belonging to the Orăştie river. The phytocoenoses of these beech forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  16. Ármin Vámbéry (1832-1913 as a Historian of Early Hungarian Settlement in the Carpathian Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nándor Dreisziger

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the English-speaking world Ármin Vámbéry is known as a traveler in Central Asia and a student of Turkic cultures and languages. In his native Hungary he is also known for his disagreement with linguists who believed that Hungarian belonged to the Ugric branch of the Finno-Ugric languages—a part of the Uralic linguistic family. Rather than accepting this theory, Vámbéry contended that Hungarian was largely a Turkic language that belonged more to the Altaic family. Few people know that Vámbéry also expressed strong opinions about the genesis of the Hungarian nation. The most important aspect of Vámbéry’s theory about Hungarian origins is the thesis that Hungarian ethnogenesis took place—beginning with late Roman times or even earlier—in the Carpathian Basin. A corollary of this proposition is that the nomadic tribes that conquered the Carpathian Basin at the end of the ninth century were Turkic peoples who were few in numbers and were assimilated by the region’s autochthonous—and by then Hungarian-speaking—population. This paper outlines Vámbéry’s arguments and describes to what extent research on this subject in the century since Vámbéry’s death has confirmed or contradicted his unconventional ideas.

  17. Heavy rains and extreme rainfall-runoff events in Central Europe from 1951 to 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Runoff data were used to better select historically significant precipitation events. The suggested criterion Qx expresses the increase of a stream runoff over up to four days in a row. Tests confirmed that Qx maxima correspond to maxima of areal precipitation in the respective catchment. Ten significant precipitation events in summer half-years from 1951 to 2002 were selected in 25 catchments each, and further studied in respect to spatial extent, simultaneous occurrence in various river basins, seasonal distribution, and temporal variability. Four regions were recognised within Central Europe that show related seasonality and simultaneous occurrence of events. The main coincidence of significant precipitation events was confirmed between the Austrian Alps and Bohemia and Saxony on one hand, and Moravia, Silesia, and Western Slovakia on the other hand. Significant events typically emerge here during peak summer, in the south-eastern area of the Alps during autumn months, in the South-Eastern Carpathians from May to July, and in Western Germany in spring or autumn. Episodes with less significant precipitation events (around 1960 and 1990 alternate with inverse episodes (1970's, second half of the 1990's. A reasonable selection of reference events opens the door to a quantitative evaluation of dynamic and thermodynamic conditions typical for heavy rains in various parts of Central Europe.

  18. Anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies in serum samples from inhabitants of a central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliveira Heliana B. de

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A total of 354 serum samples from inhabitants who frequent the Clinical Laboratory in Catalão, Goiás, in the central-western region of Brazil, were collected from June to August, 2002. The samples were evaluated by indirect immunofluorescence antibody tests and an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay in order to detect anti-Taenia solium metacestode IgG antibodies. Reactive and inconclusive samples were tested by Western blotting (WB. Considering WB as a confirmation, the frequency of antibodies in the serum samples of the above population was 11.3% (CI 5.09 - 17.51. The immunodominant bands most frequently recognized in WB were 64-68 kDa (97.5% and 47-52 kDa (80%. The percentage of seropositivity to cysticercosis was significantly higher for individuals residing in areas without sewage systems (p < 0.0001. In conclusion, the results indicate a probable endemic situation of cysticercosis in this population. These results reinforce the urgent need for control and prevention measures to be taken by the local public health services.

  19. Dissolved rare earth elements in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea, Southern Ocean: Geochemical tracing of seawater masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turetta, Clara; Barbaro, Elena; Capodaglio, Gabriele; Barbante, Carlo

    2017-09-01

    The present essay contributes to the existing literature on rare earth elements (REEs) in the southern hemisphere by presenting the first data, to our knowledge, on the vertical profiles of dissolved REEs in 71 samples collected in the central-western sector of the Ross Sea (Southern Ocean-SO). The REEs were measured in the water samples collected during the 2002-2003 and 2005-2006 austral summers. 4 samples were collected and analysed in the framework of a test experiment, as part of the WISSARD Project (Whillans Ice Stream Subglacial Access Research Drilling). Our results show significant differences between the REE patterns of the main water masses present in the SO: we could observe specific signature in the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW), Ice Shelf Water (ISW) and Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW). A significant increase in Terbium (Tb) concentration was observed in the HSSW and ISW, the two principal water masses contributing to the formation of Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) in the Ross Sea area, and in LSSW. Some of the HSSW samples show enrichment in Neodymium (Nd). Dissolved REE could therefore be used as tracers to understand the deep circulation of the SO (Pacific sector). We hypothesize that: (I) the characteristic dissolved REE pattern may derive from the composition of source area and from the hydrothermal activity of the central-western area of the Ross Sea; (II) the Tb anomaly observed in the AABW on the South Australian platform could be partially explained by the contribution of AABW generated in the Ross Sea region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Euro region Eastern Carpathians].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zadarko, Emilian; Penar-Zadarko, Beata; Barabasz, Zbigniew

    2010-01-01

    Publisher in February 2008 WHO M-POWER report indicates that every year on the world tobacco epidemics kills 5.4 million of people and the analysis of tobacco smoking prevalence change shows great differences between European countries. It is estimated that in Poland 29% of adult people smokes, and 24% in Slovakia. However tobacco smoking among academic youth is still a big problem. The aim of the study was an attempt to estimate tobacco smoking prevalence among students from Poland and Slovakia. The study was conducted with the framework of science project: "Physical activity for the whole life". The aim of the project are multidirectional activities addressed to Polish-Slovakian students to create a system of taking care about health based on health education among students, selected modifying cardiovascular risk factors monitoring, as well as creating Internet portal to serve those goals. Project was co-fund by European Union from European Regional Development Fund - ERDF, as well as from the government budget by Euro Region Carpathians with the framework of Cross-border Co-operation Programme Republic of Poland - Slovakia Republic 2007-2013. Analysis considered 4584 group of students from University of Rzeszow and University of Presov, Technical University in Rzeszow and State Higher Vocational School in Krosno. The study was conducted from November 2009 to June 2010. The participation in the study was voluntary. The study was conducted using a diagnostics survey method with questionnaire. Chi-square test was used for statistical analysis. Based on results it was claimed that the majority of the studied group of students have never smoked and do not smoke cigarettes. Place of residence was a factor influencing the fact of tobacco smoking. Slovakian students were characterized by more frequent tobacco smoking. Far more often smoke man, both in Polish and Slovakian group. Among Polish students there was a relation between subjective health state assessment and

  1. Pollination ecology and reproductive biology of Canarium strictum Roxb. from evergreen forests of Central Western Ghats, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, C N Prasanna; Somashekar, R K; Nagaraja, B C; Shivaprasad, D

    2015-09-01

    Pollination and reproductive biology of a dioecious tree Canarium strictum Roxb. (Burseraceae) was extensively studied within the Agumbe forest range of Western Ghats, Karnataka to identify primary pollen vectors and to enumerate interrelationship with the pollinators. The study also investigated phenology, floral biology, pollen production, pollen viability, stigma receptivity and nectar production. Trees produced functionally unisexual flowers with white petals, organized densely on inflorescences. Staminate flowers produced high percentage of viable pollen and relatively abundant nectar (15.75 μl) as a reward to the pollinators, while pistillate flowers produced only nectar (12 μl). Successful fruit set with wind pollination was facilitated by synchronization of flowering male and female trees, long term receptivity of stigma in female flowers and extended lifespan of flowers. The highest mean percent of fruit set with hand cross-pollination (μ = 91.06) suggests the influence of local male tree density, as well as, frequency and abundance of pollinator community on fruit set by open pollination.

  2. Rainfall induced landslides in December 2004 in south-western Umbria, central Italy: types, extent, damage and risk assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cardinali

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The autumn of 2004 was particularly wet in Umbria, with cumulative rainfall in the period from October to December exceeding 600 mm. On 4–6 December and on 25–27 December 2004, two storms hit the Umbria Region producing numerous landslides, which were abundant near the town of Orvieto where they affected volcanic deposits and marine sediments. In this work, we document the type and abundance of the rainfall-induced landslides in the Orvieto area, in south-western Umbria, we study the rainfall conditions that triggered the landslides, including the timing of the slope failures, we determine the geotechnical properties of the failed volcanic materials, and we discuss the type and extent of damage produced by the landslides. We then use the recent event landslide information to test a geomorphological assessment of landslide hazards and risk prepared for the village of Sugano, in the Orvieto area. Based on the results of the test, we update the existing landslide hazards and risk scenario for extremely rapid landslides, mostly rock falls, and we introduce a new landslide scenario for rapid and very rapid landslides, including soil slides, debris flows and debris avalanches.

  3. Energy efficient school buildings in central-western Argentina: an assessment of alternative typologies for the classroom tier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Rosa, C.; Basso, M.; Fernandez, J.C. [Laboratorio de Ambiente Humano y Vivienda, Mendoza (AR)] [and others

    2000-07-01

    Four energy-efficient demonstration school buildings were built in the western province of Mendoza, Argentina, in 1999, as part of a massive building program required to implement the new Federal Education Plan. The buildings should make medium use of bioclimatic strategies and daylighting. The aspects of typology of the classroom tiers became immediately apparent as one of the main conditioners of the overall scheme. Three different alternative schemes were designed and built. A deeper analysis of these and other possible alternatives were thought essential for future constructions of the type. Four typologies of the classroom tier, using the same, locally available technology, are being comparatively assessed in the aspects of energy efficiently, thermal and luminous comfort, construction and operation costs and environmental impact (LCA). The paper presents the provisional results of the two first items only: energy efficiency and thermal comfort. While all four schemes evaluated are believed to be ''workable'', differences will tend to favour some the other according to context situations. Volumetric Loss Coeff. range from 1.09 to 1.24 W/Km{sup 3}. Solar savings fractions for the school operation hours vary between: 82.83 and 91.58%. Work is being continued to cover all the analysis items in a combined way. (author)

  4. A Silurian-early Devonian slab window in the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt: Evidence from high-Mg diorites, adakites and granitoids in the western Central Beishan region, NW China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Rongguo; Xiao, Wenjiao; Li, Jinyi; Wu, Tairan; Zhang, Wen

    2018-03-01

    The Beishan orogenic belt is a key region for deciphering the accretionary processes of the southern Central Asian Orogenic Belt. Here in this paper we present new zircon U-Pb ages, bulk-rock major and trace element, and zircon Hf isotopic data for the Baitoushan, and Bagelengtai plutons in the western Central Beishan region to address the accretionary processes. The Baitoushan pluton consists of quartz diorites, monzonites and K-feldspar granites, with zircon LA-ICP-MS U-Pb ages of 435 Ma, 421 Ma and 401 Ma, respectively. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites exhibit relatively high MgO contents and Mg# values (63-72), display enrichments in LILEs and LREEs, and exhibit high Ba (585-1415 ppm), Sr (416-570 ppm) and compatible element (such as Cr and Ni) abundances, which make them akin to typical high-Mg andesites. The Baitoushan quartz diorites and quartz monzonites were probably generated by the interaction of subducted oceanic sediment-derived melts and mantle peridotites. The Baitoushan K-feldspar granites are ascribed to fractionated I-type granites with peraluminous and high-K calc-alkaline characteristics. They exhibit positive εHf(t) values (2.43-7.63) and Mesoproterozoic-Neoproterozoic zircon Hf model ages (0.92-1.60 Ga). Those early Devonian granites, including Baitoushan K-feldspar granite and Gongpoquan leucogranites (402 Ma), are derived from melting of the mafic lower crust and/or sediments by upwelling of hot asthenospheric mantle. The Bagelengtai granodiorites exhibit similar geochemical signatures with that of typical adakites, with a zircon SHRIMP U-Pb age of 435 Ma. They exhibit relatively high Sr (502-628 ppm) and Al2O3 (16.40-17.40 wt.%) contents, and low MgO (1.02-1.29 wt.%), Y (3.37-6.94 ppm) and HREEs contents, with relatively high Sr/Y and (La/Yb)N ratios. The Bagelengtai granodiorites were derived from partial melting of subducted young oceanic crust, with significant contributions of subducted sediments, subsequently

  5. Seasonal spatial pattern and community structure of zooplankton in waters off the Baleares archipelago (Central Western Mediterranean)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández de Puelles, M. L.; Macias, V.; Vicente, L.; Molinero, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    We investigated the zooplankton community in two different areas of the Baleares Archipelago, Western Mediterranean, using data obtained in autumn (December 2009) and summer (July 2010). Micrometazooplankton and mesozooplankton samples were collected in the 0-200 m layer above the shelf (200 m) and the slope (900 m) of each area by a 53 μm and a 200 μm mesh size net respectively. The zooplankton biomass (expressed as dry weight) was higher in autumn than in summer (9.30 and 6.95 mg m- 3, respectively) with an important contribution of micrometazooplankters (29% and 41% of total biomass respectively). The latter fraction overwhelmed in the entire metazooplankton abundance, suggesting a non-negligible role as potential food for fish in the epipelagic waters of the Baleares archipelago. The abundance of micrometazooplankton was two-fold higher in December (3581 ind. m- 3) than in July (1585 ind. m- 3), represented mainly by small copepods and nauplii. Likewise, the mesozooplankton community showed smaller difference between months (554 and 390 ind. m- 3, in December and July). Micrometazooplankton abundance was higher in the northern area than in the southern area during autumn, probably linked to the presence of a front, while the opposite was found in summer. In both periods and areas copepods dominated, and within the highly diverse community ten species and their juveniles accounted for 70% of the community. In both areas, Clausocalanus (C. pergens + paululus and C. arcuicornis), Paracalanus parvus, Oncaea media, Oithona plumifera and Acartia clausi were abundant in autumn, whereas Centropages typicus, Temora stylifera and Mecynocera clausi were mainly present in summer. ANOSIM analysis revealed significant differences in the mesozooplankton community composition between months while differences between areas were detected only in summer.

  6. A new species of the neopterygian fish Enchodus from the Duwi Formation, Campanian, Late Cretaceous, Western Desert, central Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waymon L. Holloway

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The neopterygian fish Enchodus was a widespread, speciose genus consisting of approximately 30 recognized species that were temporally distributed from the late Early Cretaceous through the Paleocene. Many Enchodus specimens are fragmentary cranial remains or isolated dental elements, as is the case for previously reported occurrences in Egypt. Here, we present the most complete specimen of Enchodus recovered from the Late Cretaceous of northeast Africa. The specimen was collected from the upper Campanian Duwi Formation, near the village of Tineida (Dakhla Oasis, Western Desert, Egypt. The new species, Enchodus tineidae sp. nov., consists of right and left dentaries, a partial ectopterygoid, and other cranial bones. The size of the specimen places it into the upper body-size range for the genus. The palatine tooth, an element often useful for diagnosing Enchodus to the species level, is not preserved, but a combination of other cranial characters supports the referral of this specimen to Enchodus. In particular, the dentary preserves three symphysial rostroventral prongs and two tooth rows, the lateral of which consists of small denticles, whereas the medial row comprises large, mediolaterally-compressed teeth. The rostral-most tooth exhibits the highest crown, whereas the rest of the teeth are of lower, variable crown heights. The eight robust, caudal-most medial-row teeth are distributed in a cluster pattern never before observed in Enchodus. Additionally, the dentary and preopercle are both without dermal ornamentation, and the mandibular sensory canal is closed. Phylogenetic analysis recovers this new species as the sister species to E. dirus from North America. Along with previously described materials from Israel, Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Italy, Morocco, and Libya, this specimen represents a thirteenth species from the northwestern Tethyan geographic distribution of Enchodus.

  7. Agent-mediated spatial storage effect in heterogeneous habitat stabilizes competitive mouse lemur coexistence in Menabe Central, Western Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schäffler, Livia; Saborowski, Joachim; Kappeler, Peter M

    2015-03-05

    Spatio-temporal distribution patterns of species in response to natural and anthropogenic drivers provide insight into the ecological processes that determine community composition. We investigated determinants of ecological structure in a species assemblage of 4 closely related primate species of the family Cheirogaleidae (Microcebus berthae, Microcebus murinus, Cheirogaleus medius, Mirza coquereli) in western Madagascar by extensive line transect surveys across spatial and temporal heterogeneities with the specific goal of elucidating the mechanisms stabilizing competitive coexistence of the two mouse lemur species (Microcebus spp.). Interspecific competition between the mouse lemurs was indicated by negative spatial associations in degraded habitat and by habitat partitioning along anthropogenic disturbance gradients during dry seasons with resource scarcity. In non-degraded habitat, intraguild predator M. coquereli, but not C. medius, was negatively associated with M. murinus on the population level, whereas its regional distribution overlapped spatially with that of M. berthae. The species' interspecific distribution pattern across spatial and temporal heterogeneities corresponded to predictions for agent-mediated coexistence and thus confirmed M. coquereli's stabilizing impact on the coexistence of mouse lemurs. Interspecific interactions contribute to ecological structure in this cheirogaleid assemblage and determinants vary across spatio-temporal heterogeneities. Coexistence of Microcebus spp. is stabilized by an agent-mediated spatial storage effect: M. coquereli creates refuges from competition for M. berthae in intact habitat, whereas anthropogenic environments provide M. murinus with an escape from resource competition and intraguild predation. Species persistence in the assemblage therefore depends on the conservation of habitat content and context that stabilizing mechanisms rely on. Our large-scale population level approach did not allow for

  8. Evaluating the remote sensing and inventory-based estimation of biomass in the western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdalena Main-Knorn; Gretchen G. Moisen; Sean P. Healey; William S. Keeton; Elizabeth A. Freeman; Patrick Hostert

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the potential of forest ecosystems as global carbon sinks requires a thorough knowledge of forest carbon dynamics, including both sequestration and fluxes among multiple pools. The accurate quantification of biomass is important to better understand forest productivity and carbon cycling dynamics. Stand-based inventories (SBIs) are widely used for...

  9. Soil organic matter dynamics on a long chronosequence of landslides in the Outer Western Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindušková, Olga; Pánek, Tomáš; Frouz, Jan

    2017-04-01

    Much research over the past years has been focused on possibilities to sequester carbon in soils and thus mitigate the on-going increase of CO2 in the atmosphere (Lal 2004). However, the size of the long-term capacity of soils to store carbon still remains unclear mainly because it is difficult to determine the age of older natural soils (Hassink 1997). The studies addressing long-term soil organic matter dynamics have been carried out in rather extreme climatic and/or parent rock environments such as montane rainforests, volcanic islands, or retreating glaciers (Crews et al., 1995; Crocker and Major, 1955; Walker et al., 2013). Extrapolating findings of such studies to European natural soils is questionable. Moreover, studies addressing soil development on millenial time-scales were restricted to volcanic islands (Crews et al. 1995). Landslides are fast movements of rock or soil along slip surfaces. They are important hazardous phenomena but also offer a unique opportunity to study soil development using the chronosequence approach. Newly exposed rock surfaces are colonized by plants in the process of primary succession. In this study we describe long-term soil carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics using a chronosequence of 26 landslides ranging in age from 4 to 12 000 years located near the border of Czech Republic and Slovakia. Soil samples were collected at 26 landslides including 4 reactivations and at 22 adjacent undisturbed sites. Total soil organic carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus content, pH and electrical conductivity was measured in soil samples. Carbon fractions were measured using the fractionation procedure of Zimmermann et al. (2007). The age of landslides was previously determined by radiocarbon dating (Pánek et al., 2013). Both carbon and nitrogen stocks were found to increase with age especially in the first 100 years both in the mineral soil and in the forest floor. C stock in mineral soil can be described by logarithmic (adj. R2 0.19) or by the Hill equation (adj. R2 0.33). The mean stock for undisturbed soils is 58 t ha-1 which is quite close to the capacity parameter 52 t ha-1 found by fitting the Hill function. The relative contribution of labile C (dissolved organic carbon) to C stock decreases significantly with the age of landslide. In the older landslides, most C is associated with the silt and clay fraction and this contribution increases significantly in the 10-20 cm layer. Total phosphorus showed a significant linear increase (p=0.033) in the first 100 years which may be due to redistribution of P from greater depths, followed by a linear decrease (p=0.037) in the sites older than 100 years probably caused by leaching and loss of P from soil. We conclude that the most intensive soil organic matter accumulation occurs in the first 100 years of soil development. This represents a rather high carbon sequestration rate of about 0.5 t.ha-1.yr-1 during the first 100 years. Soil carbon stock on landslides levels out at around 52 t.ha-1 (although with high variability) and stability of this stored C is intermediate.

  10. Observations on the mycorrhizal status of Polygonum viviparum in the Polish Tatra Mts. (Western Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Ronikier

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Polygonum viviparum is one of very few herbaceous plants known to form ectomycorrhiza; in the Tatra Mts. it is one of dominants in the alpine zone, but also descends down to the feet of the massif. Specimens of this plant were collected from 5 sites at the altitude range 900– 2150 m, from granite and limestone. It allowed an estimation of the ectomycorrhizal diversity as well as preliminary ecological observations. Roots were also stained in order to check potential presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization. Ectomycorrhizae were present in all specimens (with 2–5 morphotypes observed on single plants. In total, 17 morphotypes were observed and briefly described. The most widespread were the mycorrhiza of Cenococcum geophilum and a brightly coloured morphotype resembling the ectomycorrhizae of Russula sp. No important differences in ectomycorrhizal colonization between low and high localities were found. Observed general differences in abundance and diversity of mycorrhiza in P. viviparum between sites could most probably be connected with plant community composition (presence/absence of ectomycorrhizal shrubs maintaining ectomycorrhizal fungi, although mycorrhizae were present also in sites devoid of other ectomycorrhizal plants. Structures associated to arbuscular colonization (vesicles, hyphal coils were occassionally observed, but without formation of arbuscules.

  11. Breakthrough of the Nordic Bronze Age: Transcultural warriorhood and a Carpathian crossroad in the 16th century BC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vandkilde, Helle

    2014-01-01

    ) and in the northern zone (rock). In a Carpathian crossroad between the Eurasian Steppes, the Aegean world and temperate Europe during this time, a transcultural assemblage coalesced, fusing both tangible and intangible innovations from various different places. Superior warriorhood was coupled to beliefs...... momentous creativity that drew upon Carpathian originals, contacts and a pool of Carpathian ideas, but ultimately drawing on emergent Mycenaean hegemonies in the Aegean. This provided the incentive for a cosmology-rooted resource from which the NBA could take its starting point....

  12. Architectural and landscape layout principles of river valley areas in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    Lukomska, Iryna

    2013-01-01

    The research is focused on the challenging problem of correlation between the architecture and landscape in the river valleys located in the Ukrainian Carpathians. The article defines and proves five essential principles of architectural and landscape layout of these territories, based on the results of author’s research and modern scientific developments.

  13. A toadfish (Batrachoidiformes) from the Oligocene of the Eastern Carpathians (Piatra Neamt, Romania)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Přikryl, Tomáš; Grădianu, I.; Georgescu, V.; Carnevale, G.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 287, č. 2 (2018), s. 241-248 ISSN 0077-7749 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-21523S Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Batrachoidiformes * toadfish * Bituminous Marls Formation * Eastern Carpathians * Oligocene Subject RIV: DB - Geology ; Mineralogy Impact factor: 0.777, year: 2016

  14. Fractal dimension estimations of drainage network in the Carpathian-Pannonian system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dombradi, E.; Timar, G.; Bada, G.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Horvath, F.

    2007-01-01

    The development of drainage network in the intra-Carpathian realm is influenced by a complex Quaternary tectonic evolution manifested with differential vertical motions. The present-day configuration of the left-hand side tributary system of the Tisza river was studied by means of fractal analysis.

  15. Milk production and chemical composition of milk of Ukrainian mountain Carpathian sheep in pasture period

    OpenAIRE

    CHOKAN T.

    2011-01-01

    The comparative analysis of the milk chemical composition depending on milk productivity of Ukrainian Mountain Carpathian sheep during the pasture period were studied. It was found changes of milk composition (increasing of protein content, fat, dry matter and nutritive value) with a decrease of milk yield in the end period of lactation.

  16. Tertiary tectonic evolution of the external South Carpathians and the adjacent Moesian platform (Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maå£Enco, L.; Bertotti, G.; Dinu, C.; Cloetingh, S.

    1997-12-01

    Depth-interpreted seismic sections of the Getic Depression foredeep, paleostress indicator data and analysis of outcrop- to regional-scale structures are integrated to derive the tectonic evolution of the South Carpathians - Moesian platform area. Following Late Cretaceous and older orogenic phases, the South Carpathians - Moesian platform area underwent strike-slip deformation with NE-SW oriented compression and NW-SE tension. In Paleogene to Early Burdigalian times, tensional deformation is recorded which led to the opening of WSW-ENE to E-W trending extensional basins. In the Late Burdigalian, NE-SW oriented contraction took over causing the oblique inversion of preexisting extensional structures. During Sarmatian times, NW-SE and slightly younger N-S trending compression caused the activation of mainly NW-SE dextral strike-slip faults and, in the frontal areas, south directed thrusting. The NW-SE direction of extension determined for Paleogene to Early Burdigalian times is hardly compatible with presently accepted models of substantially continuous dextral wrenching between the Intra-Carpathians units to the north of the South Carpathians and the Moesian platform to the south. In contrast, we have demonstrated dextral transpressive to transtensional movements within an E-W trending corridor from the Late Burdigalian to Late Sarmatian which are compatible with available models.

  17. Paramecium aurelia species complex in the catchment area of the River Raba mountain course (the Carpathians).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komala, Z

    2001-01-01

    In the water bodies of the Beskid Wyspowy Mts three species of the Paramecium aurelia complex have been found, i.e. P. biaurelia, P. tetraurelia and P. novaurelia. P. tetraurelia, which in Europe is a very rare species, was for the first time recorded in this region of the Carpathians.

  18. Discovery of the Badenian evaporites inside the Carpathian Arc: implications for global climate change and Paratethys salinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Báldi Katalin

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Massive evaporites were discovered in the Soltvadkert Trough (Great Plain, Hungary correlating to the Badenian Salinity Crisis (13.8 Ma, Middle Miocene on the basis of nannoplankton and foraminifera biostratigraphy. This new occurrence from Hungary previously thought to be devoid of evaporites is part of a growing body of evidence of evaporitic basins inside the Carpathian Arc. We suggest the presence of evaporites perhaps in the entire Central Paratethys during the salinity crisis. Different scenarios are suggested for what subsequently happened to these evaporites to explain their presence or absence in the geological record. Where they are present, scenario A suggests that they were preserved in subsiding, deep basins overlain by younger sediments that protected the evaporites from reworking, like in the studied area. Where they are absent, scenario B suggests recycling. Scenario B explains how the supposedly brackish Sarmatian could have been hyper/normal saline locally by providing a source of the excess salt from the reworking and dissolving of BSC halite into seawater. These scenarios suggest a much larger amount of evaporites locked up in the Central Paratethys during the salinity crisis then previously thought, probably contributing to the step-like nature of cooling of the Mid Miocene Climate Transition, the coeval Mi3b.

