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Sample records for central west coast

  1. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    in the Indian Ocean, Journal of Earth System Sciences, 116(3)(2007) 261-274. 12 Admiralty Tide Tables, (Published by the Hydrographer of the Navy, U.K.) 1996, Vol. 2. 13 Clarke, A.J. & Battisti, D.S., The effect of continental shelves on tides, Deep Sea... Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 39(4), December 2010, pp. 485-488 Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India A S Unnikrishnan National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004, India [E-mail: unni@nio.org] Received...

  2. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    In order to study the response of benthic foraminifera, especially the rectilinear bi- and tri-serial benthic foraminifera (RBF) to oxygen-depleted conditions from the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India, 103 surface sediment samples...

  3. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A; Srinivas, K.

    The heavy mineral placers with variable concentrations of ilmenite and magnetite occur in the surface and in the sub-surface sediments of many bays along central west coast of India. These sediments are associated with pebbles of laterite...

  4. Development of summer monsoon and onset of continuous rains over central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    A new interpretation of the start of summer monsoon along central west coast of India is presented in this paper. Many authors misinterpret onset of continuous rains as start of summer monsoon front, These two are different phenomena, continuous...

  5. Nematode species diversity as indicator of stressed benthic environment along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.R.; Ingole, B.S.

    community as a tool for assessing the benthic environment. Total 32 meiofaunal samples were collected from the sub-tidal regions along the central west coast of India. Sediment samples were collected on board CRVSagar-Sukti (cruise no. SASU-60 and 105...

  6. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    are confined toth~ coastal plains in the form of alluvial deposits and coastal sands. Laterites of variable thickness are found to oc cur capping the coastal rocks at different levels. The coast shows marine, fluvial and aeolian fea tures. Ef0sion...

  7. Evidence of climatic change during Holocene in the nearshore regions of Konkan (central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Guptha, M.V.S.

    In order to understand the paleoenvironmental setting of the nearshore area of the central west coast of India, three vibro-cores from the Kalbadevi Bay, from a depth range of 6-12 m were analysed for sedimentological, mineralogical...

  8. Origin of amphibole-rich beach sands from Tila-Mati, Karwar, central-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    The pocket beach at Tila-Mati, Karwar, central west coast of India, is characterised by the occurrence of amphibole-rich (chiefly tremolite-actinolite) coarse sand in the zone of minimal impact of waves and currents. In the total sediment, grain...

  9. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  10. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  11. Spatial distribution of the nematodes in the subtidal community of the Central West Coast of India with emphasis on Tershellingia longicaudata (Nematoda: Linhomoeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.; Chatterjee, T.

    , possibly due to lack of expertise. Meiofauna was investigated with emphasis on nematodes, which were the most dominant group and one species - Terschellingia longicaudata (De Man, 1907) - along the central west coast of India, stretching between Ratnagiri...

  12. Zooplankton variability and copepod assemblage in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa along the central-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Padmavati, G.

    Seasonal variations in zooplankton distribution and community structure of copepod species in coastal and estuarine waters of Goa along the central-west coast of India are compared in relation to water temperature, salinity and dissoved oxygen...

  13. Near shore waves, long-shore currents and sediment transport along micro-tidal beaches, central west coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajiv Philip CHEMPALAYIL; V Sanil KUMAR; G Udhaba DORA; Glejin JOHNSON

    2014-01-01

    Coastlines are undergoing constant geomorphologic changes with respect to the incident wave climate. Based on waves measured at 9 m water depth, simulation of near shore wave transformation is done using REFDIF-1 numerical model and the near shore breaker parameters are estimated at two micro-tidal beaches along central west coast of India. Model results are validated with measured values. From the breaker parameters, long-shore current and long-shore sediment transport rates (LSTR) are computed by using semi-empirical equations. Estimated long-shore current and LSTR are showing dramatic variations with respect to seasons. Predominant direction of LSTR is observed towards north since the approach waves are from south-west direction during pre-monsoon and post monsoon. During monsoon season, waves are from west south-west and resulted in southerly transport. The estimated annual net and gross LSTR by Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants (CERC) at two locations are in the same order whereas LSTR estimated by Walton & Bruno and Kamphuis equations are showing different estimations because of difference in surf-zone width and foreshore slope between the two locations. For micro-tidal beaches with length less than 6 km, Kamphuis equation is giving agreeable estimation of LSTR. Sensitivity analysis of LSTR estimate shows that coastal inclination is the prominent factor in determining LSTR than incident wave angle.

  14. Determination of net shroe drift direction of central west coast of India using remotely sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_9_811.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_9_811.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  15. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    ridges, littoral terraces, dunes, tidal flats etc. have been described and demarcated. Ground truth have been collected for all the features identified from remote sensing data. The coast, with abandoned cliffs, littoral terraces, beach ridges, tidal...

  16. Spatial and temporal distribution of foraminifera in sediments off the central west coast of India and use of their test morphologies for the reconstruction of paleomonsoonal precipitation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    From the shallow region off the central west coast of India, 21 samples of surface sediments (ranging in depth from 22 to 52 m) along with two sediment cores of 4.80 m and 4.00 m (surface/subsurface) have been analyzed for foraminiferal composition...

  17. Environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling, off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sawkar, K.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    in response to prevailing equatorward winds. High salinity ocean waters of rich nutrient contents were observed at the coast in some locations. However, the effect of upwelling on the surface distribution of properties was reduced to some extent due to coastal...

  18. A note on the ancient mangroves of Goa, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Chauhan, O.S.

    , was identified along the coast at Colva (Goa). Fossilized wood and twigs within this black layer yielded an age of 6,430 years Bp 20 . Considering the proximity ofthis site, and since the organic debris identified in this study are also found at identical depths...

  19. Isotopic studies of beach rock carbonates from Konkan, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    The beach rock carbonates from the 200 km long stretch from Guhagar in the north to Deogad in the south along the Konkan coast (Maharashtra, India) are studied for sup(14)C dating and sup(13)C : sup(12)C and sup(18)O : sup(16)O ratio determination...

  20. Geohydrology, Geochemistry, and Ground-Water Simulation-Optimization of the Central and West Coast Basins, Los Angeles County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichard, Eric G.; Land, Michael; Crawford, Steven M.; Johnson, Tyler D.; Everett, Rhett; Kulshan, Trayle V.; Ponti, Daniel J.; Halford, Keith L.; Johnson, Theodore A.; Paybins, Katherine S.; Nishikawa, Tracy

    2003-01-01

    Historical ground-water development of the Central and West Coast Basins in Los Angeles County, California through the first half of the 20th century caused large water-level declines and induced seawater intrusion. Because of this, the basins were adjudicated and numerous ground-water management activities were implemented, including increased water spreading, construction of injection barriers, increased delivery of imported water, and increased use of reclaimed water. In order to improve the scientific basis for these water management activities, an extensive data collection program was undertaken, geohydrological and geochemical analyses were conducted, and ground-water flow simulation and optimization models were developed. In this project, extensive hydraulic, geologic, and chemical data were collected from new multiple-well monitoring sites. On the basis of these data and data compiled and collected from existing wells, the regional geohydrologic framework was characterized. For the purposes of modeling, the three-dimensional aquifer system was divided into four aquifer systems?the Recent, Lakewood, Upper San Pedro, and Lower San Pedro aquifer systems. Most pumpage in the two basins is from the Upper San Pedro aquifer system. Assessment of the three-dimensional geochemical data provides insight into the sources of recharge and the movement and age of ground water in the study area. Major-ion data indicate the chemical character of water containing less than 500 mg/L dissolved solids generally grades from calcium-bicarbonate/sulfate to sodium bicarbonate. Sodium-chloride water, high in dissolved solids, is present in wells near the coast. Stable isotopes of oxygen and hydrogen provide information on sources of recharge to the basin, including imported water and water originating in the San Fernando Valley, San Gabriel Valley, and the coastal plain and surrounding hills. Tritium and carbon-14 data provide information on relative ground-water ages. Water with

  1. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found. PMID:25863629

  2. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  3. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  4. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  5. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  6. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  7. Nearshore currents along the Karnataka coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    Measured current data at 7 locations and tide data at 3 locations during the pre-summer monsoon period along the west coast of India is used in the study. The surface currents during March showed a predominant northward trend and during April...

  8. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Mazumder; Rajiv Nigam

    2014-04-01

    Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15–3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50–60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150–1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50–60 m. Within 150–1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (< 1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

  9. Significance of zircon U-Pb ages from the Pescadero felsite, west-central California coast ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Robert J.; Moore, Diane E.; ,; Martens, UWE C.; Clark, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian–Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ∼185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ± prehnite ± laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe–reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG) and laser ablation–inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefly Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86–90 Ma. Reflecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio–Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ∼100 km to the east in the Diablo Range–San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper

  10. West Coast DA Event data - West Coast Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in the spring of 2015 the US West Coast began to experience the most wide-spread toxic Pseudo-nitzschia bloom to date, after approximately eight years...

  11. Observed internal tides and near-inertial waves on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeesh, M. P.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics of internal tides (ITs) and near-inertial waves (NIWs) on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh (17∘N), central west coast of India were studied. Eight-month (March-October) long Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements made in the year 2008 were used in the present study. Analysis of sea surface heights from satellite altimeter data, where the tracks of the satellites are oriented nearly in the direction of the semimajor axis of barotropic tides, reveals the presence of diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides with surface amplitudes of about 2 cm. Baroclinic current spectra of horizontal velocities show peaks in IT frequencies of M2, S2, K1 and O1 and in inertial frequency (f). The observed current spectra show higher energies than those in Garrett-Munk reference spectra by about 2-3 times. Based on the estimates of "critical topography" (where the topographic slope is equal to the slope of IT) and computed barotropic body force (Baines, 1982), the shelf-edge, mid-slope and deep part of the slope region are found to be the possible generation sites of internal tides in the region. Over the period of observation, the IT on the slope is found to be energetic, with a strong IT during March to mid-April (pre-monsoon period). Whereas, on the shelf, IT is weak during the pre-monsoon and found to be strong in the southwest monsoon. The available hydrographic data and model simulated hydrography suggest that this difference is linked with the stratification changes on the shelf and slope during these seasons, where the stratification is found to be weak on the shelf and strong on the slope during pre-monsoon. Strong low-mode NIW is observed on the shelf associated with the storm events while the NIW is found to be less energetic on the slope.

  12. WEST COAST REGIONAL CARBON SEQUESTRATION PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer; Terry Surles; Kelly Birkinshaw

    2004-01-01

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership is one of seven partnerships which have been established by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon dioxide capture, transport and sequestration (CT&S) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, and the North Slope of Alaska. Led by the California Energy Commission, the West Coast Partnership is a consortium of over thirty five organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national labs and universities; private companies working on CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. In an eighteen month Phase I project, the Partnership will evaluate both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options. Work will focus on five major objectives: (1) Collect data to characterize major CO{sub 2} point sources, the transportation options, and the terrestrial and geologic sinks in the region, and compile and organize this data via a geographic information system (GIS) database; (2) Address key issues affecting deployment of CT&S technologies, including storage site permitting and monitoring, injection regulations, and health and environmental risks (3) Conduct public outreach and maintain an open dialogue with stakeholders in CT&S technologies through public meetings, joint research, and education work (4) Integrate and analyze data and information from the above tasks in order to develop supply curves and cost effective, environmentally acceptable sequestration options, both near- and long-term (5) Identify appropriate terrestrial and geologic demonstration projects consistent with the options defined above, and create action plans for their safe and effective implementation A kickoff meeting for the West Coast Partnership was held on Sept 30-Oct

  13. Comparison of tropical nematode communities from three harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    The three major harbours from the central west coast of India were investigated for their benthic environmental status using nematodes as surrogate community. As these three harbours have shown deteriorated conditions revealed from macrobenthic...

  14. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  15. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A

    The occurrence of heavy mineral placers on the west coast of India are well known from Konkan and Malabar Coast. However, a geological and geophysical investigation (including echosounding and side scan sonar profiles and 7 samples) off Hazira...

  16. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  17. Evolution of the 2014-2015 sea surface temperature warming in the central west coast of Baja California, Mexico, recorded by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carlos J.

    2016-07-01

    Extraordinarily warm sea surface temperatures were present in the California Current System during 2014-2015. In several locations surface waters temperature registered new record high in the recent time series. This study focuses in the evolution of the warming in the southern part of the California Current System (CCS), off the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. Analysis of monthly sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure, and wind speed as measured by satellite from January 1988 to December 2015 show that recent warming occurred during two distinct periods. From May 2014 to April 2015, SST warming was related to weak coastal winds not associated to El Niño. During this period occurred the longest sustained record of 15 months of negative wind anomalies in the series. A reduction of wind stress suggests a weakened coastal upwelling, and consequently, cold water not transported into the surface. The second process of warming occurred from September to December 2015, during a strong El Niño condition.

  18. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  19. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  20. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Spectacular spits of different sizes and variety of shapes bordering west coast of India were mapped with remote sensing techniques. By gathering information on geomorphological and locational parameters of spits, "SPITBASE", a database of spits...

  1. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  2. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data - Annual West Coast time series groundfish trawl data collection survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring Division Survey Team conduct an annual West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey from May - October each...

  3. Large California Tsunamis From Central Coast Historians And Central Coast Newspaper Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    reports of historic tsunamis represent wave elevations significantly higher than the 1964 Alaska earthquake tsunami that is typically used for emergency planning for tsunami inundation in California. Since it appears 4 much larger tsunamis occurred in the Central Coast area in 1812, 1878, 1907 and 1913; it appears we may have become complacent during this recent period of tsunami quiescence. Emergency planning for Central Coast tsunamis should be anticipating tsunami waves in the 50 to 100 feet elevation range.

  4. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100 nm particles decreased with increasing organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 0.34–0.20×OMF over Central Mexico and 0.47–0.43×OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70×OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemical composition and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  5. Aerosol optical properties relevant to regional remote sensing of CCN activity and links to their organic mass fraction: airborne observations over Central Mexico and the US West Coast during MILAGRO/INTEX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Shinozuka

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Remote sensing of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN would help evaluate the indirect effects of tropospheric aerosols on clouds and climate. To assess its feasibility, we examined relationships of submicron aerosol composition to CCN activity and optical properties observed during the MILAGRO/INTEX-B aircraft campaigns. An indicator of CCN activity, κ, was calculated from hygroscopicity measured under saturation. κ for dry 100-nm particles decreased with the organic fraction of non-refractory mass of submicron particles (OMF as 10(−0.43−0.44*OMF over Central Mexico and 10(−0.29−0.70*OMF over the US West Coast. These fits represent the critical dry diameter, centered near 100 nm for 0.2% supersaturation but varied as κ(−1/3, within measurement uncertainty (~20%. The decreasing trends of CCN activity with the organic content, evident also in our direct CCN counts, were consistent with previous ground and laboratory observations of highly organic particles. The wider range of OMF, 0–0.8, for our research areas means that aerosol composition will be more critical for estimation of CCN concentration than at the fixed sites previously studied. Furthermore, the wavelength dependence of extinction was anti-correlated with OMF as −0.70*OMF+2.0 for Central Mexico's urban and industrial pollution air masses, for unclear reasons. The Angstrom exponent of absorption increased with OMF, more rapidly under higher single scattering albedo, as expected for the interplay between soot and colored weak absorbers (some organic species and dust. Because remote sensing products currently use the wavelength dependence of extinction albeit in the column integral form and may potentially include that of absorption, these regional spectral dependencies are expected to facilitate retrievals of aerosol bulk chemistry and CCN activity over Central Mexico.

  6. Zircon U-Pb age of the Pescadero felsite: A late Cretaceous igneous event in the forearc, west-central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, W.G.; Martens, U.C.; McLaughlin, R.J.; Clark, J.C.; Moore, Diane E.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered felsite is associated with the late Campanian-Maastrichtian Pigeon Point Formation near Pescadero, California. Poorly exposed, its age and correlation are uncertain. Is it part of the Pigeon Point section west of the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault? Does it rest on Nacimiento block basement? Is it dextrally offset from the Oligocene Cambria Felsite, ~185 km to the southeast? Why is a calc-alkaline hypabyssal igneous rock intrusive into the outboard accretionary prism? To address these questions, we analyzed 43 oscillatory-zoned zircon crystals from three incipiently recrystallized pumpellyite ?? prehnite ?? laumontite-bearing Pescadero felsite samples by sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMPRG) and laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) techniques. Thirty-three zircons gave late Mesozoic U-Pb ages, with single-grain values ranging from 81 to 167 Ma; ten have pre-Mesozoic, chiefl y Proterozoic ages. A group of the four youngest Pescadero zircons yielded an apparent maximum igneous age of ca. 86-90 Ma. Refl ecting broad age scatter and presence of partly digested sandstone inclusions, we interpret the rest of the zircons (perhaps all) as xenocrysts. Twenty-three zircons were separated and analyzed from two samples of the similar Cambria Felsite, yielding a unimodal 27 Ma U-Pb age. Clearly, the origin of the Upper Oligocene Cambria Felsite is different from that of the Upper Cretaceous Pescadero felsite; these rocks are not correlated, and do not constrain displacement along the San Gregorio-Hosgri fault. Peak ages differ slightly, but relative probability curves for Mesozoic and pre-Mesozoic Pescadero zircons compare well, for example, with abundant U-Pb age data for detrital zircons from Franciscan metaclastic strata ~100 km to the east in the Diablo Range- San Francisco Bay area, San Joaquin Great Valley Group turbidites, Upper Cretaceous Nacimiento block Franciscan strata, and Upper Cretaceous

  7. NWFSC Observer Trawl Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Trawl Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  8. NWFSC Observer Fixed Gear Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Fixed Gear Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  9. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  10. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  11. Tsunami Preparedness Along the U.S. West Coast (video)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filmed and edited by: Loeffler, Kurt; Gesell, Justine

    2010-01-01

    Tsunamis are a constant threat to the coasts of our world. Although tsunamis are infrequent along the West coast of the United States, it is possible and necessary to prepare for potential tsunami hazards to minimize loss of life and property. Community awareness programs are important, as they strive to create an informed society by providing education and training. This video about tsunami preparedness along the West coast distinguishes between a local tsunami and a distant event and focuses on the specific needs of each region. It offers guidelines for correct tsunami response and community preparedness from local emergency managers, first-responders, and leading experts on tsunami hazards and warnings, who have been working on ways of making the tsunami affected regions safer for the people and communities on a long-term basis. This video was produced by the US Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the California Emergency Management Agency (CalEMA), Oregon Department of Geology and Mineral Industries (DOGAMI), Washington Emergency Management Division (EMD), Marin Office of Emergency Services, and Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E).

  12. 78 FR 23135 - Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals; Parker, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-18

    .... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast... River in Parker, Arizona for the Blue Water Resort & Casino West Coast Nationals. This temporary...

  13. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sanil Kumar; Glejin Johnson; G Udhaba Dora; Sajiv Philip Chempalayi; Jai Singh; P Pednekar

    2012-04-01

    Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7–9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

  14. Resolving orographic rainfall on the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.; Shankar, D.

    in these regions (Sarker, 1966; Xie et al., 2006). The high rainfall is matched by high freshwater discharge from rivers, making the river discharge crucial for determining the near-surface salinity and temperature (Han et al., 2001; Howden and Murtugudde, 2001...–April. The small area and mountainous terrain of the west coast make it difficult to impound water, leading to a large fraction of the heavy summer-monsoon rainfall flowing into the eastern Arabian sea. The large number of rivers and their small scale has ensured...

  15. Bats in Agroecosytems around California's Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.

  16. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  17. A Holistic Evaluation of a Typical Coast Nourishment on the Danish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2008-01-01

    The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural...... heritages and the recreational value of the beach. After the nourishment, the beach was monitored by levelling profiles on four dates to monitor and track the evolution of the nourished material. Furthermore, laboratory tests involving different gradations of nourishment material are shown which indicate...

  18. A Holistic Evaluation of a Typical Coast Nourishment on the Danish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural...... heritages and the recreational value of the beach. After the nourishment, the beach was monitored by levelling profiles on four dates to monitor and track the evolution of the nourished material. Furthermore, laboratory tests involving different gradations of nourishment material are shown which indicate...

  19. 75 FR 4684 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... from NORPAC to determine initial allocations of QS for the trawl rationalization program. Landings data... initial allocation of overfished species. Landings data from the NORPAC database will be used to determine... West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Data Collection for the Trawl...

  20. Research Spotlight: Mapping U.S. West Coast surface circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A network of high-frequency radar systems designed for mapping ocean surface currents now provides unprecedented detail of coastal ocean dynamics along the U.S. West Coast, according to Kim et al. The network has grown over the past decade from a few radars to what is now considered the largest network of its kind in the world, providing nearly complete coverage of currents along approximately 2500 kilometers of shoreline. With an ability to resolve kilometer-scale currents out to approximately 150 kilometers offshore, the technology has been used for local oceanographic studies in addition to applied applications for supporting oil spill response, search and rescue, fisheries, and coastal discharge assessment. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2010JC006669, 2011)

  1. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon Coach... company controlled by Sherman, Transportation Management Services, Inc. (TMS), obtained the right...

  2. Coastal Erosion Along the West Coast of the Taiwan Strait and It's Influencing Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jianhui; CAI Feng; QI Hongshuai; LEI Gang; CAO Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Based on the field surveys and repeated cross-profile observations combined with the comparison of many years' topographic maps, this study shows the spatial variability and varying patterns of coastal erosion along the west coast of the Taiwan Strait. Regional differentiation in the Meso-Cenozoic coastal tectonics determined the irregular coastline and geological background for large-scale coastal erosion distribution. The intensity of coastal erosion on the west side of the Taiwan Strait is mild in the northern region, severe in the central region and modest in the southern region. The beaches along the coast are mainly backed by dunes, seawalls or cliffs. The dunes and beaches show periodic erosion and recovery along the coast adjacent to river mouths, while persistent retreat of frontal dunes and beaches tends to occur in other areas. The beach erosion occurs mainly in front of seawalls. Due to the low strength of the unconsolidated sediment the soft cliffs suffer the severest coastline recession. Sea level rise and river sediment discharge reduction are main causes of coastal erosion. Storm surge is common in the studied area and plays an important role in the progress of coastal erosion. Human activities including coastal constructions and sand mining also tend to interfere strongly with the balance of sediment budget in some coastal cells.

  3. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  4. Bioactive potential of some intertidal molluscs collected from Mumbai coast,West coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atul G Babar; Anant Pande; Balasaheb G Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the bioactive potential of crude methanolic extracts of five gastropods and one bivalve collected from the west coast of India (Mumbai coast). Methods: Disc-diffusion assay and micro-dilution technique were used to test the bioactive potential of these molluscs against six pathogenic bacteria. Results: The crude methanolic extracts of all the molluscs showed significant activity against one or more bacteria tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of crude methanolic extracts was found in the range of 0.10–0.35 mg/mL against human pathogenic bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus and Nerita sp. extracts were most effective showing activity against all bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus extract exhibited good activity against Vibrio cholerae contrary to earlier reports. Methanolic extract of Gafrarium divaricatum demonstrated considerable activity against both Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes. Trochus radiatus extract was inactive against all the bacteria tested except Escherichiacoli. Euchelus asper extract was active against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: All the molluscs screened exhibited potential activity against one or more bacterial strain. Further work is in progress to isolate the active constituents of the extracts.

  5. What rainfall events trigger landslides on the West Coast US?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasutti, Michela; Seager, Richard; Kirschbaum, Dalia

    2016-04-01

    A dataset of landslide occurrences compiled by collating google news reports covers 9 full years of data. We show that, while this compilation cannot provide consistent and widespread monitoring everywhere, it is adequate to capture the distribution of events in the major urban areas of the West Coast US and it can be used to provide a quantitative relationship between landslides and rainfall events. The case of the Seattle metropolitan area is presented as an example. The landslide dataset shows a clear seasonality in landslide occurrence, corresponding to the seasonality of rainfall, modified by the accumulation of soil moisture as winter progresses. Interannual variability of landslide occurrences is also linked to interannual variability of monthly rainfall. In most instances, landslides are clustered on consecutive days or at least within the same pentad and correspond to days of large rainfall accumulation at the regional scale. A joint analysis of the landslide data and of the high-resolution PRISM daily rainfall accumulation shows that on days when landslides occurred, the distribution of rainfall was shifted, with rainfall accumulation higher than 10mm/day being more common. Accumulations above 50mm/day much increase the probability of landslides, including the possibility of a major landslide event (one with multiple landslides in a day). The synoptic meteorological conditions associated with these major events show a mid-tropospheric ridge to the south of the target area steering a surface low and bringing enhanced precipitable water towards the Pacific North West. The interaction of the low-level flow with the local orography results in instances of a strong Puget Sound Convergence Zone, with widespread rainfall accumulation above 30mm/day and localized maxima as high as 100mm/day or more.

  6. Dynamic stability of coral reefs on the west Australian coast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conrad W Speed

    Full Text Available Monitoring changes in coral cover and composition through space and time can provide insights to reef health and assist the focus of management and conservation efforts. We used a meta-analytical approach to assess coral cover data across latitudes 10-35°S along the west Australian coast, including 25 years of data from the Ningaloo region. Current estimates of coral cover ranged between 3 and 44% in coral habitats. Coral communities in the northern regions were dominated by corals from the families Acroporidae and Poritidae, which became less common at higher latitudes. At Ningaloo Reef coral cover has remained relatively stable through time (∼28%, although north-eastern and southern areas have experienced significant declines in overall cover. These declines are likely related to periodic disturbances such as cyclones and thermal anomalies, which were particularly noticeable around 1998/1999 and 2010/2011. Linear mixed effects models (LME suggest latitude explains 10% of the deviance in coral cover through time at Ningaloo. Acroporidae has decreased in abundance relative to other common families at Ningaloo in the south, which might be related to persistence of more thermally and mechanically tolerant families. We identify regions where quantitative time-series data on coral cover and composition are lacking, particularly in north-western Australia. Standardising routine monitoring methods used by management and research agencies at these, and other locations, would allow a more robust assessment of coral condition and a better basis for conservation of coral reefs.

  7. Review of the twelfth West Coast retrovirus meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melar Marta

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year the Cancer Research Institute from University of California at Irvine organizes the West Coast Retrovirus Meeting where participants have a chance to discuss the latest progress in understanding the pathology of retroviruses. The 12th meeting was held at the Hyatt Regency Suites in Palm Springs, California from October 6th to October 9th 2005, with the major focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pathogenesis. Philippe Gallay from The Scripps Research Institute and Thomas J. Hope from Northwestern University organized the meeting, which covered all the steps involved in the lifecycle of retroviruses with an emphasis on virus:host interactions. The trend in research appeared to be on the restriction of viral infection, both by the endogenous, cellular restriction factors, as well as by the potential antimicrobial compounds of known or unknown mechanisms. Additionally, new stories on the inevitable feedback from the host immune system were presented as well. HIV still represents a challenge that an army of motivated people has been working on for over 20 years. And yet, the field has not reached the plateau in knowledge nor enthusiasm, which was proven again in October 2005 in Palm Springs.

  8. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  9. Social Cultural Data - Social Impacts of Catch Shares in the West Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Catch shares are one method of catch allocation utilized by fisheries managers in the United States West Coast groundfish fishery. Catch share management results in...

  10. Public Seagrass Compilation for West Coast Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data are a compilation of currently available seagrass GIS data sets for the west coast of the United States. These data have been compiled from seventeen...

  11. 75 FR 33733 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION... as part of the live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of...

  12. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about...

  13. NWFSC Coral Data Collected off West Coast of US (1980-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains the locations of some observations of cold-water/deep-sea corals off the west coast of the United States. Records of coral catch originate from...

  14. NWFSC Groundfish Data for U.S. West Coast (2003-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data available for downloading is summarized data from the 2003-2005 U.S. West Coast Bottom Trawl Survey (WCGTS) of Groundfish Resources off Washington, Oregon...

  15. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    Distribution and abundance of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India is carried out based on zooplankton collections (on board FORV Sagar Sampada) during the period 1985-1990. The 661 samples collected...

  16. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Nethery; D Shankar

    2007-08-01

    A linear, continuously stratified ocean model is used to investigate vertical propagation of remotely forced, baroclinic Kelvin waves along the Indian west coast. The extent of vertical propagation over the length of the coast is found to be an increasing function of the forcing frequency. Simulations show that, over the length of the Indian west coast, vertical propagation is limited at annual and semi-annual periods, but significant at periods shorter than about 120 days. This has two major consequences. First, the depth of subsurface currents associated with these frequencies varies substantially along the coast. Second, baroclinic Kelvin waves generated in the Bay of Bengal at periods shorter than about 120 days have negligible influence on surface currents along the north Indian west coast.

  17. West Coast U.S. : demand and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook for Canadian natural gas in Western U.S. markets through the winter of 1997 and 1998 was discussed. The effect of El Nino on West Coast gas pricing was noted, while also admitting that the best scientific minds are unable to determine what these effects actually are. Both the Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) and PIRA predicted that Topock (the border pricing point) prices will track the NYMEX Henry Hub prices. The three points that were emphasized for the winter of 1997-1998 were: (1) Western U.S. pricing is higher than last year, (2) there is a surplus of gas in Canada relative to export capacity, and (3) differentials are anticipated to remain in excess of full transportation costs. The 1997 gas accord rates were also noted and its significance discussed. Increased electric load growth is likely to result in higher electricity prices which may drag gas prices along with them. Any new power generation facility is likely to be gas-fired, a fact which should also help to maintain natural gas prices. Transmission pricing is the major unknown variable. It is well known that from a capital cost perspective it is about four times more expensive to build a high -Kv transmission line than to build a gas pipeline to deliver the equivalent amount of energy. Therefore, to the degree that transmission pricing favours building new generation near load centres, gas should do well. If on the other hand, transmission pricing favours building generation plants near the fuel source, gas probably would not do nearly as well. The effects will not be known until the relevant decisions have been made. 6 figs

  18. Raw material studies of West Central Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Bogosavljević Petrović

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with raw material problems in the territory of West Central Serbia geologically determined as the Čačak-Kraljevo (or West Morava basin. Our research is presented through the most striking case studies, Lojanik, Vlaška Glava and Lazac.  The Lojanik hill is a silicified forest by origin. It has occasionally been in use from the earliest periods of prehistory until today as a source of black and ochre-coloured flint, opal and silicified wood. A detailed prospection, including the mapping of surface finds using square nets, was conducted during two research campaigns.The Vlaška Glava is an open-air Palaeolithic site at which artefacts made of white, ochre, red, brown and black chert, silicified magnesite, volcanic and metamorphic rocks were found. Our research of primary and secondary geological deposits in the vicinity of the site showed equivalent raw material. We also found an interesting primary deposit of high quality bluish grey flint with outcrop activities (Workshop 1.The Lazac shaft is a contemporary magnesite mine, recently abandoned because of the high percentage of silicon-dioxide. We determined the same raw material in collections found at nearby Neolithic sites. Certain similarities between the wooden support systems of ore exploration in the Middle Ages and modern times were established at the entrance of the shaft.Our research in the territory of the West Morava basin resulted in reconstruction of some links between geological deposits and settlements and also creation of a relevant base for future raw material studies.

  19. An Indo-Arabian type of stone anchor from Kannur, Kerala,west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Manikfan, A.; Mohamed, M.

    and commerce, cultural contacts and boat and shipbuilding activities of the region. In India, stone anchors have been reported from Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Lakshadweep on the west coast and Tamil Nadu and Orissa on the east coast of India. Recent exploration...

  20. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    . Foreign travellers have mentioned the names of active ports on the Saurashtra coast since the early historical period. During the medieval period this coast has witnessed hectic maritime activities and international trade and commerce. Marine...

  1. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    to September. Annual gross sediment transport rate is high (1.5-2 x 106 m3) along north Kerala, north Karnataka and south Gujarat coasts. Maharashtra coast shows relatively low annual net transport (0.1 x 106 m3). The annual net transport is south along north...

  2. 75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Recycling Group Project in West Sacramento, Yolo County, CA AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the development of the West Coast Recycling Group... West Coast Recycling Group (WCRG) proposes to develop approximately 15 acres at the Port of...

  3. The earliest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, T.A.; Macario, K.D.; Anjos, R.M.; Gomes, P.R.S. E-mail: paulogom@if.uff.br; Coimbra, M.M.; Elmore, D

    2004-08-01

    This paper presents a new date for one of the oldest shellmounds of the central-south Brazilian coast. This date seems to confirm three previous results obtained from two other shellmounds in the same region and formerly seen as unreliable by the archaeological community. A charcoal sample from a coastal shellmound located in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Sambaqui do Algodao, was dated by {sup 14}C-AMS to 7860 {+-} 80 years BP. Besides confirming the previous ones, this new date is pulling back by some two thousand years the consensually accepted antiquity for the initial settlement of the central-south Brazilian coast - around 6000 years BP. The geographical and chronological proximity of those archaeological sites suggest that the initial settlement of the coast would have begun in this region rather than in the nuclear area with denser concentrations of shellmounds further to the South. It also strengthens the evidence of the possible route used by inland hunter-gatherers to reach this part of the coast.

  4. Ship Traffic 2011 West Coast Region - All Ship Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — The data was derived from US Coast Guard raw vessel point returns and preprocessed by ASA (Applied Science Associates), to one minute point interCAls. The data...

  5. Evolution of a Paleoproterozoic “weak type” orogeny in the West African Craton (Ivory Coast)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, M.; Gumiaux, C.; Cagnard, F.; Pouclet, A.; Ouattara, G.; Pichon, M.

    2009-11-01

    The Paleoproterozoic domain of the Ivory Coast lies in the central part of the West African Craton (WAC) and is mainly constituted by TTG, greenstones, supracrustal rocks and leucogranites. A compilation of metamorphic and radiometric data highlights that: i) metamorphic conditions are rather homogeneous through the domain, without important metamorphic jumps, ii) HP-LT assemblages are absent and iii) important volumes of magmas emplaced during the overall Paleoproterozoic orogeny suggesting the occurrence of long-lived rather hot geotherms. Results of the structural analysis, focused on three areas within the Ivory Coast, suggest that the deformation is homogeneous and distributed through the Paleoproterozoic domain. In details, results of this study point out the long-lived character of vertical movements during the Eburnean orogeny with a two folds evolution. The first stage is characterized by the development of "domes and basins" geometries without any boundary tectonic forces and the second stage is marked by coeval diapiric movements and horizontal regional-scale shortening. These features suggest that the crust is affected by vertical movements during the overall orogeny. The Eburnean orogen can then be considered as an example of long-lived Paleoproterozoic "weak type" orogen.

  6. The message, meteorology and myths of the historic West Coast winter flooding of 1861 - 62

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schick, L. J.

    2012-12-01

    The greatest known recorded flooding, ever to impact the West Coast of the United States, occurred during the winter of 1861-1862. In fact, the extraordinary flood flows on five major rivers, remain the record peaks to this day. The flooding was caused by a series of Pacific mid-latitude cyclones and several strong atmospheric rivers. The extreme rainy pattern initially strikes Oregon. The high water causes the flood of record on the Willamette River, with extensive devastation, wiping out several major towns along the river. Communications, food and supplies were cut off for much of the winter in Oregon.The intense wet weather, then redevelops, moves south and stalls - pummeling Northern California with major flooding. The runoff fills California's Central Valley with a huge inland lake. Sacramento is submerged, turned into what was described as a "frontier Venice". Flood damages eliminate a large part of the state's tax base.Finally the stormy pattern shifts into Southern California, producing major flooding. Most of lowland Los Angeles, Orange and San Diego Counties are flooded under several feet of water for weeks.The author researched limited weather data, historical accounts, maps and ship reports to reconstruct this series of storms and their effects along the West Coast. The extent and evolution of this series of flood events is unprecedented. Myths regarding the causes of this flooding are common, but its sheer magnitude is undisputable. This presentation will also demonstrate the nature and impacts of these consecutive major flood events, while revealing the lessons to be learned in light of advances in modern forecasting techniques.

  7. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  8. Recent marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    Recent marine archaeological explorations have brought to light data on the existence of ancient ports at Miyani and Kindari Creek (Mul Dwarka) on the Saurashtra coast. A large number and varieties of stone anchors have been documented at both sites...

  9. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  10. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992...

  11. 50 CFR 600.525 - Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Applicability of subpart F to Canadian Albacore Fishing Vessels off the West Coast. 600.525 Section 600.525 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Vessels off the West Coast. Fishing by vessels of Canada under the 1981 Treaty Between the Government...

  12. 78 FR 45288 - Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Surface Transportation Board Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast... Trails, Inc. (Evergreen), Cabana Coaches, LLC (Cabana), TMS West Coast, Inc. (TMS), and FSCS Corporation... shareholder of noncarrier holding companies FSCS and TMS. Cabana is owned directly by FSCS and Evergreen...

  13. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Johnson, G.; Dora, G.U.; Chempalayil, S.P.; Singh, J.; Pednekar, P.S.

