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Sample records for central west coast

  1. Classification of tidal inlets along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vikas, M.; Reddy, N.A.; Rao, S.; JayaKumar, S.

    Tidal inlets along the Maharashtra coast on the central west coast of India were classified according to three methods available in the literature. Two classification methods viz., (i) Hydrodynamic classification (Hayes, 1979) and (ii...

  2. Development of summer monsoon and onset of continuous rains over central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    A new interpretation of the start of summer monsoon along central west coast of India is presented in this paper. Many authors misinterpret onset of continuous rains as start of summer monsoon front, These two are different phenomena, continuous...

  3. Characterization and Ecophysiological Observations on Coastal Sand Dune Vegetation from Goa, Central West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, R.S.

    CHARACTERIZATION AND ECOPHYSIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON COASTAL SAND DUNE VEGETATION FROM GOA, CENTRAL WEST COAST, INDIA THESIS SUBMITTED TO UNIVERSITY OF PUNE FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY (BOTANY) BY ROUCHELLE S. RODRIGUES, M.Sc. UNDER...

  4. Benthic foraminifera as proxy for oxygen-depleted conditions off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nigam, R.; Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Saraswat, R.

    In order to study the response of benthic foraminifera, especially the rectilinear bi- and tri-serial benthic foraminifera (RBF) to oxygen-depleted conditions from the Arabian Sea off central west coast of India, 103 surface sediment samples...

  5. Beach rocks of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    -an overview. Bulletin Deccan College Research Institute, Pune 44:153-163 Kumar S, Rao GV (1982) Geographical and Quaternary history of the west coast of Ratnagiri District, Maharashtra. First National Seminar Quaternary Environmental Papers. Marh 58 (ed) Hin... dustan Publication Company, Delhi, pp 311-318 Pascoe EH (1964) A Manual of the geology of India and Bunna. Goverment of India Press, New Delhi, 1906-1907, P Russel RJ, McIntire WG (1965) Southern hemisphere beach rock. 115 Indian Ocean Studies Technical...

  6. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D

    ) 10:31-36 Geo-Marine Letters © 1990 Springer-Verlag New York Inc y Regional Gravity and Magnetic Studies over the Continental Margin of the Central West Coast of India L. V. Subba Raju, K. A. Kamesh Raju, V. Subrahmanyam, and D. Gopala Rao National... Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract Gravity studies over the continental margin of the central west coast of India show a sediment thickness of 2-3 km on the shelf associated with deeper hoest and graben structures, of 6 km...

  7. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Ahmad; Mehra, P.; Michael, G.S.; Sundar, D.

    -driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India Pratima M Kessarkar, V Purnachandra Rao ∗ , R Shynu, Ishfaq Mir Ahmad, Prakash Mehra, G S Michael and D Sundar National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula 403 004, Goa, India. ∗ e...

  8. Longshore sediment transport rate-measurement and estimation, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Anand, N.M.; Chandramohan, P.; Naik, G.N.

    Measurements of the longshore sediment transport rate (LSTR) along the surf zone at a 4-km-long beach on the central west coast of India were made over a 4-month period. During the study, both the lateral and vertical distributions of the sediment...

  9. Elysia bangtawaensis Swennen (Nudibranch) from the mangrove habitat of Mandovi estuary, Goa (central west coast), India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Shenai-Tirodkar, P.S.; Savant, S.B.; Kulkarni, V.A.; Ansari, Z.A.

    Hills, Shillong 793 003, India *For correspondence. e-mail: gobin@sancharnet.in Elysia bangtawaensis Swennen (Nudibranch) from the mangrove habitat of Mandovi estuary, Goa (central west coast), India Elysia bangtawaensis Swennen was re... was found to be declining during January. During regular monitoring of man- grove habitats, aggregation of Elysia sp. was noticed from mangrove swamps in the mesohaline zone (Figures 1, 2 a and b) in November 2007. Sixty species of Elysia out...

  10. Assessment of coastal wetland resources of central west coast, India, using LANDSAT data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Naik, S.; Nagle, V.L.

    -Paula, Goa- 403 004 ** Space Application Centre (ISRO), Ahmedabad - 380 053 ABSTRACT The part of central west coast (Maharashtra and Goa) of India has been classified and quantified for coastal wetlands using LANDSAT data of 1985-86. The classification... to the Ministry of Environment and Forestry. Govt. of India for entrusting the job to us and for the financial support. We are grateful to Director of National Institute of Oceanography (CS1R), Donapaula. Goa and Space Application Centre (ISRO). Ahemadabad...

  11. Low-scale foreshore morphodynamic processes in the vicinity of a tropical estuary at Honnavar, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hegde, V.S.; Shalini, G.; Nayak, S.R.; Rajawat, A.S.; Suryanarayana, A.; Jayakumar, S.; Koti, B.K.; Girish, G.K.

    Low-scale foreshore morphodynamic processes in the vicinity of the Sharavati estuary at Honnavar, central west coast of India, are discussed in this paper based on the wave refraction analyses, sediment characteristics, and foreshore morphological...

  12. US west coast

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aerial surveys are conducted along the US west coast to determine distribution and abundance of endangered leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea), loggerhead...

  13. Near shore waves, long-shore currents and sediment transport along micro-tidal beaches, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Philip, C.S.; SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Johnson, G.

    breaker parameters are estimated at two micro-tidal beaches along central west coast of India. Model results are validated with measured values. From the breaker parameters, long-shore current and long-shore sediment transport rates (LSTR) are computed...

  14. Inter-annual variations in wave spectral characteristics at a location off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Nair, M.A.

    The inter-annual variations in wave spectrum are examined based on the wave data measured at 9 m water depth off the central west coast of India from 2009 to 2012 using a wave rider buoy. The temporal variation of the spectral energy density over a...

  15. Changes in erosional and depositional processes with time and management of Goa Coast, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Ganapati; D'Souza, Joseph

    2010-05-01

    Coastal and estuarine environments, world over are facing immense impact due to both natural and anthropogenic processes. The natural processes include climatic changes, rise in sea level, cyclone, flood, tsunamis, coastal erosion, salinity ingress and siltation. Likewise, anthropogenic pressures include population expansion, ocean traffic, dredging, resource exploitation, pollution, unplanned urbanization and intensive industrialization. Due to these impacts the fragile coastal ecosystem and its entities, like sub ecosystems, resources, morphological units are undergoing unprecedented degradation, rendering these coastal regions vulnerable, impinging risk to human population, livestock, properties, as also, devastation of resourceful lands. This accelerates economic fatalities and irreversible obliteration to the ecosystems. Evidences on the global concern towards this issue have been well established. The countries world over, including India, pledged consensus towards the protection of the fragile coastal ecosystems through UNCED, Agenda-21. India, on 19th February 1991, has designated specified corridors along the landward side of the coastline as "Coastal Regulatory Zones" (CRZ), through appropriate policy and law. In context with the CRZ notification, scientific database at local and site-specific areas, developed. Synergy of ecosystems, landscape and resources with demographic, tourism data, vis-à-vis, economic corridors/sectors aided the paradigms and criterion for local and site specific prescriptions for Goa Coast. The Goa coast is a part of central west coast of India and is characterized by pocket beaches flanked by rocky cliffs, estuaries, bays, and at some places mangroves. Beaches in southern Goa are long and linear in nature with sand dunes. The Mandovi and Zuari estuarine system in Goa is the largest in this part of the coast. Mud flats, swampy marshes and wetlands are found mainly along estuaries and creeks. The beaches of Goa are stable beaches

  16. Zooplankton variability and copepod assemblage in the coastal and estuarine waters of Goa along the central-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Ramaiah, Neelam; Padmavati, G.

    Seasonal variations in zooplankton distribution and community structure of copepod species in coastal and estuarine waters of Goa along the central-west coast of India are compared in relation to water temperature, salinity and dissoved oxygen...

  17. Near shore waves, long-shore currents and sediment transport along micro-tidal beaches, central west coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sajiv Philip CHEMPALAYIL; V Sanil KUMAR; G Udhaba DORA; Glejin JOHNSON

    2014-01-01

    Coastlines are undergoing constant geomorphologic changes with respect to the incident wave climate. Based on waves measured at 9 m water depth, simulation of near shore wave transformation is done using REFDIF-1 numerical model and the near shore breaker parameters are estimated at two micro-tidal beaches along central west coast of India. Model results are validated with measured values. From the breaker parameters, long-shore current and long-shore sediment transport rates (LSTR) are computed by using semi-empirical equations. Estimated long-shore current and LSTR are showing dramatic variations with respect to seasons. Predominant direction of LSTR is observed towards north since the approach waves are from south-west direction during pre-monsoon and post monsoon. During monsoon season, waves are from west south-west and resulted in southerly transport. The estimated annual net and gross LSTR by Cambridge Environmental Research Consultants (CERC) at two locations are in the same order whereas LSTR estimated by Walton & Bruno and Kamphuis equations are showing different estimations because of difference in surf-zone width and foreshore slope between the two locations. For micro-tidal beaches with length less than 6 km, Kamphuis equation is giving agreeable estimation of LSTR. Sensitivity analysis of LSTR estimate shows that coastal inclination is the prominent factor in determining LSTR than incident wave angle.

  18. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in surface sediments in continental shelf region along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  19. Determination of net shroe drift direction of central west coast of India using remotely sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 12 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_9_811.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_9_811.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  20. A New Record of Morula anaxares with a Description of the Radula of Three Other Species from Goa, Central West Coast of India (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    OpenAIRE

    , Jyoti V. Kumbhar; , Chandrashekher U. Rivonker

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a new record of Morula anaxares (Kiener 1835) (Muricidae) from Goa, Central West coast of India aided by spiral cord ontogeny, aperture morphology of shell and SEM of radula. This species was previously reported from Andaman, Nicobar, Lakshadweep and Madras coasts. In addition, detailed structures of radula of other three species namely Orania subnodulosa (Melvill 1893), Semiricinula konkanensis (Melvill 1893) and P...

  1. Shores of the central west coast of India - a case study using remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wagle, B.G.

    ridges, littoral terraces, dunes, tidal flats etc. have been described and demarcated. Ground truth have been collected for all the features identified from remote sensing data. The coast, with abandoned cliffs, littoral terraces, beach ridges, tidal...

  2. West Coast Fishing Closures, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate state and federally managed ocean areas off the West Coast of the United States that are closed to or have restrictions on commercial or...

  3. Environmental changes associated with monsoon induced upwelling, off central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DeSousa, S.N.; Sawkar, K.; Rao, P.V.S.S.D.P.

    in response to prevailing equatorward winds. High salinity ocean waters of rich nutrient contents were observed at the coast in some locations. However, the effect of upwelling on the surface distribution of properties was reduced to some extent due to coastal...

  4. Geochemistry of the continental margin sediments of the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, Ch.M.; Murty, P.S.N.

    which forms a source for phosphorus, low sedimentation rates and upwelling all favour phosphatization. Similar environmental conditions have been documented off Namibia and Peru-Chile coasts where modern phosphorite is being formed (Burnett, 1981...-53. BURNETT, W. C, (1977) Geochemistry and origin of phosphorilc deposits from ofT Peru and Chile: Gco!. Soc. America, Bull. 88, pp. &13-823. CALVERT, S. E., (1976) The mineralogy and geochemistry of nearshore sediments Chemical Oceanography. (Ed. Riley, J. P...

  5. Simulation of coastal winds along the central west coast of India using the MM5 mesoscale model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pushpadas, Dhanya; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; George, Smitha; Babu, M. T.; Balakrishnan Nair, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    A high-resolution mesoscale numerical model (MM5) has been used to study the coastal atmospheric circulation of the central west coast of India, and Goa in particular. The model is employed with three nested domains. The innermost domain of 3 km mesh covers Goa and the surrounding region. Simulations have been carried out for three different seasons—northeast (NE) monsoon, transition period and southwest (SW) monsoon with appropriate physics options to understand the coastal wind system. The simulated wind speed and direction match well with the observations. The model winds show the presence of a sea breeze during the NE monsoon season and transition period, and its absence during the SW monsoon season. In the winter period, the synoptic flow is northeasterly (offshore) and it weakens the sea breeze (onshore flow) resulting in less diurnal variation, while during the transition period, the synoptic flow is onshore and it intensifies the sea breeze. During the northeast monsoon at an altitude of above 750 m, the wind direction reverses, and this is the upper return current, indicating the vertical extent of the sea breeze. A well-developed land sea breeze circulation occurs during the transition period, with vertical extension of 300 and 1,100 m, respectively.

  6. Changes in nearshore waves during the active sea/land breeze period off Vengurla, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrutha, M. M.; Sanil Kumar, V.; Singh, J.

    2016-02-01

    A unique feature observed in the tropical and subtropical coastal area is the diurnal sea-breeze/land-breeze cycle. We examined the nearshore waves at 5 and 15 m water depth during the active sea/land breeze period (January-April) in the year 2015 based on the data measured using the waverider buoys moored in the eastern Arabian sea off Vengurla, central west coast of India. Temporal variability of diurnal wave response is examined. Numerical model Delft3D is used to study the nearshore wave transformation. The wave height increased due to the sea breeze and reached its peak at ˜ 13:00 UTC at 15 m water depth, whereas the peak significant wave height is at 12:00 UTC at 5 m water depth. Due to the influence of the land/sea breeze system, the range of the peak wave period in 1 day varied up to 8 s. Reduction in the wave height of wind-sea is around 20 % and that of the swell is around 10 % from 15 to 5 m water depth.

  7. Chemical composition of red, brown and green macroalgae from Buarcos bay in Central West Coast of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Dina; Freitas, Ana C; Pereira, Leonel; Rocha-Santos, Teresa A P; Vasconcelos, Marta W; Roriz, Mariana; Rodríguez-Alcalá, Luís M; Gomes, Ana M P; Duarte, Armando C

    2015-09-15

    Six representative edible seaweeds from the Central West Portuguese Coast, including the less studied Osmundea pinnatifida, were harvested from Buarcos bay, Portugal and their chemical characterization determined. Protein content, total sugar and fat contents ranged between 14.4% and 23.8%, 32.4% and 49.3% and 0.6-3.6%. Highest total phenolic content was observed in Codium tomentosum followed by Sargassum muticum and O. pinnatifida. Fatty acid (FA) composition covered the branched chain C13ai to C22:5 n3 with variable content in n6 and n3 FA; low n6:n3 ratios were observed in O. pinnatifida, Grateloupia turuturu and C. tomentosum. Some seaweed species may be seen as good sources of Ca, K, Mg and Fe, corroborating their good nutritional value. According to FTIR-ATR spectra, G. turuturu was associated with carrageenan seaweed producers whereas Gracilaria gracilis and O. pinnatifida were mostly agar producers. In the brown algae, S. muticum and Saccorhiza polyschides, alginates and fucoidans were the main polysaccharides found. PMID:25863629

  8. Spatial distribution of the nematodes in the subtidal community of the Central West Coast of India with emphasis on Tershellingia longicaudata (Nematoda: Linhomoeidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.; Chatterjee, T.

    importance due to its ability to thrive in low oxygen sediments (Sergeeva 1991) and its presence in polluted habitats (Liu et al. 2008). Study Area Sampling sites were located along the central west coast of India (Figure 1). In total, 18 subtidal sites... (Villano and Warwick 1995). The species is also known to excel in anthropogenically disturbed and polluted habitats (Liu et al. 2008; Schratzberger and Warwick 1998; Lambshead 1986). T. longicaudata seems to show affinity towards silty sediment type...

  9. Cave bats of the central west coast and southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula, Panay Island, the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mould

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Bats (order Chiroptera form a large proportion of the species-rich mammalian fauna of the Philippines, and while the threats posed to these animals are well documented, for many species there is currently insufficient data to enable even a basic assessment of their conservation status. This is true for Panay Island, located in the Western Visayas region of the archipelago, where the need for surveying remaining suitable bat habitat has been identified as a priority. Between 5 April and 9 May 2011 a survey of 21 caves was undertaken on Panay, along the central section of the west coast of the island and within the southern section of the Northwest Panay Peninsula. Survey methods included visual observations, emergence counts and the recording of echolocation calls. Of the caves surveyed, 19 were found to support bats or show signs of their use, and at least 12 different species were observed. Three large maternity colonies of the Common Rousette Rousettus amplexicaudatus and two of the Dusky Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros ater were noted as having particular significance in terms of their conservation value for local populations. Potential maternity colonies of Asian Lesser False Vampire Megaderma spasma, Black-bearded Tomb Bat Taphozous melanopogon and Diadem Roundleaf Bat Hipposideros diadema were also observed but not confirmed. M. spasma was the most frequently encountered species, occurring in small numbers at five different caves. Other species/genera encountered in small numbers were the Arcuate Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus arcuatus, Common Short-nosed Fruit Bat Cynopterus brachyotis, Philippine Sheath-tailed Bat Emballonura alecto, Yellow-faced Horseshoe Bat Rhinolophus virgo, Bent-wing (Miniopterus and Myotis bat species, and at least one other Horseshoe (Rhinolophus bat species. Ten of the caves were confirmed to support multiple bat species. An indication of current threats and recommendations for further survey and management priorities are

  10. Eighteenth annual West Coast theoretical chemistry conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Abstracts are presented from the eighteenth annual west coast theoretical chemistry conference. Topics include molecular simulations; quasiclassical simulations of reactions; photodissociation reactions; molecular dynamics;interface studies; electronic structure; and semiclassical methods of reactive systems.

  11. West Coast Rockfish Conservation Areas, 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These data delineate Rockfish Conservation Areas (RCA) off the West Coast of the United States for 2015. There are three types of areas closures depicted in this...

  12. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) Temperature Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  13. West Coast Regional Office Permits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Fisheries implemented a license limitation program for the trawl and fixed gear sectors of Pacific Coast commercial groundfish fishery on January 1, 1993. The...

  14. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Abhijit; Nigam, Rajiv

    2014-04-01

    Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15-3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50-60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150-1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50-60 m. Within 150-1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (>1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

  15. Bathymetric preference of four major genera of rectilinear benthic foraminifera within oxygen minimum zone in Arabian Sea off central west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhijit Mazumder; Rajiv Nigam

    2014-04-01

    Fifty two surface sediment samples collected from the region off Goa, central west coast of India from water depths of 15–3300 m were analyzed with special emphasis on foraminiferal content. Rectilinear benthic foraminiferal morphogroup shows a high relative abundance within Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), both shallow marine (50–60 m water depth) and intermediate to deep water (150–1500 m water depth). We gave special emphasis on four rectilinear foraminiferal genera, namely Fursenkoina, Bolivina, Bulimina and Uvigerina to observe their individual distribution among OMZ. We found genus Fursenkoina predominates at the shallow water OMZ, within the water depth zone of 50–60 m. Within 150–1500 m water depth, which is considered as intermediate to deep water OMZ in this region, genus Uvigerina shows its highest abundance above 1000 m water depth, whereas genus Bulimina shows its affinity with deeper water environment (< 1000 m water depth). Genus Bolivina does not show any such depth preference, except its higher abundance in only intermediate to deep water OMZ. This depth differentiation among four rectilinear benthic foraminiferal genera presents the basic data for palaeoclimatic study based on the extent and intensity of OMZ along with the palaeobathymetry study.

  16. Observed internal tides and near-inertial waves on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subeesh, M. P.; Unnikrishnan, A. S.

    2016-05-01

    The characteristics of internal tides (ITs) and near-inertial waves (NIWs) on the continental shelf and slope off Jaigarh (17∘N), central west coast of India were studied. Eight-month (March-October) long Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) measurements made in the year 2008 were used in the present study. Analysis of sea surface heights from satellite altimeter data, where the tracks of the satellites are oriented nearly in the direction of the semimajor axis of barotropic tides, reveals the presence of diurnal and semidiurnal internal tides with surface amplitudes of about 2 cm. Baroclinic current spectra of horizontal velocities show peaks in IT frequencies of M2, S2, K1 and O1 and in inertial frequency (f). The observed current spectra show higher energies than those in Garrett-Munk reference spectra by about 2-3 times. Based on the estimates of "critical topography" (where the topographic slope is equal to the slope of IT) and computed barotropic body force (Baines, 1982), the shelf-edge, mid-slope and deep part of the slope region are found to be the possible generation sites of internal tides in the region. Over the period of observation, the IT on the slope is found to be energetic, with a strong IT during March to mid-April (pre-monsoon period). Whereas, on the shelf, IT is weak during the pre-monsoon and found to be strong in the southwest monsoon. The available hydrographic data and model simulated hydrography suggest that this difference is linked with the stratification changes on the shelf and slope during these seasons, where the stratification is found to be weak on the shelf and strong on the slope during pre-monsoon. Strong low-mode NIW is observed on the shelf associated with the storm events while the NIW is found to be less energetic on the slope.

  17. Sequestration Options for the West Coast States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myer, Larry

    2006-04-30

    The West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) is one of seven partnerships that have been established by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to evaluate carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) technologies best suited for different regions of the country. The West Coast Region comprises Arizona, California, Nevada, Oregon, Washington, Alaska, and British Columbia. Led by the California Energy Commission, WESTCARB is a consortium of about 70 organizations, including state natural resource and environmental protection agencies; national laboratories and universities; private companies working on carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transportation, and storage technologies; utilities; oil and gas companies; nonprofit organizations; and policy/governance coordinating organizations. Both terrestrial and geologic sequestration options were evaluated in the Region during the 18-month Phase I project. A centralized Geographic Information System (GIS) database of stationary source, geologic and terrestrial sink data was developed. The GIS layer of source locations was attributed with CO{sub 2} emissions and other data and a spreadsheet was developed to estimate capture costs for the sources in the region. Phase I characterization of regional geological sinks shows that geologic storage opportunities exist in the WESTCARB region in each of the major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery. The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, the potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, and the cumulative production from gas reservoirs suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. A GIS-based method for source

  18. Heavy mineral occurrence off Hazira, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vora, K.H.; Mislankar, P.G.; Gujar, A.R.

    The occurrence of heavy mineral placers on the west coast of India are well known from Konkan and Malabar Coast. However, a geological and geophysical investigation (including echosounding and side scan sonar profiles and 7 samples) off Hazira...

  19. Long-term variations in abundance and distribution of sewage pollution indicator and human pathogenic bacteria along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rodrigues, V.; Ramaiah, N.; Kakti, S.; Samant, D.

    the Indian coasts are classified by Central Pollution Control Board of India (CPCB) as fit for commercial fishing, contact recreation and bathing activities when the FC is ≤ 100 CFU/100 ml (Anonymous, 1993). Whereas, the USEPA sets FC limits of 200 CFU/100... vital role in the local fisheries, tourism and navigation. Many major settlements in Goa are along the rivers Mandovi and Zuari. The daily sewage, mostly untreated, and other effluent discharges are estimated to be about 16 million litres (Sawkar et al...

  20. Characteristics of waves off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; AshokKumar, K.; Anand, N.M.

    Directional wave measurements were carried out using Datawell directional waverider buoy off Goa along west coast of India during the south west monsoon period in 1996 and the results are presented. Theoretical joint distribution of wave height...

  1. Comparison of tropical nematode communities from three harbours, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    . Biol. Mar., vol.51(1); 2010; 9-18 Comparison of tropical nematode communities from the three harbours, west coast of India. Mandar Nanajkar, Baban Ingole* National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR), Dona Paula. Goa-403004, India. mandar... environmental risks linked to poor water and sediment quality (Estacio et al. 1997). The central west coast of India has dense human habitation and is an industrial belt along with extensive agriculture. The harbours in this region have heavy traffic, which...

  2. Evolution of the 2014-2015 sea surface temperature warming in the central west coast of Baja California, Mexico, recorded by remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Carlos J.

    2016-07-01

    Extraordinarily warm sea surface temperatures were present in the California Current System during 2014-2015. In several locations surface waters temperature registered new record high in the recent time series. This study focuses in the evolution of the warming in the southern part of the California Current System (CCS), off the west coast of Baja California, Mexico. Analysis of monthly sea surface temperature (SST), sea level pressure, and wind speed as measured by satellite from January 1988 to December 2015 show that recent warming occurred during two distinct periods. From May 2014 to April 2015, SST warming was related to weak coastal winds not associated to El Niño. During this period occurred the longest sustained record of 15 months of negative wind anomalies in the series. A reduction of wind stress suggests a weakened coastal upwelling, and consequently, cold water not transported into the surface. The second process of warming occurred from September to December 2015, during a strong El Niño condition.

  3. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Currents Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  4. Longshore sediment transport model for the Indian west coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.

    Longshore sediment transport rates for the Indian west coast from Cochin to Porbandar are estimated from ship observed wave data (1968 to 1986). The sediment transport rate is relatively high during the southwest monsoon period from June...

  5. West Coast Observing System (WCOS) ADCP Station Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The West Coast Observing System (WCOS) project provides access to temperature and currents data collected at four of the five National Marine Sanctuary sites,...

  6. Spitbase of west coast of India: Potential appraisal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.

    Spectacular spits of different sizes and variety of shapes bordering west coast of India were mapped with remote sensing techniques. By gathering information on geomorphological and locational parameters of spits, "SPITBASE", a database of spits...

  7. Some Actiniaria (Cnidaria: Anthozoa) from the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Hartog, J. C. Den; Jayasree, V.

    A small collection of five species of Actiniaria from the west coast of India, including three new species, is described and discussed. It concerns Anthopleura anjunae spec. nov., Bunodosoma goanensis spec. nov., Synantheopsis parulekari spec. nov...

  8. West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Data - Annual West Coast time series groundfish trawl data collection survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Members of the Fishery Resource Analysis and Monitoring Division Survey Team conduct an annual West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey from May - October each...

  9. A new record of Morula anaxares with a description of the radula of three other species from Goa, Central West Coast of India (Gastropoda: Muricidae)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumbhar, J.V.; Rivonker, C.U.

    Wagle, B. G. 1993. Geomorphology of Goa and Goa coast - A review. Giornale di Geologia, ser. 3, 55: 19-24. Wilson, B. 1994. Australian Marine Shells.Vol (II). Odyssey Publishers, Kallaroo, Western Australia. Yamamoto, T. 1997. Mode of reproduction...

  10. Ecosystem characterisation of Indian coast with special focus on the west coast

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, S P; Ramaiah, N.; Sreepada, R.A.

    2015-01-01

    CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO), Goa, India in collaboration with CSIRO, Australia organised a 2 day national experts workshop to: pool information between fisheries and oceanography experts; verify a draft ecosystem characterisation for the east coast of India; and develop a draft ecosystem characterisation for the west coast of India.

  11. 77 FR 10466 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... single mothership fishery co-op. Approximately half of these vessels are ``small'' entities. Vessels in... affected ESUs. Lower Columbia River coho (70 FR 37160, June 28, 2005) and Oregon Coastal coho (73 FR 7816... Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery; 2012 Tribal Fishery...

  12. Large California Tsunamis From Central Coast Historians And Central Coast Newspaper Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanck, E. L.

    2009-12-01

    reports of historic tsunamis represent wave elevations significantly higher than the 1964 Alaska earthquake tsunami that is typically used for emergency planning for tsunami inundation in California. Since it appears 4 much larger tsunamis occurred in the Central Coast area in 1812, 1878, 1907 and 1913; it appears we may have become complacent during this recent period of tsunami quiescence. Emergency planning for Central Coast tsunamis should be anticipating tsunami waves in the 50 to 100 feet elevation range.

  13. Hydrological modelling of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Suprit, K.

    Hydrological Modelling of the West Coast of India Suprit Kumar Thesis submitted to Goa University for the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy in Physics Goa University September 2010 to papa, mummy and Madhurima Statement As required under the University ordinance... of the west coast of India, sub- mitted by Suprit Kumar to Goa University for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy, is based on his original studies carried out under my supervision. The thesis or any part thereof has not been previously submitted for any other...

  14. Elemental characterization of metal artifacts recovered from archaeological sites Higueras 1sector west and sector B and Esquivilca south central coast of Lima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A group of 70 metal artifacts from the Archaeological Rescue Project Loop Costa have been analyzed using non-destructive methods of analysis by X-ray fluorescence, in order to characterize them and to determine the chemical elemental composition of these objects, finding that these pieces are copper alloys, material used to manufacture their distinct metal utensils in every place. In Esquivilca Sector B copper-tin alloys and copper were used and in Higueras 1 Southwest Sector, copper-antimony and arsenic allows. Also some parts have an adhered material which contains sulfur and mercury, which leads us to think that in Higueras 1 Sector South West, pigments of these minerals were used on metal parts. (orig.)

  15. NWFSC Observer Fixed Gear Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Fixed Gear Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  16. NWFSC Observer Trawl Data, off West Coast of US, 2002-2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Observer Trawl Data collected during 2002-2006 off West Coast of US. This data product originates from data collected by fishery observers in the West Coast...

  17. 7 CFR 319.8-12 - From the West Coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false From the West Coast of Mexico. 319.8-12 Section 319.8... Conditions for the Entry of Cotton and Covers from Mexico § 319.8-12 From the West Coast of Mexico. Contingent upon continued freedom of the West Coast of Mexico and of Northwest Mexico from infestations...

  18. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Estrella, de la M.; Mateo, M.A.; Wieringa, J.J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity withi

  19. ARkStorm: A West Coast Storm Scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, D. A.; Jones, L. M.; Ralph, F. M.; Dettinger, M. D.; Porter, K.; Perry, S. C.; Barnard, P. L.; Hoover, D.; Wills, C. J.; Stock, J. D.; Croyle, W.; Ferris, J. C.; Plumlee, G. S.; Alpers, C. N.; Miller, M.; Wein, A.; Rose, A.; Done, J.; Topping, K.

    2009-12-01

    The United Stated Geological Survey (USGS) Multi-Hazards Demonstration Project (MHDP) is preparing a new emergency-preparedness scenario, called ARkStorm, to address massive U.S. West Coast storms analogous to those that devastated California in 1861-62. Storms of this magnitude are projected to become more frequent and intense as a result of climate change. The MHDP has assembled experts from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), USGS, Scripps Institute of Oceanography, the State of California, California Geological Survey, the University of Colorado, the National Center for Atmospheric Research, and other organizations to design the large, but scientifically plausible, hypothetical scenario storm that would provide emergency responders, resource managers, and the public a realistic assessment of what is historically possible. The ARkStorm patterns the 1861 - 1862 historical events but uses modern modeling methods and data from large storms in 1969 and 1986. The ARkStorm draws heat and moisture from the tropical Pacific, forming Atmospheric Rivers (ARs) that grow in size, gain speed, and with a ferocity equal to hurricanes, slam into the U.S. West Coast for several weeks. Using sophisticated weather models and expert analysis, precipitation, snowlines, wind, and pressure data the modelers will characterize the resulting floods, landslides, and coastal erosion and inundation. These hazards will then be translated into the infrastructural, environmental, agricultural, social, and economic impacts. Consideration will be given to catastrophic disruptions to water supplies resulting from impacts on groundwater pumping, seawater intrusion, water supply degradation, and land subsidence. Possible climate-change forces that could exacerbate the problems will also be evaluated. In contrast to the recent U.S. East and Gulf Coast hurricanes, only recently have scientific and technological advances documented the ferocity and strength of possible future

  20. Variations in nearshore waves along Karnataka, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Sanil Kumar; Glejin Johnson; G Udhaba Dora; Sajiv Philip Chempalayi; Jai Singh; P Pednekar

    2012-04-01

    Wind wave spectra were recorded simultaneously at three shallow (water depth 7–9 m) locations (Malpe, Honnavar and Karwar) along the 200 km stretch of the state of Karnataka in 2009 during 27 April–24 May (representing conditions prior to onset of the Indian summer monsoon), 12 June–8 July (monsoon), and 1–31 October (post-monsoon). Each spectrum was based on data recorded for half an hour using a waverider buoy. The paper describes characteristics of the spectra and the wave parameters derived from the spectra. Both reveal the dramatic changes that occur in the wave field due to the summer monsoon. The changes were virtually identical at all the three locations suggesting that the wave characteristics described here are representative of the conditions that exist along the coast of Karnataka State, west coast of India.