  19. Parasitism of dolfinfhishes, Coryphaena hippurus and Coryphaena equiselis, in the western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands

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    Enrique Carbonell

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available A total of 648 dolphinfishes were examined for internal and external parasites in western Mediterranean (Balearic Islands and central-eastern Atlantic (Canary Islands waters in order to make a comparative study between the two areas. The specimens studied from the Mediterranean Sea was Coryphaena hippurus, with 62 large individuals captured from May to September and 497 juveniles captured from August to December. The specimens studied from the central-eastern Atlantic were 39 adult C. hippurus and 49 adult Coryphaena equiselis. Parasites were found in 70% of the fish examined, and represented a total of nine endoparasitic taxa: six digeneans (Class Trematoda, Subclass Digenea; Dinurus tornatus, Dinurus breviductus, Dinurus longisinus, Lecithocladium excisum, Bathycotyle branchialis and Hirudinella sp., two nematodes (Class Nematoda, Order Spirurida; Philometroides sp. and Metabronema magna and one acanthocephalan (Phyllum Acanthocephala; Rhadinorhynchus pristis. Seven crustacean copepod ectoparasites were identified: Caligus quadratus, Caligus productus, Caligus bonito, Caligus coryphaenae (Family Caligidae and Euryphorus nymphae (Family Euriphoridae were found in gill mucus masses or on the inner surface of the operculum, the lernaeopodid Neobrachiella coryphaenae (Family Lernaeopodidae was attached to gill filaments and the pennellid Pennella filosa (Family Pennellidae was anchored to fins and rays or, deeply, to muscular tissue and abdominal cavity. The relationships between feeding habits, parasite recruitment and parasite transmission were analysed, some ecological aspects of all the parasitic species are discussed, and some comments are made on parasite-host relationships.

  20. Isotopically light carbon dioxide in nitrogen rich gases: the gas distribution pattern in the French Massif Central, the Eifel and the western Eger Rift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. H. Weinlich

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on characteristics of the distribution pattern of the western Eger Rift spring gases, a distribution pattern is presented for the gases of the French Massif Central. The central parts of these areas with ascending magmatic CO2 are characterised by high gas fluxes, high CO2 contents of up to 99.99 vol% and isotopially heavy CO2. In the peripheries, the decrease of d13C values of CO2 and CO2 contents in the gas phase is compensated by a rise in N2 contents. It can be demonstrated that gas fractionation in contrary to mixtures with isotopically light biogenic or crustal CO2 controls the distribution pattern of gas composition and isotopic composition of CO2 in these spring gases. Dissolution of CO2 results in formation of HCO3 ? causing isotope fractionation of CO2 and an enrichment of N2 in the gas phase. With multiple equilibrations, values of about ?17 ? or lower are obtained. The scale of gas alteration depends on the gas flux and the gas-water ratios respectively and can result in N2-rich gases. Essential for the interpretation are gas flux measurements with mass balances derived for most of the springs. Without such mass balances it is not possible to discriminate between mixture and fractionation. The processes of isotopic and chemical solubility fractionations evidently control the gas distribution pattern in other regions as well.

  1. Hydrological data concerning submarine groundwater discharge along the western margin of Indian River Lagoon, east-central Florida - December 2016 and January 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCloskey, Terrence A.; Smith, Christopher G.; Zaremba, Nicholas; McBride, Elsie; Everhart, Cheyenne

    2017-01-01

    Indian River Lagoon, one of the most biologically diverse estuarine systems in the continental United States, is a shallow brackish lagoon stretching along approximately 200 kilometers (km) of the Atlantic coast of central Florida. Lagoon width varies from ~0.5 – 9.0 km, with substantial human infrastructure lining both shores. Scientists from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center investigated submarine groundwater discharge at Eau Gallie North, a site along the western shore in the central section of the lagoon, using continuous resistivity profiling (CRP). The CRP array was towed behind a boat along five shore-parallel transects located ~125, 200, 350, 500 and 750 meters offshore and traversing ~1.5 km along north-south transects. Each transect was given a track name (EB., EC., ED., EE., and EF.) and lines were run both north to south and south to north. Repetitive profiles will be conducted along these same tracks, at various times, in order to determine temporal variability. As resistivity is a function of both geology and salinity, temporal changes will reflect salinity changes, as the underlying geology will be presumed to remain constant. Resistivity data were assigned geographic coordinates and water depth values, in order to produce modeled resistivity, accounting for salinity and geologic parameters.  This data release provides the raw resistivity, geographical and water parameter data collected in December 2016 and January 2017.

  2. Following spread of fire blight in Western, Central and Southern Europe by molecular differentiation of Erwinia amylovora strains with PFGE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jock, Susanne; Donat, Victoria; López, Maria M; Bazzi, Carlo; Geider, Klaus

    2002-02-01

    Fire blight has been detected recently in several areas of northern Spain and north-eastern Italy. To follow spread of the disease within Europe, more than 120 Erwinia amylovora strains isolated from 1957-1900 in England, France, Germany, The Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Italy and Spain were assayed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis of genomic DNA after XbaI digestion. Pattern types Pt1 and Pt4 were found for strains from England. Pt1 was also found in central Europe and eastern France, Pt4 in western France. Pt2 appeared first in Egypt, from where strains with this pattern disseminated northwards as far as into the Balkans. Pt3 was typical for northern France and Belgium. Strains from Spain displayed the pattern types Pt3 and Pt4. In Italy, Pt2 was found in the south-eastern areas, Pt3 in the north-eastern areas, and Pt1 was found very recently in orchards adjacent to the Austrian border, together with Pt3. Despite barely controlled trade with fire blight host plants and associated plant products within Europe, the PFGE patterns of the E. amylovora isolates were ordered indicating sequential spread. On the other hand, the appearance of Pt3 in northern Italy and central Spain can be explained by the import of contaminated plants by nurseries.

  3. Space-time analysis of snow cover change in the Romanian Carpathians (2001-2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2017-04-01

    Snow cover is recognized as an essential climate variable, highly sensitive to the ongoing climate warming, which plays an important role in regulating mountain ecosystems. Evidence from the existing weather stations located above 800 m over the last 50 years points out that the climate of the Romanian Carpathians is visibly changing, showing an ongoing and consistent warming process. Quantifying and attributing the changes in snow cover on various spatial and temporal scales have a great environmental and socio-economic importance for this mountain region. The study is revealing the inter-seasonal changes in the timing and distribution of snow cover across the Romanian Carpathians, by combining gridded snow data (CARPATCLIM dataset, 1961-2010) and remote sensing data (2001-2016) in specific space-time assessment at regional scale. The geostatistical approach applied in this study, based on a GIS hotspot analysis, takes advantage of all the dimensions in the datasets, in order to understand the space-time trends in this climate variable at monthly time-scale. The MODIS AQUA and TERRA images available from 2001 to 2016 have been processed using ArcGIS for Desktop and Python programming language. All the images were masked out with the Carpathians boundary. Only the pixels with snow have been retained for analysis. The regional trends in snow cover distribution and timing have been analysed using Space-Time cube with ArcGIS for Desktop, according with Esri documentation using the Mann-Kendall trend test on every location with data as an independent bin time-series test. The study aimed also to assess the location of emerging hotspots of snow cover change in Carpathians. These hotspots have been calculated using Getis-Ord Gi* statistic for each bin using Hot Spot Analysis implemented in ArcGIS for Desktop. On regional scale, snow cover appear highly sensitive to the decreasing trends in air temperatures and land surface temperatures, combined with the decrease in

  4. Paleomagnetism and Magnetostratigraphy of the Upper Triassic Chinle Group in North- Central, Western and Eastern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, K. E.; Geissman, J. W.

    2007-12-01

    The Upper Triassic Chinle Group spans most of the Late Triassic and was deposited by a large scale fluvial system. Chinle Group strata are composed of predominantly red to purple mudstones with lesser orange siltstones and buff to red sandstones. In the Chama Basin, north-central New Mexico, both lower and upper Chinle strata are well-exposed and sections at several localities have been sampled to develop a more complete magnetic reversal chronology for the Late Triassic of the American Southwest. Localities in eastern and west- central New Mexico were also sampled for comparative purposes. Sampling at all sections concentrated on hematitic mudrocks and these materials typically carry a well-defined, well-grouped, dual polarity magnetization dominated by pigmentary hematite with laboratory unblocking temperatures about 660C we interpret as a primary, Late Triassic remanence (e.g., Painted Desert Mbr., corrected grand mean: D = 182.9°, I = 4.4°, α95 = 2.9°, k = 61.7, N/No = 40/45 sites (14 levels of N polarity, 26 levels of R polarity). The Shinarump Formation (lowest unit of the Chinle Group) failed to yield interpretable magnetizations. The Salitral, Poleo, Petrified Forest and Rock Point formations all yielded magnetizations with either south or north-seeking declinations and shallow inclinations, comparable to those of the Painted Desert Member(e.g.: Poleo Formation grand mean: D = 183.1°, I = 0.3deg, α95 = 5.7°, k = 33.9, N/No = 20/30). Although the Chinle Group of New Mexico was sampled at a relatively coarse sampling interval, the composite, yet incomplete,magnetic reversal chronology derived from these sections compares, at a gross scale, to similar age strata from Arizona, eastern North America and the Tethyan region of southern Europe. Chinle Group strata of Carnian age (based on palynostratigraphy) are of mixed polarity. Lower Norian strata are dominantly of reverse polarity and upper Norian strata are of mixed polarity. Paleopoles calculated from

  5. Concurrent and opposed environmental trends during the last glacial cycle between the Carpathian Basin and the Black Sea coast: evidence from high resolution enviromagnetic loess records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambach, Ulrich; Zeeden, Christian; Veres, Daniel; Obreht, Igor; Bösken, Janina; Marković, Slobodan B.; Eckmeier, Eileen; Fischer, Peter; Lehmkuhl, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Aeolian dust sediments (loess) are beside marine/lacustrine sediments, speleothemes and arctic ice cores the key archives for the reconstruction of the Quaternary palaeoenvironment in the Eurasian continental mid-latitudes. The Eurasian loess-belt has its western end in the Middle (Carpathian) and the Lower Danube Basin where one can find true loess plateaus dating back more than one million years and comprising a semi-continuous record of Pleistocene environmental change. The loess-palaeosol sequences (LPSS) of the region allow inter-regional and trans-regional comparison and, even more importantly, the analysis of temporal and spatial trends in Pleistocene environments, even on a hemispheric scale. However, the general temporal resolution of the LPSS seems mostly limited to the orbital scale patterns, enabling the general comparision of their well documented palaeoclimate record to the marine isotope stages (MIS) and thus to the course of the global ice volume with time. Following the widespread conventional wisdom in loess research, cold and more importantly dry conditions are generally assumed to lead to relatively high accumulation rates of loess, whereas during warmer and more humid environmental conditions the vegetation cover prevents ablation and clastic silt production. Moreover, synsedimentary pedogenesis prevails and hence, (embryonic) soils are formed which are rapidly buried by loess as soon as the climate returns to drier conditions. In the last decades, mineral magnetic parameters became fundamental palaeoclimate proxies in loess research. The magnetic susceptibility (χ) and its dependence on the frequency of the applied field (χfd) turned out to be beside grain size and geochemical indices a highly sensitive proxy especially for soil humidity during loess accumulation. Here we present the first results of an ongoing study on two Late Pleistocene LPSS from the southern Carpathian Basin (Titel-Plateau, Vojvodina, Serbia) and the eastern Lower

  6. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myres, Natalie M; Rootsi, Siiri; Lin, Alice A; Järve, Mari; King, Roy J; Kutuev, Ildus; Cabrera, Vicente M; Khusnutdinova, Elza K; Pshenichnov, Andrey; Yunusbayev, Bayazit; Balanovsky, Oleg; Balanovska, Elena; Rudan, Pavao; Baldovic, Marian; Herrera, Rene J; Chiaroni, Jacques; Di Cristofaro, Julie; Villems, Richard; Kivisild, Toomas; Underhill, Peter A

    2011-01-01

    The phylogenetic relationships of numerous branches within the core Y-chromosome haplogroup R-M207 support a West Asian origin of haplogroup R1b, its initial differentiation there followed by a rapid spread of one of its sub-clades carrying the M269 mutation to Europe. Here, we present phylogeographically resolved data for 2043 M269-derived Y-chromosomes from 118 West Asian and European populations assessed for the M412 SNP that largely separates the majority of Central and West European R1b lineages from those observed in Eastern Europe, the Circum-Uralic region, the Near East, the Caucasus and Pakistan. Within the M412 dichotomy, the major S116 sub-clade shows a frequency peak in the upper Danube basin and Paris area with declining frequency toward Italy, Iberia, Southern France and British Isles. Although this frequency pattern closely approximates the spread of the Linearbandkeramik (LBK), Neolithic culture, an advent leading to a number of pre-historic cultural developments during the past ≤10 thousand years, more complex pre-Neolithic scenarios remain possible for the L23(xM412) components in Southeast Europe and elsewhere.

  7. Direct observation of 134Cs and 137Cs in surface seawater in the western and central North Pacific after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kaeriyama

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The horizontal distribution of radioactive cesium (Cs derived from the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant (FNPP in the North Pacific is still unclear due to the limitation of direct measurement of the seawater in the open ocean. We present the result of direct observation of radioactive Cs in surface seawater collected from a broad area in the western and central North Pacific in July 2011, October 2011 and July 2012. We also conducted a simple particle tracking experiment to estimate the qualitative spatial distribution of radioactive Cs in the North Pacific. 134Cs was detected at 94 stations out of 123 stations, and 137Cs was detected at all stations. High 134Cs and 137Cs concentrations more than 10 m Bq kg−1 were observed in the area of the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 144° E and 155° E in July 2011, in the area 147–175° E around 40° N in October 2011, and the northern part of Kuroshio Extension at 155° E and 175°30´ E in July 2012. Combining the result of direct observations and particle tracking experiment, the radioactive Cs derived from the FNPP had been dispersed eastward to the central North Pacific during 2011. It was considered from the horizontal distribution that radioactive Cs was dispersed not only eastward but also north- and southward in the central North Pacific. Pronounced dilution process of radioactive Cs from the FNPP during study period is suggested from temporal change in the activity ratio of 134Cs / 137Cs, which was decay-corrected on 6 April 2011, and relationships between radioactive Cs and temperature.

  8. PEDAGOGICAL SUPPORT OF GIFTED STUDENTS FROM CARPATHIAN MOUNTAIN AREAS BY MEANS OF FOLK ART CRAFTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Kozlovska

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper, presented at the Conference Plenary the possibilities of pedagogical support of gifted students from vocational schools, living in the mountainous areas of the Carpathians. Education of talented and gifted students requires pedagogical support. The specific conditions, in which Carpathian students live, require the development of pedagogical support of their abilities. New approaches to teaching science, which led to the selection of topics of this article are described. Gifted personalities differ from their peers by same criterias. The social aspect of the problem remains in the shadow: not to be ashamed of your talent and not to compare it with cliches. And goals of educators and psychologists have to be slightly different as is common. Widespread  Carpathian crafts include: embroidery, artistic textiles producing, carpet manufacture, carving, pottery, metalworking, fabric painting, knitting, lace, artistic weaving, artistic working of  leather, stones, bones and horns. Nowadays, some detachment of mountainous regions has significantly reduced due to new means of communication, including the Internet. The possibilities of colleges in mountainous regions still cannot reach the level of the colleges in capital. In Carpathian and Prykrpattya regions there is a number of vocational schools of art direction. During the execution of creative work in class industrial training necessary for students to comply with the rules of relationships form and decoration in various ways: decorative motif obeys the functional form, enriching it artistic and creative solutions, utilitarian function obeys the decorative motif Products, the form of the product can be extremely decorative, artistic and creative product solutions focused on practical value and decorative value of the product. Pedagogical support of gifted students from art colleges in the Carpathian region has extremely wide range of opportunities. The problem of finding and nurturing

  9. A New Endemic Focus of Chagas Disease in the Northern Region of Veraguas Province, Western Half Panama, Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldaña, Azael; Pineda, Vanessa; Martinez, Inri; Santamaria, Giovanna; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Miranda, Aracelis; Calzada, Jose E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Chagas disease was originally reported in Panama in 1931. Currently, the best knowledge of this zoonosis is restricted to studies done in historically endemic regions. However, little is known about the distribution and epidemiology of Chagas disease in other rural areas of the country. Methods and Findings A cross-sectional descriptive study was carried out between May 2005 – July 2008 in four rural communities of the Santa Fe District, Veraguas Province. The study included an entomologic search to collect triatomines, bloodmeal type identification and infection rate with trypanosomes in collected vectors using a dot- blot and PCR analysis, genotyping of circulating Trypanosoma cruzi (mini-exon gene PCR analysis) and the detection of chagasic antibodies among inhabitants. The vector Rhodnius pallescens was more frequently found in La Culaca and El Pantano communities (788 specimens), where it was a sporadic household visitor. These triatomines presented darker coloration and larger sizescompared with typical specimens collected in Central Panama. Triatoma dimidiata was more common in Sabaneta de El Macho (162 specimens). In one small sub-region (El Macho), 60% of the houses were colonized by this vector. Of the examined R. pallescens, 54.7.0% (88/161) had fed on Didelphis marsupialis, and 24.6% (34/138) of T. dimidiata specimens collected inside houses were positive for human blood. R. pallescens presented an infection index with T. cruzi of 17.7% (24/136), with T. rangeli of 12.5% (17/136) and 50.7% (69/136) were mixed infections. In 117 T. dimidiata domestic specimens the infection index with T. cruzi was 21.4%. Lineage I of T. cruzi was confirmed circulating in these vectors. A T. cruzi infection seroprevalence of 2.3% (24/1,056) was found in this population. Conclusions This is the first report of Chagas disease endemicity in Santa Fe District, and it should be considered a neglected public health problem in this area of Panama. PMID:22558095

  10. Potential field studies of the central San Luis Basin and San Juan Mountains, Colorado and New Mexico, and southern and western Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenth, Benjamin John

    This dissertation includes three separate chapters, each demonstrating the interpretive utility of potential field (gravity and magnetic) geophysical datasets at various scales and in various geologic environments. The locations of these studies are the central San Luis Basin of Colorado and New Mexico, the San Juan Mountains of southwestern Colorado, and southern and western Afghanistan. The San Luis Basin is the northernmost of the major basins that make up the Rio Grande rift, and interpretation of gravity and aeromagnetic data reveals patterns of rifting, rift-sediment thicknesses, distribution of pre-rift volcanic and sedimentary rocks, and distribution of syn-rift volcanic rocks. Syn-rift Santa Fe Group sediments have a maximum thickness of ˜2 km in the Sanchez graben near the eastern margin of the basin along the central Sangre de Cristo fault zone. Under the Costilla Plains, thickness of these sediments is estimated to reach ˜1.3 km. The Santa Fe Group sediments also reach a thickness of nearly 1 km within the Monte Vista graben near the western basin margin along the San Juan Mountains. A narrow, north-south-trending structural high beneath San Pedro Mesa separates the graben from the structural depression beneath the Costilla Plains. Aeromagnetic anomalies are interpreted to mainly reflect variations of remanent magnetic polarity and burial depth of the 5.3-3.7 Ma Servilleta basalt of the Taos Plateau volcanic field. Magnetic-source depth estimates indicate patterns of subsidence following eruption of the basalt and show that the Sanchez graben has been the site of maximum subsidence. One of the largest and most pronounced gravity lows in North America lies over the rugged San Juan Mountains in southwestern Colorado. A buried, low-density silicic batholith related to an Oligocene volcanic field coincident with the San Juan Mountains has been the accepted interpretation of the source of the gravity low since the 1970s. However, this interpretation was

  11. Canyon incision chronology based on ignimbrite stratigraphy and cut-and-fill sediment sequences in SW Peru documents intermittent uplift of the western Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thouret, Jean-Claude; Gunnell, Yanni; Jicha, Brian R.; Paquette, Jean-Louis; Braucher, Régis

    2017-12-01

    Based on an 40Ar/39Ar- and U/Pb-based chronostratigraphy of ignimbrite sheets and the geomorphological features of watersheds, river profiles and slope deposits in the Ocoña-Cotahuasi-Marán (OCM) and Colca valleys of southwest Peru, we reconstruct the valley incision history of the western Central Andes over the last c. 25 Myr. We further document the Pleistocene and Holocene evolution of deep valleys on the basis of 14 10Be surface-exposure ages obtained on debris-avalanche deposits and river straths. The data suggest that uplift was gradual over the past 25 Myr, but accelerated after c. 9 Ma. Valley incision started around 11-9 Ma and accelerated between 5 and 4 Ma. Incision was followed by several pulses of valley cut-and-fill after 2.3 Ma. Evidence presented suggest that the post-5 Ma sequence of accelerated canyon incision probably resulted from a combination of drainage piracy from the Cordilleran drainage divide towards the Altiplano, accentuated flexural tilting of the Western Cordillera towards the SE, and increased rainfall on the Altiplano after late Miocene uplift of the Eastern Cordillera. The valley deepening and slope steepening driven by tectonic uplift gave rise to large occurrences of rockslope failure. The collapsed rock masses periodically obstructed the canyons, thus causing abrupt changes in local base levels and interfering with the steadiness of fluvial incision. As a result, channel aggradation has prevailed in the lower-gradient, U-shaped Pacific-rim canyons, whereas re-incision through landslide deposits has occurred more rapidly across the steeper V-shaped, upper valleys. Existing canyon knickpoints are currently arrested at the boundary between the plutonic bedrock and widespread outcrops of middle Miocene ignimbritic caprock, where groundwater sapping favouring rock collapse may be the dominant process driving headward erosion.

  12. Horse-mounted invaders from the Russo-Kazakh steppe or agricultural colonists from western Central Asia? A craniometric investigation of the Bronze Age settlement of Xinjiang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemphill, Brian E; Mallory, J P

    2004-07-01

    Numerous Bronze Age cemeteries in the oases surrounding the Täklamakan Desert of the Tarim Basin in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, western China, have yielded both mummified and skeletal human remains. A dearth of local antecedents, coupled with woolen textiles and the apparent Western physical appearance of the population, raised questions as to where these people came from. Two hypotheses have been offered by archaeologists to account for the origins of Bronze Age populations of the Tarim Basin. These are the "steppe hypothesis" and the "Bactrian oasis hypothesis." Eight craniometric variables from 25 Aeneolithic and Bronze Age samples, comprising 1,353 adults from the Tarim Basin, the Russo-Kazakh steppe, southern China, Central Asia, Iran, and the Indus Valley, are compared to test which, if either, of these hypotheses are supported by the pattern of phenetic affinities possessed by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin. Craniometric differences between samples are compared with Mahalanobis generalized distance (d2), and patterns of phenetic affinity are assessed with two types of cluster analysis (the weighted pair average linkage method and the neighbor-joining method), multidimensional scaling, and principal coordinates analysis. Results obtained by this analysis provide little support for either the steppe hypothesis or the Bactrian oasis hypothesis. Rather, the pattern of phenetic affinities manifested by Bronze Age inhabitants of the Tarim Basin suggests the presence of a population of unknown origin within the Tarim Basin during the early Bronze Age. After 1200 B.C., this population experienced significant gene flow from highland populations of the Pamirs and Ferghana Valley. These highland populations may include those who later became known as the Saka and who may have served as "middlemen" facilitating contacts between East (Tarim Basin, China) and West (Bactria, Uzbekistan) along what later became known as the Great Silk Road. Copyright

  13. Palaeoenvironmental and geochemical approach of Archaeocyath-rich facies from Lower Cambrian of Western Gondwana margin at Central Iberian Zone (Urda, Toledo Mountains, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menéndez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Martínez, Marta; Moreno-Eris, Elena; Perejón, Antonio; Reitner, Joachim

    2010-05-01

    Archaeocyath-rich facies are located in a quarry close to Urda village, at Toledo Mountains, Spain. The outcrops belong to the Caliza de los Navalucillos Formation and they record a considerably high diverse archaeocyath assemblage in the Lower Cambrian successions from the Central Iberian Zone (Julivert et al. 1972 [1974]). In fact, it is first time recorded the presence of Agyrekocyathus, Dokidocyathus, and Plicocyathus in the Central Iberian Zone. Therefore Plicocyathus is no longer exclusive to biozone VI in Spain. The presence of Anthomorpha is characteristic for the early Botomian, presently early Stage 4 (ICS, 2009), and the assemblage corresponds to the biozone VII (late Ovetian, following the biozonation of Perejón & Moreno-Eiris, 2006). The fossiliferous part of the succession is formed by seven lithofacies, all of them tectonically folded and with a low grade metamorphic overprint. They are comprised by two main groups of facies: (a) mound-shaped to massive lithofacies (A1, A2, A3, A4) and (b) massive to bedded and nodular lithofacies (B1, B2, B3). Archaeocyaths occur in several facies: (A1) mound-shaped white marble with irregular to stromatactoid cavities; (A2) massive mottled white to grey limestone; (A3) massive grey limestone with slumps levels; (A4) massive archaeocyath-rich orange limestone; as well as in carbonate nodules embedded in siltstones and cherts (B1, B2 and B3). The best preserved assemblage comes from the nodule record, where fossils are partially pyritized. This type of preservation is exceptional and has never been described before. XRD and wavelength-dispersive electron microprobe analyses reveal the presence of pyrite and pyrrotine partially altered to iron oxides and hydroxides (hematite and goethite) surrounding the archaeocyath cups. In Central Iberian Zone, the development of mounds and nodular facies like those described here is unusual, although the Botomian marks the peak for Early Cambrian archaeocyathan-microbial mounds

  14. Eruptive history of western and central Aeolian Islands volcanoes (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Italy): temporal evolution of magmatism and of morphological structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leocat, E.; Gillot, P.; Peccerillo, A.

    2010-12-01

    The Aeolian Island archipelago is a complex volcanic province located on the continental margin of the Calabro-Peloritan basement. It emplaced in a geodynamic setting linked to the convergence of African and European plates. In this study, we focused on the western and central volcanoes that are respectively Alicudi-Filicudi-Salina and Lipari-Vulcano. They erupted the whole range of magmas typical of convergence settings : from calc-alkaline (CA) to potassic series (KS) through high-K CA (HKCA) and shoshonitic series (SHO). All these magma products were emitted in a span time of less than 300 ka that attests to the complexity of the volcano-tectonic evolution of this province. We report new geochronological data, based on the K/Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique, which is well suited for dating Quaternary volcanic materials. New geochemical analyses were realized on the dated samples in order to study the temporal evolution of the magmatism. These data sets were coupled with geomorphological analysis to study the relation between main morphological structures and eruptive styles. Before 180 ka, only the Filicudi, Salina and Lipari volcanoes had emerged activity. Their magmas have relatively the same CA composition, whereas some Lipari lavas have early HKCA affinity. Around 120-130 ka, Alicudi and Vulcano emerged simultaneously at the extremities of the archipelago. Alicudi products are less various and have the more primitive composition. SHO and HKCA products were emitted on Lipari and Vulcano, while only CA magmas were emplaced on Filicudi and Salina. After 40 ka, the last activity of Filicudi is characterized by mafic magmas of HKCA affinity. To the other extremity, similar products of SHO affinity were emplaced in southern Lipari and northern Vulcano. At this period, explosive activity with dacitic pumices occurred in Salina. The degree of differentiation and the K enrichment increase from western sector to central sector volcanoes and through time except at

  15. Peak metamorphic temperatures across the Main Central thrust and through Greater Himalayan rocks in western Bhutan: preliminary insights from Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material thermometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, J. K.; Long, S. P.; Gordon, S. M.; Soignard, E.