    ; Curr. Sci. 78(3) 279–287. Shetye S R, Shenoi S S C, Antony A K and Kumar V K 1985 Monthly-mean wind stress along the coast of the north Indian Ocean; J. Earth Syst. Sci. 94 129–137, doi: 10.1007/BF02871945. Shore Protection Manual: 1984 U S Army Coastal... Engi- neering Research Center, Department of the Army, Corps of Engineers, U.S. Govt. Printing Office, Washington, DC, USA, Vols. 1 and 2. Stephen F B and Tor Kollstad 1991 Field trials of the directional waverider; Proc. First International Off- shore...

  14. Remote assessment of net shore drift along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    Space borne images were analyzed to examine direction, amount and behavior of long-shore drift and its contribution towards deciding areas vulnerable to coastal erosion and accretion along the West Coast of India. Long-term net shore drift direction...

  15. Organic matter distribution in the continental shelf sediments, off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.

    Organic matter was analysed on the silt-clay fraction of forty eight sediment samples from the continental shelf off Kochi, west coast of India. It was found to be high in the recent, near shore silt-clay predominant sediments towards Alleppey...

  16. Industrial Relations and Firm Behavior: Informal Labor Practices in the West Coast Longshore Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, William

    1987-01-01

    Considers industrial relations policies and practices of stevedore firms in the West Coast longshore industry in terms of the social worker, worker-resource, and institutional theories. Subsidiary firms were more lenient in contract interpretation and more competitive in recruitment, supporting the worker-resource theory. Includes 2 tables and 33…

  17. 78 FR 51097 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC783 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  18. 77 FR 50952 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XC166 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  19. 75 FR 42610 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XX54 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  20. 78 FR 54547 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... emergency rules (62 FR 44421; August 21, 1997) specify the following three criteria that define what an...; Issuance of Permit; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Highly Migratory Fisheries; California Drift Gillnet Fishery; Sperm Whale Interaction Restriction; Final Rule and Notice #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 ,...

  1. 76 FR 58720 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA709 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  2. 76 FR 40836 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XA554 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... live bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine...

  3. 75 FR 59156 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 660 RIN 0648-XY79 Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Closure AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... bait fishery or incidental to other fisheries; the incidental harvest of Pacific sardine is limited...

  4. Characteristics of Zircon in Placer Deposits along the West Coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philander, C.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Mining along the west coast of South Africa is dominated by the exploitation of onshore and offshore diamond deposits. The relatively recent discovery of vast resources of heavy minerals in the area has resulted in the establishment of a major related industry. Today, Namakwa Sands is a 10-million-t

  5. Macrofouling community development at tropical coastal environment (New Mangalore Port, West Coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.; Wagh, A.B.

    to evaluate the influence of environment on the development of macrofouling community at a locality which is not directly influenced by river run-off, a coastal station at New Mangalore Port (West coast of India) was monitored. Panels of admeasuring 10 x 15...

  6. Sedimentary dynamics along the west coast of Bohai Bay, China, during the twentieth century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Fu; Wang, Huang; Zong, Y.;

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the most recent changes in sedimentation along the west coast of Bohai Bay, China, we collected twelve 1–2 m short cores of undisturbed sediment from tidal flats off the city of Tianjin, using an Eijkelkamp corer. Based on the excess or unsupported 210Pb and 137Cs activities measured...

  7. Sea level changes induced by local winds on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Tsimplis, M.N.; Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; Shaw, A.G.P.; Somayajulu, Y.K.; Cipollini, P.

    The contribution of atmospheric pressure and local wind to sea level variability at Goa (West coast of India) for the period 2007–2008 is investigated. Sea level data from a tide gauge are compared with measured local surface meteorological as well...

  8. Exploration for shipwrecks off Sunchi Reef, Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Archival records show that a number of ships have sunk in the waters off Goa, on the west coast of India, as a result of foul weather, warfare and human error. Explorations were carried out in 1997-99 to locate shipwrecks using a boat-towed metal...

  9. Historical period stone anchors from Vijaydurg on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    , Prabhasa-Somnath, Vijaydurg and Sindhudurg along the west coast of India. Vijaydurg was a minor port of Maharashtra during 1st BC - 2nd AD. Explorations have been carried out in Vijaydurg waters to locate shipwrecks. The underwater exploration of Vijaydurg...

  10. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  11. 76 FR 77415 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... proposed action including a No Action alternative. The No Action alternative would maintain the status quo... reduces rebuilding times from status quo for many of the overfished species, but does not reduce the... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Specifications and Management Measures and...

  12. 77 FR 29955 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery Management Plan; Trawl...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... database to get it corrected before NMFS extracts the data for reconsideration of QS allocation. For... for the program to comply with a court order requiring NMFS to reconsider the initial allocation of... rationalization program for the Pacific coast groundfish fishery's trawl fleet (see 75 FR 78344; Dec. 15,...

  13. 75 FR 33196 - Fisheries off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; Suspension of the Primary Pacific Whiting Season for the Shore... announces the suspension of the Pacific whiting (whiting) fishery primary season for the shore-based sector... reinstated until 0001 hours June 15, 2010, at which time the primary season for the shore-based sector...

  14. Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Priya M.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2010-07-01

    Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two consecutive post-monsoons (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports along the central west coast of India. Characteristic temporal shifts in diatom community structure were observed across the sampling periods; these were mainly driven by temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen saturation. The nutrient-poor pre-monsoon period supported low abundance yet high species richness and diversity of diatoms. Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, Thalassiosira, Triceratium, Pleurosigma, Skeletonema and Surirella were the most dominant genera. Both the post-monsoon periods, following dissimilar monsoon events, were dominated by Skeletonema costatum, but differed in some of the residual species . Thalassiosira and Thalassionema spp. dominated mostly during post-monsoon I whereas Triceratium and Pleurosigma spp. dominated during post-monsoon II. To understand the underlying ecological mechanisms involved in such dynamics, we focus on the dominant diatom species in post-monsoon periods, S. costatum, that contributes up to 60% to total diatom cell numbers. This research is relevant in light of the fluctuating monsoon regimes over the Asian continent, the confounding effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and the resulting cascading effects on trophic web dynamics.

  15. TSUNAMI IMPACTS ON MORPHOLOGY OF BEACHES ALONG SOUTH KERALA COAST, WEST COAST OF INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Abdul Rasheed

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study is based on the post tsunami survey conducted in January 2005 along the southwest coast of India. Although tsunami affected the whole coastline of Kerala, it devastated the low- lying coastal areas of Kollam, Alleppey and Ernakulam districts leading to the loss of life and property. This paper illustrates the variation of tsunami intensity along the coasts of these districts and the consequent morphological changes occurred in the coastal area during tsunami. Topographic survey data showed that the coastal inundation was rampant along the worst affected regions where the coastal areas are like a narrow strip of land of width 100-400m, lying between the Arabian Sea and the backwaters and the down slope of the coastal area increases towards the backwater side. The data on run-up height showed a variation of 1.9 – 5 m along the study area. Post tsunami beach profiles showed erosion of the foreshore and backshore and landward transport of beach material during the run-up of waves at Puthu- Vypeen. The erosion of the backshore (berm in several places along the coast was quite evident in the study. This has caused reduction in the elevation which may make these areas more vulnerable to breaching by the high waves, particularly during the monsoon and also during certain spring tides which is a matter of serious concern.

  16. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  17. Ancient technology of jetties and anchoring points along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    , the anonymous author 3 of The Periplus of the Erythrean Sea dating back to the 1st CE, has mentioned a chain of ports along the Indian coast. Ancient texts, in- cluding Indian (such as Tamil Sangam literature, Persian literature) and foreign sources (Ptolemy... of the jetties noticed in this area, with the emergence of a new harbour at the junction of the creek and the sea, these structures ceased being used and fell in disrepair. The study of the existing traditional jetties along the west coast of India suggests...

  18. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Keith A. Hobson; Norris, D. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C)...

  19. Integrated geophysical study off Goa, Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Desa, M.; Ramprasad, T.

    stream_size 40 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Indian_Geophys_Union_20_375.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Indian_Geophys_Union_20_375.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859...

  20. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    Janoli river, the main tribu- tary joining the Gad river at Varvada (Figure 1), and the entrenched drainage pattern imply the vital role of tectonic lineaments (S. N. Karlekar, unpublished). Com- pared to Achara, the Gad river has a steeper graded pro... mineral fractions from the bed load of the rivers were analysed by X-ray RESEARCH ARTICLES CURRENT SCIENCE, VOL. 99, NO. 4, 25 AUGUST 2010 493 Figure 1. Location of study area, general geology and drainage patterns. R11 to R17 are sediment samples...

  1. Restoration of mangroves along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    of various measures taken by the Ministry of Environment and Forests, Government of India. New Delhi, conservation and management policies were initiated between 1985-1995. During this period it was observed, with remote sensing techniques, that vast...

  2. Research needs for lion conservation in West and Central Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Hans; De Iongh, Hans H; Princée, Frank P; Ngantou, Daniel

    2003-08-01

    The lion has historically probably been widespread at low densities in West and Central Africa, nowadays they are largely restricted to small isolated populations inside protected areas. The total number is probably between 1200 and 2700, the best possible guesstimate would be 1700. Mankind is the main cause for the suspected decline of lion populations, both inside and outside protected areas. Very little research has been done on West and Central African lions a few examples are summarized here. The international community is slowly becoming aware of threats to lions in the region and some initiatives for lion conservation have started.

  3. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Sundar; S R Shetye

    2005-10-01

    Mandovi and Zuari are two estuaries located in Goa,west coast of India.Variation of water level in the estuaries was monitored for a month at 13 locations using tide-poles during March –April 2003.Analysis of this data has provided for the first time,characteristics of how tidal constituents vary in the narrow and shallow estuaries,typical of those found along the west coast of India.At a distance of 45 km from the mouth the tidal range increased in both estuaries by approximately 20%.The tidal range at the upstream end of the two channels at the stations dropped sharply because of the increase in elevation of the channels.

  4. Mangrove rehabilitation in the west coast of Aceh: issues and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagaratnam, U.; Schwarz, A.M.; Adhuri, D.; Dey, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    The condition of mangroves pre- and post- tsunami and the socioeconomic role of mangrove forests in the livelihoods of coastal communities along the west coast of Aceh province, Indonesia are examined. The findings indicate that community livelihoods are significantly linked to the mangrove ecosystem. However, most of the mangrove rehabilitation programs are conservation orientated, aimed primarily at land conservation, and are not necessarily linked with livelihood options for local people o...

  5. Selected results from LLNL-Hughes RAR for West Coast Scotland Experiment 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehman, S K; Johnston, B; Twogood, R; Wieting, M; Yorkey, T; Robey, H [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Whelan, D; Nagele, R [Hughes Aircraft Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1993-01-05

    The joint US -- UK 1991 West Coast Scotland Experiment (WCSEX) was held in two locations. From July 5 to 12, 1991, in Upper Loch Linnhe, and from July 18 to July 26, 1991, in the Sound of Sleat. The LLNL-Hughes team fielded a fully polarimetric X-band hill-side real aperture radar to collect internal wave wake data. We present here a sample data set of the best radar runs.

  6. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    OpenAIRE

    Probir Kumar Ghosh; Paramita Bhattacharjee; Souvik Mitra; Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet...

  7. THE BACKGROUND RADIATION AND EXPOSURE LEVELS AT VARIOUS SOUTH AFRICAN WEST COAST MILITARY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Bezuidenhout

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The West Coast of South Africa between St Helena Bay to the north and Langebaan Lagoon to the south is characterised by numerous granite protrusions. These outcrops are elements of the underlying Cape Granite Suite, which forms the bedrock of a large part of the Western Cape. Granite contains high levels of natural radionuclides, which results in high levels of natural background radiation in the surrounding area. The impacts of these high levels of radiation exposure on military personal are of concern. There are four military units located in this part of the West Coast, namely SAS Saldanha, 4 Special Forces Regiment, Langebaan Road Air Force Base and the Military Academy. Different sites in and around these military units were selected and soil samples were taken. Laboratory gamma ray measurements were done to determine the levels of natural radioactive nuclides in the soil samples. The radioactive nuclide concentrations were interpolated and then mapped with the help of geographic information systems (also known as geospatial information systems or GIS software. An evaluation of the annual dose rate of military personnel at the units on the West Coast was made and found to range between 0,017 mSv/y and 0,163 mSv/y. These values were mapped and compared to the average global annual dose rate of 0,070 mSv/y. This article reports on an investigation of these results and the overall exposure levels of personnel from the various military units on the West Coast of South Africa.

  8. REMOTE OPERATION OF THE WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec H. Medbery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The remote control of real time derivation of earthquake location and magnitude and the issuance of tsunami and earthquake bulletins was done using off-the-shelf remote control software and hardware. Such remote operation of the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center can decrease the time needed to respond to an earthquake by eliminating travel from the duty standers’ home to the tsunami warning center.

  9. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  10. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA’S WEST AND EAST COASTS: A COMPARATIVE POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Neethling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories andpractical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on theeast and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namelythe significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global issues andpolitics. The phenomenon of maritime piracy along Africa’s coastal areas is indeedof great strategic and political-economic interest − specifically since globalisationand maritime trade show a close interface. This article examines the similarities anddifferences relating to the phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts ofAfrica from a Political Science perspective by assessing, interpreting and appraisingthe phenomenon, and ascribing meaning to recent events and developments. It alsoexplains the current insecurity off the west and east African coasts and closes with abrief comparison between the two regions under review. It concludes with the pointthat most security challenges confronting Africa have their origin in the lack orfailure of governance as states are the primary actors and agents of good order atsea. Thus the required good order at sea should be viewed as a function of howstates, such as Somalia and Nigeria, exercise their jurisdiction at sea to secure busysea lanes and also to protect the safe harvesting and extraction of resources.

  11. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea. PMID:27328397

  12. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea.

  13. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  14. Transient killer whale range - Satellite tagging of West Coast transient killer whales to determine range and movement patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transient killers whales inhabit the West Coast of the United States. Their range and movement patterns are difficult to ascertain, but are vital to understanding...

  15. Climate change alters plant biogeography in Mediterranean prairies along the West Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer-Meister, Laurel; Bridgham, Scott D; Reynolds, Lorien L; Goklany, Maya E; Wilson, Hannah E; Little, Chelsea J; Ferguson, Aryana; Johnson, Bart R

    2016-02-01

    Projected changes in climate are expected to have widespread effects on plant community composition and diversity in coming decades. However, multisite, multifactor climate manipulation studies that have examined whether observed responses are regionally consistent and whether multiple climate perturbations are interdependent are rare. Using such an experiment, we quantified how warming and increased precipitation intensity affect the relative dominance of plant functional groups and diversity across a broad climate gradient of Mediterranean prairies. We implemented a fully factorial climate manipulation of warming (+2.5-3.0 °C) and increased wet-season precipitation (+20%) at three sites across a 520-km latitudinal gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. After seeding with a nearly identical mix of native species at all sites, we measured plant community composition (i.e., cover, richness, and diversity), temperature, and soil moisture for 3 years. Warming and the resultant drying of soils altered plant community composition, decreased native diversity, and increased total cover, with warmed northern communities becoming more similar to communities further south. In particular, after two full years of warming, annual cover increased and forb cover decreased at all sites mirroring the natural biogeographic pattern. This suggests that the extant climate gradient of increasing heat and drought severity is responsible for a large part of the observed biogeographic pattern of increasing annual invasion in US West Coast prairies as one moves further south. Additional precipitation during the rainy season did little to relieve drought stress and had minimal effects on plant community composition. Our results suggest that the projected increase in drought severity (i.e., hotter, drier summers) in Pacific Northwest prairies may lead to increased invasion by annuals and a loss of forbs, similar to what has been observed in central and southern California, resulting in

  16. Increasing ozone in marine boundary layer inflow at the west coasts of North America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Parrish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective method is presented for determining the ozone (O3 mixing ratio in the onshore flow of marine air at the North American west coast. By combining the data available from all marine boundary layer (MBL sites with simultaneous wind data, decadal temporal trends of MBL O3 in all seasons are established with high precision. The average springtime temporal trend over the past two decades is 0.46 ppbv/yr with a 95% confidence limit of 0.13 ppbv/yr, and statistically significant trends are found for all seasons except autumn, which does have a significantly smaller trend than other seasons. The average trend in mean annual ozone is 0.34±0.09 ppbv/yr. These decadal trends at the North American west coast present a striking comparison and contrast with the trends reported for the European west coast at Mace Head, Ireland. The trends in the winter, spring and summer seasons compare well at the two locations, while the Mace Head trend is significantly greater in autumn. Even though the trends are similar, the absolute O3 mixing ratios differ markedly, with the marine air arriving at Europe in all seasons containing 7±2 ppbv higher ozone than marine air arriving at North America. Further, the ozone mixing ratios at the North American west coast show no indication of stabilizing as has been reported for Mace Head. In a larger historical context the background boundary layer O3 mixing ratios over the 130 years covered by available data have increased substantially (by a factor of two to three, and this increase continues at present, at least in the MBL of the Pacific coast region of North America. The reproduction of the increasing trends in MBL O3 over the past two decades, as well as the difference in the O3 mixing ratios between the two coastal regions will present a significant challenge for global chemical transport models. Further, the ability of the models to at least semi

  17. Potential of Offshore Wind Energy and Extreme Wind Speed Forecasting on the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance and urgency for Taiwan to develop offshore wind power. However, relevant data on offshore wind energy resources are limited. This study imported wind speeds measured by a tidal station and a buoy into the software WAsP to estimate the high-altitude wind speeds in the two areas. A light detection and ranging (Lidar system was set up near the tidal station and buoy. High-altitude wind speeds measured by the Lidar system were compared with the WAsP-estimated values, and it was discovered that the two data sets were consistent. Then, long-term wind speed data observed by buoys and tidal stations at various locations were imported into WAsP to forecast wind speeds at heights of 55–200 m on the west coast of Taiwan. The software WAsP Engineering was used to analyze the extreme wind speeds in the same areas. The results show that wind speeds at 100 m are approximately 9.32–11.24 m/s, which means that the coastal areas of west Taiwan are rich in wind energy resources. When a long-term 10-min average wind speed is used, the extreme wind speed on the west coast is estimated to be between 36.4 and 55.3 m/s.

  18. Climatic Controls on Summertime fog Patterns Along the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. P.; Still, C.; Husak, G.; Michaelsen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Summertime fog and stratus overcast along the U.S. west coast significantly impact aviation, marine travel, agriculture, and biodiversity. However, an understanding of the climatic mechanisms that drive variability in fog formation and dissolution in this region, particularly on interannual time scales, is lacking, in part because fog data are collected at only a handful of coastal sites. Furthermore, fog is quite spatially variable and depends in part on local-scale features such as coastal topography and coastline orientation. As a result, accurate predictions of relative fogginess from one summer to the next have been elusive. This means that we do not know how coastal fogginess may change in response to global climate change. In this study, we treated all low stratus clouds as fog and used hourly records of summertime cloud height from 12 coastal stations along with daily satellite imagery to develop the first spatially continuous record of summertime fog occurrence along the California coast. Using statistical techniques to compare records of summer fog frequency to global gridded climate data, we created a statistical model that utilizes the organization of global sea surface temperatures and atmospheric pressures to estimate relative summer fogginess along California's coast. We then used GCM outputs based upon several climate change scenarios to predict how summer fog frequency may be expected to change during the 21st century. Finally, we used ecological niche modeling to predict how future changes in coastal fogginess might impact the range boundaries of several endemic plant species, including coast redwood.

  19. On the upwelling off the Southern Tip and along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smitha, B.R.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; VimalKumar, K.G.; Revichandran, C.

    (month) and space (latitude) along the south-west coast of India. Shaded part indicates negative val- ues. served vertical shift of the 24H11034C isotherm with the vertical velocity estimated from wind. The upslope of the 24H11034C iso- therm at the rate... of the wind stress gives weak positive val- ues throughout the year between 8.5H11034 N and 14.5H11034 N (Figure 4b). The mass transport is maximum at the south June–July (4000 kg/m/s) and reduces progressively northwards, which is consistent...

  20. Butyltins in water, biofilm, animals and sediments of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Garg, A.; Jadhav, S.; Harjee, R.; Sawant, S.S.; Venkat, K.; Anil, A.C.

    on the hulls of ships thereby increasing the fuel consumption. In order to reduce eco- nomic losses due to fouling the ship hull is coated with 0045-6535/$ - see front matter C211 2004 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. * Corresponding author. Tel.: +91 832... al., 2001). However, to our knowledge, not much is known about the organotin concentrations in marine waters, biofilms and sediments of the west coast of India. In this paper we present the results of the survey of butyltins in bio- film, fish, oyster...

  1. A new species of Astragalus (Fabaceae from west coast of Baikal Lake (Irkutsk Oblast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Stepantsova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A new species, Astragalus rytyensis Stepantsova (Fabaceae, growing on the west coast of the lake Baikal, is described. Morphological differences from related taxa – A. versicolor Pall., A. austrosibiricus Schischk., and A. inopinatus Boriss., are discussed and uncertain position of the new species in the system of the genus is emphasized which is intermediate between subg. Phaca (L. Bunge sect. Hemiphaca Bunge and subg. Cercidothrix Bunge sect. Onobrychium Bunge. Ecological and phonological features of A. rytyensis are reported and chromosome numbers of the new (2n = 6x = 48 and related species are counted.

  2. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    stream_size 27415 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Earth_Syst_Sci_114_493.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Earth_Syst_Sci_114_493.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1... sharply because of the increase in elevation of the channels. 1. Introduction Located along the west coast of India are a num- ber of estuarine channels that connect the Arabian Sea to the rivers that originate in the Western Ghats mountain range...

  3. Planktonic diatoms of the Zuari estuary, Goa (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Redekar, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    . Introduction The important work on planktonic diatoms from Indian waters has been done by Subrahmanyan (1946, 1958), Gonsalves (1947), Venkataraman (1957, 1958), Misra (1962), Chennubhotla (1969), Gopala krishnan (1972), Desikachary (1977) and Nair et.... Redekar and A. B. Wagh Misra, J.N. 1962. A systematic account of some littoral marine diatoms from the west coast of India. J. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc., 53(4): 537-568. Nair Sreekumaran, S.R., C. T. Achuthankutty V.R. Nair and V.P. Devassy 1980 Plankton...

  4. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Mendes Pereira; Paulo Silva de Almeida; Adair Vieira de Sousa; Aécio Moraes de Paula; Ricardo Bomfim Machado; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic dist...

  5. CWRD: ICT in Education: Central and West Asia Executive

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan. Among its many impo...

  6. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  7. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - San Francisco Bay, Central Coast [ds159

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - San Francisco Bay, Central and South Coasts [ds159] shapefile contains four years of in-stream salmonid habitat data at the reach level. The...

  8. The impact of the 2009-10 El Niño Modoki on U.S. West Coast beaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, Patrick L.; Allan, Jonathan; Hansen, Jeff E.; Kaminsky, George M.; Ruggiero, Peter; Doria, André

    2011-01-01

    High-resolution beach morphology data collected along much of the U.S. West Coast are synthesized to evaluate the coastal impacts of the 2009–10 El Niño. Coastal change observations were collected as part of five beach monitoring programs that span between 5 and 13 years in duration. In California, regional wave and water level data show that the environmental forcing during the 2009–10 winter was similar to the last significant El Niño of 1997–98, producing the largest seasonal shoreline retreat and/or most landward shoreline position since monitoring began. In contrast, the 2009–10 El Niño did not produce anomalously high mean winter-wave energy in the Pacific Northwest (Oregon and Washington), although the highest 5% of the winter wave-energy measurements were comparable to 1997–98 and two significant non-El Niño winters. The increase in extreme waves in the 2009–10 winter was coupled with elevated water levels and a more southerly wave approach than the long-term mean, resulting in greater shoreline retreat than during 1997–98, including anomalously high shoreline retreat immediately north of jetties, tidal inlets, and rocky headlands. The morphodynamic response observed throughout the U.S. West Coast during the 2009–10 El Niño is principally linked to the El Niño Modoki phenomena, where the warm sea surface temperature (SST) anomaly is focused in the central equatorial Pacific (as opposed to the eastern Pacific during a classic El Niño), featuring a more temporally persistent SST anomaly that results in longer periods of elevated wave energy but lower coastal water levels.

  9. A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornitz, V.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Beaty, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Daniels, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

  10. How homogeneous is West Coast Renosterveld? Implications for con­servation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Newton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we test two published assumptions about West Coast Renosterveld, a highly fragmented vegetation type in South Africa. The first is that it is a homogeneous vegetation type. The second is that small fragments are subsets (in terms of species of the larger fragments. We used three sets of data. Species lists showed that more than 44 % of the species identified at 16 sites were unique to that site. Examining the dominant and rare species occurring at subsites within large fragments showed that, on average three-quarters, and never less than half, of the species were confined to one subsite. Analyses of rare and endangered plant species lists showed that the average distance separating patches of the same species was almost 30 km. Only 36.4 % of the rare or endangered species localities coincided with a major (> 25 ha fragment. Our first conclusion was that many endemic species are constrained by micro- or meso-habitat demands that are not immediately obvious to the observer, and hence the vegetation should not be considered locally homogeneous. Our second conclusion was that the smaller fragments (< 25 ha are of importance for the conservation of West Coast Renosterveld plant species.

  11. Morphometric and molecular analysis of mackerel (Rastrelliger spp) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlina, M N; Masazurah, A R; Jayasankar, P; Jamsari, A F J; Siti, A M N

    2011-01-01

    Mackerel (Scombridae; Rastrelliger) are small commercially important pelagic fish found in tropical regions. They serve as a cheap source of animal protein and are commonly used as live bait. By using a truss morphometrics protocol and RAPD analysis, we examined morphological and genetic variation among 77 individual mackerel that were caught using long lines and gillnets at 11 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Nineteen morphometric traits were evaluated and genetic information was estimated using five 10-base RAPD random primers. Total DNA was extracted from muscle tissue. Morphometric discriminant function analysis revealed that two morphologically distinct groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta and a single group of R. brachysoma can be found along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. We also found that the head-related characters and those from the anterior part of the body of Rastrelliger spp significantly contribute to stock assessment of this population. RAPD analysis showed a trend similar to that of the morphometric analysis, suggesting a genetic component to the observed phenotypic differentiation. These data will be useful for developing conservation strategies for these species. PMID:21968625

  12. Interannual to multidecadal climate forcings on groundwater resources of the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, Elzie M; Gurdak, Jason J.; Dickinson, Jesse; Ferre, T.P.A; Corona, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe U.S. West Coast, including the Pacific Northwest and California Coastal Basins aquifer systems.Study focusGroundwater response to interannual to multidecadal climate variability has important implications for security within the water–energy–food nexus. Here we use Singular Spectrum Analysis to quantify the teleconnections between AMO, PDO, ENSO, and PNA and precipitation and groundwater level fluctuations. The computer program DAMP was used to provide insight on the influence of soil texture, depth to water, and mean and period of a surface infiltration flux on the damping of climate signals in the vadose zone.New hydrological insights for the regionWe find that PDO, ENSO, and PNA have significant influence on precipitation and groundwater fluctuations across a north-south gradient of the West Coast, but the lower frequency climate modes (PDO) have a greater influence on hydrologic patterns than higher frequency climate modes (ENSO and PNA). Low frequency signals tend to be preserved better in groundwater fluctuations than high frequency signals, which is a function of the degree of damping of surface variable fluxes related to soil texture, depth to water, mean and period of the infiltration flux. The teleconnection patterns that exist in surface hydrologic processes are not necessarily the same as those preserved in subsurface processes, which are affected by damping of some climate variability signals within infiltrating water.

  13. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the west coast of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg-1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg-1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. (authors)

  14. West Coast offshore vessel traffic risk management project : Final project report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives from oil spill agencies in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California, as well as the province of British Columbia, the United States Coast Guard Districts 17, 13, and 11, the Canadian Coast Guard Pacific Region, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada, the United States Navy, the Canadian Maritime Forces, the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, the British Columbia Chamber of Shipping, and a host of other organizations participated in the Pacific States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force. Their aim was the reduction of the risk of collision or drift groundings caused by vessel traffic transiting 3 to 200 nautical miles off the West Coast between Cook Inlet in the North and San Diego in the South. Data on typical coastwise traffic patterns, traffic volume, existing management measures, weather data and ship drift patterns, historic casualty rates by vessel type and other was gathered and reviewed. Nine factors were evaluated, and four risk factors addressed. A draft findings and recommendations was presented at various meetings, and this final report then prepared. Part I of the document presented an introduction and project background. In Part II, a discussion of what is at risk was presented. Part III defined the risk, and Part IV explored analysis of the risk. The development of findings and recommendations was provided in Part V. 27 refs., tabs., figs

  15. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Neetu; Satish Shetye; P Chandramohan

    2006-04-01

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon,i.e.,roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal regions of India are dominated by sea breeze.It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near the coast.The impact is quite significant when large scale winds are weak.During one such event,1 –15 April 1997,a Datawell directional waverider buoy was deployed in 23 m water depth off Goa,west coast of India.Twenty-minute averaged spectra,collected once every three hours,show that the spectrum of sea-breeze-related ‘wind-seas’ peaked at 0.23 ± 0.05 Hz. These wind-seas were well separated from swells of frequencies less than 0.15 Hz.The TMA spectrum (Bouws et al 1985) matched the observed seas spectra very well when the sea-breeze was active and the fetch corresponding to equilibrium spectrum was found to be 77 ± 43 km during such occasions. We emphasize on the diurnal cycle of sea-breeze-related sea off the coast of Goa and write an equation for the energy of the seas as a function of the local wind.

  16. Epidemiology of lymphocystis, epidermal papilloma and skin ulcers in common dab Limanda limanda along the west coast of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Nielsen, Else

    1997-01-01

    A survey of fish diseases in the common dab Limanda limanda L. was conducted in 4 areas (the German Eight, 2 areas along the west coast of Denmark and the Skagerrak) in May during the years 1983 to 1993. A total of 53 302 dab were examined for the presence of the diseases lymphocystis, epidermal...... papilloma and skin ulcers. The present study describes long-term variations in the prevalence of these 3 diseases. The German Eight and the 2 areas along the west coast of Denmark showed significant similarities in the temporal trend of the diseases investigated with peaks in 1985 and 1988 for both...... lymphocystis and epidermal papilloma. A similar trend was not observed in the Skagerrak. Skin ulcerations did not reveal any specific temporal trends in any of the 4 areas. The highest prevalence of lymphocystis was observed in the most offshore area along the Danish west coast with a peak value of 14...

  17. Orographic shaping of US West Coast wind profiles during the upwelling season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Hall, Alex; McWilliams, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of nearshore winds in eastern boundary current systems is affected by orography, coastline shape, and air-sea interaction. These lead to a weakening of the wind close to the coast: the so-called wind drop-off. In this study, regional atmospheric simulations over the US West Coast are used to demonstrate monthly characteristics of the wind drop-off and assess the mechanisms controlling it. Using a long-term simulation, we show the wind drop-off has spatial and seasonal variability in both its offshore extent and intensity. The offshore extent varies from around 10 to 80 km from the coast and the wind reduction from 10 to 80 %. We show that when the mountain orography is combined with the coastline shape of a cape, it has the biggest influence on wind drop-off. The primary associated processes are the orographically-induced vortex stretching and the surface drag related to turbulent momentum flux divergence that has an enhanced drag coefficient over land. Orographically-induced tilting/twisting can also be locally significant in the vicinity of capes. The land-sea drag difference acts as a barrier to encroachment of the wind onto the land through turbulent momentum flux divergence. It turns the wind parallel to the shore and slightly reduces it close to the coast. Another minor factor is the sharp coastal sea surface temperature front associated with upwelling. This can weaken the surface wind in the coastal strip by shallowing the marine boundary layer and decoupling it from the overlying troposphere.

  18. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  19. Epidemiology of lymphocystis, epidermal papilloma and skin ulcers in common dab Limanda limanda along the west coast of Denmark

    OpenAIRE

    Mellergaard, Stig; Nielsen, Else

    1997-01-01

    A survey of fish diseases in the common dab Limanda limanda L. was conducted in 4 areas (the German Eight, 2 areas along the west coast of Denmark and the Skagerrak) in May during the years 1983 to 1993. A total of 53 302 dab were examined for the presence of the diseases lymphocystis, epidermal papilloma and skin ulcers. The present study describes long-term variations in the prevalence of these 3 diseases. The German Eight and the 2 areas along the west coast of Denmark showed significant s...

  20. Pre- and post-monsoonal changes in grain size and heavy minerals in the sediments from Kalbadevi Bay, Ratnagiri, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Valsangkar, A; Fernandes, D.

    , Kulkarni S G, Bhagwat War B A & Bobade S P, Geology and Mineral Resources of Maharashtra, (D. G. M., Nagpur, India) 1975, 136-144, (Unpub. Rep.) 4 Mukherjee N K & Saxena S K, Mineralogy and genesis of opaque heavy minerals from the coastal placers... Siddiquie, H.N., Rajamanickam, G.V. & Almeida, F., Offshore ilmenite placers of Ratnagiri, Konkan coast, Maharashtra, India, Mar. Min., 2 (1979) 91-118. 7 Rajamanickam, G.V. & Gujar, A.R., Sediment depositional environment in some bays in central west...

  1. An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Avery

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and observational techniques to assess the small and large mammal species diversity of the area were conducted during 1989. This study documents the definite occurrence of 63 mammal species in the park, seven of which are exotics. The presence of a further five species requires confirmation. Interesting insight is gained into how direct censusing and owl pellet analyses augment each other in establishing the presence of small mammal taxa of an area.

  2. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  3. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of natural kaolins from the Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sei, J.; Morato, F.; Kra, G.; Staunton, S.; Quiquampoix, H.; Jumas, J. C.; Olivier-Fourcade, J.

    2006-10-01

    Thirteen clay samples from four deposits in the Ivory Coast (West Africa) were studied using X-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis and chemical analysis. Mineralogical, crystallographic and morphological characteristics of these samples are given. Kaolinite is the principal mineral but other minerals are present in small quantities: illite, quartz, anatase and iron oxides (oxides and oxyhydroxides). The crystallographic, morphological and surface characteristics are influenced by the presence of these impurities. In particular, the presence of iron oxides was associated with reduced structural ordering and thermal stability of kaolinite and increased specific surface area. These clays could be used in the ceramics industry to make tiles and bricks, and also in agronomy as supports for chemical fertilizers or for environmental protection by immobilising potentially toxic waste products.

  4. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  5. Distribution and impact of the alien anemone Sagartia ornata in the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B. Robinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sagartia ornata is an alien anemone that occurs intertidally within the West Coast National Park (WCNP. Whilst baseline distributional data was gathered in 2001, the range and abundance of this alien has not been reassessed. The present study aimed to determine the current status and distribution of this anemone, to assess its diet so as to establish the role it may play as predator and to investigate its impact on sandy-shore communities. Sagartia ornata was found to be restricted to the WCNP, where it occurred in densities of up to 508 ± 218 individuals per m2 . Within the park the distribution of this anemone had changed. Populations were recorded in Nanozostera capensis seagrass beds for the first time and this alien was absent from two areas in which it had previously occurred. Diet analysis revealed indigenous polychaetes and amphipods as the dominant prey items consumed by S. ornata. This alien was found to significantly alter sandy-shore community structure, with differences caused primarily by increases in the abundance and biomass of the tanaid Anatanais gracilis and the polychaete Orbinia angrapequensis. Additionally, invaded areas supported significantly greater invertebrate diversity, density and biomass. It is concluded that whilst this anemone negatively affects native biota, its current dependence on restricted habitats precludes widespread impacts with the park.Conservation implications: With regard to conservation implications, this invasion should be routinely monitored outside the WCNP as in its native range S. ornata occurs on rocky shores and kelp holdfasts, suggesting a potential for spread along the west coast of South Africa.

  6. 眺望西海岸蓝色进行时%The New Economic Zone in Qingdao's West Coast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    On January 31, the CPC Working Committee and Administration Committee of Qingdao West Coast New Economic Zone were established, which symbolized the start of full development of construction of the new economic zone in Qingdao's west coast. The planning scope of Qingdao West Coast New Economic Zone includes Ftuangdao District and Jiaonan City and covers a continental area of 2,096 square kilometers and ocean area of 5,000 square kilometers with a population of 1.392 million people. This new zone was established to implement the instruction of "building Shandong Peninsular Blue Economic Zone" made by General Secretary Hu Jintao of the CPC Central Committee and to give prominence to Qingdao's leading position in the Shandong Peninsular Blue Economic Zone. Its establishment is verified in the Development Planning of Shandong Peninsular Blue Economic Zone approved by the State Council of China. Centering around the goal of "leading scientific development, realizing blue outperformance and speeding up the construction of a habitable and happy modernized international city," Qingdao will make efforts to turn the West Coast New Economic Zone into a leading zone in developing the ocean economy. Due to the its geographical advantages and comprehensive economic strength, in addition to the advanced manufacturing industry, ecological environment and rising service industry, Qingdao West Coast New Economic Zone will be turned into an international high- end ocean industry cluster zone, international ocean transport hub, demonstration zone of international ocean economic cooperation, national coordinated experimental zone of land and ocean and the leading zone of Shandong Peninsular Blue Economic Zone.%2012年1月31日。青岛西海岸经济新区党工委、管委会正式成立,标志着青岛西海岸经济新区开发建设全面启动。肩负着“再造一个青岛港、再造一个青岛主城区、再造一个青岛经济总量”的历史重任。西

  7. Cabira rangarajani n. sp. (Polychaeta: Pilargidae) from the Goa coast, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, Sumit; Harkantra, S.N.; Salazar-Vallejo, S.I.