  1. Sources, vertical fluxes and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from the Mandovi Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerasingam, S.; Vethamony, P.; ManiMurali, R.; Babu, M.T.

    The Mandovi estuary is highly influenced by mining and tourism related activities in the central west coast of India. Vertical fluxes and accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons (PHCs) in three sediment cores (D1, C1 and OG) from the Mandovi estuary...

  2. On the upwelling off the Southern Tip and along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Smitha, B.R.; Sanjeevan, V.N.; VimalKumar, K.G.; Revichandran, C.

    The processes of upwelling off the southern tip (the Kanyakumari coast) and the west coast of India are highly localized features with different forcing mechanisms, and they cannot be treated as a uniform wind-driven upwelling system. Off...

  3. Bats in Agroecosytems around California's Central Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne, A.

    2014-12-01

    Bats in agroecosystems around California's Central Coast: A full quarter of California's land area is farmland. Crops account for 32.5 billion of California's GDP. Insect control is a big problem for farmers, and California bats eat only insects, saving farmers an estimated 3 to $53 billion a year. As farmers maximize crop yield, they use more pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers, which contaminate runoff streams that bats drink from. Also, pesticide use kills bats' sole food source: insects. My research objective was to find out how farm management practices and landscape complexity affect bat diversity and activity, and to see which one affects bat activity more. We monitored 18 sites, including conventional, organic, and low and high-complexity landscapes. We noted more bat activity at sites with high complexity landscapes and organic practices than at sites with either low-complexity landscapes or conventional farming practices. I captured and processed bats and recorded data. I also classified insects collected from light traps. I learned how to handle bats and measure forearm length and weight, as well as how to indentify their gender. I took hair clippings and fecal samples, which yield data about the bats' diet. Their diet, in turn, gives us data about which pests they eat and therefore help control. I also learned about bats' echolocation: they have a special muscle over their ears that closes when they echolocate so that they don't burst their own eardrum. Also, some insects have evolved a special call that will disrupt bats echolocation so bats can't track it.

  4. Analysis of Hanford-based Options for Sustainable DOE Facilities on the West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warwick, William M.

    2012-06-30

    Large-scale conventional energy projects result in lower costs of energy (COE). This is true for most renewable energy projects as well. The Office of Science is interested in its facilities meeting the renewable energy mandates set by Congress and the Administration. Those facilities on the west coast include a cluster in the Bay Area of California and at Hanford in central Washington State. Land constraints at the California facilities do not permit large scale projects. The Hanford Reservation has land and solar insolation available for a large scale solar project as well as access to a regional transmission system that can provide power to facilities in California. The premise of this study is that a large-scale solar project at Hanford may be able to provide renewable energy sufficient to meet the needs of select Office of Science facilities on the west coast at a COE that is competitive with costs in California despite the lower solar insolation values at Hanford. The study concludes that although the cost of solar projects continues to decline, estimated costs for a large-scale project at Hanford are still not competitive with avoided power costs for Office of Science facilities on the west coast. Further, although it is possible to transmit power from a solar project at Hanford to California facilities, the costs of doing so add additional costs. Consequently, development of a large- scale solar project at Hanford to meet the renewable goals of Office of Science facilities on the west coast is currently uneconomic. This may change as solar costs decrease and California-based facilities face increasing costs for conventional and renewable energy produced in the state. PNNL should monitor those cost trends.

  5. A Holistic Evaluation of a Typical Coast Nourishment on the Danish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2007-01-01

    The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural herit...... solutions to different kinds of coastal protection strategies, estimate the time in between two nourishments and evaluate the cost of maintaining a beach with a high recreational value for the public....

  6. A Holistic Evaluation of a Typical Coast Nourishment on the Danish West Coast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Frigaard, Peter; Wahl, Niels Arne

    2008-01-01

    The case described in this article regards 4.7 km of beach in Ferring, situated approx. 5 km south to the mouth of the Limfjord strait on the west coast of Denmark. In 2005, this section of the beach was nourished with 721,000 m3 of material in order to protect backshore properties, natural herit...... solutions to different kinds of coastal protection strategies, estimate the time in between two nourishments and evaluate the cost of maintaining a beach with a high recreational value for the public....

  7. Cytogenetic studies in green mussel, Perna viridis (Mytiloida: Pteriomorphia), from West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Iqbal, A.N.M.Z.; Khan, M.S.; Goswami, U.

    studies have received a little consideration than they actually deserve. Karyotypic details have been documented in several animal groups including a few Bivalvia species (Cornet and Soulard 1990; Wada and Komaru 1993; Insua et al. 1998; Martı´nez- Lage et... and methods Green mussels were collected from the Central West Coast of India. Live animals were brought to the laboratory and acclimatized for ten days in tanks containing aerated sea- water at 25C176C and fed upon phytoplankton Chaetocerous sp. Animals were...

  8. The rock coast of South and Central America : chapter 10

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco-Chao, R.; Pedoja, K.; De Witt, C.; Martinod, J.; Husson, L.; Regard, V; Audin, Laurence; Nexer, M.; Delcaillau, B.; Saillard, M.; D. Melnick; Dumont, J.F.; Santana, E.; E Navarrete; Martillo, C.

    2014-01-01

    The great variety of climatic conditions, tidal ranges and wave regimes of South and Central America act on a complex geology and tectonic framework. Many of the rock and cliffed coasts of South America are strongly controlled by the occurrence of extensive Cenozoic and Pleistocene sediments that crop out at the coast. Geology and the different uplift rates are a major factor in the whole coastal geomorphology of South and Central America, and consequently are a very important control of the ...

  9. Research Spotlight: Mapping U.S. West Coast surface circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-05-01

    A network of high-frequency radar systems designed for mapping ocean surface currents now provides unprecedented detail of coastal ocean dynamics along the U.S. West Coast, according to Kim et al. The network has grown over the past decade from a few radars to what is now considered the largest network of its kind in the world, providing nearly complete coverage of currents along approximately 2500 kilometers of shoreline. With an ability to resolve kilometer-scale currents out to approximately 150 kilometers offshore, the technology has been used for local oceanographic studies in addition to applied applications for supporting oil spill response, search and rescue, fisheries, and coastal discharge assessment. (Journal of Geophysical Research-Oceans, doi:10.1029/2010JC006669, 2011)

  10. 77 FR 39571 - Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc.,

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-03

    ... Surface Transportation Board \\1\\ Frank Sherman, FSCS Corporation, TMS West Coast, Inc., \\1\\ A request for... company; TMS West Coast, Inc., a noncarrier holding company; Evergreen Trails, Inc. d/b/a Horizon Coach... company controlled by Sherman, Transportation Management Services, Inc. (TMS), obtained the right...

  11. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Estrella, de la, M.; M. A. Mateo; Wieringa, J. J.; Mackinder, B.; Munoz, J

    2012-01-01

    Objectives - Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of s...

  12. Preliminary Geologic Characterization of West Coast States for Geologic Sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry Myer

    2005-09-29

    Characterization of geological sinks for sequestration of CO{sub 2} in California, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington was carried out as part of Phase I of the West Coast Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership (WESTCARB) project. Results show that there are geologic storage opportunities in the region within each of the following major technology areas: saline formations, oil and gas reservoirs, and coal beds. The work focused on sedimentary basins as the initial most-promising targets for geologic sequestration. Geographical Information System (GIS) layers showing sedimentary basins and oil, gas, and coal fields in those basins were developed. The GIS layers were attributed with information on the subsurface, including sediment thickness, presence and depth of porous and permeable sandstones, and, where available, reservoir properties. California offers outstanding sequestration opportunities because of its large capacity and the potential of value-added benefits from enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and enhanced gas recovery (EGR). The estimate for storage capacity of saline formations in the ten largest basins in California ranges from about 150 to about 500 Gt of CO{sub 2}, depending on assumptions about the fraction of the formations used and the fraction of the pore volume filled with separate-phase CO{sub 2}. Potential CO{sub 2}-EOR storage was estimated to be 3.4 Gt, based on a screening of reservoirs using depth, an API gravity cutoff, and cumulative oil produced. The cumulative production from gas reservoirs (screened by depth) suggests a CO{sub 2} storage capacity of 1.7 Gt. In Oregon and Washington, sedimentary basins along the coast also offer sequestration opportunities. Of particular interest is the Puget Trough Basin, which contains up to 1,130 m (3,700 ft) of unconsolidated sediments overlying up to 3,050 m (10,000 ft) of Tertiary sedimentary rocks. The Puget Trough Basin also contains deep coal formations, which are sequestration targets and may have

  13. Bioactive potential of some intertidal molluscs collected from Mumbai coast,West coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Atul G Babar; Anant Pande; Balasaheb G Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To identify the bioactive potential of crude methanolic extracts of five gastropods and one bivalve collected from the west coast of India (Mumbai coast). Methods: Disc-diffusion assay and micro-dilution technique were used to test the bioactive potential of these molluscs against six pathogenic bacteria. Results: The crude methanolic extracts of all the molluscs showed significant activity against one or more bacteria tested. Minimum inhibitory concentration of crude methanolic extracts was found in the range of 0.10–0.35 mg/mL against human pathogenic bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus and Nerita sp. extracts were most effective showing activity against all bacterial strains. Hemifusus pugilinus extract exhibited good activity against Vibrio cholerae contrary to earlier reports. Methanolic extract of Gafrarium divaricatum demonstrated considerable activity against both Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pyogenes. Trochus radiatus extract was inactive against all the bacteria tested except Escherichiacoli. Euchelus asper extract was active against Klebsiella pneumoniae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Conclusions: All the molluscs screened exhibited potential activity against one or more bacterial strain. Further work is in progress to isolate the active constituents of the extracts.

  14. Review of the twelfth West Coast retrovirus meeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melar Marta

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Every year the Cancer Research Institute from University of California at Irvine organizes the West Coast Retrovirus Meeting where participants have a chance to discuss the latest progress in understanding the pathology of retroviruses. The 12th meeting was held at the Hyatt Regency Suites in Palm Springs, California from October 6th to October 9th 2005, with the major focus on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV pathogenesis. Philippe Gallay from The Scripps Research Institute and Thomas J. Hope from Northwestern University organized the meeting, which covered all the steps involved in the lifecycle of retroviruses with an emphasis on virus:host interactions. The trend in research appeared to be on the restriction of viral infection, both by the endogenous, cellular restriction factors, as well as by the potential antimicrobial compounds of known or unknown mechanisms. Additionally, new stories on the inevitable feedback from the host immune system were presented as well. HIV still represents a challenge that an army of motivated people has been working on for over 20 years. And yet, the field has not reached the plateau in knowledge nor enthusiasm, which was proven again in October 2005 in Palm Springs.

  15. Suspended sediment fluxes in a tropical estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AnilKumar, N.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Srinivas, K.

    Annual transport processes of suspended sediments in Beypore estuary - a tropical estuary along the south west coast of India - were investigated based on time series measurements within the system. It's observed that the sediment transport...

  16. Computation of dilution discharge and mean concentration of effluents in Beypore Estuary, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    DineshKumar, P.K.; Josanto, V.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Tide dominated Beypore estuary along the west coast of India was studied to estimate the mean flow available for diluting the conservative effluents based on the distribution of ambient salinity as a guide through one dimensional analysis...

  17. Potential impact of sand mining on macrobenthic community at Kalbadevi Beach, Ratnagiri, West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sivadas, S.; Sautye, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Ingole, B.S.

    The intertidal area at Kalbadevi, Ratnagiri has been identified as one of the potential sites for placer minerals along the west coast of India. Considering the prospects of commercial mining, benthic sampling was conducted during February and May...

  18. On an upwelling front along the west coast of India during later part of southwest monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    A coastal front, associated with upwelling, is identified from the observed thermal field along the west coast of India during September, 1987. The front, which is seen very clearly upto a depth of about 75 m, has a horizontal gradient...

  19. Distribution of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santhakumari, V.; Nair, V.R.

    Distribution and abundance of hydromedusae from the exclusive economic zone of the west and east coasts of India is carried out based on zooplankton collections (on board FORV Sagar Sampada) during the period 1985-1990. The 661 samples collected...

  20. Variations in tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Dora, G.U.; Philip, C.S.; Pednekar, P.S.; Singh, J.

    The characteristics of tidal constituents along the nearshore waters of Karnataka, west coast of India, are described. These are based on the sea level data measured at three locations by the Valeport wave and tide gauge during the presummer monsoon...

  1. NWFSC Coral Data Collected off West Coast of US (1980-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data contains the locations of some observations of cold-water/deep-sea corals off the west coast of the United States. Records of coral catch originate from...

  2. Observational Evidence of Summer Shamal Swells along the West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Glejin, J.; SanilKumar, V.; Nair, T.M.B.; Singh, J.; Mehra, P.

    propagation at Ratnagiri. Wind data collected using an autonomous weather station (AWS), along with Advanced Scatterometer (ASCAT) and NCEP data, are used to identify the presence of summer shamal winds along the west coast of the Indian subcontinent...

  3. Public Seagrass Compilation for West Coast Essential Fish Habitat (EFH) Environmental Impact Statement

    Data.gov (United States)

    Pacific States Marine Fisheries Commission — These data are a compilation of currently available seagrass GIS data sets for the west coast of the United States. These data have been compiled from seventeen...

  4. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentration in sediments along northern west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Kadam, A.N.

    Gas chromatography revealed that nonpolar material extracted from surface sediments collected along the northern west coast of India was originated from petroleum hydrocarbon residue. Petroleum hydrocarbon levels as determinEd. by fluorescence...

  5. Contamination of organochlorine pesticides in sediments from the Arabian Sea along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarkar, A.; Nagarajan, R.; Chaphadkar, S.; Pal, S.; Singbal, S.Y.S.

    The levels of contamination of various organochlorine pesticides in HCHs, DDTs aldrine dieldrin and endrin were determined in marine and estuarine sediments along the west coast of India. The concentration of various pesticides in sediments from...

  6. NWFSC Groundfish Data for U.S. West Coast (2003-2005)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data available for downloading is summarized data from the 2003-2005 U.S. West Coast Bottom Trawl Survey (WCGTS) of Groundfish Resources off Washington, Oregon...

  7. Social Cultural Data - Social Impacts of Catch Shares in the West Coast Groundfish Fishery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Catch shares are one method of catch allocation utilized by fisheries managers in the United States West Coast groundfish fishery. Catch share management results in...

  8. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Nethery; D Shankar

    2007-08-01

    A linear, continuously stratified ocean model is used to investigate vertical propagation of remotely forced, baroclinic Kelvin waves along the Indian west coast. The extent of vertical propagation over the length of the coast is found to be an increasing function of the forcing frequency. Simulations show that, over the length of the Indian west coast, vertical propagation is limited at annual and semi-annual periods, but significant at periods shorter than about 120 days. This has two major consequences. First, the depth of subsurface currents associated with these frequencies varies substantially along the coast. Second, baroclinic Kelvin waves generated in the Bay of Bengal at periods shorter than about 120 days have negligible influence on surface currents along the north Indian west coast.

  9. West Coast U.S. : demand and prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The outlook for Canadian natural gas in Western U.S. markets through the winter of 1997 and 1998 was discussed. The effect of El Nino on West Coast gas pricing was noted, while also admitting that the best scientific minds are unable to determine what these effects actually are. Both the Cambridge Energy Research Associates (CERA) and PIRA predicted that Topock (the border pricing point) prices will track the NYMEX Henry Hub prices. The three points that were emphasized for the winter of 1997-1998 were: (1) Western U.S. pricing is higher than last year, (2) there is a surplus of gas in Canada relative to export capacity, and (3) differentials are anticipated to remain in excess of full transportation costs. The 1997 gas accord rates were also noted and its significance discussed. Increased electric load growth is likely to result in higher electricity prices which may drag gas prices along with them. Any new power generation facility is likely to be gas-fired, a fact which should also help to maintain natural gas prices. Transmission pricing is the major unknown variable. It is well known that from a capital cost perspective it is about four times more expensive to build a high -Kv transmission line than to build a gas pipeline to deliver the equivalent amount of energy. Therefore, to the degree that transmission pricing favours building new generation near load centres, gas should do well. If on the other hand, transmission pricing favours building generation plants near the fuel source, gas probably would not do nearly as well. The effects will not be known until the relevant decisions have been made. 6 figs

  10. Small protohistoric sites (fishing villages?) on the saurashtra coast, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    During the maritime archaeological explorations a few sites of protohistoric in nature have been noticed along the saurashtra coast. the trial excavations of a few sites namely Bet Dwarka and Bhokhira on the western saurashtra coast yielded...

  11. 75 FR 67391 - Notice of Intent To Prepare a Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Coast Recycling...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Recycling Group Project in West Sacramento, Yolo County, CA AGENCY: Office of the Assistant Secretary for... Statement/Environmental Impact Report (EIS/EIR) for the development of the West Coast Recycling Group... West Coast Recycling Group (WCRG) proposes to develop approximately 15 acres at the Port of...

  12. Central Coast Region South District Basin Planning & Habitat Mapping Project

    OpenAIRE

    Watson, Jessica; Casagrande, Julie; Watson, Fred

    2008-01-01

    This is a report to the California Department of Fish and Game. Between 2003 and 2008, the Foundation of CSUMB produced fish habitat maps and GIS layers for CDFG based on CDFG field data. This report describes the data entry, mapping, and website construction procedures associated with the project. Included are the maps that have been constructed. This report marks the completion of the Central Coast region South District Basin Planning and Habitat Mapping Project. (Document contains 40 pages)

  13. Ringstone anchors from Gujarat, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    The Gujarat coast, India has played a vital role in the maritime activities of India from the beginning of the Indus civilization in the Indian subcontinent and has witnessed hectic maritime activity since then. Offshore explorations in the waters...

  14. Ship Traffic 2011 West Coast Region - All Ship Types

    Data.gov (United States)

    Bureau of Ocean Energy Management, Department of the Interior — The data was derived from US Coast Guard raw vessel point returns and preprocessed by ASA (Applied Science Associates), to one minute point interCAls. The data...

  15. Association between premonsoonal SST anomaly field in the eastern Arabian Sea and subsequent monsoon rainfall over the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sadhuram, Y.; RameshBabu, V.; Gopalakrishna, V.V.; Sarma, M.S.S.

    -September) summer monsoon rainfall over the central west coast of India. Premonsoonal warm SST anomaly seems to be mainly the result of higher atmospheric subsidence over the ocean and may not be considered as predictor for a good ensuing monsoon, emphasizing...

  16. Littoral transport studies along west coast of India - A reivew

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B; Sugimori, Y.

    : Ocean technology : Perspectives, edited by Sushil Kumar V V Agadi, V Keshava Das & B N Desai, Publications and In- formation Directorate, New Delhi, 1994, pp. 472-478. 25 Orzech K, Net shore drift of Goa coast, India, M Sc -thesis, Western Washington... Regional Engg College, Suratkal, 1989, pp. 509-515. 7 Chandramohan P, Anand N M, Nayak B U, Surfzone dynam- ics of the Konkan coast, India In: Oceanography of the Indian Ocean Edited by Desai B N (Oxford & IBh Publications, New Delhi) 1992, pp. 751...

  17. Ichthyofaunal diversity and ecology of intertidal rock pools of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tsering, L.; Pawar, H.B.; Sreepada, R.A.; Sanaye, S.V.; Suryavanshi, U.; Tanu

    shore (estuarine region), and 4) coral formations. Though the west coast of India is with predominantly rocky shores, there are also stray of sandy region (Krishnamurthy & Subbaramaiah, 1972). Rocky shores confined narrow gullies and small tide pools... structure, Colombia (Castellanos-Galindo, 2005), microhabitat segregation of intertidal fishes, Portugal (Faria & Almada, 2000), and vertical distribution of intertidal fishes from Atlantic coast of France (Gibson,1972) etc. All these studies contribute...

  18. Marine archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    archaeological investigations along the Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, India particularly at Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Porbandar, Somnath, Gopnath and Mithivirdi have brought to light the remains of port installation and a large number of stone anchors. With the passage...

  19. Studies on sediment transport along Kerala Coast, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Chandramohan, P.; Josanto, V.; Sanakaranarayanan, V.N.

    Longshore sediment transport characteristics of the Kerala Coast have been examined to delineate various physical processes affecting the different coastal environments. Monthly averages of the daily LEO (Littoral Environmental Observation) data...

  20. Herbicide concentrations in wetlands in west central Minnesota, 1992

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Thirty emergent, seasonally to semi-permanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the 1992...

  1. Digital elevation model of Walker Lake, West-Central Nevada

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — Walker Lake lies within a topographically closed basin in west-central Nevada and is the terminus of the Walker River. Accurately determining the bathymetry and...

  2. Co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rashmi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Wave data collected along the west coast of India (off Goa, Ratnagiri and Dwarka during non-monsoon season have been analysed to study the co-existence of wind seas and swells. Diurnal variation in wind and wave parameters is noticeable along the central west coast of India (off Goa and Ratnagiri, and this is not present along the northwest coast of India (off Dwarka. Swells are predominantly mature (91% and old (88% during late pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Sea Swell Energy Ratio quantifies wind sea, swell and mixed seas prevailing in the regions during non-monsoon season. Intermodal Distance (ID between the energy peaks is moderately separated during non-monsoon season, whereas, during the shamal events, energy peaks are very close to each other (ID ~ 0. However, pure wind seas (ID ~ 1 are found to co-exist with the swells during non-monsoon season. Wind seas are growing, when wind and wind seas are opposite to swell direction. Wind seas have minimum angular spreads in multimodal state. Under low winds, the interaction between wind sea and swell dominates and thereby the multimodal state reduces to unimodal state. The fetch available for the evolution of the wind sea spectrum has been estimated, and it is found to be less than 150 km. For the fetch limited condition, a non-dimensional empirical relation has been derived relating the significant wind sea height in terms of wind speed and peak wind sea period, and this relation fits for the west coast of India.

  3. 78 FR 45288 - Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast, Inc. and FSCS...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-26

    ... Surface Transportation Board Frank Sherman, Evergreen Trails, Inc., Cabana Coaches, LLC, TMS West Coast... Trails, Inc. (Evergreen), Cabana Coaches, LLC (Cabana), TMS West Coast, Inc. (TMS), and FSCS Corporation... shareholder of noncarrier holding companies FSCS and TMS. Cabana is owned directly by FSCS and Evergreen...

  4. 77 FR 19991 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... markets fluctuate, the CPS fishery as a whole relies on a group of species for annual revenues... proposed rule. Additionally, no other Federal rules duplicate, overlap or conflict with this proposed rule... intended to conserve and manage the Pacific sardine stock off the U.S. West Coast. DATES: Comments must...

  5. 78 FR 6794 - Fisheries Off West Coast States; Coastal Pelagic Species Fisheries; Annual Specifications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... rely on a group of species for its annual revenues. Therefore, although there will be a potential... conflict with this proposed rule. This action does not contain a collection-of-information requirement for... intended to conserve and manage the Pacific sardine stock off the U.S. West Coast. DATES: Comments must...

  6. Remote assessment of net shore drift along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.; Wagle, B.G.; Sugimori, Y.

    Space borne images were analyzed to examine direction, amount and behavior of long-shore drift and its contribution towards deciding areas vulnerable to coastal erosion and accretion along the West Coast of India. Long-term net shore drift direction...

  7. Characteristics of Zircon in Placer Deposits along the West Coast of South Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Philander, C.; Rozendaal, A.; de Meijer, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Mining along the west coast of South Africa is dominated by the exploitation of onshore and offshore diamond deposits. The relatively recent discovery of vast resources of heavy minerals in the area has resulted in the establishment of a major related industry. Today, Namakwa Sands is a 10-million-t

  8. Impact of sea breeze on the wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    -1 Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India S Neetu1,asteriskmath, Satish Shetye1 and P Chandramohan2 1Physical Oceanography Division, National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India. 2Indomer Coastal Hydraulics (P...

  9. Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nethery, D.; Shankar, D.

    -1 Vertical propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves along the west coast of India DNethery1,2,asteriskmath and D Shankar1 1National Institute of Oceanography, Goa 403 004, India. 2Ecole Normale Sup?erieure, Paris, France. asteriskmathe-mail: daniel...

  10. Wave transformation and attenuation along the west coast of India: Measurements and numerical simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Samiksha, S.V.; Rashmi, R.; Jyoti, K.

    Waves measured at a few locations along the west coast of India were analyzed to study modification and attenuation of wave energy in the nearshore regions. It has been found that the reduction in wave height is relatively lower (less than 10...

  11. Organic matter distribution in the continental shelf sediments, off Kochi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Reddy, N.P.C.

    -49. Subrahmanyam,R. Studies on the phytoplankton of the west coast of India. Proc, Ind. Aca. Sci., 1959,50. Badarudeen, A; Padamlal, D & Sajan, K.Organic carbon and total phosphorous in the sediments of some selected mangrove echo systems of Kerala, southwest...

  12. Historical period stone anchors from Vijaydurg on the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Bandodkar, S.N.

    , Prabhasa-Somnath, Vijaydurg and Sindhudurg along the west coast of India. Vijaydurg was a minor port of Maharashtra during 1st BC - 2nd AD. Explorations have been carried out in Vijaydurg waters to locate shipwrecks. The underwater exploration of Vijaydurg...

  13. Fish larval transport in a macro-tidal regime: Gulf of Kachchh, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Vethamony, P.; Sudheesh, K.; Babu, M.T.

    This study combines observational data with a two-dimensional numerical model results to determine the fate of fish eggs released in the Gulf of Kachchh (GoK), a semi enclosed basin on the west coast of India. Fish eggs were treated as passive...

  14. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Nathan G; Wassenaar, Leonard I; Hobson, Keith A; Norris, D Ryan

    2011-02-23

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93-103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ(13)C) stable isotope measurements to estimate natal origins of 90 monarchs sampled from 17 sites along the eastern United States coast. We found the majority of monarchs (88%) originated in the mid-west and Great Lakes regions, providing, to our knowledge, the first direct evidence that second generation monarchs born in June complete a (trans-) longitudinal migration across the Appalachian mountains. The remaining individuals (12%) originated from parents that migrated directly from the Gulf coast during early spring. Our results provide evidence of a west to east longitudinal migration and provide additional rationale for conserving east coast populations by identifying breeding sources. PMID:20630891

  15. 77 FR 67973 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Pacific Coast Groundfish...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-14

    ... conservation objectives, socio-economic concerns, management uncertainty, and other factors. All known sources... taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off the coasts of Washington, Oregon, and California... specifications and management measures for groundfish species taken in the U.S. exclusive economic zone off...

  16. Diatom community dynamics in a tropical, monsoon-influenced environment: West coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Costa, Priya M.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2010-07-01

    Diatom communities are influenced by environmental perturbations, such as the monsoon system that impact the niche opportunities of species. To discern the influence of the monsoon system on diatom community structure, we sampled during two consecutive post-monsoons (2001 and 2002) and the intervening pre-monsoon at Mumbai and Jawaharlal Nehru ports along the central west coast of India. Characteristic temporal shifts in diatom community structure were observed across the sampling periods; these were mainly driven by temperature, salinity and dissolved oxygen saturation. The nutrient-poor pre-monsoon period supported low abundance yet high species richness and diversity of diatoms. Coscinodiscus, Cyclotella, Thalassiosira, Triceratium, Pleurosigma, Skeletonema and Surirella were the most dominant genera. Both the post-monsoon periods, following dissimilar monsoon events, were dominated by Skeletonema costatum, but differed in some of the residual species . Thalassiosira and Thalassionema spp. dominated mostly during post-monsoon I whereas Triceratium and Pleurosigma spp. dominated during post-monsoon II. To understand the underlying ecological mechanisms involved in such dynamics, we focus on the dominant diatom species in post-monsoon periods, S. costatum, that contributes up to 60% to total diatom cell numbers. This research is relevant in light of the fluctuating monsoon regimes over the Asian continent, the confounding effects of anthropogenic eutrophication and the resulting cascading effects on trophic web dynamics.

  17. Remote sensing of wetland conditions in West Coast salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustin, Susan L.; Lay, Mui C.; Li, Lin

    2004-11-01

    The objective of the PEEIR (Pacific Estuarine Ecosystem Indicator Research Consortium) program is to develop new indicators for assessing wetland health or condition. As part of PEEIR program we are investigating the use of imaging spectrometry to map and characterize marsh vegetation of several estuarine systems in California. We obtained airborne Advanced Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data, an instrument which measures a detailed reflectance spectrum (400-2500nm) for each pixel, over paired tidal marshes, having either a history of exposure to pollution or no known exposure. AVIRIS image data was analyzed based on comparison to field measurements and reflectance changes measured in hydroponic experiments. We report leaf and canopy reflectance measurements of several common plant species of Pacific coast salt marshes exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Cd, V) and crude oil contaminants. Species exhibited differential sensitivities to specific contaminants, however in general, Salicornia virginica, the most salt tolerant species and the dominant species in these wetlands (70-90% cover) was most sensitive to metal and petroleum contaminants. Field measurements of canopy reflectance, biomass and vegetation structure were acquired across GPS-located transects at each field site. The AVIRIS data were calibrated to surface reflectance using the FLAASH radiative transfer code and geometrically registered to coordinates using the 1m USGS digital orthophoto quads. AVIRIS results show spatial patterns of plant stress indicators (e.g., reduced chlorophyll and water contents) are consistent with known patterns of contamination in these tidal wetlands.

  18. Integrated coastal zone management plan and coastal zone information system for Mangalore Coast, west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwarakish, G. S.; Shetty, Dinakar; Rao, Rajarama; Pai, Jagadeesh; Natesan, Usha

    2006-12-01

    In the present study, Integrated Coastal Zone Management Plan (ICZMP) has been developed for Mangalore Coast in Karnataka, along the West Coast of India, by analyzing the remotely sensed data and conventional data. The various data products used in the present study includes, IRS-1C LISS-III+PAN and IRS-P6 LISS IV remotely sensed data, Naval Hydrographic Chart and Survey of India (SOI) toposheets. Different thematic maps prepared in the present study includes, land use/ land cover map, bathymetry map, shoreline configuration map, transportation and drainage network maps, GPS survey map, CRZ map, contour map, DEM, inundation map and coastal erosion vulnerability map. The results of the present study are encouraging. Some of the specific conclusions of the study are; eight coastal vulnerability sites have been identified, significant increase in the built-up area and decrease in the agricultural land, no large scale erosion or deposition in the vicinity of coastal structures such as seawalls, breakwaters and entrance channel of New Mangalore Port Trust and the beaches along the Mangalore Coast are maintaining dynamic equilibrium. To get the online information about all these, Coastal Zone Information System (CZIS) has been developed through V. B. 6. 0. using results of various data analyses.

  19. Litter in submarine canyons off the west coast of Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mordecai, Gideon; Tyler, Paul A.; Masson, Douglas G.; Huvenne, Veerle A. I.

    2011-12-01

    Marine litter is of global concern and is present in all the world's oceans, including deep benthic habitats where the extent of the problem is still largely unknown. Litter abundance and composition were investigated using video footage and still images from 16 Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) dives in Lisbon, Setúbal, Cascais and Nazaré Canyons located west of Portugal. Litter was most abundant at sites closest to the coastline and population centres, suggesting the majority of the litter was land sourced. Plastic was the dominant type of debris, followed by fishing gear. Standardised mean abundance was 1100 litter items km -2, but was as high as 6600 litter items km -2 in canyons close to Lisbon. Although all anthropogenic material may be harmful to biota, debris was also used as a habitat by some macro-invertebrates. Litter composition and abundance observed in the canyons of the Portuguese margin were comparable to those seen in other deep sea areas around the world. Accumulation of litter in the deep sea is a consequence of human activities both on land and at sea. This needs to be taken into account in future policy decisions regarding marine pollution.