    2016-12-01

    Across the length of the Himalayan orogen, high-grade metamorphic rocks of the Greater Himalaya (GH) overlie lower-grade metasedimentary rocks of the Lesser Himalaya (LH) across the top-to-south Main Central thrust (MCT). The magnitude and structural thickness of inverted metamorphism across the MCT, as well as the peak temperatures obtained by GH rocks at different structural distances above the MCT, remain poorly estimated in much of Bhutan. Here, we utilize Raman spectroscopy of carbonaceous material thermometry to quantify peak temperatures obtained by LH and GH rocks. Nine samples of schist and quartzite were collected along the Puna Tsang Chu valley in western Bhutan, at structural distances ranging between 0.5 km below and 10.6 km above the MCT. The MCT is defined at the first appearance of gneissic banding, which also coincides with the first observed leucosomes and kyanite. Four LH samples were analyzed; samples collected at 530, 320, 300, and 170 m below the MCT yielded temperatures of 498 ± 31 °C, 519 ± 57 °C, 475 ± 37 °C, and 541 ± 36 °C, respectively. Five GH samples, collected 0.05, 3.3, 4.9, 9.0, and 10.6 km above the MCT, yielded temperatures that overlap within error (623 ± 41 °C, 646 ± 38 °C, 600 ± 47 °C, 616 ± 40 °C, and 689 ± 39 °C, respectively). These data illustrate a 125 ± 72 °C increase in peak temperature between 0.5 km below and 0.05 km above the MCT, and approximately static peak temperatures between 0.05-10.6 km above the MCT. These preliminary results bracket MCT inverted metamorphism across a <1 km-thick package of rock, which is thinner than the 5-10 km-thick sections of inverted metamorphism documented across the MCT in much of the central and western Himalaya. In addition, the temperatures above the MCT do not reveal any significant tectonometamorphic discontinuities within the lowest 10.5 km of the GH section. Additional temperature data will be collected to further analyze the trends defined by these

  16. Snow line analysis in the Romanian Carpathians under the influence of winter warming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Cosmin Sandric, Ionut

    2013-04-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are subject to winter warming as statistically proved by station measurements over a 47 year period (1961-2007). Herein, the snow season is considered to last from the 1st of November to the 30th of April, when snowpack usually reaches the highest stability and thickness. This paper investigates the signals of winter temperature and precipitation change at 17 mountain station located above 1,000 m, as being considered the main triggering factors of large fluctuations in snow amount and duration in these mountains. Fewer snowfalls were recorded all over the Romanian Carpathians after the mid 80s and over large mountain areas (including the alpine ones) the frequency of positive temperature extremes became higher (e.g. winter heat waves). Late Fall snowfalls and snowpack onsets (mainly in mid elevation areas, located below 1,700 m) and particularly the shifts towards early Spring snowmelts (at all the sites) were statistically proved to explain the decline of snow cover duration across the Carpathians. However, the sensitivity of snow cover duration to recent winter warming is still blurred in the high elevation areas (above 2,000 m). The trends in winter climate variability observed in the Romanian Carpathians beyond 1,000 m altitude are fairly comparable to those estimated in other European mountain ranges from observational data (e.g. the Swiss Alps, the French Alps and the Tatra Mts.). In relation to the climate change signals derived from observational data provided by low density mountain meteorological network (of about 3.3 stations per km2 in the areas above 1,000 m), the paper analysis the spatial probability and evolution trends of snow line in each winter season across the Romanian Carpathians, based on Landsat satellite data (MSS, TM and ETM+), with sufficiently high spatial (30 to 60 m) and temporal resolutions (850 images), over the 1973-2011 period. The Landsat coverage was considered suitable enough to enable an objective

  17. Whole-genome sequence analyses of Western Central African Pygmy hunter-gatherers reveal a complex demographic history and identify candidate genes under positive natural selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, PingHsun; Veeramah, Krishna R; Lachance, Joseph; Tishkoff, Sarah A; Wall, Jeffrey D; Hammer, Michael F; Gutenkunst, Ryan N

    2016-03-01

    African Pygmies practicing a mobile hunter-gatherer lifestyle are phenotypically and genetically diverged from other anatomically modern humans, and they likely experienced strong selective pressures due to their unique lifestyle in the Central African rainforest. To identify genomic targets of adaptation, we sequenced the genomes of four Biaka Pygmies from the Central African Republic and jointly analyzed these data with the genome sequences of three Baka Pygmies from Cameroon and nine Yoruba famers. To account for the complex demographic history of these populations that includes both isolation and gene flow, we fit models using the joint allele frequency spectrum and validated them using independent approaches. Our two best-fit models both suggest ancient divergence between the ancestors of the farmers and Pygmies, 90,000 or 150,000 yr ago. We also find that bidirectional asymmetric gene flow is statistically better supported than a single pulse of unidirectional gene flow from farmers to Pygmies, as previously suggested. We then applied complementary statistics to scan the genome for evidence of selective sweeps and polygenic selection. We found that conventional statistical outlier approaches were biased toward identifying candidates in regions of high mutation or low recombination rate. To avoid this bias, we assigned P-values for candidates using whole-genome simulations incorporating demography and variation in both recombination and mutation rates. We found that genes and gene sets involved in muscle development, bone synthesis, immunity, reproduction, cell signaling and development, and energy metabolism are likely to be targets of positive natural selection in Western African Pygmies or their recent ancestors. © 2016 Hsieh et al.; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  18. (UnResolved contradictions in the Late Pleistocene glacial chronology of the Southern Carpathians - new samples and recalculated cosmogenic radionuclide age estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsófia RUSZKICZAY-RÜDIGER

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Application of cosmogenic nuclides in the study of Quaternary glaciations has increased rapidly during the last decade owing to the previous absence of direct dating methods of glacial landforms and sediments. Although several hundred publications have already been released on exposure age dating of glacial landforms worldwide, very few studies targeted the Carpathians so far (Kuhlemann et al, 2013a; Makos et al., 2014; Reuther et al, 2004, 2007; Rinterknecht et al. 2012.There are many unresolved or contradictory issues regarding the glacial chronology of the Romanian Carpathians. Recently, some attempts have been made to develop an improved temporal framework for the glaciations of the region using cosmogenic 10Be dating (Reuther et al. 2004, 2007, Kuhlemann et al. 2013a. However, these studies made the picture even more confusing because the local last glacial maximum, for instance, apparently occurred in asynchronous timing compared to each other and also to other dated glacial events in Europe (Hughes et al, 2013.This situation is even more interesting if we take into account that the local glacial maximum tends to agree with the global LGM derived from the Eastern Balkans (Kuhlemann et al. 2013b, while the penultimate glaciation seems to significantly overtake the LGM advance over the Western Balkans (Hughes et al. 2011.The primary candidate reasons to resolve these discrepancies are methodological, e.g. insufficient number of samples (one sample/landform ignoring geological scatter of the data and the application of different half-lives, production rates and scaling schemes during the calculation of exposure ages. Systematic methodological uncertainties in computing exposure ages from measured nuclide concentrations have a significant impact on the conclusions concerning correlations of exposure-dated glacier chronologies with millennial scale climate changes (Balco, 2011. The changes in glacial timing generated by only using the most

  19. SKI AREAS AND SLOPES IN ROMANIA. REVIEWING CURRENT STATE OF WINTER SPORTS TOURISM UNFOLDING POSSIBILITIES WITHIN CARPATHIAN MOUNTAINS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. CIANGĂ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ski Areas and Slopes in Romania. Reviewing Current State of Winter Sports Tourism Unfolding Possibilities within Carpathian Mountains. This study is reviewing nowadays Romania’s tourism supply (2015 – laying special emphasis on the North-West Development Region’s situation – in terms of winter sports potential (resources and material and technical base (specific infrastructure. It calls into question a highly discussed topic within the domain of interest of Tourism Geography, whose recursiveness could be justified by countinuous changes that influence the quantitative and qualitative configuration of ski areas, ski tracks and related equipment2. The existence of favourable natural support in terms of relief and climate is an indispensable prerequisite to the development of winter sports tourism within any area. From this point of view, the presence of the Carpathians is a major advantage for Romania, the more so as the proportion of the mountain sector represents 30 percent of the national area (238,391 square kilometres. By occupying different amounts of the territory belonging to 6 development regions and 19 counties, heterogeneous tourism potential values have emerged, causing unequal exploitation opportunities within the mountain area. The purpose of this paper is to provide a general framework of Romanian ski slopes, areas and corresponding facilities for assessing their current state, from regional perspective, with emphasis on North-West’s situation. On this line, the main objectives, starting from identifying and inventorising to classifying regions and ski tracks based on hierarchical categories, also deal with ranking slopes according to surface, length, width, elevation of departure point, difference in elevation, difficulty ratings, capacities of slopes and cable transportation means. In order to achieve these goals, quantitative research methods and techniques mostly refered to observation, analysis, synthesis and

  20. Family factors associated with immunization uptake in children aged between twelve and fifty-nine months: a household survey in Kakamega Central district, Western Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joram L. Sunguti

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we assessed immunization uptake and identified family factors associated with immunization in children aged between 12 and 59 months in Kakamega Central, Western Kenya. A cross sectional study was conducted in 13 sub-locations between June and July 2013. Data on 577 children were collected from their respective caregivers, by trained research assistants. The proportion of fully immunized children was 80.9% (95% confidence interval 76.9-85.3%. Immunization coverage was higher among caregivers who had completed secondary school (88%, those who had attended antenatal care clinics (81% and children born in a health facility (85%. Some evidence was seen of increasing coverage with increasing socio-economic status. No evidence for a gender difference in coverage was seen. In the logistic regression model, the risk factors for incomplete immunization were: low educational level of the caregiver [adjusted odd ratio (AOR=0.25; P<0.005], never attending any antenatal care (ANC (AOR=0.14; P<0.05 and delivery outside of health facilities (AOR=0.40; P<0.005. Further inquiry is required into this area to fully comprehend the inextricable linkage between factors affecting immunization.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA Variation Reveals a Sharp Genetic Break within the Distribution of the Blue Land Crab Cardisoma guanhumi in the Western Central Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosimere Xavier Amaral

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The blue land crab Cardisoma guanhumi is widely distributed throughout tropical and subtropical estuarine regions in the Western Central Atlantic (WCA. Patterns of population genetic structure and historical demographics of the species were assessed by mtDNA control region sequence analysis to examine the connectivity among five populations (n = 97 within the region for future conservation strategies and decision-making of fishery management. A total of 234 polymorphic nucleotides were revealed within the sequence region, which have defined 93 distinct haplotypes. No dominant mtDNA haplotypes were found but instead a distribution of a few low-frequency recurrent haplotypes with a large number of singletons. A NJ-tree and a median-joining haplotype network revealed two distinct clusters, corresponding to individuals from estuaries located along the Caribbean Sea and Brazilian waters, respectively. AMOVA and FST statistics supported the hypothesis that two main geographic regions exists. Phylogeographical discontinuity was further demonstrated by the Bayesian assignment analysis and a significant pattern of isolation-by-distance. Additionally, tests of neutral evolution and analysis of mismatch distribution indicate a complex demographic history in the WCA, which corresponds to bottleneck and subsequent population growth. Overall, a sharp genetic break between Caribbean and Brazilian populations raised concerns over the conservation status of the blue land crab.

  2. Early Miocene andesite conglomerates in the Sierra de Famatina, broken foreland region of western Argentina, and documentation of magmatic broadening in the south Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dávila, Federico M.; Astini, Ricardo A.; Jordan, Teresa E.; Kay, Suzanne M.

    2004-10-01

    A thick synorogenic megasequence, known as the Del Crestón Formation, crops out in the Famatina belt in western Argentina. Its coarsening upward arrangement, rotational syntectonic unconformities, and provenance analysis allowed considering this unit as an this unit was an Andean-related foreland succession, although its age and geological meaning have been largely controversial. It unconformably overlies Late Paleozoic (Paganzo Group) red beds and is covered by the Middle-Late Miocene Angulos Group in a faulted contact. No previous geochronologic data constrain this important synorogenic cycle bracketed between the Triassic and the late Neogene. This work provides a set of new ages for andesite boulders recorded in the lowermost volcanogenic conglomerate of the Del Crestón Formation. The andesite boulders provide evidence of backarc volcanism in the external foreland during the Early Miocene (ca. 17 Ma). This volcanic pulse, together with other evidence for Early Miocene volcanism in the Argentine Precordillera, support a previously unrecognized stage of magmatic broadening in the south Central Andes associated with the initiation of shallow subduction and changes in the plate convergence pattern at about 18 Ma. Major progressive unconformities and unroofing history from conglomerates indicate deformation at a proximal foreland depozone and basement involvement (broken foreland stage). This deformation could have occurred coevally with the deposition of distal facies in the Bermejo basin system to the south, suggesting markedly nonuniform Andean foreland development.

  3. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix C. Part 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix C Part 2 contains the hydrogrpahic data collected during TIO Cruises 5-7. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  4. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix C. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix C Part 1 contains the hydrographic data collected during TIO Cruises 1-4. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  5. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 1. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. This volume summarizes the results of the study. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  6. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 2. Technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. This volume summarizes the results of the study. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  7. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix B contains the hydrographic data collected during all four NMFS-SEFSC cruises. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  8. Assimilation of GRACE Terrestrial Water Storage into a Land Surface Model: Evaluation 1 and Potential Value for Drought Monitoring in Western and Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bailing; Rodell, Matthew; Zaitchik, Benjamin F.; Reichle, Rolf H.; Koster, Randal D.; van Dam, Tonie M.

    2012-01-01

    A land surface model s ability to simulate states (e.g., soil moisture) and fluxes (e.g., runoff) is limited by uncertainties in meteorological forcing and parameter inputs as well as inadequacies in model physics. In this study, anomalies of terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed by the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission were assimilated into the NASA Catchment land surface model in western and central Europe for a 7-year period, using a previously developed ensemble Kalman smoother. GRACE data assimilation led to improved runoff correlations with gauge data in 17 out of 18 hydrological basins, even in basins smaller than the effective resolution of GRACE. Improvements in root zone soil moisture were less conclusive, partly due to the shortness of the in situ data record. In addition to improving temporal correlations, GRACE data assimilation also reduced increasing trends in simulated monthly TWS and runoff associated with increasing rates of precipitation. GRACE assimilated root zone soil moisture and TWS fields exhibited significant changes in their dryness rankings relative to those without data assimilation, suggesting that GRACE data assimilation could have a substantial impact on drought monitoring. Signals of drought in GRACE TWS correlated well with MODIS Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) data in most areas. Although they detected the same droughts during warm seasons, drought signatures in GRACE derived TWS exhibited greater persistence than those in NDVI throughout all seasons, in part due to limitations associated with the seasonality of vegetation.

  9. Assessment of Crop Damage by Protected Wild Mammalian Herbivores on the Western Boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR), Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayani, Abhijeet; Tiwade, Dilip; Dongre, Ashok; Dongre, Aravind P; Phatak, Rasika; Watve, Milind

    2016-01-01

    Crop raiding by wild herbivores close to an area of protected wildlife is a serious problem that can potentially undermine conservation efforts. Since there is orders of magnitude difference between farmers' perception of damage and the compensation given by the government, an objective and realistic estimate of damage was found essential. We employed four different approaches to estimate the extent of and patterns in crop damage by wild herbivores along the western boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in the state of Maharashtra, central India. These approaches highlight different aspects of the problem but converge on an estimated damage of over 50% for the fields adjacent to the forest, gradually reducing in intensity with distance. We found that the visual damage assessment method currently employed by the government for paying compensation to farmers was uncorrelated to and grossly underestimated actual damage. The findings necessitate a radical rethinking of policies to assess, mitigate as well as compensate for crop damage caused by protected wildlife species.

  10. Assessment of Crop Damage by Protected Wild Mammalian Herbivores on the Western Boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve (TATR, Central India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Bayani

    Full Text Available Crop raiding by wild herbivores close to an area of protected wildlife is a serious problem that can potentially undermine conservation efforts. Since there is orders of magnitude difference between farmers' perception of damage and the compensation given by the government, an objective and realistic estimate of damage was found essential. We employed four different approaches to estimate the extent of and patterns in crop damage by wild herbivores along the western boundary of Tadoba-Andhari Tiger Reserve in the state of Maharashtra, central India. These approaches highlight different aspects of the problem but converge on an estimated damage of over 50% for the fields adjacent to the forest, gradually reducing in intensity with distance. We found that the visual damage assessment method currently employed by the government for paying compensation to farmers was uncorrelated to and grossly underestimated actual damage. The findings necessitate a radical rethinking of policies to assess, mitigate as well as compensate for crop damage caused by protected wildlife species.

  11. How does land use link terrestrial and aquatic carbon in western North America?: Implications from an agricultural case study in central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, S. A.; Sigler, W. A.

    2014-12-01

    The fate of soil organic matter with expanding human land use is of increasing concern for planetary health and ecological sustainability. In North American grasslands, cultivation has commonly resulted in loss of stored soil organic carbon to dissolved phases in groundwater and surface water, as well as to atmospheric CO2 via decomposition. In addition, cultivation has released nutrients stored in organic matter and facilitated water movement through soils to benefit crops, increasing groundwater recharge rates. This has altered groundwater chemistry both by changing biogeochemistry of the terrestrial-aquatic interface and by increasing addition of nutrients, herbicides, and pesticides to these systems. In this presentation, we consider the effects of food production practices on terrestrial-aquatic carbon linkages in former grassland ecosystems of western North America. Our data from an agricultural area in central Montana begin to reveal how elevated nitrate and pesticide levels in groundwater on an isolated landform reflect transformation over the last century of a temperate grassland ecosystem for wheat and cattle production. Rates and pathways of carbon and nitrogen loss are inferred from the concentration and isotopic character of both water and carbon and nitrogen over three years in soils, shallow groundwater, emergent springs and surface waters. In this semi-arid, non-irrigated context, the fate of soil organic matter is linked with redistribution of pedogenic carbonate as well as other soil and rock derived solutes. We consider implications for future trends in dissolved carbon and nitrogen in surface waters in the region.

  12. Automated recognition of quasi-planar ignimbrite sheets and paleo-surfaces via robust segmentation of DTM - examples from the Western Cordillera of the Central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Székely, B.; Karátson, D.; Koma, Zs.; Dorninger, P.; Wörner, G.; Brandmeier, M.; Nothegger, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Western slope of the Central Andes between 22° and 17°S is characterized by large, quasi-planar landforms with tilted ignimbrite surfaces and overlying younger sedimentary deposits (e.g. Nazca, Oxaya, Huaylillas ignimbrites). These surfaces were only modified by tectonic uplift and tilting of the Western Cordillera preserving minor now fossilized drainage systems. Several deep, canyons started to form from about 5 Ma ago. Due to tectonic oversteepening in a arid region of very low erosion rates, gravitational collapses and landslides additionally modified the Andean slope and valley flanks. Large areas of fossil surfaces, however, remain. The age of these surfaces has been dated between 11 Ma and 25 Ma at elevations of 3500 m in the Precordillera and at c. 1000 m near the coast. Due to their excellent preservation, our aim is to identify, delineate, and reconstruct these original ignimbrite and sediment surfaces via a sophisticated evaluation of SRTM DEMs. The technique we use here is a robust morphological segmentation method that is insensitive to a certain amount of outliers, even if they are spatially correlated. This paves the way to identify common local planar features and combine these into larger areas of a particular surface segment. Erosional dissection and faulting, tilting and folding define subdomains, and thus the original quasi-planar surfaces are modified. Additional processes may create younger surfaces, such as sedimentary floodplains and salt pans. The procedure is tuned to provide a distinction of these features. The technique is based on the evaluation of local normal vectors (perpendicular to the actual surface) that are obtained by determination of locally fitting planes. Then, this initial set of normal vectors are gradually classified into groups with similar properties providing candidate point clouds that are quasi co-planar. The quasi co-planar sets of points are analysed further against other criteria, such as number of minimum

  13. Long-term regimes of extreme precipitation and floods across the Alpine-Carpathian Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajka, Juraj

    2010-05-01

    Kohnová, S.(2), Bálint, G. (8), Barbuc, M.(6), Borga, M.(5), Claps, P. (9), Cheval, S.(4), Gaume, E.(3), Hlavčová, K.(2), Merz, R.(1), Pfaundler, M. (7), Stancalie, G.(4), Szolgay, J.(2), Blöschl, G.(1) (2) Slovak University of Technology, Radlinského 11, 813 68 Bratislava, Slovakia, silvia. kohnova@stuba.sk (3) Laboratoire Central des Ponts et Chaussées, BP 4129, 44341 Bouguenais cedex, France (4) National Meteorological Administration 97, Soseaua Bucuresti-Ploiesti, 013686, Bucharest, Romania (5) Department of Land and Agroforest Environments, University of Padova, AGRIPOLIS,via dell'Università 16, Legnaro (PD), IT-35020, Italy (6) Dynamic and Experimental, Hydrology Department, P.C. 013686 P.B. 18, Sos. Bucuresti-Ploiesti 97, Bucharest, Romania (7)Sektion Gewässerbewirtschaftung Abt. Wasser BAFU, Papiermühlestrasse 172, CH-3063 Ittigen, Switzerland (8) VITUKI Environmental Protection and Water Management Institute, Kvassay út 1., H-1095 Budapest, Hungary (9) Dipartimento di Idraulica, Trasporti e Infrastrutture Civili (DITIC), Politecnico di Torino, C.so Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino (Italy) The study of the seasonality of extreme precipitation and floods has recently attracted renewed interest, especially in connection with water resources management, flood and low flow regionalization, and land cover and climate change assessment studies. The aim of this contribution is to present the differences in the long-term regimes of extreme precipitation and floods across the Alpine-Carpathian range. This analysis is based on seasonality indices and a catalogue of atmospheric circulation patterns. The main investigation will focus on the understanding of main flood producing processes and on the identification of regions with similar precipitation forcing and catchment response. The study region covers the South-Eastern part of France, Switzerland, the northern part of Italy, Austria, the southern part of Germany, Slovakia, Romania and a small region

  14. Late Pleistocene dip-slip faulting along the Dunajec Fault, West Carpathians: Insights from alluvial sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olszak, Janusz

    2017-10-01

    This paper presents vertical movement along the Dunajec Fault during the Late Pleistocene and suggests Quaternary tectonic reactivation of diagonal strike-slip faults and their transformation into dip-slip faults in the West Carpathians. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of Pleistocene alluvial sediments of the Dunajec and the Ochotnica rivers was employed to determine the time range of deposition of these sediments. Vertical and spatial distribution of the obtained OSL ages imply that the alluvial sediments were affected by the Dunajec Fault, which appears to have acted as a scissor fault during the Late Pleistocene. The results contribute to the discussion on the recent evolution of the Carpathians, and may support the concept of extensional collapse of the orogen.

  15. Seasonal characteristics of flood regimes across the Alpine–Carpathian range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajka, J.; Kohnová, S.; Bálint, G.; Barbuc, M.; Borga, M.; Claps, P.; Cheval, S.; Dumitrescu, A.; Gaume, E.; Hlavčová, K.; Merz, R.; Pfaundler, M.; Stancalie, G.; Szolgay, J.; Blöschl, G.

    2010-01-01

    Summary The aim of this paper is to analyse the differences in the long-term regimes of extreme precipitation and floods across the Alpine–Carpathian range using seasonality indices and atmospheric circulation patterns to understand the main flood-producing processes. This is supported by cluster analyses to identify areas of similar flood processes, both in terms of precipitation forcing and catchment processes. The results allow to isolate regions of similar flood generation processes including southerly versus westerly circulation patterns, effects of soil moisture seasonality due to evaporation and effects of soil moisture seasonality due to snow melt. In many regions of the Alpine–Carpathian range, there is a distinct shift in flood generating processes with flood magnitude as evidenced by a shift from summer to autumn floods. It is argued that the synoptic approach proposed here is valuable in both flood analysis and flood estimation. PMID:25067854

  16. Urban, Environmental and Tourism State of the Romanian Carpathian Small Towns

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    ELENA MATEI

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, after 1990, tourism is seen as a univer sal solution for the economic development of any region. In fact, some areas are appropriate to this. One of them is the Carpathian area, where a quarter of the Romanian sma ll towns exist. These settlements are still trying to adapt to the market economy hence many of them, as former mono-industrial centers, have shrank their activities and try to subscribe i n the new economic landscape. In the context of a great tourism potential given by the Carpathians resources and benefiting by urban development, few environmental changes analyzed through tourism p otential indicator (Tp, urban development indicator (UDI, environmental change indicator (ECh I, many of the mountainous small towns can successfully revive through tourism development . Their good economic, urban and environmental state influences the surroundings, ru ral area and their communities' wellbeing; hence their revival through tourism may increase th e mountain economy.

  17. A checklist of the spiders (Araneae) of the Chornohora Mountain massif (the Ukrainian Carpathians)

    OpenAIRE

    Hirna, Anna; Gnelitsa, Valery; Zhukovets, Evgeni

    2016-01-01

    The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 %) were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages...

  18. Wild plants used for food by Hungarian ethnic groups living in the Carpathian Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Dénes; Nóra Papp; Dániel Babai; Bálint Czúcz; Zsolt Molnár

    2012-01-01

    A list of plant species used for food in Hungary and among Hungarian ethnic groups of the Carpathian Basin during the 19th and 20th centuries was compiled from 71 ethnographic and ethnobotanical sources and a survey among contemporary Hungarian botanists. Species used as food, spice, beverage or occasional snacks were collected. Sources mention 236 plant species belonging to 68 families. Most wild fleshy fruits (mostly Rosa, Rubus, Cornus, Ribes, Vaccinium spp.), dry fruits and seeds (Fagus, ...

  19. Bioecological principles of maintaining stability in mountain forest ecosystems of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    OpenAIRE

    PARPAN T.V.

    2016-01-01

    The forest cover of the Carpathians has been deeply transformed by productive activities over the past centuries. The forest cover, age and species structure of its ecosystems have been changed. Beech and fir forests were replaced by spruce monocultures. Consequently, nitrogen and mineral elements cycles changed, the genetic and population structures altered and the eco-stabilizing function of forests decreased. These negative trends make it desirable to process the bioecological principles o...