    . & Wolf, P.S. (1990) Gross morphology of the brain of pilargid polychaetes: Taxonomic and systematic implications. American Museum Novitates, 2992,1-16. Friedrich, H. (1951) Zwei neue Bestandteile in der Fauna der Nordsee. Zoologischer Anzeiger (Erg...

  8. Characterization of opaques off Konkan Coast Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Angusamy, N.; Rajamanickam, G. V.

    . Vijayakumar, S. Prabhakar, G. Bhaskar Raju and T.K.Ghosh 2005, Alteration Characteristics Of Ilmenites From South India, J. of Minerals & Metals Characterisation & Engineering, 4, pp. 47-59. [9] Milner, I. 1962, Sedimentary Petrography - George Allen... & Unwin Ltd - London. [10] Shapiro, L. and Brannock, W.W., 1956, Rapid analysis of silicate rocks - US Geol. Survey Bull. 1036 C, 56 p. [11] Shapiro, L. and Brannock, W.W., 1962, Rapid analysis of Silicates, carbonate and Phosphate rocks. U...

  9. Seasonal beach profiling along Malvan and Kotharwadi coast , southern Maharashtra, central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.; Gaonkar, S.S.

    trends in the study area, the beach profiling was taken up in the areas, where placer mineral concentration was appreciable. These areas are I) at Kotharwadi from Lat. 16? 28' 36.24 N & Lon. 73? 20' 28.11 E to Lat. 16? 28' 27.41 N & Lon. 73...?20'34.09 E of Deogad Taluka and ii) at Malvan in a stretch from Lat.16? 05' 48.18 N & Lon. 73? 27' 38.68 E of Talashil to Lat. 16? 11' 42.37 N & Lon. 73? 26' 14.46 E of Pirwadi. The profiling was undertaken in four seasons: October 2004, April 2005, August...

  10. Coastal processes and longshore sediment transport along Kundapura coast, central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.

    and the beach equilibrium is maintained (Komar, 1998). However, when there is an obstruction to littoral drift due to the presence of natural headlands, shoals and/or artificial structures, the equilibrium profile of the natural beach is disturbed (Komar, 1998...

  11. NOAA/WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER PACIFIC OCEAN RESPONSE CRITERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garry Rogers

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or pre- computed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite.Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic.This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps. As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  12. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  13. Gulella adami, a new species of land snail from the Ivory Coast, West Africa (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruggen, van A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Gulella adami spec. nov. is described from a classical West African locality, Assini in the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire). It is most unusual in showing two superficial parietal processes, which may also be interpreted as a double angular lamella, in the aperture of the shell. The shell closely resemb

  14. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil.

  15. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West Central African forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Viennois

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance and improves our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a dataset of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye and high (SPOT-5 spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in west central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and carbon-cycle applications.

  16. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  17. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  18. Water type quantification in the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Kristiansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive data series of salinity, nutrients and coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM was collected in the Skagerrak, the northern part of the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast in April each year during the period 1996–2000, by the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In this month, after the spring bloom, German Bight Water differs from its surrounding waters by a higher nitrate content and higher nitrate/phosphate and nitrate/silicate ratios. The spreading of this water type into the Skagerrak is of special interest with regard to toxic algal blooms. The quantification of the spatial distributions of the different water types required the development of a new algorithm for the area containing the Norwegian Coastal Current, while an earlier Danish algorithm was applied for the rest of the area. From the upper 50 m a total of 2227 observations of salinity and CDOM content have been used to calculate the mean concentration of water from the German Bight, the North Sea (Atlantic water, the Baltic Sea and Norwegian rivers. The Atlantic Water was the dominant water type, with a mean concentration of 79%, German Bight Water constituted 11%, Baltic Water 8%, and Norwegian River Water 2%. At the surface the mean percentages of these water types were found to be 68%, 15%, 15%, and 3%, respectively. Within the northern part of the Skagerrak, closer to the Norwegian coast, the surface waters were estimated to consist of 74% Atlantic Water, 20% Baltic Water, and 7% Norwegian River Water. The analysis indicates that the content of German Bight Water in this part is less than 5%.

  19. The puzzle of high heads beneath the West Cumbrian coast, UK: a possible solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, John H.; Barker, John A.

    2016-03-01

    A region of high heads within the Borrowdale Volcanic Group (BVG; a fractured crystalline rock) beneath the coastal plain of West Cumbria, England (UK), is identified as a possible relic left over by the Late Devensian ice sheet. It was found during investigations in the 1990s. Contemporary modelling work failed to produce a satisfactory explanation of the high heads compatible with the `cold recharge' isotopic signature of the groundwater. This study has reassessed the original hydraulic testing results. By plotting density-adjusted heads versus their depth below the water table in the immediate vicinity of the borehole in which they were measured, a depth profile resembling a `wave' was revealed with a peak value located at 1,100 m depth. The possibility that this wave represents relic heads from the last major ice sheet has been assessed using one-dimensional mathematical analysis based on a poroelastic approach. It is found that a wet-based ice sheet above the West Cumbrian coast was probably thick enough and sufficiently long-lasting to leave such relic heads providing that the hydraulic diffusivity of the BVG is in the order of 10-6 m s-1. Initial assessment 20 years ago of the long-interval slug tests suggested that such low values are not likely. More recent interpretation argues for such low values of hydraulic diffusivity. It is concluded that ice sheet recharge is the most likely cause of the raised heads, that the BVG contains significant patches of very low conductivity rock, and that long-interval single-hole tests should be avoided in fractured crystalline rock.

  20. WindSat satellite comparisons with nearshore buoy wind data near the U.S. west and east coasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lei; SHI Hanqing; YU Hong; YI Xin

    2016-01-01

    Nearshore wind speeds retrieved by WindSat are validated by a comparison with the moored buoy observations near the U.S. west and east coasts. A 30 min and 25 km collection window is used for the WindSat wind data and buoy measurements from January 2004 to December 2014. Comparisons show that the overall root-mean-square error is better than 1.44 m/s near the U.S. coasts, and the result for the east coast is better than that for the west coast. The retrieval accuracy of the descending portions is slightly better than that of the ascending portions. Most buoy-to-buoy variations are not significantly correlated with the coastal topography, the longitude and the distance from the shore or satellite-buoy separation distance. In addition, comparisons between a polarimetric microwave radiometer and a microwave scatterometer are accomplished with the nearshore buoy observations from 2007 to 2008. The WindSat-derived winds tend to be lower than the buoy observations near the U.S. coasts. In contrast, the QuikSCAT-derived winds tend to be higher than the buoy observations. Overall, the retrieval accuracy of WindSat is slightly better than that of QuikSCAT, and these satellite-derived winds are sufficiently accurate for scientific studies.

  1. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Jaqueline Raymondi; de Medeiros, Larissa Campos; dos Reis, Vinícius Pinho; Chávez, Juliana Helena; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; Borges, Gustavo Puia; Soares, Otavio Augusto Brioschi; de Campos, Carlos Henrique Coelho; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Baldani, Cristiane Divan; Silva, Maria Luana Cristiny Rodrigues; Faria, Joice Lara Maia; da Silva, Edson Elias; Figueiredo, Luiz Tadeu Moraes

    2013-01-01

    Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV) in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country. PMID:24037110

  2. Serologic survey of West Nile virus in horses from Central-West, Northeast and Southeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Raymondi Silva

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the emergence of West Nile virus (WNV in North America in 1999, there have been several reports of WNV activity in Central and South American countries. To detect WNV in Brazil, we performed a serological survey of horses from different regions of Brazil using recombinant peptides from domain III of WNV. Positive samples were validated with the neutralisation test. Our results showed that of 79 ELISA-positive horses, nine expressed WNV-specific neutralising antibodies. Eight of the infected horses were from the state of Mato Grosso do Sul and one was from the state of Paraíba. Our results provide additional evidence for the emergence of WNV in Brazil and for its circulation in multiple regions of the country.

  3. Population structure of clinical Pseudomonas aeruginosa from West and Central African countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascal Cholley

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA has a non-clonal, epidemic population with a few widely distributed and frequently encountered sequence types (STs called 'high-risk clusters'. Clinical P. aeruginosa (clinPA has been studied in all inhabited continents excepted in Africa, where a very few isolates have been analyzed. Here, we characterized a collection of clinPA isolates from four countries of West and Central Africa.184 non-redundant isolates of clinPA from hospitals of Senegal, Ivory Coast, Nigeria, and Central African Republic were genotyped by MLST. We assessed their resistance level to antibiotics by agar diffusion and identified the extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs and metallo-β-lactamases (MBLs by sequencing. The population structure of the species was determined by a nucleotide-based analysis of the entire PA MLST database and further localized on the phylogenetic tree (i the sequence types (STs of the present collection, (ii the STs by continents, (iii ESBL- and MBL-producing STs from the MLST database.We found 80 distinct STs, of which 24 had no relationship with any known STs. 'High-risk' international clonal complexes (CC155, CC244, CC235 were frequently found in West and Central Africa. The five VIM-2-producing isolates belonged to CC233 and CC244. GES-1 and GES-9 enzymes were produced by one CC235 and one ST1469 isolate, respectively. We showed the spread of 'high-risk' international clonal complexes, often described as multidrug-resistant on other continents, with a fully susceptible phenotype. The MBL- and ESBL-producing STs were scattered throughout the phylogenetic tree and our data suggest a poor association between a continent and a specific phylogroup.ESBL- and MBL-encoding genes are borne by both successful international clonal complexes and distinct local STs in clinPA of West and Central Africa. Furthermore, our data suggest that the spread of a ST could be either due to its antibiotic resistance or to features

  4. Trend in GHG Emissions from Northeast and West Coast Regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongdimenba Jamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs has emerged as a serious global environmental issue. An attempt has been made to assess the GHG emissions in two geographical regions of India i.e. the Northeast Region (NER and the West coast Region (WCR during the period of 1980-2005. The analysis reveals an increasing trend in GHG emissions from the study regions except for CH4, which shows a decreasing trend in Goa and Kerala.  As far as state wise GHG emissions are concerned; Assam ranks first in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the NER. Konkan ranks first in CO2 and CH4 emissions, while Kerala ranks first in N2O emissions representing the WCR. Analysis of the compounded annual growth rate reveals higher for the WCR in CO2 and CH4 emissions except N2O where the NER remains the highest. In order to find the association between GHG emissions and climatic response, the mean air temperature for 26 stations in both regions were subjected to trend analysis. The findings show warming trends in the mean air temperature over a majority of the stations indicating a possible role by increased GHGs. Further, the analysis reveals a positive correlation of population and GHG emissions significantly at 99% for both the regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2739

  5. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, David L; Gray, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a definitional change from relative stocking to canopy cover on the area classified as forest land and its relationship to species and forest density in California, Oregon, and Washington. Both western Juniper and ponderosa pine will yield higher estimates of forest land area using a canopy cover definition in comparison to a stocking-based definition, with the difference being most pronounced where land is marginally forested. The change in definition may result in an additional 146,000 ha of forest land identified on the West Coast. Measuring marginal forest lands with both metrics for the first cycle after implementation should make it possible to distinguish real change from definitional change. PMID:24072525

  6. Giant fossil mass wasting off the coast of West India: The Nataraja submarine slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvès, Gérôme; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Brusset, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    We use two-dimensional pre-stack depth migrated seismic reflection profiles and seafloor bathymetry to describe the continental margin structure and a massive mass-transport deposit off the west coast of India. This giant slide runs from the Gujurat-Saurashtra margin to the Laxmi Basin. It is over 330 km long, a maximum of 190 km wide and its run-out basal gradient is 1.2°. We name this giant mass wasting deposit the Nataraja Submarine Slide. This slide covers 49 ± 16 ×103 km2 and represents a volume of 19 ×103 ± 4 ×103 km3, making it the second by volume of any passive margin landslide/mass-transport deposit. Seismic facies analysis allows the internal structure of the mass-transport deposit to be described as far as the toe. This slide has been able to circumvent massive seamounts, thus highlighting the capacity of the flow and its potential energy during emplacement in a funnel between the slope of the Western Indian passive margin and the Laxmi Ridge. Stratigraphically, the emplacement of the Nataraja Slide predates the main pulse of sedimentation during the late Miocene-Recent associated with the Indus Fan but follows rapid sedimentation across S and SE Asia during the Early-Middle Miocene. The margin architecture at the head of this slide is associated with a gravity-controlled fold and thrust belt that may have caused slope steepening and triggering of the slide.

  7. Interactions between harbour seals (Phoca vitulina and coastal fisheries along the Swedish west coast: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lundström

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The conflicts between seals and fisheries along the Swedish west coast have intensified during the last decades, concurrently with the increase in the harbour seal population size. This study presents published information about interactions between harbour seals and fisheries in the Kattegat-Skagerrak, in addition to new information on the seal by-catch rate and an overview of fisheries suffering from seal damage. Several fisheries have reported interactions with seals, principally fisheries with fyke nets, gill nets and static gear. Development of mitigation measures has been focused on the eel fishery with fyke nets, in which the use of stronger net material has significantly decreased the damage frequency from seals and has yet maintained the catches at satisfactory levels. Under-water filming at fyke nets together with studies of the prey preferences of seals has shown individual specializations in certain foraging techniques. For example, eel may not be a common prey for harbour seals in general, but, it was chosen in preference to other species by seals attacking fyke nets. There is a lack of current data concerning the diet of harbour seals. Previous studies, based on material from the 1970s and 1980s, have shown that locally and seasonally abundant prey is preferred. Due to the non-existent information about the foodchoice, current assessments of the ecological role of harbour seals in Sweden cannot be evaluated.

  8. Airborne mercury pollution from a large oil spill accident on the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yim, Un-Hyuk; Jung, Myung-Chae; Kang, Chang-Hee

    2009-05-15

    Atmospheric mercury pollution was recognized after a large oil spill on the west coast of Korea on 7 December 2007. In this study, the concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM: Hg(0)) in air were measured both shortly after the oil spill ( approximately 100h) and 1month after the accident near the accident site. When the Hg concentration levels were compared between two seashore sites and two parallel sites offshore, the values tend to decrease further offshore. The unusual rise in Hg concentration levels observed on the seashore area shortly after the accident (mean of 16.4+/-9.85ngm(-3)) dropped dramatically after 1month with active cleanup activities (2.99+/-1.40ngm(-3)). Because of the connection between crude oil and Hg (one of the major impurities), the unusual rise in the atmospheric Hg after the oil spill can be explained by the active evasion of Hg from the spilled crude oil. Although Hg levels determined a few days after the accident did not exceed the reference exposure limits (REL) proposed by several agencies, the early build-up of elemental mercury level due to the oil spill might have exerted certain impacts on the surrounding environments.

  9. Probabilistic Assessment of Wave Overtopping of Nampo Dike in the West Coast of Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIE Lu-wen; CHOI Byung-ho; XIE Shi-leng

    2008-01-01

    The Nampo dike, which is located at the west coast of Korea, was destroyed by wave overtopping during the storms on 30 August and 17 September in 1989. In this paper, is performed the probabilistic assessment of wave overtopping of Nampo dike by use of Owen model, Van der Meer & Janssen model and Hedges & Reis model for wave overtopping of seawall. Based on the available tidal and wave data for storm surges in 1989, the risk assessment of wave overtopping of the Nampo dike has been carried out by both Level II and Level III reliability methods. The calculated results show the general agreement of failure probability between the two methods. By utilizing the rehabilitated cross section of Nampo dike, the failure probability of wave overtopping for the Nampo dike after rehabilitation will be rapidly reduced to that of initial design at crest level of 9.0 m with the improved slope from 1:2 to 1:4 at seaside. Since the sea level may only rise 1.0 m in the next few decades, the failure probability of Nampo dike will be still in the safe range.

  10. Identification decomposition of regional economic disparity for the west coast of Taiwan Strait of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Regional economic disparity is a hot issue in the development of society and economy.As the conjunct of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta and the frontier to Taiwan,the west coast of the Taiwan Strait (WCS) is of great social and political significance.The paper defines" the connotation of the WCS,decomposed the regional economic disparity by using weighted coefficient of variation and Theil coeJficient,and explores the industrial and regional source of the regional economic disparity of the WCS.The analysis results show that:(1) the WCS has important political,economic and military position,so it's better to regard it to be comprehensive region,not just refer to Fujian Province;(2)from the industrial decomposition of weighted variation coefficient,the influence of the primary industry was tiny,conversely,the development inequity of the secondary and the tertiary indus'try was the main source of regional economic disparity.Their contribution has had the converse trend and the secondary contribution has gone beyond the tertiary since 2003;(3)from the regional decomposition of Theil coefficient,the regional economic disparity mainly came from inter-area inequity of 4 areas.Moreover,the inner economic disparity mainly drove by Fujian,suggesting that the urban development inequity in Fujian Province was comparatively outstanding.

  11. Monitoring the biological effects of pollution on the Algerian west coast using mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheïr M. Taleb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian west coast is the prime recipient of several forms of pollution; hence, the necessity for an impact assessment ofthis coastal pollution using a suite of recommended marine biomarkers, including lysosomal membrane stability in living cells by the Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT method, the evaluation of micronucleus (MN frequency, and the determination ofacetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled from the large, polluted Oran Harbour (OH and the Maârouf (Mrf marine mussel farm between July 2005 and April 2006. The difference in the variations of the annual physical parameters between OH and Mrf corresponds to the influence of the domestic and industrial sewage discharged by the city of Oran. The biological data of the mussels (condition index, protein content recorded at both sites were related to their natural reproductive cycle. This indicated that intrinsic variation between the sites due to different mussel development phases was minimal. The variation in the AChE activity of some organs of OH and Mrf mussels, with minimal inhibition in July and a higher NRRT recorded in the granular haemocytes in the Mrf than in the OH mussels during the autumn and spring, depends on the quality of the biotope and on generic stress factors. Moreover, the variation in MN frequency, in general reflecting a non-significant seasonal and spatial genotoxic effect of the contamination at the two sampling sites, requires further investigations regarding biotic and abiotic variations.

  12. Poleward propagating subinertial alongshore surface currents off the U.S. West Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2013-12-01

    The network comprising 61 high-frequency radar systems along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) provides a unique, high resolution, and broad scale view of ocean surface circulation. Subinertial alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals with phase speeds of O(10) and O(100-300) km d -1 that are consistent with historical in situ observations off the USWC and that can be possibly interpreted as coastally trapped waves (CTWs). The propagating signals in the slow mode are partly observed in southern California, which may result from scattering and reflection of higher-mode CTWs due to curvature of shoreline and bathymetry near Point Conception, California. On the other hand, considering the order of the phase speed in the slow mode, the poleward propagating signals may be attributed to alongshore advection or pressure-driven flows. A statistical regression of coastal winds at National Data Buoy Center buoys on the observed surface currents partitions locally and remotely wind-forced components, isolates footprints of the equatorward propagating storm events in winter off the USWC, and shows the poleward propagating signals year round. Key Points A unique resource to examine synoptic-scale alongshore variability Isolation of equatorward wind events in winter using a statistical model Poleward propagating surface signals year-round © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  13. Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

  14. Recent crustal deformation in west-central South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchard, Matthew Earl

    I use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) to create maps of crustal deformation along the coast and within the volcanic arc of central South America. I image deformation associated with six subduction zone earthquakes, four volcanic centers, at least one shallow crustal earthquake, and several salt flats. In addition, I constrain the magnitude and location of post-seismic deformation from the aforementioned subduction zone earthquakes. I combine InSAR observations with data from the Global Positioning System (GPS) and teleseismic data to explore each source of deformation. I use the observations to constrain earthquake and volcanic processes of this subduction zone, including the plumbing system of the volcanoes and the decadal along strike variations in the subduction zone earthquake cycle. I created interferograms of over 900 volcanoes in the central Andes spanning 1992--2002, and found four areas of deformation. I constrained the temporal variability of the deformation, the depth of the sources of deformation assuming a variety of source geometries and crustal structures, and the possible cause of the deformation. I do not observe deformation associated with eruptions at several volcanoes, and I discuss the possible explanations for this lack of deformation. In addition, I constrain the amount of co-seismic and post-seismic slip on the subduction zone fault interface from the following earthquakes: 1995 Mw 8.1 Antofagasta, Chile; 1996 Mw 7.7 Nazca, Peru; 1998 Mw 7.1 Antofagasta, Chile; and 2001 Mw 8.4 Arequipa, Peru. In northern Chile, I compare the location and magnitude of co-seismic slip from 5 Mw > 7 earthquakes during the past 15 years with the post-seismic slip distribution. There is little post-seismic slip from the 1995 and 1996 earthquakes relative to the 2001 event and other recent subduction zone earthquakes.

  15. Thermal Evolution of the North-Central Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunn, Jeffrey A.; Scardina, Allan D.; Pilger, Rex H., Jr.

    1984-12-01

    The subsidence history of the North Louisiana Salt Basin, determined from well data, indicates that the region underwent extension during rifting and has since passively subsided due to conductive cooling of the lithosphere. Timing of the rifting event is consistent with opening of the Gulf of Mexico during Late Triassic to Early Jurassic time. Crustal extension by a factor of 1.5 to 2 was computed from "tectonic" subsidence curves. However, data from the early subsidence history are insufficient to distinguish between uniform and nonuniform extension of the lithosphere. The magnitude of extension is in good agreement with total sediment and crustal thicknesses from seismic refraction data in the adjacent Central Mississippi Salt Basin. The temperature distribution within the sediments is calculated using a simple heat conduction model. Temperature and subsidence effects of thermal insulation by overlying sediments are included. The computed temperature distribution is in good agreement with bottom hole temperatures measured in deep wells. Temperature histories predicted for selected stratigraphic horizons within the North Louisiana Salt Basin suggest that thermal conditions have been favorable for hydrocarbon generation in the older stata. Results from a two-dimensional heat conduction model suggest that a probable cause for the early formation of the adjacent uplifts is lateral heat conduction from the basin. Rapid extension of the lithosphere underneath areas with horizontal dimensions of 50-100 km produces extremely rapid early subsidence due to lateral heat conduction. The moderate subsidence rate observed in the North Louisiana Salt Basin during the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous suggests slow extension over a long period of time.

  16. City ground: constructed totality:Artistic and architectural preoccupations with asphalt in the US west coast 1952-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Through close study of selected artistic and architectural preoccupations with city ground, and the asphalt ground of the modern US west coast city in the mid-twentieth century in particular, this paper explores the geographical idea of the city as a totality of construction, and how this has influenced and intersected subsequent architectural practices of study, research and design practice. The photographic content of key constructed works from 1952 until 1972: a short film by Charles and R...

  17. Difference in reproductive strategies of two scleractinian corals (branching vs massive) along the west coast of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Efraín Chávez-Romo; David Arturo Paz-García; Francisco Correa-Sandoval; Héctor Reyes-Bonilla; Ramón Andrés López-Pérez; Pedro Medina-Rosas

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the relative contribution of sexual and asexual reproduction to the genetic composition of populations of two scleractinian corals, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites panamensis, off the west coast of mainland Mexico. Reproductive indexes showed that P. damicornis reproduced both sexually and asexually; P. panamensis reproduced sexually, but colonies with an asexual origin were also observed (1030%). Asexual reproduction is usually attributed to fragmentation caused by hu...

  18. Economics of fishery failure the fall of the king-analysis of United States West Coast Chinook salmon (Oncorhyncus Tshawytscha)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshlyk, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. This study examines bio-economic trends within the West Coast wild salmon fishery, specifically the Chinook (King) salmon Oncorhyncus Tshawytscha species. This study will first review the historical management, policies, competing interests, and environment affecting the health of the wild Chinook that brought the fishery sector to its current status. It focuses on fisheries supply data derived from both farmed aquaculture and troll c...

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Kies; Ahmed Kerkouf

    2014-01-01

    A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids) in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Chel...

  20. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    Last two decades of marine archaeological research along the Indian coast has brought to light a large number of stone anchors of different types and sizes, indicating that the Indian coast has witnessed brisk maritime activities in the past...

  1. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  2. Gyrfalcon diet in central west Greenland during the nestling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We studied food habits of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) nesting in central west Greenland in 2000 and 2001 using three sources of data: time-lapse video (3 nests), prey remains (22 nests), and regurgitated pellets (19 nests). These sources provided different information describing the diet during the nesting period. Gyrfalcons relied heavily on Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and arctic hares (Lepus arcticus). Combined, these species contributed 79-91% of the total diet, depending on the data used. Passerines were the third most important group. Prey less common in the diet included waterfowl, arctic fox pups (Alopex lagopus), shorebirds, gulls, alcids, and falcons. All Rock Ptarmigan were adults, and all but one arctic hare were young of the year. Most passerines were fledglings. We observed two diet shifts, first from a preponderance of ptarmigan to hares in mid-June, and second to passerines in late June. The video-monitored Gyrfalcons consumed 94-110 kg of food per nest during the nestling period, higher than previously estimated. Using a combination of video, prey remains, and pellets was important to accurately document Gyrfalcon diet, and we strongly recommend using time-lapse video in future diet studies to identify biases in prey remains and pellet data.

  3. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  4. Deep Sea Coral voucher sequence dataset - Identification of deep-sea corals collected during the 2009 - 2014 West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project resides in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Database. Deep-sea corals are often components of trawling bycatch, though their...

  5. Implications for Fault and Basin Geometry in the Central California Coast Ranges from Preliminary Gravity and Magnetic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V. E.; Jachens, R. C.; Graymer, R. W.; Wentworth, C. M.

    2008-12-01

    Preliminary aeromagnetic and newly processed gravity data help define block-bounding faults and deep sedimentary basins in the central California Coast Ranges, ranging from the Hosgri fault east to the San Andreas fault and from Monterey Bay south to Pt. Conception. Interpretation of these data results in an improved framework for seismic hazard and groundwater studies. Aeromagnetic data include a new survey with a flight-line spacing of 800 m at a nominal 300 m above ground and covering 15,000 km2. More than 11,500 gravity measurements, reprocessed with terrain corrections calculated from 30-m DEMs, form a roughly 2-km grid over most of the study area. Combined potential-field data and existing geologic mapping, delineate major fault-bounded blocks in the central California Coast Ranges. Main block-bounding faults from west to east include the San Gregorio- Hosgri, San Luis-Willmar-Santa Maria River-Little Pine, Oceanic-West Huasna, Nacimiento, Rinconada-South Cuyama, San Juan-Chimineas-Morales, and San Andreas faults. Most of these faults have evidence of Quaternary activity. Gravity gradients indicate that the reach of the San Andreas fault bounding the Gabilan Range and the northern extension of the Rinconada fault bounding the Santa Lucia Range dip steeply southwestward and have a reverse component of slip. Magnetic and microseismicity data suggest that the northern reach of the Hosgri fault dips eastward. The potential-field data also delineate several deep sedimentary basins, such as the 3-4 km deep Cuyama basin, the Santa Maria basin, and several basins along and possibly offset by the Rinconada fault. Gravity data show that the main west-northwest-striking faults bounding the Cuyama basin dip away from the basin, indicating compression adjacent to the big bend in the San Andreas fault. Prominent gravity and magnetic highs northeast of the San Andreas fault immediately east of Cuyama Valley suggest that there the San Andreas fault dips southwest. Such dip

  6. Maritime climate influence on chaparral composition and diversity in the coast range of central California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasey, Michael C; Parker, V Thomas; Holl, Karen D; Loik, Michael E; Hiatt, Seth

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the hypothesis that maritime climatic factors associated with summer fog and low cloud stratus (summer marine layer) help explain the compositional diversity of chaparral in the coast range of central California. We randomly sampled chaparral species composition in 0.1-hectare plots along a coast-to-interior gradient. For each plot, climatic variables were estimated and soil samples were analyzed. We used Cluster Analysis and Principle Components Analysis to objectively categorize plots into climate zone groups. Climate variables, vegetation composition and various diversity measures were compared across climate zone groups using ANOVA and nonmetric multidimensional scaling. Differences in climatic variables that relate to summer moisture availability and winter freeze events explained the majority of variance in measured conditions and coincided with three chaparral assemblages: maritime (lowland coast where the summer marine layer was strongest), transition (upland coast with mild summer marine layer influence and greater winter precipitation), and interior sites that generally lacked late summer water availability from either source. Species turnover (β-diversity) was higher among maritime and transition sites than interior sites. Coastal chaparral differs from interior chaparral in having a higher obligate seeder to facultative seeder (resprouter) ratio and by being dominated by various Arctostaphylos species as opposed to the interior dominant, Adenostoma fasciculatum. The maritime climate influence along the California central coast is associated with patterns of woody plant composition and β-diversity among sites. Summer fog in coastal lowlands and higher winter precipitation in coastal uplands combine to lower late dry season water deficit in coastal chaparral and contribute to longer fire return intervals that are associated with obligate seeders and more local endemism. Soil nutrients are comparatively less important in explaining plant

  7. Assessment of mangroves from Goa, west coast India using DNA barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Jamdade, Rahul Arvind; Kumar, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. They are among most productive, diverse, biologically important ecosystem and inclined toward threatened system. Identification of mangrove species is of critical importance in conserving and utilizing biodiversity, which apparently hindered by a lack of taxonomic expertise. In recent years, DNA barcoding using plastid markers rbcL and matK has been suggested as an effective method to enrich traditional taxonomic expertise for rapid species identification and biodiversity inventories. In the present study, we performed assessment of available 14 mangrove species of Goa, west coast India based on core DNA barcode markers, rbcL and matK. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in rbcL (97.7 %) and matK (95.5 %) region. The two candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (rbcL, matK) yielded barcode gaps. Our results clearly demonstrated that matK locus assigned highest correct identification rates (72.09 %) based on TaxonDNA Best Match criteria. The concatenated rbcL + matK loci were able to adequately discriminate all mangrove genera and species to some extent except those in Rhizophora, Sonneratia and Avicennia. Our study provides the first endorsement of the species resolution among mangroves using plastid genes with few exceptions. Our future work will be focused on evaluation of other barcode markers to delineate complete resolution of mangrove species and identification of putative hybrids. PMID:27652127

  8. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probir Kumar Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane. Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C. Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08±0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73±0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04±0.01 mg/mL, total phenol (0.96±0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra, reducing power (40.49±1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra, and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77±0.06 mg/mL were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp..

  9. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.).

  10. Assessment of mangroves from Goa, west coast India using DNA barcode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saddhe, Ankush Ashok; Jamdade, Rahul Arvind; Kumar, Kundan

    2016-01-01

    Mangroves are salt-tolerant forest ecosystems of tropical and subtropical intertidal regions. They are among most productive, diverse, biologically important ecosystem and inclined toward threatened system. Identification of mangrove species is of critical importance in conserving and utilizing biodiversity, which apparently hindered by a lack of taxonomic expertise. In recent years, DNA barcoding using plastid markers rbcL and matK has been suggested as an effective method to enrich traditional taxonomic expertise for rapid species identification and biodiversity inventories. In the present study, we performed assessment of available 14 mangrove species of Goa, west coast India based on core DNA barcode markers, rbcL and matK. PCR amplification success rate, intra- and inter-specific genetic distance variation and the correct identification percentage were taken into account to assess candidate barcode regions. PCR and sequence success rate were high in rbcL (97.7 %) and matK (95.5 %) region. The two candidate chloroplast barcoding regions (rbcL, matK) yielded barcode gaps. Our results clearly demonstrated that matK locus assigned highest correct identification rates (72.09 %) based on TaxonDNA Best Match criteria. The concatenated rbcL + matK loci were able to adequately discriminate all mangrove genera and species to some extent except those in Rhizophora, Sonneratia and Avicennia. Our study provides the first endorsement of the species resolution among mangroves using plastid genes with few exceptions. Our future work will be focused on evaluation of other barcode markers to delineate complete resolution of mangrove species and identification of putative hybrids.

  11. Workshop on the ERDA Marine Sciences Research program for the west coast of the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, W.L. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    Thirty marine scientists involved in Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)-supported marine research on the west coast of the United States met March 17-19, 1976, at the Asilomar Conference Center, Monterey, California. The objective of this workshop was to define the elements of an integrated research program that would contribute to a better knowledge of the potential impact of pollutants on coastal ecosystems from energy-related fuel cycles. One of the long-range objectives of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research in ERDA is to support research on processes and mechanisms that occur in the coastal waters that would allow assessment of the impact of energy technology fuel cycles, i.e., nuclear, oil and gas, coal, and solar. Additionally, the research has an objective of providing a basic environmental data base which will aid in the technological development and deployment of energy supply systems. While the research is not designed for the purposes of standard setting or for regulatory processes; nevertheless, it may, in the long term, contribute to a better basis for setting standards that are in the balanced best interest of both energy production and the preservation of our valuable coastal ecosystems. It was recognized that other Federal agencies also have charter responsibilities in this area and support research and monitoring programs that potentially overlap into ERDA programs. One of the working considerations was to identify where any significant overlap was perceived. Three panels were formed: Transport and Diffusion, Sediment Interaction, and Bioavailability and Effects. Each panel was asked to identify the major problem areas and gaps in our knowledge and define the needs of research programs that would increase and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and processes that occur in each area of concern.

  12. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  13. Temporal distribution of heavy metal concentrations in oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the central Venezuelan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Juan A; Handt, Helga; Mora, Abrahan; Vásquez, Yaneth; Azocar, José; Marcano, Eunice

    2013-08-15

    The oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is a bivalve abundant in Venezuelan estuaries and consumed by local populations. No known values have been reported on trace metals in oysters from the central Venezuelan coast. We report the concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the soft parts of C. rhizophorae, which were collected bimonthly between March 2008 and March 2009, at two sampling areas from the Central Venezuelan Coast: Buche estuary and Mochima estuary. Our results show that for each metal there is a similar temporal variation pattern. The concentrations of the heavy metals reported in this work are useful as reliable baselines and can be used for comparison in future environment studies. Concentrations in C. rhizophorae from the Buche estuary can be interpreted to be high on a global scale for Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn, indicating atypically raised bioavailabilities. PMID:23746942

  14. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands.

  15. Variability of Water Chemistry in Tundra Lakes, Petuniabukta Coast, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Mazurek; Renata Paluszkiewicz; Grzegorz Rachlewicz; Zbigniew Zwoliński

    2012-01-01

    Samples of water from small tundra lakes located on raised marine terraces on the eastern coast of Petuniabukta (Ebbadalen, Central Spitsbergen) were examined to assess the changes in water chemistry that had occurred during the summer seasons of 2001–2003 and 2006. The unique environmental conditions of the study region include the predominance of sedimentary carbonate and sulphate rocks, low precipitation values, and an active permafrost layer with a maximum thickness of 1.2 m. The average ...

  16. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    B. Brizuela; Armigliato, A.; S. Tinti

    2014-01-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that o...

  17. A modeling system for predicting the impact of severe storms on the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P. L.; Ormondt, M. V.; O'Reilly, B.; Hoover, D.; Hapke, C. J.; Eshleman, J.; Ruggiero, P.; Elias, E.; Erikson, L. H.; Collins, B. D.; Guza, R. T.; Adams, P. N.; Thomas, J.