  20. Co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashmi, R.; Aboobacker, V. M.; Vethamony, P.; John, M. P.

    2013-03-01

    An attempt has been made to understand the co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season. Wave data were collected in different years during non-monsoon season (off Goa during May 2005, off Ratnagiri during January-February 2008 and off Dwarka during December 2007-January 2008), which is fairly a calm weather season along these regions. Diurnal variation in wave parameters is noticeable along the central west coast of India (off Goa and Ratnagiri), which is due to the interaction of multidirectional waves (both wind seas and swells) of varying magnitudes and frequencies. Swells are predominantly mature (91%) and old (88%) during late pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Sea Swell Energy Ratio quantifies wind sea, swell and mixed seas prevailing in these regions during non-monsoon season. Intermodal distance (ID) between the energy peaks is moderately separated during non-monsoon season, whereas, during the shamal events, energy peaks are very close to each other (ID ∼ 0). However, pure wind seas (ID ∼ 1) are weakly present and found to co-exist with the swells almost all the time during non-monsoon season. Wind sea growth has been found while the swell propagates opposite to the direction of the wind and wind sea. Wind seas have minimum angular spreads in multimodal state. Under low winds, the interaction between wind sea and swell dominates and thereby the multimodal state reduces to unimodal state. The fetch available for the evolution of the wind sea spectrum has been estimated, and it is found to be less than 150 km. For the fetch limited condition, a non-dimensional empirical relation has been derived relating the significant wind sea height in terms of wind speed and peak wind sea period, and this relation fits for the west coast of India.

  1. Co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Rashmi

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to understand the co-existence of wind seas and swells along the west coast of India during non-monsoon season. Wave data were collected in different years during non-monsoon season (off Goa during May 2005, off Ratnagiri during January–February 2008 and off Dwarka during December 2007–January 2008, which is fairly a calm weather season along these regions. Diurnal variation in wave parameters is noticeable along the central west coast of India (off Goa and Ratnagiri, which is due to the interaction of multidirectional waves (both wind seas and swells of varying magnitudes and frequencies. Swells are predominantly mature (91% and old (88% during late pre-monsoon and post-monsoon seasons, respectively. Sea Swell Energy Ratio quantifies wind sea, swell and mixed seas prevailing in these regions during non-monsoon season. Intermodal distance (ID between the energy peaks is moderately separated during non-monsoon season, whereas, during the shamal events, energy peaks are very close to each other (ID ∼ 0. However, pure wind seas (ID ∼ 1 are weakly present and found to co-exist with the swells almost all the time during non-monsoon season. Wind sea growth has been found while the swell propagates opposite to the direction of the wind and wind sea. Wind seas have minimum angular spreads in multimodal state. Under low winds, the interaction between wind sea and swell dominates and thereby the multimodal state reduces to unimodal state. The fetch available for the evolution of the wind sea spectrum has been estimated, and it is found to be less than 150 km. For the fetch limited condition, a non-dimensional empirical relation has been derived relating the significant wind sea height in terms of wind speed and peak wind sea period, and this relation fits for the west coast of India.

  2. Coastal circulation off Ratnagiri, west coast of India during monsoon seasons: a numerical model study.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Samiksha, S.V.; Sharif, J.; Vethamony, P.

    , water quality, wave dynamics and all related processes in coastal areas 27. The model was used for studying the tide driven currents and residual eddies in the Gulf of Kachchh 28. MIKE21 was also applied as a basic tool for the estimation of DO... on poleward undercurrent along the southwest coast of India, Continental Shelf Research, 15 (2/3) (1995) 165–184. 2. Rao A. D, Madhu Joshi, Ravichandran M., Oceanic upwelling and downwelling processes in waters off the west coast of India, Ocean Dynamics, 58...

  3. Monarch butterflies cross the Appalachians from the west to recolonize the east coast of North America

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Nathan G.; Wassenaar, Leonard I.; Keith A. Hobson; Norris, D. Ryan

    2010-01-01

    Each spring, millions of monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus) migrate from overwintering sites in Mexico to recolonize eastern North America. However, few monarchs are found along the east coast of the USA until mid-summer. Brower (Brower, L. P. 1996 J. Exp. Biol. 199, 93–103.) proposed that east coast recolonization is accomplished by individuals migrating from the west over the Appalachians, but to date no evidence exists to support this hypothesis. We used hydrogen (δD) and carbon (δ13C)...

  4. Tidal propagation off the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.

    hardly exist. One such measurement9 was made at Mumbai High on the mid-shelf region of the Arabian Sea. Continuous observations using self-recording tide gauges were made from an oil-drilling platform of the Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Ltd... Mumbai, Varkey et al.14 reported that observed currents are dominated by tidal flow. In the earlier study10, we compared the currents simulated by the numerical model with those observed15 in the Mumbai High region. The measurements, made at four...

  5. Restoration of mangroves along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.

    The area of Indian mangroves has been estimated, with the help of remote sensing techniques, to be approximately 700,000 ha. It has been observed that at several places mangroves are degrading mainly due to deforestation and reclamation. As a result...

  6. Placer chromite along south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Iyer, S.D.; Mislankar, P.G.; Loveson, V.J.

    grab (surface area 0.04 m 2 ) was utilized to recover samples from the river mouth to the upstream region. A total of 89 samples were collected along the beach and 19 samples from the river bed, i.e. two from the Achara and 17 from the Gad river... occurs near high-tide regions covering the berm, river banks and dunes (Figures 3 b–d), whereas within the dunes, heavy mineral laminations of variable thickness are distinct (Figure 3 e). The heavy mineral content increases with decreasing...

  7. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D Sundar; S R Shetye

    2005-10-01

    Mandovi and Zuari are two estuaries located in Goa,west coast of India.Variation of water level in the estuaries was monitored for a month at 13 locations using tide-poles during March –April 2003.Analysis of this data has provided for the first time,characteristics of how tidal constituents vary in the narrow and shallow estuaries,typical of those found along the west coast of India.At a distance of 45 km from the mouth the tidal range increased in both estuaries by approximately 20%.The tidal range at the upstream end of the two channels at the stations dropped sharply because of the increase in elevation of the channels.

  8. Eco-labelling in fisheries along West African coast : the potentials and pitfalls

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier-Salem, Marie-Christine; Samba, Alassane

    2010-01-01

    Eco-labelling is considered with increased interest within the scope of fisheries crisis, as a way to tackle both marine biodiversity conservation and development issues. Along West African Coast, diversity and specificity of seafood issued from localised fishery systems (or fishery territories) are remarkable and recognised from long time. Recently, initiatives to draw more value from fish and fishery while maintaining them for the future are more and more developing. Nevertheless, those inn...

  9. Mangrove rehabilitation in the west coast of Aceh: issues and perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Kanagaratnam, U.; Schwarz, A.M.; Adhuri, D.; Dey, M. M.

    2006-01-01

    The condition of mangroves pre- and post- tsunami and the socioeconomic role of mangrove forests in the livelihoods of coastal communities along the west coast of Aceh province, Indonesia are examined. The findings indicate that community livelihoods are significantly linked to the mangrove ecosystem. However, most of the mangrove rehabilitation programs are conservation orientated, aimed primarily at land conservation, and are not necessarily linked with livelihood options for local people o...

  10. REMOTE OPERATION OF THE WEST COAST AND ALASKA TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec H. Medbery

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The remote control of real time derivation of earthquake location and magnitude and the issuance of tsunami and earthquake bulletins was done using off-the-shelf remote control software and hardware. Such remote operation of the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center can decrease the time needed to respond to an earthquake by eliminating travel from the duty standers’ home to the tsunami warning center.

  11. Nutrient environment of red tide- infested waters off south-west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, T.; Shaiju, P.; Laluraj, C.M.; Balachandran, K.K.; Nair, M.; George, R.; Nair, K.K.C.; Sahayak, S.; Prabhakaran, M.P.

    /Accepted: 28 August 2007 /Published online: 19 September 2007 # Springer Science + Business Media B.V. 2007 Abstract The bloom-infested waters along the south- west coast of India were assessed to bring about... duringthisperiodwasnoticeable (Ramaiah et al. 2005) According to UNEP, ‘toxic algae bloom is an indicator of an upset in the environmental conditions. Toxic blooms indicate the declining health of the water body, which is why the phenomenon should be viewed seriously. Inflowing...

  12. THE BACKGROUND RADIATION AND EXPOSURE LEVELS AT VARIOUS SOUTH AFRICAN WEST COAST MILITARY UNITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Bezuidenhout

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The West Coast of South Africa between St Helena Bay to the north and Langebaan Lagoon to the south is characterised by numerous granite protrusions. These outcrops are elements of the underlying Cape Granite Suite, which forms the bedrock of a large part of the Western Cape. Granite contains high levels of natural radionuclides, which results in high levels of natural background radiation in the surrounding area. The impacts of these high levels of radiation exposure on military personal are of concern. There are four military units located in this part of the West Coast, namely SAS Saldanha, 4 Special Forces Regiment, Langebaan Road Air Force Base and the Military Academy. Different sites in and around these military units were selected and soil samples were taken. Laboratory gamma ray measurements were done to determine the levels of natural radioactive nuclides in the soil samples. The radioactive nuclide concentrations were interpolated and then mapped with the help of geographic information systems (also known as geospatial information systems or GIS software. An evaluation of the annual dose rate of military personnel at the units on the West Coast was made and found to range between 0,017 mSv/y and 0,163 mSv/y. These values were mapped and compared to the average global annual dose rate of 0,070 mSv/y. This article reports on an investigation of these results and the overall exposure levels of personnel from the various military units on the West Coast of South Africa.

  13. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety)

    OpenAIRE

    Probir Kumar Ghosh; Paramita Bhattacharjee; Souvik Mitra; Mousumi Poddar-Sarkar

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet...

  14. Evaluating the efficacy of managing West Coast groundfish resources through simulations

    OpenAIRE

    Punt, Andre E.

    2003-01-01

    Management of West Coast groundfish resources by the Pacific Fishery Management Council involves Federal government and academic scientists conducting stock assessments, generally using the stock synthesis framework, applying the 40-10 rule to determine harvest guidelines for resources that are not overfished and conducting rebuilding analyses to determine harvest guidelines for resources that have been designated as overfished. However, this management system has not been evaluated in terms ...

  15. Diel variations in zooplankton and their biochemical composition from Vengurla to Ratnagiri, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, S.C.; KrishnaKumari, L.; Shrivastava, Y.

    of Marine Sciences Vol. 29, September, 2000, pp 277-280 Short Communication Diel variations in zooplankton and their biochemical composition from Vengurla to Ratnagiri, west coast of India S C Goswami, L.Krishna Kumari & Yashoshri Shrivastava National... population and their biochemical constituents from coastal areas is scanty. The present communication deals with diel variability of common groups including economically important fish and decapod larvae and their biochemical composition in the coastal...

  16. Atmospheric rivers as drought busters on the U.S. west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Michael D.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) have, in recent years, been recognized as the cause of the large majority of major floods in rivers all along the U.S. West Coast and as the source of 30%–50% of all precipitation in the same region. The present study surveys the frequency with which ARs have played a critical role as a common cause of the end of droughts on the West Coast. This question was based on the observation that, in most cases, droughts end abruptly as a result of the arrival of an especially wet month or, more exactly, a few very large storms. This observation is documented using both Palmer Drought Severity Index and 6-month Standardized Precipitation Index measures of drought occurrence for climate divisions across the conterminous United States from 1895 to 2010. When the individual storm sequences that contributed most to the wet months that broke historical West Coast droughts from 1950 to 2010 were evaluated, 33%–74% of droughts were broken by the arrival of landfalling AR storms. In the Pacific Northwest, 60%–74% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by the arrival of AR storms. In California, about 33%–40% of all persistent drought endings have been brought about by landfalling AR storms, with more localized low pressure systems responsible for many of the remaining drought breaks.

  17. PIRACY AROUND AFRICA’S WEST AND EAST COASTS: A COMPARATIVE POLITICAL PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theo Neethling

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The study of politics, or political science, focuses on both the abstract theories andpractical operation of government and politics. The phenomenon of piracy on theeast and west coasts of Africa brings an important scholarly issue to the fore, namelythe significant roles of non-state actors in national, regional and global issues andpolitics. The phenomenon of maritime piracy along Africa’s coastal areas is indeedof great strategic and political-economic interest − specifically since globalisationand maritime trade show a close interface. This article examines the similarities anddifferences relating to the phenomenon of piracy on the east and west coasts ofAfrica from a Political Science perspective by assessing, interpreting and appraisingthe phenomenon, and ascribing meaning to recent events and developments. It alsoexplains the current insecurity off the west and east African coasts and closes with abrief comparison between the two regions under review. It concludes with the pointthat most security challenges confronting Africa have their origin in the lack orfailure of governance as states are the primary actors and agents of good order atsea. Thus the required good order at sea should be viewed as a function of howstates, such as Somalia and Nigeria, exercise their jurisdiction at sea to secure busysea lanes and also to protect the safe harvesting and extraction of resources.

  18. Backtrack modeling to locate the origin of tar balls depositing along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneel, V; Ciappa, A; Vethamony, P

    2016-11-01

    Tar ball (TB) deposition along the West Coast of India (WCI) is a common phenomenon during the southwest monsoon season, particularly along the coast of Goa and Gujarat, and it is a major concern to the stake holders. Our earlier studies showed that the source oil for the TBs deposited on the Goa coast in August 2010 is the tanker wash, and the source for subsequent TBs deposited on the Gujarat coast during July 2012 and June 2013 and Goa coast in May 2013 is from Bombay High (BH) oil fields. In the present study, the TBs that were deposited during May 2013 and May 2014 on the Goa coast were backtracked through a trajectory model, primarily to simulate their pathways and identify the reason for the occurrence of TBs only in May, and eventually to identify the origin and the source. The backtracking results re-confirmed that the TBs deposited in 2010 were originated from the tanker routes and that of both 2013 and 2014 TBs from the BH oil fields. The climatology of wind and surface circulation showed that the TBs deposited on the Goa coast during May/June only are from the oil fields and those during August from the tanker route. The results of backtracking simulations showed that the residence time of the oil residues/TBs is approximately 22days for August 2010 TBs, ≈30days for May 2013 TBs and 65days for May 2014 TBs. The residence time (in water) of TBs that deposit (on the coast) in the month of May could be as much as 7months, and could be around one month if deposit in August, primarily because of winds and hydrodynamic conditions of the Arabian Sea. PMID:27328397

  19. Hydrocarbon accumulations of Mississippian Berea sandstone in west-central West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, D.L. (Peake Energy, Inc., Ravenswood, WV (USA))

    1988-08-01

    The Berea Sandstone is a widely recognized producer of oil and gas in the Appalachian basin. Subsurface mapping, core analysis, and production data from producing wells have been evaluated in west-central West Virginia, where the Berea Sandstone represents a wide range of nearshore and coastal environments. Fluvial system deposits are found in southern Jackson County as channel sands (Gay-Fink) and adjacent deltaic facies. Coastal sediments were deposited to the north as intertidal shoals, tidal flats, and coarse-grained tidal-creek point bars. Marine shelf sands are found to the west.

  20. Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ansari, Z.A; Sreepada, R.A; Dalal, S.G.; Ingole, B.S.; Chatterji, A

    The degree of relationship between trawl catch and environmental variables was assessed in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India using multivariate techniques. The demersal fish assemblage was dominated by the families, Leiognathidae...

  1. Coral Research Data from NOAA's Undersea Research Center, West Coast and Polar Region, NOAA's Undersea Research Program (NURP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's Undersea Research Center for the West Coast and Polar regions operates in the waters offshore of California, Oregon, Washington, and Alaska, and the Artic...

  2. Recruitment dynamics of two ecosystem engineers could drive shellfish populations in U.S. west coast estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two species of burrowing shrimp, Neotrypaea californiensis and Upogebia pugettensis are important members of intertidal mudflat communities in US West coast estuaries. Both species act as ecosystem engineers and influence the presence of other structured habitats and suspension ...

  3. Tidal propagation in the Mandovi-Zuari Estuarine network, west coast of India: Impact of freshwater influx

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.

    The Mandovi-Zuari estuarine network on the west coast of India consists of shallow strongly converging channels, that receive large seasonal influx of fresh water due to the monsoons. The main channels, the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, connect...

  4. Transient killer whale range - Satellite tagging of West Coast transient killer whales to determine range and movement patterns

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Transient killers whales inhabit the West Coast of the United States. Their range and movement patterns are difficult to ascertain, but are vital to understanding...

  5. Heavy metal burden in coastal marine sediments of north west coast of India in relation to pollution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rokade, M.A.

    IN COASTAL MARINE SEDIMENTS OF NORTH WEST COAST OF INDIA IN RELATION TO POLLUTION A THESIS SUBMITTED TO THE UNIVERSITY OF MUMBAI FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY IN INORGANIC CHEMISTRY SUBMITTED BY M. A. ROKADE UNDER...

  6. On vertical velocity fluctuations and internal tides in an upwelling region off the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Antony, M.K.

    Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science (1990) 31,865-873 On Vertical Velocity Fluctuations and Internal Tides in an Upwelling Region off the West Coast of India A. S. Unnikrishnan and M. K. Antony National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004... of flow and wind and temperature oscillations at a mooring site in the shelf waters off the west coast of India are discussed. The vertical velocities were computed from a time series of vertical temperature profiles assuming that horizontal advection...

  7. Coastline undulations on the West Coast of Denmark: Offshore extent, relation to breaker bars and transported sediment volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærgaard, Kasper Hauberg; Fredsøe, Jørgen; Knudsen, Søren B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with field measurements of undulations of the bottom bathymetry along an otherwise straight coast at the Danish West Coast. Two bathymetric datasets and two time series of wave measurements are used in order to determine the following properties: the offshore extent of shoreline ...

  8. Increasing ozone in marine boundary layer inflow at the west coasts of North America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Parrish

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available An effective method is presented for determining the ozone (O3 mixing ratio in the onshore flow of marine air at the North American west coast. By combining the data available from all marine boundary layer (MBL sites with simultaneous wind data, decadal temporal trends of MBL O3 in all seasons are established with high precision. The average springtime temporal trend over the past two decades is 0.46 ppbv/yr with a 95% confidence limit of 0.13 ppbv/yr, and statistically significant trends are found for all seasons except autumn, which does have a significantly smaller trend than other seasons. The average trend in mean annual ozone is 0.34±0.09 ppbv/yr. These decadal trends at the North American west coast present a striking comparison and contrast with the trends reported for the European west coast at Mace Head, Ireland. The trends in the winter, spring and summer seasons compare well at the two locations, while the Mace Head trend is significantly greater in autumn. Even though the trends are similar, the absolute O3 mixing ratios differ markedly, with the marine air arriving at Europe in all seasons containing 7±2 ppbv higher ozone than marine air arriving at North America. Further, the ozone mixing ratios at the North American west coast show no indication of stabilizing as has been reported for Mace Head. In a larger historical context the background boundary layer O3 mixing ratios over the 130 years covered by available data have increased substantially (by a factor of two to three, and this increase continues at present, at least in the MBL of the Pacific coast region of North America. The reproduction of the increasing trends in MBL O3 over the past two decades, as well as the difference in the O3 mixing ratios between the two coastal regions will present a significant challenge for global chemical transport models. Further, the ability of the models to at least semi

  9. Potential of Offshore Wind Energy and Extreme Wind Speed Forecasting on the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei-Chi Chang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available It is of great importance and urgency for Taiwan to develop offshore wind power. However, relevant data on offshore wind energy resources are limited. This study imported wind speeds measured by a tidal station and a buoy into the software WAsP to estimate the high-altitude wind speeds in the two areas. A light detection and ranging (Lidar system was set up near the tidal station and buoy. High-altitude wind speeds measured by the Lidar system were compared with the WAsP-estimated values, and it was discovered that the two data sets were consistent. Then, long-term wind speed data observed by buoys and tidal stations at various locations were imported into WAsP to forecast wind speeds at heights of 55–200 m on the west coast of Taiwan. The software WAsP Engineering was used to analyze the extreme wind speeds in the same areas. The results show that wind speeds at 100 m are approximately 9.32–11.24 m/s, which means that the coastal areas of west Taiwan are rich in wind energy resources. When a long-term 10-min average wind speed is used, the extreme wind speed on the west coast is estimated to be between 36.4 and 55.3 m/s.

  10. Climatic Controls on Summertime fog Patterns Along the U.S. West Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, A. P.; Still, C.; Husak, G.; Michaelsen, J.

    2008-12-01

    Summertime fog and stratus overcast along the U.S. west coast significantly impact aviation, marine travel, agriculture, and biodiversity. However, an understanding of the climatic mechanisms that drive variability in fog formation and dissolution in this region, particularly on interannual time scales, is lacking, in part because fog data are collected at only a handful of coastal sites. Furthermore, fog is quite spatially variable and depends in part on local-scale features such as coastal topography and coastline orientation. As a result, accurate predictions of relative fogginess from one summer to the next have been elusive. This means that we do not know how coastal fogginess may change in response to global climate change. In this study, we treated all low stratus clouds as fog and used hourly records of summertime cloud height from 12 coastal stations along with daily satellite imagery to develop the first spatially continuous record of summertime fog occurrence along the California coast. Using statistical techniques to compare records of summer fog frequency to global gridded climate data, we created a statistical model that utilizes the organization of global sea surface temperatures and atmospheric pressures to estimate relative summer fogginess along California's coast. We then used GCM outputs based upon several climate change scenarios to predict how summer fog frequency may be expected to change during the 21st century. Finally, we used ecological niche modeling to predict how future changes in coastal fogginess might impact the range boundaries of several endemic plant species, including coast redwood.

  11. Environmental disturbance and conservation of marine and shoreline birds on the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loss of habitat and oiling of birds represent two major threats to marine and shoreline bird populations on Vancouver Island's west coast, since their effects are widespread and cumulative. Offshore tanker traffic and local inshore shipments of petroleum products expose the coast to high risks of oiling. Large numbers of birds are most at risk when concentrated in relatively small areas, such as highly productive feeding areas, at communal roosting sites, and around nesting colonies. Logging of mature and old-growth forests has led to destruction of the nesting habitat of marbled murrelets (Brachyramphus marmoratus), while industrial development of estuaries, mudflats, and spawning grounds of Pacific herring (Clupea harengus pallasi) has diminished feeding habitats for other marine and shoreline birds. Fisheries operations, human disturbance of colonies, and introduced predators, notably the raccoon (Procyon lotor) and mink (Mustela vison), have impacted upon local populations. Management actions and research needs to mitigate these threats are addressed. 40 refs

  12. Hydrography and circulation off the west coast of India during the southwest monsoon 1987

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shetye, S.R.; Gouveia, A.D.; Shenoi, S.S.C.; Sundar, D.; Michael, G.S.; Almeida, A.M.; Santanam, K.

    Marine Research [48,2 Figure I. Dynamic topography (dyn.cm) ofsea surface in the Arabian Sea relative to 800 db for the period July, August, September 1963. Reproduced from Duing (1970). \\ Goa, India, initiated a program to study the coastal processes off..., though weak, is dynamically similar to the wind-driven eastern boundary currents found elsewhere in the oceans. J. Introduction The west coast of India forms the eastern boundary of the Arabian Sea basin. Like most other phenomena in this sea...

  13. Tides in the Mandovi and Zuari estuaries, Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sundar, D.; Shetye, S.R.

    stream_size 27415 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Earth_Syst_Sci_114_493.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Earth_Syst_Sci_114_493.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1... sharply because of the increase in elevation of the channels. 1. Introduction Located along the west coast of India are a num- ber of estuarine channels that connect the Arabian Sea to the rivers that originate in the Western Ghats mountain range...

  14. Trend in GHG Emissions from Northeast and West Coast Regions of India

    OpenAIRE

    Tongdimenba Jamir; Uday Shankar

    2013-01-01

    Climate change due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs) has emerged as a serious global environmental issue. An attempt has been made to assess the GHG emissions in two geographical regions of India i.e. the Northeast Region (NER) and the West coast Region (WCR) during the period of 1980-2005. The analysis reveals an increasing trend in GHG emissions from the study regions except for CH4, which shows a decreasing trend in Goa and Kerala.  As far as state wise GHG emissions ...

  15. Magnetic studies of basement off the coast of Bombay, West of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.

    in the east and the Arabian Sea in the West (Fig. 1). Paleomagnetic studies of the basalts have revealed that the basal 0.8 km thick basaltic lava flows acquired a reversed mag- netization (remanent magnetic intensity of around 3.0 A m-‘, an inc... (Gopala Rao, 1983), and two-dimensional model studies of the magnetic anomalies off the coast of Ratnagiri, northwest of India (Gopala Rao, 1984), have revealed mostly reverse-magnetized basal& similar to those of the onshore areas of the northwest...

  16. Ciguatera fish poisoning on the West Africa Coast: An emerging risk in the Canary Islands (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada, Luis D; Zumbado, Manuel; Luzardo, Octavio P; Almeida-González, Maira; Plakas, Steven M; Granade, Hudson R; Abraham, Ann; Jester, Edward L E; Dickey, Robert W

    2010-12-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is endemic in certain tropical and subtropical regions of the world. CFP had not been described on the West Africa Coast until a 2004 outbreak in the Canary Islands. In 2008-2009, two additional outbreaks of ciguatera occurred. Individuals afflicted had consumed lesser amberjack (Seriola rivoliana) captured from nearby waters. Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) was confirmed in fish samples by LC-MS/MS. Ciguatoxic fish in this region may pose a new health risk for the seafood consumer. PMID:20692274

  17. COST OF PROCESSING CARROT PRODUCTION IN WEST CENTRAL MICHIGAN

    OpenAIRE

    Dartt, Barbara; Black, J. Roy; Breinling, Jim; Morrone, Vicki

    2002-01-01

    This bulletin represents a tool that can help producers, consultants, educators, and agribusinesses working with producers estimate costs of production and expected profit based on "typical" carrot management strategies found in west central Michigan. The budget included in this bulletin will allow users to revise inputs based on their management strategies and calculate their expected cost and profit. This flexibility provides a decision aid to search for systems that generate higher net ret...

  18. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Mendes Pereira; Paulo Silva de Almeida; Adair Vieira de Sousa; Aécio Moraes de Paula; Ricardo Bomfim Machado; Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW) and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic dist...

  19. CWRD: ICT in Education: Central and West Asia Executive

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This publication presents and analyzes the major conclusions of research conducted in Central and West Asia in 2006 through 2011 to ascertain the impact of information and communications technology (ICT) investments on education. It presents a critical overview of the effectiveness of ICT policies and strategies in basic education in Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, with shorter studies on Afghanistan, Armenia, Georgia, and Pakistan. Among its many impo...

  20. Stream Habitat Reach Summary - San Francisco Bay, Central Coast [ds159

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The Stream Habitat - San Francisco Bay, Central and South Coasts [ds159] shapefile contains four years of in-stream salmonid habitat data at the reach level. The...

  1. Observational evidence from direct current measurements for propagation of remotely forced waves on the shelf off the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amol, P.; Shankar, D.; Aparna, S. G.; Shenoi, S. S. C.; Fernando, V.; Shetye, S. R.; Mukherjee, A.; Agarvadekar, Y.; Khalap, S.; Satelkar, N. P.

    2012-05-01

    We use data from six Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) moorings deployed during March-September 2008 on the continental shelf and slope off Bhatkal, Goa, and Jaigarh on the central west coast of India to present evidence for poleward propagation of shelf or coastal-trapped waves (CTWs). Wave propagation is seen on the shelf in the 20-40-day, 10-14-day, and 3-5-day-period bands. The lag from south to north indicates that remote forcing is important even at periods as short as 4 days. Using QuikSCAT wind data, we show that the contribution of remote forcing to the shelf West Indian Coastal Current (WICC) is significant even when the local alongshore wind is strong, as during the summer-monsoon onset during May-June, and forces a strong local response that masks the effect of remote forcing. Forced wave calculations using CTW theory show that remote forcing of the WICC is present at all times, but is most striking when the local winds are weak, as during March-April. The CTW calculations show that the source region for the remote forcing may extend beyond the west coast into the Gulf of Mannar between India and Sri Lanka. On the slope, propagation is seen only at the 4-day period. At higher periods, the slope WICC decorrelates rapidly along the coast, but upward phase propagation, implying downward propagation of energy associated with poleward propagation, is evident even at these higher periods.

  2. A coastal hazards data base for the U.S. West Coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gornitz, V.M. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Center for Climate Systems Research]|[National Aeronautics and Space Administration, New York, NY (United States). Goddard Inst. for Space Studies; Beaty, T.W. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States). Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center; Daniels, R.C. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States). Energy, Environment and Resources Center

    1997-12-01

    This document describes the contents of a digital data base that may be used to identify coastlines along the US West Coast that are at risk to sea-level rise. This data base integrates point, line, and polygon data for the US West Coast into 0.25{degree} latitude by 0.25{degree} longitude grid cells and into 1:2,000,000 digitized line segments that can be used by raster or vector geographic information systems (GIS) as well as by non-GIS data bases. Each coastal grid cell and line segment contains data variables from the following seven data sets: elevation, geology, geomorphology, sea-level trends, shoreline displacement (erosion/accretion), tidal ranges, and wave heights. One variable from each data set was classified according to its susceptibility to sea-level rise and/or erosion to form 7 relative risk variables. These risk variables range in value from 1 to 5 and may be used to calculate a Coastal Vulnerability Index (CVI). Algorithms used to calculate several CVIs are listed within this text.

  3. Effects of wave energy converters on the surrounding soft-bottom macrofauna (west coast of Sweden).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhamer, O

    2010-06-01

    Offshore wave energy conversion is expected to develop, thus contributing to an increase in submerged constructions on the seabed. An essential concern related to the deployment of wave energy converters (WECs) is their possible impact on the surrounding soft-bottom habitats. In this study, the macrofaunal assemblages in the seabed around the wave energy converters in the Lysekil research site on the Swedish west coast and a neighbouring reference site were examined yearly during a period of 5 years (2004-2008). Macrobenthic communities living in the WECs' surrounding seabed were mainly composed by organisms typical for the area and depth off the Swedish west coast. At both sites the number of individuals, number of species and biodiversity were low, and were mostly small, juvenile organisms. The species assemblages during the first years of sampling were significantly different between the Lysekil research site and the nearby reference site with higher species abundance in the research site. The high contribution to dissimilarities was mostly due to polychaetes. Sparse macrofaunal densities can be explained by strong hydrodynamic forces and/or earlier trawling. WECs may alter the surrounding seabed with an accumulation of organic matter inside the research area. This indicates that the deployment of WECs in the Lysekil research site tends to have rather minor direct ecological impacts on the surrounding benthic community relative to the natural high variances. PMID:20138659

  4. Morphometric and molecular analysis of mackerel (Rastrelliger spp) from the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darlina, M N; Masazurah, A R; Jayasankar, P; Jamsari, A F J; Siti, A M N

    2011-01-01

    Mackerel (Scombridae; Rastrelliger) are small commercially important pelagic fish found in tropical regions. They serve as a cheap source of animal protein and are commonly used as live bait. By using a truss morphometrics protocol and RAPD analysis, we examined morphological and genetic variation among 77 individual mackerel that were caught using long lines and gillnets at 11 locations along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. Nineteen morphometric traits were evaluated and genetic information was estimated using five 10-base RAPD random primers. Total DNA was extracted from muscle tissue. Morphometric discriminant function analysis revealed that two morphologically distinct groups of Rastrelliger kanagurta and a single group of R. brachysoma can be found along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. We also found that the head-related characters and those from the anterior part of the body of Rastrelliger spp significantly contribute to stock assessment of this population. RAPD analysis showed a trend similar to that of the morphometric analysis, suggesting a genetic component to the observed phenotypic differentiation. These data will be useful for developing conservation strategies for these species. PMID:21968625

  5. How homogeneous is West Coast Renosterveld? Implications for con­servation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Newton

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we test two published assumptions about West Coast Renosterveld, a highly fragmented vegetation type in South Africa. The first is that it is a homogeneous vegetation type. The second is that small fragments are subsets (in terms of species of the larger fragments. We used three sets of data. Species lists showed that more than 44 % of the species identified at 16 sites were unique to that site. Examining the dominant and rare species occurring at subsites within large fragments showed that, on average three-quarters, and never less than half, of the species were confined to one subsite. Analyses of rare and endangered plant species lists showed that the average distance separating patches of the same species was almost 30 km. Only 36.4 % of the rare or endangered species localities coincided with a major (> 25 ha fragment. Our first conclusion was that many endemic species are constrained by micro- or meso-habitat demands that are not immediately obvious to the observer, and hence the vegetation should not be considered locally homogeneous. Our second conclusion was that the smaller fragments (< 25 ha are of importance for the conservation of West Coast Renosterveld plant species.