  20. Post-orogenic subsidence and uplift of the Carpathian belt: An integrated approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertotti, G.; Matenco, L.; Drijkonigen, G.; Krijgsman, W.; Tarapoanca, M.; Panea, I.; Vasiliev, I.; Milea, M.; Cloetingh, S.

    2003-04-01

    Several hundred metres thick Pliocene to Quaternary sequences outcropping along the Carpathian front steeply dip away from the mountain belt towards the Carpathian foredeep. They overly the Carpathian fold-and-thrust belt and document that, following the main contractional stages, the orogenic wedge first subsided and was then uplifted. Uplift occurred coeval with substantial subsidence in the basin adjacent to the E, the Focsani Depression. To define the precise kinematics of such movements and thereby constrain these vertical movements taking place in the "wrong" place and in the "wrong" time, the Netherlands Research Center for Integrated Solid Earth Science has launched a large campaign of geological and geophysical investigation. The main components of the project are as follows: 1) acquisition of nearly 100km of seismic data designed to image the uppermost hundred metres of the Earth's crust and thereby making a precise connection between features visible in Industry lines and at the surface 2) paleomagnetic investigations in order to constrain the age of the poorly dated continental to lacustrine sediments 3) A seismic experiment designed to detect 3-D effects on 2-D acquisition 4) Structural work to determine the stress/strain conditions during subsidence and subsequent uplift At a larger scale, these activities are embedded in the effort made by ISES and connected groups to precisely constrain the kinematics of the Pannonian-Carpathian system. Seismic acquisition has been performed during the summer 2002 and has been technically very successful thanks also to the effort of the prospecting company Prospectiunii SA. Lines have been processed and are currently being interpreted. The most apparent feature is the lack of localized deformation demonstrating that subsidence and tilting affected areas of several tens of kilometers and are not related to single faults. Sampling for paleomagnetic studies has been carried out in 2002 along the same section where

  1. Active stress field and seismotectonic features in Intra-Carpathian region of Romania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oros, Eugen; Popa, Mihaela; Diaconescu, Mihai; Radulian, Mircea

    2017-04-01

    The Romanian Intra-Carpathian Region is located on the eastern half of Tisa-Dacia geodynamic block from the Neogene Carpathian-Pannonian Basin. The distribution of seismicity displays clear clusters and narrower zones with seismogenic potential confirmed by the damaging earthquakes recoded in the region, e.g. July 01, 1829 (Mw=6.2), October 10, 1834 (Mw=5.6), January 26, 1916 (Mw=6.4), July 12, 1991 (Mw=5.7), December 2, 1991 (Mw=5.5). The state of recent stress and deformation appears to be controlled by the interaction of plate-boundary and intraplate forces, which include the counterclockwise rotation and N-NE-directed indentation of the Adria microplate and buoyancy forces associated with differential topography and lithospheric heterogeneities. The stress field and tectonic regime are investigated at regional and local scales by the formal inversion of focal mechamisms. There can be observed short-scale lateral changes of i) tectonic regimes from compressive (reverse and strike-slip faultings) to pure extensive (normal faultings) and ii) variation of stress directions (SHmax) from NE-SW to EW and WNW-ESE towards Southern Carpathians and NS within Easter Carpathians. The changes in stress directions occur over a distance that is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the lithosphere. A comparative analysis of stress tensor with GPS velocity/displacememt vectors shows variations from paralellism to orthogonality, suggesting different mechanisms of crustal deformations.The major seismic activity (Mw≥5.0) appears to be generally concentrated along the faults systems bordering de Tisa-Dacia Block, intersections of faults of different ages, internal shear zones and with the border of the former structural terrains, old rifts and neostructures.

  2. GEOGRAPHICAL INFORMATION SYSTEMS AND ECOLOGY CASE STUDY – ŢARCU MOUNTAINS (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS

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    M. Török – Oance

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The significance of geographic information systems (GIS for environmental managment and resource planning has increased in recent years. Current ecological theory, in particular ecosystem theoy, is characteriyed by a new better understanding of ecosystem patterns and dynamics. This paper describes some of the basic application methods using GIS in connection with ecological factors constrained by relief in Ţarcu Mountains, Southern Carpathians.

  3. Cenozoic structural evolution, thermal history, and erosion of the Ukrainian Carpathians fold-thrust belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakapelyukh, Mykhaylo; Bubniak, Ihor; Bubniak, Andriy; Jonckheere, Raymond; Ratschbacher, Lothar

    2018-01-01

    The Carpathians are part of the Alpine-Carpathian-Dinaridic orogen surrounding the Pannonian basin. Their Ukrainian part constitutes an ancient subduction-accretion complex that evolved into a foreland fold-thrust belt with a shortening history that was perpendicular to the orogenic strike. Herein, we constrain the evolution of the Ukrainian part of the Carpathian fold-thrust belt by apatite fission-track dating of sedimentary and volcanic samples and cross-section balancing and restoration. The apatite fission-track ages are uniform in the inner―southwestern part of the fold-thrust belt, implying post-shortening erosion since 12-10 Ma. The ages in the leading and trailing edges record provenance, i.e., sources in the Trans-European suture zone and the Inner Carpathians, respectively, and show that these parts of the fold-thrust were not heated to more than 100 °C. Syn-orogenic strata show sediment recycling: in the interior of the fold-thrust belt―the most thickened and most deeply eroded nappes―the apatite ages were reset, eroded, and redeposited in the syn-orogenic strata closer to the fore- and hinterland; the lag times are only a few million years. Two balanced cross sections, one constructed for this study and based on field and subsurface data, reveal an architecture characterized by nappe stacks separated by high-displacement thrusts; they record 340-390 km shortening. A kinematic forward model highlights the fold-thrust belt evolution from the pre-contractional configuration over the intermediate geometries during folding and thrusting and the post-shortening, erosional-unloading configuration at 12-10 Ma to the present-day geometry. Average shortening rates between 32-20 Ma and 20-12 Ma amounted to 13 and 21 km/Ma, respectively, implying a two-phased deformation of the Ukrainian fold-thrust belt.

  4. Hydromorphological quality as a key element of the ecological status of Polish Carpathian rivers

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    Bartłomiej WYŻGA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available After a few decades of efforts to detect, quantify and counteract the effects of water pollution on river biota, recent years have brought an increasing understanding of the significance of hydromorphological quality of rivers for their ecological status, and research on Polish Carpathian rivers has contributed to the progress in this field. Our team developed a method of hydromorphological assessment of rivers, which is based on the European Standard EN-14614 and compromises between the needs for practical application and the environmental significance of results. Application of the method in rivers with different channel patterns confirmed its usefulness and showed a significant impact of channelization and channel incision on the hydromorphological quality of Carpathian rivers. Both disturbances simplified flow pattern and homogenised physical habitat conditions in rivers, and the changes are clearly reflected in the reduced abundance and diversity of fish fauna as well as the reduced taxonomic diversity of benthic invertebrate communities. Significant relationships between these biotic characteristics of Polish Carpathian rivers on one hand and the variation of physical habitat conditions and hydromorphological quality of the rivers on the other indicate that recovery of the degraded communities requires such restoration measures that will increase morphological complexity of the watercourses. Environmental changes that took place in Carpathian catchments during the twentieth century have changed water and sediment fluxes in the rivers and thus make it impossible to use the historical state of the watercourses as reference for their restoration. Therefore, reference conditions should be defined as those which exist or would exist under present environmental conditions in the catchment but with the lacking human influence on the channel, riparian zone and floodplain of the river which is to be restored. An erodible corridor seems to be a

  5. Comparative Analysis of Electrophoretic Profile of Major Proteins of Milk from Alpine and Carpathian Goats

    OpenAIRE

    Alina NASALEAN; Laurentiu OGNEAN; Sergiu MUNTEAN; Stefana BALICI; MATEI, HOREA

    2017-01-01

    The milk’s proteins provide nutritional and biologically active values, essential in human and animal nutrition. In the case of goat milk, the proteins’ concentration and quality represent basic indices for the evaluation of the nutritional and biologically active values. The proposal is to comparatively analyse the protein profile of milk. The milk was collected from two different breeds: French Alpine and Romanian Carpathian. During March and April 2016 there were collected samples of r...

  6. COLD WAVES IN THE ROMANIAN CARPATHIANS, AN INDICATOR OF NEGATIVE TEMPERATURE EXTREMES

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    D. MICU

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Cold waves in the Romanian Carpathians, an indicator of negative temperature extremes. Cold waves are a representative indicator frequently used to analyze the incidence of cold extremes in a given area. This study was undertaken on these cold extremes in the Romanian Carpathians defined by the STARDEX project. Investigations had in view mountain weather stations located >1,000 m a.s.l. (15 sites over the 1961-2003 period of available daily temperature records. Long-term records of daily minimum temperature (blended were also studied from the available ECA&D data sets at Omu Peak station (1928-2011. Regional patterns of cold waves were expressed by comparing their frequency, duration and intensity at the weather stations located in the alpine, sub-alpine and forest vegetation belts. There is an evident inter-annual variability of cold wave duration, showing a significant increase particularly in some forest belt locations in the Southern Carpathians. However, the long-term variability trend (83 years at Omu Peak alpine station showed quite an opposite trend, corresponding to the warming process in terms of minimum temperature values. Cold waves are usually associated to a high number of consecutive frosty nights and freeze days, but they have low effects on the characteristics of snow season.

  7. The BioREGIO Carpathians project: aims, methodology and results from the “Continuity and Connectivity” analysis

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    Filippo Favilli

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BioREGIO Carpathians is a transnational cooperation project, co-financed under the second call of the EU South East Europe Transnational Cooperation Programme, priority area “Protection and Improvement of the Environment”. BioREGIO Carpathians run for three years (2011–2013 and is a flagship project for the Carpathian Convention (article four dealing with landscape and biological diversity, its Biodiversity Protocol and the Biodiversity Working Group. The project is built on the conservation, restoration and valorisation of the Carpathians ecological continuum to enable large herbivores and carnivores to live in coexistence with modern society. The Carpathian countries are expecting a massive pressure to modernize and extend their road infrastructures. If not considering the requirements of ecological network, this run-to-development will enhance landscape fragmentation, limit dispersal and genetic exchange of wildlife species. BioREGIO applied a multi-disciplinary approach (physical, legal and socio-economic in order to identify the most influencing barriers regarding connectivity throughout the Carpathians. Using two ArcGIS 10.0 tools in a three-step approach and a series of site visits, the continuity and connectivity analysis identified not only physical barriers but also legal aspects and socio-economic behaviour that are influencing ecological connectivity and playing a major role to conserve wildlife population. The investigation on the ground together with local experts and stakeholders enabled the adaptation of the GIS results and the development of feasible solutions to overcome the detected barriers with recommended priorities for implementing appropriate measurements to maintain connectivity and to sustain large carnivores, herbivores and biodiversity in the Carpathians.

  8. An high-quality record of the Palaeocene-Eocene thermal maximum (PETM) in the central western Tethys: the Forada section (Southern Alps, northeastern Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giusberti, L.; Agnini, C.; Backman, J.; Consolaro, C.; Fornaciari, E.; Rio, D.; Tateo, F.; Grandesso, P.

    2003-04-01

    At the Palaeocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary, some 55 Ma, a major transient global warming ("Palaeocene/Eocene Thermal Maximum"; PETM) affected the Earth system with significant biotic and abiotic changes. In particular, the hallmark of the PETM is a strong and complex negative carbon isotope excursion (CIE), that has been related to a huge and catastrophic release of methane from marine gas hydrates. Because the PETM might represent an analogue in the past of the present anthropogenic accelerated emission of greenhouse gases, it has attracted a good deal of interest with both data collecting and modelling efforts. However, as stated by Röhl and coworkers, "understanding the complete sequence of events that caused the PETM and elucidating the detailed nature of the environmental changes that took place will ultimately require high-quality records from a range of different latitudes and depths and from all of the major ocean basins". In this paper we document the occurrence of an expanded record of the PETM in the Vallone Bellunese area (Southern Alps, NE Italy), representative of bathyal depths of the central western Tethys, where the available records are scarce and condensed. We have carried out fieldwork along with paleontological (calcareous nannofossils, planktic and benthic foraminifera), mineralogical and geochemical (major elements, trace elements, stable carbon isotopes) analyses, that show that in the eastern flank of the Vallone Bellunese the PETM is well recorded. It is easily recognized in the field because it corresponds to a 2--3 meters thick package of reddish clays and marls (Clay Marly Unit, CMU) inserted in the calcareous-marly sediments of the "Scaglia Rossa" Formation. The CMU is widely traceable in the region and nicely matches the lithologic anomaly observed worldwide at the P/E boundary. We have reconstructed a composite section (the Forada section), extended from the latest Maastrichtian to the lowermost Eocene (NP10), that contains an

  9. Variability and 20-Year Trends in Satellite-Derived Surface Chlorophyll Concentrations in Large Marine Ecosystems around South and Western Central America

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    Marina Marrari

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Marine ecosystems are under the increasing stress of natural and anthropogenic climate variability and change. Knowledge of the patterns of distribution of chlorophyll concentrations as an indicator of phytoplankton abundance, its spatial and temporal variability, and the processes that control this variability is required to better understand the dynamics of marine populations and their fluctuations, including species of ecological and commercial importance. The Patagonia (PLME, South Brazil (SBLME, Humboldt (HLME, and Pacific Coastal Central America (PCACLME Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs around South and Western Central America support high primary productivity and fisheries catch. During the past few decades, climate change and warming in most ecosystems has become evident, which in combination with variations in production rates could impact the dynamics of marine ecosystems. The goal of this study is to assess the variability and longer-term trends in chlorophyll concentrations in the PLME, SBLME, HLME, and PCACLME, and to discuss implications for higher trophic levels. We use a combination of high-resolution satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration data from SeaWiFS (1997–2006 and MODIS Aqua (2002–2017 to examine spatial and temporal variability and analyze the record-length linear trends in these LMEs (25°N-60°S, 30–120°W. We use monthly composites with 2 × 2 km spatial resolution for the period of overlap between sensors (2002–2006 to compare retrievals and adjust the MODIS Aqua data series at all pixels using linear regressions. We then apply the corrections to the MODIS data and combine the SeaWiFS and adjusted MODIS datasets to generate the longest time series in chlorophyll concentrations to date in the region. Our results revealed significant increases in chlorophyll concentrations in large areas of the PLME (78.23% and HLME (43.03% during the last ~20 years, with large potential implications for trophic relationships

  10. Intraseasonal variability of winter precipitation over central asia and the western tibetan plateau from 1979 to 2013 and its relationship with the North Atlantic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Heng; Liu, Xiaodong; Dong, Buwen

    2017-09-01

    Winter precipitation over Central Asia and the western Tibetan Plateau (CAWTP) is mainly a result of the interaction between the westerly circulation and the high mountains around the plateau. Empirical Orthogonal Functions (EOFs), Singular Value Decomposition (SVD), linear regression and composite analysis were used to analyze winter daily precipitation and other meteorological elements in this region from 1979 to 2013, in order to understand how interactions between the regional circulation and topography affect the intraseasonal variability in precipitation. The SVD analysis shows that the winter daily precipitation variability distribution is characterized by a dipole pattern with opposite signs over the northern Pamir Plateau and over the Karakoram Himalaya, similar to the second mode of EOF analysis. This dipole pattern of precipitation anomaly is associated with local anomalies in both the 700 hPa moisture transport and the 500 hPa geopotential height and is probably caused by oscillations in the regional and large-scale circulations, which can influence the westerly disturbance tracks and water vapor transport. The linear regression shows that the anomalous mid-tropospheric circulation over CAWTP corresponds to an anti-phase variation of the 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the southern and northern North Atlantic 10 days earlier (at 95% significance level), that bears a similarity to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The composite analysis reveals that the NAO impacts the downstream regions including CAWTP by controlling south-north two branches of the middle latitude westerly circulation around the Eurasian border. During the positive phases of the NAO, the northern branch of the westerly circulation goes around the northwest Tibetan Plateau, whereas the southern branch encounters the southwest Tibetan Plateau, which leads to reduced precipitation over the northern Pamir Plateau and increased precipitation over the Karakoram Himalaya, and

  11. New unspiked K Ar ages of volcanic rocks of the central and western sector of the Aeolian Islands: reconstruction of the volcanic stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Rosanna; Guillou, Hervè; Mazzuoli, Roberto; Ventura, Guido

    2003-02-01

    A geochronological study of the Filicudi, Salina, Lipari and Vulcano Islands (Aeolian Archipelago) using the unspiked potassium-argon technique provides new age data which, combined with stratigraphic correlation, better constrain the temporal evolution of volcanism. The unspiked K-Ar age of the oldest exposed lavas on Filicudi, 219±5 ka, is significantly younger than the previous estimation of 1.02 Ma. In the general context of Aeolian volcanism, this new date suggests that the volcanism of the western sector of the Aeolian Archipelago is younger than previously thought. Geochronological data point out on the rapid transition from calc-alkaline to potassic volcanism. The distribution of the K-Ar ages within the Salina-Lipari-Vulcano group shows that the volcanism started on Lipari and propagated over time northward on Salina and southward on Vulcano. Geochronological and geophysical data suggest that the onset of volcanism in the central sector of the Aeolian Arc may be due to a mantle upwelling structure located below Lipari. A change in the style of the eruptions occurred in the Salina-Lipari-Vulcano system at about 100 ka from the present. Low-energy magmatic eruptions occurred between 188 and about 100 ka. From about 100 ka to the present, higher-energy eruptions and low-energy events due to magma-water interaction also occurred. This change in the style of activity, together with the appearance of evolved products (i.e. rhyolites) during the last 50 ka, is consistent with the formation of magmatic reservoirs located at shallower depth with respect to those of the 188-100-ka period. The new geochronological data and available petrological models reveal that a change in the deep source of the primary magmas occurred in a relatively short time interval.

  12. Effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on seed germination of ten species from woodland in central-western Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Fernández, M A; Rodríguez-Echeverría, S

    2003-01-01

    The effect of smoke, charred wood, and nitrogenous compounds on germination was tested on 10 species of the Cistaceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae, and Asteraceae, from fire-prone, shrubby woodlands in central-western Spain. Dry seeds were exposed to smoke, by watering with distilled water-charred wood suspensions, or NaNO2, KNO3, NH4Cl, and NH4NO3. Smoke enhanced germination in 9 of 10 of the species. In species of Poaceae, germination was stimulated by 20 min of smoke exposure. In Asteraceae and Fabaceae species, 10 min of smoke exposure was the most effective treatment for enhancing germination. Three species--Cistus ladanifer, Cistus crispus, and Cistus monspeliensis--had a positive response to 20 min of smoke exposure; germination of Cistus salviifolius L. was also enhanced after 10 min. The effect of charred wood was variable, with no consistent germination pattern within the families. Trifolium angustifolium and Retama sphaerocarpa showed no stimulation of germination under most of the charred wood concentrations. Similarly, germination of Senecio jacobea under the charred wood treatment did not surpass that of the control. NaNO2 promoted seed germination in Dactylis glomerata (10 mM), Cistus ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), and Cistus crispus (1 and 10 mM). KNO3 enhanced germination in Dactylis glomerata (1 and 25 mM), Dittrichia viscosa (10 and 25 mM), C. ladanifer (1, 10, and 25 mM), Cistus crispus (1 and 25 mM), and C. salviifolius aud C. monspeliensis (25 mM). NH4Cl induced germination of Dactylis glomerata and Dittrichia viscosa (1 mM), and Cistus species germinated best in 25 mM of this salt. NH4NO3 induced germination only in Cistus species. Holcus lanatus had the highest level of germination regardless of treatment.

  13. New zircon data supporting models of short-lived igneous activity at 1.89 Ga in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Skyttä

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New U-Th-Pb zircon data (SIMS from three intrusive phases of the Palaeoproterozoic Viterliden intrusion in the western Skellefte District, central Fennoscandian Shield, dates igneous emplacement in a narrow time interval at about 1.89 Ga. A locally occurring quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite, here dated at 1889 ± 3 Ma, is considered the youngest of the intrusive units, based on the new age data and field evidence. This supports an existing interpretation of its fault-controlled emplacement after intrusion of the dominating hornblende-tonalite units, in this study dated at 1892 ± 3 Ma. The Viterliden magmatism was synchronous with the oldest units of the Jörn type early-orogenic intrusions in the eastern part of the district (1.89–1.88 Ga; cf. Gonzàles Roldán, 2010. A U-Pb zircon age for a felsic metavolcanic rock from the hanging-wall to the Kristineberg VMS deposit, immediately south of the Viterliden intrusion, is constrained at 1883 ± 6 Ma in this study. It provides a minimum age for the Kristineberg ore deposit and suggests contemporaneous igneous/volcanic activity throughout the Skellefte District. Furthermore, it supports the view that the Skellefte Group defines a laterally continuous belt throughout this "ore district". Tentative correlation of the 1889 ± 3 Ma quartz-plagioclase porphyritic tonalite with the Kristineberg "mine porphyry" suggests that these units are coeval at about 1.89 Ga. Based on the new age determinations, the Viterliden intrusion may equally well have intruded into or locally acted as a basement for the ore-hosting Skellefte Group volcanic rocks.

  14. Hand hygiene non-compliance among intensive care unit health care workers in Aseer Central Hospital, south-western Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahfouz, Ahmed A; El Gamal, Mohammad N; Al-Azraqi, Tarik A

    2013-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the undisputed single most effective infection control measure. The purpose of the current study was to measure the degree of compliance with hand hygiene practices among health care workers in intensive care facilities at Aseer Central Hospital (ACH), south-western Saudi Arabia. Data were collected by direct observation of health care workers in intensive care units delivering routine care, using the standardized World Health Organization method for direct observation "Five moments for hand hygiene" approach. Observations were made during February-April 2011, by well-trained infection control nurses during their routine visits to the units. The moment the observer identified an indication, it was counted as an opportunity to which there should be a corresponding positive or negative action (hand washing). The present study included 536 opportunities (observations) collected from the intensive care unit (ICU), intermediate care unit (IMCU), cardiac care unit (CCU), and pediatric care unit (PICU) of ACH. Observations covered 179 nurses and 34 physicians working in these units. Overall, hand hygiene non-compliance was observed in 41.0%. The study showed that events before contact with the patient (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.575, 95% confidence interval (CI) 4.461-9.691), being a physician (aOR 1.712, 95% CI 1.126-2.989), and work in the IMCU (aOR 2.140, 95% CI 1.202-3.811) were significant risk factors for hand hygiene non-compliance in the hospital. The observed high figures of hand hygiene non-compliance warrant intensifying education to promote local hand hygiene and training programs to help embed efficient and effective hand hygiene into all elements of care delivery in the intensive care units of ACH. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Socioeconomic development as a determinant of the levels of organochlorine pesticides and PCBs in the inhabitants of Western and Central African countries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luzardo, Octavio P., E-mail: operez@dcc.ulpgc.es [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Boada, Luis D. [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Carranza, Cristina [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Ruiz-Suárez, Norberto; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis Alberto; Valerón, Pilar F.; Zumbado, Manuel; Camacho, María [Toxicology Unit, Department of Clinical Sciences, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Arellano, José Luis Pérez [Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine Unit, Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Medical Sciences and Surgery Department, Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain)

    2014-11-01

    Several studies of environmental samples indicate that the levels of many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are increasing in Africa, but few studies have been conducted in humans. Simultaneously, many African countries are experiencing a rapid economic growth and implementing information and communication technologies (ICT). These changes have generated high amounts of electronic waste (e-waste) that have not been adequately managed. We tested the hypothesis that the current levels of two main classes of POPs in Western and Central African countries are affected by the degree of socioeconomic development. We measured the levels of 36 POPs in the serum of recent immigrants (N = 575) who came from 19 Sub-Saharan countries to the Canary Islands (Spain). We performed statistical analyses on their anthropometric and socioeconomic data. High median levels of POPs were found in the overall sample, with differences among the countries. Organochlorine pesticide (OCP) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) levels increased with age. People from low-income countries had significantly higher OCP levels and much lower PCB levels than those from high-income countries. We found a significant association between the implementation of ICT and PCB contamination. Immigrants from the countries with a high volume of imports of second-hand electronic equipment had higher PCB levels. The economic development of Africa and the e-waste generation have directly affected the levels of POPs. The POP legacies of these African populations most likely are due to the inappropriate management of the POPs' residues. - Highlights: • Higher levels of organochlorine pesticides in Africans from low-income countries • Higher levels of PCBs in Africans from high-income countries • Levels of PCBs are significantly higher in people from West Africa. • Significant association between implementation of ICT and PCB contamination • High volume of second-hand electronic equipment is associated

  16. Distribution and abundance of cetaceans in the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. Final report. Volume 3. Appendix A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.W.; Fargion, G.S.

    1996-05-24

    The purpose of the study was to determine the distribution and abundance of cetaceans in areas potentially affected by future oil and gas activities along the continental slope of the north-central and western Gulf of Mexico. This 3.75 year project commenced 1 October 1991 and finished 15 July 1995. The study area was bounded by the Florida-Alabama border, the Texas-Mexico border, and the 100 m and 2,000 m isobaths. Cetacean distribution and abundance were determined from seasonal aerial and shipboard visual surveys and shipboard acoustic surveys. In addition, hydrographic data were collected in situ and by satellite remote sensing to characterize cetacean habitat. Finally, tagging and tracking of sperm whales using satellite telemetry was attempted. Appendix A contains: the cetacean, trutle, and bird sighting data from all shipboard and aerial visual surveys; contact data from the shipboard acoustic survey; and the cetacean environmental profiles. Cetaceans were observed throughout the study area during all four seasons. Nineteen species were identified, including two species (melon-headed whales and Fraser`s dolphins) previously thought to be rare in the Gulf. Pantropical spotted dolphins, bottlenose dolphins, clymene dolphins, striped dolphins, Atlantic spotted dolphins, and melon-headed whales were the most common small cetaceans and the sperm whale was the most common large cetacean. The mean annual abundance for all cetaceans was estimated to be 19,198. Although the study area had complex and dynamic oceanography, bottom depth was the only environmental variable which correlated to cetacean distribution.

  17. Groundwater Flow Model of Corrective Action Units 101 and 102: Central and Western Pahute Mesa, Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada, Revision 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greg Ruskauff

    2006-06-01

    The Pahute Mesa groundwater flow model supports the FFACO UGTA corrective action strategy objective of providing an estimate of the vertical and horizontal extent of contaminant migration for each CAU in order to predict contaminant boundaries. A contaminant boundary is the model-predicted perimeter that defines the extent of radionuclide-contaminated groundwater from underground nuclear testing above background conditions exceeding Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) standards. The contaminant boundary will be composed of both a perimeter boundary and a lower hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) boundary. Additional results showing contaminant concentrations and the location of the contaminant boundary at selected times will also be presented. These times may include the verification period, the end of the five-year proof-of-concept period, as well as other times that are of specific interest. The FFACO (1996) requires that the contaminant transport model predict the contaminant boundary at 1,000 years and “at a 95% level of confidence.” The Pahute Mesa Phase I flow model described in this report provides, through the flow fields derived from alternative hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) and recharge models, one part of the data required to compute the contaminant boundary. Other components include the simplified source term model, which incorporates uncertainty and variability in the factors that control radionuclide release from an underground nuclear test (SNJV, 2004a), and the transport model with the concomitant parameter uncertainty as described in Shaw (2003). The uncertainty in all the above model components will be evaluated to produce the final contaminant boundary. This report documents the development of the groundwater flow model for the Central and Western Pahute Mesa CAUs.