    2009-12-01

    Storm hazards on the U.S. West Coast are generally thought of as being less severe than the more dramatic hurricane impacts that affect the Gulf of Mexico and East Coasts. However, the magnitude, duration and economic and societal impacts of West Coast storms can still be substantial. Storms during the 1982-83 El Niño winter resulted in 36 casualties and over $1.2 billion in damage to the State of California, and current research suggests that increasing storm intensity, frequency, and wave heights will increase coastal-hazards risks on the West Coast for the foreseeable future. To begin to address the increased risk, the U.S. Geological Survey is leading the development of a modeling system for forecasting the impact of winter storms along the U.S. West Coast. A prototype has been developed for Southern California and is being tested with a hypothetical extreme winter storm scenario designed by atmospheric scientists. The modeling system has been designed to be run operationally or with prescribed scenarios, and utilizes atmospheric forcing information with a suite of state-of-the-art physical process models to provide detailed prediction of ocean currents, deep-water and near-shore wave heights, coastal wave runup, and the resulting total water levels on beaches and cliffed coastlines. Research-grade predictions of coastal flooding, inundation, erosion, and cliff failure are also provided. The modeling system utilizes an integrated, nested structure whereby regional wave and water level models are driven by boundary conditions derived from a global wave model, regional seas and swell data from an extensive wave buoy network, a global tide model from satellite altimetry, and atmospheric pressure and wind forecasts. Wave parameters and water levels from the regional models drive local, high resolution cross-shore profile models and 2D-morphological models. Data from these models, in turn, provide boundary conditions for a Bayesian cliff failure model. This paper

  18. Increasing ozone concentrations in marine boundary layer air inflow at the west coasts of North America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Parrish

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous method is presented for determining the ozone concentration in the onshore flow of marine air at the North American west coast. By combining the data available from all marine boundary layer sites with simultaneous wind data, decadal temporal trends of MBL ozone concentrations in all seasons are established with high precision. The average springtime temporal trend over the past two decades is 0.46 ppbv/yr with a 95% confidence limit of 0.13 ppbv/yr, and statistically significant trends are found for all seasons except autumn, which does have a significantly smaller trend than other seasons. The average trend in mean annual ozone concentration is 0.34±0.09 ppbv/yr. These decadal trends at the North American west coast present a striking comparison and contrast with the trends reported for the European west coast at Mace Head, Ireland. The trends in the winter, spring and summer seasons compare well at the two locations, while the Mace Head trend is significantly greater in autumn. Even though the trends are similar, the absolute ozone concentrations differ markedly, with the marine air arriving at Europe in all seasons containing 7±2 ppbv higher ozone concentrations than marine air arriving at North America. Further, the ozone concentrations at the North American west coast show no indication for stabilizing as has been reported for Mace Head. In a larger historical context the background boundary layer ozone concentrations over the 130 years covered by available data have increased substantially (by a factor of two to three, and this increase continues at present, at least in the marine boundary layer (MBL of the Pacific coast region of North America. The reproduction of the increasing trends in MBL ozone concentrations over the past two decades as well as the difference in the ozone concentrations between the two coastal regions will present a significant challenge for global chemical transport models. Further, the ability of the

  19. Spatial Variability in Surface Elevation Changes of Central-West Greenland Outlet Glaciers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felikson, D.; Catania, G. A.; Kjaer, K. H.; Korsgaard, N. J.; Stearns, L. A.; Nash, J. D.; Shroyer, E.; Sutherland, D.; Walker, R. T.

    2014-12-01

    The mass balance of the Greenland ice sheet (GrIS) is, in part, governed by the dynamics of ocean-terminating glaciers. GRACE data reveal that along the central-west coast of the GrIS, overall ice loss has been accelerating since 2007. However, we do not know the physical processes controlling the loss here, and the changes observed are not uniform in this region; several glaciers have gone through periods of slow-down in the recent past. To address these uncertainties, we have performed ~30-year DEM differences of outlet glaciers in the region. Present-day DEMs have been created from WorldView-1 and -2 (WV) stereo imagery acquired in 2012 and 2013 using the AMES Stereo Pipeline. A 1985 DEM was created from a Greenland aerial photo survey. The DEM differences between the present-day WV DEMs and the 1985 aerial photo DEM show clearly that spatial variability in the surface elevation and terminus position changes of the glaciers in the region has been ongoing for the last ~30 years. We examine this variability in the context of ocean temperature and surface mass balance estimates to yield further insight into the external controls on these glaciers.

  20. Analysis on the Evolution of Regional Economic Disparity in the West Coast of the Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Jianzhong; Wu Dianting; Zhao Xiaofang; Lu Qi

    2008-01-01

    With the implementation of reform and opening-up,the overall economy of China has made brilliant achievements;meanwhile,however,the economic disparity has been enlarging among some regions,and between the city and the countryside.The existence and evolution of this kind of economic disparity is concerned with social stability,sustainable development and the construction of harmonious society,which has gradually become the hotspot in social economic development.The West Coast of the Strait (WCS) located in southeast littoral areas is adjacent to the Pearl and Yangtze River Delta in the south and north and faces Taiwan Province in the east.The stability and development of this region has vital political and economic meaning in the social economic development of our country.It has important theoretical meaning and practical value to research the form,characteristics and evolution of regional economic disparity in the WCS.Based on insightful analysis on existing study results on the WCS,the paper defines the connotation and extension.By a series of absolute and comparative relative evaluation indexes and taking the WCS since 1992 as the study object,the paper makes analysis on different scales including three regions,four regions,20 cities and 152 counties,quantitatively evaluates the level,characteristics and evolution of the regional economic disparity and compares the regional economic disparity on different scales.The main conclusions are as follows:the variation trend of the absolute disparity of the whole region is obvious and stable,which has presented an inflating trend; the comparative variation trend on a large scale has waved,The comparative disparity of the three regions increased annually from 1992 to around 2000,which had a decreasing trend from around 2000 to 2005; the comparative variation trend on a small scale was not stable,which showed an annual increase of four regions,20 cities and 152 counties from 1992 to around 2003 and a decrease from around

  1. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  2. Mean Annual Precipitation in West-Central Nevada using the Precipitation-Zone Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains 1971-2000 mean annual precipitation estimates for west-central Nevada. This is a raster data set developed using the precipitation-zone...

  3. CRED 10 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  4. CRED 60 m Gridded multibeam bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry shelf, bank and slope environments of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, under joint management of the United States Dept. of Interior and Air...

  5. Herbicide Concentrations in Select Waterfowl Production Area Wetlands in West Central Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twenty-eight emergent, seasonally to semipermanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the...

  6. Food Habits of Black Ducks Wintering in West Central Tennessee: Annual report 1990-91

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to describe the food habits of black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in west central Tennessee and to compare foods of black ducks and...

  7. CRED 1 meter resolution Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Wake Island, West Central Pacific, 2007.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Wake Island, West Central Pacific.These data provide coverage between 0 and 200m meters. The...

  8. On some aspects of Barrier Islands of the west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_11_508.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_11_508.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  9. Upwelling and associated hydrography along the west coast of india during southwest monsoon, 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maheswaran, P.A.; Rajesh, G.; Revichandran, C; Nair, K.K.C

    and related hydrography is discussed. Analysis of wind field and hydrography indicated active upwelling along the southwest coast of India. The sea surface temperature near the coast were lower by 1.7 degrees C (off Kanyakumari), 1.4 degrees C (off Cochin...

  10. 78 FR 72586 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-03

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish ] fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council... Sablefish Daily Trip Limit (DTL) Fishery Management Measures Limited Entry Fixed Gear and Open...

  11. 78 FR 49190 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-13

    ... specifications and management measures for most species of the Pacific Coast groundfish fishery (77 FR 67974... species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580). The Council... Entry Fixed Gear (LEFG) and Open Access (OA) Sablefish Daily Trip Limit (DTL) Fisheries North of 36...

  12. Business environment and enterprise behaviour in East Germany compared to West Germany and central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Krkoska; Katrin Robeck

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines institutional differences between the former East and West Germany and four central European transition countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic). Using enterprise survey data we show that the quality of both formal and informal institutions in East Germany still differs from West Germany. In addition, central European transition countries are shown to have closed the gap in institutional quality with East Germany in many areas. We also show t...

  13. Flow field in the inner shelf along the central east coast of India during the southwest monsoon season

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.V.N.

    Current measurements collected along the inner shelf off the central east coast of India at seven stations during August-September 1988 are discussed. Data indicate a southerly flowing alongshore current, which occupies the whole of the water column...

  14. Ecological response of foraminiferal component in the sediments of Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    Response of Foraminiferal Component in the Sediments of Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), West Coast of India S. K. Chaturvedi1, R. Nigam1 and N. Khare2 ABSTRACT A total of seven surface sediment samples collected within 4.4m to 13.9 m water depth (below...-8m) (Merh, 1995). This 56 Ecological Response of Foraminiferal Component in the Sediments of Kharo Creek area is categorized into semiarid regions of subtropical climatic zone with low rain fall (annual rainfall <300 mm). The creek is trending...

  15. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west coast of Reunion Island, western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Blaison, A.; Jaquemet, S.; Guyomard, D.; Vangrevelynghe, G.; Gazzo, T.; Cliff, G.; Cotel, Pascal; Soria, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an increase in the rate of shark attacks. Juvenile, subadult and young adult tiger sharks of 111-390 cm total length (TL) were caught in all months except July; the sex ratio was 1:1 (M:F; ...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ladd M Irvine; Bruce R Mate; Martha H Winsor; Daniel M Palacios; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P; Helen Bailey

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that oc...

  17. Aerial Measurement of Radioxenon Concentration off the West Coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima Reactor Accident

    CERN Document Server

    Sinclair, L E; Fortin, R; Carson, J M; Saull, P R B; Coyle, M J; Van Brabant, R A; Buckle, J L; Desjardins, S M; Hall, R M

    2011-01-01

    In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off of the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to Xe-133 was observed. Methods to extract Xe-133 count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding Xe-133 volumetric concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that Xe-133 concentrations on average lie in the range of 30 to 70 Bq/m3.

  18. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Meraz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan comentarios sobre el registro de 8 especies en la zona, incluyendo las localidades y fechas de los avistamientos. Stenella attenuata es la especie más abundante, y la zona de Zipolite-Isla Roca Blanca la localidad con el mayor número de avistamientos. Dado el crecimiento turístico del lugar, es importante contar con este tipo de registros ya que es poco lo que se sabe sobre estas especies en esta porción de la costa oaxaqueña.With the aim of documenting the species of marine mammals that occur along the central coast of Oaxaca, a list with the characteristics of the records was elaborated based on observations made throughout 30 surveys from Huatulco Bays to La Escobilla beach between June 1999 and January 2004. Additional records from stranded animals are included, as well observations from the coast. Comments on 8 species are presented, including localities and dates of sightings. Stenella attenuata is the most abundant species. Zipolite-Roca Blanca island was the locality with the highest number of sightings. This records are important to promote conservation due growth of tourism in the area, given that Oaxaca coast is poorly known regarding marine mammals.

  19. Field measurement on longshore current variation between Ratnagiri and Mangalore, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; Anand, N.M.; SanilKumar, V.

    The daily measurements on longshore current velocity and direction were carried out at selected 12 stations along the coast between Ratnagiri and Mangalore, India. The directional wave data measured at Karwar were used to theoretically estimate...

  20. Satellite and ship studies of phytoplankton along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goes, J.I.; Gomes, H.; Kumar, A.; Gouveia, A.D.; Devassy, V.P.; Parulekar, A.H.; Rao, L.V.G.

    flowing equatorial surface waters (ESW). North of approximately 20 degrees N off the coast of Saurashtra, the ESW narrowed to a northwestwardly-flowing jet. During the southwest monsoon, wind-driven upwelling led the nutrient enhancement along the entire...

  1. nowCOAST's Map Service for NOAA NESDIS GOES EAST-WEST Composite Imagery (Time Enabled)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Map Information: This nowCOAST time-enabled map service provides maps depicting visible, infrared, and water vapor imagery composited from NOAA/NESDIS GOES-EAST and...

  2. 76 FR 75873 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; West Coast Groundfish Trawl Economic Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) needs economic data on all harvesters, first receivers, shorebased... Coast Groundfish Trawl Economic Data Collection AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... from the 2009 and 2010 operating years provides information on the economic condition of the...

  3. A one year comparison of radar and pressure tide gauge at Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mehra, P.; Desai, R.G.P.; Joseph, A.; VijayKumar, K.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Luis, R.; Sundar, D.; Viegas, B.

    At many locations absolute pressure gauges are used to obtain sea level data. Therefore, knowledge of the other physical processes which effect the sea level measurements at the coast is very important to insert the required corrections. Data from...

  4. Investigation on 2007 abnormal wave occured at the West coast of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, S.B.; Eom, H.M.; Kim, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Swell-type unexpected waves occurred along western coast of Korean at March, 2007 and it caused several deaths and heavy economic loss. Available field measurement data are collected to investigate this event, numerical model is setup to reproduce this unknown waves. We found several 1-min interval tidal elevation and sea level pressure (SLP) data along the western coast of Korea and analyzed it using wavelet technique. The wavelet power spectrum for sea water level anomalies is computed usin...

  5. Technical implementation plan for the ShakeAlert production system: an Earthquake Early Warning system for the West Coast of the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given, Douglas D.; Cochran, Elizabeth S.; Heaton, Thomas; Hauksson, Egill; Allen, Richard; Hellweg, Peggy; Vidale, John; Bodin, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Earthquake Early Warning (EEW) systems can provide as much as tens of seconds of warning to people and automated systems before strong shaking arrives. The United States Geological Survey (USGS) and its partners are developing such an EEW system, called ShakeAlert, for the West Coast of the United States. This document describes the technical implementation of that system, which leverages existing stations and infrastructure of the Advanced National Seismic System (ANSS) regional networks to achieve this new capability. While significant progress has been made in developing the ShakeAlert early warning system, improved robustness of each component of the system and additional testing and certification are needed for the system to be reliable enough to issue public alerts. Major components of the system include dense networks of ground motion sensors, telecommunications from those sensors to central processing systems, algorithms for event detection and alert creation, and distribution systems to alert users. Capital investment costs for a West Coast EEW system are projected to be $38.3M, with additional annual maintenance and operations totaling $16.1M—in addition to current ANSS expenditures for earthquake monitoring. An EEW system is complementary to, but does not replace, other strategies to mitigate earthquake losses. The system has limitations: false and missed alerts are possible, and the area very near to an earthquake epicenter may receive little or no warning. However, such an EEW system would save lives, reduce injuries and damage, and improve community resilience by reducing longer-term economic losses for both public and private entities.

  6. Dating Caral, a preceramic site in the Supe Valley on the central coast of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solis, R S; Haas, J; Creamer, W

    2001-04-27

    Radiocarbon dates from the site of Caral in the Supe Valley of Peru indicate that monumental corporate architecture, urban settlement, and irrigation agriculture began in the Americas by 4090 years before the present (2627 calibrated years B.C.) to 3640 years before the present (1977 calibrated years B.C.). Caral is located 23 kilometers inland from the Pacific coast and contains a central zone of monumental, residential, and nonresidential architecture covering an area of 65 hectares. Caral is one of 18 large preceramic sites in the Supe Valley. PMID:11326098

  7. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  8. Oceanographic studies off Beypore Port, west coast of India to locate a dredge dumping site

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Vethamony, P.; Babu, M.T.; Srinivas, K.; Thottam, T.J.

    are used for the flow simulation in February–March and September, 2000. Measured currents were resolved into U and V components, representing east-west and north-south respectively, and used in the model along the three open boundaries north, west and south... of Calicut on the bank of the river Chaliyar, the third largest west flowing rivers in Kerala, which joins the Arabian sea (Figure 2). The port facilities are located at the river mouth (Figure 3). The Beypore Port was one of the prominent ports and fishing...

  9. Measurements of Mercury in Rain and Fog Water from the Central Coast of California Measurements of Mercury in Rain and Fog Water from the Central Coast of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flegal, A. R.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Ortiz, C.; Acosta, P.; Ryan, J. P.; Collett, J. L.

    2011-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that can bioaccumulate in higher trophic level aquatic organisms and poses a health risk to humans and wildlife who consume those organisms. This widespread problem is exemplified by a recent survey of game fish from 152 California Lakes, which found that at least one species in 74% of the lakes sampled exceeded the lowest health threshold for methylmercury. The atmosphere is known to be an important pathway for transport of anthropogenic and natural Hg emissions sources. In this study, we investigated wet deposition of Hg through the precipitation of fog and rain water on the Central Coast of California. Fog (or marine stratus) is common on the California Central Coast and is a significant contributor to the hydrologic cycle, yet concentrations of Hg in fog have not previously been measured in this region. Our samples were collected from a small boat in the Monterey Bay, at the harbor in Moss Landing, and from a rooftop on the University of California, Santa Cruz campus, during June - July 2011 using a Caltech Active Strand Cloud Water Collector-2 that has been used previously for collection of Hg samples. Aqueous samples were analyzed for total Hg using EPA method 1631. Rainwater samples were also collected in Santa Cruz between March and June 2011. Hg concentrations ranged from 1-19 ng/L in fog and from 1-3 ng/L in rain. A previous study in Santa Cruz found a wider range of 2-18 ng/L Hg in rain, and previous studies of Hg in fog from the U.S. and Canada reported concentrations of 2-430 ng/L. Thus, our results are consistent with previous findings that Hg concentrations in fog water are at least as high, if not higher than Hg concentrations in rain. This suggests that in environments where fog is an important contributor to total precipitation, like coastal California, a significant fraction of Hg wet deposition may be occurring via fog precipitation.

  10. Distribution of Pill Millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and Associated Soil Fauna in the Western Ghats and West Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. M. ASHWINI; K. R. SRIDHAR

    2008-01-01

    Seven sampling sites in each of three biomes (Western Ghats, foothills of Western Ghats and west coast) of south-western India were investigated to study the distribution, abundance and ecology of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and associated fauna in relation to edaphic features. Abundance and biomass of Arthrosphaera and other millipedes were the highest in Western Ghats, while earthworms were in foothills. Arthrosphaera magna and Arthrosphaera spp. were common in Western Ghats and foothills respectively, while no Arthrosphaera were found in the west coast. None of the sampling sites consisted of more than one species of Arthrosphaera. Biomass of Arthrosphaera, other millipedes and earthworms significantly differed in Western Ghats (P = 9.48 × 10-7) and foothills (P = 1.35 × 10-8), as did the biomass of species of Arthrosphaera (P = 2.76 × 10-7) between Western Ghats and foothills. Correlation analysis revealed that biomass of Arthrosphaera was significantly (P = 0.01, r = 0.45) correlated with soil organic carbon rather than other edaphic fea-tures (pH, phosphate, calcium and magnesium). Distribution pattern, abundance, biomass and ecology of Arthrosphaera of Western Ghats in relation to soil qualities were compared with millipedes of other regions of the world.

  11. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  12. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae) in Central-West Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Paulo Silva; de Andrade, Andrey José; Sciamarelli, Alan; Raizer, Josué; Menegatti, Jaqueline Aparecida; Hermes, Sandra Cristina Negreli Moreira; de Carvalho, Maria do Socorro Laurentino; Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo

    2015-01-01

    This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies. PMID:26018450

  13. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  14. Bathymetry of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Thomas J.; Smith, J. LaRue

    2007-01-01

    Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Much of the streamflow in the Walker River is diverted for irrigation, which has contributed to a decline in lake-surface altitude of about 150 feet and an increase in dissolved solids from 2,500 to 16,000 milligrams per liter in Walker Lake since 1882. The increase in salinity threatens the fresh-water ecosystem and survival of the Lahontan cutthroat trout, a species listed as threatened under the Endangered Species Act. Accurately determining the bathymetry and relations between lake-surface altitude, surface area, and storage volume are part of a study to improve the water budget for Walker Lake. This report describes the updated bathymetry of Walker Lake, a comparison of results from this study and a study by Rush in 1970, and an estimate of the 1882 lake-surface altitude. Bathymetry was measured using a single-beam echosounder coupled to a differentially-corrected global positioning system. Lake depth was subtracted from the lake-surface altitude to calculate the altitude of the lake bottom. A Lidar (light detection and ranging) survey and high resolution aerial imagery were used to create digital elevation models around Walker Lake. The altitude of the lake bottom and digital elevation models were merged together to create a single map showing land-surface altitude contours delineating areas that are currently or that were submerged by Walker Lake. Surface area and storage volume for lake-surface altitudes of 3,851.5-4,120 feet were calculated with 3-D surface-analysis software. Walker Lake is oval shaped with a north-south trending long axis. On June 28, 2005, the lake-surface altitude was 3,935.6 feet, maximum depth was 86.3 feet, and the surface area was 32,190 acres. The minimum altitude of the lake bottom from discrete point depths is 3,849.3 feet near the center of Walker Lake. The lake bottom is remarkably smooth except for mounds near

  15. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    with sediments. Cross sectional dimensions between 15 to 100 m width and 2 to 6 m depth suggest a fluvial origin of the channels. These buried channels appear to mark former positions of rivers flowing from the nearby coast and debouching into the Arabian Sea...

  16. Waves in shallow water off west coast of India during the onset of summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Nair, T.N.B.

    compared to deep water. Wave characteristics during growth and decay off the Goa coast at 80 m water depth during Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 818 V. Sanil Kumar et al.: Waves in shallow water during...

  17. Macrobenthic communities of the coastal waters of Dabhol, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Rodrigues, N.; Ansari, Z.A.

    on the rocky sub- stratum, were collected from sts. 1 and 3. Since the beds of P. viridis were observed in the intertidal and subtidal rocky areas along the Dabhol coast (in the vicinity of sts.1 and 3), therefore the specimens of P. viridis found...

  18. 75 FR 56976 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... the U.S. exclusive economic zone (EEZ) off the Pacific coast. This HG is proposed according to the... this proposed rule, if adopted, would not have a significant economic impact on a substantial number of... entities under the proposed action. The profitability of these vessels as a result of this proposed rule...

  19. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj SV, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics.

  20. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... for most species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580... limited entry fixed gear fishermen north of Pt. Chehalis continued opportunities to harvest incidental... targeting sablefish north of Pt. Chehalis, which would cause confusion and be inconsistent with the...

  1. A further extension of Elminius modestus Darwin on the west coast of France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crisp, D.J.

    1959-01-01

    In previous publications Bishop & Crisp (1957, 1958) described the distribution of Elminius modestus on the coasts of France, based on surveys made in 1953 and 1954. Further information including some observations made in 1955 was given by Bishop, Crisp, Fischer-Piette & Prenant (1957). Elminius was

  2. Butyltins in the sediments of Kochi and Mumbai harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Garg, A.; Harji, R.; Jadhav, S.; Sawant, S.S.; Krishnamurthy, V.; Anil, A.C.

    ;31:245–53. Krone CA, Stein JE, Varanasi U. Butyltin contamination of sediments and benthic fish from the east gulf and Pacific coasts in the United States. Environ Monit Assess 1996;40:75–89. Law RJ, Blake SJ, Jones BR, Rogan E. Organotin compounds in liver tissue...

  3. Hydrodynamic changes due to large seabed installations in coastal waters off west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ilangovan, D.; Naik, K.A.; Anil, A.C.

    hydrodynamic model is used to study influence of placing large number of tanks in a dynamic marine environment. Cylindrical tanks (5 m dia.) are arranged in three rows with 50 tanks placed in each row with their length (100 m) aligned perpendicular to the coast...

  4. Relative abundance and diel variation of zooplankton from south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Peter, K.J.

    the traditional fishing grounds of Kerala Coast. Average biomass values ranged from 45-95 ml 100/m sup(-3). Increase in zooplankton at night was discernible at most of the stations and the highest biomass noticed was 131 ml 100/m sup(-3). Copepods formed the most...

  5. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  6. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.Nós examinamos 308 espécimes do blenídeo Omobranchus punctatus, de origem Indo-Pacífica, depositados em coleções de quatro museus. Os dados de distribuição foram analisados com o objetivo de avaliar a invasão das águas costeiras do Oceano Atlântico nas Américas do Sul e Central. Em sua área de distribuição original, O. punctatus ocorre em ambientes marinhos e estuarinos. Amostragens datadas de 1930 e de 2004 produziram 20 registros da espécie no Atlântico Oeste tropical, incluindo amostras do Panamá, Col

  7. Review of "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" and "The Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns J Scott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two recent meetings held on the west coast of the USA highlighted current work being done in the field of retrovirology and AIDS. The meetings, "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" (Palm Springs CA; October 6–8, 2005, and the "Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS" (Portland OR; September 21–24 covered a broad range of topics. The highlights covered here are not meant to be inclusive but reflect presentations of interest in the identification and development of new HIV therapies and the role played by animal models in their development.

  8. Studies on fouling diatoms from the Zuari Estuary, Goa (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Redekar, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    estuary. Of these 39 species (14 genera) belonged to Pennales and 10 (5 genera) to Centrales. The dominant genera were Navicula, Nitzschia and Amphora. Pennales were dominant over Centrales in diversity. The minima and maxima of number of cells showed...

  9. Caribou, individual-based modeling and mega-industry in central West Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raundrup, Katrine; Nymand, Josephine; Nabe-Nielsen, Jacob;

    Spatial distribution of caribou (Rangifer tarandus groenlandicus) in West Greenland is a result of both short and long term changes in the Arctic landscape. To understand present distribution 40 satellite collars were deployed on 40 female caribou in the Akia-Maniitsoq herd, central West Greenland...... distribution and caribou in a realistic but manipulable “virtual world” of an IBM it is possible to examine the plausible effects of different environmental impacts on the population dynamics of caribou in West Greenland. The simulations will include introduction of mega-industry, roads, and transmission lines...

  10. Relationship of scarlet prawns (Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus) to a benthic oil deposit off the north-west coast of Aruba, Dutch West Indies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Farragut, R.N.; Thompson, M.H.

    1977-08-01

    Catch data resulting from sampling efforts off the north-west coast of Aruba, Dutch West Indies, demonstrated a greater catch rate of crustacea in areas where benthic oily material was collected as compared to adjacent areas where there was no oil. Scarlet prawns (Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus) were three times more abundant in the areas where benthic oil was found. They contained no isoprenoid hydrocarbons of the type common to most biological material or the type common to petroleum. However, they did contain an unusual n-paraffin hydrocarbon series (n-C/sub 22/, n-C/sub 25/, n-C/sub 28/, n-C/sub 31/, n-C/sub 34/), and in the areas where the benthic oily material was collected the prawns contained much greater quantities of the five n-paraffins given in the above sequence. A probable explanation for the greater abundance of crustacea in the area affected by the oily material is discussed. The accumulation and metabolism of hydrocarbons by marine organisms and how these processes relate to scarlet prawns are also discussed.

  11. Gender Statistics in the Southern Caucasus and Central and West Asia: A Situational Analysis Promoting Gender-Inclusive Growth in Central and West Asian Developing Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a baseline of the capacity of Asian Development Bank developing member countries to generate, analyze, disseminate, and use sex-disaggregated data. It introduces a framework on gender statistics and guides in assessing statistical systems in the Southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and West Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan). It recommends ways to bridge the gaps in gender data collec...

  12. Variability in spawning frequency and reproductive development of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) along the west coast of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Michael C.; Lewis, Paul D.; Gaughan, Daniel J.; Newman, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) is widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific region. This study describes the reproductive biology of S. commerson along the west coast of Australia, where it is targeted for food consumption and sports fishing. Development of testes occurred at a smaller body size than for ovaries, and more than 90% of males were sexually mature by the minimum legal length of 900 mm TL compared to 50% of females. Females dominated overall c...

  13. Operational forecast of oil spill trajectory and assessment of impacts on intertidal macrobenthos in the Dahanu region, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, V.S.; Sukumaran, S.; Dubbewar, O.; Reddy, G.S.

    . Coast. Res., vol.29(2); 2013; 398-409 OPERATIONAL FORECAST OF OILSPILL TRAJECTORY AND ASSESSMENT OF IMPACTS ON INTERTIDAL MACROBENTHOS IN THE DAHANU REGION, WEST COAST OF INDIA Velamala Simhadri Naidu1 , Soniya Sukumran1, Om Dubbewar1 , G. Sidda... August 2011 showed the need for the forecast of the spilled oil. The spill movement was predicted off the Goa coast by Vethmony et al (2007). The risk assessment of accidental spillage in the Gulf of Kachchh was studied by Kankara and Subramanian...

  14. Observed variations in stratification and currents in the Zuari estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundar, D.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Michael, G.S.; Kankonkar, A.; Nidheesh, A.G.; Subeesh, M.P.

    25-hour time series measurements of vertical salinity profiles and currents in Zuari estuary were done during both spring and neap tidal cycles of pre-monsoon (April–May), south-west monsoon (June–September) and post-monsoon (October...

  15. Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems. An agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Slaats, J.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow type in Ivory Coast was analysed and options for efficient and sustainable land use were identified. Farmers obtained 1.8 t ha -1maize without external inputs in a three-year fallow-cropping cycle. ...

  16. Ichthyofaunal diversity and ecology of intertidal rock pools of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tsering, L.; Pawar, H.B.; Sreepada, R.A.; Sanaye, S.V.; Suryavanshi, U.; Tanu

    structure, Colombia (Castellanos-Galindo, 2005), microhabitat segregation of intertidal fishes, Portugal (Faria & Almada, 2000), and vertical distribution of intertidal fishes from Atlantic coast of France (Gibson,1972) etc. All these studies contribute... fishes on a tropical eastern pacific rocky shore, Colombia. Journal of Fish Biology 67, 392-408. CHARGULAF, C.A., TOWNSEND, K.A. AND TIBETTS, I.R. (2011). Community structure of soft sediment pool fishes in Moreton Bay, Australia. Journal of Fish...

  17. Evidence for Indo-Roman trade from Bet Dwarka waters, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    sites on the western coast such as Dwarka, Prabhasa Patan, Padri, Hathab, Bharuch, Kamrej and Elephanta (Figure 1), have ample antiquities, mainly potsherds, suggesting maritime trade and commerce relations with the Mediterranean countries around... countries during early centuries of the Christian Era. Warmington (1928) believe that the first two centuries of Christian era, the Roman Empire witnessed the establishment and development of a profitable commerce between two great nations...

  18. The age of the "old red sand" on the coasts of south Fujian and west Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The sedimentary strata and deposition ages of the "old red sand" distributed along the coasts of south Fujian and west Guangdong are determined by lithostratigraphy, magnetic stratigraphy and earth chemistry combined with TL, ESR and 14C-dating techniques. The research shows that the "old red sand" was aeolian sediments deposited from 55 400 to 9 000 aBP, the last glacial period in the middle and later age of Late Pleistocene. Most of them deposited in two periods of 56-42 ka and 30-10 ka. The "old red sand" deposited in the period of 30-10 ka, the later Würm glacier substage (Q33), developed on the largest scale with the widest distribution.

  19. The Guiana and the West African Shield Palaeoproterozoic grouping: new palaeomagnetic data for French Guiana and the Ivory Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomade, Sébastien; Chen, Yan; Pouclet, André; Féraud, Gilbert; Théveniaut, Hervé; Daouda, Bertin Yao; Vidal, Max; Rigolet, Cécile

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study is to document the Palaeoproterozoic palaeomagnetic database for the Guiana and West African Shields in order to better understand the paleogeographic evolution of these two cratons. A total of 59 sites were sampled (33 in French Guiana and 26 in the Ivory Coast) in granites and metavolcanic rocks. Magnetic, petrographic and palaeomagnetic investigations were carried out on these rocks. Magnetic experiments and petrographic observations show that undeformed magnetite is the main magnetic remanent carrier in granites of French Guiana and both magnetite and haematite in rocks from the Ivory Coast. Both thermal and magnetic alternating-field demagnetizations were applied to the rocks. Four high-temperature magnetic remanent directions were isolated in French Guiana and the Ivory Coast. These directions are distinct from the present Earth's field and to the local Early Jurassic palaeomagnetic components. Reversal and contact tests were obtained for the collection from French Guiana. Based on these arguments and mineralogical investigations, we propose that the magnetic remanence represent a Palaeoproterozoic magnetization. Four virtual palaeomagnetic poles were calculated: GUI1, GUI2 for French Guiana; IC1 and IC2 for the Ivory Coast with their corresponding coordinates: GUI1: λGUI1=-62°N, φGUI1= 61°E, k= 18, A95= 10°, N= 15; GUI2: λGUI2=-5°N, φGUI2= 50°E, k= 26, A95= 18°, N= 5; IC1: λIC1=-82°N, φIC1= 292°N, k= 28, A95= 13°, N= 6; IC2: λIC2=-25°N, φIC2= 83°E, k= 11, A95= 16°, N= 9. The magnetization age ranged from 2.04 to 1.97 Ga for the French Guiana poles (40Ar/39Ar) and between 2.10 to 2.00 Ga for the Ivory Coast poles (startigraphic ages). Combining these new palaeomagnetic poles and previously published data, two apparent polar wander paths were proposed for these two shields. The comparison of these two Palaeoproterozoic paths seems to indicate that the two cratons belonged to the same block at about 2.00 Ga but

  20. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  1. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladd M Irvine

    Full Text Available Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR and 'core areas' (CAU as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels.

  2. Stable isotope signatures of seasonal precipitation on the Pacific coast of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Zoltán; Harmon, Russell S; Fórizs, István

    2016-01-01

    As calculated from data archived in the IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation programme, the amount-weighted local meteoric water line for the Pacific coast of central Panama is: δ(2)H = 7.63(±0.08) × δ(18)O + 6.51(±0.49). Amount-weighted mean isotopic values were regressed against the sea surface temperature (SST) fields of the adjacent tropical oceans. A negative correlation of precipitation isotope composition with Caribbean SSTs is observed only for the early wet season (May-June), whilst the mid-summer dry period is characterized by positive correlation with eastern Pacific SSTs, similar to the late wet season (October-November). The negative response of May-June rainfall isotopic composition to Caribbean SSTs is explained by a SST-mediated change in stratiform rain fraction from organized convective systems proximal to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The positive correlation for the rest of the wet season, when the organized convective zone of ITCZ and its attached stratiform belt are distant from the Pacific coast of Panama, is interpreted as simple evaporative temperature effect on isotopic fractionation. PMID:25761056

  3. Analysis of characteristics and mechanism of current system on the west coast of Guangdong of China in summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    On the basis of data of drifting bottles'tracks and the current measured in anchored stations, as well as temperature and salinity observed in cruise investigations and coastal stations, ADCP current data and AVHRR surface sea temperature (SST) data on the western coast of Guangdong, synthetic results of analysis showed that the coastal currents in the west of the mouth of the Zhujiang River were mainly westward in summer, which constituted the north branch of cyclonic gyre in the east of the Qiongzhou Straits. Part of its water flowed westward into the Beibu Gulf through the Qiongzhou Straits. The coastal current pattern was not identical with the traditional current system which flowed westward in the Qiongzhou Straits in winter and eastward in summer. The summertime's coastal current was always westward, maybe temporarily turning northeast only when the southwest wind was strong. The important characteristics of coastal current on the western coast of Guangdong, in the Qiongzhou Straits and in the north of the Beibu Gulfwere analyzed and their mechanisms also were explained.

  4. Distribution of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata, Benthesicymidae) off the west coast of Mexico and notes on its morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendrickx, Michel E.; Papiol, Vanesa

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A large series of specimens of Benthesicymus tanneri Faxon, 1893 (Dendrobranchiata; Benthesicymidae) was collected during an extensive survey of deep-water invertebrate fauna off western Mexico. In total, 61 males and 122 females (M:F ratio = 1:2) from 44 sampling stations were examined, considerably increasing the number of known specimens and sampling localities for this species which is widely distributed along the Pacific coast of Mexico. The collection is the largest available for this species to date and presents first records from off the west coast of the Baja California Peninsula and a slight increase of the northernmost record within the Gulf of California. On the whole, females grew larger than males. The petasma of males of different sizes and the female thelycum of Benthesicymus tanneri are illustrated. The petasma of Benthesicymus tanneri presents a ventrolateral crescent-shape process otherwide found only in Benthesicymus tirmiziae Crosnier, 1978 and in Benthesicymus bartletti S.I. Smith, 1882. A key to the four species of Benthesicymus presently known from the eastern Pacific is presented. PMID:25632254

  5. Phylogeography and reproductive variation of the poecilogonous polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Annelida: Spionidae) along the West Coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyarzun, Fernanda X; Mahon, Andrew R; Swalla, Billie J; Halanych, Kenneth M

    2011-01-01

    The ability to produce more than one kind of offspring, or poecilogony, is a striking example of reproductive variability. Traditionally, larval nutrition has been classified as a dichotomy: if offspring obtain nutrition from their mothers (lecithotrophy), there is lower fecundity and greater chance of offspring survival than when they get their nutrition from plankton (planktotrophy). The polychaete Boccardia proboscidea (Spionidae) produces both types of embryos using three different reproductive strategies. In this study, we examined the roles of genetic history and phenotypic plasticity on explaining natural variation in B. proboscidea along the Pacific coast of the United States using two genetic mitochondrial markers, 16S rDNA and Cyt b, and common garden experiments. These data show a single North American West Coast network that is structured, geographically, by the well-documented biogeographic break near Point Conception, California. The southern group within this network covers a smaller range, but has larger haplotype diversity, than the northern group. Some individuals differing in reproductive type had the same haplotype, indicating independence of these features; however, differences between laboratory and field data suggest additional geographic variation within one of the reproductive types. Females from higher latitudes provide offspring with larger supplies of extra embryonic nutrition than females from southern latitudes. Results herein suggest that both genetic history and developmental plasticity are playing a role in the maintenance of this reproductive polymorphism.