  6. A report on radioactivity measurements of fish samples from the west coast of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though many studies have shown that radioactive caesium levels in fish caught outside of Japan were below experimental detection limits of a few Bq kg-1, significant public concern has been expressed about the safety of consuming seafood from the Pacific Ocean following the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear accident. To address the public concerns, samples of commonly consumed salmon and groundfish harvested from the Canadian west coast in 2013 were analysed for radioactive caesium. None of the fish samples analysed in this study contained any detectable levels of 134Cs and 137Cs under given experimental setting with the average detection limit of ∼2 Bq kg-1. Using a conservative worst-case scenario where all fish samples would contain 137Cs exactly at the detection limit level and 134Cs at half of the detection limit level (to account for much shorter half-life of 134Cs), the resulting radiation dose for people from consumption of this fish would be a very small fraction of the annual dose from exposure to natural background radiation in Canada. Therefore, fish, such as salmon and groundfish, from the Canadian west coast are of no radiological health concern. (authors)

  7. Impact of sea breeze on wind-seas off Goa, west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Neetu; Satish Shetye; P Chandramohan

    2006-04-01

    After withdrawal of the Indian Summer Monsoon and until onset of the next monsoon,i.e.,roughly during November-May, winds in the coastal regions of India are dominated by sea breeze.It has an impact on the daily cycle of the sea state near the coast.The impact is quite significant when large scale winds are weak.During one such event,1 –15 April 1997,a Datawell directional waverider buoy was deployed in 23 m water depth off Goa,west coast of India.Twenty-minute averaged spectra,collected once every three hours,show that the spectrum of sea-breeze-related ‘wind-seas’ peaked at 0.23 ± 0.05 Hz. These wind-seas were well separated from swells of frequencies less than 0.15 Hz.The TMA spectrum (Bouws et al 1985) matched the observed seas spectra very well when the sea-breeze was active and the fetch corresponding to equilibrium spectrum was found to be 77 ± 43 km during such occasions. We emphasize on the diurnal cycle of sea-breeze-related sea off the coast of Goa and write an equation for the energy of the seas as a function of the local wind.

  8. West Coast offshore vessel traffic risk management project : Final project report and recommendations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Representatives from oil spill agencies in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and California, as well as the province of British Columbia, the United States Coast Guard Districts 17, 13, and 11, the Canadian Coast Guard Pacific Region, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Environment Canada, the United States Navy, the Canadian Maritime Forces, the Cook Inlet Regional Citizens' Advisory Council, the British Columbia Chamber of Shipping, and a host of other organizations participated in the Pacific States/British Columbia Oil Spill Task Force. Their aim was the reduction of the risk of collision or drift groundings caused by vessel traffic transiting 3 to 200 nautical miles off the West Coast between Cook Inlet in the North and San Diego in the South. Data on typical coastwise traffic patterns, traffic volume, existing management measures, weather data and ship drift patterns, historic casualty rates by vessel type and other was gathered and reviewed. Nine factors were evaluated, and four risk factors addressed. A draft findings and recommendations was presented at various meetings, and this final report then prepared. Part I of the document presented an introduction and project background. In Part II, a discussion of what is at risk was presented. Part III defined the risk, and Part IV explored analysis of the risk. The development of findings and recommendations was provided in Part V. 27 refs., tabs., figs

  9. Development of a shoreline protection strategy for the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of a shoreline protection manual for the west coast of Vancouver Island, a high risk area due to its proximity to the Straits of Juan de Fuca and the prevailing current system near the mouth of the Straits, was described. The development of the manual entailed mapping the biophysical shore-zone features, modeling potential sensitivity and evaluating potential protection sites. The resource information is catalogued in Arcinfo GIS and associated databases. A total of 251 exclusion boom sites have been mapped, with about 60 per cent rated as 'good' in terms of potential effectiveness. The area is amenable to a variety of response options; 90 per cent of the coast is accessible by small vessel, 75 per cent by float plane, and 40 per cent by helicopter. During summer months 75 per cent of the coast would have sufficiently low wave conditions to permit all-weather operations of vessels. About 100 boat ramps could provide local staging areas. Overall protection potential is rated 'good' with 47 per cent of shoreline protectable. 13 refs., 9 tabs

  10. Orographic shaping of US West Coast wind profiles during the upwelling season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Lionel; Hall, Alex; McWilliams, James C.

    2016-01-01

    Spatial and temporal variability of nearshore winds in eastern boundary current systems is affected by orography, coastline shape, and air-sea interaction. These lead to a weakening of the wind close to the coast: the so-called wind drop-off. In this study, regional atmospheric simulations over the US West Coast are used to demonstrate monthly characteristics of the wind drop-off and assess the mechanisms controlling it. Using a long-term simulation, we show the wind drop-off has spatial and seasonal variability in both its offshore extent and intensity. The offshore extent varies from around 10 to 80 km from the coast and the wind reduction from 10 to 80 %. We show that when the mountain orography is combined with the coastline shape of a cape, it has the biggest influence on wind drop-off. The primary associated processes are the orographically-induced vortex stretching and the surface drag related to turbulent momentum flux divergence that has an enhanced drag coefficient over land. Orographically-induced tilting/twisting can also be locally significant in the vicinity of capes. The land-sea drag difference acts as a barrier to encroachment of the wind onto the land through turbulent momentum flux divergence. It turns the wind parallel to the shore and slightly reduces it close to the coast. Another minor factor is the sharp coastal sea surface temperature front associated with upwelling. This can weaken the surface wind in the coastal strip by shallowing the marine boundary layer and decoupling it from the overlying troposphere.

  11. Petrology of the Plutonic Rocks of west-central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Thomas P.

    1970-01-01

    A series of plutons in west-central Alaska defines the Hogatza plutonic belt which extends for about 200 miles in an east-west direction from the northeastern Seward Peninsula to the Koyukuk River. The plutonic rocks have an aggregate area of about 1,200 square miles and their composition, distribution, and possible petrogenesis are discussed for the first time in this report. Field, petrographic and chemical data supported by K/Ar age dating indicate the plutonic rocks are divisible into two suites differing in age, location, and composition. The western plutons are mid-Cretaceous (~100 m.y.) in age and consist of a heterogeneous assemblage of monzonite, syenite, quartz monzonite. Associated with these granitic rocks is a group of alkaline sub-silicic rocks that forma belt of intrusive complexes extending for a distance of at least 180 miles from west-central Alaska to the Bering Sea. The complex at Granite Mountain shows a rare example of zoning from an alkaline rim to a quartz-bearing core. The occurrence of a similar complex at Cape Dezhnev on the easternmost tip of Siberia suggests the alkaline province may extend into Siberia. The easternmost plutons are Late Cretaceous (180 m.y.) in age and composed primarily of granodiorite and quartz monzonite similar to calc-alkaline plutons found throughout the North America Cordillera. The plutons are epizonal and intrude deformed but unmetamorphosed Lower Cretaceous andesitic volcanics and volcanic graywacke which constitute the highly mobile Yukon-Koyukuk volcanogenic province of west-central Alaska. No older rocks have been found within the confines of this vast tract; the occurrence of a bounding ophiolite sequence has lead to the suggestion that the province was formed by large-scale rifting and is underlain by oceanic crust. The possibility of no juvenile sialic crust over much of the area suggests that the potassium-rich magma now represented by the alkaline rocks originated in the mantle. The distribution of the

  12. 9 CFR 93.320 - Horses from Central America and the West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Horses from Central America and the... PRODUCTS; REQUIREMENTS FOR MEANS OF CONVEYANCE AND SHIPPING CONTAINERS Horses Central America and the West Indies 17 § 93.320 Horses from Central America and the West Indies. Horses from Central America and...

  13. 210Pb concentration in soils of west coast of India and its dependence on soil properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the results of 210Pb concentration, its vertical profiles and its dependence on physico-chemical properties of the soil in the environment of coastal Karnataka, Kaiga and Goa regions of West coast of India. The concentration was measured by gamma spectrometry using a 41% HPGe detector. Results show that the concentration vary in the range 14.6 - 456.5 Bq Kg-1 with a mean of 149.7 Bq kg-1 in the 0 - 5 cm soil profile. A comparison of the results of the present study with those reported for other normal background regions show that the concentrations observed for some of the locations of Kaiga and Goa are higher. The reasons for the higher concentrations of 210Pb are discussed. The influence of soil pH, density, silt, clay, sand and organic matter contents on retention of this radionuclide is also discussed. (author)

  14. An annotated check list of the land mammal fauna of the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Avery

    1990-10-01

    Full Text Available Some 4 000 Barn Owl pellets with small mammal remains have been collected over a period of nine years from two locations at the south end of the Langebaan lagoon. Two small samples of bones from archaeological sites on the Churchhaven peninsula provide evidence for past mammal occurrences. The remains of small mammals from the owl pellet collections provide an initial list of 18 species that occur within theWest Coast National Park. Subsequent conventional censusing by means of trapping and observational techniques to assess the small and large mammal species diversity of the area were conducted during 1989. This study documents the definite occurrence of 63 mammal species in the park, seven of which are exotics. The presence of a further five species requires confirmation. Interesting insight is gained into how direct censusing and owl pellet analyses augment each other in establishing the presence of small mammal taxa of an area.

  15. MLR and ANN models of significant wave height on the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asma, Senay; Sezer, Ahmet; Ozdemir, Ozer

    2012-12-01

    Multiple linear regression (MLR) and artificial neural network (ANN) models are used in the present work to describe the significant wave height off Goa, located in the west Indian coast. A comparison study was carried out with the purpose of verifying when the artificial neural network and multiple linear regression models are appropriate for prediction of the significant wave height. Discussions of advantages and disadvantages are given in different point of view for both the methods. Several meteorological factors are used during the analysis and the ones affecting more to the model are kept. We concluded that non-linear models with wind speed and wind gust at a previous time step and air pressure, water temperature and air temperature at the same time step yield to better significant wave height models.

  16. Characteristics of the birds community in the islands off the West Coast of Seogwipo City, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Byung Kim

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to survey the status of birds in islands off the west coast of Seogwipo City – Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, Marado, and Gapado islands – in May and September 2013, as a part of the joint research of the Korean Biodiversity Consortium. As a result, 56 species were observed in those four islands: 167 individuals of 15 species on Beomseom, 79 individuals of 13 species on Hyeongjeseom, 193 individuals of 21 species on Gapado, and 354 individuals of 42 species on Marado; where seven threatened birds were confirmed to inhabit there. Apus pacificus is dominant on Beomseom, Hyeongjeseom, and Marado while Passer montanus is dominant on Gapado. Species diversity was highest on Marado (2.54 which was followed by Gapado and Beomseom (1.99 and Hyeongjeseom (1.82. These findings will be used as valuable data to protect the biota of the islands off Seogwipo including Beomseom that was a state-designated natural reserve.

  17. NOAA/West coast and Alaska Tsunami warning center Atlantic Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Refidaff, C.; Caropolo, M.; Huerfano-Moreno, V.; Knight, W.; Sammler, W.; Sandrik, A.

    2009-01-01

    West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakesoccurring in the Atlantic and Caribbean basins are presented. Initial warning center decisions are based on an earthquake's location, magnitude, depth, distance from coastal locations, and precomputed threat estimates based on tsunami models computed from similar events. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of sub-sea landslides).The new criteria require development of a threat data base which sets warning or advisory zones based on location, magnitude, and pre-computed tsunami models. The models determine coastal tsunami amplitudes based on likely tsunami source parameters for a given event. Based on the computed amplitude, warning and advisory zones are pre-set.

  18. Site specific probabilistic seismic hazard analysis at Dubai Creek on the west coast of UAE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shama, Ayman A.

    2011-03-01

    A probabilistic seismic hazard analysis (PSHA) was conducted to establish the hazard spectra for a site located at Dubai Creek on the west coast of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The PSHA considered all the seismogenic sources that affect the site, including plate boundaries such as the Makran subduction zone, the Zagros fold-thrust region and the transition fault system between them; and local crustal faults in UAE. PSHA indicated that local faults dominate the hazard. The peak ground acceleration (PGA) for the 475-year return period spectrum is 0.17 g and 0.33 g for the 2,475-year return period spectrum. The hazard spectra are then employed to establish rock ground motions using the spectral matching technique.

  19. Movements of walruses (Odobenus rosmarus between Central West Greenland and Southeast Baffin Island, 2005-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Dietz

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Between 2005 and 2008, 31 walruses were tagged with Argos satellite transmitters at their wintering grounds at Store Hellefiske Banke, Central West Greenland (N=23, and at their summering grounds off the coast of Southeast Baffin Island, Canada (N=8. Two male walruses moved along the Greenland coast from Store Hellefiske Banke north to Disko Banke, where contact was lost. Two other males went further north, up to the Upernavik area. Contact was lost with one of these tags, but the other animal travelled southward again and went towards SE Baffin Island. Eight of the tagged walruses moved between West Greenland and Baffin Island, demonstrating a connection between walruses at these sites. Walruses left the Store Hellefiske Banke during the period 7 April to 17 May and on average used 7 days to swim the 400 km across Davis Strait. The migration routes were quite similar; they travelled over the shallowest areas at the narrowest part of the strait. The timing of the spring dispersal and migration towards Canada was closely linked to the extent and timing of the retreat of the pack ice edge. One flipper tagged male that was marked off South Baffin Island was recovered in a hunt on Store Hellefiske Banke, documenting that the reverse migration also occurs. Off West Greenland satellite tagged walruses spent a lot of time around the Store Hellefiske Banke (55.0o-56.5o W, using this shallow area as feeding grounds irrespective of the ice cover in this area. Partial sexual segregation was observed. Despite a tendency in West Greenland for males to occur farther offshore, farther from the ice edge and at greater depths, only their preference for denser ice cover (64% ice cover differed significantly (P=0.019 from the habitat preferences of females (52% ice cover. Coast dispersal was more condensed and the segregation between males and females was more pronounced during autumn along the Southeast Baffin Island. Females remained farther north (P<0.001 and

  20. New residence times of the Holocene reworked shells on the west coast of Bohai Bay, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhiwen; Wang, Fu; Li, Jianfen; Marshall, William A.; Chen, Yongsheng; Jiang, Xingyu; Tian, Lizhu; Wang, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Shelly cheniers and shell-rich beds found intercalated in near-shore marine muds and sandy sediments can be used to indicate the location of ancient shorelines, and help to estimate the height of sea level. However, dating the deposition of material within cheniers and shell-rich beds is not straightforward because much of this material is transported and re-worked, creating an unknown temporal off-set, i.e., the residence time, between the death of a shell and its subsequent entombment. To quantify the residence time during the Holocene on a section of the northern Chinese coastline a total 47 shelly subsamples were taken from 17 discrete layers identified on the west coast of Bohai Bay. This material was AMS 14C dated and the calibrated ages were systematically compared. The subsamples were categorized by type as articulated and disarticulated bivalves, gastropod shells, and undifferentiated shell-hash. It was found that within most individual layers the calibrated ages of the subsamples got younger relative to the amount of apparent post-mortem re-working the material had been subject to. For examples, the 14C ages of the bivalve samples trended younger in this order: shell-hash → split shells → articulated shells. We propose that the younger subsample age determined within an individual layer will be the closest to the actual depositional age of the material dated. Using this approach at four Holocene sites we find residence times which range from 100 to 1260 cal yrs, with two average values of 600 cal yrs for the original 14C dates older than 1 ka cal BP and 100 cal yrs for the original 14C dates younger than 1 ka cal BP, respectively. Using this semi-empirical estimation of the shell residence times we have refined the existing chronology of the Holocene chenier ridges on the west coast of Bohai Bay.

  1. Distribution and impact of the alien anemone Sagartia ornata in the West Coast National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara B. Robinson

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Sagartia ornata is an alien anemone that occurs intertidally within the West Coast National Park (WCNP. Whilst baseline distributional data was gathered in 2001, the range and abundance of this alien has not been reassessed. The present study aimed to determine the current status and distribution of this anemone, to assess its diet so as to establish the role it may play as predator and to investigate its impact on sandy-shore communities. Sagartia ornata was found to be restricted to the WCNP, where it occurred in densities of up to 508 ± 218 individuals per m2 . Within the park the distribution of this anemone had changed. Populations were recorded in Nanozostera capensis seagrass beds for the first time and this alien was absent from two areas in which it had previously occurred. Diet analysis revealed indigenous polychaetes and amphipods as the dominant prey items consumed by S. ornata. This alien was found to significantly alter sandy-shore community structure, with differences caused primarily by increases in the abundance and biomass of the tanaid Anatanais gracilis and the polychaete Orbinia angrapequensis. Additionally, invaded areas supported significantly greater invertebrate diversity, density and biomass. It is concluded that whilst this anemone negatively affects native biota, its current dependence on restricted habitats precludes widespread impacts with the park.Conservation implications: With regard to conservation implications, this invasion should be routinely monitored outside the WCNP as in its native range S. ornata occurs on rocky shores and kelp holdfasts, suggesting a potential for spread along the west coast of South Africa.

  2. Seasonal beach profiling along Malvan and Kotharwadi coast , southern Maharashtra, central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ganesan, P.; Gaonkar, S.S.

    fixing system, as it has integrated differential receiver, which can receive differential base station corrections from the nearest Marine Beacon receivers. The GPS positional accuracy of this system is 2 to 3 meters using 8 channel and less than 1...

  3. Characterization of opaques off Konkan Coast Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Angusamy, N.; Rajamanickam, G. V.

    pigments. TiO2 pigment is mainly used in the Paints & Coatings (59 %), Plastics (20 %) and Paper (13 %) industries [2]. Trends such as use of bright glossy finishes in paints, higher demand for light paper, increased paper recycling, and substitution... Philips PWG. 1840 Powder diffractometer. Representative detrital ilmenites (8 Nos) and magnetites ( 8 Nos), covering the bays, were mounted on a bakelite medium and after polishing, under reflected light, examined for their nature of intergrowths...

  4. Cabira rangarajani n. sp. (Polychaeta: Pilargidae) from the Goa coast, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mandal, Sumit; Harkantra, S.N.; Salazar-Vallejo, S.I.

    Dr. S. R. Shetye, Director, NIO, Goa for his encouragement and facilities provided. This work was carried out under the project- Ballast waters control and Management financed by the Ministry of Shipping, Govt. of India. We thank Dr. A.C. Anil...

  5. Coastal processes and longshore sediment transport along Kundapura coast, central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Shanas, P.R.; SanilKumar, V.

    on the environmental conditions at the nearshore zone, the governing physical processes, and the quality of the data used to calibrate the formulation (Güner et al., 2013). Generally there are two fundamental approaches for the estimation of LSTR. One... formulation requires wave characteristics in the breaker zone. Also, due to the difficulty of acquiring extensive data in the complex nearshore region using instruments, a commonly used approach is to estimate LSTR through empirical bulk formulation. LSTR...

  6. NOAA/West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center Pacific Ocean response criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitmore, P.; Benz, H.; Bolton, M.; Crawford, G.; Dengler, L.; Fryer, G.; Goltz, J.; Hansen, R.; Kryzanowski, K.; Malone, S.; Oppenheimer, D.; Petty, E.; Rogers, G.; Wilson, Jim

    2008-01-01

    New West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) response criteria for earthquakes occurring in the Pacific basin are presented. Initial warning decisions are based on earthquake location, magnitude, depth, and - dependent on magnitude - either distance from source or precomputed threat estimates generated from tsunami models. The new criteria will help limit the geographical extent of warnings and advisories to threatened regions, and complement the new operational tsunami product suite. Changes to the previous criteria include: adding hypocentral depth dependence, reducing geographical warning extent for the lower magnitude ranges, setting special criteria for areas not well-connected to the open ocean, basing warning extent on pre-computed threat levels versus tsunami travel time for very large events, including the new advisory product, using the advisory product for far-offshore events in the lower magnitude ranges, and specifying distances from the coast for on-shore events which may be tsunamigenic. This report sets a baseline for response criteria used by the WCATWC considering its processing and observational data capabilities as well as its organizational requirements. Criteria are set for tsunamis generated by earthquakes, which are by far the main cause of tsunami generation (either directly through sea floor displacement or indirectly by triggering of slumps). As further research and development provides better tsunami source definition, observational data streams, and improved analysis tools, the criteria will continue to adjust. Future lines of research and development capable of providing operational tsunami warning centers with better tools are discussed.

  7. The effects of oil pollution on seabirds off the west coast of Vancouver Island

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Annual oil shipments off the west coast of Vancouver Island include over 300 tankers carrying 26 million m3 of crude oil, over 400 loads totalling ca 2 million m3 of refined petroleum products delivered to local ports, and thousands of smaller fuel deliveries. The incidence and estimated risks of oil spills off the coast of Vancouver Island are reviewed. Large spills of over 1,000 bbl are likely to affect the area every 4-5 y, but several hundred minor spills occur annually. Beached bird surveys yielded densities of 0.72 carcasses/km, of which at least 12% were oiled by small, predominantly unreported spills. Under normal conditions, the incidence of oiled birds on beaches is low relative to beach survey results from other parts of the world, but these data underestimate the actual at-sea mortality because of the characteristics of the beaches and the ocean currents off the island. This has been confirmed by experiments using bird-sized drift blocks released off the island and studies of carcass persistence on beaches. The effects of the Nestucca spill, which killed ca 56,000 seabirds off Vancouver Island and northern Washington in winter 1988-89, are reviewed. 57 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Proceedings of the Canadian Institute's west coast LNG forum : domestic demand and international influences bringing LNG ashore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference provided a forum to discuss the role of natural gas in fuelling North America markets, with particular reference to economic development and major liquefied natural gas (LNG) projects along the west coast. It addressed a broad range of topics, including world natural gas, markets and the need for west coast LNG; the Kitimat LNG Terminal; the Jordan Cove energy terminal; options and opportunities to ship LNG; assessing the suitability of routes into Georgia Strait for LNG carriers; British Columbia's energy plan and the role of natural gas; addressing infrastructure needs to extend the reach of west coast LNG beyond local markets; environmental assessments in British Columbia; and dispelling myths about LNG transportation and safety. The presentations emphasized that LNG provides a solution to both local and aggregate demand challenges up and down the west coast. The addition of LNG supply will provide opportunities for further growth and economic development. However, many regulatory, environmental and stakeholder challenges remain to be addressed. The conference featured 19 presentations, of which 4 have been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Climatic factors influencing triatomine occurrence in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce Mendes Pereira

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We estimated the geographic distributions of triatomine species in Central-West Region of Brazil (CW and analysed the climatic factors influencing their occurrence. A total of 3,396 records of 27 triatomine species were analysed. Using the maximum entropy method, ecological niche models were produced for eight species occurring in at least 20 municipalities based on 13 climatic variables and elevation. Triatoma sordida and Rhodnius neglectus were the species with the broadest geographic distributions in CW Brazil. The Cerrado areas in the state of Goiás were found to be more suitable for the occurrence of synanthropic triatomines than the Amazon forest areas in the northern part of the state of Mato Grosso. The variable that best explains the evaluated models is temperature seasonality. The results indicate that almost the entire region presents climatic conditions that are appropriate for at least one triatomine species. Therefore, it is recommended that entomological surveillance be reinforced in CW Brazil.

  10. Multiresolution quantification of deciduousness in West Central African forests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Viennois

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of leaf phenology in tropical forests is of major importance and improves our understanding of earth-atmosphere-climate interactions. The availability of satellite optical data with a high temporal resolution has permitted the identification of unexpected phenological cycles, particularly over the Amazon region. A primary issue in these studies is the relationship between the optical reflectance of pixels of 1 km or more in size and ground information of limited spatial extent. In this paper, we demonstrate that optical data with high to very-high spatial resolution can help bridge this scale gap by providing snapshots of the canopy that allow discernment of the leaf-phenological stage of trees and the proportions of leaved crowns within the canopy. We also propose applications for broad-scale forest characterization and mapping in West Central Africa over an area of 141 000 km2. Eleven years of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI data were averaged over the wet and dry seasons to provide a dataset of optimal radiometric quality at a spatial resolution of 250 m. Sample areas covered at a very-high (GeoEye and high (SPOT-5 spatial resolution were used to identify forest types and to quantify the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. The dry season EVI was positively correlated with the proportion of leaved trees in the canopy. This relationship allowed the conversion of EVI into canopy deciduousness at the regional level. On this basis, ecologically important forest types could be mapped, including young secondary, open Marantaceae, Gilbertiodendron dewevrei and swamp forests. We show that in west central African forests, a large share of the variability in canopy reflectance, as captured by the EVI, is due to variation in the proportion of leaved trees in the upper canopy, thereby opening new perspectives for biodiversity and carbon-cycle applications.

  11. Five centuries of U.S. West Coast drought: Occurrence, spatial distribution, and associated atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Erika K.

    2016-05-01

    The U.S. West Coast drought commencing in 2012 developed in association with a large, persistent high-pressure ridge linked to internal atmospheric variability. This study places the occurrence, spatial patterns, and associated circulation features of West Coast drought into a paleoclimate context through a synoptic dendroclimatology approach linking atmospheric circulation to surface hydroclimate patterns. Spatial reconstructions of upper atmosphere pressure patterns and cool-season drought show that West Coast-wide drought, although relatively rare compared to north-south dipole drought, has occurred periodically since 1500 Common Era and is consistently associated with a strong ridge centered along the Pacific Northwest coast. Atmospheric blocking is also linked to north-dry dipole droughts, while south-dry and wider Western droughts indicate La Niña-type patterns. The transition latitude between the northern and southern sides of the western precipitation dipole, important for California hydroclimate patterns, has had frequent year-to-year fluctuations but remained centered on 40°N over the past five centuries.

  12. Seasonality of the plankton community at an east and west coast monitoring site in Scottish waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresnan, Eileen; Cook, Kathryn B.; Hughes, Sarah L.; Hay, Steve J.; Smith, Kerry; Walsham, Pamela; Webster, Lynda

    2015-11-01

    This study presents the first comparative description of the physics, nutrients and plankton communities at two Scottish monitoring sites between 2003 and 2012; Stonehaven on the east coast of Scotland and Loch Ewe on the west coast. This description provides baseline information about the diversity of the plankton community in Scottish waters to support assessment of the plankton community for the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Spring time temperatures at Loch Ewe were approximately 2 °C higher and the median secchi depth was almost 1 m greater than at Stonehaven during this period. Freshwater inflow from the river Ewe may promote water column stability at Loch Ewe. These factors may account for the earlier spring bloom observed at the Loch Ewe monitoring site. The seasonality of chlorophyll 'a' at Loch Ewe was typical of stratified waters in temperate regions with a strong spring/autumn peak attributed to increased numbers of diatoms whilst dinoflagellates dominated during the summer. At Stonehaven highest concentrations of chlorophyll were recorded between May and June and the autumn diatom bloom was considerably less than in Loch Ewe. A higher biomass of zooplankton grazers was found at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven. Pseudocalanus was the dominant copepod at both sites, particularly during the spring period. Zooplankton carnivores were also more abundant at Loch Ewe than at Stonehaven and were dominated by cnidarians. Considerable interannual variability was observed in cnidarian abundance and diversity at both sites. Variation in the abundance of Ceratium, Calanus finmarchicus and Calanus helgolandicus at both sites followed similar trends in other time series suggesting that the plankton communities at Stonehaven and Loch Ewe are responding to large scale environmental influences.

  13. Water type quantification in the Skagerrak, the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trond Kristiansen

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available An extensive data series of salinity, nutrients and coloured dissolved organic material (CDOM was collected in the Skagerrak, the northern part of the Kattegat and off the Jutland west coast in April each year during the period 1996–2000, by the Institute of Marine Research in Norway. In this month, after the spring bloom, German Bight Water differs from its surrounding waters by a higher nitrate content and higher nitrate/phosphate and nitrate/silicate ratios. The spreading of this water type into the Skagerrak is of special interest with regard to toxic algal blooms. The quantification of the spatial distributions of the different water types required the development of a new algorithm for the area containing the Norwegian Coastal Current, while an earlier Danish algorithm was applied for the rest of the area. From the upper 50 m a total of 2227 observations of salinity and CDOM content have been used to calculate the mean concentration of water from the German Bight, the North Sea (Atlantic water, the Baltic Sea and Norwegian rivers. The Atlantic Water was the dominant water type, with a mean concentration of 79%, German Bight Water constituted 11%, Baltic Water 8%, and Norwegian River Water 2%. At the surface the mean percentages of these water types were found to be 68%, 15%, 15%, and 3%, respectively. Within the northern part of the Skagerrak, closer to the Norwegian coast, the surface waters were estimated to consist of 74% Atlantic Water, 20% Baltic Water, and 7% Norwegian River Water. The analysis indicates that the content of German Bight Water in this part is less than 5%.

  14. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, David L; Gray, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a definitional change from relative stocking to canopy cover on the area classified as forest land and its relationship to species and forest density in California, Oregon, and Washington. Both western Juniper and ponderosa pine will yield higher estimates of forest land area using a canopy cover definition in comparison to a stocking-based definition, with the difference being most pronounced where land is marginally forested. The change in definition may result in an additional 146,000 ha of forest land identified on the West Coast. Measuring marginal forest lands with both metrics for the first cycle after implementation should make it possible to distinguish real change from definitional change. PMID:24072525

  15. Giant fossil mass wasting off the coast of West India: The Nataraja submarine slide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvès, Gérôme; Huuse, Mads; Clift, Peter D.; Brusset, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    We use two-dimensional pre-stack depth migrated seismic reflection profiles and seafloor bathymetry to describe the continental margin structure and a massive mass-transport deposit off the west coast of India. This giant slide runs from the Gujurat-Saurashtra margin to the Laxmi Basin. It is over 330 km long, a maximum of 190 km wide and its run-out basal gradient is 1.2°. We name this giant mass wasting deposit the Nataraja Submarine Slide. This slide covers 49 ± 16 ×103 km2 and represents a volume of 19 ×103 ± 4 ×103 km3, making it the second by volume of any passive margin landslide/mass-transport deposit. Seismic facies analysis allows the internal structure of the mass-transport deposit to be described as far as the toe. This slide has been able to circumvent massive seamounts, thus highlighting the capacity of the flow and its potential energy during emplacement in a funnel between the slope of the Western Indian passive margin and the Laxmi Ridge. Stratigraphically, the emplacement of the Nataraja Slide predates the main pulse of sedimentation during the late Miocene-Recent associated with the Indus Fan but follows rapid sedimentation across S and SE Asia during the Early-Middle Miocene. The margin architecture at the head of this slide is associated with a gravity-controlled fold and thrust belt that may have caused slope steepening and triggering of the slide.

  16. Monitoring the biological effects of pollution on the Algerian west coast using mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoheïr M. Taleb

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The Algerian west coast is the prime recipient of several forms of pollution; hence, the necessity for an impact assessment ofthis coastal pollution using a suite of recommended marine biomarkers, including lysosomal membrane stability in living cells by the Neutral Red Retention Time (NRRT method, the evaluation of micronucleus (MN frequency, and the determination ofacetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis, sampled from the large, polluted Oran Harbour (OH and the Maârouf (Mrf marine mussel farm between July 2005 and April 2006. The difference in the variations of the annual physical parameters between OH and Mrf corresponds to the influence of the domestic and industrial sewage discharged by the city of Oran. The biological data of the mussels (condition index, protein content recorded at both sites were related to their natural reproductive cycle. This indicated that intrinsic variation between the sites due to different mussel development phases was minimal. The variation in the AChE activity of some organs of OH and Mrf mussels, with minimal inhibition in July and a higher NRRT recorded in the granular haemocytes in the Mrf than in the OH mussels during the autumn and spring, depends on the quality of the biotope and on generic stress factors. Moreover, the variation in MN frequency, in general reflecting a non-significant seasonal and spatial genotoxic effect of the contamination at the two sampling sites, requires further investigations regarding biotic and abiotic variations.