  18. Integrated assessment of infant exposure to persistent organic pollutants and mercury via dietary intake in a central western Mediterranean site (Menorca Island).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junqué, Eva; Garí, Mercè; Arce, Anna; Torrent, Maties; Sunyer, Jordi; Grimalt, Joan O

    2017-07-01

    In this research the levels of organochlorine compounds (OCs) and mercury (Hg) in several food items from Menorca Island were presented. The dietary exposure assessment was performed in children population from the island. Finally, body burden of OCs and Hg in these infants were associated with their dietary intakes of the selected food items. The dietary exposure to persistent pollutants by children population from Menorca Island was assessed. The concentrations of 11 organochlorine pesticides, 6 polychlorinated biphenils (PCBs) and 1 inorganic toxic element, Hg, were determined in 46 food samples that included fish, shellfish, meat, fruit, vegetables, cheese and eggs, which were acquired in local markets and department stores in the Menorca Island. The most contaminated food items were fish and shellfish, followed by meat and cheese products. OC levels were similar or lower than in other previous studies. However, 66% of the analysed fish and shellfish species for Hg exceeded the human consumption safety limits according to the European Union Legislation. Pollutant data from food was combined with the pattern of consumption of these foodstuffs in order to calculate the estimated daily intake (EDI) of these contaminants. According to our results, fish and fruit were the main sources of OCs to the EDIs (contributing to 37% and 29%, respectively) while fish and shellfish were the main sources of Hg (76% and 17%). The estimated EDIs of OCs were well below to the reported FAO/WHO Tolerable Intakes. However, estimated weekly intake of Hg would exceed the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake indicated by EFSA in the case that the only fish and seafood source would be from the central western Mediterranean. Direct associations between fish/shellfish consumption and hair concentrations of Hg and fish and meat consumption and 4,4'-DDT concentrations in venous serum in the Menorcan children were observed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of household and village characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health care spending in Western and Central Rural China: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hong

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The study aimed to examine the effect of household and community characteristics on financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health payment in Western and Central Rural China. Methods A household survey was conducted in 2008 in Hebei and Shaanxi provinces and the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region using a multi-stage sampling technique. Independent variables included village characteristics, household income, chronic illness status, health care use and health spending. A composite contextual variable, named village deprivation, was derived from socio-economic status and availability of health care facilities in each village using factor analysis. Dependent variables were whether household health payment was more than 40% of household's capacity to pay (catastrophic health payment and whether household per capita income was put under Chinese national poverty line (1067 Yuan income per year after health spending (impoverishment. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to assess the effect of the independent variables on the two outcomes. Results Households with low per capita income, having elderly, hospitalized or chronically ill members, and whose head was unemployed were more likely to incur financial catastrophe and impoverishment due to health expenditure. Both catastrophic and impoverishing health payments increased with increased village deprivation. However, the presence of a village health clinic had no effect on the two outcomes, nor did household enrollment in the New Rural Cooperative Medical Scheme (national health insurance. Conclusions Village deprivation independently increases the risk for financial hardship due to health payment after adjusting for known household-level factors. This suggests that policy makers need to view the individual, household and village as separate units for policy targeting.

  20. Behavioral responses of one western lowland gorilla (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic, to tourists, researchers and trackers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klailova, Michelle; Hodgkinson, Chloe; Lee, Phyllis C

    2010-09-01

    Gorilla tourism, widely perceived as a lucrative industry, is propelled by strong market demand with programs in five countries and for three of four gorilla subspecies. Human presence may negatively affect wild gorillas, potentially lowering immunity and increasing the likelihood of acquiring human-borne disease. Yet, behavioral impacts of humans on wild gorilla behavior remain largely unexplored, particularly for western lowland gorillas. We evaluate the impact of tourist presence, human observer numbers (tourists, trackers, and researchers), and human observer distance on the behavior of one habituated gorilla group at Bai Hokou, Central African Republic. Behavioral data were collected for more than 12 months from January 2007. Of silverback aggressive events, 39% (N=229) were human directed, but 65% were low-level soft barks. Adult females, and one in particular, were responsible for the highest number of aggressive events toward humans. Humans maintained closer proximity to the silverback when tourists were present, although tourist numbers had no significant impact on overall group activity budgets or rates of human-directed aggression. However, as research team size increased, group feeding rates decreased. Close observer-silverback distance correlated with a decrease in his feeding rates and an increase in human monitoring. He directed less aggression toward observers at distances >10 m, although observers spent 48.5% of time between 6 and 10 m of the silverback. We discuss gorilla personality as a factor in human-directed aggression. We explore whether the current 7 m distance limit governing gorilla tourism, based on disease transmission risks, is sufficient considering the potential behavioral stressor of close human presence. We recommend increasing minimum observation distance to >10 m where possible, decreasing observer group sizes, particularly after a visit consisting of maximum numbers and restricting tourist access to 1 visit/day. 2010 Wiley

  1. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus from Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 2: Prognostic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Gaby; Rijckaert, Joke; Mair, Tim; Amory, Helene; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshøj Delany, Rikke; Fouché, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika; Picavet, Tresemiek; Roscher, Katja; Verwilghen, Denis; Westermann, Cornélie; Saegerman, Claude

    2017-11-01

    To identify prognostic variables for adult equids and foals with tetanus. Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. One hundred fifty-five adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus. None. Variables from history and clinical examination were statistically compared between survivors and nonsurvivors (adults: 49 survivors, 85 nonsurvivors; foals: 7 survivors, 10 nonsurvivors). Cases euthanized for financial reasons were excluded. Mortality rates in adults and foals were 68.4% and 66.7%, respectively. Variables associated with survival in adults included: standing, normal intestinal sounds and defecation, voluntarily drinking, eating soft or normal food, lower heart and respiratory rates, high base excess on admission, longer diagnosis time, treatment and hospitalization delay, and mild severity grade. Variables associated with death included: anorexia, dysphagia, dyspnea, low blood potassium concentration on admission, moderate and severe disease grading, development of dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency and seizures during hospitalization, treatment with glycerol guaiacolate, intravenous fluids, and intravenous glucose solutions. Variables associated with survival in foals included standing on admission, voluntarily eating soft food and drinking, older age, and longer hospitalization delay. Outcome was not different between different tetanus antitoxin (TAT) dosages, although there was a trend of increasing survival rate with increasing TAT dosages. Cases with appropriate vaccination prior to development of tetanus were rare, but had improved outcome and shorter hospitalization. Prognosis for equine tetanus is poor with similar outcome and prognostic factors in foals and adults. The prognostic assessment of cases with tetanus provides clinicians with new evidence-based information related to patient management. Several prognostic indicators relate to the ability to

  2. Retrospective evaluation of 155 adult equids and 21 foals with tetanus in Western, Northern, and Central Europe (2000-2014). Part 1: Description of history and clinical evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Galen, Gaby; Saegerman, Claude; Rijckaert, Joke; Amory, Helene; Armengou, Lara; Bezdekova, Barbora; Durie, Inge; Findshøj Delany, Rikke; Fouché, Nathalie; Haley, Laura; Hewetson, Michael; van den Hoven, Rene; Kendall, Anna; Malalana, Fernando; Muller Cavalleri, Jessika; Picavet, Tresemiek; Roscher, Katja; Verwilghen, Denis; Wehrli Eser, Meret; Westermann, Cornélie; Mair, Tim

    2017-11-01

    To describe clinical data of hospitalized adult equids and foals with tetanus. Multicenter retrospective study (2000-2014). Twenty Western, Northern, and Central European university teaching hospitals and private referral centers. One hundred fifty-five adult equids (>6 months) and 21 foals (tetanus. None. Information on geographic, annual and seasonal data, demographic- and management-related data, clinical history, clinical examination and blood analysis on admission, complications, treatments, and outcomes were described and statistically compared between adults and foals. The described cases were often young horses. In 4 adult horses, tetanus developed despite appropriate vaccination and in 2 foals despite preventive tetanus antitoxin administration at birth. Castration, hoof abscesses, and wounds were the most common entry sites for adults; umbilical cord infections and wounds for foals. Stiffness was the commonest observed initial clinical sign. Blood analyses frequently revealed an inflammatory response, hemoconcentration, muscle damage, azotemia, negative energy balance, liver damage, and electrolyte and acid base disturbances. Common complications or clinical signs developing during hospitalization included dysphagia, dyspnea, recumbency, hyperthermia, seizures, hyperlipemia, gastrointestinal impactions, dysuria, and laryngeal spasms. Cases were supported with wound debridement, antimicrobial treatment, tetanus antitoxin, muscle spasm and seizure control, analgesia, anti-inflammatory drugs, fluid therapy, and nutritional support. Mortality rates were 68.4% in adult horses and 66.7% in foals. Foals differed from adult horses with respect to months of occurrence, signalment, management-related data, potential causative events, clinical signs on admission, blood analysis, complications, and severity grades. This is the first study that rigorously describes a large population of equids affected by tetanus. The information provided is potentially useful to

  3. Human impacts on river ice regime in the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takács, Katalin; Nagy, Balázs; Kern, Zoltán

    2014-05-01

    examples from the Carpathian Basin represent some of the most common human impacts (engineering regulation, hydropower usage, water pollution), disturbing natural river ice regimes of mid-latitude rivers with densely populated or dynamically growing urban areas along their courses. In addition simple tests are also introduced to detect not only the climatic, but also the effect of anthropogenic impacts on river ice regime. As a result of river regulation on River Danube at Budapest a vanishing trend in river ice phenomena could be detected in the Danube records. The average ice-affected season shortened from 40 to 27 days, the average ice-covered season reduced greatly, from 27 to 7 days. In historical times the ice jams on the River Danube caused many times ice floods. The relative frequency of the break-up jam also decreased; moreover no ice flood occurred over the past 50 years. The changes due to hydropower usage are different upstream and downstream to the damming along the river. On Raba River upstream of the Nick dam at Ragyogóhíd, the ice-affected and ice-covered seasons were lengthened by 4 and 9 days, in contrast, downstream of the dam, the length of the ice-covered season was shortened by 7 days, and the number of ice-affected days decreased by 8 days at Árpás. During the observation period at Budapest on Danube River, the temperature requirements for river ice phenomena occurrence changed. Nowadays, much lower temperatures are needed to create the same ice phenomena compared to the start of the observations. For ice appearance, the mean winter air temperature requirements decreased from +2.39 °C to +1.71 °C. This investigation focused on anthropogenic effects on river ice regime, eliminating the impact of climatic conditions. Different forms of anthropogenic effects cause in most cases, a shorter length of ice-affected seasons and decreasing frequency of ice phenomena occurrence. Rising winter temperatures result the same changes in river ice regime

  4. Around or across the Carpathians: colonization model of the Danube basin inferred from genetic diversification of stone loach (Barbatula barbatula) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedivá, Alena; Janko, Karel; Slechtová, Vendula; Kotlík, Petr; Simonović, Predrag; Delic, Antun; Vassilev, Milen

    2008-03-01

    Despite increasing information about postglacial recolonization of European freshwater systems, very little is known about pre-Pleistocene history. We used data on the recent distribution and phylogenetic relationships of stone loach mitochondrial lineages to reconstruct the initial colonization pattern of the Danube river system, one of the most important refuges for European freshwater ichthyofauna. Fine-scale phylogeography of the Danubian populations revealed five highly divergent lineages of pre-Pleistocene age and suggested the multiple origin of the Danubian stone loach. The mean sequence divergence among lineages extended from 7.0% to 13.4%, which is the highest intraspecific divergence observed so far within this river system. Based on the phylogeographical patterns, we propose the following hypothesis to relate the evolution and dispersal of the studied species with the evolution of the Danube river system and the Carpathian Mountains: (i) during the warmer period in the Miocene, the areas surrounding the uplifting Alps and Carpathians served as mountainous refuges for cold-water adapted fish and promoted the diversification of its populations, and (ii) from these refuges, colonization of the emerging Danube river system may have taken place following the retreat of the Central Paratethys. Co-existence of highly divergent mtDNA lineages in a single river system shows that range shifts in response to climatic changes during the Quaternary did not cause extensive genetic homogenization in the stone loach populations. However, the wide distribution of some mtDNA lineages indicates that the Pleistocene glaciations promoted the dispersal and mixing of populations through the lowlands.

  5. Hydrocarbon potential of the Early Oligocene Menilite shales in the Eastern Outer Carpathians (Tarcău and Vrancea Nappes, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorff, Małgorzata; Rospondek, Mariusz; Kluska, Bartosz; Marynowski, Leszek

    2017-04-01

    During Oligocene to early Miocene time an extensive accumulation of organic-rich sedimentary rocks occurred in entire Paratethyan Basin, including its central part, i.e. the Carpathian Foredeep basin. Rocks of so-called Menilite facies formed there, burying significant amounts of organic matter (OM). These Menilite shales are now widely considered as a source of hydrocarbons throughout the Carpathian region. For the purpose of presented study, rock samples of the Menilite facies (mainly of the Lower Menilite and Bituminous Marl Members) were collected from two sections located in the different tectonic units (the Tarcău and Vrancea Nappes, Romania) of the Outer Carpathians. The main goal of the study was to assess and compare their hydrocarbon potential by examination of bulk geochemistry (total organic carbon content, pyrolysis Rock-Eval), vitrinite reflectance (Ro) and application of lipid biomarker parameters. The data show high variability in OM quantity and quality. Total organic carbon (TOC) content reaches peak values in the siliceous facies of the Lower Menilite Member (up to 8.6 wt% TOC), which contains type II kerogen represented by mainly marine OM type. Such results are confirmed by the presence of short-chain n-alkanes and hopanes. Mixed type II/III kerogen gains importance together with increasing contribution of turbiditic sedimentation. Terrigenous input is marked by occurrence of conifer aromatic biomarkers (such as simonellite, retene and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroretene) and odd over even long chain n-alkanes predominance, characteristic for epicuticular leaf waxes. The analysed source rocks can be classified as oil-prone and subordinately mixed oil/gas-prone. OM in the inner tectonic unit (Tarcău Nappe; Tmax 430° C, Ro 0.5%) reaches onset of hydrocarbon generation, while in the outer unit (Vrancea Nappe) OM is immature (Tmax 425° C, Ro 0.4%). This maturity trend may be an effect of different burial histories of these units, as well as variation in

  6. Triple isotope (δD, δ17O, δ18O) study on precipitation, drip water and speleothem fluid inclusions for a Western Central European cave (NW Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affolter, Stéphane; Häuselmann, Anamaria D.; Fleitmann, Dominik; Häuselmann, Philipp; Leuenberger, Markus

    2015-11-01

    . This study on precipitation, drip water and fluid inclusions will be used as a speleothem proxy calibration for Milandre cave in order to reconstruct paleotemperatures and moisture source variations for Western Central Europe.

  7. From new generation of remote sensing geological maps to 3-D model: the Central Kyzylkum (Western Uzbekistan) is taken as example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorova, Elena

    2013-04-01

    Geographic information systems (GIS) together with remote sensing (RS) have become powerful tools in geosciences. The application of GIS technologies in geological exploration including mapping of remote sensing geological bases represents new trend in space-geological studies. GIS technologies are a multifunctional tool of input, visualization, analysis and output of information necessary for achieving geological objectives. They enable a prompt processing of geological information for various territories and levels - from a province to ore area or deposit. A modern remote sensing geological map reflects a new level of organization of source data, and involves a vast territory and previously unknown or unused factors, which proceed from non-traditional methods of studies. This is the benefit of distance bases as they explain the structure of geological complexes but also contribute to revealing new elements that cannot be established using traditional methods of geological studies. Data obtained from computational analysis of Digital Elevation Models (DEM) and from plotting the remotely sensed geological structures are complemented by data acquired in the field using traditional mapping methods. In this paper, the new improved results are tested in the western part of Uzbekistan — the region of Central Kyzylkum, which include of numerous ore deposits. Landsat TM imagery was successfully used for geological structures recognition due to its synoptic view over large areas that allow the detection of regional geological features — faults, ring structures. Spatial information is crucial for ore structure detection; nevertheless spectral data can also help in the geological interpretation of space images. In order to combine the spatial and spectral information of Landsat TM data, panchromatic and multispectral images were fused in a synergetic imagery using PCA analysis. Edge enhancement filtering techniques were also applied on the Landsat images to facilitate

  8. The southwestern Carpathians as an ancient centre of diversity of freshwater gammarid amphipods: insights from the Gammarus fossarum species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copilaş-Ciocianu, Denis; Petrusek, Adam

    2015-08-01

    Gammarus fossarum is a diverse species complex of epigean freshwater amphipods throughout Europe. Due to their poor dispersal capabilities and ubiquity, these crustaceans may serve as a model for investigating the influence of historical factors on the contemporary distribution and diversity patterns of freshwater macrozoobenthos. Here, we investigate the fine-scale phylogeographic structure of this complex across its range in the southwestern Carpathian Mountains, which comprises two areas that are geographically isolated from its main European distribution area as well as from each other. Given the Tertiary age of many freshwater Gammarus species, we hypothesize that the southwestern Carpathian populations reflect a relict distribution pattern. We used two mitochondrial and three nuclear markers from 32 localities to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships and estimate the timings of divergence among southwestern Carpathian and non-Carpathian lineages. Cryptic diversity was evaluated from mitochondrial markers by employing phylogenetic and distance-based methods. We distinguished at least 16 cryptic microendemic taxa, some of them coexisting, distributed in the southwestern Carpathians in a mosaic-like pattern. These lineages form a monophyletic group together with several lineages from southeastern Europe. Estimated divergence times indicate a Middle Miocene origin of this clade, with many deep splits dating back to more than 10 Ma. This time frame corresponds with a period of intense geological subsidence in the region that gave birth to the Pannonian Basin. We conclude that subsidence could have been an important driver of diversification in freshwater Gammarus and that the southwestern Carpathians represent an ancient centre of diversity for these crustaceans. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Changes in annual temperature and precipitation extremes in the Carpathians since AD 1961

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Magdalena Micu, Dana; Cheval, Sorin

    2014-05-01

    The Carpathians are the largest, longest, most twisted and fragmented segment of the Alpine system, stretching between latitudes 44°N and 50°N, and longitudes 17°E and 27°E. This European mountain range is a climatically transitional region between major atmospheric circulation source areas of the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea and continental Europe. The region is a European biodiversity hotspot, containing over one third of all European plant species. It is acknowledged that the mountain regions are particularly sensitive and vulnerable to climate change than any other regions located at the same latitudes. Observational studies on the variability and trends of extreme events suggest an overall consensus towards a significant increase in the frequency, duration and intensity of warm extremes in most of these regions, including the Carpathians. 15 core indices, defined by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI), were computed in order to investigate the changes in annual temperature and precipitation extremes, based on their known relevance for the infrastructure, human health and tourism activities in these mountains. The indices were computed from gridded daily datasets of minimum and maximum temperature and precipitation at 0.1° resolution (~10 km), available online within the framework of the project CarpatClim (www.carpatclim-eu.org) for the period 1961-2010. Changes in the annual temperature and precipitation extremes in the last five decades have been identified with the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test, at the 90% significance level (two-tail test). The results show decreasing trends in cold-related thermal indices, especially in the number of frost days, and increasing trends in warm-related ones. No consistent trend in precipitation extremes has been found. There is a generally uniform signal of significant increasing trends in the frequency of summer days across the Carpathians, with no obvious differences between

  10. Changes in grassland management and plant diversity in a marginal region of the Carpathian Mts. in 1999-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halada, Ľuboš; David, Stanislav; Hreško, Juraj; Klimantová, Alexandra; Bača, Andrej; Rusňák, Tomáš; Buraľ, Miroslav; Vadel, Ľuboš

    2017-12-31

    The political change from socialism to democracy in countries of Central and Eastern Europe at the end of the 20th century induced broad changes in agriculture mostly due to land ownership changes and strong reduction of subsidies to agriculture. This resulted in agricultural decline, including grassland abandonment, which influenced grassland biodiversity and conservation. Between 1999 and 2015 we studied the grasslands in the area depopulated in the early 1980's in the Poloniny National Park (NE Slovakia, Carpathian Mts.). The aim of the study was to examine influence of environmental factors and grassland management driven by the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) to plant community structure and taxonomical diversity. We identified altitude and soil properties as the main environmental factors: altitude determines climate gradient and probably also management intensity gradient and soil properties express soil fertility via A-horizon depth. We identified remarkable increase of proportion of managed grasslands from only 8% in 1999 to 40% in 2012-2015; other 7% of sampled grasslands were recently restored and prepared for future management. The average species richness in grasslands managed in 2012-2015 increased from 47.5 species per record in 1999 to 54.2 species in 2012-2015, the increase was found statistically significant. In 2012-2015, we observed statistically significant difference in the average species richness between managed (54.2) and abandoned grasslands (46.3). The agricultural subsidies of the CAP drive the grassland management in the study area. Therefore, we conclude that CAP enabled grassland biodiversity maintenance in significant part of the Poloniny National Park following start of its application in 2004 and above provided figures can be considered as indicators of the CAP effectiveness in our study area. However, the conservation of mountain meadows remains a challenge because of their poor accessibility. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  11. The effect of protected areas on forest disturbance in the Carpathian Mountains 1985-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butsic, Van; Munteanu, Catalina; Griffiths, Patrick; Knorn, Jan; Radeloff, Volker C; Lieskovský, Juraj; Mueller, Daniel; Kuemmerle, Tobias

    2017-06-01

    Protected areas are a cornerstone for forest protection, but they are not always effective during times of socioeconomic and institutional crises. The Carpathian Mountains in Eastern Europe are an ecologically outstanding region, with widespread seminatural and old-growth forest. Since 1990, Carpathian countries (Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia, and Ukraine) have experienced economic hardship and institutional changes, including the breakdown of socialism, European Union accession, and a rapid expansion of protected areas. The question is how protected-area effectiveness has varied during these times across the Carpathians given these changes. We analyzed a satellite-based data set of forest disturbance (i.e., forest loss due to harvesting or natural disturbances) from 1985 to 2010 and used matching statistics and a fixed-effects estimator to quantify the effect of protection on forest disturbance. Protected areas in the Czech Republic, Slovakia, and the Ukraine had significantly less deforestation inside protected areas than outside in some periods; the likelihood of disturbance was reduced by 1-5%. The effectiveness of protection increased over time in these countries, whereas the opposite was true in Romania. Older protected areas were most effective in Romania and Hungary, but newer protected areas were more effective in Czech Republic, and Poland. Strict protection (International Union for Conservation of Nature [IUCN] protection category Ia-II) was not more effective than landscape-level protection (IUCN III-VI). We suggest that the strength of institutions, the differences in forest privatization, forest management, prior distribution of protected areas, and when countries joined the European Union may provide explanations for the strikingly heterogeneous effectiveness patterns among countries. Our results highlight how different the effects of protected areas can be at broad scales, indicating that the effectiveness of protected areas is

  12. Biological and Energy Productivity of Natural Spruce Forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. D. Vasilishyn

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The modern practice of forestry production in Ukraine, which is in the process of implementing the conceptual changes in forest management and harmonization of its basic approaches to the basics of sustainable development, requires a significant expansion of the current regulatory and informational tools used to assess the ecological functions of forests. For this purpose, during the 2012–2014, as part of an international project GESAPU, models and tables of bioproductivity for forest tree species in Ukraine were completed. The article presents the results of modeling the dynamics of the conversion coefficients for the main components of phytomass of modal natural spruce forests of the Carpathian region of Ukraine based on information from 32 plots in the database of «Forest Phytomass of Ukraine». According to the state forest accounting of Ukraine as of January 1, 2011, the spruce forests in the Ukrainian Carpathians cover an area of 426.2 thousand ha, 45 % of which are spruce of natural origin. To evaluate the productivity of modal dynamics of pure and mixed spruce stands, the study developed models of the stock and overall productivity, derived by Bertalanffy growth function. On the basis of these models, normative reference tables of biological productivity of natural modal spruce forests of the Ukrainian Carpathians were developed. To successfully meet the challenges of evaluating the energy possibilities of forestry of Ukraine, the study used tables of energetic productivity of investigated stands. Built on the basis of the tables of bioproductivity, they reflect the dynamic processes of energy storage in the phytomass components and can be used in forest management to predict volumes of energetic woods.

  13. Calidad de las semillas de accesiones colectadas en las regiones occidental, oriental y central de Cuba (Nota técnica Seed quality of accessions collected in the western, eastern and central regions of Cuba (Technical note

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda González

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Se efectuaron dos misiones de colecta durante el 2007 (regiones occidental y oriental y el 2009 (región central en Cuba, que comprendió zonas puntuales de las provincias de Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Bayamo, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Río, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus y Villa Clara. Se colectaron semillas de 88 accesiones de leguminosas (52 arbóreas y 36 herbáceas. Posteriormente a todas se les realizó una prueba de germinación en placas de Petri con arena de río, previo corte de la cubierta, para conocer su calidad. El número de semillas utilizadas fue variable en cada accesión, en correspondencia con el tamaño de la muestra, y solo se empleó una réplica. Los conteos de germinación se realizaron según las normas internacionales. Se obtuvo una alta calidad en las semillas de las especies arbóreas y arbustivas (70-100%, lo cual no ocurrió en las caobas (Swietenia sp. de Granma (0 y 8% ni en Jatropha curcas colectada en Pinar del Río, Guantánamo (0% y Banao (8%, tampoco en Albizia lebbeck procedente de Guantánamo y en Guazuma ulmifolia (24% de Villa Clara. Para las leguminosas herbáceas la germinación varió entre 80 y 100%, excepto en Macroptilium atropurpureum (60% y en Teramnus (12% procedentes de Granma, en Neonotonia wightii (20% de Matanzas, en Calopogonium sp. (52% de Banao y en Glycine sp. (50% de Sancti Spíritus. Se concluye que la calidad de las semillas estuvo en dependencia del tiempo que estuvieron en el campo después de la maduración de las legumbres. Se recomienda la continuidad de la colecta en otras zonas del país, lo que permitirá una mayor diversidad en los sistemas de producción agropecuarios.Two collection missions were conducted during 2007 (western and eastern regions and 2009 (central region in Cuba, which comprised certain zones of the provinces Granma, Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, Camagüey, Pinar del Rio, Matanzas, Sancti Spiritus and Villa Clara. Seeds from 88 accessions (52 tree

  14. Estimating the water needed to end or ameliorate the drought in the Carpathian region

    OpenAIRE

    T. Antofie; G. Naumann; J. Spinoni; J. Vogt

    2014-01-01

    A drought severity climatology for the Carpathian Region has been produced using the self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index (Sc-PDSI) for the period 1961–2010. Using the Sc-PDSI and the assumptions of the Palmer Drought Model (PDM) the precipitation required for drought termination (when Sc-PDSI reaches −0.5) and amelioration (when Sc-PDSI reaches −2.0) are computed for periods of 1, 3 and 6 months. We discuss the reduction of the uncertainty in the determinat...