  6. Organochlorine and metal residues in royal terns nesting on the central Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Royal Tern eggs collected from Pelican and Sundown islands on the central Texas coast in 1978 contained relatively low levels of organochlorine and metal pollutants. DDE and PCBs were found most frequently, but levels were below those known to have an adverse effect on avian reproduction and survival. Average metal residues did not vary significantly between study areas, and with the possible exception of mercury, were present only at background levels. Shells of eggs collected in 1978 were no thinner than eggshells collected before 1947. There was a significant imporvement in mean eggshell thickness from 1970 to 1978 and a corresponding decline in DDE and PCB residues. No deformed or abnormal young were observed. Although elevated levels of industrial contaminants were reported in sediments and sea grasses of Corpus Christi Bay, little of those contaminants appear to have accumulated in the Royal Tern.

  7. Seroprevalence of East Coast fever in Central Equatoria State, South Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wani L. Marcellino

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 2005 in different cattle camps in Juba, Mangalla and Terekeka localities of Central Equatoria State, South Sudan. Serum samples were collected from 514 cattle of different age groups. Samples were analysed using an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA with commercially available polymorphic immunodominant molecule (PIM ELISA kits. The overall serological prevalence of Theileria parva was 70.8% (364/514. The highest rate of prevalence was observed in Mangalla (91.2% and the lowest in Juba (61.8%, with Terekeka recording 71.8%. Regarding the age groups, older cattle (over four years of age showed a significantly higher rate of prevalence (p>0.001 than calves (below one year of age. The implications of these results in the overall epidemiology of East Coast fever in South Sudan are discussed and possible recommendations for future implementation of disease control measures are outlined.

  8. Gravity, aeromagnetic and rock-property data of the central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenheim, V.E.

    2014-01-01

    Gravity, aeromagnetic, and rock-property data were collected to support geologic-mapping, water-resource, and seismic-hazard studies for the central California Coast Ranges. These data are combined with existing data to provide gravity, aeromagnetic, and physical-property datasets for this region. The gravity dataset consists of approximately 18,000 measurements. The aeromagnetic dataset consists of total-field anomaly values from several detailed surveys that have been merged and gridded at an interval of 200 m. The physical property dataset consists of approximately 800 density measurements and 1,100 magnetic-susceptibility measurements from rock samples, in addition to previously published borehole gravity surveys from Santa Maria Basin, density logs from Salinas Valley, and intensities of natural remanent magnetization.

  9. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suneel, V.; Ciappa, A.; Vethamony, P.

    of trajectories of tar ball transport to the Goa coast. Water Air and Soil Pollution, 224:1538 28. Suneel. V., P. Vethamony., B. G. Naik., K. Vinod Kumar., L. Sreenu, S.V. Samiksha, Yunus Tai and K. Sudheesh. Source investigation of the tar balls deposited...- and backward-in-time transport models can be used as constructive tools to track the drift of oil residues; the former is used to investigate the effects of oil pollution from known sources, and the latter for detecting the likely release sites or illegal...

  10. Annual Bacterioplankton Biomasses and Productivities in a Temperate West Coast Canadian Fjord

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Bacterioplankton numbers, biomasses, and productivities, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton productivities, were assayed from 1 March 1984 to 12 August 1985 through a 250-m-deep seawater column in Howe Sound, a temperate fjord-sound on the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada. Primary production during this 18-month period was 845 g of C m−2. Bacterial production was assayed over this same period as 193 g of C m−2 (thymidine incorporation) and 77 g of C m−2 (frequ...

  11. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

  12. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suneel, V.; Vethamony, P.; Naik, B.G.; Krishna, M.S.; Jadhav, L.

    index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source...

  13. A unique late bronze age copper fish-hook from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, west coast of India: Evidence on the advance fishing technology in ancient India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    correspondence. e - mail: jprao2001@hotmail.com A unique Late Bronze Age copper fish - hook from Bet Dwarka Island, Gujarat, west coast of India: Evidence on the advance fis h ing technology in ancient India There are numerous evidences of the e...

  14. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Cheliff River for discharge into the Bay of Mostaganem, marked by significant space-time variations. In January (24 mg / l, the values of nitrates recorded west of the mouth of Cheliff exceed norms. Ammonium records strong concentrations in January (1.2 mg NH4+/ l and in February (0.8 mg /l. Nitrites such lagging of high contents in January (NO2- 0.99 mg / l and February (NO2- 0.59 mg /l, respectively. The ortho phosphates post a maximum concentration in January (6.6mg PO43-/ l. In addition, the organic matter rate measured in surface water is maximum during periods of flooding especially in January (7.51 mg / l and lowest in the exceptionally dry season in August (2.19 mg / l.

  15. Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cataldo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

  16. Remote sensing survey applied to synthetic geological mapping in Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deroin, Jean-Paul; Delor, Claude; Simeon, Yves; Yao, Bertin

    1994-12-01

    We have used remote sensing as an additional method in 1:200 000-scale reconnaissance mapping of the Ivory Coast. Landsat imagery was chosen for its low cost, and its interest for relatively small-scale work and its synthetic and multispectral properties. This proved perfectly satisfactory, especially in the bush savanna to the north of latitude 7 deg 30'. The imagery was also compared with aeromagnetic survey results. The lithostructural features revealed by MSS can be directly correlated with field observations. 1) Certain clear facies variations (amphibolites or gabbros among acidic rocks, for example) are spectrally well expressed. Conglomerates are commonly distinctive (on the Katiola sheet for example), when they are sufficiently extensive and they form ridges that can be followed several tens of kilometres. 2) The traces of planar structures can, at least locally, be followed and correlated with a regional schistosity. Certain features mappable on images confirm offset across transcurrent structures identified on the ground (N-S transcurrent fault zones, for example). Our experience in Ivory Coast shows that the use of Landsat MSS imagery should systematically be considered for any small- scale studies in which only a small part of the budget can be attributed to remote sensing.

  17. Early Cretaceous decapod Crustacea from the Neuquén Basin, west-central Argentina

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre-Urreta, Maria Beatriz

    2003-01-01

    Marine deposits of the Neuquén Basin of west-central Argentina (southern South America) are richly fossiliferous; its Mesozoic invertebrate faunas, represented mostly by molluscs, have been extensively studied since the nineteenth century. However, Early Cretaceous decapod crustaceans are far less k

  18. Organised labour and neo-liberal economic and political reforms in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the impact of current neoliberal political reforms on trade union performance in West and Central Africa. To what extent have trade unions been involved in the political restructuring of the State? Has political liberalization constrained or enhanced their political influence a

  19. Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, West of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    closely spaced profiles in 20-100 m of water totalling - 2400 line km were collected on the continental shelf off Bombay, west of India. Magnetic intensity anomaly maps were prepared. The anomalies show prominent trends in E-W, NNW-SSE and ENE... patches of the Bombay High and inner shelf where granites are interpreted; (2) the lateral extent of the two NNW-SSE-trending regional faults between longitudes 70 ‘50’E and 71°40’E; and (3) the outlines of the magnetic signatures associated...

  20. Tuna longline fishing around West and Central Pacific seamounts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telmo Morato

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Seamounts have been identified as aggregating locations for pelagic biodiversity including tuna; however the topography and prevailing oceanography differ between seamounts and not all are important for tuna. Although a relatively common feature in oceanic ecosystems, little information is available that identifies those that are biologically important. Improved knowledge offers opportunities for unique management of these areas, which may advance the sustainable management of oceanic resources. In this study, we evaluate the existence of an association between seamounts and tuna longline fisheries at the ocean basin scale, identify significant seamounts for tuna in the western and central Pacific Ocean, and quantify the seamount contribution to the tuna longline catch. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We use data collected for the Western and Central Pacific Ocean for bigeye, yellowfin, and albacore tuna at the ocean basin scale. GLMs were applied to a coupled dataset of longline fisheries catch and effort, and seamount location information. The analyses show that seamounts may be associated with an annual longline combined catch of 35 thousand tonnes, with higher catch apparent for yellowfin, bigeye, and albacore tuna on 17%, 14%, and 14% of seamounts respectively. In contrast 14%, 18%, and 20% of seamounts had significantly lower catches for yellowfin, bigeye and albacore tuna respectively. Studying catch data in relation to seamount positions presents several challenges such as bias in location of seamounts, or lack of spatial resolution of fisheries data. Whilst we recognize these limitations the criteria used for detecting significant seamounts were conservative and the error in identification is likely to be low albeit unknown. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Seamounts throughout the study area were found to either enhance or reduce tuna catch. This indicates that management of seamounts is important Pacific-wide, but management

  1. Age, Stratigraphy, and Correlations of the Late Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Barron, John A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Clark, Joseph C.; Perry, Frank A.; Brabb, Earl E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The Purisima Formation is an important upper Miocene and Pliocene stratigraphic unit in central California, cropping out from the coast at Point Reyes north of San Francisco to more extensive exposures in the Santa Cruz Mountains to the south. The fine-grained rocks in the lower parts of the Purisima Formation record a latest Miocene transgressive event, whereas the middle and upper parts of the formation consist of increasingly clastic-rich siltstones and sandstones resulting from uplift of adjacent coastal regions and the Sierra Nevada during Pliocene transgressive and regressive sea-level events. Exposures of the Purisima occur in three different, fault-bounded, structural blocks - the Santa Cruz, Pigeon Point, and Point Reyes tectonic blocks - that complicate correlations and regional age assignments. We summarize and compare published and new biostratigraphic and geochronologic data for various exposures of the Purisima Formation on the basis of mollusks, diatoms, radiometric dating, magnetostratigraphy, tephrochronology, and strontium isotope dating. On the basis of these data, we conclude that the Purisima Formation ranges in age from the latest Miocene (about 7 Ma) to the late Pliocene (about 2.6 Ma). The Purisima Formation of Santa Cruz County, exposed in the sea cliffs from Santa Cruz to Rio del Mar, is here designated a supplementary reference section because it is the most complete and well studied Purisima section in central California.

  2. Beach Carrying Capacity Analysis for Sustainable Tourism Development in the South West Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Rajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of coastal tourism that has been seen in the last 10 years is frequently described as one of the major reasons for the development of these areas and also is responsible for many current coastal problems. The beaches perform, in this context, a fundamental role, where the issues related to planning and management are increasingly more important when it comes to an implementation of a sustainable development philosophy. In Kerala, where coastal tourism plays a major part of the state’s economy, the management of beaches is crucial for maintaining their quality and therefore continuing to attract tourists. Since the 1990s, with the application of Coastal Zone Management Plans to the whole Kerala coast, beach plans are now required. The concept of capacity has received considerable attention as a result of increasing anthropogenic pressure in certain natural environments. Much consideration has recently been given to an increase in coastal population, with the implication that the carrying capacity of the world’s coast is finite, and such consideration forms part of several coastal management initiatives. Tourism is the world’s largest industry, which accounts for more than 10% of total employment, 11% of global GDP, and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020. The ecosystems, typically stressed by development activity along the Indian coastal areas, are particularly vulnerable to socio-economic driving forces. The planning and management of coastal tourism can be improved through more careful understanding of social and ecological systems and their linkages, with a view to ensure a development that lasts, not only for tourism but also for the host destination. The present study gives a comprehensive idea on both sustainability of coastal areas and a prerequisite for the carrying capacity based development in tourism destinations.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2648

  3. Phylogenetic study and barcoding of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, found on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia using the COI gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, S Y; Devakie, M N; Siti Azizah, M N

    2011-01-01

    Blood cockles are among the most economically important brackish water invertebrates found in Malaysia. However, our knowledge of blood cockle phylogeny and systematics is rudimentary, especially for the species Tegillarca granosa. It is unclear, for instance, whether the cockles occurring on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a single species, or multiple, phylogenetically distinct species. We performed the first DNA molecular phylogenetic analysis of T. granosa to distinguish it from other related species found in other parts of the world and to create a DNA database for the species. An approximately 585-nucleotide fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase I, COI) was sequenced for 150 individual cockles, representing 10 populations: three from the north, four from the central part and three from the southern part of peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting dataset yielded tree topologies that not only showed the relationship between T. granosa and its closest relatives but its position in the evolutionary tree. Three mitochondrial clades were evident, each containing an individual genus. Using the mutation rate of the COI gene, the divergence time between T. granosa and its closest related species was estimated to be 460 thousand years ago. This study provides a phylogenetic framework for this ecologically prominent and commercially important cockle species. PMID:21732288

  4. West Texas nursing education portal project: developing a regional centralized application system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia; Billings, Lynda; Cannon, Sharon; Majors, Jennifer; Sportsman, Susan; Ballesteros, Pauline A; Bezinque, Kim; Bolton, Cathy; Cottenoir, Marla; Edwards, Carmen; Louder, Justin; O'Neal, Cynthia; Morgan, Jackolyn; Reyes, Helen; Ross, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Because of the nursing shortage and a demand for maximum enrollment, a group of five baccalaureate and seven associate degree nursing programs in West Texas first met in 2007 to form the West Texas Nursing Education Consortium (WTNEC). To emphasize the importance of scale and distance, the West Texas region is larger than all of the northeastern states combined. The founding group agreed that the first mission of WTNEC should be to pool resources in order to increase admission and graduation rates for WTNEC schools. Two years later, this mission is being accomplished by the implementation of a plan designed to increase participating schools' admissions, retention, and graduation rates. A grant proposal was written and funded to develop a central regionalization of the application process for entry into WTNEC generic programs (associates degree in nursing and bachelor of science in nursing), with the goal of decreasing and possibly eliminating student vacancy rates in member schools and perhaps reducing the resources needed by each school for the admission process. The implemented centralized application system allowed prospective students to apply online to the centralized admission portal. Students maintained the freedom to choose the nursing program(s) they wanted to attend, but they were also made aware of possible openings in other participating schools. The admission portal also saved potential students time and money by submitting one centralized application, resulting in consolidation of the nursing school application process. Eleven of the 12 consortium schools participated in the centralized application system. PMID:21596353

  5. Standardising Visual Control Devices for Tsetse Flies: Central and West African Species Glossina palpalis palpalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaba, Dramane; Zacarie, Tusevo; M'Pondi, Alexis Makumyaviri; Njiokou, Flobert; Bosson-Vanga, Henriette; Kröber, Thomas; McMullin, Andrew; Mihok, Steve; Guerin, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis) is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. Methodology/Principal Findings Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal) and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8–51%). There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. Conclusions/Significance Blue-black 0.25 m2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for population sampling when

  6. Detrital zircon evidence for progressive underthrusting in Franciscan metagraywackes, west-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C.A.; Wakabayashi, J.; Ernst, W.G.; Wooden, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    central Coast Ranges is a classic accretionary prism, where younger, structurally lower allochthons are exposed on the west, and older, structurally higher allochthons occur to the east, in the heavily studied San Francisco Bay area. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  7. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  8. Environmental history of mangrove vegetation in Pacific west-central Mexico during the last 1300 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Lorena Figueroa-Rangel

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available AbstractMangroves are a highly threatened ecosystem due to climate change and human activity, which increases coastal vulnerability. Knowledge about the ecological dynamics of mangroves on a centennial timescale can reveal the different responses in vegetation, which is useful for implementing basic actions for mangrove restoration, conservation and management. A mangrove ecosystem in the Cuyutlán Lagoon area along the Pacific coast of west-central Mexico is significantly altered as a result of industrialization, salt extraction, and road construction. The long-term dynamics of the mangrove ecosystem has also been controlled by Holocene climatic variability. This study reconstructs the environmental history of mangrove vegetation around the Cuyutlán Lagoon during the last ~1300 years in response to periods of human activity and climate change. The reconstruction was performed using paleoecological techniques in sediment cores that include the use of fossil pollen as a proxy for vegetation and magnetic susceptibility and geochemical data (determined by loss-on-ignition and X-ray fluorescence as a proxy for past environmental changes. The chronology was determined using 14C dating and the age-depth model was constructed by linear interpolation. Redundancy analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS were used to discern patterns of distribution of the different proxies. Results revealed that the mangrove pollen assemblage of the Cuyutlán Lagoon was dominated by the arboreal taxa Rhizophora mangle, Euphorbiaceae, Moraceae and Pinaceae, herbaceous taxa like Poaceae, Chenopodiaceae/Amaranthaceae, and aquatics such as Typhaceae and Cyperaceae. NMDS showed a clear separation between two events of human activity—the Spanish Occupation of Colima (~AD 1523-1524 and the opening of the Manzanillo port (~AD 1824-1825. Climate change events such as the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA (~AD 800-1200 and the Little Ice Age (LIA (~AD 1350-1850 were

  9. The characteristics of mountain waves observed by radar near the west coast of Wales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. T. Prichard

    Full Text Available Radar observations at 46.5 MHz of vertical-velocity perturbations at Aberystwyth (52.4°N, 4.1°W have been used to examine the incidence of mountain waves and their dependence on local topography and the wind vector at low heights. A contrast is drawn between the effects of easterly winds passing over major topographical features to the east of the radar site and those of westerly winds crossing low coastal topographical features to the west. Estimates are made of the vertical flux of horizontal momentum associated with mountain waves, and the general influence of mountain-wave activity on vertical-velocity measurements at the site is assessed.

  10. Diatom colonization on stainless steel panels in estuarine waters of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mitbavkar, S.; Anil, A.C.

    , over a period of one year (March '96 to February '97). Qualitative and quantitative enumeration of the diatoms from the fouling film as well as that from the water column was carried out. The surrounding waters were dominated by the centrales whereas...

  11. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risien, C M; Strub, P T

    2016-01-01

    We form a new 'blended' data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55-70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993-31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  12. Reconstructing Fire Disturbances in Coastal Temperate Rainforests on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history

  13. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  14. Seasonal stratification and property distributions in a tropical estuary (Cochin estuary, west coast, India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shivaprasad, A.; Vinita, J.; Revichandran, C.; Reny, P.D.; Deepak, M.P.; Muraleedharan, K.R.; NaveenKumar, K.R.

    the surrounding city and riverine water carrying industrial and agricultural wastes are respon- sible for nutrient enrichment influencing the estuarine water quality (Joseph and Ouseph, 2010). Numerous studies reveal the dynamics of the energetic en- vironment.... The strong ebb veloc- ity of about 130 cm s−1 at the Cochin inlet (Udaya Varma et al., 1981), which is comprised in the central estuary, main- tains an effective flushing through the channel in this region (Balachandran et al., 2008). For an ecological study...

  15. Stratigraphic And Lithofacies Study Of Distal Rain-Triggered Lahars: The Case Of West Coast Of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, M.; Chunga, K.; Peña Carpio, E.; Falquez Torres, D. A.; Alcivar, R., Sr.; Lopez Coronel, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The central zone of the coast of Ecuador at the north of Manabí Province, on the area comprised between Salango and Jama communities, is characterized by the presence of whitish to grey, centimeters to meters thick, consolidated to loose distal ash deposits. Recent archeological studies on Valdivia (3500 BC) and Manteña (800-1500 AC - Harris et al. 2004) civilizations remains link this deposits with the intense eruptive phases that afflicted Ecuador 700-900 years ago (Usselman, 2006). Stratigraphic evidences and bibliographic datations of paleosols (Estrada, 1962; Mothes and Hall, 2008), allowed to estimate that these deposits are linked with the 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa and the following eruptions of Cotopaxi. According to the Smith and Lowe classification (1991), the deposits outcropping on the coast (located at a distance greater than 160 km from the volcanic vents), varied from whitish to grey, loose to weakly consolidated, massive to weakly stratified, centimeters to meters thick, coarse to fine ash matrix layers (diluite streamflow facies) to massive, large angular to sub-rounded siltitic blocks-rich and coarse to medium ash matrix deposits (debris flow facies). These types of lithofacies are associated to a rain-triggered lahar (De Belizal et al., 2013). The presence in some stratigraphic sections of sharp contacts, laminated layers of very fine ash, and also cm-thick sand and silt layers between the ash beds of the same deposits permit to understand that the different pulses were generated in short periods and after a long period. Structures like water pipes imply that the lahar went into the sea (Schneider, 2004), and allow the reconstruction of the paleotopographic condition during the emplacement of these deposits. This study focuses on the characterization of these types of deposits, permit to understand the kind of risk that may affect the towns located on the coast of Ecuador after VEI 4 to 6 eruptions on short time and within years.

  16. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneel, V., E-mail: vasimallas@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Vethamony, P., E-mail: mony@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Naik, B.G., E-mail: bgnaik@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Krishna, M.S., E-mail: moturi@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, 530 017 (India); Jadhav, Lakshmikant, E-mail: lakshya87.0@gmail.com [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa.

  17. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 μm), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  18. Zoogeography of the bottom Foraminifera of the West-African coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mikhalevich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from the continental shelf of West-Equatorial Africa (from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Niger estuary, depths ranging from 0 to 69 m were found to contain 176 bottom foraminiferal species. For the majority of them (126 species, their areas of occurrences were mapped and the peculiar features of the geographical range and distribution were studied. The species natural habitats were established based on the taxonomical revision of the species in study all over the World Ocean based on the collections of the Zoological Institute RAS and wide literary data. The method of perforated cards was used to mark the geographical locations of all of the species studied. In order to establish the species geographic zonal distribution (together with their depth habitat the five characteristic groups of the species were separated: 1. pan-oceanic (cosmopolitan, 2. widely spread tropical-boreal, 3. tropical-law boreal, 4. tropical-subtropical, 5. tropical. The percent of the species of each group among the species composition was established for the fauna of each station and for the whole region.

  19. Rapid erosion of the coast of Sagar island, West Bengal - India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Girish; Seralathan, P.

    2005-10-01

    The coastal zone of the Sagar island has been studied. The island has been subjected to erosion by natural processes and to a little extent by anthropogenic activities over a long period. Major landforms identified in the coastal area of the Sagar island are the mud flats/salt marshes, sandy beaches/dunes and mangroves. The foreshore sediments are characterized by silty, slightly sandy mud, slightly silty sand and silty sand. Samples 500 m inland from high waterline are silty slightly sandy mud, and by clayey slightly sandy mud. The extent of coastline changes are made by comparing the topographic maps of 1967 and satellite imageries of 1996, 1998 and 1999. Between 1967 and 1999 about 29.8 km2 of the island has been eroded and the accreted area is only 6.03 km2. Between 1996 and 1998 the area underwent erosion of 13.64 km2 while accretion was 0.48 km2. From 1998 to 1999, 3.26 km2 additional area was eroded with meager accretion. Erosion from 1997 to 1999 was estimated at 0.74 km2 /year; however, from 1996 to 1999, the erosion rate was calculated as 5.47 km2/year. The areas severely affected by erosion are the northeastern, southwestern and southeastern faces of the island. As a consequence of coastal erosion, the mud flats/salt marshes, sandy beaches/dunes and mangroves have been eroded considerably. Deposition is experienced mainly on the western and southern part of the island. The island is built primarily by silt and clay, which can more easily be eroded by the waves, tides and cyclonic activities than a sandy coast. Historic sea level rises accompanied by land subsidence lead to differing rates of erosion at several pockets, thus periodically establishing new erosion planes.

  20. Disturbance, Climate, and Management Impacts on US West-Coast Forest Carbon Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, H. M.; Beverly, L. E.; Turner, D. P.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.; Donato, D.

    2008-12-01

    Forest net uptake of atmospheric CO2 (net ecosystem production, or NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. Accurate quantification of NEP and forest carbon budgets is necessary for validation of coupled carbon-climate models and monitoring state carbon budgets. To improve understanding of the influence of disturbance, climate, and management on forest carbon stocks and fluxes in the western U.S., federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon, Washington, and California from 2001-2006. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations and ecoregion-specific lookup tables were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), NEP, and mortality for different age classes. Natural and anthropogenic disturbance impacts on forest carbon accumulation and NPP varied by ecoregion, forest type, and ownership. In the semi-arid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C m-2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C m-2 yr-1, respectively. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (greater than 200 years) in some ecoregions. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically double if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase terrestrial carbon storage by decreasing anthropogenic disturbance through increased rotation age and reduction in harvest rates.

  1. 'Then give him to the crocodiles': violence, State formation, and cultural discontinuity in west central Zambia, 1600-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Binsbergen, van, W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the extent to which violence can be said to underlie any form of Stae formation in precolonial Africa. This is done by examining the role of violence in State formation in west central Zambia from the 17th century onwards. The chapter shows that State formation in west central Zambia entailed the imposition upon local village communities of a more or less centralized sociopolitical structure, representing a departure from the social organization and i...

  2. Findings in pinnipeds stranded along the central and northern California coast, 1984-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, J A; Roletto, J; Morgan, L E; Smith, D M; Gage, L J

    1993-07-01

    Personnel at The Marine Mammal Center (The Center) treated 1,446 stranded marine mammals recovered from the central and northern California (USA) coast from 1984 through 1990, including California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi). The primary disease findings in stranded California sea lions were renal disease, renal disease complicated by severe verminous pneumonia, verminous pneumonia, seizures of unknown etiology, and renal disease complicated by severe pneumonia of unknown etiology. Stranded elephant seals included pups, yearlings with dermatological problems, and neonates. Most harbor seals admitted to The Center were underweight and premature pups. Stranded northern fur seals included animals with seizures of unknown etiology and emaciated pups. Stranded Steller sea lions included underweight pups and aged adult females with pneumonia. Two Guadalupe fur seals had hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Incidental findings at the time of stranding among the six species included verminous pneumonia and pneumonia of unknown etiology, renal disease, internal parasitism, ophthalmologic problems, gastrointestinal disorders, otitis externa, and external wounds. PMID:8355344

  3. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    Recent research in the coastal regions of Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was largely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami, suggests the possibility that two closely spaced tsunamis occurred at the turn of the 14th to 15th century (Meltzner et al., 2010; Sieh et al., 2015). Here, we present evidence of two buried sand layers in the coastal marshes of West Aceh, possibly representing these penultimate predecessors of the 2004 tsunami. We discovered the sand layers in an until recently inaccessible area of a previously studied beach ridge plain about 15 km North of Meulaboh, West Aceh. Here, the 2004 tsunami left a continuous, typically a few cm thick sand sheet in the coastal hinterland in low-lying swales that accumulate organic-rich deposits and separate the sandy beach ridges. In keeping with the long-term progradation of the coastline, older deposits have to be sought after further inland. Using a hand auger, the buried sand layers were discovered in 3 cores in a flooded and highly vegetated swale in about 1 km distance to the shoreline. The pair of sand layers occurs in 70-100 cm depth and overlies 40-60 cm of dark-brown peat that rests on the basal sand of the beach ridge plain. The lower sand layer is only 1-6 cm thick, whereas the upper layer is consistently thicker, measuring 11-17 cm, with 8-14 cm of peat in between sand sheets. Both layers consist of massive, grey, medium sand and include plant fragments. They show very sharp upper and lower boundaries clearly distinguishing them from the surrounding peat and indicating an abrupt depositional event. A previously developed age model for sediments of this beach ridge plain suggest that this pair of layers could indeed correlate to a nearby buried sand sheet interpreted as tsunamigenic and deposited soon after 1290-1400AD (Monecke et al., 2008). The superb preservation at this new site allows the clear distinction of two depositional events, which, based on a first

  4. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast - Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Narciso, Luís; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web. PMID:26275753

  5. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs.

  6. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-01-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  7. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters

  8. Health of Chinese illegal immigrants who arrived by boat on the West Coast of Canada in 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, G Michael; Szafran, Olga

    2005-10-01

    This was a retrospective review and descriptive analysis of the findings from the medical screening examinations conducted on the illegal migrants from Fujian Province of China (n = 589) who arrived on four boats on the West Coast of Canada between June 14 and September 9, 1999. The Canadian Navy conducted a screening medical exam of the illegal migrants, with Health Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada providing suggestions on the format of the exam. The illegal Chinese migrants were predominantly young, male adults. The most prevalent medical conditions detected were dermatological (55.2%), dental problems (25%), trauma (9.2%), urogenital (7.6%), and head/neck (6.6%). Recently induced trauma was more prevalent among females (20.5%) than males (6.5%). One case of community-acquired pneumonia was identified and later diagnosed as active pulmonary tuberculosis. Physicians dealing with illegal migrants should look for unusual physical findings and have a higher clinical suspicion regarding infectious diseases (tuberculosis, scabies) and abuse. Future encounters with illegal migrants should include standardized immigration screening exams, with adequate history taking and follow-up. PMID:19813289

  9. A possible transoceanic tsunami directed toward the U.S. west coast from the Semidi segment, Alaska convergent margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Huene, Roland; Miller, John J.; Dartnell, Peter

    2016-03-01

    The Semidi segment of the Alaska convergent margin appears capable of generating a giant tsunami like the one produced along the nearby Unimak segment in 1946. Reprocessed legacy seismic reflection data and a compilation of multibeam bathymetric surveys reveal structures that could generate such a tsunami. A 200 km long ridge or escarpment with crests >1 km high is the surface expression of an active out-of-sequence fault zone, recently referred to as a splay fault. Such faults are potentially tsunamigenic. This type of fault zone separates the relatively rigid rock of the margin framework from the anelastic accreted sediment prism. Seafloor relief of the ridge exceeds that of similar age accretionary prism ridges indicating preferential slip along the splay fault zone. The greater slip may derive from Quaternary subduction of the Patton Murray hot spot ridge that extends 200 km toward the east across the north Pacific. Estimates of tsunami repeat times from paleotsunami studies indicate that the Semidi segment could be near the end of its current inter-seismic cycle. GPS records from Chirikof Island at the shelf edge indicate 90% locking of plate interface faults. An earthquake in the shallow Semidi subduction zone could generate a tsunami that will inundate the US west coast more than the 1946 and 1964 earthquakes because the Semidi continental slope azimuth directs a tsunami southeastward.

  10. An Exploratory Research of the Usage Level of E-Commerce Among SMEs in the West Coast of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetol Bolongkikit

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that e-commerce development offers apromising way for business to meet the challenges of the ever-changingenvironment. It provides effective and efficient ways, such as buyerscan gather information rapidly about the availability of the productsor services, evaluate, or negotiate with vendors. However, previousstudies on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia have shownthat the application of e-commerce is still at its infancy. Thus, thisstudy investigates the usage level of e-commerce application for theSMEs in West Coast of Sabah, Malaysia. This achieved by circulating aset of questionnaire to examine the awareness and adoption ofe-commerce application by the SMEs, and recognize the impeding factorsto adopt e-commerce and the perception of e-commerce benefits towardsincorporating e-commerce in their business. The study found that theawareness and adoption level among the SMEs are still in its infancy,although the potential benefits were perceived to be important.

  11. Biogeochemical cycling in the ocean. Part 1: Introduction to the effects of upwelling along the west coast of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, John T.

    1986-01-01

    Coastal upwelling is examined as it relates to the cycling of chemical species in coastal waters along the west coast of North America. The temporal and spatial features of upwelling phenomena in the Eastern boundary regions of the North Pacific Ocean are presented and discussed in terms of upwelling episodes. Climate conditions affecting upwelling include: thermal effects, wind-induced shear stress which moves surface layers, and the curl of the wind stress vector which is thought to affect the extent and nature of upwelling and the formation of offshore convergent downwelling fronts. These effects and the interaction of sunlight and upwelled nutrients which result in a biological bloom in surface waters is modeled analytically. The roles of biological and chemical species, including the effects of predation, are discussed in that context, and relevant remote sensing and in situ observations are presented. Climatological, oceanographic, biological, physical, chemical events, and processes that pertain to biogeochemical cycling are presented and described by a set of partial differential equations. Simple preliminary results are obtained and are compared with data. Thus a fairly general framework has been laid where the many facets of biogeochemical cycling in coastal upwelled waters can be examined in their relationship to one another, and to the whole, to whatever level of detail or approximation is warranted or desired.

  12. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs. PMID:26323864

  13. Sewage treatment plant associated genetic differentiation in the blue mussel from the Baltic Sea and Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lönn, Mikael; Lind, Emma E.; Świeżak, Justyna; Smolarz, Katarzyna; Grahn, Mats

    2016-01-01

    Human-derived environmental pollutants and nutrients that reach the aquatic environment through sewage effluents, agricultural and industrial processes are constantly contributing to environmental changes that serve as drivers for adaptive responses and evolutionary changes in many taxa. In this study, we examined how two types of point sources of aquatic environmental pollution, harbors and sewage treatment plants, affect gene diversity and genetic differentiation in the blue mussel in the Baltic Sea area and off the Swedish west coast (Skagerrak). Reference sites (REF) were geographically paired with sites from sewage treatments plant (STP) and harbors (HAR) with a nested sampling scheme, and genetic differentiation was evaluated using a high-resolution marker amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP). This study showed that genetic composition in the Baltic Sea blue mussel was associated with exposure to sewage treatment plant effluents. In addition, mussel populations from harbors were genetically divergent, in contrast to the sewage treatment plant populations, suggesting that there is an effect of pollution from harbors but that the direction is divergent and site specific, while the pollution effect from sewage treatment plants on the genetic composition of blue mussel populations acts in the same direction in the investigated sites.

  14. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa: Influence of Species Biology on Distribution Models

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel de la Estrella; Mateo, Rubén G.; Wieringa, Jan J.; Barbara Mackinder; Jesús Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of sp...

  15. Viability criteria for steelhead of the south-central and southern California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boughton, David A.; Adams, Peter B.; Anderson, Eric; Fusaro, Craig; Keller, Edward A.; Kelley, Elsie; Lentsch, Leo; Nielsen, Jennifer L.; Perry, Katie; Regan, Helen; Smith, Jerry; Swift, Camm C.; Thompson, Lisa; Watson, Fred

    2007-01-01

    Recovery planning for threatened and endangered steelhead requires measurable, objective criteria for determining an acceptably low risk of extinction. Here we propose viability criteria for two levels of biological organization: individual populations, and groups of populations within the SouthCentral/Southern California Coast Steelhead Recovery Planning Domain. For populations, we adapt criteria commonly used by the IUCN (The World Conservation Union) for identifying at-risk species. For groups of populations we implement a diversity-based “representation and redundancy rule,” in which diversity includes both life-history diversity and biogeographic groupings of populations. The resulting criteria have the potential for straightforward assessment of the risks posed by evolutionary, demographic, environmental, and catastrophic factors; and are designed to use data that are readily collected. However, our prescriptive approach led to one criterion whose threshold could not yet be specified due to inadequate data, and others in which the simplicity of the criteria may render them inefficient for populations with stable run sizes or stable life-history polymorphisms. Both of these problems could likely be solved by directed programs of research and monitoring aimed at developing more efficient (but equally risk-averse) “performance-based criteria.” Of particular utility would be data on the natural fluctuations of populations, research into the stabilizing influence of life-history polymorphisms, and research on the implications of drought, wildfires, and fluvial sediment regimes. Research on estuarine habitat could also yield useful information on the generality and reliability of its role as nursery habitat. Currently, risk assessment at the population level is not possible due to data deficiency, highlighting the need to implement a comprehensive effort to monitor run sizes, anadromous fractions, spawner densities and perhaps marine survival. Assessment at

  16. Analysis and interpretation of marine/continental terraces in the central coast of Asturias (NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Flor-Blanco, Germán; López-Fernández, Carlos; Luis, Pando

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the geographical distribution and topographical features analysis of several marine/continental terraces located in a sector between Nalón estuary and Cape Peñas region (central coast of Asturias, N Spain). Significant flat raised surfaces appear as outstanding landscape features of the Cantabrian coast. They exhibit north facing low gradient slopes (cliff shoreline and the borders are defined by the pre-littoral mountains to the south. These surfaces have a width of no more than 5 km and occasionally may be thinly mantled by many alluvial clastic deposits, very scarce aeolian sands and gravel and/or sand beach deposits. Several studies have shown the importance of these terraces, which are recognized by the preservation of a variable number of levels of flat raised and staggered irregularly surfaces. These surfaces have been used to quantify rates of rock uplift processes. GIS and quantitative analysis of the relief are applied to the recognition and delineation of terraces. Altimetry information comes from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Digital (cell size 5 m). The use of slope Digital Slopes Model (DSM) combined with digital lithology layers and hypsometric method allowed us to identify two main new surfaces at altitudes ranging from 75 to 135 m and 85 to 180 m respectively. Levels of surfaces recognized in previous studies may be correlated with this elevations. They are separated by a huge geologic structure (Ventaniella Fault). Thus, two NW-SE direction landward edge of terrace (shoreline angle) was identified. This feature enables correlate these surface or the old knickpoint (foot of the slope) if the terrace has a continental origin. Initial morphology of these terraces has been modified by landscape erosion much more those developed on limestones. Therefore, just a few areas are preserved where flat surfaces are developed in Paleozoic materials (NO) better in siliciclastic rocks. The remaining areas are modelled in the lowest

  17. Isolation and characterization of a nodavirus associated with mass mortality in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) from the west coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Debashis; Hamod, Mohammed A.; Suresh, Thangavel; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    A fish nodavirus was detected in the juveniles of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) during a massive outbreak in the seabass cage culture farm located in the south west coast of India. The clinical signs of the disease included anorexia, inflated abdomen, exophthalmia, darkening of the whole body, erratic swimming and cork-screw type movement followed by death. The dead and the moribund fish were analyzed for nodavirus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific ...