  17. Identification decomposition of regional economic disparity for the west coast of Taiwan Strait of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Regional economic disparity is a hot issue in the development of society and economy.As the conjunct of the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta and the frontier to Taiwan,the west coast of the Taiwan Strait (WCS) is of great social and political significance.The paper defines" the connotation of the WCS,decomposed the regional economic disparity by using weighted coefficient of variation and Theil coeJficient,and explores the industrial and regional source of the regional economic disparity of the WCS.The analysis results show that:(1) the WCS has important political,economic and military position,so it's better to regard it to be comprehensive region,not just refer to Fujian Province;(2)from the industrial decomposition of weighted variation coefficient,the influence of the primary industry was tiny,conversely,the development inequity of the secondary and the tertiary indus'try was the main source of regional economic disparity.Their contribution has had the converse trend and the secondary contribution has gone beyond the tertiary since 2003;(3)from the regional decomposition of Theil coefficient,the regional economic disparity mainly came from inter-area inequity of 4 areas.Moreover,the inner economic disparity mainly drove by Fujian,suggesting that the urban development inequity in Fujian Province was comparatively outstanding.

  18. Interactions between harbour seals (Phoca vitulina and coastal fisheries along the Swedish west coast: an overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Lundström

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The conflicts between seals and fisheries along the Swedish west coast have intensified during the last decades, concurrently with the increase in the harbour seal population size. This study presents published information about interactions between harbour seals and fisheries in the Kattegat-Skagerrak, in addition to new information on the seal by-catch rate and an overview of fisheries suffering from seal damage. Several fisheries have reported interactions with seals, principally fisheries with fyke nets, gill nets and static gear. Development of mitigation measures has been focused on the eel fishery with fyke nets, in which the use of stronger net material has significantly decreased the damage frequency from seals and has yet maintained the catches at satisfactory levels. Under-water filming at fyke nets together with studies of the prey preferences of seals has shown individual specializations in certain foraging techniques. For example, eel may not be a common prey for harbour seals in general, but, it was chosen in preference to other species by seals attacking fyke nets. There is a lack of current data concerning the diet of harbour seals. Previous studies, based on material from the 1970s and 1980s, have shown that locally and seasonally abundant prey is preferred. Due to the non-existent information about the foodchoice, current assessments of the ecological role of harbour seals in Sweden cannot be evaluated.

  19. Trend in GHG Emissions from Northeast and West Coast Regions of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tongdimenba Jamir

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Climate change due to increasing concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHGs has emerged as a serious global environmental issue. An attempt has been made to assess the GHG emissions in two geographical regions of India i.e. the Northeast Region (NER and the West coast Region (WCR during the period of 1980-2005. The analysis reveals an increasing trend in GHG emissions from the study regions except for CH4, which shows a decreasing trend in Goa and Kerala.  As far as state wise GHG emissions are concerned; Assam ranks first in CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions from the NER. Konkan ranks first in CO2 and CH4 emissions, while Kerala ranks first in N2O emissions representing the WCR. Analysis of the compounded annual growth rate reveals higher for the WCR in CO2 and CH4 emissions except N2O where the NER remains the highest. In order to find the association between GHG emissions and climatic response, the mean air temperature for 26 stations in both regions were subjected to trend analysis. The findings show warming trends in the mean air temperature over a majority of the stations indicating a possible role by increased GHGs. Further, the analysis reveals a positive correlation of population and GHG emissions significantly at 99% for both the regions.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2739

  20. Changing Concentration Ratios and Geographical Patterns of Bulk Ports: The Case of the Korean West Coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehwee Lee

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Contrary to liner shipping, common shipping network patterns are difficult to organize in tramp shipping as origin and destination ports are irregular and they may change based on shippers’ demands. Unlike liner shipping whereas the choice of ports is strongly related to their geographical locations among other factors and a topic of much research in the contemporary literature, the geographical issues related to bulk ports are an interesting yet currently under-researched topic. For this reason, this study aims to analyze the concentration ratios of bulk ports to reveal geographical patterns, using the case of bulk ports along the west coast of Korea including, Incheon Port (ICP, Pyeongtaek-Dangjin Port (PDP, and Gunsan Port (GSP. To examine and shed more light to the above mentioned research issue, this paper adopts a series of methods, such as Hirshmann-Herfindahl Index (HHI, Location Quotients (LQ, and Shift Effects (SE. Results from the HHI analysis, indicated that de-concentration has been gradually rising because of a considerable overlapping of ports’ functions. Meanwhile, the LQs’ confirmed this result. Finally, the SE’ results effectively showed that a substantial shifting of cargo had occurred among the ports.

  1. Sea level changes induced by local winds on the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Prakash; Tsimplis, Michael N.; Prabhudesai, R. G.; Joseph, Antony; Shaw, Andrew G. P.; Somayajulu, Y. K.; Cipollini, Paolo

    2010-08-01

    The contribution of atmospheric pressure and local wind to sea level variability at Goa (West coast of India) for the period 2007-2008 is investigated. Sea level data from a tide gauge are compared with measured local surface meteorological as well as oceanographic data. Multilinear regression analysis is used to resolve the dependence of sea level on various forcing parameters. The multilinear regression analysis performed over approx. 2-year data shows that the local surface meteorological data and water temperature account for the sea level variability only up to 6%. The accounted sea level variability increases to 25%, when the local wind and the surface currents obtained from satellite altimetry in the near vicinity of the study area are incorporated in the regression analysis. The contribution of local wind increases substantially when the regression is performed over a 2-month duration, and it is variable within the year. During the summer monsoon season (May-September), the sea level variability attributable to wind is up to 47% and 75%, respectively, for 2007 and 2008; however, it reduces to <20% during the winter monsoon (November-February) season. A significant part of the variability observed in sea level remains unaccounted for and is attributed to remote forcing.

  2. Poleward propagating subinertial alongshore surface currents off the U.S. West Coast

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Sung Yong

    2013-12-01

    The network comprising 61 high-frequency radar systems along the U.S. West Coast (USWC) provides a unique, high resolution, and broad scale view of ocean surface circulation. Subinertial alongshore surface currents show poleward propagating signals with phase speeds of O(10) and O(100-300) km d -1 that are consistent with historical in situ observations off the USWC and that can be possibly interpreted as coastally trapped waves (CTWs). The propagating signals in the slow mode are partly observed in southern California, which may result from scattering and reflection of higher-mode CTWs due to curvature of shoreline and bathymetry near Point Conception, California. On the other hand, considering the order of the phase speed in the slow mode, the poleward propagating signals may be attributed to alongshore advection or pressure-driven flows. A statistical regression of coastal winds at National Data Buoy Center buoys on the observed surface currents partitions locally and remotely wind-forced components, isolates footprints of the equatorward propagating storm events in winter off the USWC, and shows the poleward propagating signals year round. Key Points A unique resource to examine synoptic-scale alongshore variability Isolation of equatorward wind events in winter using a statistical model Poleward propagating surface signals year-round © 2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Food intake of young cod and flounder in a shallow bay on the Swedish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pihl, L.

    The importance of shallow soft bottom areas as nursery grounds for I-ground cod, Gadus morhua, and I- to IV-group flounder, Platichthys flesus, was investigated in a 20 000 m 2 bay, 0 to 1 m deep, on the Swedish west coast. To estimate the amount of visiting fish and their food intake the bay was enclosed with a net once a month from July to November 1979 and from April to November 1980. At each occasion about 60 cods and 8 to 50 flounders were caught. The total biomass of the cod and flounder was 1 to 14 kg and 2 to 13 kg wet weight, respectively. The cod preyed on mobile epifauna such as Carcinus maenas, Crangon crangon and Pomatoschistus spp., whereas the flounder was eating infauna mainly Mya arenaria, Cardium spp. and Nereis spp. The food intake within the area was calculated to approximate 35 and 10 kg wet weight from April to November for cod and flounder, respectively.

  4. Wind characterization for design and comparison with standards, an example from Lyse at the Swedish west coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ganander, H. [Teknikgruppen AB, Sollentuna (Sweden); Carlen, I. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Div. of Building Technology; Bergstroem, H. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    1996-12-01

    The Lyse site at the Swedish west coast is an area with an archipelago of rocky islands to the west and an equally rocky mainland to the east. In between there are some open sea areas. As being the responsible project manager for the erection and the operation of a turbine at a site like Lyse, the question arises about characterization of the wind for design or purchase of a wind turbine. Or in other words what wind turbine class has to be used for the design, according to existing standards like for example IEC-1400 ? 3 refs, 10 figs

  5. Dynamics of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and particle-associated carbohydrates in the Dona Paula bay, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhaskar, P.V.; Bhosle, N.B.

    ?99, September ?99 and June 2000) coincided with higher phytoplankton biomass. Nevertheless, both did not have any correlation with TEP concentrations. In a dynamic coastal environment, TEP production and removal/consumption are a continuous process... Dynamics of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) and particle-associated carbohydrates in the Dona Paula bay, west coast of India P V Bhaskar*1 and Narayan B Bhosle Marine Corrosion and Materials Research Division National Institute...

  6. Benthic Faunal Composition of Penaeus monodon Fabricius Culture Pond in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Abu Hena M.K.; O. Hshamuddin; K. Misri; Abdullah, F.; Loo, K. K.

    2004-01-01

    The present study deals with the results on benthic faunal abundance and diversity of tiger shrimp P. monodon culture ponds in Perak, West coast of Peninsular Malaysia. To observe the abundance and composition of benthic organisms, sampling was carried out every three weeks interval throughout the culture period. In addition, observations on water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, pH and organic matter of soil were also made. The major groups of macro-benthos comprised of...

  7. Abundance and composition of benthic fauna in Penaeus monodon Fabricius culture pond on the west coast of Malaysia peninsular

    OpenAIRE

    M.K. Abu Hena; Hishamuddin, O.; K. Misri

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports a study on the benthic faunal abundance and diversity of tiger shrimp P. monodon culture ponds in Perak, west coast of Malaysia Peninsular. Sampling was carried out at three weeks interval throughout the 116 days culture period. In addition, water temperature, dissolved oxygen, salinity, transparency, pH and organic matter of soil were also measured. Results showed that the major groups of macro-benthos comprised of gastropod, foraminifera, polychaetes, bivalve and insects;...

  8. Gulella adami, a new species of land snail from the Ivory Coast, West Africa (Gastropoda Pulmonata: Streptaxidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Bruggen, van, A.C.

    1994-01-01

    Gulella adami spec. nov. is described from a classical West African locality, Assini in the Ivory Coast (Côte d'Ivoire). It is most unusual in showing two superficial parietal processes, which may also be interpreted as a double angular lamella, in the aperture of the shell. The shell closely resembles that of various Enidae in SE Europe and adjoining areas around the Mediterranean, thereby providing a striking example of convergent evolution.

  9. Difference in reproductive strategies of two scleractinian corals (branching vs massive) along the west coast of Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Efraín Chávez-Romo; David Arturo Paz-García; Francisco Correa-Sandoval; Héctor Reyes-Bonilla; Ramón Andrés López-Pérez; Pedro Medina-Rosas

    2013-01-01

    This study addressed the relative contribution of sexual and asexual reproduction to the genetic composition of populations of two scleractinian corals, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites panamensis, off the west coast of mainland Mexico. Reproductive indexes showed that P. damicornis reproduced both sexually and asexually; P. panamensis reproduced sexually, but colonies with an asexual origin were also observed (1030%). Asexual reproduction is usually attributed to fragmentation caused by hu...

  10. City ground: constructed totality:Artistic and architectural preoccupations with asphalt in the US west coast 1952-1972

    OpenAIRE

    Ewing, Suzanne

    2012-01-01

    Through close study of selected artistic and architectural preoccupations with city ground, and the asphalt ground of the modern US west coast city in the mid-twentieth century in particular, this paper explores the geographical idea of the city as a totality of construction, and how this has influenced and intersected subsequent architectural practices of study, research and design practice. The photographic content of key constructed works from 1952 until 1972: a short film by Charles and R...

  11. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary

    OpenAIRE

    Fatima Kies; Ahmed Kerkouf

    2014-01-01

    A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids) in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Chel...

  12. Preliminary assessment of habitat protection needs for West Indian manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-12-01

    The report assesses information on the status of endangered West Indian manatees (Trichechus manatus) on the east coast of Florida and Georgia in the southeastern United States and recommends actions to improve protection of the species and its habitat in that area. Manatees on the east coast of Florida and Georgia appear to constitute a discrete population numbering perhaps 700 to 900 animals. Based on carcass-salvage data, recent annual mortality rates of between 8% and 10% are indicated. Perhaps 3% to 4% of the population was killed as a result of collisions with boats during 1987, and this threat appears to be increasing. Collisions with boats and destruction of essential habitat are the principal threats to the population. Recommendations include: quadruple the size of the boat-speed regulatory system on the east coast of Florida; limit development in essential manatee habitats; acquire additional manatee habitat as additions to Federal and State refuges and preserves.

  13. Establishment of the green mussel, Perna viridis (Linnaeus 1758) (Mollusca: Mytilidae) on the West Coast of Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, A.J.; Marelli, D.C.; Frischer, M.E.; Danforth, J.M.; Williams, J.D.

    2001-01-01

    In 1999, the green mussel, Perna viridis, was first observed in Tampa Bay, Florida. This was the first reported occurrence of this Indo-Pacific marine bivalve in North America. The mussels found in Tampa Bay were confirmed to be P. viridis based on both morphological and genetic characteristics. Since the initial discovery, surveys in Tampa Bay and on the west coast of Florida have documented the growth, recruitment, and range expansion of P. viridis. From November 1999 to July 2000, the mean shell length of a Tampa Bay population increased from 49.0 mm to 94.1 mm, an increase of 97%. Populations of P. viridis are successfully reproducing in Tampa Bay. Recruitment was observed on sampling plates in May and continued through July 2000. The full extent of mussel colonization is not clear, but mussels were found outside Tampa Bay in St. Petersburg, Florida, south to Venice. Based on these studies it is evident that P. viridis has successfully invaded Tampa Bay and the west coast of Florida. The long-term impact of P. viridis on native communities off the west coast of Florida cannot be predicted at this time.

  14. Epidemiology of lymphocystis, epidermal papilloma and skin ulcers in common dab Limanda limanda along the west coast of Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellergaard, Stig; Nielsen, Else

    1997-01-01

    papilloma and skin ulcers. The present study describes long-term variations in the prevalence of these 3 diseases. The German Eight and the 2 areas along the west coast of Denmark showed significant similarities in the temporal trend of the diseases investigated with peaks in 1985 and 1988 for both...... lymphocystis and epidermal papilloma. A similar trend was not observed in the Skagerrak. Skin ulcerations did not reveal any specific temporal trends in any of the 4 areas. The highest prevalence of lymphocystis was observed in the most offshore area along the Danish west coast with a peak value of 14.9% in...... 1988; epidermal papilloma in the German Eight showed a peak value of 9.4% in 1988 and skin ulcers in the Skagerrak a peak of 4.4 % in 1989. Areas in the German Eight and along the west coast of Denmark had suffered from oxygen deficiency in late summer during the years 1981 to 1983. These events may...

  15. The hydrology of Lake Rousseau, west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, E.R.

    1978-01-01

    Lake Rousseau, about 4 miles southwest of Inglis, Florida, was formed in 1909 by impoundment of the Withlacooche River by Inglis Dam, west of Dunnellon, Florida. The lake was to have been part of the Cross-Florida Barge Canal; a lock and channel associated with the presently inactive project were completed in 1969. Lake Rousseau is about 11 miles long, covers about 4,000 acres, and contains about 34,000 acre-feet of water at the normal pool elevation of 27.5 feet above mean sea level. Inflow to the lake is relatively constant and responds slowly to rainfall. The estimated 100-year peak inflow, 10,400 cubic feet per second, is only 19 percent higher than the 100-year high monthly inflow. Water in Lake Rousseau is a calcium-bicarbonate type and is hard. Mean total phosphorus and organic nitrogen concentrations are considerably lower in Lake Rousseau than in north-central Florida lakes which have been considered to be eutrophic by other investigators, however, the lake supports of prolific aquatic plant community. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations near the water surface are occasionally less than 3 mg/liter. (Woodard-USGS)

  16. Gyrfalcon diet in central west Greenland during the nestling period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We studied food habits of Gyrfalcons (Falco rusticolus) nesting in central west Greenland in 2000 and 2001 using three sources of data: time-lapse video (3 nests), prey remains (22 nests), and regurgitated pellets (19 nests). These sources provided different information describing the diet during the nesting period. Gyrfalcons relied heavily on Rock Ptarmigan (Lagopus mutus) and arctic hares (Lepus arcticus). Combined, these species contributed 79-91% of the total diet, depending on the data used. Passerines were the third most important group. Prey less common in the diet included waterfowl, arctic fox pups (Alopex lagopus), shorebirds, gulls, alcids, and falcons. All Rock Ptarmigan were adults, and all but one arctic hare were young of the year. Most passerines were fledglings. We observed two diet shifts, first from a preponderance of ptarmigan to hares in mid-June, and second to passerines in late June. The video-monitored Gyrfalcons consumed 94-110 kg of food per nest during the nestling period, higher than previously estimated. Using a combination of video, prey remains, and pellets was important to accurately document Gyrfalcon diet, and we strongly recommend using time-lapse video in future diet studies to identify biases in prey remains and pellet data.

  17. Compiling Multibeam Sonar data for the U.S. Pacific West Coast Extended Continental Shelf Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, E.; Gardner, J. V.; Henderson, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    The United States Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) Project is a multi-agency collaboration whose goals are to determine and define a potential extension of the U.S. continental shelf beyond 200 nautical miles (nmi). Under international law as reflected in the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), every coastal state is entitled to a continental shelf out to 200 nmi (the Exclusive Economic Zone) from its coastal baseline or out to a maritime boundary with another coastal country. The extended continental shelf (ECS) is the area that lies beyond this 200 nm limit where a country could gain sovereign rights to the resources of the seafloor and sub-seafloor. In 2007, the U.S. ECS Task Force designated NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) as the Data Management lead for the U.S. ECS Project and the data stewards and archival location for all data related to this project. The process to determine the outer limits of the ECS requires the collection and analysis of data that describe the depth, shape, and geophysical characteristics of the seafloor and sub-seafloor, as well as the thickness of the underlying sediments. The specific types of data that need to be collected include bathymetric data, seismic profiles, magnetic and gravity data, and other geophysical data. NGDC maintains several global geophysical databases, including bathymetric, seismic and geological data, all critical for supporting ECS analysis. Multibeam bathymetry is a primary dataset used for ECS analysis. Since 2003, the U.S. has collected more than 1.65 million square kilometers of multibeam bathymetric data from 18 cruises. One area where new data has been collected and where the U.S. may have an extended continental shelf is off the U.S. Pacific West Coast. New and old multibeam bathymetry archived at and delivered by NGDC were individually gridded by survey for an area within 48-30 degrees north latitude and -140 and -115 west longitude at a resolution of 210

  18. Deep Sea Coral voucher sequence dataset - Identification of deep-sea corals collected during the 2009 - 2014 West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data for this project resides in the West Coast Groundfish Bottom Trawl Survey Database. Deep-sea corals are often components of trawling bycatch, though their...

  19. Remains of the ancient ports and anchorage points at Miyani and Visawada, on the west coast of India: A study based on underwater investigations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.

    The recent underwater explorations on the Saurashtra coast, Gujarat, India between Miyani on the west and Porbandar on the east yielded the existence two ports at Visawada and Miyani. Both sites are situated along the creeks, which would have served...

  20. The effects of land application of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality : West Coast 2001

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land application of agricultural effluent is becoming a standard farming practice. The application of farm dairy effluent to land, as opposed to direct discharge to waterways, is the preferred method for disposal in New Zealand as regulatory authorities move to protect and enhance water quality and meet Maori spiritual and cultural values. Land application recognises the nutrient value of dairy effluent; however, it is not without risks. Careful management of land application of the effluent is required because of the potential nutrient and bacterial contamination of groundwater. In 2001, 19 groundwater bores were sampled on four occasions to assess the effects of farm dairy effluent on groundwater quality. Elevated (> 1.6 g m-3 nitrate-nitrogen concentrations were found in 14 of these bores (43 of 74 samples). The available long-term data shows statistically significant increasing trends in nitrate-nitrogen and chloride over the period 1998 to 2007. The nitrate-nitrogen and chloride results suggest effluent is the source of the elevated nitrate-nitrogen; however, the nitrogen isotope analysis indicates that the source of the nitrate-nitrogen may be from fertiliser or soil organic matter (average δ15N value of 3.5 permille). Spatially isolated occurrences of bacterial contamination were also recorded: in 7 bores and 12% of all samples analysed. Groundwater dating, using chlorofluorocarbons, suggested that the groundwater in the region was young (8 to 12 years). Overall, the spatial and temporal data suggests human influences are affecting groundwater quality on the West Coast. (author). 27 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Probir Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Paramita; Mitra, Souvik; Poddar-Sarkar, Mousumi

    2014-01-01

    Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane). Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80°C). Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08 ± 0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73 ± 0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL), total phenol (0.96 ± 0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra), reducing power (40.49 ± 1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra), and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77 ± 0.06 mg/mL) were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp.). PMID:26904626

  2. Workshop on the ERDA Marine Sciences Research program for the west coast of the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Templeton, W.L. (ed.)

    1976-01-01

    Thirty marine scientists involved in Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA)-supported marine research on the west coast of the United States met March 17-19, 1976, at the Asilomar Conference Center, Monterey, California. The objective of this workshop was to define the elements of an integrated research program that would contribute to a better knowledge of the potential impact of pollutants on coastal ecosystems from energy-related fuel cycles. One of the long-range objectives of the Division of Biomedical and Environmental Research in ERDA is to support research on processes and mechanisms that occur in the coastal waters that would allow assessment of the impact of energy technology fuel cycles, i.e., nuclear, oil and gas, coal, and solar. Additionally, the research has an objective of providing a basic environmental data base which will aid in the technological development and deployment of energy supply systems. While the research is not designed for the purposes of standard setting or for regulatory processes; nevertheless, it may, in the long term, contribute to a better basis for setting standards that are in the balanced best interest of both energy production and the preservation of our valuable coastal ecosystems. It was recognized that other Federal agencies also have charter responsibilities in this area and support research and monitoring programs that potentially overlap into ERDA programs. One of the working considerations was to identify where any significant overlap was perceived. Three panels were formed: Transport and Diffusion, Sediment Interaction, and Bioavailability and Effects. Each panel was asked to identify the major problem areas and gaps in our knowledge and define the needs of research programs that would increase and enhance our understanding of the mechanisms and processes that occur in each area of concern.

  3. Physicochemical and Phytochemical Analyses of Copra and Oil of Cocos nucifera L. (West Coast Tall Variety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Probir Kumar Ghosh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Coconut copra from West coast tall variety, cultivated in Kerala, India, was subjected to aqueous and solvent extractions (using n-hexane. Additionally, oil was extracted from the copra in Soxhlet assembly using petroleum ether (b.p. 60–80°C. Physicochemical and phytochemical analyses were conducted for the extracts and the oil, with commercial coconut oil as the experimental control. The physicochemical analyses showed that the aqueous extract of copra was milky-white in color with a sweet odor, while the solvent extract was pale yellow and odorless. The commercial oil had 0.08±0.02% oleic acid and a TOTOX value of 7.73±0.78, lower than the Soxhlet extracted oil. Among all the extracts and oils, best phytochemical properties, antioxidant activity (DPPH activity, IC50 value 0.04±0.01 mg/mL, total phenol (0.96±0.04 mg gallic acid eq./g dry copra, reducing power (40.49±1.84 mg BHT eq./g dry copra, and anti-inflammatory activity (NO activity, IC50  value 0.77±0.06 mg/mL were obtained in the commercial coconut oil, followed by the Soxhlet extracted oil, aqueous extract, and solvent extract. Fatty acid composition analyses showed mainly medium chain fatty acids in the copra oil with lauric acid as the predominant fatty acid (51.88% and 44.84% in Soxhlet extracted and commercial oils, resp..

  4. Mechanism of high rainfall over the Indian west coast region during the monsoon season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheskumar, R. S.; Narkhedkar, S. G.; Morwal, S. B.; Padmakumari, B.; Kothawale, D. R.; Joshi, R. R.; Deshpande, C. G.; Bhalwankar, R. V.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2014-09-01

    The mechanism responsible for high rainfall over the Indian west coast region has been investigated by studying dynamical, thermodynamical and microphysical processes over the region for the monsoon season of 2009. The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts wind and NCEP flux data have been used to study the large scale dynamical parameters. The moist adiabatic and multi-level inversion stratifications are found to exist during the high and low rainfall spells, respectively. In the moist adiabatic stratification regime, shallow and deep convective clouds are found coexisting. The Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment aircraft data showed cloud updraft spectrum ranging from 1 to 10 m s-1 having modal speed 1-2.5 m s-1. The low updrafts rates provide sufficient time required for warm rain processes to produce rainfall from shallow clouds. The low cloud liquid water is observed above the freezing level indicating efficient warm rain process. The updrafts at the high spectrum end go above freezing level to generate ice particles produced due to mixed-phase rainfall process from deep convective clouds. With aging, deep convection gets transformed into stratiform type, which has been inferred through the vertical distribution of the large scale omega and heating fields. The stratiform heating, high latent heat flux, strong wind shear in the lower and middle tropospheric levels and low level convergence support the sustenance of convection for longer time to produce high rainfall spell. The advection of warm dry air in the middle tropospheric regions inhibits the convection and produce low rainfall spell. The mechanisms producing these spells have been summarized with the block diagram.

  5. Trajectory analysis on the origin of air mass and moisture associated with Atmospheric Rivers over the west coast of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Ryoo, J.-M.; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The origins and pathways of air masses leading to heavy rainfall over the west coast of the United States are examined by computing the back-trajectories in a Lagrangian quasi-isentropic trajectory model. Extreme precipitation over the west coast of the United States often coincides with transport in a deep and narrow corridor of concentrated water vapor band from the ocean, commonly referred to as Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). They also occur in conjunction with moisture plumes...

  6. Trajectory analysis on the origin of air mass and moisture associated with Atmospheric Rivers over the west coast of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    J.-M. Ryoo; Waliser, D. E.; Fetzer, E.J.

    2011-01-01

    The origins and pathways of air masses leading to heavy rainfall over the west coast of the United States are examined by computing the back-trajectories in a Lagrangian quasi-isentropic trajectory model. Extreme precipitation over the west coast of the United States often coincides with transport in a deep and narrow corridor of concentrated water vapor band from the ocean, commonly referred to as Atmospheric Rivers (ARs). They also occur in conjunction with moisture plumes emanating from th...

  7. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brizuela, B.; Armigliato, A.; Tinti, S.

    2014-07-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that occurred on 2 September 1992 off Nicaragua, with run-up measured in the range of 5-10 m in several places along the Nicaraguan coast. The aim of this paper is to assess the tsunami hazard on the Pacific coast of this extended region, and to this purpose a hybrid probabilistic-deterministic analysis is performed, that is adequate for tsunamis generated by earthquakes. More specifically, the probabilistic approach is used to compute the Gutenberg-Richter coefficients of the main seismic tsunamigenic zones of the area and to estimate the annual rate of occurrence of tsunamigenic earthquakes and their corresponding return period. The output of the probabilistic part of the method is taken as input by the deterministic part, which is applied to calculate the tsunami run-up distribution along the coast.

  8. Temporal distribution of heavy metal concentrations in oysters Crassostrea rhizophorae from the central Venezuelan coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Juan A; Handt, Helga; Mora, Abrahan; Vásquez, Yaneth; Azocar, José; Marcano, Eunice

    2013-08-15

    The oyster Crassostrea rhizophorae is a bivalve abundant in Venezuelan estuaries and consumed by local populations. No known values have been reported on trace metals in oysters from the central Venezuelan coast. We report the concentrations of Al, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sr, V and Zn in the soft parts of C. rhizophorae, which were collected bimonthly between March 2008 and March 2009, at two sampling areas from the Central Venezuelan Coast: Buche estuary and Mochima estuary. Our results show that for each metal there is a similar temporal variation pattern. The concentrations of the heavy metals reported in this work are useful as reliable baselines and can be used for comparison in future environment studies. Concentrations in C. rhizophorae from the Buche estuary can be interpreted to be high on a global scale for Cd, Cu, Ni and Mn, indicating atypically raised bioavailabilities. PMID:23746942

  9. Assessing the suitability of Holocene environments along the central Belize coast, Central America, for the reconstruction of hurricane records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adomat, Friederike; Gischler, Eberhard

    2016-03-01

    Since the Belize coast was repeatedly affected by hurricanes and the paleohurricane record for this region is poor, sediment cores from coastal lagoon environments along the central Belize coast have been examined in order to identify storm deposits. The paleohurricane record presented in this study spans the past 8000 years and exhibits three periods with increased evidences of hurricane strikes occurring at 6000-4900, 4200-3600 and 2200-1500 cal yr BP. Two earlier events around 7100 and 7900 cal yr BP and more recent events around 180 cal yr BP and during modern times have been detected. Sand layers, redeposited corals and lagoon shell concentrations have been used as proxies for storm deposition. Additionally, hiatuses and reversed ages may indicate storm influence. While sand layers and corals represent overwash deposits, the lagoon shell concentrations, which mainly comprise the bivalve Anomalocardia cuneimeris and cerithid gastropods, have been deposited due to changes in lagoon salinity during and after storm landfalls. Comparison with other studies reveals similarities with one record from Belize, but hardly any matches with other published records. The potential for paleotempestology reconstructions of the barrier-lagoon complexes along the central Belize coast differs depending on geomorphology, and deposition of washovers in the lagoon basins is limited, probably due to the interplay of biological, geological and geomorphological processes.

  10. Surface microtextures of quartz grains from the central coast of Tamil Nadu

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Udayaganesan, P.; Angusamy, N.; Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    Cuddalore to Nagapattinam, the entire foreshore and backshore is found to be carpeted by rich concentrations of black sands and garnets. In Karaikal, the backshore is wider for about 850 m (Table 1). The heavy mineral enriched zones are characterized.... Barring these studies, scarcely any study has been undertaken on the surface micro textures of quartz grains from beach sediments. The present study aims to characterize the microtextures of quartz grains from central Tamil Nadu coast, which is marked...

  11. Variability of Water Chemistry in Tundra Lakes, Petuniabukta Coast, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Mazurek; Renata Paluszkiewicz; Grzegorz Rachlewicz; Zbigniew Zwoliński

    2012-01-01

    Samples of water from small tundra lakes located on raised marine terraces on the eastern coast of Petuniabukta (Ebbadalen, Central Spitsbergen) were examined to assess the changes in water chemistry that had occurred during the summer seasons of 2001–2003 and 2006. The unique environmental conditions of the study region include the predominance of sedimentary carbonate and sulphate rocks, low precipitation values, and an active permafrost layer with a maximum thickness of 1.2 m. The average ...