  15. HUMAN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ECOSYSTEM SERVICES IN THE PETROŞANI DEPRESSION (SOUTHERN CARPATHIANS, ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANDRA COSTACHE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the changes in ecosystem services in the most important coal field from the Southern Carpathians (Romania. The time horizon considered is the interval 1950-2010, characterized by two major processes: intensive development of the mining industry (1950-1989 and subsequent restructuring of mining, with significant consequences since 1996. Socio-economic phenomena associated with these two stages in the evolution of the region have generated major changes in ecosystem services, leading to increased human vulnerability, both to extreme events (natural hazards and pressure from economic factors.

  16. Past climate variability inferred from statistical processing of documentary data: a case study on extreme meteorological events in western central France from 1500 to 2000 AD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Clément; Chaumillon, Eric; Audé, Jean-Luc

    2010-05-01

    Recent human-induced climate changes are expected to have an impact on extreme events including shifts in storm tracks, heavier precipitations and more severe droughts (Planton, 2008). Although climate models successfully describe the past mean climate variability, they often fail to correctly reproduce such extreme events, mainly because of a low spatial and temporal resolution (Sánchez et al., 2004). Reports of extreme meteorological events gathered from documentary archives are be useful to fill this gap, and would also provide insights into local climatic variations (Leijonhufvud et al., 2008; Rodrigo, 2008; Wheeler, 2006). In this study, a local text book published by Audé (2006) was used as a source of climatic data. It consists of a list of extreme meteorological events recorded in historical archives (diaries mainly) in western central France, along the Bay of Biscay. From the book, 284 extreme meteorological events that occurred between 1500 and 2000 were selected. A presence-absence matrix was built, the events being classified in 7 distinct categories by Audé. A preliminary multivariate analysis (Principal Component Analysis) was used to group these categories into 4 classes of events. First axis (22.3% of explained variance) discriminated the events related to temperature, with frosts and snowfalls on one side, versus gales and storms on the other side. Second axis (18.5% of explained variance) discriminated the events related to precipitation, with floods and rainfalls on one side (humid), versus droughts on the other (dry). For each class, a 29-year running mean was computed to convert binary qualitative data to semi-quantitative curves. A spectral analysis was also performed on the same binary data to detect potential climatic cycles. Despite the randomness of the historical records reported in this book, that much relies on the subjective perception of meteorological events by past witnesses, the results obtained are consistent with existing data

  17. Composition of Atlantic forest in northern Carpathian foothills, from a charcoal record from a Neolithic domestic site at Żerków (Poland: The relevance of oak and hazel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moskal-Del Hoyo Magdalena

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A study of firewood remains from the foothills of the Western Carpathians in Poland yielded information about the history of forest communities growing in the vicinity of human settlements in the Atlantic period. The anthracological material was collected at Żerków, a Neolithic site of the Linear Band Pottery culture, situated on the highest parts of a hill covered by fertile soil. The anthracological assemblage was dominated by Quercus and Corylus avellana, followed by Acer and Maloideae, suggesting that those taxa probably were significant constituents of the local forest during the Atlantic period. Based on the ecological requirements of the identified taxa, such communities occupied areas of more open canopy, but it is unclear whether the material reflects the composition of the primeval forest or rather the presence of open canopy created by human impacts on local ecosystems during the period of settlement.

  18. Observed changes in seasonal heat waves and warm temperature extremes in the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micu, Dana; Birsan, Marius-Victor; Dumitrescu, Alexandru; Cheval, Sorin

    2015-04-01

    Extreme high temperature have a large impact on environment and human activities, especially in high elevation areas particularly sensitive to the recent climate warming. The climate of the Romanian Carpathians became warmer particularly in winter, spring and summer, exibiting a significant increasing frequency of warm extremes. The paper investigates the seasonal changes in the frequency, duration and intensity of heat waves in relation to the shifts in the daily distribution of maximum temperatures over a 50-year period of meteorological observations (1961-2010). The paper uses the heat wave definition recommended by the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) and exploits the gridded daily dataset of maximum temperature at 0.1° resolution (~10 km) developed in the framework of the CarpatClim project (www.carpatclim.eu). The seasonal changes in heat waves behavior were identified using the Mann-Kendall non-parametric trend test. The results suggest an increase in heat wave frequency and a lengthening of intervals affected by warm temperature extremes all over the study region, which are explained by the shifts in the upper (extreme) tail of the daily maximum temperature distribution in most seasons. The trends are consistent across the region and are well correlated to the positive phases of the East Atlantic Oscillation. Our results are in good agreement with the previous temperature-related studies concerning the Carpathian region. This study was realized within the framework of the project GENCLIM, financed by UEFISCDI, code PN-II 151/2014.

  19. Detrital events and hydroclimate variability in the Romanian Carpathians during the mid-to-late Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longman, Jack; Ersek, Vasile; Veres, Daniel; Salzmann, Ulrich

    2017-07-01

    The Romanian Carpathians are located at the confluence of three major atmospheric pressure fields: the North Atlantic, the Mediterranean and the Siberian. Despite its importance for understanding past human impact and climate change, high-resolution palaeoenvironmental reconstructions of Holocene hydroclimate variability, and in particular records of extreme precipitation events in the area, are rare. Here we present a 7500-year-long high-resolution record of past climatic change and human impact recorded in a peatbog from the Southern Carpathians, integrating palynological, geochemical and sedimentological proxies. Natural climate fluctuations appear to be dominant until 4500 years before present (yr BP), followed by increasing importance of human impact. Sedimentological and geochemical analyses document regular minerogenic deposition within the bog, linked to periods of high precipitation. Such minerogenic depositional events began 4000 yr BP, with increased depositional rates during the Medieval Warm Period (MWP), the Little Ice Age (LIA) and during periods of societal upheaval (e.g. the Roman conquest of Dacia). The timing of minerogenic events appears to indicate a teleconnection between major shifts in North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and hydroclimate variability in southeastern Europe, with increased minerogenic deposition correlating to low NAO index values. By linking the minerogenic deposition to precipitation variability, we state that this link persists throughout the mid-to-late Holocene.

  20. Mapping Secondary Forest Succession on Abandoned Agricultural Land in the Polish Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolecka, N.; Kozak, J.; Kaim, D.; Dobosz, M.; Ginzler, Ch.; Psomas, A.

    2016-06-01

    Land abandonment and secondary forest succession have played a significant role in land cover changes and forest cover increase in mountain areas in Europe over the past several decades. Land abandonment can be easily observed in the field over small areas, but it is difficult to map over the large areas, e.g., with remote sensing, due to its subtle and spatially dispersed character. Our previous paper presented how the LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) and topographic data were used to detect secondary forest succession on abandoned land in one commune located in the Polish Carpathians by means of object-based image analysis (OBIA) and GIS (Kolecka et al., 2015). This paper proposes how the method can be applied to efficiently map secondary forest succession over the entire Polish Carpathians, incorporating spatial sampling strategy supported by various ancillary data. Here we discuss the methods of spatial sampling, its limitations and results in the context of future secondary forest succession modelling.

  1. The significance of Gosau-type basins for the Late Cretaceous tectonic history of the Alpine-Carpathian Belt.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willingshofer, E.; Neubauer, F.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A key feature of Late Creataceous tectonics throughout the Alpine-Carpathian-Pannonian (ALCAPA) region is the synchronous formation of sedimentary basins (Gosau basins) and exhumation of metamorphic domes. Initial subsidence, spatially varying in time (Cenomanian-Santonian), within Gosau-type basins

  2. Geodynamics and intermediate-depth seismicity in Vrancea (the south-eastern Carpathians): Current state-of-the art

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ismael-Zadeh, A.; Matenco, L.C.; Radulian, M.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Panza, G.

    2012-01-01

    The Vrancea region of the south-eastern Carpathians is a remarkable site of intra-continental intermediate-depth seismicity. A large set of geological, geophysical, and geodetic observations has been accumulated for the last few decades and utilised to improve our knowledge of the shallow and deep

  3. Novel C26 highly branched isoprenoid thiophenes and alkane from the Menilite Formation, Outer Carpathians, SE Poland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Rospondek, M.J.; Koster, J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel C26 HBI alkane [2,6,10,13,14-pentamethyl-7-(3 -methylpentyl)pentadecane] and C26 highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiophenes, possessing the same carbon skeleton, have been tentatively identified in sediments of the Oligocene Menilite Formation of the Outer Carpathians, SE Poland. The

  4. MEDIA ENVIRONMENT AS FACTOR OF REALIZATION OF CREATIVE POTENTIAL OF FUTURE TEACHERS` IN THE MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS OF THE UKRAINIAN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alla Lebedieva

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The article shows up “media environment” as a factor of future teachers` creative potential realization in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The problem of using media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians and the ways of its optimization is the main point of this research. Highlights ways to modernize social and professional orientation training of students in the creative process of nature is situates in information education and educational environment of high school. We consider the causal link use media environment as a factor of future teachers` creative potential and complexity of the teacher in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians. The basic function of the media environment are extensity, instrumental, communicative, interactive, multimedia. Reveals some aspects of training students to creatively active teaching process we describe subjects with objective possibilities in the formation of professional skills of future teachers` and which directly affect the realization of creative potential – “Ukrainian folk art”, “Basic recitation and rhetoric”, “The basis of pedagogical creativity”. The necessity of creating a full-fledged media environment in higher education is important condition of successful education as an important factor that allows the efficiency of the creative potential of future teachers` in the mountainous schools of the Ukrainian Carpathians.

  5. Analyses of multichannel seismic reflection, gravity and magnetic data along a regional profile across the central-western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaubey, A.K.; Rao, D.G.; Srinivas, K.; Ramprasad, T.; Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.

    of western India, eustatic sea-level changes, Indian and Eurasian plate collision and Himalayan orogeny. Tilted fault blocks (half-grabens) located almost equi-distance from the igneous construct of the 'Prathap Ridge' in the shelf margin basin suggest a...

  6. Multifractal detrended fluctuation analysis to compare coral bank and seafloor seepage area-related characterization along the central Western continental margin of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, B.; VishnuVardhan, Y; Haris, K.; Menezes, A.A.A; Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Fernandes, W.A; Kurian, J.

    exponent of a second-order moment. The two coral banks are located around the buried channels off Malpe, western continental margin of India (WCMI). The Gaveshani bank is lying on a submerged headland with high backscatter strength. The presence of greater...

  7. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations in the highest parts of the Czech Flysch Carpathians: Evolutionary model based on kinematic analysis, electrical imaging and trenching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pánek, Tomáš; Tábořík, Petr; Klimeš, Jan; Komárková, Veronika; Hradecký, Jan; Šťastný, Martin

    2011-06-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSDs) played an important role during the Quaternary evolution of mountain ridges formed by anisotropic flysch rocks of the Outer Western Carpathians (OWC). Four DSGSD-affected ridges in the highest part of the Czech sector of the OWC have been subjected to multidisciplinary investigation involving mapping, structural and kinematic analysis, geoelectrical imaging, trenching and dating. All the studied DSGSDs are strongly predisposed by regional structural fabric given by the intersection of bedding planes, joint sets and faults. Performed research suggests high diversity of mechanisms leading to the origin of individual DSGSDs. The area of a single DSGSD can be affected by various types of movements such as sackung, lateral spreading, toppling or incipient sliding. Electrical imaging and trenching revealed that besides these mechanisms, anisotropic flysch massifs formed by thick-bedded sandstones are strongly exposed to subsurface opening of air-filled voids related to widened crevices. Such a process is driven by deep-seated creep and translational sliding of sandstone beds upon plastic claystones whose strength has been reduced to residual values of the angle of internal friction. Performed radiocarbon and OSL dating revealed that some of the studied DSGSDs originated in the Holocene period, particularly in the Atlantic and Subboreal chronozones.

  8. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964) Täuber 1987 in the Oraştie River basin (Central-Western Romania)

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriu Ioan VINTAN; Petru BURESCU

    2013-01-01

    In the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964) Täuber 1987, identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the mixed broadleaf-needleleaf forests of beech (Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica), f...

  9. Crustal structure of the Carpathian orogen from receiver function analysis: how craton subduction and active delamination affect the crust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrescu, Laura; Tataru, Dragos; Grecu, Bogdan

    2017-04-01

    The Carpathian arc is an uncommon curved collisional system, involving the subduction of the Eastern European craton and the Proterozoic Moesian platform beneath younger European microplates. The Cenozoic collision led to the closure of the Tethys Oceanic basin, portions of which are actively breaking off or delaminating beneath the orogen, generating deep mantle earthquakes. Neogene volcanism, possibly related to subduction slab roll-back, also formed a band of presently extinct volcanoes in the back-arc region. The Carpathian embayment is thus an ideal laboratory to investigate crustal processes related to subduction of cratonic material, multiple plate junctions and active delamination. To better understand how the crustal structure changes from the Eastern European cratonic foreland, across the curved subduction zone, to the younger European microplates, we analyse teleseismic earthquakes recorded at broadband seismic stations located across eastern and southern Carpathians, in Romania and Moldova. We processed data from permanent seismic networks (The Romanian National Seismic Network) as well as data from temporary deployments such as CALIXTO (Carpathian Arc Lithosphere X-Tomography) and SCP (South Carpathian Project). Using extended multi-taper spectral division, we compute and analyse radial and transverse receiver functions. Energy on the transverse component may be an indicator of crustal anisotropy or the existence of intracrustal dipping interfaces. Using phase-weighted H-k stacking of receiver functions, we estimate the crustal thickness and the bulk crustal Poisson's ratio as well as the seismic sharpness of the Moho discontinuity. Furthermore, we invert receiver functions to obtain the S-wave velocity structure of the crust and upper mantle beneath individual stations, which provide concurrent information on the Moho nature. Our results provide a better understanding of crustal structure across complex collisional systems involving the subduction of

  10. Cretaceous sedimentation in the outer Eastern Carpathians: Implications for the facies model reconstruction of the Moldavide Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roban, R. D.; Krézsek, C.; Melinte-Dobrinescu, M. C.

    2017-06-01

    The mid Cretaceous is characterized by high eustatic sea-levels with widespread oxic conditions that made possible the occurrence of globally correlated Oceanic Red Beds. However, very often, these eustatic signals have been overprinted by local tectonics, which in turn resulted in Lower Cretaceous closed and anoxic basins, as in the Eastern Carpathians. There, the black shale to red bed transition occurs in the latest Albian up to the early Cenomanian. Although earlier studies discussed the large-scale basin configuration, no detailed petrography and sedimentology study has been performed in the Eastern Carpathians. This paper describes the Hauterivian to Turonian lithofacies and interprets the depositional settings based on their sedimentological features. The studied sections crop out only in tectonic half windows of the Eastern Carpathians, part of the Vrancea Nappe. The lithofacies comprises black shales interbedded with siderites and sandstones, calcarenites, marls, radiolarites and red shales. The siliciclastic muddy lithofacies in general reflects accumulation by suspension settling of pelagites and hemipelagites in anoxic (black shale) to dysoxic (dark gray and gray to green shales) and oxic (red shales) conditions. The radiolarites alternate with siliceous shales and are considered as evidence of climate changes. The sandstones represent mostly low and high-density turbidite currents in deep-marine lobes, as well as channel/levee systems. The source area is an eastern one, e.g., the Eastern Carpathians Foreland, given the abundance of low grade metamorphic clasts. The Hauterivian - lower Albian sediments are interpreted as deep-marine, linear and multiple sourced mud dominated systems deposited in a mainly anoxic to dysoxic basin. The anoxic conditions existed in the early to late Albian, but sedimentation changed to a higher energy mud/sand-dominated submarine channels and levees. This coarsening upwards tendency is interpreted as the effect of the

  11. Hydrological Data Concerning Submarine Groundwater Discharge Along the Western Margin of Indian River Lagoon, East-Central Florida-December 2016 and January 2017

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Stretching along approximately 200 kilometers (km) of the Atlantic Coast of central Florida, Indian River Lagoon is one of the most biologically diverse estuarine...

  12. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

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    Dmitri V. Politov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Volume 51 (1, 2008, pages 11-18Back Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians     D.V. PolitovLaboratory of Population Genetics, Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Russian Academy of Sciences Y.V. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine N.N. PirkoInstitute of Cell Biology and Genetic Engineering, Ukraine E.A. MudrikDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine I.I. KorshikovDonetsk Botanical Gardens, Ukraine  contact authors by Editorial Office  SUMMARY  In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical, characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine (Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in the East Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation of outcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation or reforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations

  13. Subduction of the South Chile active spreading ridge: A 17 Ma to 3 Ma magmatic record in central Patagonia (western edge of Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires, Argentina)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutonnet, E.; Arnaud, N.; Guivel, C.; Lagabrielle, Y.; Scalabrino, B.; Espinoza, F.

    2010-01-01

    The Chile Triple Junction is a natural laboratory to study the interactions between magmatism and tectonics during the subduction of an active spreading ridge beneath a continent. The MLBA plateau (Meseta del Lago Buenos Aires) is one of the Neogene alkali basaltic plateaus located in the back-arc region of the Andean Cordillera at the latitude of the current Chile Triple Junction. The genesis of MLBA can be related with successive opening of slabs windows beneath Patagonia: within the subducting Nazca Plate itself and between the Nazca and Antarctic plates. Detailed 40Ar/ 39Ar dating and geochemical analysis of bimodal magmatism from the western flank of the MLBA show major changes in the back-arc magmatism which occurred between 14.5 Ma and 12.5 Ma with the transition from calc-alkaline lavas (Cerro Plomo) to alkaline lavas (MLBA) in relation with slab window opening. In a second step, at 4-3 Ma, alkaline felsic intrusions were emplaced in the western flank of the MLBA coevally with the MLBA basalts with which they are genetically related. These late OIB-like alkaline to transitional basalts were generated by partial melting of the subslab asthenosphere of the subducting Nazca plate during the opening of the South Chile spreading ridge-related slab window. These basalts differentiated with small amounts of assimilation in shallow magma chambers emplaced along transtensional to extensional zones. The close association of bimodal magmatism with extensional tectonic features in the western MLBA is a strong support to the model of Patagonian collapse event proposed to have taken place between 5 and 3 Ma as a consequence of the presence of the asthenospheric window (SCR-1 segment of South Chile Ridge) below the MLBA area.

  14. Paleocene "flysch-type" agglutinated foraminifera from the northern part of the Eastern Carpathians (Romania

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    Raluca Bindiu-Haitonic

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Representative assemblages of agglutinated foraminifera from the Paleocene deposits of the Suha outcrop in the Tarcău Nappe (Eastern Carpathians, Romania were analyzed using diversity indices, morphogroups and foraminiferal biofacies in order to describe the paleoenvironmental and palaeobathymetrical conditions of the studied area. The results suggest bathyal environments, close to the Carbonate Compensation Depth (CCD and a flysch type biofacies. The assemblages are dominated by coarsely agglutinated flysch-type taxa: tubular (Nothia, Rhizammina, Rhabdammina, globular (Saccammina, flattened planispiral and streptospiral (Rzehakina and flattened streptospiral forms (Paratrochamminoides and Trochamminoides. The agglutinated foraminifera morphogroups display variations through the section suggesting changes in the amount of organic matter, oxygen and seafloor disturbance caused by the local influence of the turbiditic flows. Based on the presence of the index taxa Rzehakina fissistomata throughout the entire section, the deposits were assigned to the Paleocene Izvor Formation.

  15. A checklist of the spiders (Araneae of the Chornohora Mountain massif (the Ukrainian Carpathians

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    Hirna, Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present checklist of spiders native to the Chornohora Mts of the Ukrainian Carpathians is based both on literature-derived data and on material collected by the authors in 1999, 2006 and 2011-2014. The majority of these studies (approximately 80 % were conducted in the upper montane forests, subalpine and alpine levels on the slopes of the main ridge and adjacent spurs and mountains. The study also covers glacial cirques and river valleys. A few spiders were collected from local villages. The list of spiders includes records from the collections of the Museum of Natural History of the Wroclaw University and Museum (Poland and the Institute of Zoology, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw. A total of 252 valid species from 22 families is known from the Chornohora Mt. massif.

  16. EXTRACURRICULAR MUSICAL CREATIVE ACTIVITY OF PRIMARY SCHOOL PUPILS ATTENDING MOUNTAIN SCHOOLS IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

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    Iryna Lypa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The essence of the declared idea of general music education for pupils based on Ukrainian national culture lies in the relation to music art as to an integral part of the spiritual life of people, appealing to folk music in the light of its connections with spiritual, material and practical world of a human being. To implement such an idea, it is necessary to put ethnoregional material widely into music educational practice at comprehensive secondary school. It is both an important component of ethnic and cultural environment of the child and the background for musical creative development. However, due to the music program for grades 1- 4 it is expected to use only 10% of ethnoregional material at the lesson 4. Therefore, the problem of organizing extracurricular musical creative activity for pupils based on ethnic culture of an appropriate region in Ukraine, especially a Carpathian one, is a burning question.

  17. The Aquatic And Marshy Flora Of The Lotru River Basin (Southern Carpathians, Romania

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    Drăgulescu Constantin

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper continues the series of floristic inventories of the main Romanian rivers in the Carpathian Mountains (from which have been published those of Mureş, Sadu, Olt, Someş, Criş, Târnave, Tisa. In this work the author lists 204 plant taxa (hydrophilic, meso-hygrophilic and hygrophilic identified by the author or by other botanists in the Lotru Valley basin. Noted for each species were life form, floral element, ecological preferences for humidity (U, temperature (T, soil reaction (R, corology and coenology. Bibliographical sources are coded with numbers (see the references at the end of the paper. The sign “!” indicates that the author has seen the plant in that locality.

  18. REGIONAL CLIMATE MODELING STUDY FOR THE CARPATHIAN REGION USING REGCM4 EXPERIMENTS

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    PIECZKA I.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The newest model version of RegCM is adapted with the ultimate aim of providing climate projection for the Carpathian region with 10 km horizontal resolution. For this purpose, first, coarse resolution reanalysis data and global climate model outputs are used to drive 50 km resolution model experiments, from which the outputs are used to provide necessary boundary conditions for the fine scale model runs. Besides the historical runs (for the period 1981-2010, RCP4.5 scenario is also analyzed in this paper for the 21st century. These experiments are essential since they form the basis of national climate and adaptation strategies by providing detailed regional scale climatic projections and enabling specific impact studies for various sectors.

  19. Changes of hypogeous funga in the Carpathian-Pannonian region in the past centuries

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    Zoltán Bratek

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The exploration of hypogeous fungi in the Carpathian-Pannonian region speeded up in the past decades, owing to the widespread of truffle hunting with dogs. As a result, not only several new species were found in the region, but our view of the frequency of truffles also changed fundamentally. It became evident that Tuber aestivum, T. brumale, T. macrosporum, T. magnatum, T. mesentericum and Mattirolomyces terfezioides can be collected in commercial quantity. Among the dog preferred hypogeous fungi (DPH several species, earlier believed to be rare like Octaviania asterosperma and Stephensia bombycina, also occurred. The taxonomic alterations and revisions brought about changes in the list of hypogeous fungi, and further changes are expected from molecular taxonomy research on a number of genera at present.

  20. Determining the focal mechanisms of the events in the Carpathian region of Ukraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, A.; Hrytsai, O.; Malytskyy, D.

    2014-10-01

    The modification of the matrix method for constructing the displacement field on the free surface of an anisotropic layered medium is presented. The source of seismic waves is modelled by a randomly oriented force and seismic tensor. A trial and error method is presented for solving the inverse problem of determining parameters of the earthquake source. A number of analytical and numerical approaches to determining the earthquake source parameters, based on the direct problem solutions, are proposed. The focal mechanisms for the events in the Carpathian region of Ukraine are determined by the graphical method. The theory of determination of the angles of orientation of the fault plane and the earthquake's focal mechanism are presented. The focal mechanisms obtained by two different methods are compared.

  1. NEW ASPECTS OF THE ALPINE VEGETATION OF PARÂNG MOUNTAINS (SOUTH CARPATHIANS

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    SIMON TIBOR

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 4 plant communities unknown in the the European syntaxonomy are described from the alpine and subalpine belts of Parâng Mountains, based on vegetation studies of the authors during 1955–1960. These are: Arabis alpina-Saxifraga aizoides, Arabis alpina-Delphinium elatum, Dianthus tenuifolius-Festuca dalmatica and the Primula minima-Dryas octopetala communities. These communities could be described later as new associations in the possession of more relevés from different localities. The East and South Carpathian Doronico carpatici-Festucetum pictae association is distinguished under this new name from the Festucetum pictae Krajina described from the Tatra Mountains. 7 further associations are found as new to the Parâng Mountains.

  2. REE investigation of the Motru Dyke System components from the Danubian basements (South Carpathians, Romania)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campeanu, Mara; Balica, Constantin; Balintoni, Ioan; Tănăselia, Claudiu; Cadar, Oana

    2017-04-01

    Dragsan and Lainici-Paius groups represent the basement components of the Danubian Alpine units (South Carpathians, Romania), which consist of medium-grade metamorphic rocks. A subvolcanic system of dykes (i.e. Motru Dyke System - MDS) crosscut mostly the Lainici Paius basement as an effect of a late-Variscan termo-tectonic event. The geochemical features, frame the MDS components within a wide range of petrotypes (basaltic andesites to rhyolites), and define a wide differentiation series. Classically this subvolcanic system was inferred to be in connection to a unique mantle source [1], however, recent studies [2,3] suggest a mixed mantle-crust source, based on the interpretation of the trace elements in conjunction with Sr and Nd isotope data. Aditionally, the presence of relict zircon grains consolidates this assumption. New REE data collected from eight MDS components, generally confirm the mixed mantle-crust source hypothesis. The distribution patterns reveal two groups of samples. The first group (six samples) is moderately enriched in REE and shows moderately fractionated patterns with (La/Yb)N between 7-21 and low Eu/Eu* (0.81-0.9). The second group, strongly enriched in light REE, have high (La/Yb)N and strong negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* of 0.41 and 0.38 respectively). REE vary between 107-147 ppm for the first group and 612 ppm - 907ppm for the second group. We can assume a stronger fractionation of plagioclase as well as of garnet and amphibole for the second group. With a flatter pattern, for the first group of samples, the fractionation of these minerals appears to be moderate. The emplacement age of MDS has been long disputed, since it was supposed as pre-Silurian for a long time. However, newly zircon U/Pb isotopic dating performed on two collected samples indicate a mean age of 300 My [2,3]. Owing to the croscutting relationships with the post-colisional granitoid plutons emplaced in the Danubian basement during the late Variscan, and based on

  3. Radium isotopes in the Polish Outer Carpathian mineral waters of various chemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chau, Nguyen Dinh; Lucyna, Rajchel; Jakub, Nowak; Paweł, Jodłowski

    2012-10-01

    The paper presents the activity concentrations of radium isotopes ((226)Ra, (228)Ra) and chemical compositions of above 70 mineral water samples collected from several dozens of springs and boreholes localized in the Polish Outer Carpathians. The activity concentrations of both radium isotopes clearly increase with the increase of water TDS, but decrease when the SO(4)(2-) content increases. These concentrations vary in the broad interval from a few to near 1000 mBq/L. The coefficient of the linear correlation between concentrations of these isotopes amounts to 0.85, and the activity ratio (226)Ra/(228)Ra is >1 for chloride-sodium waters, being ≈1 for hydrogen-carbonate and <1 for the sulfate ones. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FORMATION AND ORGANIZATIONAL ACTIVITY OF «PEDAGOGICAL SOCIETY OF CARPATHIAN RUTHENIA»

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    Галина Шикітка

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Current scientific article examines the foundation and main directions of activity of “Pedagogical Society of Carpathian Ruthenia” established in Uzhgorod in 1923. Conditions and purpose of the organization, the role of leading teachers of the land in the development of social organization have been under analysis. In a generalized sense the article describes social and political conditions of the time and the reaction of pedagogical public to them. Considerable attention is paid to main leaders, activists, and efforts of clerisy aimed to solve educational issues of the land. By using unpublished archival sources, educational periodicals of 1920 – 1930’s, studies of modern scientists, the author draws conclusions about the effectiveness of the organization and its creative potential.