  18. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    . A steep change in the crustal thick ness is observed to occur near the shelfbreak over a LEGEND [II] CLAY/CLAY S'rONE I-_:,,~SHALE ~SilT STONE ~lIHESTON' p-=--:J COAL 1:::::::-:1 SANO STON' I~~~lTRAP 33 E xc 0 " 0 0- z 0 N ii' ~0 Z I 0...

  19. Elysia bangtawaensis Swennen (Nudibranch) from the mangrove habitat of Mandovi estuary, Goa (central west coast), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Savant, S.B.; Kulkarni, V.A.; Ansari, Z.A.

    the formation of continental crust during this time. It is generally perceived that the earliest crust formed at a number of isolated nuclei which grew and later coalesced to form protocontinents that later developed to form major continental masses... and 265 ppm of cobalt. At the same time, the sample pulverized for 30 min showed 2827 ppm of tungsten and 393 ppm of cobalt. This shows that sam- ples pulverized for a longer time contain more tungsten and cobalt and the concentration is commensurate...

  20. Distribution of benthic foraminifera within oxygen minima zone, off central west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Nigam, R.

    by the coastal mountains known as the "Western Ghats", extending in a roughly north- south direction with a width of 50-60 km. They are composed of Precambrian gneisses, schists, granites and charnockites covered by extensive laterite capping and rich iron ore...

  1. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    harbours diagnosed using various biotic indices. Sediment samples were collected using van Veen grab (0.11 m sup(2)) on board CRV Sagar Sukti. A total of 55 macrobenthic taxa were identified and were numerically dominated by polychaete. Biomass was high (0...

  2. Biofoulers on aluminium and stainless steel panels at Vijaydurg harbour, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, D.; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    Occurrence of cirripede larvae in the water column and their settlement on the panels throughout the year showed that barnacles were the prolonged breeders. Fluctuations in the salinity values appear to have affected the settlement on the panels...

  3. The nature and distribution of particulate matter in the Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Mehra, P.; Viegas, B.E.

    with the southwest monsoon and the latter characterized by a persistent sea breeze. The salinity vs. SPM plot shows that high SPM is a seaward deposit and skewed landward. Suspended matter comprised of floccules, fecal pellets, and aggregates that consist of clay...

  4. Barnacle larval transport in the Mandovi–Zuari estuarine system, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Desai, D.V.; Gaonkar, C.A.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, A.C.

    , Godinez VM, Lavin MF (1990) Diepersion en la franja costera de Tijuana & Baja California. ear shore dispersion off Tijuana, Baja California. Ciencias Marinas (In Spanish and English) 16:87-109 Anil AC (1986) Studies on marine biofouling in the Zuari...

  5. Coastal circulation along the central west coast of India during cyclone Phyan: measurements and numerical simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VinodKumar, K.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Saheed, P.P.; Vethamony, P.

    velocity were found to be highly significant during Phyan. The strong southward flow due to the cyclone resulted in a complete nullification of a flood current and continued the net flow towards south for approximately 18 h. This enhanced the ebb flow...

  6. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pratima M Kessarkar; V Purnachandra Rao; R Shynu; Ishfaq Mir Ahmad; Prakash Mehra; G S Michael; D Sundar

    2009-08-01

    Systematic studies on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured on a seasonal cycle in the Mandovi Estuary, Goa indicate that the average concentrations of SPM at the regular station are ∼20mg/l, 5mg/l, 19mg/l and 5mg/l for June–September, October–January, February–April and May, respectively. SPM exhibits low-to-moderate correlation with rainfall indicating that SPM is also influenced by other processes. Transect stations reveal that the SPM at sea-end stations of the estuary are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those at the river-end during the monsoon. Estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) of nearly similar magnitude occurs at the same location in two periods, interrupted by a period with very low SPM concentrations. The ETM occurring in June–September is associated with low salinities; its formation is attributed to the interactions between strong southwesterly winds (5.1–5.6ms−1) and wind-induced waves and tidal currents and, dominant easterly river flow at the mouth of the estuary. The ETM occurring in February–April is associated with high salinity and is conspicuous. The strong NW and SW winds (3.2–3.7ms−1) and wind-driven waves and currents seem to have acted effectively at the mouth of the estuary in developing turbidity maximum. The impact of sea breeze appears nearly same as that of trade winds and cannot be underestimated in sediment resuspension and deposition.

  7. Morphogenetic controls on the distribution of the littoral placers along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    the low energy zone leeward side and gets deposited in pocket beaches. The area north of 17 degrees 59' and south of 16 degrees 30'N latitude shows poor concentrations of placer which may be attributed to contrasting physiography, drainage and variable...

  8. Shallow seismic studies on the inner continental shelf off selected bays, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Gujar, A; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    areas for exploration for heavy mineral placer depos- its, and also to some aspects of seismic charac- teristics and morphology of the basement. The three bays are bounded by a submergent type of coastline to the east (Ahmed, 1972 ), by the Arabian..., part II. In: C.E. Payton (Editor), The Depositional Se- quence as a Basic Unit for Stratigraphic Analysis in Se- ismic Stratigraphy - Application to Hydrocarbon Ex- ploration. Am. Assoc. Pet. Geol., Tulsa, Okla., pp. 53- 62. Mooley, D.A...

  9. Characterization and Ecophysiological Observations on Coastal Sand Dune Vegetation from Goa, Central West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, R.S.

    . Sampling design (zones 1 to zones 5, denoted as Z1-Z5), data collection and analysis of edaphic factors (moisture content, pH, electrical conductivity, organic matter, total nitrogen and sediment texture) were described. Data processing was carried out... region had higher organic matter and low pH, CO 3 , D 50 and EC values. Temporal changes were also observed, as reflected in the clustering of all the zones during July wherein moisture content was the main determinant. Results revealed...

  10. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  11. Geochemistry of the continental margin sediments of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    of major and trace elements two different portions of the samples are used. In the first portion after fusion with NaOH, silicon and aluminium are determined colorimetrically following the method of Shapiro and Brannock (1962). All other elements...-grained inner shelf sediments suggest that good amount of HCI soluble metals are associated with clay minerals. Elsewhere, similar associations have been reported (Goldberg and Arrhenius, 1958; Hirst, 1962). Partitio'n data also indica~high concentrations of non...

  12. Gas-charged sediments in shallow waters off Redi along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    -estuarine conditions. These gas-charged sediments pose a potintial hazard for the offshore engineering constructions. Hence, the detection of these sediments forms an essential part of any offshroe site investiation programmes....

  13. Onshore heavy mineral placers of south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    Heavy Mineral Placers from coastal sediments of south Maharashtra [105 km stretch from Vijaydurg (16 degrees 30 minutes N) in the North to Redi (15 degrees 43 minutes N) in the South] are studied to understand their distribution, environment...

  14. Ilmenite, magnetite and chromite beach placers from south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    . Geo-Resour. Geotech., 23, 137-174. Blott, S. (2000) Grain size distribution and statistics package for the analysis of unconsolidated sediments by sieving or by laser granulometer. Grandistat Version 4.0, 1-6. Chari, G.N., Marwar, S.A., Bobade, G...

  15. Karyotype details of Crassostrea gryphoides (Rivalvia: Ostreidae) from central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Chromosome_Inf_Ser_50_7.pdf.txt stream_source_info Chromosome_Inf_Ser_50_7.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  16. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    calculated from a directional wave buoy at 16-m water depth. The measured values were compared with those calculated from three selected empirical formulas. The standard coefficient values in the empirical formulas were used without calibration to the data...

  17. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Ahmad, I.M.; Mehra, P.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.

    Systematic studies on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured on a seasonal cycle in the Mandovi Estuary, Goa indicate that the average concentrations of SPM at the regular station are approx. 20mg/l, 5mg/l, 19mg/l and 5mg/l for June...

  18. Surfzone wave characteristics during flood tide on the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; Jishad, M.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Rajasekaran, C.; Gowthaman, R.; Pednekar, P.S.; Luis, R.; Mehra, P.

    tide (Figs 9-14(a, b)) and during high tide their magnitude was comparatively less (Figs 9-14(c)). The presence of long period waves during low tides and near absence during high tides would confirm the proposition of long period wave formations due...

  19. Classification of tidal inlets along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vikas, M.; Reddy, N.A.; Rao, S.; JayaKumar, S.

    of Coastal and Ocean Engineering. World Scientific, New Jersey. Hayes, M.O., 1975. Morphology of sand accumulations in estuaries, In: Estuarine Research, L.E. Cronin (Ed.), 2, 3-22. Hayes, M.O., 1979. Barrier Island Morphology as a function of Tidal and Wave..., including tidal lagoons and estuaries with their associated coastal inlets, interrupt a significant part of the world’s shorelines (Stive and Wang, 2003). The main channel of a tidal inlet is maintained by the tidal currents 2015 The Authors...

  20. Assessment of coastal wetland resources of central west coast, India, using LANDSAT data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, S.; Nagle, V.L.

    . These habitats in the world being great ecological and economic significance, global efforts are being made to manage these resources on a sustainable basis. Management of natural habitats primarily requires authentic data related to location, types... of Nypa fruiticans from the Maharashtra, has also been vanished. Open mudflats in the intertidal regions support rich growth of algae belonging to the genera Ulva, Enteromorpha and Chaetomorpha and number of Cyanophycean members. Economically important...

  1. Sea breeze-induced wind sea growth in the central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Seemanth, M.; Samiksha, S.V.; Sudheesh, K.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    perpendicular transect (pls refer to Figure 4 for the locations). It has been found that location A is not significantly influenced by the sea breeze, whereas a gradual growth is observed from B to E. The high impact of sea breeze is noticeable at locations...

  2. Surficial geology off Karwar, central west coast of India: Its implications for offshore developmental activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M; Ramana, M; Pathak, M; Chauhan, O.S.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name INCHOE_Proc_1994_1_D63.pdf.txt stream_source_info INCHOE_Proc_1994_1_D63.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  4. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (H2 to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2 fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway followed by photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen. Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16–25° W, 17–24° N. This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Islands towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled to cover differing oceanic regions such as upwelling and oligotrophic regimes. In 2007, additionally, four days were sampled at high resolution of one sample per hour to investigate a possible diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2. Our results indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas oceanic N2 fixation could not be identified as a source for atmospheric H2 during these two cruises. The variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and also affected by a varying origin of air masses. This means for future investigations that only measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of an atmospheric diurnal cycle and support is needed, e.g. by isotopic measurements. Nevertheless, measurements of atmospheric H2

  5. High-resolution measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen and its isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Walter

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Oceans are a net source of molecular hydrogen (N2 to the atmosphere, where nitrogen (N2 fixation is assumed to be the main biological production pathway besides photochemical production from organic material. The sources can be distinguished using isotope measurements because of clearly differing isotopic signatures of the produced hydrogen.

    Here we present the first ship-borne measurements of atmospheric molecular H2 mixing ratio and isotopic composition at the West African coast of Mauritania (16–25° W, 17–24° N. This area is one of the biologically most active regions of the world's oceans with seasonal upwelling events and characterized by strongly differing hydrographical/biological properties and phytoplankton community structures. The aim of this study was to identify areas of H2 production and distinguish H2 sources by isotopic signatures of atmospheric H2. Besides this a diurnal cycle of atmospheric H2 was investigated. For this more than 100 air samples were taken during two cruises in February 2007 and 2008, respectively. During both cruises a transect from the Cape Verde Island towards the Mauritanian Coast was sampled. In 2007 additionally four days were sampled with a high resolution of one sample per hour.

    Our results clearly indicate the influence of local sources and suggest the Banc d'Arguin as a pool for precursors for photochemical H2 production, whereas N2 fixation could not be identified as a H2 source during these two cruises. With our experimental setup we could demonstrate that variability in diurnal cycles is probably influenced and biased by released precursors for photochemical H2 production and the origin of air masses. This means for further investigations that just measuring the mixing ratio of H2 is insufficient to explain the variability of a diurnal cycle and

  6. Tidal Current Energy Resources off the South and West Coasts of Korea: Preliminary Observation-Derived Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Jin Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimate the prospective tidal current energy resources off the south and west coasts of Korea and explore the influence of modeling tidal current energies based on 15-day versus month-long data records for regimes with pronounced perigean/apogean influences. The tidal current energy resources off southern and western Korea were calculated using 29-day in situ observation data from 264 stations. The resultant annual energy densities found at each station were categorized into six groups, with a greater percentage of sites falling into the lower-energy groups: 1.1% for >10 MWh·m−2; 2.7% for 5 to 10 MWh·m−2; 6.8% for 3 to 5 MWh·m−2; 9.1% for 2 to 3 MWh·m−2 and 80.3% for <2 MWh·m−2. Analysis shows that the greatest concentration of high annual energy densities occurs in the Jeonnam Province coastal region on the western tip of southwest Korea: 23 MWh·m−2 at Uldolmok, 15 MWh·m−2 at Maenggol Sudo, 9.2 MWh·m−2 at Geocha Sudo and 8.8 MWh·m−2 at Jaingjuk Sudo. The second highest annual energy density concentration, with 16 MWh·m−2, was found in Gyudong Suro, in Gyeonggi Province’s Gyeonggi Bay. We then used data from the 264 stations to examine the effect of perigean and apogean influences on tidal current energy density evaluations. Compared to derivations using month-long records, mean annual energy densities derived using 15-day perigean spring-neap current records alone overestimate the annual mean energy by around 10% whereas those derived using only the apogean records underestimate energy by around 12%. In particular, accuracy of the S2 contribution to the energy density calculations is significantly affected by use of the 15-day data sets, compared to the M2 component, which is relatively consistent. Further, annual energy density estimates derived from 29-day records but excluding the N2 constituent underestimate the potential resource by about 5.4%. Results indicate that one month of data is

  7. 渤海湾西岸的几道贝壳堤%A Few of Barrier Sand-bars on the West Coast of Bohai Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳军; Dongyue; 张宝华; 耿秀山; 刘雪松; 赵希涛; 牟林; 张百鸣; 韩芳

    2012-01-01

    There are 6 Barrier Sand-bars are outcropped or buried on the west coast of Bohai Bay. Based on the geological survey, it is found that the plane distribution features texture of the Barrier Sand-bars, which are from the old to the new are roughly parallel with the coast along the west coast of Bohai Bay (from the coast to the sea). The distribution of the Barrier Sand-bars can be divided into two kinds, one is from the new to the old, and the other one is from the old to the new. In this paper, the division of the Barrier Sand-bars from I (old) to VI (new) by using the latter one. Through the description of the material composition and the accumulation characteristics to each barrier sand-bar (figure. 2 to figure. 7) , conducting the mathematical statistics for the geometrical morphological features (table 2), comparing analysis the formation age features and the division scheme (table 3), summing up the biological assemblages (table 1), the result reveal the occurrence, formation age and the tidal level change of the Barrier Sand-bars from I to VI (figure. 8). In the basis of the Barrier Sand-bars as a particular geological carrier, the author try to analysis and reveal the genetic mechanism in a macroscopic view, and consider that the generalized Bohai Sea is inland semi-lagoon or local sea in reality, (table. 4 figure. 9) Shangdong Miaodao Island and Liaodong Peninsula constitute barrier coast for Bohai Sea. After comparing analysis to massive data, the barrier coast is an only essential condition to form kebohe delta and beaked delta, both of which may be a possibility condition to form barrier bars (barrier island, barrier beach) or shell ridges. This result is just main genetic mechanism for the shell ridges.

  8. Variability of Water Chemistry in Tundra Lakes, Petuniabukta Coast, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of water from small tundra lakes located on raised marine terraces on the eastern coast of Petuniabukta (Ebbadalen, Central Spitsbergen were examined to assess the changes in water chemistry that had occurred during the summer seasons of 2001–2003 and 2006. The unique environmental conditions of the study region include the predominance of sedimentary carbonate and sulphate rocks, low precipitation values, and an active permafrost layer with a maximum thickness of 1.2 m. The average specific electric conductivity (EC values for the three summer seasons in the four lakes ranged from 242 to 398 μS cm−1. The highest EC values were observed when the air temperature decreased and an ice cover formed (cryochemical effects. The ion composition was dominated by calcium (50.7 to 86.6%, bicarbonates (39.5 to 86.4%, and sulphate anions. The high concentrations of HCO3−, SO42−, and Ca2+ ions were attributed to the composition of the bedrock, which mainly consists of gypsum and anhydrite. The average proportion of marine components in the total load found in the Ebbadalen tundra lake waters was estimated to be 8.1%. Precipitation supplies sulphates (as much as 69–81% and chlorides (14–36% of nonsea origin. The chief source of these compounds may be contamination from the town of Longyearbyen. Most ions originate in the crust, the active layer of permafrost, but some are atmospheric in origin and are either transported or generated in biochemical processes. The concentrations of most components tend to increase during the summer months, reaching a maximum during freezing and partially precipitating onto the bottom sediments.

  9. Distribution and Apparent Abundance of the Basking Shark, Cetorhinus maximus, off the Central and Southern California Coast, 1962-85

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Jr. , James L.

    1990-01-01

    Basking sharks, Cetorhinus maximus, are frequently observed along the central and northwestern southern California coast during the winter and spring months. These large plankton feeding elasmobranchs, second in size only to the whale shark, Rhineodon typus, had been the subject of a small commercial fishery off California in the late 1940's and early 1950's for their liver oil, rich in vitamin A, and in later years for reduction into fish meal and oil (Roedel and Ripley, 1950). These fisher...

  10. Environmental contaminants, species identifiers and characteristics, and other variables from the east and west US coasts for the National Status and Trends Program (NSTP) from 19840101 to 19880405 (NODC Accession 8900125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains 1986-1989 Mussel Watch Data collected under National Status and Trends Program. The samples were collected along the east, west, gulf coast...

  11. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 February 2001 to 28 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  12. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes from 01 March 2001 to 31 March 2001 (NODC Accession 0000437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  13. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 April 2001 to 30 April 2001 (NODC Accession 0000460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes and other locations. Data were...

  14. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from NOAA environmental moored buoys in the Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes. East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 June 2001 to 30 June 2001 (NODC Accession 0000530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected from NOAA...

  15. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 December 2000 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  16. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from buoy casts in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 October 2000 to 31 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in Gulf of Mexico, East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, and Great Lakes from October 1, 2000...

  17. Geochemical mapping using stream sediments in west-central Nigeria: Implications for environmental studies and mineral exploration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of regional geochemical mapping using stream sediments from central and south-western Nigeria. A total of 1569 stream sediment samples were collected and 54 major and trace elements determined by ICP-MS and Au, Pd and Pt by fire assay. Multivariate statistical techniques (e.g., correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to explore the data, following appropriate data transformation, to understand the data structure, investigate underlying processes controlling spatial geochemical variability and identify element associations. Major geochemical variations are controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as chemical weathering and winnowing processes, more subtle variations are a result of land use and contamination from anthropogenic activity. This work has identified placer deposits of potential economic importance for Au, REE, Ta, Nb, U and Pt, as well as other primary metal deposits. Areas of higher As and Cr (>2 mg/kg and >70 mg/kg respectively) are associated with Mesozoic and younger coastal sediments in SW Nigeria. High stream sediment Zr concentrations (mean >0.2%), from proximal zircons derived from weathering of basement rocks, have important implications for sample preparation and subsequent analysis due to interferences. Associated heavy minerals enriched in high field strength elements, and notably rare earths, may also have important implications for understanding magmatic processes within the basement terrain of West Africa. This study provides important new background/baseline geochemical values for common geological domains in Nigeria (which extend across other parts of West Africa) for assessment of contamination from urban/industrial land use changes and mining activities. Regional stream sediment mapping is also able to provide important new information with applications across a number of sectors including agriculture, health, land use and planning.

  18. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  19. Quantification of Coastal Macro Algae Iodine Emissions and its Spatial Variability at the West Coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhler, Denis; Horbanski, Martin; Schmitt, Stefan; Platt, Ulrich

    2014-05-01

    Reactive iodine species are emitted by macro algae in the intertidal zone of coastal sites during low tide. Due to the oxidation to iodine oxide (IO) and thus reduction of ozone, they may have a significant influence on the local atmosphere. Further high iodine oxide levels may act as precursors for particle formation and therefore have a potential impact on climate. A correlation between iodine oxide and particle formation could be observed in previous field studies. However, previous measurements of iodine and iodine oxide have been performed only at very few sites, mainly at the atmospheric research station Mace Head located at the west coast of Ireland. An observation of the dominant sources, the spatial distribution and the impact on larger scales was not possible so far. To investigate these questions we performed intensive measurements at eight different sites along the west coast of Ireland in 2011 and 2012. Therefore, we applied a mobile Long Path (LP)-DOAS for path averaged IO measurements and a mobile Cavity Enhanced (CE)- DOAS instrument for in-situ IO measurements at different locations. Additionally, a static Long Path-DOAS system for IO, OIO and I2 measurements located at Mace Head was applied. This allows comparing directly different locations with the reference station Mace Head without the influence of locally varying meteorology and comparing results also to former observations. We could confirm previous results that the macro algae species Laminaria digitata is the strongest iodine emitting algae. However, we observed significant differences to former investigations and conclusions. First, iodine oxide concentrations were much higher (typically factor of 10 and more) on every measuring site compared to Mace Head. IO reaching levels up to 40ppt observed with the LP-DOAS and 70ppt @ 1.2m height with the CE-DOAS. Second, we found out that Laminaria digitata is not a dominant iodine source to the atmosphere, while Ascophyllum nodosum due to its high

  20. Interaction Of Mesoscale Convective Systems With The Land - Sea Breezes Along The Guinea Coast Of West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulibaly, A.; Omotosho, B. J.; Sylla, M. B.; Fink, A. H.

    2015-12-01

    1-3 hourly METARS/SYNOP observation data of wind (speed and direction), air temperature over land, covering the period 1983-2012, were used in order to characterize land-sea breezes (LSB) over five coastline stations (Abidjan, Accra, Lomé, Cotonou and Ikeja-Lagos) in the Guinean Coast, West Africa. In additional to this, 8 years (2003-2010) sea surface temperature (SST) data from adjacent Atlantic Ocean and monthly METARS/SYNOP observation data of precipitation (1983-2012) were also used. Based on wind speed and direction, the wind roses of all months over all stations have been plotted. These wind roses reveal that, globally, the northerly winds occurred rarely for the months of February, March, and April at Cotonou (Benin Republic).This is seen for other stations (Lomé and Accra). The night/morning time northerly winds appear at all stations, except Accra where there is no northerly wind or is very weak. According to the stations basis, the period of that night/morning northerly winds varies, except in summer period (July - September), where the normal s/w monsoon winds can weaken override at all stations. Set criteria based on the diurnal reversal of wind direction, and the thermal gradient necessary to drive the wind circulation, was used to identify land-sea breeze days. On station-wide basis, sea-breezes occur, at least all period of year, but less frequent in the summer months, where the minimum value of monthly mean temperature gradient is observed for selected stations.

  1. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  2. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Alexandra Curtis

    Full Text Available Biological limit reference points (LRPs for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years, limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years, or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years. These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  3. Seasonal Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Environmental Factors around the Chagwi-do off the West Coast of Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Abu; Lee, Joon-Baek; Kim, Jun-Teck; Choi, Young-Chan; Kim, Jong-Man; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2007-06-01

    The dynamics of phytoplankton abundance with seasonal variation in physicochemical conditions were investigated monthly at 10 stations around the Chagwi-do off the west coast of Jeju Island, Korea, including inshore, middle shore, and offshore in the marine ranching area from September 2004 to November 2005. Water temperature varied from 12.1 to 28.9°C (average 18.8°C), and salinity from 28.9 to 34.9 psu (average 33.7 psu). The chlorophyll a concentration was 0.02-2.05 µg L1 (average 0.70 µg L1), and the maximum concentration occurred in the bottom layer in April. A total of 294 phytoplankton species belonging to 10 families was identified: 182 Bacillariophyceae, 52 Dinophyceae, 9 Chlorophyceae, 12 Cryptophyceae, 6 Chrysophyceae, 4 Dictyophyceae, 13 Euglenophyceae, 6 Prymnesiophyceae, 5 Prasinophyceae, and 5 Raphidophyceae. The standing crop was 2.21-48.69x104 cells L1 (average 9.23x 104 cells L1), and the maximum occurred in the bottom layer in April. Diatoms were most abundant throughout the year, followed by dinoflagellates and phytoflagellates. A phytoplankton bloom occurred twice: once in spring, peaking in April, and once in autumn, peaking in November. The spring bloom was represented by four Chaetoceros species and Skeletonema costatum; each contributed 10-20% of the total phytoplankton abundance. The autumn bloom comprised dinoflagellates, diatoms, and phytoflagellates, of which dinoflagellates were predominant. Gymnodinium conicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. triestinum each contributed over 10% of the total phytoplankton abundance.

  4. Seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and methane in the rivers and lagoons of Ivory Coast (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koné, Y. J. M.; Abril, G.; Delille, B.; Borges, A. V.

    2009-04-01

    We report a data-set of carbon dioxide (CO2) and dissolved methane (CH4) in three rivers (Bia, Tanoé and Comoé) and five lagoons (Tendo, Aby, Ebrié, Potou and Grand-Lahou) of Ivory Coast (West Africa), during the four main climatic seasons (high dry season, high rainy season, low dry season and low rainy season). The surface waters of the three rivers were oversaturated in CO2 and CH4 with respect to atmospheric equilibrium, the seasonal variability of CO2 and CH4 seemed to be largely controlled by dilution during the flooding period. The strong correlation of CH4 concentrations with the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) confirm the dominance of a continental sources (from soils) for both CO2 and CH4 in these rivers. The largest CH4 over-saturations and diffusive air-water CH4 fluxes were observed in the Tendo and Aby lagoons that are permanently stratified systems (unlike the other 3 lagoons), leading to anoxic bottom waters favorable for a large CH4 production. In addition, these two stratified lagoons showed low pCO2 values due to high primary production, which suggests an efficient transfer of organic matter across the pycnocline. As a result, the stratified Tendo and Aby lagoons were respectively, a low source of CO2 to the atmosphere and a sink of atmospheric CO2 while the other 3 well-mixed lagoons were strong sources of CO2 to the atmosphere but lower sources of CH4 to the atmosphere.

  5. Multibeam Data and Socio-Economic Issues in West-Central San Francisco Bay, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, John L.; Carlson, Paul R.; Wong, Florence L.; Cacchione, David A.

    1998-01-01

    San Francisco Bay is the largest estuary on the conterminous U.S. Pacific Coast and is one of the world's largest natural harbors. It is a biologically productive and diverse environment. San Francisco Bay has a maritime economy that annually generates over $7.5 billion, handles 50 million tons of cargo, and involves thousands of jobs. Recent investigations by the USGS in this estuary help address both socio-economic and scientific issues: *Trimming pinnacles may prevent a calamitous oil spill. *Can San Francisco Bay accept more dredge spoil? *Bay floor biological habitats are quite varied. *How thick and how variable is the sediment fill in central San Francisco Bay?

  6. Genetic Diversity of Porang Populations (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume) In Central Java and West Java Based on LEAFY Second Intron Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Arofatun Nikmah; Rodiyati Azrianingsih; Didik Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is dispersed and grew well in Java island. This research aimed to determine the genetic diversity of porang populations in Central Java and West Java based on LEAFY second intron (nuclear genome encoding flower development). DNA samples of porang were from previous study, which were obtained from Central Java (Pamedaran, Grobogan, Wonogiri, Karangtengah) and West Java (Cisompet) as in-group. Amorphophallus variabilis from Pamedaran Brebes, Amorphophallus...

  7. Coverage Polygons for DEMs of the North-Central California Coast (DEM_coverage_areas.shp)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A GIS polygon shapefile outlining the extent of the 14 individual DEM sections that crompise the seamless, 2-meter resolution DEM for the open-coast region of the...

  8. Decadal shoreline assessment using remote sensing along the central Odisha coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    ManiMurali, R.; Dhiman, R.; Choudhary, R.; Jayakumar, S.; Ilangovan, D.; Vethamony, P.

    depletion, human activities, high frequency of cyclones and floods, sea level rise, etc. This study concludes that the shoreline of Odisha coast is under heavy erosion and needs scientific and management attention....

  9. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the discrete bottle (CTD profile) data of the first dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (WCOA2011). The cruise took place...

  10. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the surface underway pCO2 data of the first dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (WCOA2011). The cruise took place August...

  11. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from NOAA Ship Fairweather and R/V Point Sur in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2013 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2013) from 2013-08-05 to 2013-08-28 (NCEI Accession 0132082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise represents the third dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (Expocode:317W20130803, Cruise ID: WCOA2013), which took place August 3-10, 2013...

  12. A tectonically controlled basin-fill within the Valle del Cauca, West-Central Colombia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rine, J.M.; Keith, J.F. Jr.; Alfonso, C.A.; Ballesteros, I.; Laverde, F.; Sacks, P.E.; Secor, D.T. Jr. (Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia (United States)); Perez, V.E.; Bernal, I.; Cordoba, F.; Numpaque, L.E. (Ecopetrol, Bogota (Colombia))

    1993-02-01

    Tertiary strata of the Valle del Cauca reflect a forearc/foreland basin tectonic history spanning a period from pre-uplift of the Cordillera Central to initiation of uplift of the Cordillera Occidental. Stratigraphy of the Valle del Cauca begins with Jurassic-Cretaceous rocks of exotic and/or volcanic provenance and of oceanic origin. Unconformably overlying these are Eocene to Oligocene basal quartz-rich sandstones, shallow marine algal limestones, and fine-grained fluvial/deltaic mudstones and sandstones with coalbeds. These Eocene to Oligocene deposits represent a period of low tectonic activity. During late Oligocene to early Miocene, increased tectonic activity produced conglomeratic sediments which were transported from east to west, apparently derived from uplift of the Cordillera Central, and deposited within a fluvial to deltaic setting. East-west shortening of the Valle del Cauca basin folded the Eocene to early Miocene units, and additional uplift of the Cordillera Central during the later Miocene resulted in syn-tectonic deposition of alluvial fans. After additional fold and thrust deformation of the total Eocene-Miocene basin-fill, tectonic activity abated and Pliocene-Quaternary alluvial and lacustrine strata were deposited. Within the framework of this depositional and tectonic history of the Valle del Cauca, hydrocarbon exploration strategies can be formulated and evaluated.

  13. Improvisation in West African Musics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, David

    1980-01-01

    Discussed is music of the sub-Sahara. Vocal, instrumental, and dance drumming from the Sudan Desert, the North Coast, East Horn, Central and West Africa, and contrapuntal yodeling of Pygmies is described. For African musicians, the ability to improvise, and creativity, are gifts from God. Includes selected readings and recordings. (KC)

  14. West Coast MPA Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research employs a stated preference choice experiment survey of households in California, Oregon, and Washington to quantify public preferences and simulate a...

  15. Determination of Water Sensitivity Index in EstakoWest and Esan Central, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As world population and industrial-agricultural outputs have increased, the use of water has accelerated. This development leads to extreme difficulty to provide sufficient safe drinking water in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water sensitivity was measured in six major towns in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water Measuring Indicators such as Water Poverty Index-Real Time (WPIr, Water Factor Value (WFV and Access-Demand Factor (γ were applied to generate water sensitivity iterations. The outputs of these iterations show that Irrua has the fairest water supply and distribution with WPIr, WFA and γ index value of 0.22; 0.77 and 0.76, while Auchi and Ewu experience acute water shortage with the following index values: WPIr-0.43, 0.39; WFV-0.06, 0.16; and γ-0.64, 0.6 respectively. Results of One-Sample Test and Paired Sample Statistics show that the proportion of monthly income spent on portable water is significant at 0.95 confidence interval in all towns, except Auchi. Comparative analysis indicates strong relationship (R 2=0.667 between the resources spent in procuring clean water and accessibility-demand ratio in the region. Private sector participation recorded highest investment value of 62% on water sector; government and corporate organization recorded 23% and 15% respectively. Since private sector determines the progresses of water sector, this accounts for the exorbitant tariff of 1, 500 N per m 3 in this region. It is deduced that the most significant problems faced with water accessibility-affordability are transportation, finance and power supply with computed constraint index value of 47%, 40% and 13% respectively. Finally, Etasko-West and Esan Central are highly waterstressed. Government, corporate organization and private investors need to establish technically-based measures to ensure perfect accessibility and affordability of this scarce utility.

  16. Mortality of vertebrates in irrigation canals in an area of west-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality patterns of vertebrates in irrigation canals have been poorly studied despite their potential impact on wildlife. Concrete irrigation canals in a cropland area in west-central Spain were monitored over 13 months to assess their impact on small fauna. A total of 134 vertebrates were found dead. Most were amphibians (86.46% or mammals (20.90%, though fishes, reptiles and a bird were also recorded. Mortality peaked in autumn months. Corrective measurements are needed to reduce this cause of non-natural mortality.

  17. An Economic Evaluation of Conservation Farming Practices for the Central West of NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Terence C.

    2008-01-01

    Economic benefits that arise from conservation farming practices need to be assessed over several years to account for improvements in soil structure and nutrient levels. A gross margin model was used to assess benefits over the eight-year period 1999-2006 for 12 regions in the central west of NSW. The benefits from improved soil structure ranged from $39.85 to $114.26 per hectare (ha). A reduction in tractor power produced savings in the range of $6.74 to $40.98 per ha. The average net benef...

  18. Hydrologic and microclimate characterizations of Thornton’s Cave, West-Central Florida (USA)

    OpenAIRE

    Dorien K. McGee

    2012-01-01

    A cave’s environment is controlled by a suite of factors unique to the environments in which they formed, including, but not limited to, regional geologic and climate settings. These factors collectively owe to wide variations in cave biology, geomorphology and overall speleogenesis. This report combines local climate, hydrologic, and CO2 data collected over the course of a two-year study at Thornton’s Cave, a partially-flooded cave in the West-Central Florida karst belt, to characterize its ...

  19. A SHALLOW WATER MODEL FOR COMPUTING TSUNAMI ALONG THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA AND THAILAND USING BOUNDARY-FITTED CURVILINEAR GRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazlul Karim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand is curvilinear in nature and the bending is especially high along the coast of South Thailand. In hydrodynamic models for coastal seas, bays and estuaries, the use of boundary-fitted curvilinear grids not only makes the model grids fit well with the coastline and bathymetry, but also makes the finite difference scheme simple. In this study, a shallow water model is developed using boundary fitted curvilinear mesh. The west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand and the western open boundary are represented by two curves, which are defined by two functions. The other two boundaries are considered as straight lines along the open sea. Appropriate transformations of independent coordinates are applied so that the curvilinear physical domain transforms to a rectangular domain and the curvilinear grid system transforms to a rectangular system. The depth averaged shallow water equations and the boundary conditions are transformed to the new space domain and these are solved in the rectangular mesh of the transformed space. The model is applied to compute some aspects of the tsunami associated with the 26 December 2004 Indonesian tsunami along the coastal belts of Penang in Malaysia and Phuket in Thailand. The computed results along the coastal belts are in excellent agreement with the observe data available in the USGS website.

  20. Towards Harmonisation of Construction Industry Payment Legislation: A Consideration of the Success Afforded by the East and West Coast Models in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Coggins

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the success of the two distinct construction industry payment legislative models operating in Australia – “East Coast” and “West Coast” – in achieving their objective of improving cash flow throughout the construction industry. Success parameters are identified by the authors – namely: the levels of justice afforded by the legislation, the administrative and legal burden generated by the legislation, and the impact of the legislation on the relationships between the contracting parties – which are used as a basis to discuss and compare the performances of the East and West Coast models. It is concluded that the West Coast model provides a more just dispute resolution process, generates less administrative and legal burden, and is more conducive towards establishing positive relationships between contracting parties. However, it is recognised that there is a need for more data to be gathered from construction industry stakeholders before any firm recommendations can start to be made as to the most appropriate conceptual framework and detail for a harmonised approach.

  1. Shallow seismic and geomorphic expression of buried wave-cut terrace and erosional valleys off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Geochemistry of surficial sediments along the central southwest coast of India - Seasonal changes in regional distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Das, V.K.; Sheeba, P.

    , Fe, and Cu) throug.·, clay and or ganic carbon associations. Sediments with> 71 1 % clay occu pied the stretch extending from northwestern part of the study region, which extRnd down to the coast 0 . Kannamali /Figure 3). The sand dominated...

  3. Environmental interpretation of lithofacies and biofacies, lower Sierra Madre Limestone, west central Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.K.T.