  12. [Production systems of Spondias purpurea (Anacardiaceae) in Central West Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez Hernández, Blanca C; Barrios Eulogio, Pimienta; Castellanos Ramos, Javier Z; Muñoz Urias, Alejandro; Palomino Hasbach, Guadalupe; Pimienta Barrios, Enrique

    2008-06-01

    Morphological, physical and chemical traits related with fruit quality characteristics of Spondias purpurea L. agroecosystems were studied in Central-West Mexico for wild and cultivated populations. Spondias purpurea regularly thrive in shallow, rocky infertile soils unsuitable for conventional crops. The weight, axial and radial length, pH, total soluble solids (SST), reducing sugars, proteins and mineral content in fruits were recorded. The mean fresh fruit weight was superior in the cultivated varieties (20 g) than in the wild (16 g). Similarly the highest values of pH, SST, reducing sugars and protein content (3.3, 12.15 degrees Brix, 0.38 g/100 g and 1.18 g/100 g, respectively) were observed in the cultivated plantations compared with wild populations (3.0, 8.31 degrees Brix, 0.24 g/100 g and 0.14 g/100 g, respectively). In cultivated plantations, productivity ranged from 0.15 ton ha(-1) to 5.0 ton ha(-1), and must be considered satisfactory, considering the low inputs of fertilizers and pesticides applied to orchards. The fruits of S. purpurea are similar in nutrimental content to more important commercial fruit species; it produces fresh fruits during the dry months of spring, when few fresh fruits are available in the local markets. In addition, S. purpurea is a source of water and food for domestic animals and wild fauna. These traits emphasize their agronomical and ecological importance for tropical and subtropical environments, where it can also be used in reforestation programs because it can grow in infertile rocky soils, and in agroecosystems inhabited by low income farmers that practice subsistence agriculture. In fact, the cultivation of Spondias has helped convert marginal lands into productive lands. PMID:19256436

  13. Assessment of tsunami hazards for the Central American Pacific coast from southern Mexico to northern Peru

    OpenAIRE

    B. Brizuela; Armigliato, A.; S. Tinti

    2014-01-01

    Central America (CA), from Guatemala to Panama, has been struck by at least 52 tsunamis between 1539 and 2013, and in the extended region from Mexico to northern Peru (denoted as ECA, Extended Central America in this paper) the number of recorded tsunamis in the same time span is more than 100, most of which were triggered by earthquakes located in the Middle American Trench that runs parallel to the Pacific coast. The most severe event in the catalogue is the tsunami that o...

  14. Increasing ozone concentrations in marine boundary layer air inflow at the west coasts of North America and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. D. Parrish

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available A rigorous method is presented for determining the ozone concentration in the onshore flow of marine air at the North American west coast. By combining the data available from all marine boundary layer sites with simultaneous wind data, decadal temporal trends of MBL ozone concentrations in all seasons are established with high precision. The average springtime temporal trend over the past two decades is 0.46 ppbv/yr with a 95% confidence limit of 0.13 ppbv/yr, and statistically significant trends are found for all seasons except autumn, which does have a significantly smaller trend than other seasons. The average trend in mean annual ozone concentration is 0.34±0.09 ppbv/yr. These decadal trends at the North American west coast present a striking comparison and contrast with the trends reported for the European west coast at Mace Head, Ireland. The trends in the winter, spring and summer seasons compare well at the two locations, while the Mace Head trend is significantly greater in autumn. Even though the trends are similar, the absolute ozone concentrations differ markedly, with the marine air arriving at Europe in all seasons containing 7±2 ppbv higher ozone concentrations than marine air arriving at North America. Further, the ozone concentrations at the North American west coast show no indication for stabilizing as has been reported for Mace Head. In a larger historical context the background boundary layer ozone concentrations over the 130 years covered by available data have increased substantially (by a factor of two to three, and this increase continues at present, at least in the marine boundary layer (MBL of the Pacific coast region of North America. The reproduction of the increasing trends in MBL ozone concentrations over the past two decades as well as the difference in the ozone concentrations between the two coastal regions will present a significant challenge for global chemical transport models. Further, the ability of the

  15. Analysis on the Evolution of Regional Economic Disparity in the West Coast of the Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Geng Jianzhong; Wu Dianting; Zhao Xiaofang; Lu Qi

    2008-01-01

    With the implementation of reform and opening-up,the overall economy of China has made brilliant achievements;meanwhile,however,the economic disparity has been enlarging among some regions,and between the city and the countryside.The existence and evolution of this kind of economic disparity is concerned with social stability,sustainable development and the construction of harmonious society,which has gradually become the hotspot in social economic development.The West Coast of the Strait (WCS) located in southeast littoral areas is adjacent to the Pearl and Yangtze River Delta in the south and north and faces Taiwan Province in the east.The stability and development of this region has vital political and economic meaning in the social economic development of our country.It has important theoretical meaning and practical value to research the form,characteristics and evolution of regional economic disparity in the WCS.Based on insightful analysis on existing study results on the WCS,the paper defines the connotation and extension.By a series of absolute and comparative relative evaluation indexes and taking the WCS since 1992 as the study object,the paper makes analysis on different scales including three regions,four regions,20 cities and 152 counties,quantitatively evaluates the level,characteristics and evolution of the regional economic disparity and compares the regional economic disparity on different scales.The main conclusions are as follows:the variation trend of the absolute disparity of the whole region is obvious and stable,which has presented an inflating trend; the comparative variation trend on a large scale has waved,The comparative disparity of the three regions increased annually from 1992 to around 2000,which had a decreasing trend from around 2000 to 2005; the comparative variation trend on a small scale was not stable,which showed an annual increase of four regions,20 cities and 152 counties from 1992 to around 2003 and a decrease from around

  16. Palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic studies on the dykes of Goa, west coast of Indian Precambrian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, S. K.; Rao, D. R. K.

    2002-11-01

    Detailed alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization techniques on 120 samples belonging to 10 dykes of the Goa region along the west coast of the Indian Precambrian Shield, have yielded characteristic remanent magnetization (ChRM) directions from 9 dykes of which 6 dykes exhibited a reverse magnetic polarity direction ( D=150°, I=44.30°, k=58, α95=5.8, N=6 dykes), while 3 dykes exhibited normal polarity D=351°, I=-50°, k=21, α95=14.9, N=3 dykes) direction. The remaining 1 dyke has shown stable direction, but with a strong overprint of the present earth field (PEF) direction, which could not be removed by either AF or thermal cleaning techniques. A Palaeomagnetic pole, computed by averaging the VGPs of 9 dykes is situated at 41.2°N 78.1°W ( N=9 dykes; A95=9.81°), which is close to that of the Deccan super pole (36.9°N, 78.8°W), suggesting that the dykes in the Goa region are related to the Deccan basaltic eruptions. Recently published 40Ar/ 39Ar dating on the normal polarity dykes of the studied area have assigned the ages as 62.8±0.2 Ma. These results demonstrate that the Deccan magnetism continued to affect western India for at least 1-2 Ma after the peak Deccan eruption during the K- T boundary. On the basis of published geological and geochemical information along with our Palaeomagnetic results, these intrusive bodies could be attributed as the feeders for the uppermost formations of Wai subgroup of the Western Ghat Deccan basalts, or to the major geodynamic events such as the opening of the Arabian Sea and the rifting of the Seychelles-Mascarene oceanic plateau, which occurred soon after the cessation of the Deccan volcanism. Rock magnetic experiments such as the Lowrie-Fuller test along with low-temperature magnetic susceptibility and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) measurements have identified single domain (SD) type titano-magnetite as the major characteristic remanent magnetization carrying magnetic mineral in the dyke samples.

  17. Biomonitoring of environmental pollution on the Algerian west coast using caged mussels Mytilus galloprovincialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Claude Amiard

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available An active biomonitoring study was carried out on the Algerian west coast using wild reference mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis sampled from the Kristel (K site and transplanted in net cages during one month (between May and June 2007 to Oran Harbour (OH and Mostaganem Harbour (MH, areas characterised by high levels of urban and industrial pollution. The biological response of the mussels was evaluated by their condition index and the use of a general stress biomarker (evaluation of lysosomal membrane stability: the neutral red retention time (NRRT method, a genotoxic effects biomarker (determination of micronuclei (MN frequency and a neurotoxic effects biomarker (determination of the acetylcholinesterase (AChE concentration.       Compared to the K reference specimens, OH and MH caged mussels presented a significant decrease of NRRT in lysosomal haemocytes (56.45 ± 26.48 min and 67.25 ± 22.77 min, respectively (78 ± 16.97 min for K mussels, an MN frequency respectively 7.3 and 9 times higher in the haemocytes and the gill cells of the OH caged mussels, and 7.2 and 6.4 times higher in the two tissues of the MH caged mussels. Significant inhibition of AChE activity was noted in the gills (16.93 ± 3.1 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 and the digestive gland (7.69 ± 1.79 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the OH mussels, but only in the gills (23.21 ± 5.94 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 of the MH mussels, compared to the organs of the K control specimens (35.9 ± 6.4 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the gills and 11.17 ± 0.49 nmol min-1 mg prot-1 in the digestive gland.       This study reflects the interest in such in situ biomonitoring assays and the utility of these biomarkers for assessing the effects of pollution in the Algerian coastal marine environment.

  18. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, a coastal site on the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, Elgar

    We report here the observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000-2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa (15.456°N, 73.801°E), a coastal site on the west coast of India. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five channel sunphotometer with wavelengths at 440, 500, 675, 870 and 936 nm. The site enjoys a tropical climate and is under the influence of the strong southwest or summer monsoon and weak northeast or winter monsoon. Being a coastal station land-sea breeze play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (±0.15) and 0.23 (±0.097), respectively, while the Angstrom exponent is 1.31 (±0.347). The aerosol properties over the site showed a distinct seasonal variations, with high values of AOT observed during summer, with mean values of 0.48 (±0.15) and 0.26 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively, while during the winter relatively low values were observed, with mean value of 0.41 (±0.14) and 0.19 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively. The values of Angstrom exponents observed at the site suggest that the aerosol comprise mostly of the small size particles, with relatively larger particles being observed during summer than winter. An anti-correlation is observed between the inter-annual variations in the aerosol loading and the rainfall over Goa. Aerosol properties show diurnal variations, with comparatively lower values of AOT being observed in the evening. These diurnal variations are within a limit of 10% of the average values observed for the day. Seasonal patterns in the diurnal variations of aerosol optical depths have been observed. Considering the effect of the meteorological parameters over the aerosol, it is observed that the AOT is positively correlated with water vapor column, however the wind is found to aid in the reduction of aerosol load over Goa. It can be inferred from the weak

  19. Novel octabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether identified in blue mussels from the Swedish West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winnberg, Ulrika; Rydén, Andreas; Löfstrand, Karin; Asplund, Lillemor; Bignert, Anders; Marsh, Göran

    2014-03-18

    Hydroxylated (OH-) and methoxylated (MeO-) polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are compounds present in the marine environment and OH-PBDEs are of toxicological concern and are therefore of interest to monitor in the environment. A phenolic octaBDE was tentatively identified in the phenolic fraction of previously analyzed mussel samples after methylation of the halogenated phenolic compounds (HPCs). The aim of the present study was to confirm the identity of this compound in blue mussels and investigate whether the analyte is diOH- and/or OH-MeO-octaBDE. Two reference standards, 6,6'-dimethoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6,6'-diMeO-BDE194) and 6-ethoxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194) were prepared via O-arylation of 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxyphenol and 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-ethoxyphenol, respectively, with a novel unsymmetrical diaryliodonium salt, 2,3,4,5-tetrabromo-6-methoxydiphenyliodonium triflate. The GC retention time and GC/MS spectrum of the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 correspond well with the analyte in the methylated phenolic fraction of a mussel extract from a previous study. Structural analysis performed in this study indicate that the synthesized 6,6'-diMeO-BDE194 and 6-EtO-6'-MeO-BDE194 correspond well with 6-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-2,2',3,3',4,4',5,5'-octabromodiphenyl ether (6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194) after methylation and ethylation, respectively, of the HPCs in the mussel extracts. The compound 6-OH-6'-MeO-BDE194 was identified and quantified in new mussels, sampled in 2012 from two locations on the Swedish west coast, with geometric mean concentrations of 3700 and 410 ng/g fat, respectively. PMID:24559155

  20. Upwelling and associated hydrography along the west coast of india during southwest monsoon, 1999

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Maheswaran, P.A.; Rajesh, G.; Revichandran, C.; Nair, K.K.C.

    and related hydrography is discussed. Analysis of wind field and hydrography indicated active upwelling along the southwest coast of India. The sea surface temperature near the coast were lower by 1.7 degrees C (off Kanyakumari), 1.4 degrees C (off Cochin...

  1. On some aspects of Barrier Islands of the west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kunte, P.D.

    stream_size 8 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_11_508.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_11_508.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  2. Food Habits of Black Ducks Wintering in West Central Tennessee: Annual report 1990-91

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This study was conducted to describe the food habits of black ducks (Anas rubripes) wintering in west central Tennessee and to compare foods of black ducks and...

  3. Herbicide Concentrations in Select Waterfowl Production Area Wetlands in West Central Minnesota, 1993

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Twenty-eight emergent, seasonally to semipermanently flooded wetlands in an intensively farmed area of west central Minnesota were sampled before and during the...

  4. Mean Annual Precipitation in West-Central Nevada using the Precipitation-Zone Method

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This data set contains 1971-2000 mean annual precipitation estimates for west-central Nevada. This is a raster data set developed using the precipitation-zone...

  5. Nitrogen emission and deposition budget in West and Central Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric nitrogen depends on land surface exchanges of nitrogen compounds. In Sub Saharan Africa, deposition and emission fluxes of nitrogen compounds are poorly quantified, and are likely to increase in the near future due to land use change and anthropogenic pressure. This work proposes an estimate of atmospheric N compounds budget in West and Central Africa, along an ecosystem transect, from dry savanna to wet savanna and forest, for years 2000−2007. The budget may be considered as a one point in time budget, to be included in long term studies as one of the first reference point for Sub Saharan Africa. Gaseous dry deposition fluxes are estimated by considering N compounds concentrations measured in the frame of the IDAF network (IGAC/DEBITS/AFrica) at the monthly scale and modeling of deposition velocities at the IDAF sites, taking into account the bi directional exchange of ammonia. Particulate dry deposition fluxes are calculated using the same inferential method. Wet deposition fluxes are calculated from measurements of ammonium and nitrate chemical content in precipitations at the IDAF sites combined with the annual rainfall amount. In terms of emission, biogenic NO emissions are simulated at each IDAF site with a surface model coupled to an emission module elaborated from an artificial neural network equation. Ammonia emissions from volatilization are calculated from literature data on livestock quantity in each country and N content in manure. NOx and NH3 emission from biomass burning and domestic fires are estimated from satellite data and emission factors. The total budget shows that emission sources of nitrogen compounds are in equilibrium with deposition fluxes in dry and wet savannas, with respectively 7.40 (±1.90) deposited and 9.01 (±3.44) kgN ha−1 yr−1 emitted in dry savanna, 8.38 (±2.04) kgN ha−1 yr−1 deposited and 9.60 (±0.69) kgN ha−1 yr−1 emitted in wet savanna. In forested ecosystems, the total budget is dominated by wet

  6. Determination of Water Sensitivity Index in EstakoWest and Esan Central, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Philipa O. Idogho; Olotu Yahaya

    2014-01-01

    As world population and industrial-agricultural outputs have increased, the use of water has accelerated. This development leads to extreme difficulty to provide sufficient safe drinking water in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water sensitivity was measured in six major towns in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water Measuring Indicators such as Water Poverty Index-Real Time (WPIr), Water Factor Value (WFV) and Access-Demand Factor (γ) were applied to generate water sensitivity ...

  7. Business environment and enterprise behaviour in East Germany compared to West Germany and central Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Libor Krkoska; Katrin Robeck

    2007-01-01

    This paper examines institutional differences between the former East and West Germany and four central European transition countries (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and the Slovak Republic). Using enterprise survey data we show that the quality of both formal and informal institutions in East Germany still differs from West Germany. In addition, central European transition countries are shown to have closed the gap in institutional quality with East Germany in many areas. We also show t...

  8. A coastal foodscape: examining the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security on the west coast of Newfoundland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen N. Lowitt

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fisheries make vital contributions to food security and food security is an important part of fisheries governance. However, there are relatively few in-depth studies examining the consequences of collapsed and changing fisheries for the food security of coastal communities. In this case study I use the concept of the coastal foodscape to look at the relationship between changing fisheries and community food security in the Bonne Bay region on the west coast of Newfoundland. I examine the social-ecological interactions that compose the local food system and their changing relationship to community food security, and point to directions for developing a more resilient and democratic food system.

  9. Seasonal variability of bull and tiger shark presence on the west coast of Reunion Island, western Indian Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Blaison, A.; Jaquemet, S.; Guyomard, D.; Vangrevelynghe, G.; Gazzo, T.; Cliff, G.; Cotel, Pascal; Soria, Marc

    2015-01-01

    A fisheries-independent survey using longlines and drumlines, and an acoustic telemetry study, revealed that bull sharks Carcharhinus leucas and tiger sharks Galeocerdo cuvier occur throughout the year off the west coast of Reunion Island. The research, which commenced in 2011, was conducted in response to an increase in the rate of shark attacks. Juvenile, subadult and young adult tiger sharks of 111-390 cm total length (TL) were caught in all months except July; the sex ratio was 1:1 (M:F; ...

  10. Spatial and Temporal Occurrence of Blue Whales off the U.S. West Coast, with Implications for Management

    OpenAIRE

    Ladd M Irvine; Bruce R Mate; Martha H Winsor; Daniel M Palacios; Bograd, Steven J.; Costa, Daniel P; Helen Bailey

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that oc...

  11. Spatio-temporal variability of dinoflagellate assemblages in different salinity regimes in the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Alkawri, A.A.S.; Ramaiah, N.

    stream_size 49906 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Harmful_Algae_9_153a.pdf.txt stream_source_info Harmful_Algae_9_153a.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 1 Author version...: Harmful Algae, vol.9(2); 2010; 153-162 Spatio-temporal variability of dinoflagellate assemblages in different salinity regimes in the west coast of India A A S Alkawri and N Ramaiah* Biological Oceanography Division National Institute...

  12. Variation of Ca, Sr, Ba and Mg in the Otolith of Mudskipper in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    A.S. Sarimin; M.A. Ghaffar; C.A.R. Mohamed

    2009-01-01

    A study on elemental composition in the otolith of giant mudskipper, Periophthalmodon schlosseri, was done from June to October 2003. Specimens were obtained from the mangrove areas of Kuala Selangor, Sepang and Melaka in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 70 sagitta otoliths were analyzed to detect variation of Sr, Ba and Mg, replacing the natural chemical composition of the otolith, which is the calcium carbonate (CaCO3). The average ratio of Sr:Ca was 0.11x10-4, Ba:Ca...

  13. Aerial measurement of radioxenon concentration off the west coast of Vancouver Island following the Fukushima reactor accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to the Fukushima nuclear reactor accident, on March 20th, 2011, Natural Resources Canada conducted aerial radiation surveys over water just off the west coast of Vancouver Island. Dose-rate levels were found to be consistent with background radiation, however a clear signal due to 133Xe was observed. Methods to extract 133Xe count rates from the measured spectra, and to determine the corresponding 133Xe activity concentration, were developed. The measurements indicate that 133Xe concentrations on average lie in the range of 30-70 Bq/m3. - Highlights: → Xe-133 from Fukushima was detected off the west cost of Vancouver Island. → Natural background is subtracted from the signal. → The signal is modelled using a simulation of an infinite uniform plume. → The plume concentration varies strongly over a ∼15 km distance. → Concentrations lie in the range of 30-70 Bq/m3.

  14. 76 FR 75873 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; West Coast Groundfish Trawl Economic Data...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Fisheries Science Center (NWFSC) needs economic data on all harvesters, first receivers, shorebased... Coast Groundfish Trawl Economic Data Collection AGENCY: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... from the 2009 and 2010 operating years provides information on the economic condition of the...

  15. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Meraz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan comentarios sobre el registro de 8 especies en la zona, incluyendo las localidades y fechas de los avistamientos. Stenella attenuata es la especie más abundante, y la zona de Zipolite-Isla Roca Blanca la localidad con el mayor número de avistamientos. Dado el crecimiento turístico del lugar, es importante contar con este tipo de registros ya que es poco lo que se sabe sobre estas especies en esta porción de la costa oaxaqueña.With the aim of documenting the species of marine mammals that occur along the central coast of Oaxaca, a list with the characteristics of the records was elaborated based on observations made throughout 30 surveys from Huatulco Bays to La Escobilla beach between June 1999 and January 2004. Additional records from stranded animals are included, as well observations from the coast. Comments on 8 species are presented, including localities and dates of sightings. Stenella attenuata is the most abundant species. Zipolite-Roca Blanca island was the locality with the highest number of sightings. This records are important to promote conservation due growth of tourism in the area, given that Oaxaca coast is poorly known regarding marine mammals.

  16. Investigation on 2007 abnormal wave occured at the West coast of Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Woo, S.B.; Eom, H.M.; Kim, M.S.

    2013-01-01

    Swell-type unexpected waves occurred along western coast of Korean at March, 2007 and it caused several deaths and heavy economic loss. Available field measurement data are collected to investigate this event, numerical model is setup to reproduce this unknown waves. We found several 1-min interval tidal elevation and sea level pressure (SLP) data along the western coast of Korea and analyzed it using wavelet technique. The wavelet power spectrum for sea water level anomalies is computed usin...

  17. Determination of metals and gamma radioactivity in marine algae from the Venezuelan central coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Venezuelan central coast is located in the north part of the country, having a longitude of 65 Km. In this region are located La Guaira Port, important commercial exchange center since colonial times, Vargas state factory zone, and a multiple beaches which receive thousands of tourist per year. As a consequence of development of those activities ecosystem is in constant modification. Algae samples collected along Central Coast of Venezuela (see figure) were measured by Total Reflection X-ray Fluorescence technique (TXRF) and Gamma Spectrometry in order to determine metals and radionuclides levels. Metals levels measurements were carried out in a TXRF spectrometer with a molybdenum anode X-ray tube as a primary X-ray source and Si(Li) detector. Were found K and Ca as mainly elements (5-100 mg/g), Fe, Cd, Ag, Ti as minor elements (1-5 mg/g) and Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Pb as trace elements (10-600 μg/g). Gamma radioactivity analysis was carried out, measuring the activity of some anthropogenic radionuclides, 40K and radionuclides of the 238U and 232Th natural radioactive series. Samples were measured by high resolution gamma spectroscopy using a HpGe detector of approximately 2 KeV resolution for the 1,33 MeV 60Co peak and efficiency higher than 20%. This Central Coast marine algae characterization allowed us to know about accumulation of metals and radionuclides (natural and anthropogenic) in different types of algae, and the levels of such accumulation, which will be useful as reference for future investigations

  18. Intraplate earthquake swarms in West Bohemia/Vogtland (Central Europe)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Horálek, Josef; Fischer, Tomáš

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 60, č. 1 (2010), s. 67-87. ISSN 0449-0576 Grant ostatní: Norway Grants(NO) A/CZ0046/2/0015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30120515 Keywords : earthquake swarm * West Bohemia/Vogtland * WEBNET seismic network Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 1.889, year: 2010

  19. A seamless, high-resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxgrover, Amy C.; Barnard, Patrick L.

    2012-01-01

    A seamless, 2-meter resolution digital elevation model (DEM) of the north-central California coast has been created from the most recent high-resolution bathymetric and topographic datasets available. The DEM extends approximately 150 kilometers along the California coastline, from Half Moon Bay north to Bodega Head. Coverage extends inland to an elevation of +20 meters and offshore to at least the 3 nautical mile limit of state waters. This report describes the procedures of DEM construction, details the input data sources, and provides the DEM for download in both ESRI Arc ASCII and GeoTIFF file formats with accompanying metadata.

  20. On the dominance of pre-existing swells over wind seas along the west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboobacker, V. M.; Rashmi, R.; Vethamony, P.; Menon, H. B.

    2011-10-01

    Wave data collected off Goa along the west coast of India during February 1996-May 1997 has been subjected to spectral analysis, and swell and wind sea parameters have been estimated by separation frequency method. Dominance of swells and wind seas on monthly and seasonal basis has been estimated, and the analysis shows that swells dominate Goa coastal region not only during southwest monsoon (93%), but also during the post-monsoon (67%) season. Wind seas are dominant during the pre-monsoon season (51%). The mean wave periods ( Tm) during southwest monsoon are generally above 5 s, whereas Tm is below 5 s during other seasons. Co-existence of multiple peaks (from NW and NE) was observed in the locally generated part of the wave spectrum, especially during the post-monsoon season. NCEP reanalysis winds have been used to analyse active fetch available in the Indian Ocean, from where the predominant swells propagate to the west coast of India. A numerical model was set up to simulate waves in the Indian Ocean using flexible mesh bathymetry. The correlation coefficients between measured and modelled significant wave heights and mean wave periods are 0.96 and 0.85, respectively. Numerical simulations reproduced the swell characteristics in the Indian Ocean, and from the model results potential swell generation areas are identified. The characteristics of swells associated with tropical storms that prevail off Goa during 1996 have also been analysed.

  1. Distribution of Pill Millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and Associated Soil Fauna in the Western Ghats and West Coast of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. M. ASHWINI; K. R. SRIDHAR

    2008-01-01

    Seven sampling sites in each of three biomes (Western Ghats, foothills of Western Ghats and west coast) of south-western India were investigated to study the distribution, abundance and ecology of pill millipedes (Arthrosphaera) and associated fauna in relation to edaphic features. Abundance and biomass of Arthrosphaera and other millipedes were the highest in Western Ghats, while earthworms were in foothills. Arthrosphaera magna and Arthrosphaera spp. were common in Western Ghats and foothills respectively, while no Arthrosphaera were found in the west coast. None of the sampling sites consisted of more than one species of Arthrosphaera. Biomass of Arthrosphaera, other millipedes and earthworms significantly differed in Western Ghats (P = 9.48 × 10-7) and foothills (P = 1.35 × 10-8), as did the biomass of species of Arthrosphaera (P = 2.76 × 10-7) between Western Ghats and foothills. Correlation analysis revealed that biomass of Arthrosphaera was significantly (P = 0.01, r = 0.45) correlated with soil organic carbon rather than other edaphic fea-tures (pH, phosphate, calcium and magnesium). Distribution pattern, abundance, biomass and ecology of Arthrosphaera of Western Ghats in relation to soil qualities were compared with millipedes of other regions of the world.

  2. Geographic distribution of phlebotomine sandfly species (Diptera: Psychodidae in Central-West Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Silva de Almeida

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study updates the geographic distributions of phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil and analyses the climatic factors associated with their occurrence. The data were obtained from the entomology services of the state departments of health in Central-West Brazil, scientific collections and a literature review of articles from 1962-2014. Ecological niche models were produced for sandfly species with more than 20 occurrences using the Maxent algorithm and eight climate variables. In all, 2,803 phlebotomine records for 127 species were analysed. Nyssomyia whitmani, Evandromyia lenti and Lutzomyia longipalpis were the species with the greatest number of records and were present in all the biomes in Central-West Brazil. The models, which were produced for 34 species, indicated that the Cerrado areas in the central and western regions of Central-West Brazil were climatically more suitable to sandflies. The variables with the greatest influence on the models were the temperature in the coldest months and the temperature seasonality. The results show that phlebotomine species in Central-West Brazil have different geographical distribution patterns and that climate conditions in essentially the entire region favour the occurrence of at least one Leishmania vector species, highlighting the need to maintain or intensify vector control and surveillance strategies.

  3. Upwelling of Acidified Water: Not Just an Issue for Shellfish Hatcheries on the West Coast of the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poach, M.; Munroe, D.; Abrahamsen, I.

    2014-12-01

    Periodic upwelling events are known to occur off the coast of New Jersey during the summer. As with upwelling off the US West Coast, these events can transport acidified water to the surface and shoreward. To determine if upwelling events have the potential to impact shellfish hatcheries in New Jersey, a monitoring study was conducted at the Aquaculture Innovation Center (AIC) of Rutgers University. The AIC is an important hatchery supporting the New Jersey oyster aquaculture industry through the production of disease resistant seed oysters. Starting in June of 2014, temperature, salinity, dissolved oxygen and pH were continuously monitored at the AIC's intake pipe. Periodic grab samples were also collected at the intake and at locations within the facility. Grab samples were preserved and analyzed for pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). DIC and pH were used to calculate the aragonite saturation state of the sampled water. During an upwelling event in early July a drop in pH was measured at the intake. Grab samples showed that water of lower pH and aragonite saturation was entering the facility. These results show that hatcheries along the NJ coast need to be aware that upwelling events may bring conditions detrimental for shellfish production.

  4. Coastal hazards projections on the U.S. West Coast using a dynamic water level modeling approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnard, P.; Erikson, L. H.; Foxgrover, A. C.; O'Neill, A.

    2014-12-01

    Many studies of future coastal flooding vulnerability consider sea level rise and tides only, typically applying a bath-tub type approach that omits key physical-forcing factors that elevate flood levels during storm events such as waves, surge and fluvial discharge. Here we present a new modeling approach that considers all the relevant factors that contribute to elevated water levels for open coast and embayment settings along the U.S. West Coast during projected 21stcentury storms. The Coastal Storm Modeling System (CoSMoS) is a numerical modeling system developed to predict coastal flooding due to both SLR and plausible 21st century storms for active-margin settings like the U.S. West Coast. CoSMoS applies a predominantly deterministic framework that encompasses large geographic scales (100s to 1000s of kilometers) yet models flood extents to a local resolution (2 m) so that storm related changes in water levels at the shore can be resolved. In the latest iteration of CoSMoS applied to San Francisco Bay, efforts were made to incorporate water level fluctuations in response to trapped coastal waves, low pressure systems, ocean swell energy penetrating through the Golden Gate, locally wind-generated waves, and backflow induced by river discharge. The end product is a web-based tool (www.prbo.org/ocof) where users can assess variations in flood extent, maximum flood depth, maximum current velocities and wave heights in response to a number of potential SLR and storm combinations, providing direct support for adaptation and management decisions. Future efforts in Southern California will feature a dynamic coastal DEM that evolves over decadal time scales to provide updated boundary conditions for future storm simulations.

  5. A further extension of Elminius modestus Darwin on the west coast of France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crisp, D.J.

    1959-01-01

    In previous publications Bishop & Crisp (1957, 1958) described the distribution of Elminius modestus on the coasts of France, based on surveys made in 1953 and 1954. Further information including some observations made in 1955 was given by Bishop, Crisp, Fischer-Piette & Prenant (1957). Elminius was

  6. Buried late Pleistocene fluvial channels on the inner continental shelf off Vengurla, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; Krishna, K.S.; Chaubey, A.K.

    with sediments. Cross sectional dimensions between 15 to 100 m width and 2 to 6 m depth suggest a fluvial origin of the channels. These buried channels appear to mark former positions of rivers flowing from the nearby coast and debouching into the Arabian Sea...

  7. 'Saurashtra stone anchors' (Ring-stones) from Dwarka and Somnath, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh; Tripati, S.; Gudigar, P.; Bandodkar, S.N.

    . The last mentioned is a very enigmatic type as it is spheroid in shape with an axial hole and has been reported mainly from Gujarat coast and from Oman. Subsequently, many more ring stone have been found from Dwarka and Somnath waters. The presence...

  8. Draft Genome Sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, Isolated from the West Coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Bharadwaj SV, Vamsi; Shrivastav, Anupama; Dubey, Sonam; Ghosh, Tonmoy; Paliwal, Chetan; Maurya, Rahulkumar; Mishra, Sandhya

    2015-01-01

    We announce here the draft genome sequence of Halomonas hydrothermalis MTCC 5445, a halophilic bacterium of the class Gammaproteobacteria. It was isolated from the sea coast of Aadri, Veraval, Gujarat, India. Its genome contains genes for polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB), a biodegradable polymer that can be used as a substitute for petroleum plastics.

  9. Time and space variations of monsoonal upwelling along the west and east coasts of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Naidu, P.D.; RameshKumar, M.R.; RameshBabu, V.

    by the summer monsoonal winds. Along the northern part of the east coast of India the negative LTAs are attributed to the discharges of river water, which also depends on the strength of summer monsoon. Earlier studies on the planktonic foraminifera...

  10. 78 FR 26277 - Magnuson-Stevens Act Provisions; Fisheries Off West Coast States; Biennial Specifications and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-06

    ... for most species of the Pacific Coast Groundfish Fishery was published on January 3, 2013 (78 FR 580... limited entry fixed gear fishermen north of Pt. Chehalis continued opportunities to harvest incidental... targeting sablefish north of Pt. Chehalis, which would cause confusion and be inconsistent with the...