  5. MONITORING OF THE RIVERBEDS OF RIVERS DNIESTER AND TISZA OF THE CARPATHIAN REGION

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    K. Burshtynska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the causes of riverbed shifts of the rivers Dniester and Tisza of the Carpathian region. Among these reasons are mostly climate, physical and geographical, and anthropogenic factors, including frequent floods, weak rocks and soils, logging, and removal of gravel and sand materials out of the channels. The research considers the transition of the Dniester and Tisza rivers from mountaineous area into the lowland. The analysis of these shifts has been carried out on the 100 km long sections over a 100-year period. We used topographic maps and space images, as well as special geological and soil maps, as materials for this research. We have determined that the shifts of the Dniester and Tisza riverbeds can reach up to 500-1000 m in some sections. We also analyze the risks and dangers that follow such shifts.

  6. Study of mineral water resources from the Eastern Carpathians using stable isotopes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Dana A; Cuna, Stela M; Berdea, Petre; Balas, Gabriela; Cuna, Cornel; Dordai, Edina; Falub, Mihaela C

    2009-08-30

    The Eastern Carpathians contain many mineral water springs that feed famous Romanian health resorts such as Borsec, Biborteni and Vatra Dornei. These waters have been used for their different therapeutic effects. In this work, mineral and spring waters from these Romanian regions were investigated by means of chemical and isotopic (deltaD and delta(18)O) analyses in order to understand the recharge mechanisms and also to determine their origins. Most of the investigated springs are of meteoric origin, having the average deuterium content of the local meteoric water. The higher (18)O content with respect to the Meteoric Water Line (MWL) indicated an exchange reaction with crystalline igneous rocks at depth and with other rocks that the water encounters on its journey back to the surface. 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Analysis of mating system in two Pinus cembra L. populations of the Ukrainian Carpathians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitri V. Politov

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In natural pine populations, a mixed mating system is typical,characterized by the proportions of selfed and outcrossed seeds. Swiss stone pine(Pinus cembra L. is one of the least studied European conifers in this respect. The mating system of six polymorphic allozyme loci were studied in haploid megagametophytes and diploid open-pollinated embryos in two stands located in theEast Carpathians. In the 'Gorgany' population (24 trees, 198 seeds the mean singlelocus estimated outcrossing rate (ts was 0.731, and the multilocus estimate (tm was 0.773. In the 'Yayko' population the outcrossing rate was lower (27 trees, 213 seeds, ts=0.645, tm=0.700, suggesting 23-30% of seeds are self-pollinated. Correlation ofoutcrossing rate estimates among loci was less than 1, (0.300 in 'Gorgany' and 0.469 in 'Yayko' indicating biparental inbreeding occurred. Differences between tm and ts (0.042 in 'Gorgany' and 0.056 in 'Yayko' can also be influenced by consanguineous mating, indicated by the presence of spatial and genetic family structure. In small isolated populations of Pinus cembra, which are typical for the Carpathian part of the species' range, inbreeding depression may negatively affect seed quality. The high proportion of selfed seeds observed here can be expected in any seedlot of this species and should be taken into account while planning gene conservation orreforestation measures. Maternal trees in these populations showed no heterozygote deficiency at these allozyme loci, and instead showed increased proportions of heterozygotes (inbreeding coefficient FIS = -0.200 in 'Gorgany' and -0.142 in 'Yayko'. Balancing selection may explain heterozygosity levels up to and above equilibrium proportions.

  8. Synoptic climatological analysis of persistent cold air pools over the Carpathian Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabóné André, Karolina; Bartholy, Judit; Pongrácz, Rita

    2016-04-01

    A persistent cold air pool (PCAP) is a winter-time, anticyclone-related weather event over a relatively large basin. During this time the air is colder near the surface than aloft. This inversion near the surface can last even for weeks. As the cold air cools down, relative humidity increases and fog forms. The entire life cycle of a PCAP depends on the large scale circulation pattern. PCAP usually appears when an anticyclone builds up after a cold front passed over the examined basin, and it is usually destructed by a coming strong cold front of another midlatitude cyclone. Moreover, the intensity of the anticyclone affects the intensity of the PCAP. PCAP may result in different hazards for the population: (1) Temperature inversion in the surface layers together with weak wind may lead to severe air pollution causing health problems for many people, especially, elderly and children. (2) The fog and/or smog during chilly weather conditions often results in freezing rain. Both fog and freezing rain can distract transportation and electricity supply. Unfortunately, the numerical weather prediction models have difficulties to predict PCAP formation and destruction. One of the reasons is that PCAP is not defined objectively with a simple formula, which could be easily applied to the numerical output data. However, according to some recommendations from the synoptic literature, the shallow convective potential energy (SCPE) can be used to mathematically describe PCAP. In this study, we used the ERA-Interim reanalysis datasets to examine this very specific weather event (i.e., PCAP) over the Carpathian Basin. The connection between the mean sea level pressure and some PCAP measures (e.g., SCPE, energy deficit, etc.) is evaluated. For instance, we used logistic regression to identify PCAP periods over the Carpathian Basin. Then, further statistical analysis includes the evaluation of the length and intensity of these PCAP periods.

  9. Deformation in the asthenospheric mantle beneath the Carpathian-Pannonian Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qorbani, Ehsan; Bokelmann, Götz; Kovács, István; Horváth, Frank; Falus, György

    2017-04-01

    To better understand the evolution and present-day tectonics of the Carpathian-Pannonian Region (CPR), we characterize the upper mantle anisotropic structure. We present a shear wave splitting analysis from teleseismic events recorded at the Carpathian Basin Project and permanent stations located in the CPR. The results show a large-scale uniform NW-SE fast orientation under the entire CPR. Compared with the complexity of geologic structures, the anisotropy expresses a relatively simple pattern of deformation. We attribute this anisotropy to an asthenospheric origin and interpret it as flow-induced alignment within the upper mantle. We also observe a few measurements depicting NE-SW fast orientation in line with the Mid-Hungarian Shear Zone. This suggests the likely contribution of either lithosphere or northeastward flow into a slab gap under the northern Dinarides. We observe splitting delay times on average of 1 s, showing noticeable change (60%) in the middle Pannonian basin. This change correlates well with the variation in the thickness of low-velocity zones that were previously imaged between a depth of 75 and 400 km by velocity tomography. In order to evaluate the relation between anisotropy and tectonics, we compare our data with the tectonic models that have so far been suggested to explain the evolution and current-stage tectonics of the region. We present here a plausible tectonic model responsible for the NW-SE anisotropy within the asthenospheric mantle. In this model, NW-SE deformation is mainly generated in a northeastward compressional tectonic regime acting in a wide region between the Adriatic microplate and the East European platform.

  10. Using spatial metrics to assess the efficacy of biodiversity conservation within the Romanian Carpathian Convention area

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    Petrişor Alexandru-Ionuţ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The alpine region is of crucial importance for the European Union; as a result, the Carpathian Convention aims at its sustainable development. Since sustainability implies also conservation through natural protected areas, aimed at including regions representative for the national biogeographical space, this article aims at assessing the efficiency of conservation. The methodology consisted of using spatial metrics applied to Romanian and European data on the natural protected areas, land cover and use and their transitional dynamics. The findings show a very good coverage of the Alpine biogeographical region (98% included in the Convention area, and 43% of it protected within the Convention area and of the ecological region of Carpathian montane coniferous forests (88% included in the Convention area, and 42% of it protected within the Convention area. The dominant land cover is represented by forests (63% within the Convention area, and 70% of the total protected area. The main transitional dynamics are deforestation (covering 50% of all changes area within the Convention area and 46% from the changed area within its protected area and forestations – including afforestation, reforestation and colonization of abandoned agricultural areas by forest vegetation (covering 44% of all changes area within the Convention area and 51% from the changed area within its protected area during 1990-2000 and deforestation (covering 97% of all changes area within the Convention area and 99% from the changed area within its protected area during 1990-2000. The results suggest that the coverage of biogeographical and ecological zones is good, especially for the most relevant ones, but deforestations are a serious issue, regardless of occurring before or after achieving the protection status.

  11. ANALYSIS OF PROJECTED FREQUENCY AND INTENSITY CHANGES OF PRECIPITATION IN THE CARPATHIAN REGION

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    KIS ANNA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precipitation is the major atmospheric source of surface water, thus, in order to build appropriate adaptation strategies for various economic sections related to water resources it is essential to provide projections for precipitation tendencies as exact as possible. Extreme precipitation events are especially important from this point of view since they may result in different environmental, economical, and/or even human health damages. Excessive precipitation for instance may induce floods, flash-floods, landslides, traffic accidents. On the other hand, lack of precipitation is not favorable either: long dry periods affect agricultural production quite negatively, and hence, food safety can be threatened. Several precipitation-related indices (i.e., describing drought or intensity, exceeding different percentile-based or absolute threshold values are analyzed for the Carpathian region for 1961–2100. For this purpose 11 completed regional climate model simulations are used from the ENSEMBLES database. Before the thorough analysis, a percentile-based bias correction method was applied to the raw data, for which the homogenized daily gridded CarpatClim database (1961–2010 served as a reference. Absolute and relative seasonal mean changes of climate indices are calculated for two future time periods (2021–2050 and 2071–2100 and for three subregions within the entire Carpathian region, namely, for Slovakia, Hungary and Romania. According to our results, longer dry periods are estimated for the summer season, mainly in the southern parts of the domain, while precipitation intensity is likely to increase. Heavy precipitation days and high percentile values are projected to increase, especially, in winter and autumn.

  12. Comparative Analysis of Electrophoretic Profile of Major Proteins of Milk from Alpine and Carpathian Goats

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    Alina NASALEAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The milk’s proteins provide nutritional and biologically active values, essential in human and animal nutrition. In the case of goat milk, the proteins’ concentration and quality represent basic indices for the evaluation of the nutritional and biologically active values. The proposal is to comparatively analyse the protein profile of milk. The milk was collected from two different breeds: French Alpine and Romanian Carpathian. During March and April 2016 there were collected samples of raw milk in hygienic and sanitation conditions. There were two lots: first lot has 10 Carpathian goats and the second lot has 10 Alpine goats. The protein composition of goat milk was established with SDS-PAGE, after the evaluation of the total proteins’ concentration with the Bradford method. The quantitative and percentage data obtained with electrophoresis revealed few differences between those 8 identified protein fractions. Between those two lots, regarding the levels of β-CN, k-CN and β-lactoglobulines there were significant differences. The other protein fractions have values almost identical. Statistical analysis of obtained data shaped the differences in the protein profile at those two breeds. Based on those differences it is to note the superior potential of the Alpine breed regarding the content in biologically active milk proteins. Regarding the obtained data, this study brings new contributions for the evaluation and analysis of protein profile as a nutritive and biologically active component of goat milk, confirming its character as a functional aliment.

  13. Hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow and analysis of projected water use for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer, western and central Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, John H.; Mashburn, Shana L.; Graves, Grant M.; Peterson, Steven M.; Smith, S. Jerrod; Fuhrig, Leland T.; Wagner, Derrick L.; Sanford, Jon E.

    2017-02-13

    This report describes a study of the hydrogeology and simulation of groundwater flow for the Canadian River alluvial aquifer in western and central Oklahoma conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in cooperation with the Oklahoma Water Resources Board. The report (1) quantifies the groundwater resources of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer by developing a conceptual model, (2) summarizes the general water quality of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer groundwater by using data collected during August and September 2013, (3) evaluates the effects of estimated equal proportionate share (EPS) on aquifer storage and streamflow for time periods of 20, 40, and 50 years into the future by using numerical groundwater-flow models, and (4) evaluates the effects of present-day groundwater pumping over a 50-year period and sustained hypothetical drought conditions over a 10-year period on stream base flow and groundwater in storage by using numerical flow models. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer is a Quaternary-age alluvial and terrace unit consisting of beds of clay, silt, sand, and fine gravel sediments unconformably overlying Tertiary-, Permian-, and Pennsylvanian-age sedimentary rocks. For groundwater-flow modeling purposes, the Canadian River was divided into Reach I, extending from the Texas border to the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), and Reach II, extending downstream from the Canadian River at the Bridgeport, Okla., streamgage (07228500), to the confluence of the river with Eufaula Lake. The Canadian River alluvial aquifer spans multiple climate divisions, ranging from semiarid in the west to humid subtropical in the east. The average annual precipitation in the study area from 1896 to 2014 was 34.4 inches per year (in/yr).A hydrogeologic framework of the Canadian River alluvial aquifer was developed that includes the areal and vertical extent of the aquifer and the distribution, texture variability, and hydraulic properties of

  14. THANETIAN AND EARLY YPRESIAN ORTHOPHRAGMINES (FORAMINIFERA: DISCOCYCLINIDAE AND ORBITOCLYPEIDAE FROM THE CENTRAL WESTERN TETHYS (TURKEY, ITALY AND BULGARIA AND THEIR REVISED TAXONOMY AND BIOSTRATIGRAPHY

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    GYÖRGY LESS

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The rich orthophragminid assemblages from the upper Thanetian and lower Ypresian of Turkey are discussed together with the coeval faunas from Spilecco (N Italy and Beloslav (Bulgaria. Their taxonomy, evolution and biozonation in the Western Tethys are revised. Our biometric study is based mainly on a large number of equatorial sections of megalospheric individuals. We present the emended description of Discocyclina seunesi, D. tenuis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus, O. bayani and Asterocyclina taramellii. A new species, Nemkovella stockari is introduced. The evolutionary lineages of Discocyclina seunesi, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus and O. bayani are restored for the first time by using the consistent size-increase of the megalospheric embryon that also allowed introducing some new subspecies (Discocyclina seunesi beloslavensis, D. s. karabuekensis, Orbitoclypeus multiplicatus kastamonuensis, O. bayani kurucasileensis and O. munieri ponticus. By owing the most complete record of Thanetian and early Ypresian orthophragmines from the Western Tethys (using also data from SW France and the Crimean Peninsula we could reconstruct their early evolution. The chronostratigraphical position of some localities was ascertained from planktic and larger benthic foraminifera, as well as calcareous nannoplankton. In the updated orthophragminid zonation (zones are marked by OZ, OZ 1a corresponds to the early Thanetian, OZ 1b to the middle Thanetian. They are distinguished on the base of the evolution of Discocyclina seunesi. In these zones, only two unribbed species of Discocyclina and Orbitoclypeus each are present. Ribbed Orbitoclypeus, genus Asterocyclina and Nemkovella appeared in the redefined OZ 2 zone belonging to the late Thanetian. Discocyclina archiaci and D. dispansa substituted D. seunesi at about the Paleocene/Eocene boundary. The early Ypresian can be subdivided into the OZ 3 and 4 zones that can be distinguished from each other by the different

  15. Sequence of construction of Ciomadul (Csomád) dacitic lava domes, East Carpathians, by unspiked K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technique in comparison with other radiometric methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibacto, Stéphane; Lahitte, Pierre; Karátson, Dávid; Veres, Daniel; Gertisser, Ralf

    2017-04-01

    Located at the southern tip of the Intra-Carpathian Volcanic Range in Romania, the Ciomadul (Csomád) volcanic complex (CVC) is the youngest eruptive center of the Carpatho-Pannonian Region (CPR). It consists of a dozen of dacitic lava domes that encompass two youngest explosive craters (those of the older Mohos peat bog and the younger St. Ana lake). Whereas, in the last decade, the Ciomadul explosive history for the last 50 ka was well constrained by numerous studies, the chronology of the dome sequence still lacks robust chronological constraints, since it is based on biased K-Ar ages. Here, we provide a detailed K-Ar dating approach to refine the chronology of the domes, using the unspiked K-Ar Cassignol-Gillot technics for the first time. New eruption ages were performed especially on groundmass (separated from 3-4 kg unaltered sample rocks), the only material the cooling of which is doubtlessly contemporaneous with the eruption. Every age obtained is found to be younger than those proposed on previous whole rock K-Ar datings. Our analysis shows that most of the K-Ar ages in the previous studies suffer from the unsuitability of the material used to obtain eruptive ages, since dating whole rock gives a mixed age due to various mineral fractions with different individual ages. Our new results show that Ciomadul's volcanic activity began by the construction of the south-easternmost, peripheral domes from ca. 700 ka to 450 ka. Next, after a ca. 200 kyr long quiescence period, activity occurred in the north at 250 ka, and subsequent domes were emplaced from 200 - 150 ka forming roughly north-south aligned domes at the western and central part of the complex. Next, after another 50 kyr long quiescence period, activity resumed around 100 ka to form the eastern-central domes. In addition to this chronological history of lava dome volcanism, we also investigated the sequence of crystallisation of phenocrysts present in the lavas, with respect to the modification of the

  16. Occurrence, origin and possible accumulationsof oil in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep (SE Moravia - Czechia

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    Pavel Čížek

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The drilling exploration in the SW part of the Carpathian Foredeep, in the vicinity of the gas deposit and UGS Dolní Dunajovice encountered the influx of gas, water and oil in Carpathian, Eggenburgian sandstones and Upper Jurassic carbonates. Similar shows were observed in the region at the base of the Jurassic and Miocene in older exploration wells. The new interpretations of 3D seismic and 2D profiles provide a new geological model integrated with petrophysical properties and geochemistry. A molecular and isotopic composition of gas indicates its mixed bacterial and thermal origin. Biomarkers in the new oils suggest a close genetic relationship to the Upper Jurassic marls and economically successful oil accumulations in the southern part of the south-eastern margin of the Bohemian Massif. The new findings increase the prospects of finding new structures with oil and gas accumulations in this region.

  17. Comparative analysis of rock porosity in a selected region in the Carpathians based on laboratory data and well logs

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    Barnaś Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative analysis of porosity is presented in the article. This was calculated from laboratory measurements and well logs for rocks from a selected region of the Carpathians. Analysis was performed for samples of sandstones, mudstones, shales and carbonates from four boreholes drilled in the Carpathian Foredeep region near Krakow, Poland. In laboratory measurements, porosity was assessed using two methods: helium pycnometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR. Porosity from well logging was calculated from sonic profiling (SPHI. Cross-plots were used, which allowed for the assessment of the degree of correlation between the laboratory and well log data. The results obtained were analysed paying special attention to the relationship with geological structure. Based on the lithological criterion, the correlations turned out to be strong. The repeatability of the results obtained in different wells was verified. The results of the measurements are significant in relation to estimating porosity from well logs using laboratory data.

  18. Peri-Gondwanan terranes in the Romanian Carpathians: A review of their spatial distribution, origin, provenance, and evolution

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    Ioan Balintoni

    2014-05-01

    The late Cambrian–Ordovician terranes are defined here as Carpathian-type terranes. According to their lithostratigraphy and origin, some are of continental margin magmatic arc setting, whereas others formed in rift and back-arc environment and closed to passive continental margin settings. In a paleogeographic reconstruction, the continental margin magmatic arc terranes were first that drifted out, followed by the passive continental margin terranes with the back-arc terranes in their front. They accreted to Laurussia during the Variscan orogeny. Some of them (Sebeş-Lotru in South Carpathians and Baia de Arieş in Apuseni mountains underwent eclogite-grade metamorphism. The Danubian terranes, the Bretila terrane and the Someş terrane were intruded by Variscan granitoids.

  19. Effects of environmental changes and human impact on the functioning of mountain river channels, Carpathians, southern Poland

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    Krzemień Kazimierz

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the northern slope of the Carpathian Mountains and in their foreland, river and stream channels have been significantly transformed by human impact. These transformations result from changing land use in river basins and direct interference with river channels (alluvia extraction, engineering infrastructure, channel straightening. Anthropogenic impacts cause significant changes in the channel system patterns leading to increased impact of erosion. This mainly leads to the channelling of the fluvial system. This article reviews studies of structure and dynamics of Carpathian river channels conducted based on the methodology of collection of data on channel systems, developed in the Department of Geomorphology of the Institute of Geography and Spatial Management, Jagiellonian University.

  20. Comparative analysis of rock porosity in a selected region in the Carpathians based on laboratory data and well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnaś, Maciej; Puskarczyk, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    A comparative analysis of porosity is presented in the article. This was calculated from laboratory measurements and well logs for rocks from a selected region of the Carpathians. Analysis was performed for samples of sandstones, mudstones, shales and carbonates from four boreholes drilled in the Carpathian Foredeep region near Krakow, Poland. In laboratory measurements, porosity was assessed using two methods: helium pycnometry and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Porosity from well logging was calculated from sonic profiling (SPHI). Cross-plots were used, which allowed for the assessment of the degree of correlation between the laboratory and well log data. The results obtained were analysed paying special attention to the relationship with geological structure. Based on the lithological criterion, the correlations turned out to be strong. The repeatability of the results obtained in different wells was verified. The results of the measurements are significant in relation to estimating porosity from well logs using laboratory data.

  1. Modelling height to diameter ratio – an opportunity to increase Norway spruce stand stability in the Western Carpathians

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    Bošeľa Michal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smrek je jednou z najrozšírenejších a ekonomicky najdôležitejších ihličnatých drevín v Európe. Taktiež je drevinou veľmi často poškodzovanou vetrovými kalamitami. Štíhlostný kvocient (pomer výšky a hrúbky stromu sa považuje za vhodný indikátor statickej stability jednotlivých stromov a porastov. Preto cieľom práce bola identifikácia hlavných faktorov, ktoré majú významný vplyv na hodnoty kvocientu. Jednoduchý model bol vytvorený ako pomôcka pre lesníka pri rozhodovaní o intenzite prebierok v smrekových porastoch s cieľom potenciálneho zvýšenia statickej stability a zachovania optimálnej produkcie. Využili sa údaje Národnej inventarizácie a monitoringu lesov SR (260 plôch a taktiež údaje z predchádzajúcich výskumných projektov (48 plôch tak aby reprezentovali čo najširšie rozpätie ekologických podmienok, v ktorých smrek v súčasnosti rastie. Výsledky ukázali, že najvýznamnejšími ekologickými faktormi boli: nadmorská výška a bonita stanovišťa. Taktiež niektoré porastové charakteristiky sa významne podieľali na variabilite kvocientu: podiel koruny z výšky stromu, hustota porastu a stredná porastová výška reprezentujúca rastovú fázu porastu. Výsledky ďalej preukázali, že ekologické podmienky sú významnejšie ako porastové charakteristiky, a preto tieto treba brať do úvahy pri rozhodovacom procese. To znamená, že ak sa porast nachádza na pre smrek veľmi bonitnom stanovišti, sú potrebné silnejšie prebierky od mladých rastových fáz, aby sa ovplyvňovaním hrúbkového prírastku vyrovnal vplyv rýchleho výškového rastu. Zároveň je dôležitá rozdielna intenzita výškového a hrúbkového rastu počas vývoja porastu

  2. Arcto-alpine species at their niche margin: The Western Carpathian refugia of Juncus castaneus and J. triglumis in Slovakia

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dítě, D.; Peterka, T.; Dítětová, Z.; Hájková, Petra; Hájek, P.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 54, 1-3 (2017), s. 67-82 ISSN 0003-3847 R&D Projects: GA ČR GB14-36079G Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : distribution * relict species * vegetation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.600, year: 2016

  3. Bryjarka Hill in Szczawnica (Beskid Sądecki Mts, Western Carpathians, Poland - a Natural and Cultural Focus

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    Vončina Grzegorz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to present the history and the current state of Bryjarka hill, situated in Szczawnica (the Beskid Sądecki range in southern Poland in relation to its environmental and cultural values. Another aim of this article is to show that Bryjarka hill plays an important role in the biological, geological and cultural aspects of the region. It represents cultural significance where the traces of human activities date back to medieval times.

  4. Mineral status of plants and soil in silver fir stands of the Silesian and Żywiec Beskidy (Western Carpathians

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    Borgulat Jacek

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available For last decades the Silesian and Żywiec Beskidy have been affected by different types of anthropopression. Up to the nineties of the 20th century, forests of the area were affected by a high level of air pollutants transported mainly from the Upper Silesian and Ostrava industrial regions. From 2004 intensive felling and skidding works in declining forest stands combined with their reconstruction have been carried out. Among different species silver fir has been introduced on a large scale. In the paper the results of investigation of plants and soil carried out 7 sites located in Beskidy Mountains (49°41’6”N, 19°1’48”E are presented. Contents of K, Mg, Ca and N in needles of silver fir (Abies alba Mill. and leaves of bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L. were determined which was accompanied by a chemical characteristics of forest topsoil from the same sites. Moreover, in both environment compartments, the concentration of S, Pb, Cd, and Zn was also determined to assess the level of anthropopression in individual sites. In general, the obtained results show relatively good mineral status of plants. Some disturbances in the ratios of elements in plants were found in sites located near the Polish and Czech border. In plants and soil in these sites an elevated level of heavy metals was found which testifies the transboundary transport of air pollutants. The bilberry seems to be a better bioindicator of heavy metal pollution than silver fir.

  5. Tourmalines from the siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins, Gemeric unit, western Carpathians, Slovakia: crystal chemistry and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bačík, P.; Uher, P.; Dikej, J.; Puškelová, Ľ.