    1989-03-01

    The Jiquipilas section of the Cretaceous Sierra Madre Limestone, which encompasses the lower part of the formation, was measured northwest of the town of Ocozocuautla in west-central Chiapas, Mexico. The section is 2140 m thick and is characterized by six lithofacies interpreted to represent supratidal, intertidal platform, restricted inner shelf, open inner shelf, shoal, and open-marine middle shelf environments. Overall, the sequence is submergent, with minor emergent episodes. Based upon cluster analysis, three biofacies associations were established: offshore middle shelf, nearshore middle shelf, and inner shelf. The lower 2045 m of the section are dominated by the inner shelf association, while the upper 95 m are dominated by the offshore association. The nearshore middle-shelf association is a minor component throughout the section. Correlation with a measure section from a previous study resulted in a composite thickness for the Sierra Madre Limestone in west-central Chiapas of 3355 m. This figure is considerably greater than previously reported thicknesses for the formation. It indicates that sedimentation on the Yucatan carbonate platform during the middle Cretaceous may have approached sediment accumulation rates in modern sedimentary basins.

  4. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  5. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  6. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valverde, Guido; Barreto Romero, María Inés; Flores Espinoza, Isabel; Cooper, Alan; Fehren-Schmitz, Lars; Llamas, Bastien; Haak, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD) represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD), Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD) and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD). We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast. PMID:27248693

  7. Occurrence of soft sediment deformation at Dive Agar beach, west coast of India: possible record of the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Meshram, D.C.; Sangode, S.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Dhongle, D.; Porate, S.

    access (e.g., Dawson, 1994, Goff et al; 2004, 2001, Dawson and Shi, 2000). A search for the tsunami related deposits (called ‘tsunamites’ Shanmugam, 2006) in the west coast is thus warranted to inter-relate the style of tsunami inundation with beach... indicate the backwash from the distal inundations and the last deposit of the tsunami in this region. Occurrence of this style of sedimentation is indicative of the systematics and mechanism of the tsunamites in the region. The undulatory margins...

  8. Muroto Project: Scientifi c Drilling of the Late Pliocene Forearc Basin Deposit on the West Coast of Muroto Peninsula, Shikoku, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Kodama

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Muroto Peninsula on the Pacifi c margin of southwest Japan (Fig.1 formed as a result of tectonic events associated with oblique subduction along the Nankai Trough (Sugiyama, 1992, 1994. Late Pliocene forearc basin deposits of the Tonohama Group are exposed on the west coast of the peninsula. Until recently, stratigraphical and paleontological data have been collected only from rather scattered and poorly exposed outcrops (e.g., Yokoyama, 1926; Katto, et al.,1953; Kurihara, 1968; Nishida, 1979; Okumura and Takei, 1993, and no detailed chronological and sequence-stratigraphic framework has been established. The paleoenvironmental changes recorded in the formation thus remain poorly understood.

  9. Model equations for Calculating Rn-gas Concentrations in Air of Uranium Exploratory Tunnels, Allouga, West-Central Sinai , Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Allouga area is located some 40 km due east from Abu Zenima town on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, West-Central Sinai, Egypt. A network of exploratory tunnels totaling 670m in length and approximately 2x2 m in cross section, were excavated within a paleosol clayey bed. They host (Fe, Mn)-, Cu-, and U-mineralizations. Portions of the tunnels are naturally ventilated and others portions are non-ventilated and show ground water seepage through fractures. Model equations were developed for calculating the Rn-gas concentrations in the air of the tunnels under dry conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by air flow through porous media as well as for wet conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by ground water flow into the tunnels. Under dry conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations(15.2-60.6 PCi/1) are consistent with measured values by active techniques (3.26-22.85 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (19-69.1 pCi/1) when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha= 0.05-0.2), the emanating rock thickness (X=10 cm) and U-concentration averages 30 ppm. Under wet and non-ventilated conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations (159-1248 pCi/1) are consistent with the measured values by active techniques (231-1348 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (144-999pCi/1), when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha=0.1-0.25), the ground water flow (F=0.04-0.10 ml/s-1cm-2) and U-concertrations (100-250ppm)

  10. Seasonal changes of the sediment size distribution and stability along the beaches of Kerala, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Chandramohan, P.; Nampoodiripad, K.S.N.

    Mean grain size distribution under different environmental conditions along the coast of Kerala showed considerable spatial variation (0.14-0.96 mm). Standard deviation values indicated a very well sorted class along all the beaches with a lowest...

  11. A manual for the identification of marine birds and mammals of the North American West Coast: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dichotomous keys for birds and mammals that might be found in Alaska or along the pacific coast. Includes, birds, whales, porpoise, and pinnipeds.

  12. Spatial and temporal variations of carbonate content in the beach and nearshore environments off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.

    Sediment samples collected from dunes, beaches (Calangute, Baina and Colva) and nearshore environments along the coast of Goa, have been analysed for their carbonate content. The results show the presence of very high carbonate content (60...

  13. November 2009 tropical cyclone Phyan in the eastern Arabian Sea: Oceanic response along west India coast and Kavaratti lagoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Mehra, P.; VijayKumar, K.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Ryan, L.; Rivankar, P.; Viegas, B.

    and finally made landfall at the northwest coast of India, is examined based on time-series measurements of seasurface wind (U sub(10)), gust, gust factor, barometric pressure, precipitation, atmospheric temperature, SST, and significant wave height from...

  14. Age and growth of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula (tetraodontiformes, balistidae of the central coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Cristiano Queiroz de

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal spines (n=649 of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula were collected between 1997 to 1999 at the central coast of Brazil and used to evaluate fish growth. The marginal increment analysis validated that 1 increment was formed annually (n=476, with minimum values observed at the summer, and coinciding with the maximum proportion of translucent growth bands. Fish's maximum fork length and age were 460 mm and 14 years respectively. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy function were: Fl∞ = 441.3 mm, K = 0.14 and T0= -1.8. Weight gain by year ranged from about 110 g yr-1 for age 5 to about 30 g yr-1 for age 14. Compared to other studies, B. vetula growth in the Central coast of Brazil was slow, which could be related to the influence of the oligotrophic water from Brazil current. Our results indicate that B. vetula's fisheries in the Central coast of Brazil until 1999 have caught mostly adult individuals over the sexual maturation lenght, 60% of them with ages from 6 to 8 yr.Entre 1997 e 1999 foram amostrados 649 espinhos de Balistes vetula na costa central do Brazil e foram utilizados para a avaliação de crescimento. A validação de anéis anuais de crescimento foi realizada através da analise de incrementos marginais, cujos valores mínimos foram observados durante o verão, coincidindo com a maior proporção de anéis translúcidos na borda do espinho. Portanto, forma-se um anel de crescimento a cada ano. A idade e o comprimento padrão máximos observados foram respectivamente 14 anos e 460 mm. Os parâmetros da equação de von-Bertalanffy foram: Fl∞ = 441,3 mm, K = 0,14 e T0= -1,8. O incremento anual em peso variou de 110 g yr-1 para a idade 5 a 30 g yr-1 para a idade 14. Comparados a outros estudos, nossos resultados indicam taxas de crescimento mais baixas, que podem ter sido induzidas pela influência oligotrófica da corrente do Brasil ao longo da costa central do Brasil. Nossos resultados indicam que a pesca do peroá at

  15. The influence of upper-crust lithology on topographic development in the central Coast Ranges of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, A.F.; Mahan, S.A.

    2012-01-01

    A fundamental geological tenet is that as landscapes evolve over graded to geologic time, geologic structures control patterns of topographic distribution in mountainous areas such that terrain underlain by competent rock will be higher than terrain underlain by incompetent rock. This paper shows that in active orogens where markedly weak and markedly strong rocks are juxtaposed along contacts that parallel regional structures, relatively high topography can form where strain is localized in the weak rock. Such a relationship is illustrated by the topography of the central Coast Ranges between the Pacific coastline and the San Andreas fault zone (SAFZ), and along the length of the Gabilan Mesa (the "Gabilan Mesa segment" of the central Coast Ranges). Within the Gabilan Mesa segment, the granitic upper crust of the Salinian terrane is in contact with the accretionary-prism m??lange upper crust of the Nacimiento terrane along the inactive Nacimiento fault zone. A prominent topographic lineament is present along most of this lithologic boundary, approximately 50 to 65. km southwest of the SAFZ, with the higher topography formed in the m??lange on the southwest side of the Nacimiento fault. This paper investigates factors influencing the pattern of topographic development in the Gabilan Mesa segment of the central Coast Ranges by correlating shortening magnitude with the upper-crust compositions of the Salinian and Nacimiento terranes. The fluvial geomorphology of two valleys in the Gabilan Mesa, which is within the Salinian terrane, and alluvial geochronology based on optically-stimulated luminescence (OSL) age estimates, reveal that the magnitude of shortening accommodated by down-to-the-southwest tilting of the mesa since 400ka is less than 1 to 2m. Our results, combined with those of previous studies, indicate that at least 63% to 78% of late-Cenozoic, northeast-southwest directed, upper-crustal shortening across the Gabilan Mesa segment has been accommodated

  16. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the southern Great Salt Lake Desert and summary of the hydrology of west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joseph S.; Kruer, Stacie A.

    1981-01-01

    This report is the last of 19 hydrologic reconnaissances of the basins in western Utah. The purposes of this series of studies are (1) to analyze available hydrologic data and describe the hydrologic system, (2) to evaluate existing and potential water-resources development, and (3) to identify additional studies that might be needed. Part 1 of this report gives an estimate of recharge and discharge, an estimate of the potential for water-resources development, and a statement on the quality of water in the southern Great Salt Lake Desert part of west-central Utah. Part 2 deals with the same aspects of west-central Utah as a whole. Part 2 also summarizes the evidence of interbasin ground-water flow in west-central Utah and presents a theory for the origin of the water discharged from Fish Springs.

  17. Seasonal and regional variability in dissolved and particulate iron fluxes via glacial runoff along the West Greenland coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, K.; Hagedorn, B.; Sletten, R. S.; Harrold, Z.; Liu, L.; Dieser, M.; Cameron, K. A.; Christner, B. C.; Junge, K.

    2012-12-01

    Subglacial weathering, due to biogeochemical and physical weathering processes, can affect the chemical evolution of subglacial waters and release dissolved and particulate iron via glacial runoff. Iron is a growth limiting nutrient and plays a critical role in the biogeochemical cycles of coastal and marine waters. More recently, dissolved and colloidal iron derived from subglacial sources have been considered an important contributor of Fe fluxes to the ocean; however, their dependency on lithology, grain size, and microbial activity is not well understood. This study characterizes the solute chemistry, in particular iron mineralogy and dissolved iron concentrations, released from beneath the Greenland Ice Sheet (GrIS), from two locations along the West Greenland coast, Thule (76°N, 68°W) and Kangerlussuaq (67°N, 50°W). We hypothesize that the subglacial lithology has a control on Fe fluxes from the GrIS to coastal and marine systems. The underlying bedrock in Thule is the Precambrian Dundas and Narssarssuk sedimentary formations which include sandstone, siltstone, and shale. The bedrock in Kangerlussuaq is dominated by Archean granodioritic gneiss and amphibolite within the Nagssugtoqidian Orogen. Supra and subglacial meltwater samples were collected directly in front of the Ice Sheet over an entire melt season in 2011 (North River, Thule) and 2012 (Akuliarusiarsuup Kuua River, Kangerlussuaq). In situ parameters such as temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and electrical conductivity were recorded in order to interpret meltwater chemistry. Dissolved Fe(II) and Fe(III) species were fixed immediately and analyzed within 24 hours after sampling in the field laboratory using a spectrophotometer and 10 cm cell. Total dissolved iron (FeT) of different size fractions (<0.22 and <0.05 μm) of iron were determined back in the home laboratory using reaction cell ICP MS. Preliminary results demonstrate that subglacial meltwater of North River has average Fe

  18. Wave energy converter with enhanced amplitude response at frequencies coinciding with Swedish west coast sea states by use of a supplementary submerged body

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engström, J.; Eriksson, M.; Isberg, J.; Leijon, M.

    2009-09-01

    The full-scale direct-driven wave energy converter developed at Uppsala University has been in offshore operation at the Swedish west coast since 2006. Earlier simulations have now been validated by full-scale experiment with good agreement. Based on that, a theoretical model for a passive system having optimum amplitude response at frequencies coinciding with Swedish west coast conditions has been developed. The amplitude response is increased by adding supplementary inertia by use of the additional mass from a submerged body. A sphere with neutral buoyancy is chosen as the submerged body and modeled as being below the motion of the waves. The model is based on potential linear wave theory and the power capture ratio is studied for real ocean wave data collected at the research test site. It is found that the power capture ratio for the two body system can be increased from 30% to 60% compared to a single body system. Increased velocity in the system also decreases the value for optimal load damping from the generator, opening up the possibility to design smaller units.

  19. Geophysical Framework Investigations Influencing Ground-Water Resources in East-Central Nevada and West-Central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Janet T.; Ponce, David A.

    2007-01-01

    A geophysical investigation was undertaken as part of an effort to characterize the geologic framework influencing ground-water resources in east-central Nevada and west-central Utah. New gravity data were combined with existing aeromagnetic, drill-hole, and geologic data to help determine basin geometry, infer structural features, estimate depth to pre-Cenozoic basement rocks, and further constrain the horizontal extents of exposed and buried plutons. In addition, a three-dimensional (3D) geologic model was constructed to help illustrate the often complex geometries of individual basins and aid in assessing the connectivity of adjacent basins. In general, the thirteen major valleys within the study area have axes oriented north-south and frequently contain one or more sub-basins. These basins are often asymmetric and typically reach depths of 2 km. Analysis of gravity data helped delineate geophysical lineaments and accommodation zones. Structural complexities may further compartmentalize ground-water flow within basins and the influence of tectonics on basin sedimentation further complicates their hydrologic properties. The horizontal extent of exposed and, in particular, buried plutons was estimated over the entire study area. The location and subsurface extents of these plutons will be very important for regional water resource assessments, as these features may act as either barriers or pathways for groundwater flow. A previously identified basement gravity low strikes NW within the study area and occurs within a highly extended terrane between the Butte and Confusion synclinoria. Evidence from geophysical, geologic, and seismic reflection data suggests relatively lower density plutonic rocks may extend to moderate crustal depths and rocks of similar composition may be the source of the entire basement gravity anomaly.

  20. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the west-central Buffalo National River region in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the region lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the map area spans the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone and the higher Boston Mountains to the south, held up by Pennsylvanian rocks. The Buffalo River flows eastward through the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion of an approximately 1,600-ft- (490-m-) thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Quaternary surficial units are present as alluvial deposits along major streams, including a series of terrace deposits from the Buffalo River, as well as colluvium and landslide deposits mantling bedrock on hillslopes.

  1. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively. PMID:19090221

  2. Late Neogene slip transfer and extension within the curved Whisky Flat fault system central Walker Lane, west-central Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biholar, Alexander Kenneth Casian

    In Whisky Flat of west-central Nevada, northwest-striking faults in the Walker Lane curve to east-northeast orientations at the northern limits of the Mina deflection. This curve in strike results in the formation of ˜685 m deep depression bounded by north-south convex to the east range-front faults that at the apex of fault curvature are bisected at a high angle by a structural stepover. We use the vertical offset of a late Miocene erosional surface mapped in the highlands and inferred from gravity depth inversion in the basin to measure the magnitude of displacement on faults. A N65°W extensional axis determined through fault-slip inversion is used to constrain the direction in displacement models. Through the use of a forward rectilinear displacement model, we document that the complex array of faults is capable of developing with broadly contemporaneous displacements on all structures since the opening of the basin during the Pliocene.

  3. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  4. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  5. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Meraz; Víctor Manuel Sánchez-Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan c...

  6. Investigating the intellectual origins of Euroland's macroeconomic policy regime: central banking institutions and traditions in West Germany after the war

    OpenAIRE

    Bibow, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the (re-) establishment of central banking in West Germany after 1945 and the history of the Bundesbank Act of 1957. The main focus is on the early emphasis on the ‘independence’ of the central bank, which, together with a ‘stability-orientation’ in monetary policy, proved a lasting German peculiarity. The paper inquires whether contemporary German economic thought may have provided a theoretical case for this peculiar tradition and scrutinizes the political calculus t...

  7. Food habits of Atlantic sturgeon off the central New Jersey coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, J.H.; Dropkin, D.S.; Warkentine, B.E.; Rachlin, J.W.; Andrews, W.D.

    1997-01-01

    Limited information exists on the marine diet of the Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus. We examined the food habits of 275 Atlantic sturgeon (total length, 106-203 cm) caught in the commercial fishery off the coast of New Jersey. Stomachs were provided by fishermen. Significantly more stomachs were empty in the spring than in the fall. Sand and organic debris were a major component in the stomachs (26.3-75.4% by weight). Polycheates were the primary pre group consumed, although the isopod Politolana conchorum was the most important individual prey eaten. Mollusks and fish contributed little to the diet. Some prey taxa (i.e., polychaetes, isopods, amphipods) exhibited seasonal variation in importance in the diet of Atlantic sturgeon. Identification of the offshore diet of Atlantic sturgeon is an important step in developing a better understanding of the life history requirements and marine ecology of this species.

  8. Evidence for selection at HIV host susceptibility genes in a West Central African human population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhao Kai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background HIV-1 derives from multiple independent transfers of simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV strains from chimpanzees to human populations. We hypothesized that human populations in west central Africa may have been exposed to SIV prior to the pandemic, and that previous outbreaks may have selected for genetic resistance to immunodeficiency viruses. To test this hypothesis, we examined the genomes of Biaka Western Pygmies, who historically resided in communities within the geographic range of the central African chimpanzee subspecies (Pan troglodytes troglodytes that carries strains of SIV ancestral to HIV-1. Results SNP genotypes of the Biaka were compared to those of African human populations who historically resided outside the range of P. t. troglodytes, including the Mbuti Eastern Pygmies. Genomic regions showing signatures of selection were compared to the genomic locations of genes reported to be associated with HIV infection or pathogenesis. In the Biaka, a strong signal of selection was detected at CUL5, which codes for a component of the vif-mediated APOBEC3 degradation pathway. A CUL5 allele protective against AIDS progression was fixed in the Biaka. A signal of selection was detected at TRIM5, which codes for an HIV post-entry restriction factor. A protective mis-sense mutation in TRIM5 had the highest frequency in Biaka compared to other African populations, as did a protective allele for APOBEC3G, which codes for an anti-HIV-1 restriction factor. Alleles protective against HIV-1 for APOBEC3H, CXCR6 and HLA-C were at higher frequencies in the Biaka than in the Mbuti. Biaka genomes showed a strong signal of selection at TSG101, an inhibitor of HIV-1 viral budding. Conclusions We found protective alleles or evidence for selection in the Biaka at a number of genes associated with HIV-1 infection or progression. Pygmies have also been reported to carry genotypes protective against HIV-1 for the genes CCR5 and CCL3L1. Our

  9. Recovery of wild Pacific oyster, Crassostrea gigas in terms of reproduction and gametogenesis two-years after the Hebei Spirit Oil Spill Accident off the West Coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Mostafizur Rahman; Keshavmurthy, Shashank; Lee, Hee-Jung; Hong, Hyun-Ki; Park, Heung-Sik; Park, Sang-Rul; Kang, Chang-Keun; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2015-12-01

    The Hebei Spirit oil spill in December 2007 at Taean off the west coast of Korea was the largest oil tanker accident in Korea. However, the impact of the spill on physiology of benthic animals remains largely unknown. Two-years after the accident, we compared reproductive effort and annual gametogenesis of the wild Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas, residing at oil spill site with a control oyster population in Incheon Bay, North-West coast of Korea. Results showed that the oyster sampled from the oil spill site showed a significantly higher (279.0 mg standard animal-1, Pphysiological status to normal level after two years of the oil spill accident.

  10. 78 FR 54394 - Determination of Attainment for the West Central Pinal Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... 2006 Fine Particle Standard; Arizona; Determination Regarding Applicability of Clean Air Act...-hour fine particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination is based... Action On July 12, 2013 (78 FR 41901), EPA proposed to determine that the West Central...

  11. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  12. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition – central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Joevivek; N Chandrasekar

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  13. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). PMID:17370807

  14. 77 FR 19552 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Range Extension for Endangered Central California Coast Coho...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-02

    ... the area south of San Francisco between San Gregorio and Aptos creeks, a range which spanned three... FR 56138) and subsequently reclassified as an endangered species on June 28, 2005 (70 FR 37160). At... southward to and including the San Lorenzo River in central California, as well as four...

  15. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  16. Dispersion and retrievability of water quality indicators during tidal cycles in coastal Salaya, Gulf of Kachchh (West coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohandass, C.; Jayakumar, S.; Ramaiah, N.; Vethamony, P.

    Bacterial indicators in relation to tidal variations were studied at five locations for over 2 days covering three tidal cycles in the southwestern region of Gulf of Kachchh, India. Tidal flow here is predominantly in the east west direction and can...

  17. Riparian litter inputs to streams in the central Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie K.; Hibbs, David E.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian-zone vegetation can influence terrestrial and aquatic food webs through variation in the amount, timing, and nutritional content of leaf and other litter inputs. We investigated how riparian-forest community composition, understory density, and lateral slope shaped vertical and lateral litter inputs to 16 streams in the Oregon Coast Range. Riparian forests dominated by deciduous red alder delivered greater annual vertical litter inputs to streams (504 g m−2 y−1) than did riparian forests dominated by coniferous Douglas-fir (394 g m−2 y−1). Deciduous forests also contributed greater lateral litter inputs per meter of stream bank on one side (109 g m−1 y−1) than did coniferous forests (63 g m−1 y−1). Total litter inputs from deciduous forests exceeded those from coniferous forests most strongly in November, coincident with an autumn peak in litter inputs. Lateral litter inputs contributed most to total inputs during winter in both forest types. Annual lateral litter movement increased with slope at deciduous sites, but only in spring/summer months at coniferous sites. Neither experimental removal of understory vegetation nor installation of mesh fences to block downslope litter movement affected lateral litter inputs to streams, suggesting that ground litter moves seasonality of litter delivery to both terrestrial and aquatic food webs in this region and complements the shade and large woody debris provided by large coniferous trees.

  18. Spatial distribution of upwelling off the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.V.N.

    Rao indicates coastal upwelling. Until recently, differences in the surface temperatures of inshore and oceanic waters have been used as a criterion of coastal up- welling intensity, and this has led to conflicting con- of coastal upwelling... matter in the western Arabian Sea. Deep Sea Research 12, 199–209. Smed, J. 1982 The Oceanographic data base for the Cooperative Investigations of the Northern part of the Eastern Central Atlantic (CINECA) region. Rapport et Proces-Verbeaux des Reun- ions...

  19. The December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, MW=9.0, earthquake and the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Chang-sheng; WU Zhong-liang

    2005-01-01

    Long-term seismic activity prior to the December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, MW=9.0 earthquake was investigated using the Harvard CMT catalogue. It is observed that before this great earthquake, there exists an accelerating moment release (AMR) process with the temporal scale of a quarter century and the spatial scale of 1 500 km. Within this spatial range, the MW=9.0 event falls into the piece-wise power-law-like frequency-magnitude distribution. Therefore, in the perspective of the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation, the failure to forecast/predict the approaching and/or the size of this earthquake is not due to the physically intrinsic unpredictability of earthquakes.

  20. Tropospheric profiles of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and other related trace species measured over the Atlantic near the west coast of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Koppmann, R.; Kraus, A.B.; Schrimpf, W.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In June and December 1994, the concentrations of the nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub y} were measured together with ozone, photolysis frequency of NO{sub 2}, methane, CO, CO{sub 2}, PAN, and light hydrocarbons near the west coast of Europe above the Atlantic Ocean. Two vertical profiles for each season were obtained in the altitude range 1.5 to 12 km at four locations: near Prestwick (56 deg N, 9 deg W), Brest (49 deg N, 6 deg W), Faro (37 deg N, 12 deg W) and Tenerife (30 deg N, 18 deg W). The measured vertical profiles of NO are compared to the results of a low resolution 3-D chemical tracer model. (author)

  1. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  2. Substantial changes in hemocyte parameters of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun-Ki; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Lee, Hee-Jung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-07-15

    Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred off the west coast of Korea, we determined sub-lethal effects of the spilled oil on hemocyte parameters of Ruditapes philippinarum in the damaged areas. Clams in the spilled sites displayed unusually high proportion of granulocytes, which may result in higher phagocytosis capacity and reactive oxygen species production. Hemocytes in clams from the polluted sites also displayed less DNA damage and mortality than in the control site, possibly due to a faster phagocytosis of the impaired cells. Glycogen, the major energetic reserve, was depleted in clams from the spilled sites, potentially due to energetic consumption for maintenance of a large pool of granulocytes, detoxification processes and oxidative stress. Modified hemocyte parameters in clams in the spilled area, may reflect sub-lethal physiological stresses caused by the residual oils in the sediment, in conjunction with environmental modifications such as food availability and pathogens pattern. PMID:27132991

  3. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  4. Substantial changes in hemocyte parameters of Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill off the west coast of Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hyun-Ki; Donaghy, Ludovic; Kang, Chang-Keun; Kang, Hyun-Sil; Lee, Hee-Jung; Park, Heung-Sik; Choi, Kwang-Sik

    2016-07-15

    Two years after the Hebei Spirit oil spill occurred off the west coast of Korea, we determined sub-lethal effects of the spilled oil on hemocyte parameters of Ruditapes philippinarum in the damaged areas. Clams in the spilled sites displayed unusually high proportion of granulocytes, which may result in higher phagocytosis capacity and reactive oxygen species production. Hemocytes in clams from the polluted sites also displayed less DNA damage and mortality than in the control site, possibly due to a faster phagocytosis of the impaired cells. Glycogen, the major energetic reserve, was depleted in clams from the spilled sites, potentially due to energetic consumption for maintenance of a large pool of granulocytes, detoxification processes and oxidative stress. Modified hemocyte parameters in clams in the spilled area, may reflect sub-lethal physiological stresses caused by the residual oils in the sediment, in conjunction with environmental modifications such as food availability and pathogens pattern.

  5. Role of two Triatoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae) species in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) to man in the west coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Ibarra, J A; Bárcenas-Ortega, N M; Nogueda-Torres, B; Alejandre-Aguilar, R; Lino Rodríguez, M; Magallón-Gastélum, E; López-Martínez, V; Romero-Nápoles, J

    2001-02-01

    From August 1997 to August 1998, 334 specimens of Triatoma longipennis and 62 of T. picturata were collected in four groups of localities placed in the zone from Guadalajara, Jalisco to Tepic, Nayarit, in the West Coast of Mexico. Most T. longipennis were collected outdoors (69.2%) while most T. picturata (58.1%) were collected indoors. All collected specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which was detected on 98 (29.3%) T. longipennis and 17 (27.4%) T. picturata. This study confirms the role of T. longipennis and T. picturata as some of the main T. cruzi vectors to humans in Mexico. Habitation Infestation Rate with T. longipennis was of 0.09 and with T. picturata was of 0.03 and the predominating ecotopes were pile of blocks, chicken coops, pigsties, wall crawls and beds.

  6. Role of two Triatoma (Hemiptera: Reduviidae: Triatominae species in the transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae to man in the West Coast of Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Alejandro Martínez-Ibarra

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available From August 1997 to August 1998, 334 specimens of Triatoma longipennis and 62 of T. picturata were collected in four groups of localities placed in the zone from Guadalajara, Jalisco to Tepic, Nayarit, in the West Coast of Mexico. Most T. longipennis were collected outdoors (69.2% while most T. picturata (58.1% were collected indoors. All collected specimens were examined for Trypanosoma cruzi infection, which was detected on 98 (29.3% T. longipennis and 17 (27.4% T. picturata. This study confirms the role of T. longipennis and T. picturata as some of the main T. cruzi vectors to humans in Mexico. Habitation Infestation Rate with T. longipennis was of 0.09 and with T. picturata was of 0.03 and the predominating ecotopes were pile of blocks, chicken coops, pigsties, wall crawls and beds.

  7. Linkage between speciation of Cd in mangrove sediment and its bioaccumulation in total soft tissue of oyster from the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Bardhan, Pratirupa

    2016-05-15

    This study established a mechanistic linkage between Cd speciation and bioavailability in mangrove system from the west coast of India. High bioaccumulation of Cd was found in the oyster (Crassostrea sp.) even at low Cd loading in the bottom sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd in the oyster gradually increased with the increasing concentrations of water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate/bicarbonate forms of Cd in the sediments. Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide phase was found to control Cd bioavailability in the sediment system. Cd-associated with sedimentary organic matter was bioavailable and organic ligands in the sediments were poor chelating agents for Cd. This study suggests that bioaccumulation of Cd in oyster (Crassostrea sp.) depends not on the total Cd concentration but on the speciation of Cd in the system.

  8. New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    taxonomic group. However, δ18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2‰ higher than δ18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel δ13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in δ18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

  9. The climatological moisture sources and sinks for Atmospheric Rivers impacting the West Coast of the United States in modern and doubled CO2 climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaumer, J. M.; Noone, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers are known to be major drivers of precipitation in many parts of the globe, including the West Coast of the United States. Atmospheric rivers are usually identified as long, filamentary structures of elevated vertically-integrated water vapor transport, and can extend over thousands of km, from the tropics all the way to the midlatitudes. However, it is generally unclear where exactly the moisture in atmospheric rivers comes from, and if that moisture is transported over long distances across the entire river, or if it is continuously precipitated out and replenished by local moisture. By better constraining the sources and sinks of moisture in atmospheric rivers, one can learn which geographic regions or meteorological processes are important for forecasting the rivers' hydrological impacts. Also, by determining how these moisture sources and sinks will change with the global climate, one can gain a better understanding of future atmospheric river conditions, and thus better future hydroclimate projections. We show the sources and sinks of water vapor and cloud condensate in atmospheric rivers as simulated by the water tracer-enabled NCAR Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5). Specifically, numerous regions in the North Pacific and Western North America are tagged with water tracers, and their relative contributions to atmospheric river moisture and precipitation are calculated for rivers that impact the West Coast of the United States. Two simulations using the model are performed, one with modern-day boundary conditions, and another with doubled-CO2 conditions. It is found that the majority of moisture in atmospheric rivers comes from the subtropical (20 to 30° N) Pacific, although a substantial portion of moisture for some atmospheric rivers also comes from the tropics (river is from the source, indicating a continuous loss by precipitation, and a replacement by locally evaporated moisture. However, there can still be non

  10. CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Cayan, Dan; Spackman, J. R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Dettinger, M.; Fairall, C.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Rutledge, Steven A.; Waliser, D.; White, A. B.; Cordeira, J.; Martin, A.; Helly, J.; Intrieri, J.

    2016-08-22

    The variability of precipitation and water supply along the U.S. West Coast creates major challenges to the region’s economy and environment, as evidenced by the recent California drought. This variability is strongly influenced by atmospheric rivers (AR), which deliver much of the precipitation along the U.S. West Coast and can cause flooding, and by aerosols (from local sources and transported from remote continents and oceans) that modulate clouds and precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods, both now and under changing climate conditions.To address these gaps a group of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers have created an interdisciplinary research effort, with support from multiple agencies. From 2009-2011 a series of field campaigns (CalWater 1) collected atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements in California and associated modeling and diagnostic studies were carried out. Based on remaining gaps, a vision was developed to extend these studies offshore over the Eastern North Pacific and to enhance land based measurements from 2014-2018 (CalWater 2). The data set and selected results from CalWater 1 are summarized here. The goals of CalWater-2, and measurements to date, are then described. CalWater is producing new findings and exploring new technologies to evaluate and improve global climate models and their regional performance and to develop tools supporting water and hydropower management. These advances also have potential to enhance hazard mitigation by improving near-term weather prediction and subseasonal and seasonal outlooks.

  11. Numerical simulation of the groundwater-flow system of the Kitsap Peninsula, west-central Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frans, Lonna M.; Olsen, Theresa D.

    2016-05-05

    A groundwater-flow model was developed to improve understanding of water resources on the Kitsap Peninsula. The Kitsap Peninsula is in the Puget Sound lowland of west-central Washington, is bounded by Puget Sound on the east and by Hood Canal on the west, and covers an area of about 575 square miles. The peninsula encompasses all of Kitsap County, Mason County north of Hood Canal, and part of Pierce County west of Puget Sound. The peninsula is surrounded by saltwater, and the hydrologic setting is similar to that of an island. The study area is underlain by a thick sequence of unconsolidated glacial and interglacial deposits that overlie sedimentary and volcanic bedrock units that crop out in the central part of the study area. Twelve hydrogeologic units consisting of aquifers, confining units, and an underlying bedrock unit form the basis of the groundwater-flow model.Groundwater flow on the Kitsap Peninsula was simulated using the groundwater-flow model, MODFLOW‑NWT. The finite difference model grid comprises 536 rows, 362 columns, and 14 layers. Each model cell has a horizontal dimension of 500 by 500 feet, and the model contains a total of 1,227,772 active cells. Groundwater flow was simulated for transient conditions. Transient conditions were simulated for January 1985–December 2012 using annual stress periods for 1985–2004 and monthly stress periods for 2005–2012. During model calibration, variables were adjusted within probable ranges to minimize differences between measured and simulated groundwater levels and stream baseflows. As calibrated to transient conditions, the model has a standard deviation for heads and flows of 47.04 feet and 2.46 cubic feet per second, respectively.Simulated inflow to the model area for the 2005–2012 period from precipitation and secondary recharge was 585,323 acre-feet per year (acre-ft/yr) (93 percent of total simulated inflow ignoring changes in storage), and simulated inflow from stream and lake leakage was 43

  12. Distribution, biomass and size of grooved Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes tanneri) from annual bottom trawl surveys (2003-2010) along the U.S. west coast (Washington to California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Harms, John H.; Buchanan, John C.

    2012-09-01

    Catch and distribution of grooved Tanner crab (Chionoecetes tanneri Rathbun, 1893) from the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey (55-1280 m) were examined along the U.S. west coast (lat. 32°30'N-48°30'N). Grooved Tanner crabs were present in 28% of tows and occurred primarily at depths from 300 to 1280 m. Annual biomass (metric tons, mt) indices and density (kg km-2) estimates for the population varied significantly throughout the study area and within five International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC) statistical areas. Highest estimates occurred in the Monterey INPFC area (lat. 36°N-40°30'N) and within the 601-800 m depth interval. Depth distribution varied by year and coast-wide catch-weighted average depths (m) were significantly correlated with average annual Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) indices (2003-2010), a measure of Pacific climate variability. Annual mean carapace widths (CW), measured from 2005 to 2010, were always greater for males (96.9-113.9 mm) relative to females (85.3-95.8 mm). Size frequency distributions varied by year with strong recruitment for both sexes apparent in 2010. Grooved Tanner crabs were partially segregated by depth and stage. Males and females were found in all depth intervals but the average depth of adult females was significantly shallower (756 m) than adult males (837 m); adults were significantly shallower than subadult female (907 m) and subadult male (927 m) crabs.

  13. Paleobiogeographic affinities of emsian (late early devonian) gastropods from farewell terrane (west-central Alaska)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryda, J.; Blodgett, R.B.

    2008-01-01

    The vast majority of Emsian gastropods from Limestone Mountain, Medfra B-4 quadrangle, west-central Alaska (Farewell terrane) belong to species with lecithotrophic larval strategy. The present data show that there is no significant difference in the paleobiogeo-graphic distribution of Emsian gastropod genera with lecithotrophic and planktotrophic larval strategies. Numerical analysis of the faunal affinities of the Emsian gastropod fauna from the Farewell terrane reveals that this terrane has much stronger faunal connections to regions like Variscan Europe, eastern Australia, and the Alexander terrane of southeast Alaska than to cratonic North America (Laurentia). The Canadian Arctic Islands is the only region of cratonic North America (Laurentia) that shows significant faunal affinities to the Emsian gastropod faunas of the Farewell terrane. The analysis also indicates a close faunal link between the Farewell and Alexander terranes. Published paleontological and geological data suggest that the Farewell and Alexander terranes represents tectonic entities that have been rifted away from the Siberia, Baltica, or the paleo-Pacific margin of Australia. The results of the present numerical analysis are not in conflict with any of these possibilities. However, the principle of spatial continuity of the wandering path prefers Siberia as the most probable "parental" paleocontinent for the derivation of both the Farewell and Alexander terranes. ?? 2008 The Geological Society of America.