  11. The colonial ascidian Didemnum sp. A: current distribution, basic biology and potential threat to marine communities of the northeast and west coasts of North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullard, S.G.; Lambert, G.; Carman, M.R.; Byrnes, J.; Whitlatch, R.B.; Ruiz, G.; Miller, R.J.; Harris, L.; Valentine, P.C.; Collie, J.S.; Pederson, J.; McNaught, D.C.; Cohen, A.N.; Asch, R.G.; Dijkstra, J.; Heinonen, K.

    2007-01-01

    Didemnum sp. A is a colonial ascidian with rapidly expanding populations on the east and west coasts of North America. The origin of Didemum sp. A is unknown. Populations were first observed on the northeast coast of the U.S. in the late 1980s and on the west coast during the 1990s. It is currently undergoing a massive population explosion and is now a dominant member of many subtidal communities on both coasts. To determine Didemnum sp. A's current distribution, we conducted surveys from Maine to Virginia on the east coast and from British Columbia to southern California on the west coast of the U.S. between 1998 and 2005. In nearshore locations Didemnum sp. A currently ranges from Eastport, Maine to Shinnecock Bay, New York on the east coast. On the west coast it has been recorded from Humboldt Bay to Port San Luis in California, several sites in Puget Sound, Washington, including a heavily fouled mussel culture facility, and several sites in southwestern British Columbia on and adjacent to oyster and mussel farms. The species also occurs at deeper subtidal sites (up to 81 m) off New England, including Georges, Stellwagen and Tillies Banks. On Georges Bank numerous sites within a 230 km2 area are 50–90% covered by Didemnum sp. A; large colonies cement the pebble gravel into nearly solid mats that may smother infaunal organisms. These observations suggest that Didemnum sp. A has the potential to alter marine communities and affect economically important activities such as fishing and aquaculture.

  12. Review of "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" and "The Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cairns J Scott

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Two recent meetings held on the west coast of the USA highlighted current work being done in the field of retrovirology and AIDS. The meetings, "The Twelfth West Coast Retrovirus Meeting" (Palm Springs CA; October 6–8, 2005, and the "Twenty-third Annual Symposium on Nonhuman Primate Models for AIDS" (Portland OR; September 21–24 covered a broad range of topics. The highlights covered here are not meant to be inclusive but reflect presentations of interest in the identification and development of new HIV therapies and the role played by animal models in their development.

  13. Invasion of the Indo-Pacific blenny Omobranchus punctatus (Perciformes: Blenniidae on the Atlantic Coast of Central and South America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar Lasso-Alcalá

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We examined 308 specimens of the Indo-Pacific blenniid Omobranchus punctatus deposited in four museum collections, and analyzed data on their collection locations to assess its invasion on the Atlantic coast of Central and South America. This species occurs in shoreline estuarine and marine habitats in the Indo-West Pacific. Previous sampling and recent records in the Tropical West Atlantic from 1930 to 2004 produced 20 records for: Panamá, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Brazil. In this work, we provide data on 17 new records for the Gulfs of Venezuela and Paria in Venezuela, as well as four records for Maranhão and Pará states in NE Brazil. The temporal pattern of collections (1930 - 2009 and the proximity of most localities to ports and zones of ship traffic indicate that O. punctatus was initially introduced to the Atlantic by ships travelling from India to Trinidad. Within Brazil the introduction is linked to shipping connected to petroleum platforms. In Maranhão and Pará the introduction may have occurred as a result of fish sheltering in fouling on hulls of ships moving between ports around the mouth of the Amazon River. Alternatively, the spread of this species along of the American coast may reflect the expansion of the range of O. puntactus through larval dispersal in northward flowing currents. We recommend monitoring of this introduced species, and studies of its ecology in West Atlantic areas.Nós examinamos 308 espécimes do blenídeo Omobranchus punctatus, de origem Indo-Pacífica, depositados em coleções de quatro museus. Os dados de distribuição foram analisados com o objetivo de avaliar a invasão das águas costeiras do Oceano Atlântico nas Américas do Sul e Central. Em sua área de distribuição original, O. punctatus ocorre em ambientes marinhos e estuarinos. Amostragens datadas de 1930 e de 2004 produziram 20 registros da espécie no Atlântico Oeste tropical, incluindo amostras do Panamá, Col

  14. Relationship of scarlet prawns (Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus) to a benthic oil deposit off the north-west coast of Aruba, Dutch West Indies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, H.C. Jr.; Farragut, R.N.; Thompson, M.H.

    1977-08-01

    Catch data resulting from sampling efforts off the north-west coast of Aruba, Dutch West Indies, demonstrated a greater catch rate of crustacea in areas where benthic oily material was collected as compared to adjacent areas where there was no oil. Scarlet prawns (Plesiopenaeus edwardsianus) were three times more abundant in the areas where benthic oil was found. They contained no isoprenoid hydrocarbons of the type common to most biological material or the type common to petroleum. However, they did contain an unusual n-paraffin hydrocarbon series (n-C/sub 22/, n-C/sub 25/, n-C/sub 28/, n-C/sub 31/, n-C/sub 34/), and in the areas where the benthic oily material was collected the prawns contained much greater quantities of the five n-paraffins given in the above sequence. A probable explanation for the greater abundance of crustacea in the area affected by the oily material is discussed. The accumulation and metabolism of hydrocarbons by marine organisms and how these processes relate to scarlet prawns are also discussed.

  15. Gender Statistics in the Southern Caucasus and Central and West Asia: A Situational Analysis Promoting Gender-Inclusive Growth in Central and West Asian Developing Member Countries

    OpenAIRE

    Asian Development Bank (ADB)

    2012-01-01

    This report provides a baseline of the capacity of Asian Development Bank developing member countries to generate, analyze, disseminate, and use sex-disaggregated data. It introduces a framework on gender statistics and guides in assessing statistical systems in the Southern Caucasus (Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia), Central Asia (Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan), and West Asia (Afghanistan, Pakistan). It recommends ways to bridge the gaps in gender data collec...

  16. Variability in spawning frequency and reproductive development of the narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) along the west coast of Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Mackie, Michael C.; Lewis, Paul D.; Gaughan, Daniel J.; Newman, Stephen J.

    2005-01-01

    The narrow-barred Spanish mackerel (Scomberomorus commerson) is widespread throughout the Indo-West Pacific region. This study describes the reproductive biology of S. commerson along the west coast of Australia, where it is targeted for food consumption and sports fishing. Development of testes occurred at a smaller body size than for ovaries, and more than 90% of males were sexually mature by the minimum legal length of 900 mm TL compared to 50% of females. Females dominated overall c...

  17. The 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami recorded on the coast of West Africa

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Joseph, A.; Odametey, J.T.; Nkebi, E.K.; Pereira, A.; Desai, R.G.P.; Mehra, P.; Rabinovich, A.B.; VijayKumar, K.; Prabhudesai, S.; Woodworth, P.

    Analysis of sea-level data obtained from the Atlantic Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS) sea-level station at Takoradi, Ghana, West Africa, clearly reveals a tsunami signal associated with the M sub(w) = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake of 26 December...

  18. The Myth of Central Europe in the East-West Relations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloš Zelenka

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies different conceptions of Central Europe in the literary and historical discourse of the 20th century, and at the same time, compares how the concept of Central Europe is defined in the works of Havel, Kundera, Konrád and others. Central Europe has always been a cultural and geographical crossroads between the East and the West, with shifting centres and peripheries, overlapping ethnic groups, cultures and religions. For simplicity, two conceptions of Central Europe can be distinguished: minimalist and maximalist. The minimalist conception regards Central Europe as part of the West, because of analogous historical structures and cultural values. It partly overlaps the original Habsburg Empire and is opposed to the Balkans and Russia. The maximalist conception applies an axiological approach, regarding Central Europe as a set of historically established ideas, connected with the traditions of Christian civilisation, i.e. it includes the eastern and southern corners of Europe as well. Central Europe then is geographically identified with the symbolism of the Danube, as both a dividing and unifiying feature. According to Kundera, it is the Jewish people who have made the greatest contribution to the multicultural character of Central Europe, which after 1945 was politically aligned with the East, although historically it had been part of the West.

  19. Filamentous fungi isolated from EEZ along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Prabhakaran, N.; Gupta, R.

    of the land and terrigenous materials. These molds show a wide range of ecological adaptations for their existence in the marine ecosystem. No systematic study has been carried out on the filamentous fungi of the EEZ along the Indiar, coast. Thi.> paper report... samples. Forea<.;h 70 N. PRABHAKARAN AND RANU GUPTA ~ampletriplicate plates wele prepared and a mean of the three was taken as the actual count. Aeromycofioral studies of different laboratories (Dry Fhh Laboratory, Wet Fish Laboratory, Hydrographical...

  20. Biological and environmental characteristics of mangrove habitats from Manori creek, West Coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kulkarni, V.A.; Jagtap, T.G.; Mhalsekar, N.M.; Naik, A.N.

    invertebrates as indicators of pollution origin in agricultural and urban areas. – In A. Ebel and T. Divitashvili (eds.) Air, water and soil quality modelling for risk and impact assessment (pp 217- 220) NATO Security through Science Series C: Environmental... Security. 25. Kenny R. (1969). Temperature tolerance of the polychaete worms. Diopatra cuprea and Clymenella torquata. Mar. Biol, 4, 219-223. 26. Khadilkar, S. (1989). Marine algae of Mumbai coast, PhD thesis, Mumbai University. 77 pp. 27...

  1. Shoreline change detection from Karwar to Gokarna - South West coast of India using remotely Sensed data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Choudhary, R.; Gowthaman, R.; SanilKumar, V.

    and sediment influx (Nayak, 2010). The coastal geomorphology of India is divided into offshore features, shore features, coastal features and littoral geomorphology in relation to human activities and problems (Ahmad E. 1972). The coastal region between... of offshore breakwaters to the UK: A case study of at Elmer beach, J Coast Res, 16, 172-187, (2000). [3] E. Ahmad (1972). Coastal Geomorphology of India. Orient Longman Part III Coastal Features, pp 161-195 [4] E.Saranathan, R.Chandrasekaran, D...

  2. Diversity and antagonistic potential of marine microbes collected from south-west coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Sinimol, S.; Sarika, A. R.; A. Jayakumaran Nair

    2015-01-01

    The diversity of some of the culturable microorganisms associated with marine flora and fauna collected off Vizhinjam and Mulloor coast of South India was evaluated and their bioactive production potential determined. From a total of 24 bacteria, 4 actinomycetes and 8 fungi isolated from diverse marine sources, five bacterial species-BLM3, BSP2, BCS1, BCS4 and BMA6 showed inhibitory activity against at least one of the tested pathogens viz., Klebsiella pneumonia KU1, Pseudomonas aeruginosa VL...

  3. Chromolaena odorata fallow in food cropping systems. An agronomic assessment in South-West Ivory Coast.

    OpenAIRE

    Slaats, J.J.P.

    1995-01-01

    In tropical Africa, traditional shifting cultivation can no longer provide sufficient food for the rapidly increasing population, whereas it threatens the remaining forests. An alternative is a fallow system based on the shrub Chromolaena odorata. Food crop cultivation in rotation with this fallow type in Ivory Coast was analysed and options for efficient and sustainable land use were identified. Farmers obtained 1.8 t ha -1maize without external inputs in a three-year fallow-cropping cycle. ...

  4. The age of the "old red sand" on the coasts of south Fujian and west Guangdong, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The sedimentary strata and deposition ages of the "old red sand" distributed along the coasts of south Fujian and west Guangdong are determined by lithostratigraphy, magnetic stratigraphy and earth chemistry combined with TL, ESR and 14C-dating techniques. The research shows that the "old red sand" was aeolian sediments deposited from 55 400 to 9 000 aBP, the last glacial period in the middle and later age of Late Pleistocene. Most of them deposited in two periods of 56-42 ka and 30-10 ka. The "old red sand" deposited in the period of 30-10 ka, the later Würm glacier substage (Q33), developed on the largest scale with the widest distribution.

  5. Baseline of organotin pollution in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Sangeeta; Bhosale, Darshana; Bhosle, Narayan

    2011-10-01

    Organotins, especially tributyltins (TBT) are highly toxic to many marine organisms. These compounds are introduced in marine waters by ship trafficking, ship scrapping activities, as antifouling compounds and sewage disposal. Marine fishes, crustaceans and molluscans are easily prone to organotins contamination. In view of this, a baseline monitoring study was conducted in order to establish the levels of organotins in edible marine fishes, bivalves, shrimps, squids and crabs collected from Mumbai, Goa and Karwar on the west coast of India. At these locations average organotin concentration found in fishes, clams, shrimps, squids and crabs was 108, 852, 179, 70 and 89 ng Sn g(-1)dw, respectively. In all the samples butyltins dominated over phenyltins. The levels of organotins suggest that all the organisms were contaminated with organotins and their consumption may pose health problems to humans. PMID:21820681

  6. Distribution of Sargassum muticum on the North West coast of Spain: Relationships with urbanization and community diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incera, Mónica; Olabarria, Celia; Cacabelos, Eva; César, Javier; Troncoso, Jesús S.

    2011-04-01

    Invasions are common in coastal marine environments where proximity to urban areas should influence the number of non-native organisms due to the likelihood of unintentional introductions from urban centers. Invasive species are widely recognised as important agents of global change, and can colonize new habitats and even cause local extinction of native species. This study was focused on the invasive marine macroalga Sargassum muticum, a problematic invasive species on the West coast of America and in European waters. An intensive survey was carried out along the Galician coast (North West of Spain) from March to August 2008 to determine the current distribution of this species, and its relationship with level of urbanization and native macroalgal diversity. We sampled the presence of S. muticum and native macroalgae in the mid and low intertidal zones of twenty rocky shores distributed along ten rias. Rias were grouped into high and scarcely urbanized based on their population density. Results indicated that S. muticum was present in nine out of the ten rias, confirming its presence in most of the intertidal rocky shores of Galicia twenty years after it was first observed. The presence of S. muticum was not related to the degree of urbanization of the rias, and its distribution and abundance did not seem to be influenced by diversity or functional groups of native algae. In addition, there was a great variability in the percentage cover, number and length of individuals amongst localities and rias suggesting that both large-scale and local processes may play a role in the distribution of this species. This study highlights the importance of future research into the distribution and impact of introduced algae and proves the urgent need for monitoring programmes and increasing efforts to prevent and control new introductions.

  7. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladd M Irvine

    Full Text Available Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR and 'core areas' (CAU as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels.

  8. Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U.S. West Coast, with implications for management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, Ladd M; Mate, Bruce R; Winsor, Martha H; Palacios, Daniel M; Bograd, Steven J; Costa, Daniel P; Bailey, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Mortality and injuries caused by ship strikes in U.S. waters are a cause of concern for the endangered population of blue whales (Balaenoptera musculus) occupying the eastern North Pacific. We sought to determine which areas along the U.S. West Coast are most important to blue whales and whether those areas change inter-annually. Argos-monitored satellite tags were attached to 171 blue whales off California during summer/early fall from 1993 to 2008. We analyzed portions of the tracks that occurred within U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters and defined the 'home range' (HR) and 'core areas' (CAU) as the 90% and 50% fixed kernel density distributions, respectively, for each whale. We used the number of overlapping individual HRs and CAUs to identify areas of highest use. Individual HR and CAU sizes varied dramatically, but without significant inter-annual variation despite covering years with El Niño and La Niña conditions. Observed within-year differences in HR size may represent different foraging strategies for individuals. The main areas of HR and CAU overlap among whales were near highly productive, strong upwelling centers that were crossed by commercial shipping lanes. Tagged whales generally departed U.S. Exclusive Economic Zone waters from mid-October to mid-November, with high variability among individuals. One 504-d track allowed HR and CAU comparisons for the same individual across two years, showing similar seasonal timing, and strong site fidelity. Our analysis showed how satellite-tagged blue whales seasonally used waters off the U.S. West Coast, including high-risk areas. We suggest possible modifications to existing shipping lanes to reduce the likelihood of collisions with vessels. PMID:25054829

  9. Analysis and interpretation of marine/continental terraces in the central coast of Asturias (NW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    María Díaz-Díaz, Luis; Flor-Blanco, Germán; López-Fernández, Carlos; Luis, Pando

    2016-04-01

    This study presents the geographical distribution and topographical features analysis of several marine/continental terraces located in a sector between Nalón estuary and Cape Peñas region (central coast of Asturias, N Spain). Significant flat raised surfaces appear as outstanding landscape features of the Cantabrian coast. They exhibit north facing low gradient slopes (GIS and quantitative analysis of the relief are applied to the recognition and delineation of terraces. Altimetry information comes from the Digital Elevation Model (DEM) Digital (cell size 5 m). The use of slope Digital Slopes Model (DSM) combined with digital lithology layers and hypsometric method allowed us to identify two main new surfaces at altitudes ranging from 75 to 135 m and 85 to 180 m respectively. Levels of surfaces recognized in previous studies may be correlated with this elevations. They are separated by a huge geologic structure (Ventaniella Fault). Thus, two NW-SE direction landward edge of terrace (shoreline angle) was identified. This feature enables correlate these surface or the old knickpoint (foot of the slope) if the terrace has a continental origin. Initial morphology of these terraces has been modified by landscape erosion much more those developed on limestones. Therefore, just a few areas are preserved where flat surfaces are developed in Paleozoic materials (NO) better in siliciclastic rocks. The remaining areas are modelled in the lowest resistance lithology like Permo-triassic rocks. Therefore, using classic techniques as fieldwork and phointerpretation is not discriminatory.

  10. Stable isotope signatures of seasonal precipitation on the Pacific coast of central Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Zoltán; Harmon, Russell S; Fórizs, István

    2016-01-01

    As calculated from data archived in the IAEA-WMO Global Network of Isotopes in Precipitation programme, the amount-weighted local meteoric water line for the Pacific coast of central Panama is: δ(2)H = 7.63(±0.08) × δ(18)O + 6.51(±0.49). Amount-weighted mean isotopic values were regressed against the sea surface temperature (SST) fields of the adjacent tropical oceans. A negative correlation of precipitation isotope composition with Caribbean SSTs is observed only for the early wet season (May-June), whilst the mid-summer dry period is characterized by positive correlation with eastern Pacific SSTs, similar to the late wet season (October-November). The negative response of May-June rainfall isotopic composition to Caribbean SSTs is explained by a SST-mediated change in stratiform rain fraction from organized convective systems proximal to the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). The positive correlation for the rest of the wet season, when the organized convective zone of ITCZ and its attached stratiform belt are distant from the Pacific coast of Panama, is interpreted as simple evaporative temperature effect on isotopic fractionation. PMID:25761056

  11. Fin Fish Biodiversity Of A Tropical Sal Estuary, Goa, West Coast Of India

    OpenAIRE

    Nandadeep U. Fal Dessai

    2013-01-01

    Sal estuary represents rich biodiversity because of the heavy rains during the south west monsoon and lack of any industrial development along the banks of the river. Attempt was made to survey the fin fish biodiversity along the estuary to fulfill the lack of adequate information regarding estuarine fisheries. Hydrological parameters were analysed during the study period and found to be highly influencing. Fishes were caught near shore by using gill nets and cast nets. About 35 fin fishes we...

  12. Organochlorine and metal residues in royal terns nesting on the central Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, K.A.; LeFever, C.A.; Mulhern, B.M.

    1983-01-01

    Royal Tern eggs collected from Pelican and Sundown islands on the central Texas coast in 1978 contained relatively low levels of organochlorine and metal pollutants. DDE and PCBs were found most frequently, but levels were below those known to have an adverse effect on avian reproduction and survival. Average metal residues did not vary significantly between study areas, and with the possible exception of mercury, were present only at background levels. Shells of eggs collected in 1978 were no thinner than eggshells collected before 1947. There was a significant imporvement in mean eggshell thickness from 1970 to 1978 and a corresponding decline in DDE and PCB residues. No deformed or abnormal young were observed. Although elevated levels of industrial contaminants were reported in sediments and sea grasses of Corpus Christi Bay, little of those contaminants appear to have accumulated in the Royal Tern.

  13. Ancient technology of jetties and anchoring points along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gaur, A.S.; Vora, K.H.

    , majority of these anchors belong to ring stone-type (Figure 9). The port plays a dominant role in facilitating sea trade. There have been several ports all along the Indian coast since antiquity. A prerequisite for the selection of any port site... variation and seabed topography played a signifi- cant role in the construction of jetties. As stated earlier, the higher tidal variation in Gujarat has been used by navigators to anchor boats in the inter-tidal zone; thus loading and unloading become...

  14. Arabian Sea oceanography and fisheries of the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhupratap, M.; Nair, K.N.V.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Haridas, P.; Nair, K.K.C.; Venugopal, P.; Gauns, M.

    of poten tial fishery resources from the E x- clusive Economic Zone of India (EEZ) are about 3.5 to 4.7 mt (million tonnes) 1 ? 4 . The recent estimates on a n- nual marine landings from the I n dian coast show that they fluctuate between 2.2 and 2...., John, S. and Somavanshi, V. S., Bull. Fish. Surv. India , 1990, 20 , 1 ? 37. 2. Bhargava, R. M. S., in India's Exclusive Economic Zone ( eds Qasim, S. Z. and Roonal, G. S.), Omega Scientific, New Delhi, 1996, pp. 122 ? 131. 3. Goswami, S...

  15. Waves in shallow water off west coast of India during the onset of summer monsoon

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SanilKumar, V.; Philip, C.S.; Nair, T.N.B.

    compared to deep water. Wave characteristics during growth and decay off the Goa coast at 80 m water depth during Published by Copernicus Publications on behalf of the European Geosciences Union. 818 V. Sanil Kumar et al.: Waves in shallow water during... are expected to be constant with the theoretical value proposed for Hmax/H1/3 as 1.53. Our analyses show that the ratio between Hmax and Hm0 is 1.65 and is similar to the earlier reported results (Dattatri et al., 1979; Kumar, 2006). The maximum Hmax recorded...

  16. Annual Bacterioplankton Biomasses and Productivities in a Temperate West Coast Canadian Fjord

    OpenAIRE

    Albright, L. J.; McCrae, S. K.

    1987-01-01

    Bacterioplankton numbers, biomasses, and productivities, as well as chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton productivities, were assayed from 1 March 1984 to 12 August 1985 through a 250-m-deep seawater column in Howe Sound, a temperate fjord-sound on the southern coast of British Columbia, Canada. Primary production during this 18-month period was 845 g of C m−2. Bacterial production was assayed over this same period as 193 g of C m−2 (thymidine incorporation) and 77 g of C m−2 (frequ...

  17. Impact of sea breeze of the sea off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Neetu, S.; Shetye, S.R.; Chandramohan, P.

    coast oj I"dia. Twenty minute averaged spectra, collected ollce eVelY three hOllrs, during thefirst two ,'.·eeks ofApril 1997 (whell sea breeze was well developed Oil most days) show tlra/the spectra ofthe sea breeze related sea peaked at 0.22 ± 0.05 Hz... of the anemometer due to veering from frictional effects in the atmospheric boundary layer. Fig. J: Location ofthe wave and wind observations reported in the paper. 446 Proceedings ofthe International Conference on Coastal and Ocean Technology Fig.2: Upper panel...

  18. Some observations on the state of coastal environment of Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.

    luxuriant growth of mangroves (some of which are degraded) and associated swamps can be observed in most water bodies. The most prominent and extensive backwaters with mangroves are located east of the capital city of Panjim. The coastal plain of Goa varies... reclamation is seen on the eastern outskirts of the capital city of Panjim. 6. Shoreline constructions: Construction of structures along the water line of open sea coast as well as rivers are multiplying rapidly. The Mandovi estuary is one such example. 207 7...

  19. Physico-chemical characterization of surface waters of the west coast of Algeria: Bay of Mostaganem and Cheliff estuary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Kies

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A follow-up in 2013 of the indicators of pollution (temperature, hydrogen potential, salinity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrites, nitrates, orthophosphates, ortho silicates, biological oxygen demand, chemical oxygen demand, suspended solids in surface water was performed, in order to estimate the physicochemical quality of the west coast of Algeria. The results obtained revealed the existence of a water contamination by domestic and industrial waste water conveyed to the north by the Cheliff River for discharge into the Bay of Mostaganem, marked by significant space-time variations. In January (24 mg / l, the values of nitrates recorded west of the mouth of Cheliff exceed norms. Ammonium records strong concentrations in January (1.2 mg NH4+/ l and in February (0.8 mg /l. Nitrites such lagging of high contents in January (NO2- 0.99 mg / l and February (NO2- 0.59 mg /l, respectively. The ortho phosphates post a maximum concentration in January (6.6mg PO43-/ l. In addition, the organic matter rate measured in surface water is maximum during periods of flooding especially in January (7.51 mg / l and lowest in the exceptionally dry season in August (2.19 mg / l.

  20. Occurrence of soft sediment deformation at Dive Agar beach, west coast of India: possible record of the Indian Ocean tsunami (2004)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Meshram, D.C.; Sangode, S.J.; Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Dhongle, D.; Porate, S.

    -truncated sand dykes, macro-thrust faults, scouring, and inclusion of coral fragments can explain it as a record of tsunami in the west coast. Occurrence of un-decayed consumer plastic material within the deformed layers suggests it as one of the most recent...

  1. 76 FR 5144 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-28

    ..., 2011, at the Southwest High School, 2001 Ocotillo Drive, El Centro, CA 92243 (located in Imperial..., California and Naval Air Facility (NAF) El Centro, located in Imperial County, California. In order to... NAF El Centro. Additionally, the U.S. Navy F-35C West Coast Homebasing EIS will evaluate a No...

  2. PROCEEDINGS OF THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN (SAN FRANCISCO, MARCH 8-10, 1965).

    Science.gov (United States)

    CLARK, LESLIE L.; AND OTHERS

    THESE PROCEEDINGS WERE PREPARED FROM THE WEST COAST REGIONAL CONFERENCE ON RESEARCH RELATED TO BLIND AND SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED CHILDREN HELD MARCH 8-10, 1965. SURVEY RESULTS WERE PRESENTED WHICH INDICATED THE NUMBER OF BLIND, SEVERELY VISUALLY IMPAIRED, AND MULTIPLY HANDICAPPED CHILDREN IN CALIFORNIA AND THE INCIDENCE OF BLINDNESS IN CHILDREN…

  3. Mineral dust variability in central West Antarctica associated with ozone depletion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cataldo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We present here data of mineral dust variability retrieved from an ice core of the central West Antarctic, spanning the last five decades. Main evidence provided by the geochemical analysis is that northerly air mass incursions to the coring site, tracked by insoluble dust microparticles, have declined over the past 50 yr. This result contrasts with dust records from ice cores reported to the coastal West Antarctic that show increases since mid-20th century. We attribute this difference to regional climatic changes due to the ozone depletion and its implications to westerly winds. We found that the diameters of insoluble microparticles in the central West Antarctica ice core are significantly correlated with cyclone depth (energy and wind intensity around Antarctica.

  4. Planktonic diatoms of the Zuari estuary, Goa (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Redekar, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    and 30 (13 genera) Centrales. The common diatoms observed were Chaetoceros borealis, C. decipiens, Biddulphia regia, B. sinensis, Coscinodiscus conscinnus, C. subtilis, C. grani, Navicula inflexa, N. oblonga, Amphora turgida, A. ovalis, Nitzschia sigma...

  5. Successful and unsuccessful attempts to resolve caribou management and timber harvesting issues in west central Alberta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hervieux

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Research studies of woodland caribou in west central Alberta began in 1979 in response to proposed timber harvesting on their winter ranges. Using results from initial studies, timber harvest guidelines were developed. A recent review of these guidelines, and the assumptions on which they were based, has resulted in a renegotiation by government and industry of timber harvesting on caribou range in west central Alberta. Caribou range in west central Alberta overlaps many jurisdictional boundaries: federal and provincial lands, four Forest Management Agreement Areas, three Alberta Land and Forest Service Regions and two Alberta Fish and Wildlife Service Regions. This jurisdictional complexity in combination with other factors such as total allocation of the timber resources, high levels of petroleum, natural gas and coal extraction activities, a high level of concern by public groups for caribou conservation and recent understanding of woodland caribou needs for abundant space has made resolution of caribou/timber harvest conflicts exceedingly slow and often relatively unproductive. This paper reviews 10 years of trying to resolve conflicts between timber harvesting and caribou conservation through meetings, committees, integrated resource planning, policy papers and public consultation. We describe what might be learned by other jurisdictions that are trying to resolve similar caribou/timber harvesting issues. We conclude with an overview of recent timber harvest planning initiatives on caribou range in west central Alberta.

  6. Organised labour and neo-liberal economic and political reforms in West and Central Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konings, P.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    This article examines the impact of current neoliberal political reforms on trade union performance in West and Central Africa. To what extent have trade unions been involved in the political restructuring of the State? Has political liberalization constrained or enhanced their political influence a

  7. Uptake of radioactivity by marine surface sediments collected in Ghazaouet, west coast of Algeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samples of surface marine sediments of different grain sizes collected in Ghazaouet, a small bay on the western coast of Algeria, have been examined to measure concentrations of natural and artificial gamma-emitting radionuclides. The aim of this study is to determine the level of radioactivity and its repartition in the sedimentary area. The samples analyzed by direct counting gamma spectrometry, showed relatively high activities for natural radioactivity and revealed measurable quantities of 137Cs, ranging from 0.66-8.47 Bq kg-1 dry weight. In addition, some of the samples of different nature were sieved in different grain-sizes, to study the uptake of radioactivity. It is found that the sediments of less than 100 μm grain-size have the highest level of uptake of radioactivity

  8. Beach Carrying Capacity Analysis for Sustainable Tourism Development in the South West Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brilliant Rajan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The rapid growth of coastal tourism that has been seen in the last 10 years is frequently described as one of the major reasons for the development of these areas and also is responsible for many current coastal problems. The beaches perform, in this context, a fundamental role, where the issues related to planning and management are increasingly more important when it comes to an implementation of a sustainable development philosophy. In Kerala, where coastal tourism plays a major part of the state’s economy, the management of beaches is crucial for maintaining their quality and therefore continuing to attract tourists. Since the 1990s, with the application of Coastal Zone Management Plans to the whole Kerala coast, beach plans are now required. The concept of capacity has received considerable attention as a result of increasing anthropogenic pressure in certain natural environments. Much consideration has recently been given to an increase in coastal population, with the implication that the carrying capacity of the world’s coast is finite, and such consideration forms part of several coastal management initiatives. Tourism is the world’s largest industry, which accounts for more than 10% of total employment, 11% of global GDP, and total tourist trips are predicted to increase to 1.6 billion by 2020. The ecosystems, typically stressed by development activity along the Indian coastal areas, are particularly vulnerable to socio-economic driving forces. The planning and management of coastal tourism can be improved through more careful understanding of social and ecological systems and their linkages, with a view to ensure a development that lasts, not only for tourism but also for the host destination. The present study gives a comprehensive idea on both sustainability of coastal areas and a prerequisite for the carrying capacity based development in tourism destinations.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.erem.63.1.2648

  9. Phylogenetic study and barcoding of the blood cockle, Tegillarca granosa, found on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia using the COI gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, S Y; Devakie, M N; Siti Azizah, M N

    2011-01-01

    Blood cockles are among the most economically important brackish water invertebrates found in Malaysia. However, our knowledge of blood cockle phylogeny and systematics is rudimentary, especially for the species Tegillarca granosa. It is unclear, for instance, whether the cockles occurring on the west coast of peninsular Malaysia constitute a single species, or multiple, phylogenetically distinct species. We performed the first DNA molecular phylogenetic analysis of T. granosa to distinguish it from other related species found in other parts of the world and to create a DNA database for the species. An approximately 585-nucleotide fragment of the mitochondrial DNA (cytochrome oxidase I, COI) was sequenced for 150 individual cockles, representing 10 populations: three from the north, four from the central part and three from the southern part of peninsular Malaysia. Phylogenetic analyses of the resulting dataset yielded tree topologies that not only showed the relationship between T. granosa and its closest relatives but its position in the evolutionary tree. Three mitochondrial clades were evident, each containing an individual genus. Using the mutation rate of the COI gene, the divergence time between T. granosa and its closest related species was estimated to be 460 thousand years ago. This study provides a phylogenetic framework for this ecologically prominent and commercially important cockle species. PMID:21732288

  10. Age, Stratigraphy, and Correlations of the Late Neogene Purisima Formation, Central California Coast Ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Charles L.; Barron, John A.; Sarna-Wojcicki, Andrei M.; Clark, Joseph C.; Perry, Frank A.; Brabb, Earl E.; Fleck, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    The Purisima Formation is an important upper Miocene and Pliocene stratigraphic unit in central California, cropping out from the coast at Point Reyes north of San Francisco to more extensive exposures in the Santa Cruz Mountains to the south. The fine-grained rocks in the lower parts of the Purisima Formation record a latest Miocene transgressive event, whereas the middle and upper parts of the formation consist of increasingly clastic-rich siltstones and sandstones resulting from uplift of adjacent coastal regions and the Sierra Nevada during Pliocene transgressive and regressive sea-level events. Exposures of the Purisima occur in three different, fault-bounded, structural blocks - the Santa Cruz, Pigeon Point, and Point Reyes tectonic blocks - that complicate correlations and regional age assignments. We summarize and compare published and new biostratigraphic and geochronologic data for various exposures of the Purisima Formation on the basis of mollusks, diatoms, radiometric dating, magnetostratigraphy, tephrochronology, and strontium isotope dating. On the basis of these data, we conclude that the Purisima Formation ranges in age from the latest Miocene (about 7 Ma) to the late Pliocene (about 2.6 Ma). The Purisima Formation of Santa Cruz County, exposed in the sea cliffs from Santa Cruz to Rio del Mar, is here designated a supplementary reference section because it is the most complete and well studied Purisima section in central California.