    2017-03-01

    Tourmaline is an important gangue mineral in a large number of Cretaceous siderite-quartz-sulphide hydrothermal veins in the Gemeric Unit, Slovak Ore Mountains, Slovakia, such as Dobšiná, Vlachovo, Rožňavské Bystré, Hnilčík, Rakovnica, Novoveská Huta, Gretla, Rudňany, and Bindt. In this study we combine by electron microprobe analysis, powder X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer and optical emission spectroscopy to determine the range of tourmaline compositions in the deposits and constrain the mechanisms of its precipitation. Selected samples from the mentioned deposits belong mostly to the alkali group, schorl to dravite series, rarely dominant X-site vacant foititic tourmaline (Vlachovo and Bindt) and oxy-dravite compositions (Hnilčík) were detected. Rim zones of some schorlitic tourmalines show high concentrations of Ti (up to 2.35 wt.% TiO2, 0.30 apfu; Rožňavské Bystré). The chemical composition is mostly controlled by alkali-deficient X □AlNa-1(Mg,Fe2+)-1 and proton-deficient AlO(Mg,Fe2+)-1(OH)-1 substitutions. Titanium is incorporated into the structure by Y Ti Y (Mg,Fe) Y Al-2, Y Ti Z Mg Y Al-1 Z Al-1, Y TiO( Y AlOH), and X Ca Y Ti Z MgO2 X □-1 Y,Z Al-2(OH)-2 substitutions. Along trace elements, Sr and V attain concentrations of 80-450 and 70-320 ppm, respectively. The unit-cell parameter a varies between 15.960 and 15.985 Å; variations in c are larger, between 7.177 and 7.236 Å indicating the presence of Fe3+ and Mg2+ at Z site. Mössbauer spectroscopy has shown variable Fe3+ proportions (0.17-0.55 apfu) in all samples. The gathered dataset suggests some qualitative considerations on the mechanisms controlling tourmaline compositions at the regional scale. The highest Fe3+ concentrations occur in samples from Rudňany and Gretla in the external part of Gemeric unit, suggesting higher oxidation during longer transport of fluids. We propose that the determined XFe in the samples are correlated with the compositions of the host rocks, as schorlitic to foititic tourmalines occur in veins located in the meta-rhyolites host, and tourmalines with the highest Mg contents occur in metabasalts.

  6. Wood quality and value production in mixed fir-spruce-beech stands: long-term research in the Western Carpathians

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    Petráš Rudolf

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Stem quality and damage was evaluated in mixed spruce-fir-beech stands. Moreover, an assortments structure was determined with their financial value. Results were compared with pure spruce (Picea abies [L.] Karst., fir (Abies alba Mill. and beech (Fagus sylvatica L. stands. Repeated measurements on 31 long-term research plots, stand assortment models, assortment yield models and value yield models were used. Stem quality of fir and spruce was only slightly lower in mixed stands compared to pure stands but beech stem quality was considerably worse in mixed stands. Fir and spruce had slightly lower proportions of better IIIA quality logs and higher proportions of IIIB quality in mixed stands. Beech had worse assortment structure than spruce and fir, in general. Pure beech stands had higher proportions of better I–IIIA quality assortments than mixed stands by 1–7%. Fir and spruce average value production (€ m−3 culminated at about 56 and 62 cm mean diameters. Almost the same value production was found in pure stands. In these stands it culminated at the mean diameter of 58 and 60 cm. Beech produced substantially less value on the same sites. In mixed stands, its value production culminated at the mean diameter of 40 cm. In pure stands, it culminated at the mean diameter of 36 cm. Although the production was found to be similar in both mixed and pure forests, higher damage intensity and less stem quality in mixed forests suggest that the pure forests can be more profitable.

  7. Western Sufism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    Western Sufism is sometimes dismissed as a relatively recent "new age" phenomenon, but in this book, Mark Sedgwick argues that it actually has very deep roots, both in the Muslim world and in the West. In fact, although the first significant Western Sufi organization was not established until 1915...... to the internet, Mark Sedgwick demonstrates that the phenomenon of Western Sufism not only draws on centuries of intercultural transfers, but is also part of a long-established relationship between Western thought and Islam that can be productive, not confrontational....

  8. Monitoring and modelling of landslide and debris flow impact on transport and building infrasructure in the Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanik, Olena; Shevchuk, Viktor; Yahno, Evgen

    2016-04-01

    Mechanisms and factors of formation of landslide and debris flow processes are examined in terms of model objects in the Carpathians. The study area is within Eastern Carpathians and Transcarpathian depression (Tisa river basin). There were investigated more than 220 stabilized and active landslides. The analysis of water-gravitational processes in this region with complex heterogeneous geological structure confirmed the priority nature of occurrence of structural landslides in rheologically different geological environments, and made it possible to create a new classification of structural landslides and conditions of their formation with the decisive influence of destructive zones. This classification is the basis for constructing geological, physical and mathematical models of landslide slopes, and subsequent modeling of the landslide hazard based on the determination of the stress-strain state of slopes. Under the proposed mathematical model, the examined phenomenon is described as thermoelastic-plastic equilibrium of the isotropic matrix under effect of applied mass (gravitational field of the Earth) and surface efforts, inhomogeneous stationary temperature field. In addition, it is assumed that the Young modulus at each point of the matrix depends on the water saturation. Debris and mudflows in the Carpathians have a stage character, non-stationary and avalanche movements. The territory is prone to be affected by debris and mudflows, due to the geological, geomorphological and climatic conditions. Therefore the main conditions of the mudflow formation are as follows: the presence of the rock destruction products which could be a solid phase of debris mudflow; presence of the enough quantity of the rainfall runoff for the unconsolidated material removal; ruggedness of relief that provides simultaneous movement of the big values of the water-soil mass with the big velocities. The algorithm calculating the mudflow impact on infrastructure objects in Carpathians

  9. Prevalence and Social Determinants of Smoking in 15 Countries from North Africa, Central and Western Asia, Latin America and Caribbean: Secondary Data Analyses of Demographic and Health Surveys.

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    Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy

    Full Text Available Article 20 of the World Health Organisation Framework Convention on Tobacco Control calls for a cross-country surveillance of tobacco use through population-based surveys. We aimed to provide country-level prevalence estimates for current smoking and current smokeless tobacco use and to assess social determinants of smoking.Data from Demographic and Health Surveys done between 2005 and 2012, among men and women from nine North African, Central and West Asian countries and six Latin American and Caribbean countries were analyzed. Weighted country-level prevalence rates were estimated for 'current smoking' and 'current use of smokeless tobacco (SLT products' among men and women. In each country, social determinants of smoking among men and women were assessed by binary logistic regression analyses by including men's and women's sampling weights to account for the complex survey design.Prevalence of smoking among men was higher than 40% in Armenia (63.1%, Moldova (51.1%, Ukraine (52%, Azerbaijan (49.8 %, Kyrgyz Republic (44.3 % and Albania (42.52% but the prevalence of smoking among women was less than 10% in most countries except Ukraine (14.81% and Jordan (17.96%. The prevalence of smokeless tobacco use among men and women was less than 5% in all countries except among men in the Kyrgyz Republic (10.6 %. Smoking was associated with older age, lower education and poverty among men and higher education and higher wealth among women. Smoking among both men and women was associated with unskilled work, living in urban areas and being single.Smoking among men was very high in Central and West Asian countries. Social pattern of smoking among women that was different from men in education and wealth should be considered while formulating tobacco control policies in some Central and West Asian countries.

  10. Two major groups of chloroplast DNA haplotypes in diploid and tetraploid Aconitum subgen. Aconitum (Ranunculaceae in the Carpathians

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    J. Mitka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aconitum in Europe is represented by ca. 10% of the total number of species and the Carpathian Mts. are the center of the genus variability in the subcontinent. We studied the chloroplast DNA intergenic spacer trnL(UAG-rpl32- ndhF (cpDNA variability of the Aconitum subgen. Aconitum in the Carpathians: diploids (2n=16, sect. Cammarum, tetraploids (2n=32, sect. Aconitum and triploids (2n=24, nothosect. Acomarum. Altogether 25 Aconitum accessions representing the whole taxonomic variability of the subgenus were sequenced and subjected to phylogenetic analyses. Both parsimony, Bayesian and character network analyses showed the two distinct types of the cpDNA chloroplast, one typical of the diploid and the second of the tetraploid groups. Some specimens had identical cpDNA sequences (haplotypes and scattered across the whole mountain arch. In the sect. Aconitum 9 specimens shared one haplotype, while in the sect. Camarum one haplotype represents 4 accessions and the second – 5 accessions. The diploids and tetraploids were diverged by 6 mutations, while the intrasectional variability amounted maximally to 3 polymorphisms. Taking into consideration different types of cpDNA haplotypes and ecological profiles of the sections (tetraploids – high‑mountain species, diploids – species from forest montane belt we speculate on the different and independent history of the sections in the Carpathians.

  11. Contributions to the phytocoenological study of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987 in the Oraştie River basin (Central-Western Romania

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    Valeriu Ioan VINTAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a phytocoenologic study of the phytocoenoses of the association Pulmonario rubrae-Fagetum (Soó 1964 Täuber 1987, identified in the Orăştie river basin, situated in the central-western part of Romania.The characterisation of the association under analysis as well as the presentation of the synthetic table have been done by selecting the most representative relevés performed in the mixed broadleaf-needleleaf forests of beech (Fagus sylvatica subsp. sylvatica, fir (Abies alba and spruce (Picea abies with Pulmonaria rubra belonging to the Orăştie river basin.The phytocoenoses of these forests were analysed in terms of physiognomy and floristic composition, life forms spectrum, floristic elements, and ecological indices.

  12. The Cretaceous - Paleogene paleogeography of Central Asia recorded in depositional environments of the Proto-Paratethys Sea in the Tarim Basin (Western China)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücel Kaya, Mustafa; Dupont-Nivet, Guillaume; Proust, Jean-Noel; Bougeois, Laurie; Meijer, Niels; Frieling, Joost; Fioroni, Chiara; Stoica, Marius; Roperch, Pierrick; Mamtimin, Mehmut; Aminov, Jovid

    2017-04-01

    The Proto-Paratethys, a shallow epicontinental sea, extended from Cretaceous to Paleogene times across Eurasia from the Mediterranean Tethys to the Tarim Basin in western China. Transgressive and regressive episodes of the Proto-Paratethys Sea have been previously recognized but their timing, extent and depositional environments remain poorly constrained especially for the Cretaceous and early Paleogene. This hampers understanding of their driving mechanisms (geodynamic and/or eustatic) and paleoclimatic consequences on regional aridification and monsoons. As part of the ERC "MAGIC" project, we report an integrated sedimentologic and stratigraphic analysis of the Proto-Paratethys from its initial Cretaceous onset to the final Paleogene retreat from multiple investigated sections in the western border of Tarim Basin. Facies associations include field observations and microfacies analyses from carbonate samples. New bio- and magneto-stratigraphic results from key intervals are also provided to testify the previously constructed regional stratigraphic framework. The previously controversial number of marine incursions in the Tarim Basin is resolved to 6 (3 Cretaceous and 3 Paleogene) also recognized in the neighboring Tajik and Turan Basins to the west and the present-day Alai Valley. The eastward extent of these marine incursions varied through time with a maximum extent during late Paleocene - early Eocene. The first marine incursion is a Cenomanian transgression recorded in the marls and calcareous mudstones of the Kukebai Formation. The next two are Coniacian and Campanian transgressions recognized in the carbonate units of the Yigeziya Formation. The first Paleogene incursion is characterized by thick evaporites of the Paleocene Aertashi Formation overlain by the marine shales of the Lower Qimugen Formation. The latter represents the maximum extent and the deepest environments of the Proto-Paratethys. The marine Kalatar limestones and silty shales of the Wulagen

  13. Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion: Chapter 19 in Status and trends of land change in the Western United States--1973 to 2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napton, Darrell E.

    2012-01-01

    The Southern and Central California Chaparral and Oak Woodlands Ecoregion, which covers approximately 102,110 km2 (39,425 mi2), is characterized by a Mediterranean climate with cool, moist winters and hot, dry summers (Omernik, 1987; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 1997). Natural vegetation includes chaparral (for example, manzanita, Arctostaphylos spp.) and oak (Quercus spp.) woodlands with extensive grassland and shrubland cover. The low mountains and foothills of the ecoregion border or parallel the Pacific Ocean from Mexico to Point Reyes, California, and continue inland surrounding the Central California Valley Ecoregion (fig. 1). These mountains and hills are interrupted by limited areas of flat land generally used for development or agriculture. The largest developed area in the ecoregion is the Los Angeles Basin, followed by the San Francisco Bay area and the San Diego metropolitan area (fig. 1). The largest agricultural area is the Salinas River valley south of Monterey, California. Most of the ecoregion consists of rangelands classified as grassland/ shrubland and forest land covers (figs. 1,2).

  14. Immunohistochemical localization of CYP1A, vitellogenin and Zona radiata proteins in the liver of swordfish (Xiphias gladius L.) taken from the Mediterranean Sea, South Atlantic, South Western Indian and Central North Pacific Oceans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desantis, S; Corriero, A; Cirillo, F; Deflorio, M; Brill, R; Griffiths, M; Lopata, A L; de la Serna, J M; Bridges, C R; Kime, D E; De Metrio, G

    2005-01-18

    Cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) monoxygenase, vitellogenin (Vtg) and Zona radiata proteins (Zrp) are frequently used as biomarkers of fish exposure to organic contaminants. In this work, swordfish liver sections obtained from the Mediterranean Sea, the South African coasts (South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans) and the Central North Pacific Ocean were immunostained with antisera against CYP1A, Zrp, and Vtg. CYP1A induction was found in hepatocytes, epithelium of the biliary ductus and the endothelium of large blood vessels of fish from the Mediterranean Sea and South African waters, but not from the Pacific Ocean. Zrp and Vtg were immunolocalized in hepatocytes of male swordfish from the Mediterranean Sea and from South African waters. Plasma Dot-Blot analysis, performed in Mediterranean and Pacific specimens, revealed the presence of Zrp and Vtg in males from Mediterranean but not from Pacific. These results confirm previous findings about the potential exposure of Mediterranean swordfish to endocrine, disrupting chemicals and raise questions concerning the possible presence of xenobiotic contaminants off the Southern coasts of South Africa in both the South Atlantic and South Western Indian Oceans.

  15. The 1430s: a cold period of extraordinary internal climate variability during the early Spörer Minimum with social and economic impacts in north-western and central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camenisch, Chantal; Keller, Kathrin M.; Salvisberg, Melanie; Amann, Benjamin; Bauch, Martin; Blumer, Sandro; Brázdil, Rudolf; Brönnimann, Stefan; Büntgen, Ulf; Campbell, Bruce M. S.; Fernández-Donado, Laura; Fleitmann, Dominik; Glaser, Rüdiger; González-Rouco, Fidel; Grosjean, Martin; Hoffmann, Richard C.; Huhtamaa, Heli; Joos, Fortunat; Kiss, Andrea; Kotyza, Oldřich; Lehner, Flavio; Luterbacher, Jürg; Maughan, Nicolas; Neukom, Raphael; Novy, Theresa; Pribyl, Kathleen; Raible, Christoph C.; Riemann, Dirk; Schuh, Maximilian; Slavin, Philip; Werner, Johannes P.; Wetter, Oliver

    2016-12-01

    Changes in climate affected human societies throughout the last millennium. While European cold periods in the 17th and 18th century have been assessed in detail, earlier cold periods received much less attention due to sparse information available. New evidence from proxy archives, historical documentary sources and climate model simulations permit us to provide an interdisciplinary, systematic assessment of an exceptionally cold period in the 15th century. Our assessment includes the role of internal, unforced climate variability and external forcing in shaping extreme climatic conditions and the impacts on and responses of the medieval society in north-western and central Europe.Climate reconstructions from a multitude of natural and anthropogenic archives indicate that the 1430s were the coldest decade in north-western and central Europe in the 15th century. This decade is characterised by cold winters and average to warm summers resulting in a strong seasonal cycle in temperature. Results from comprehensive climate models indicate consistently that these conditions occurred by chance due to the partly chaotic internal variability within the climate system. External forcing like volcanic eruptions tends to reduce simulated temperature seasonality and cannot explain the reconstructions. The strong seasonal cycle in temperature reduced food production and led to increasing food prices, a subsistence crisis and a famine in parts of Europe. Societies were not prepared to cope with failing markets and interrupted trade routes. In response to the crisis, authorities implemented numerous measures of supply policy and adaptation such as the installation of grain storage capacities to be prepared for future food production shortfalls.

  16. Paleo-environments of Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene Foreland-Basin Deposits in the Western Foothills of South-Central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Tzu-Hsuan; Tien-Shun Lin, Andrew; Chi, Wen-Rong; Wang, Shih-Wei

    2017-04-01

    Lithofacies and paleo-environmental analyses of the Pliocene-Pleistocene deposits of Taiwan provide a framework to understand the stratigraphic development of foreland basin to the west of the orogenic belt. In this study, we performed lithofacies analyses and biostratigraphic studies on calcareous nannofossils in two areas in south-central Taiwan, the Jhuoshuei River, and the Hushan Reservoir, respectively. The studied lithostratigraphic units are the Chinshui Shale, the Cholan Formation, and the Toukoshan Formation, in an ascending order, with a total stratigraphic thickness more than 3500 m in central Taiwan. Sixteen lithofacies and four lithofacies associations are identified, pertaining to tide-dominated deltaic systems bordering a shallow marine setting in the foreland basin. A few wide-spread layers of thickly-bedded sandstones featuring ball-and-pillow structures are interpreted as resulting from earthquake shaking (i.e., seismites). In addition, the vertical facies change shows a coarsening and shallowing-upward succession, indicating the gradually filling up of the foreland basin by sediment progradation. The progradation is interpreted to result from westward migrating orogenic belt and an increase in sediment supply. The top 2000-m thick foreland succession (i.e., the uppermost part of the Cholan Formation, and the Toukoshan Formation) is dominantly fluvial deposits with occasional intercalations of shoreface sediments, indicating an extremely rapid and balanced rate of basin subsidence and sediment supply for the past 1.5 Ma. Vertebrate fossils of deer and elephants are identified in the upper Cholan Formation deposited in coastal to fluvial settings. Keywords: Pliocene-Pleistocene Epoch, lithofacies, foreland basin, Taiwan

  17. Mayer Kangri metamorphic complexes in Central Qiangtang (Tibet, western China): implications for the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics associated with the Paleo-Tethys Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yixuan; Liang, Xiao; Wang, Genhou; Yuan, Guoli; Bons, Paul D.

    2017-09-01

    The Mesozoic orogeny in Central Qiangtang Metamorphic Belt, northern Tibet, provides important insights into the geological evolution of the Paleo-Tethys Ocean. However, the Triassic-early Jurassic tectonics, particularly those associated with the continental collisionstage, remains poorly constrained. Here we present results from geological mapping, structural analysis, P-T data, and Ar-Ar geochronology of the Mayer Kangri metamorphic complex. Our data reveal an E-W-trending, 2 km wide dome-like structure associated with four successive tectonic events during the Middle Triassic and Early Jurassic. Field observations indicate that amphibolite and phengite schist complexes in this complex are separated from the overlying lower greenschist mélange by normal faulting with an evident dextral shearing component. Open antiform-like S2 foliation of the footwall phengite schist truncates the approximately north-dipping structures of the overlying mélange. Microtextures and mineral chemistry of amphibole reveal three stages of growth: Geothermobarometric estimates yield temperatures and pressures of 524 °C and 0.88 GPa for pargasite cores, 386 °C and 0.34 GPa for actinolite mantles, and 404 °C and 0.76 GPa for winchite rims. Peak blueschist metamorphism in the phengite schist occurred at 0.7-1.1 GPa and 400 °C. Our Ar-Ar dating of amphibole reveals rim-ward decreasing in age bands, including 242.4-241.2 Ma, ≥202.6-196.8, and 192.9-189.8 Ma. The results provide evidence for four distinct phases of Mesozoic tectonic evolution in Central Qiangtang: (1) northward oceanic subduction beneath North Qiangtang ( 244-220 Ma); (2) syn-collisional slab-break off (223-202 Ma); (3) early collisional extension driven by buoyant extrusion flow from depth ( 202.6-197 Ma); and (4) post-collision contraction and reburial (195.6-188.7 Ma).

  18. New Paleoclimate Records from the Russian Far East: Carbon Accumulation Rates and Ecological Change Over the Last 13,000 Years from Western and Central Kamchatka

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, C. J.; Loisel, J.; Yu, Z.; Beilman, D.; Dirksen, V.; Dirksen, O.; Nichols, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    The Kamchatka peninsula lies along the confluence of the Pacific Ocean, and the Bering and Okhotsk Seas (OS). Its location is ideal to record shifts in regional ocean and atmospheric circulation and contains vast stores of carbon-rich peatlands, yet paleoclimate records from this area are scarce. This research aims to provide new paleo-proxy records that document carbon dynamics, precipitation, and temperature over the Holocene. We focus on site C4 (54.02 N, 156.13 E) located 18 km from OS coast at 91 m elevation and draw comparisons with site C1 (54.91 N, 156.60 E) which is 62 km from the coast at 256 m elevation, both in the Western Lowland (WL) region. Cores C1 and C4 are 450 and 375 cm in length, respectively. C4 and C1 were analyzed for organic matter (OM) content; while C4 received additional δ-deuterium (δD), plant macrofossil, and fossil pollen analysis. Both cores cover the last 13,000 years from the Western Lowlands (WL); prior to this study no such records existed from the WL or the eastern OS coastline. Chronologies are based on radiocarbon dating of fine fraction bulk peat and Sphagnum plant macrofossils. At both sites, peat accumulation began 11 ka (1 ka = 1000 calibrated years before present), is continuous to the surface, interlayered with tephra, and overlays a clay unit with 20% OM. OM density measured at 1 cm intervals show similar means of 0.1 g cm-3 over the last 11 ka and, despite the close proximity of the sites (103 km), they show two opposing OM trends: Period 1) From 5.8 to 3.5 ka, C1 OM density decreased ~0.10 to 0.06 g cm-3 while C4 increased from ~0.10 to 0.19 g cm-3, and Period 2) from 3.5 to 0.9 ka, C1 OM density increased to ~0.18 g cm-3 while C4 decreased to ~0.11 cm-3. Peat carbon accumulation rate (PCAR) is similar for both periods in C1 and C4 at 20.1 and 14.1 g m-2 yr-1, respectively. Prior to 5.8 ka PCAR in C1 and C4 is ~30 g m-2 yr-1 in the early Holocene, decreasing to 19 g m-2 yr-1 in the Mid- Late Holocene. C4 shows large

  19. A Four Lake Latitudinal Comparison Along Coastal Southern to Central California: A Late-Holocene Perspective on the Western US Precipitation Dipole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, M.; Nichols, K. E.; Ramezan, R.; Palermo, J. A.; Hiner, C.; Bonuso, N.; Patterson, W. P.; Silveira, E.

    2016-12-01

    One of the dominant hydroclimatic features of the western United States is the winter season precipitation dipole. The dipole is characterized by a N-S antiphased precipitation regime presently centered on 40° N latitude (Cayan et al., 1998; Dettinger et al., 1998; Wise, 2010). For example, the position of the dipole dictates where CA receives its winter precipitation; thus, it is critical to understand the dipole from a paleoperspective, which at present is poorly known. Here, we present four lake sites spanning 33°-36° N latitude along coastal CA. These sites include: Lake Elsinore, Crystal Lake, Zaca Lake, and Abbott Lake. All four of these sites are located south of the dipole's average historic (since 1950 AD) latitude. The predominant hydroclimatic indicator is similar for each basin (i.e., grain size); although, several other indicators are used for independent verification/assessment of the grain size interpretation. Notably, these lakes contain varied age control, which limits site-to-site correlation without consideration of age model dependence. Following a Bayesian framework, MCMC algorithms in conjuction with radiocarbon dating will be used to estimate timestamps of sediment deposits with a degree of statistical uncertainty. Samples from the posterior distribution will be used to correlate hydroclimatic features between sites. Included in this analysis are tree ring records from the region to assess the similarities and differences as recorded in annually resolved tree ring drought reconstructions and decadally resolved lake sediment hydroclimatic records. Finally, the four sites are assessed in the context of tropical and north Pacific SST forcing.

  20. Traditional Tar Production from the Anatolian Black Pine [Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe var. pallasiana] and its usages in Afyonkarahisar, Central Western Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arı, Süleyman; Kargıoğlu, Mustafa; Temel, Mehmet; Konuk, Muhsin

    2014-03-27

    Tar is one example of a plant product used in folk medicine and it is obtained from Pinus nigra Arn. subsp. pallasiana (Lamb.) Holmboe, which is very common in the West Anatolian Region. Old trees that are good for kindling and have thick trucks are preferred to obtain tar. Tar is used not only as traditional medicine but also for protection against both endoparasites and ectoparasites. The objective of this study was to record the traditional method of obtaining tar and its usages in Afyonkarahisar which is located in the Western Anatolian Region of Turkey. In order to record the traditional methods of obtaining tar, we visited the villages of Doğlat, Kürtyurdu and Çatağıl in Afyonkarahisar (Turkey) June-July, 2012. Ethnobotanical data about the method of collection and traditional usages of tar were obtained through informal interviews with 26 participants (16 men and 10 women). Data concerning the method of tar collection and its traditional usages were recorded and photographed. The traditional method for obtaining tar from Pinus nigra subsp. pallasiana by local people was recorded and the local usages (curing ear pain in children, osteomyelitis, wounds, ulcers, eczema, acne, alopecia, fungus, foot-and-mouth disease in animals, mouth sores in sheep and goats, protection against endo- and ectoparasites, repellent for snakes, mice, flies (Tabanus bovinus) and ticks, and the prevention of water leakage from roofs) of tar are described. In this study, the traditional method for obtaining tar and the traditional usages of tar are explained. Documentation of the method of obtaining tar and its traditional usages may contribute to scientific research on the benefits and usages of tar in medicine, veterinary medicine, as well as other fields.

  1. Deep-seated landslides affecting monoclinal flysch morphostructure: Evaluation of LiDAR-derived topography of the highest range of the Czech Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Břežný, Michal; Pánek, Tomáš

    2017-05-01

    The recent launch of national-scale LiDAR-derived topographic data provides an opportunity for (re)evaluating the geomorphic imprint of landslides in forested mountains. A LiDAR-based inventory of deep-seated landslides (DSLs) in the highest part of Czech Outer Western Carpathians (Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts.) reveals that nearly 20% of the territory is affected by ancient DSLs. Rather than the topography itself, we show that the geological characteristics of flysch rocks control the density, scaling relationships and morphometry of DSLs. They reveal a strong tendency to clustering in areas with favourable structural conditions, such as cataclinal slopes of individual monoclinal ridges formed by thick-bedded sandstones. In comparison with high-mountain areas and regions dominated by weaker lithology (e.g., claystone-dominated flysch), sandstone-dominated monoclinal structure of the Moravskoslezské Beskydy Mts. features predominantly short-travelled DSLs that are arrested on slopes and thus reveal a higher slope gradient than non-landslide terrain. Finally, we propose a conceptual model for the evolution of DSLs on monoclinal flysch morphostructures, particularly where coherent sandstone caps overlie weak claystone/siltstone-dominated flysch. In these conditions, we distinguish between "low" and "high" monoclinal ridges, where the former is cappe