  14. Radiation-hazardous objects at the west and central Kazakstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1965-1987, there were conducted 39 industrial underground explosions in the territory of Kazakhstan Republic, in particular in its west and central region (explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk test site, East-Kazakhstan oblates are not included). These explosions were conducted in terms of the Program 7 Peaceful nuclear explosions for industrial purposes with the purpose of test-industrial investigation conducting for testing a technology for formation of cavities in rock salt in order to be used as multipurpose large volume storage. Energy from underground nuclear explosions was used for peaceful technological purposes, in particular, in the territories of hydrocarbon raw materials mining and industrial developing. It is obvious, that residual radioactivity, even if it is very small, is a factor, that hampers to use nuclear explosions for this purpose. The major problems are the following: safety measures, which are necessary for implementation of the projects on nuclear explosion usage in peaceful purposes, admissible level of environment pollution in whole and possible consequences. All necessary measures must be taken to ensure safety in the regions, where explosions were conducted, including all the least probable accidents (for instance, breach during camuflet explosions). To make sure, that existing admissible standards will not be exceeded, it is necessary to know the level of environment radiation contamination and to forecast probable contamination caused by explosions

  15. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  16. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification. PMID:26577954

  17. Land use patterns and the risk of West Nile virus transmission in central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Lampman, Richard L; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how human land use patterns influence mosquito ecology and the risk of mosquito-borne pathogens is critical for the development of disease management strategies. We examined how different environments influenced mosquito species composition, abundance, and West Nile virus (WNV) infection rates in central Illinois. Using a combination of gravid traps and CDC light traps, adult mosquitoes were collected every other week from June 24 to September 16, 2012, in four major land use categories-row crops, prairies, forest fragments, and residential neighborhoods. The mosquitoes were identified to species morphologically, and pools of pure and mixed Culex mosquitoes (primarily Culex pipiens and Culex restuans) were tested for WNV-RNA by qRT-PCR. Mosquito species diversity was significantly higher in forest habitats compared to residential, agricultural, and prairie land use categories. All the four landscape types were equally important habitats for WNV vectors Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, contrary to previous findings that these species principally inhabit the residential areas. WNV-infected mosquito pools were observed in all land use types, and the infection rates overlapped among land use categories. Although our findings support the importance of residential habitats for WNV transmission to humans, they also establish that prairie, row crops, and wood lots are potentially important refuges for enzootic transmission. This is particularly important in urban ecosystems where these land use categories are small, interspersed fragments serving as potential refuge sites during periods of low rainfall. PMID:24746038

  18. Reproductive biology of yellowfin tuna T. albacares in the west-central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Song, Liming

    2008-08-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese longliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1 023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is estimated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female’s along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  19. Climate Change in Central and West Asia. Routes to a More Secure, Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    ADB's Central and West Asian countries are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Geoclimatic and environmental factors make this region highly vulnerable to the risks and hazards of climate change. For example, accelerated glacial melt has serious implications for agriculture, water supply, and energy generation - problems exacerbated by overexploitation of natural resources. Countries may find it difficult to shift to low-carbon growth, since many have abundant fossil fuel and tend to use energy inefficiently. ADB is responding to these climate hazards and low-carbon pathways with a comprehensive strategy that strengthens policies, governance, and capacity support; expands the use of clean and renewable energy; encourages sustainable transport and urban development; promotes development that will be more resilient to climate change, especially in water-dependent sectors; and manages land use and forests for carbon sequestration. ADB's support is helping its developing member countries face the challenges of climate change and, with partners, is providing innovative solutions, while continuing to work to reduce poverty.

  20. Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of Terna River Basin in West Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Babar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the morphostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and sedimentary structures of Terna River basin in the Deccan Basaltic Province (DBP of West Central India. These Quaternary deposits have been divided into three informal formations (i dark grey silt formation – Late Holocene, (ii Light grey silt formations – Early Holocene, (iii Dark grayish brown silt formation – Late Pleistocene with the older Quaternary Alluvial deposits of Upper Pleistocene age. The fine clay and silt formations in the lower reaches reflect that the streams are of low gradient and more sinuous. The river shows evidences of channel movement by avulsion, largely controlled by lineaments. Palaeo-levees, in the form 4–5 m high ridges exist along the Terna River floodplain, specifically in the Ter, Killari, Sastur, Dhuta and Makni villages. Several lineaments occur along NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and WNW-ESE directions, which control the basement structure in the study area. The values of the Topographic Sinuosity Index (TSI indicate rejuvenation of the area leading to the dominance of topography on the sinuosity of the river channels. The break in slope in the long profile is also indication of the Quaternary tectonic uplift of the area. Radiocarbon dating of some charcoal fragments collected from folded beddings indicates that paleoseismic activity might have taken place along the basin between AD 120 and AD 1671.

  1. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Silva Lopes; Didem Saglam; Mutlu Ozdogan; Matthew Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain fil ing, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68%of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could stil improve GY in a wide range of environ-ments. However, in Iranian sites, tal er genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain fil ing. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  2. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification.

  3. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  4. Reproductive Biology of Yeilowfin Tuna T. albacares in the West-Central Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guoping; XU Liuxiong; ZHOU Yingqi; SONG Liming

    2008-01-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese Iongliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is esti- mated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female's along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  5. Glacial isostatic adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nield, Grace A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; King, Matt A.; Clarke, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might contribute to GIA and associated present-day bedrock uplift rates. This is important because accurate modelling of GIA is necessary to determine the rate of present-day ice-mass change from satellite gravimetry. Recently-published reconstructions of ice-stream variability were used to create a suite of kinematic models for the stagnation-related thickening of Kamb Ice Stream since ˜1850 AD, and a GIA model was used to predict present-day deformation rates in response to this thickening. A number of longer-term loading scenarios, which include the stagnation and reactivation of ice streams across the Siple Coast over the past 2000 yr, were also constructed, and used to investigate the longer term GIA signal in the region. Uplift rates for each of the ice loading histories, based on a range of earth models, were compared with regional GPS-observed uplift rates and an empirical GIA estimate. We estimate Kamb Ice Stream to have thickened by 70-130 m since stagnation ˜165 years ago. Modelled present-day vertical motion in response to this load increase peaks at -17 mm yr-1 (i.e. 17 mm yr-1 subsidence) for the weakest earth models tested here. Comparison of the solid Earth response to ice load changes throughout the last glacial cycle, including ice stream stagnation and reactivation across the Siple Coast during the last 2000 yr, with an empirical GIA estimate suggests that the upper mantle viscosity of the region is greater than 1 × 1020 Pa s. When upper mantle viscosity values of

  6. Temporal variation in macroinvertebrates associated with intertidal sponge Ircinia fusca (Carter 1880) from Ratnagiri, West coast, India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.K.; Redij, A.G.S.; Sagare, P.; Thakur, N.L.; Ingole, B.S.

    shelter and food2-6. Most of the studies on the sponge-associated fauna have been carried out from the temperate region6. Studies on the sponge-associated organism from Indian coast focussed primarily on microbes and their antimicrobial activity7. Further... the rocks with a scalpel and quickly transferred to plastic bags to prevent the escape of fast-moving associated fauna. In the laboratory, the sponge was macerated to remove the macrofauna present in the pores. Sample was washed on 0.5 mm sieve. Fauna...

  7. Dominant role of winds near Sri Lanka in driving seasonal sea level variations along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suresh, I.; Vialard, J.; Izumo, T.; Lengaigne, M.; Han, W.; McCreary, J.; Muraleedharan, P.M.

    alongshore component as they blow normal to coast. Shankar et al. [2002] performed a series of sensitivity experiments with 1½- layer model to isolate the effect of alongshore winds in WCI from those along the BoB western rim (including both the east... various mechanisms, are provided in section 2. The results are presented in section 3, and section 4 summarizes our major findings with a discussion on the results. 4 2. The model and sensitivity experiments 2.1 Model and its validation We use a...

  8. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae. PMID:27300704

  9. Diversity of pulsed field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, serovars and antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates from wild amphibians and reptiles in the California central coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September, 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella strains in these habitats and individuals. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119...

  10. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  11. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  12. Surface-water radon-222 distribution along the west-central Florida shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, C.G.; Robbins, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    In February 2009 and August 2009, the spatial distribution of radon-222 in surface water was mapped along the west-central Florida shelf as collaboration between the Response of Florida Shelf Ecosystems to Climate Change project and a U.S. Geological Survey Mendenhall Research Fellowship project. This report summarizes the surface distribution of radon-222 from two cruises and evaluates potential physical controls on radon-222 fluxes. Radon-222 is an inert gas produced overwhelmingly in sediment and has a short half-life of 3.8 days; activities in surface water ranged between 30 and 170 becquerels per cubic meter. Overall, radon-222 activities were enriched in nearshore surface waters relative to offshore waters. Dilution in offshore waters is expected to be the cause of the low offshore activities. While thermal stratification of the water column during the August survey may explain higher radon-222 activities relative to the February survey, radon-222 activity and integrated surface-water inventories decreased exponentially from the shoreline during both cruises. By estimating radon-222 evasion by wind from nearby buoy data and accounting for internal production from dissolved radium-226, its radiogenic long-lived parent, a simple one-dimensional model was implemented to determine the role that offshore mixing, benthic influx, and decay have on the distribution of excess radon-222 inventories along the west Florida shelf. For multiple statistically based boundary condition scenarios (first quartile, median, third quartile, and maximum radon-222 inshore of 5 kilometers), the cross-shelf mixing rates and average nearshore submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) rates varied from 100.38 to 10-3.4 square kilometers per day and 0.00 to 1.70 centimeters per day, respectively. This dataset and modeling provide the first attempt to assess cross-shelf mixing and SGD on such a large spatial scale. Such estimates help scale up SGD rates that are often made at 1- to 10-meter

  13. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  14. Environmental radioactivity near the central coast of Venezuela and its radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were determined in the upper layers of soils in the central coastal region of Venezuela. The activities of 137Cs are higher in the areas where the forest is well developed, oriented towards the wind and at higher elevations. The origin of the 137Cs deposition is from water input from the clouds directly in the cloudforest and rainfall from the northeast trade winds. Even though the values of 137Cs are much higher in these areas, there is little or no significant increase in the health risk. The natural radioactivity is correlated with the geology in the region except in the area of Urama. The values for the natural radiation background are as follows: for potassium between 1-3%, for radium between 1-3 ppm and for thorium the range was 6-39 ppm. The corresponding amounts of absorbed dose rates in air, the exposure rates and the annual effective dose equivalents are in the following ranges respectively: 11-39 pGy/s, 4-16 uR/h and 0.25-0.86 mSv/y. The annual effective dose equivalents include the contribution of the global average (2.57 mSv/y) of the rest of the natural sources of radiation. Finally, the largest natural radioactivity background, was found near Chichiriviche as a result of the massive granite deposits in this area, but again there is no significant health risk. (author)

  15. Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Dharmaraj; M N Patil; R T Waghmare; P Ernest Raj

    2012-08-01

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the coast of Arabian Sea, Goa (15°21′N, 73° 51′E) in India. These observations were collected, in association with the surface layer turbulent parameters for the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). In the summer monsoon period, concentration of CO2 was in the range of 550–790 mg m−3 whereas the water vapour was in the range of 17.5–24.5 g m−3. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has been performed on these observations to investigate the spectral behaviour of CO2 and water vapour. The relation between CO2 and water vapour on various atmospheric scales has been proposed. CO2 and water vapour observations confirmed the existence of periodicities of large (11, 8 days), meso (5 days) and micrometeorological (20 min) scales.

  16. The study of bacterioplankton dynamics in the Berlengas Archipelago (West coast of Portugal by applying the HJ-biplot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between bacterioplankton and environmental forcing in the Berlengas Archipelago (Western Coast of Portugal were studied between February 2006 and February 2007 in two sampling stations: Berlenga and Canal, using an HJ-biplot. The HJ-biplot showed a simultaneous display of the three main metabolic groups of bacteria involved in carbon cycling (aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria and environmental parameters, in low dimensions. Our results indicated thatbacterial dynamics are mainly affected by temporal gradients (seasonal gradients with a clear winter versus summer opposition, and less by the spatial structure (Berlenga and Canal. The yearly variation in the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were positively correlated with those in chlorophyll a concentration, whereas ammonium concentration and temperature decreased with increasing phosphates and nitrites concentration. The relationship between aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, chlorophyll a and ammonium reveals that phytoplankton is an important source of organic substrates for bacteria.

  17. A model for the bioaccumulation of (99)Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Y S; Vives i Batlle, J

    2003-01-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of (99)Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for (99)Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged (99)Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of (99)Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of (99)Tc in lobsters. PMID:12691720

  18. A model for the bioaccumulation of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Y.S.; Vives i Batlle, J. E-mail: jordi.vives@westlakes.ac.uk

    2003-07-01

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of {sup 99}Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for {sup 99}Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged {sup 99}Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of {sup 99}Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of {sup 99}Tc in lobsters.

  19. The Choice Between External and Domestic Debt in Financing Budget Deficits; The Case of Central and West African Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Philippe Beaugrand; Montfort Mlachila; Boileau Loko

    2002-01-01

    The paper reviews the principles and practical considerations involved in the choice between foreign and domestic financing of fiscal deficits, and derives a series of recommendations broadly applicable to Central and West African countries. The paper develops a simple analytical framework and shows that highly concessional external debt is usually a superior choice to domestic debt in terms of financial costs and risks, even in the face of a probable devaluation. The paper stresses the impor...

  20. Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along west-central Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; McCutcheon, Amanda L.; Jenson, John W.

    2014-09-01

    Using coral growth parameters (extension, density, calcification rates, and luminescence) and geochemical measurements (barium to calcium rations; Ba/Ca) from coral cores collected in west-central Guam, we provide a historic perspective on sediment input to coral reefs adjacent to the Piti-Asan watershed. The months of August through December are dominated by increased coral Ba/Ca values, corresponding to the rainy season. With river water enriched in barium related to nearshore seawater, coral Ba/Ca ratios are presented as a proxy for input of fine-grained terrigenous sediment to the nearshore environment. The century-long Ba/Ca coral record indicates that the Asan fore reef is within the zone of impact from discharged sediments transported from the Piti-Asan watershed and has experienced increased terrestrial sedimentation since the 1940s. This abrupt shift in sedimentation occurred at the same time as both the sudden denudation of the landscape by military ordinance and the immediate subsequent development of the Asan area through the end of the war, from 1944 through 1945. In response to rapid input of sediment, as determined from coral Ba/Ca values, coral growth rates were reduced for almost two decades, while calcification rates recovered much more quickly. Furthermore, coral luminescence is decoupled from the Ba/Ca record, which is consistent with degradation of soil organic matter through disturbance by forest fires, suggesting a potential index of fire history and degradation of soil organic matter. These patterns were not seen in the cores from nearby reefs associated with watersheds that have not undergone the same degree of landscape denudation. Taken together, these records provide a valuable tool for understanding the compounding effects of land-use change on coral reef health.

  1. Historic impact of watershed change and sedimentation to reefs along west-central Guam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prouty, Nancy G.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; McCutcheon, Amanda L.; Jenson, John W.

    2014-01-01

    Using coral growth parameters (extension, density, calcification rates, and luminescence) and geochemical measurements (barium to calcium rations; Ba/Ca) from coral cores collected in west-central Guam, we provide a historic perspective on sediment input to coral reefs adjacent to the Piti-Asan watershed. The months of August through December are dominated by increased coral Ba/Ca values, corresponding to the rainy season. With river water enriched in barium related to nearshore seawater, coral Ba/Ca ratios are presented as a proxy for input of fine-grained terrigenous sediment to the nearshore environment. The century-long Ba/Ca coral record indicates that the Asan fore reef is within the zone of impact from discharged sediments transported from the Piti-Asan watershed and has experienced increased terrestrial sedimentation since the 1940s. This abrupt shift in sedimentation occurred at the same time as both the sudden denudation of the landscape by military ordinance and the immediate subsequent development of the Asan area through the end of the war, from 1944 through 1945. In response to rapid input of sediment, as determined from coral Ba/Ca values, coral growth rates were reduced for almost two decades, while calcification rates recovered much more quickly. Furthermore, coral luminescence is decoupled from the Ba/Ca record, which is consistent with degradation of soil organic matter through disturbance by forest fires, suggesting a potential index of fire history and degradation of soil organic matter. These patterns were not seen in the cores from nearby reefs associated with watersheds that have not undergone the same degree of landscape denudation. Taken together, these records provide a valuable tool for understanding the compounding effects of land-use change on coral reef health.

  2. Seismic architecture and evolution of the Disko Bay trough-mouth fan, central West Greenland margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Julia C.; Knutz, Paul C.; Nielsen, Tove; Kuijpers, Antoon

    2016-09-01

    The present study is the first to document the large-scale glacigenic evolution of a West Greenland trough-mouth fan (TMF) system, i.e. the Disko Bay TMF, from onset of shelf-based glaciation to present. We have constrained the paleo-ice sheet configuration in the Disko Bay region and determine the controlling factors of ice-stream development using 2D- and 3D-seismic reflection data, seabed bathymetry and stratigraphic information from two exploration wells. This has revealed three stages of the Disko Bay TMF development. The early stage, probably of Pliocene-early Pleistocene age, marks the onset of a central depocentre located below the modern mid-shelf and constructed by sediment progradation delivered through at least two erosive pathways related to fast-flowing, grounded ice. At that time, ice-stream routing in the Disko Bay shelf region was strongly controlled by the pre-glacial topography and structural boundaries associated with fracture zones and deep-seated faults. During the middle evolutionary stage, the focus of deposition shifted from the mid-shelf to two elongate areas fringing the outer margin. The marginal depocentres were not only related to glacial processes but also alongslope deposition by contour currents, which may have developed as a consequence of basin subsidence surrounding the Davis Strait High and the Kangerluk Structure. The late stage of TMF development, presumably representing the late Pleistocene to Holocene, is characterized by the marginal depocentres becoming less significant and sediment aggradation occurring over wide parts of the mid-outer shelf, while features of subglacial erosion are generally absent. In contrast to the inferred fast-flowing ice streams of the early-middle evolutionary stages, this points to the existence of a rather thin and "lightly" grounded ice sheet, i.e. at the threshold of floatation. The "lightly" grounded ice sheet scenario, applying to the late Pleistocene interval of the Disko Bay TMF, was

  3. Applying an ecosystem service approach to unravel links between ecosystems and society in the coast of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Juan, Silvia; Gelcich, Stefan; Ospina-Alvarez, Andres; Perez-Matus, Alejandro; Fernandez, Miriam

    2015-11-15

    Ecosystem-based management implies understanding feedbacks between ecosystems and society. Such understanding can be approached with the Drivers-Pressures-State change-Impacts-Response framework (DPSIR), incorporating stakeholders' preferences for ecosystem services to assess impacts on society. This framework was adapted to six locations in the central coast of Chile, where artisanal fisheries coexist with an increasing influx of tourists, and a set of fisheries management areas alternate with open access areas and a no-take Marine Protected Area (MPA). The ecosystem services in the study area were quantified using biomass and species richness in intertidal and subtidal areas as biological indicators. The demand for ecosystem services was elicited by interviews to the principal groups of users. Our results evidenced decreasing landings and a negative perception of fishermen on temporal trends of catches. The occurrence of recreational fishing was negligible, although the consumption of seafood by tourists was relatively high. Nevertheless, the consumption of organisms associated to the study system was low, which could be linked, amongst other factors, to decreasing catches. The comparison of biological indicators between management regimens provided variable results, but a positive effect of management areas and the MPA on some of the metrics was observed. The prioritising of ecosystem attributes by tourists was highly homogenous across the six locations, with "scenic beauty" consistently selected as the preferred attribute, followed by "diversity". The DPSIR framework illustrated the complex interactions existing in these locations, with weak linkages between society's priorities, existing management objectives and the state of biological communities. Overall, this work improved our knowledge on relations between components of coastal areas in central Chile, of paramount importance to advance towards an ecosystem-based management in the area.

  4. 海峡西岸经济区邮轮旅游SWOT分析%Study of SWOT Analysis and Countermeasures on Cruise Tourism in the West Coast of the Straits Economic Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    骆培聪; 张莹莹; 佘赛芬

    2011-01-01

    邮轮旅游是国际旅游市场上增长速度快、发展潜力大的高端旅游产品.采用SWOT方法,分析以厦门市为中心的海峡西岸经济区邮轮旅游发展具有个人收入不断提高,旅游产业发展迅速,邮轮旅游发展初具规模,地理位置优越等优势;存在中心城市集聚和辐射带动功能不够,邮轮旅游高级人才较少,旅游者消费观念比较落后等劣势;存在世界邮轮旅游发展潜力大,海西发展机遇良好,政府有关部门出台各项相关政策等机遇,同时还面临着全国许多正在发展邮轮旅游城市的挑战.文章提出要加强海西邮轮旅游发展总体规划编制工作,推动政府、院校、企业广泛参与,加强区内区外邮轮旅游合作,加大邮轮旅游发展宣传力度等对策.%Cruise tourism is the high-end tourism products which grows fast and has great potential for the development in the international tourism market. The paper analyzes the development of cruise tourism strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and challenges in the west coast of the straits economic zone (centering on Xiamen city) by SWOT method. The strengths include increasing individual income, rapid development of tourism industry, formative cruise tourism and convenient geographic location,etc. The weaknesses include the weak function of assembling and radiating of the regional central city, shortage of the advanced intellect of cruise tourism, weak consumption of toursits,etc. The opportunities include the great potential of cruise tourism development in the world, the preferential development opportunities in the west coast of the straits economic zone, and some policies of support , etc. The challenges are the competation of developing cruise tourism among the cities in the whole country, etc. This paper puts forward that cruise tourism master plan should be drew up in the west coast of the straits economic zone, the local government, colleges, enterprises be encouraged to

  5. Sources and transportation modes of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits on the central east Japan coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putra, Purna Sulastya; Nishimura, Yuichi; Nakamura, Yugo; Yulianto, Eko

    2013-08-01

    We evaluated sediment sources of the 2011 Tohoku-Oki tsunami deposits along a 4500 m inland transect from the central east Japan coast, using grain size, mineralogy and foraminifera analyses. The tsunami run-up height in our study area was 13 to 20 m near the coastline, 1.4 to 2.8 m in the middle of the valley and 1.3 m around the inundation limit. The inundation distance was around 4800 m. The deposits are composed of sand and mud and show a fining and thinning trend. Mineral composition of the tsunami deposits was similar to that of coastal dune and beach deposits, indicating that most of the tsunami sediment originated from there. A minor foraminifera population in the deposit (≤ 15 specimens per 5 g of sample compared with ≥ 100 specimens per 1 g for typical marine sediment) indicates that marine sediment source was not dominant. Topography played an important role in sediment transport process and deposit distribution. The run-up wave accelerated faster in concave topography, became more erosive, and resulted in a thin deposit in topographic lows. We infer that the deposits up to 2300 m from the coastline were deposited by bedload and suspension, whereas suspension was responsible for deposits farther inland.

  6. The effect analysis of 1741 Oshima-Oshima tsunami in the West Coast of Japan to Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Minkyu; Rhee, Hyunme; Choi, Inkil [Korea Atomic Energy Research institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    It is very difficult to determine and assessment for tsunami hazard. For determining a tsunami risk for NPP site, a development of tsunami hazard is one of the most important. Through the tsunami hazard analysis, a tsunami return period can be determined. For the performing a tsunami hazard analysis, empirical method and numerical method should be needed. Kim et al, already developed tsunami hazard for east coast of Korea for the calculation of tsunami risk of nuclear power plant. In the case of tsunami hazard analysis, a development of tsunami catalog should be performed. In the previous research of Kim et al, the maximum wave height was assumed by the author's decision based on historical record in the annals of Chosun dynasty for evaluating the tsunami catalog. Therefore, in this study, a literature survey was performed for a quantitative measure of historical tsunami record transform to qualitative tsunami wave height for the evaluation of tsunami catalog. In this study, the 1741 tsunami was determined by using a literature review for the evaluation of tsunami hazard. The 1741 tsunami reveals a same tsunami between the historical records in Korea and Japan. The tsunami source of 1741 tsunami was not an earthquake and volcanic. Using the numerical analysis, the wave height of 1741 tsunami can be determined qualitatively.

  7. FISH DIVERSITY ALONG THE LONGITUDINAL GRADIENT IN A MAN–MADE LAKE OF WEST AFRICA, TAABO HYDROELECTRIC RESERVOIR, IVORY COAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. G. Aliko

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Fish assemblage patterns in Taabo Reservoir, a hydroelectric lake of Ivory Coast, were studied and related to the longitudinal gradient (river–dam gradient composed of riverine, transitional, and lacustrine zones. Data were collected at 5 stations and each one was sampled during 5 surveys. Fish community structure was analysed using alpha and beta diversity indices. In total, 53 fish species were obtained in the whole ecosystem. Total species richness recorded at each ecological zone was 42, 43 and 45 species respectively in the riverine, transitional and lacustrine zones. Alpha diversity did not differed significantly along the longitudinal gradient but reached the highest value (33 species in the transitional zone and the lowest (18 species occurred in both the riverine and lacustrine zones. Temporal variability of Alpha diversity according to the hydrological regime of the lake differed with the zone. Beta diversity showed that fish assemblages similarity was higher between the transitional and the riverine zones (βw = 0.43 and lower between the riverine and the lacustrine zones (βw = 0.79.

  8. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashim, Yusof bin [Faculty of Industrial Sciences and Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Gambang 26300 Kuantan, Pahang (Malaysia); Taha, Zahari bin [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Malaysia Pahang, 26600 Pekan, Pahang (Malaysia)

    2015-02-03

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  9. Cestodes of the blue shark, Prionace glauca (Linnaeus 1758), (Carcharhiniformes: Carcharhinidae), off the west coast of Baja California Sur, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez, Oscar; Galván-Magaña, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    The cestode species recovered from the spiral intestines of 27 blue sharks (Prionace glauca) (Linnaeus, 1758) are reported from the western coast of Baja California Sur (BCS). The sampling was undertaken on a monthly basis from January 2003 to January 2004. The helminthological examination indicated the presence of four species of cestodes: Platybothrium auriculatum Yamaguti, 1952; Prosobothrium japonicum Yamaguti, 1934; Anthobothrium caseyi (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke & Caira, 2009; and Paraorygmatobothrium prionacis (Yamaguti, 1934) Ruhnke, 1994. Of all the 27 sharks examined, 88.8% were infected with at least one cestode species. The most frequent species was P. auriculatum infecting 85% of the spiral intestines examined. In contrast the species with the highest mean intensity was P. prionacis (80.4 200). The species richness of cestodes in P. glauca is very similar in other regions of the world despite its wide distribution; however, this richness is low compared with other species of sharks within the same family. The feeding and host-specific are important factors that influence the parameters of infection of cestodes in this shark. On the west coast of BCS, Prionace glauca feeds mainly on red crab Pleuroncodes planipes Stimpson, 1860; squids Gonatus californiensis Young, 1972, Ancistrocheirus lesueurii (D'Orbigny, 1842), Haliphron atlanticus Steenstrup, 1861, and low proportion of fish teleosts as Merluccius productus (Ayres, 1855), Sardinops sp. Hubbs, 1929 and Scomber japonicus Houttuyn, 1872. We speculate that these prey could be involved as the second intermediate hosts of these cestodes, as in other members of these genera, although the life cycles of none are known. PMID:27394312

  10. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashim, Yusof bin; Taha, Zahari bin

    2015-02-01

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger's injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents.

  11. Partial least square method for modelling ergonomic risks factors on express bus accidents in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Public, stake holders and authorities in Malaysian government show great concern towards high numbers of passenger’s injuries and passengers fatalities in express bus accident. This paper studies the underlying factors involved in determining ergonomics risk factors towards human error as the reasons in express bus accidents in order to develop an integrated analytical framework. Reliable information about drivers towards bus accident should lead to the design of strategies intended to make the public feel safe in public transport services. In addition there is an analysis of ergonomics risk factors to determine highly ergonomic risk factors which led to accidents. The research was performed in east coast of peninsular Malaysia using variance-based structural equation modeling namely the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression techniques. A questionnaire survey was carried out at random among 65 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuantan in Pahang and among 49 express bus drivers operating from the city of Kuala Terengganu in Terengganu to all towns in the east coast of peninsular west Malaysia. The ergonomic risks factors questionnaire is based on demographic information, occupational information, organizational safety climate, ergonomic workplace, physiological factors, stress at workplace, physical fatigue and near miss accidents. The correlation and significant values between latent constructs (near miss accident) were analyzed using SEM SmartPLS, 3M. The finding shows that the correlated ergonomic risks factors (occupational information, t=2.04, stress at workplace, t = 2.81, physiological factor, t=2.08) are significant to physical fatigue and as the mediator to near miss accident at t = 2.14 at p<0.05and T-statistics, t>1.96. The results shows that the effects of physical fatigue due to ergonomic risks factors influence the human error as the reasons in express bus accidents

  12. The impact of different hydrographic conditions and zooplankton communities on provisioning Little Auks along the West coast of Spitsbergen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasniewski, Slawomir; Gluchowska, Marta; Jakubas, Dariusz; Wojczulanis-Jakubas, Katarzyna; Walkusz, Wojciech; Karnovsky, Nina; Blachowiak-Samolyk, Katarzyna; Cisek, Malgorzata; Stempniewicz, Lech

    2010-10-01

    Composition and abundance of zooplankton were studied simultaneously with feeding ecology of planktivorous Little Auks ( Alle alle) in two different sea shelf areas of West Spitsbergen, Norway, in summer 2007. Zooplankton was collected adjacent to bird colonies in Magdalenefjorden (influenced by Atlantic West Spitsbergen Current) and Hornsund (dominated by the Arctic Sørkapp Current). In spite of different hydrological situations, the abundance of prey preferred by Little Auks, Arctic Calanus glacialis copepodids stage V, among zooplankton was similar in both localities. However, there was much more of Atlantic Calanus finmarchicus on the shelf outside Magdalenefjorden compared to Hornsund, resulting in different abundance ratios of Arctic to Atlantic copepods in the two areas (1:14 and 1:1, respectively). Even greater differences between the two areas occurred in the ratio of C. glacialis CV to other zooplankters, amounting to 1:40 in Magdalenefjorden and 1:6 in Hornsund. In both Little Auk colonies food brought by parents to their chicks contained mainly C. glacialis CV, albeit the proportion of this copepod in meals was significantly higher in Hornsund. Meals delivered to Little Auk chicks in Hornsund had also higher zooplankton numbers, biomass and energy content. In Magdalenefjorden, on the other hand, a higher number of feedings and longer duration of foraging trips were recorded. These differences became more apparent with increasing energy requirements of the fast growing nestlings. This was probably a consequence of lower relative abundance of the Little Auks’ preferred prey in the sea adjacent to Magdalenefjorden colony. It seems that searching for the preferred food items, such as C. glacialis, among abundant but less favored C. finmarchicus, may require more time and energy demanding foraging behavior. As a consequence, foraging effort of the Little Auk parents from Magdalenefjorden was higher, and feeding efficiency lower, than those of birds from

  13. Backscatter Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  14. Bathymetry Mapping of the West Florida Shelf (Central Region), Gulf of Mexico (NODC Accession 0001410)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — XYZ ASCII format data generated from the 2001 multibeam sonar survey of the West Florida Shelf, Gulf of Mexico. The data include high-resolution bathymetry and...

  15. Algas marinas bentónicas de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México Benthic marine algae of the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luz Elena Mateo-Cid

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentan los resultados de un estudio sobre algas marinas bentónicas en 7 localidades de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero, México. Se determinó la presencia de 163 especies de algas marinas. Se identificaron 17 especies de Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta y 25 de Heterokontophyta. Se citan 54 registros nuevos para el litoral de Guerrero, 2 también nuevos, Myrionema strangulans Greville y Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly para la costa del Pacífico. Cada especie se acompaña de datos sobre su distribución en el área de estudio, su estado reproductivo, nivel de marea, hábitat, observaciones, epifitismo y número de herbario o de recolección. Se comparó la riqueza específica entre la estación climática de lluvias y la de secas. La división Rhodophyta dominó en términos de diversidad en relación con las 3 divisiones restantes. La ficoflora de la costa noroccidental de Guerrero es de afinidad tropical y más diversa en la época de secas.We present results on the study on benthic marine algae in 7 localities from the west coast of Guerrero, Mexico. We report 163 species: 17 Cyanobacteria, 93 Rhodophyta, 28 Chlorophyta and 25 Heterokontophyta. Fifty four are new records for Guerrero; while Myrionema strangulans Greville and Acrochaete ramosa (N.L.Gardner O'Kelly are new to the Pacific coast of Mexico. Each species includes data on its distribution, reproductive stages, tidal level, facies, epiphytism and herbarium's number. Species diversity was compared for 2 different climatic seasons. The Rhodophyta are dominant in terms of diversity in relation to the other groups. The algal flora of the northwest coast of Guerrero is tropical and the greatest diversity was found during dry seasons.

  16. Overwintering of Uranotaenia Unguiculata Adult Females in Central Europe: A Possible Way of Persistence of the Putative New Lineage of West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, Ivo; Šebesta, Oldřich; Straková, Petra; Betášová, Lenka; Blažejová, Hana; VEnclíková, Kristýna; Seidel, Bernhard; Tóth, Sandor; Hubálek, Zdeněk; Schaffner, Francis

    2015-12-01

    We report the overwintering of Uranotaenia unguiculata adult females in Central Europe (Czech Republic, Hungary, Austria). This finding suggests a potential mode of winter persistence of putative novel lineage of West Nile virus in the temperate regions of Europe.

  17. Variability of fresh- and salt-water marshes characteristics on the west coast of France: a spatio-temporal assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tortajada, Sébastien; David, Valérie; Brahmia, Amel; Dupuy, Christine; Laniesse, Thomas; Parinet, Bernard; Pouget, Frederic; Rousseau, Frederic; Simon-Bouhet, Benoit; Robin, François-Xavier

    2011-08-01

    The degradation of water quality and the multiple conflicts of interest between users make marsh restoration very important. A Water Quality Evaluation System (WQES) was developed for river systems by the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Some form of biologically-based, habitat-specific reference standard seems absolutely essential for wise management and stewardship of marsh ecosystems. The goal of this study was to develop a statistical method to define and to characterize a water body typology for drained marshes of the Charente-Maritime wetlands on the French Atlantic coast, placing particular emphasis on environmental factors as hydraulic functioning, human activities and pedological substratum. The Charente-Maritime marshes represent a good field study because of his high diversity of types of marshes and of anthropogenic activities in a restrictive area thus erasing spatial climatic effect (latitude effect). The statistical method developed here had permitted to define and characterize 12 different water bodies, 7 in freshwater (F1 to F7) and 5 in salt water marshes for the Charente-Maritime area. This typology demonstrated an important link between the size catchment area, nitrate concentrations, and leaching of precipitation from cultured soils. Even though the Charente-Maritime marshes are strongly impacted by humans, they may still retain the ability to remove nitrate. The increasing gradient of water renewal in the freshwater marshes from F1 to F7 explained the decreasing gradient of eutrophication. A better management of the hydrodynamic of the marshes can avoid eutrophication risk on the coastal sea area. Reliance on the WFD parameter set necessarily placed limits on the kinds of interpretations that could be made and on the study's potential contribution to the basic science of marshes. Ecologically-based insights regarding both external flows (links between ecosystems, meta-ecosystem theory) and internal flows (structure of the planktonic

  18. Ordovician Intrusive-related Gold-Copper Mineralization in West-Central New South Wales, Australia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Three major types of Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are recognized in central-west New South Wales,, Australia: porphyry, skam and high sulphidation epithermal deposits.These deposits are mainly distributed within two Ordovician volcano-intrusive belts of the Lachlan Fold Be1t: the Orange-Wellington Belt and the Parkes-Narromine Belt. Available isotopic age data suggest that mineralization of the three types of deposits is essentially coeval with the Ordovician intrusive rocks (480-430 Ma). Porphyry gold-copper deposits can be further divided into two groups. The first group is associated with monzoniteshowing shoshonitic features represented by Cadia and Goonumbla. The second group is associated with diorite and dacite, including the Copper Hill and Cargo gold-copper deposits. Gold skarn is associated with Late Ordovician (430-439 Ma) monzonitic intrusive complexes in the Junction Reefs area (Sheahan-Grants, Frenchmans, and Cornishmens), Endeavour 6, 7 and 44, Big and Little Cadia. The epithermal gold deposits with high sulphidation including Gidginbung (Temora) and Peak Hill mainly occur within Ordovician andesite and volcaniclastic rocks, and are associated with advanced argillic alteration. Available isotopic age data indicate that both alteration and mineralization of the porphyry, skam and epithermal gold-copper deposits are broadly coeval with the Late Ordovician hoshonitic mangmatism, which is thought to result from the melting of sub-continental lithosphere caused by Palaeozoic subduction events. The Ordovician intrusive-related gold-copper deposits are restricted to two longitudinal parallel volcano-intrusive belts, rarely extending outside them. Diagonal intra-belt trends of mineralization are common, particularly at the intersections of longitudinal and transverse (oblique) fault/fracture zones basedon the authors'review of available geological data. The locations of these gold-copper deposits are obviously influenced by transverse

  19. Remote sensing approach to determine net shore drift direction- A case study along the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_9_663.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_9_663.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. Monsoon-induced temporal changes in beach morphology and associated sediment dynamics, central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chauhan, O.S.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_11_776.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_11_776.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...