  11. Fin Fish Biodiversity Of A Tropical Sal Estuary, Goa, West Coast Of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandadeep U. Fal Dessai

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Sal estuary represents rich biodiversity because of the heavy rains during the south west monsoon and lack of any industrial development along the banks of the river. Attempt was made to survey the fin fish biodiversity along the estuary to fulfill the lack of adequate information regarding estuarine fisheries. Hydrological parameters were analysed during the study period and found to be highly influencing. Fishes were caught near shore by using gill nets and cast nets. About 35 fin fishes were recorded belonging to 28 families. The distribution varies according to the environmental conditions. Some of the important fin fishes found in this estuary are Mugil cephalus, Gerres filamentosus, Sillago sihama, Etroplus suratensis, Arius arius, Lutjanus argentimaculatus, Acanthopagrus berda and Lobotes surinamensis. Some of the fresh water species are also observed in the Sal river. In future, Industrialization along the bank of the estuary may threaten the species diversity and need necessary laws for conservation of biodiversity

  12. West Texas nursing education portal project: developing a regional centralized application system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Patricia; Billings, Lynda; Cannon, Sharon; Majors, Jennifer; Sportsman, Susan; Ballesteros, Pauline A; Bezinque, Kim; Bolton, Cathy; Cottenoir, Marla; Edwards, Carmen; Louder, Justin; O'Neal, Cynthia; Morgan, Jackolyn; Reyes, Helen; Ross, Linda

    2011-01-01

    Because of the nursing shortage and a demand for maximum enrollment, a group of five baccalaureate and seven associate degree nursing programs in West Texas first met in 2007 to form the West Texas Nursing Education Consortium (WTNEC). To emphasize the importance of scale and distance, the West Texas region is larger than all of the northeastern states combined. The founding group agreed that the first mission of WTNEC should be to pool resources in order to increase admission and graduation rates for WTNEC schools. Two years later, this mission is being accomplished by the implementation of a plan designed to increase participating schools' admissions, retention, and graduation rates. A grant proposal was written and funded to develop a central regionalization of the application process for entry into WTNEC generic programs (associates degree in nursing and bachelor of science in nursing), with the goal of decreasing and possibly eliminating student vacancy rates in member schools and perhaps reducing the resources needed by each school for the admission process. The implemented centralized application system allowed prospective students to apply online to the centralized admission portal. Students maintained the freedom to choose the nursing program(s) they wanted to attend, but they were also made aware of possible openings in other participating schools. The admission portal also saved potential students time and money by submitting one centralized application, resulting in consolidation of the nursing school application process. Eleven of the 12 consortium schools participated in the centralized application system. PMID:21596353

  13. Detrital zircon evidence for progressive underthrusting in Franciscan metagraywackes, west-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snow, C.A.; Wakabayashi, J.; Ernst, W.G.; Wooden, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    central Coast Ranges is a classic accretionary prism, where younger, structurally lower allochthons are exposed on the west, and older, structurally higher allochthons occur to the east, in the heavily studied San Francisco Bay area. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  14. Standardising visual control devices for tsetse flies: Central and West African species Glossina palpalis palpalis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dramane Kaba

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Glossina palpalis palpalis (G. p. palpalis is one of the principal vectors of sleeping sickness and nagana in Africa with a geographical range stretching from Liberia in West Africa to Angola in Central Africa. It inhabits tropical rain forest but has also adapted to urban settlements. We set out to standardize a long-lasting, practical and cost-effective visually attractive device that would induce the strongest landing response by G. p. palpalis for future use as an insecticide-impregnated tool in area-wide population suppression of this fly across its range. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trials were conducted in wet and dry seasons in the Ivory Coast, Cameroon, the Democratic Republic of Congo and Angola to measure the performance of traps (biconical, monoconical and pyramidal and targets of different sizes and colours, with and without chemical baits, at different population densities and under different environmental conditions. Adhesive film was used as a practical enumerator at these remote locations to compare landing efficiencies of devices. Independent of season and country, both phthalogen blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets covered with adhesive film proved to be as good as traps in phthalogen blue or turquoise blue for capturing G. p. palpalis. Trap efficiency varied (8-51%. There was no difference between the performance of blue-black and blue-black-blue 1 m(2 targets. Baiting with chemicals augmented the overall performance of targets relative to traps. Landings on smaller phthalogen blue-black 0.25 m(2 square targets were not significantly different from either 1 m(2 blue-black-blue or blue-black square targets. Three times more flies were captured per unit area on the smaller device. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Blue-black 0.25 m(2 cloth targets show promise as simple cost effective devices for management of G. p. palpalis as they can be used for both control when impregnated with insecticide and for

  15. Blended sea level anomaly fields with enhanced coastal coverage along the U.S. West Coast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risien, C M; Strub, P T

    2016-01-01

    We form a new 'blended' data set of sea level anomaly (SLA) fields by combining gridded daily fields derived from altimeter data with coastal tide gauge data. Within approximately 55-70 km of the coast, the altimeter data are discarded and replaced by a linear interpolation between the tide gauge and remaining offshore altimeter data. To create a common reference height for altimeter and tide gauge data, a 20-year mean is subtracted from each time series (from each tide gauge and altimeter grid point) before combining the data sets to form a blended mean sea level anomaly (SLA) data set. Daily mean fields are produced for the 22-year period 1 January 1993-31 December 2014. The primary validation compares geostrophic velocities calculated from the height fields and velocities measured at four moorings covering the north-south range of the new data set. The blended data set improves the alongshore (meridional) component of the currents, indicating an improvement in the cross-shelf gradient of the mean SLA data set. PMID:26927667

  16. Presence of stratospheric humidity in the ozone column depletion on the west coast of South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ozone column depletion over the western coast of South America has been previously explained, based on the existence of winds in the area of the depletion, which cause compression and thinning of the ozone layer. However, the presence of humidity and methane transported by these winds to the stratosphere where the ozone depletion is present gives evidence that these compounds also participate in the depletion of the ozone layer. These two compounds, humidity and methane, are analysed during the ozone depletion of January, 1998. It is observed that when humidity presents fluctuations, ozone has fluctuations too. A maximum of humidity corresponds to a minimum of ozone, but there is a shift in altitude between them. This shift is observed in the stratosphere and upper troposphere and corresponds to approximately 500 m. It is important to point out that during this event El Nino was present and the sources of methane are the Amazon forest and the Pacific Ocean. The data for this study was obtained from NASA and HALOE

  17. Stratigraphic evidence for earthquakes and tsunamis on the west coast of South Andaman Island, India during the past 1000 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, Javed N.; Banerjee, Chiranjib; Khan, Afzal; Johnson, Frango C.; Shishikura, Masanobu.; Satake, Kenji.; Singhvi, Ashok K.

    2015-10-01

    Stratigraphic records from west coast of South Andaman Island revealed evidence of three historical earthquakes and associated transoceanic tsunamis during past 1000 yrs, in addition to the Mw 9.3 tsunamigenic earthquake of 26 December, 2004. Our finding suggests that along with Sumatran arc segment the Andaman-Arakan segment is also capable of generating mega-subduction zone earthquakes and transoceanic tsunamis. To study the near sub-surface stratigraphic succession we excavated shallow trenches and obtained geoslices from two sites around Collinpur (sites 1 and 2). The exposed succession comprised 11 lithounits (Unit a - youngest and k - oldest) of alternating sequence of coarser units overlain by peaty soils and some of these are indicative of deposition during paleo-tsunami events. Event I that predated AD 800, and is marked by a 35-40 cm thick deposit of fine gravel to coarse sands along with broken shell fragments (Unit k). Event II dated around AD 660-800, is represented by 20-25 cm thick coarse sand and broken shell fragments (Unit i). Based on stratigraphic evidences of land-level changes, this event is attributed to a near source rupture along Andaman-Arakan segment, accompanied by a transoceanic tsunami. Event III, occurred around AD 1120-1300, is marked by a 50 cm thick sand deposit (Unit g). The 2004 tsunami resulted in deposition of 15 cm thick medium to coarse sand at the same location. We infer that the 2004 tsunami and Event III resulted in different styles of sedimentation at the same site. Four events at Collinpur along with the record of a subsidence event of AD 1679 from the east coast of Andaman, close-to, Port Blair (Malik et al., 2011), suggest that mega-subduction zone earthquakes and associated tsunamis recur at an interval of 300-500 years at variable locations along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone.

  18. Seal dynamics on the Swedish west coast: Scenarios of competition as Baltic grey seal intrude on harbour seal territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Carl Johan

    2012-07-01

    The Kattegat-Skagerrak region on the Swedish west coast is home to an abundant harbour seal population (Phoca vitulina) and a small scattered grey seal population (Halichoerus grypus). In addition, grey seal from the growing population in the Baltic Sea frequently migrate into the Kattegat-Skagerrak. Harbour seals on the west coast of Sweden show relatively high population growth (approximately 9%) compared to the Baltic grey seal in ice-free habitats (approximately 6%), which, in theory, makes harbour seal the stronger competitor of the two in this region. However, incidents of disease in harbour seals that lower population growth are becoming more frequent. These epidemics are primarily caused by the Phocine Distemper Virus (PDV), and may reduce population size with up to 70%. This study models the average development under potential scenarios of competing harbour- and Baltic grey seal populations using Leslie matrices and the Lotka-Volterra model of inter-specific competition. The model is parameterised with previously published data, and resource overlap is incorporated through density dependent pup survival. Using numerical methods short- and long-term abundances are simulated under weak, moderate and strong competition and for different frequencies of PDV epidemics. Results show that the harbour seals are resilient to competition while exerting a negative effect on grey seal abundance under moderate to strong competition. Hence Baltic grey seal benefit from weaker levels of competition. Under moderate and strong competition grey seal abundance is a direct function of the PDV frequency as this reduces the competitive strength of harbour seals. Theoretically this means that higher frequencies of PDV or other pathogens epidemics could facilitate an expansion of Baltic grey seal into Kattegat-Skagerrak. Independent of interaction strength and frequency of epidemics the projected changes to abundances are slow (50-100 years), and even in exceedingly stable

  19. Variability in growth, development and reproduction of the non-native seaweed Sargassum muticum (Phaeophyceae) on the Irish west coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Julia; Stengel, Dagmar B.

    2010-12-01

    This study compared seasonal growth, development and reproduction of the invasive brown macroalga Sargassum muticum in habitats with different wave exposure on the Irish west coast. Three field sites with different degrees of wave exposure were chosen for monthly observations to reflect different habitats that were characteristic of the Irish west coast. Growth and receptacle development differed considerably between sites. Growth and receptacle development was lower at the most sheltered site. Here, S. muticum showed signs of early fragmentation in April/May during the two years of investigation (2007 and 2008), whilst the population at an exposed site developed normally and plants grew to a maximum average length of 163 cm by July, with the onset of fragmentation in August. Sargassum muticum in a tide pool exhibited a similar seasonal growth cycle as plants at the exposed open shore site. Overall growth however was stunted, with plants reaching a maximum length of only 30-40 cm in July. Receptacle development was also inhibited at the sheltered site, with a maximum of only 10% of plants found to be fertile during spring and summer 2008, while plants at the exposed site and the tide pool exhibited 100% plant fertility by August. An extensive occurrence of the native epiphyte Pylaiella littoralis on S. muticum was noticed during field sampling at the sheltered study site which may have contributed to inhibited development of S. muticum observed in this area. Seasonal biomass production, photosynthetic activity and plant/frond ratio development were contrasted between Sargassum muticum at the open shore and the tide pool. Sargassum muticum biomass production in the tide pool was 3.5 times lower than that of plants on the open shore. Receptacle development and seasonal photosynthetic activity were similar for tide pool and open shore plants, irrespective of morphological differences. Highest photosynthetic rates (fluorescence yield, Yo) were measured during active

  20. Reconstructing Fire Disturbances in Coastal Temperate Rainforests on the Central Coast of British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Kira; Smith, Dan; Lertzman, Ken; Starzomski, Brian

    2015-04-01

    The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia's Central Coast are comprised of old growth, mixed-age stands and a mosaic of non-forested bogs. This region receives approximately 4000 mm of annual rainfall, and fire disturbances caused by lightning are thought to be very rare. Because of the late successional characteristics of these forests and the presumed lack of visible fire evidence, fires have been estimated to occur at up to 6000-year return intervals. We attempt to distinguish the roles of natural and cultural (First Nations) fires using multiple lines of evidence from tree ring records, fire-scarred trees, soil charcoal and archaeological evidence from First Nations settlement areas. To reconstruct the Holocene fire history of the study area located on Hecate Island (N 51 38 W -128 05), thirty 400m2 forest mensuration plots were systematically established in a 287-hectare area burned in 1893. Analyses focused on the relationship between fire events and climate recorded in tree rings and instrumental records, as well as nutrient concentrations and pH of soils and plant community characteristics. Four fire events (1893, 1776, 1525, 1372) were recorded in forty-five living, fire-scarred western redcedar (Thuja plicata), yellow cedar (Xanthocyparis nootkatensis) and shore pine (Pinus contorta var. contorta) trees. Five additional fire events (1785 Cal BP, 2760 Cal BP, 3355 Cal BP, 4735 Cal BP, 7740 Cal BP) were dated with accelerated mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating of in situ macro charcoal (> 5mm) buried in stratigraphy in both organic and mineral soils. The short intervals between fire events, coupled with the long history of First Nations settlement and land use in the study area, suggest purposeful and repeated low-intensity ground fires. Our research demonstrates that fires are more widespread and common than previously recorded on the very wet Central Coast of British Columbia. It is important to incorporate cultural fires into fire history

  1. Stratigraphic And Lithofacies Study Of Distal Rain-Triggered Lahars: The Case Of West Coast Of Ecuador

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulas, M.; Chunga, K.; Peña Carpio, E.; Falquez Torres, D. A.; Alcivar, R., Sr.; Lopez Coronel, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    The central zone of the coast of Ecuador at the north of Manabí Province, on the area comprised between Salango and Jama communities, is characterized by the presence of whitish to grey, centimeters to meters thick, consolidated to loose distal ash deposits. Recent archeological studies on Valdivia (3500 BC) and Manteña (800-1500 AC - Harris et al. 2004) civilizations remains link this deposits with the intense eruptive phases that afflicted Ecuador 700-900 years ago (Usselman, 2006). Stratigraphic evidences and bibliographic datations of paleosols (Estrada, 1962; Mothes and Hall, 2008), allowed to estimate that these deposits are linked with the 800 BP eruption of Quilotoa and the following eruptions of Cotopaxi. According to the Smith and Lowe classification (1991), the deposits outcropping on the coast (located at a distance greater than 160 km from the volcanic vents), varied from whitish to grey, loose to weakly consolidated, massive to weakly stratified, centimeters to meters thick, coarse to fine ash matrix layers (diluite streamflow facies) to massive, large angular to sub-rounded siltitic blocks-rich and coarse to medium ash matrix deposits (debris flow facies). These types of lithofacies are associated to a rain-triggered lahar (De Belizal et al., 2013). The presence in some stratigraphic sections of sharp contacts, laminated layers of very fine ash, and also cm-thick sand and silt layers between the ash beds of the same deposits permit to understand that the different pulses were generated in short periods and after a long period. Structures like water pipes imply that the lahar went into the sea (Schneider, 2004), and allow the reconstruction of the paleotopographic condition during the emplacement of these deposits. This study focuses on the characterization of these types of deposits, permit to understand the kind of risk that may affect the towns located on the coast of Ecuador after VEI 4 to 6 eruptions on short time and within years.

  2. Reproduction in the sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Anthozoa: Pennatulacea) from the west coast of Scotland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Daniel C. B.; Moore, Colin G.

    2009-03-01

    The sea pen Funiculina quadrangularis (Pallas, 1766) is a species of conservation concern in Scottish coastal waters, due to its restricted geographical distribution and high sensitivity to demersal fishing activities. Reproduction in F. quadrangularis was investigated in a population located in southern Loch Linnhe, west Scotland. This was accomplished through the analysis of trends in oocyte size-frequency distribution and relative fecundity over a 12-month period. Funiculina quadrangularis is dioecious and the study population exhibited a sex ratio of 1:1. Oogenesis in female F. quadrangularis is characterised by the maintenance of a large pool of asynchronously developing oocytes throughout the year, of which a small proportion (12 months), it is proposed that spawning is a brief and synchronous annual event. Relative fecundity is high and is independent of colony size, varying between approximately 500-2000 oocytes per 1 cm rachial midsection. This measure of fecundity exhibited pronounced seasonality and was significantly lower during the post-spawning winter months. Total fecundity in F. quadrangularis is considered to be high; although a small proportion of the total number of oocytes is spawned annually, this is compensated for by large colony size. Funiculina quadrangularis produces large oocytes (>800 μm), indicative of the production of lecithotrophic larvae.

  3. Zoogeography of the bottom Foraminifera of the West-African coast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Mikhalevich

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The sediment samples from the continental shelf of West-Equatorial Africa (from the Strait of Gibraltar to the Niger estuary, depths ranging from 0 to 69 m were found to contain 176 bottom foraminiferal species. For the majority of them (126 species, their areas of occurrences were mapped and the peculiar features of the geographical range and distribution were studied. The species natural habitats were established based on the taxonomical revision of the species in study all over the World Ocean based on the collections of the Zoological Institute RAS and wide literary data. The method of perforated cards was used to mark the geographical locations of all of the species studied. In order to establish the species geographic zonal distribution (together with their depth habitat the five characteristic groups of the species were separated: 1. pan-oceanic (cosmopolitan, 2. widely spread tropical-boreal, 3. tropical-law boreal, 4. tropical-subtropical, 5. tropical. The percent of the species of each group among the species composition was established for the fauna of each station and for the whole region.

  4. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suneel, V., E-mail: vasimallas@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Vethamony, P., E-mail: mony@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Naik, B.G., E-mail: bgnaik@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India); Krishna, M.S., E-mail: moturi@nio.org [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre, Visakhapatnam, 530 017 (India); Jadhav, Lakshmikant, E-mail: lakshya87.0@gmail.com [CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403004 (India)

    2015-09-15

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa.

  5. Identifying the source of tar balls deposited along the beaches of Goa in 2013 and comparing with historical data collected along the West Coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition of oil residues, also known as tar balls, is a seasonal phenomenon, and it occurs only in the southwest monsoon season along the west coast of India. This has become a serious environmental issue, as Goa is a global tourist destination. The present work aims at identifying the source oil of the tar balls that consistently depositing along the Goa coast using multi-marker fingerprint technique. In this context, the tar ball samples collected in May 2013 from 9 beaches of Goa coast and crude oils from different oil fields and grounded ship were subject to multi-marker analyses such as n-alkanes, pentacyclic terpanes, regular steranes, compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) and principle component analysis (PCA). The n-alkane weathering index shows that samples have been weathered to various degrees, and the status of weathering is moderate. Since the international tanker route passes closer to the west coast of India (WCI), it is generally presumed that tanker wash is the source of the tar balls. We found that 2010/2011 tar balls are as tanker wash, but the present study demonstrates that the Bombay High (BH) oil fields can also contribute to oil contamination (tar balls) along ≈ 650 km stretch of the WCI, running from Gujarat in the north to Goa in the south. The simulated trajectories show that all the particles released in April traveled in the southeast direction, and by May, they reached the Goa coast with the influence of circulation of Indian monsoon system. - Highlights: • Multi-marker approach was effective in identifying the source of tar balls. • n-Alkane DRs show weathering effects even within the core of the tar ball. • Tar balls of the west coast of India since 2012 were derived from Bombay High crude. • Tanker-wash is not the only source of tar balls deposited on the beaches of Goa

  6. Disturbance, Climate, and Management Impacts on US West-Coast Forest Carbon Budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tara, H. M.; Beverly, L. E.; Turner, D. P.; Campbell, J. L.; Duane, M.; Donato, D.

    2008-12-01

    Forest net uptake of atmospheric CO2 (net ecosystem production, or NEP) is dependent on climate, disturbance history, management practices, forest age, and forest type. Accurate quantification of NEP and forest carbon budgets is necessary for validation of coupled carbon-climate models and monitoring state carbon budgets. To improve understanding of the influence of disturbance, climate, and management on forest carbon stocks and fluxes in the western U.S., federal inventory data and supplemental field measurements were used to estimate several important components of the carbon balance in forests in Oregon, Washington, and California from 2001-2006. Species- and ecoregion-specific allometric equations and ecoregion-specific lookup tables were used to estimate live and dead biomass stores, net primary productivity (NPP), NEP, and mortality for different age classes. Natural and anthropogenic disturbance impacts on forest carbon accumulation and NPP varied by ecoregion, forest type, and ownership. In the semi-arid East Cascades and mesic Coast Range, mean total biomass was 8 and 24 kg C m-2, and mean NPP was 0.30 and 0.78 kg C m-2 yr-1, respectively. Decrease in NPP with age was not general across ecoregions, with no marked decline in old stands (greater than 200 years) in some ecoregions. Within ecoregions, mean live and dead biomass were usually higher on public lands, primarily because of the younger age class distribution on private lands. In the absence of stand-replacing disturbance, total landscape carbon stocks could theoretically double if forests were managed for maximum carbon storage. Although the theoretical limit is probably unattainable given the timber-based economy and fire regimes in some ecoregions, there is still potential to significantly increase terrestrial carbon storage by decreasing anthropogenic disturbance through increased rotation age and reduction in harvest rates.

  7. 'Then give him to the crocodiles': violence, State formation, and cultural discontinuity in west central Zambia, 1600-2000

    OpenAIRE

    Binsbergen, van, W.M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this chapter is to explore the extent to which violence can be said to underlie any form of Stae formation in precolonial Africa. This is done by examining the role of violence in State formation in west central Zambia from the 17th century onwards. The chapter shows that State formation in west central Zambia entailed the imposition upon local village communities of a more or less centralized sociopolitical structure, representing a departure from the social organization and i...

  8. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    Recent research in the coastal regions of Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was largely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami, suggests the possibility that two closely spaced tsunamis occurred at the turn of the 14th to 15th century (Meltzner et al., 2010; Sieh et al., 2015). Here, we present evidence of two buried sand layers in the coastal marshes of West Aceh, possibly representing these penultimate predecessors of the 2004 tsunami. We discovered the sand layers in an until recently inaccessible area of a previously studied beach ridge plain about 15 km North of Meulaboh, West Aceh. Here, the 2004 tsunami left a continuous, typically a few cm thick sand sheet in the coastal hinterland in low-lying swales that accumulate organic-rich deposits and separate the sandy beach ridges. In keeping with the long-term progradation of the coastline, older deposits have to be sought after further inland. Using a hand auger, the buried sand layers were discovered in 3 cores in a flooded and highly vegetated swale in about 1 km distance to the shoreline. The pair of sand layers occurs in 70-100 cm depth and overlies 40-60 cm of dark-brown peat that rests on the basal sand of the beach ridge plain. The lower sand layer is only 1-6 cm thick, whereas the upper layer is consistently thicker, measuring 11-17 cm, with 8-14 cm of peat in between sand sheets. Both layers consist of massive, grey, medium sand and include plant fragments. They show very sharp upper and lower boundaries clearly distinguishing them from the surrounding peat and indicating an abrupt depositional event. A previously developed age model for sediments of this beach ridge plain suggest that this pair of layers could indeed correlate to a nearby buried sand sheet interpreted as tsunamigenic and deposited soon after 1290-1400AD (Monecke et al., 2008). The superb preservation at this new site allows the clear distinction of two depositional events, which, based on a first

  9. Relict benthic foraminifera in surface sediments off central east coast of India as indicator of sea level changes

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rana, S.S.; Nigam, R.; Panchang, R.

    minerals, peat beds, carbonate sands and carbonate buildups. Samples collected along central east coast of India (between 10°-15°N and 79°-81°E) during the Sagar Kanya cruise (SK-187) (Jan. 23- Feb. 17, 2003) under Fig. 1Study area map showing... the globally lowest sea level stand during the Last Glacial Maxima (LGM). Singh & Swamy 15 have compiled all the reports of relict sediments from east coast shelf and the records of low sea-level stand which includes heavy minerals enriched sands, peat...

  10. Findings in pinnipeds stranded along the central and northern California coast, 1984-1990.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, J A; Roletto, J; Morgan, L E; Smith, D M; Gage, L J

    1993-07-01

    Personnel at The Marine Mammal Center (The Center) treated 1,446 stranded marine mammals recovered from the central and northern California (USA) coast from 1984 through 1990, including California sea lions (Zalophus californianus), northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris), Pacific harbor seals (Phoca vitulina richardsi), northern fur seals (Callorhinus ursinus), Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus), and Guadalupe fur seals (Arctocephalus townsendi). The primary disease findings in stranded California sea lions were renal disease, renal disease complicated by severe verminous pneumonia, verminous pneumonia, seizures of unknown etiology, and renal disease complicated by severe pneumonia of unknown etiology. Stranded elephant seals included pups, yearlings with dermatological problems, and neonates. Most harbor seals admitted to The Center were underweight and premature pups. Stranded northern fur seals included animals with seizures of unknown etiology and emaciated pups. Stranded Steller sea lions included underweight pups and aged adult females with pneumonia. Two Guadalupe fur seals had hemorrhagic gastroenteritis. Incidental findings at the time of stranding among the six species included verminous pneumonia and pneumonia of unknown etiology, renal disease, internal parasitism, ophthalmologic problems, gastrointestinal disorders, otitis externa, and external wounds. PMID:8355344

  11. Upper mantle structure of central and West Antarctica from array analysis of Rayleigh wave phase velocities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heeszel, David S.; Wiens, Douglas A.; Anandakrishnan, Sridhar; Aster, Richard C.; Dalziel, Ian W. D.; Huerta, Audrey D.; Nyblade, Andrew A.; Wilson, Terry J.; Winberry, J. Paul

    2016-03-01

    The seismic velocity structure of Antarctica is important, both as a constraint on the tectonic history of the continent and for understanding solid Earth interactions with the ice sheet. We use Rayleigh wave array analysis methods applied to teleseismic data from recent temporary broadband seismograph deployments to image the upper mantle structure of central and West Antarctica. Phase velocity maps are determined using a two-plane wave tomography method and are inverted for shear velocity using a Monte Carlo approach to estimate three-dimensional velocity structure. Results illuminate the structural dichotomy between the East Antarctic Craton and West Antarctica, with West Antarctica showing thinner crust and slower upper mantle velocity. West Antarctica is characterized by a 70-100 km thick lithosphere, underlain by a low-velocity zone to depths of at least 200 km. The slowest anomalies are beneath Ross Island and the Marie Byrd Land dome and are interpreted as upper mantle thermal anomalies possibly due to mantle plumes. The central Transantarctic Mountains are marked by an uppermost mantle slow-velocity anomaly, suggesting that the topography is thermally supported. The presence of thin, higher-velocity lithosphere to depths of about 70 km beneath the West Antarctic Rift System limits estimates of the regionally averaged heat flow to less than 90 mW/m2. The Ellsworth-Whitmore block is underlain by mantle with velocities that are intermediate between those of the West Antarctic Rift System and the East Antarctic Craton. We interpret this province as Precambrian continental lithosphere that has been altered by Phanerozoic tectonic and magmatic activity.

  12. Food web of the intertidal rocky shore of the west Portuguese coast - Determined by stable isotope analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinagre, Catarina; Mendonça, Vanessa; Narciso, Luís; Madeira, Carolina

    2015-09-01

    The characterization of food web structure, energy pathways and trophic linkages is essential for the understanding of ecosystem functioning. Isotopic analysis was performed on food web components of the rocky intertidal ecosystem in four sites along the Portuguese west coast. The aim was to 1) determine the general food web structure, 2) estimate the trophic level of the dominant organisms and 3) track the incorporation of organic carbon of different origins in the diet of the top consumers. In this food web, fish are top consumers, followed by shrimp. Anemones and gastropods are intermediate consumers, while bivalves and zooplankton are primary consumers. Macroalgae Bifurcaria bifurcata, Ulva lactuca, Fucus vesiculosus, Codium sp. and phytoplankton are the dominant producers. Two energy pathways were identified, pelagic and benthic. Reliance on the benthic energy pathway was high for many of the consumers but not as high as previously observed in subtidal coastal food webs. The maximum TL was 3.3, which is indicative of a relatively short food web. It is argued that the diet of top consumers relies directly on low levels of the food web to a considerable extent, instead of on intermediate levels, which shortens the trophic length of the food web. PMID:26275753

  13. Environmental influences on the trawl catches in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Z. A.; Sreepada, R. A.; Dalal, S. G.; Ingole, B. S.; Chatterji, A.

    2003-03-01

    The degree of relationship between trawl catch and environmental variables was assessed in a bay-estuarine system of Goa, west coast of India using multivariate techniques. The demersal fish assemblage was dominated by the families, Leiognathidae, Sciaenidae, Clupeidae, Cynoglossidae and Stromateidae and were considered to be typical for the Indo-Pacific. Patterns in community-structure were analyzed by principal component analysis (PCA) which identified five major species-groups that explained 66% of the variation in absolute fish biomass. PCA was also performed using 13 environmental variables to reduce data set variability to four components which accounted for 75% of environmental variation. The model that best explained variation in absolute biomass based on maximum R2 (adjusted) and minimum Mallows' C p statistic was 71% and included six variables such as dissolved oxygen, macrobenthic density, sediment pH, photosynthetic pigment (Chl a), particulate organic carbon (POC) and seston. The regression coefficients were significant ( Pdeveloped model. Path analysis was used to construct a hypothetical causal path diagram to depict the interaction between fish biomass and environmental variables. The study demonstrated the most important variables with regard to environmental-biotic interactions, although the measured variables did not account for all the variation in trawl catches. Further studies elucidating ecologically meaningful relationships should be helpful in bay-estuarine fisheries management.

  14. Influence of soil properties on 137Cs and 90Sr sorption in the environment of west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed studies on distribution of 137Cs and 90Sr in the environs of South West Coast of India were carried out. The study was primarily aimed at finding the reason for the observed higher concentration of 137Cs in Kaiga region and also to establish the baseline data on 137Cs and 90Sr concentrations in the soil of Coastal Karnataka and Goa regions. The influence of soil pH, density, silt, clay, sand and organic matter contents on the retention of these radionuclides in the surface soil (0-5 cm) were studied. The 137Cs inventory was found to vary in the range -2 with a mean value of 1104 Bq m-2 and that of 90Sr varied in the range -2 with a mean value of 88.1 Bq m-2 in the region. The observed higher 137Cs concentration is traced to heavy rainfall and higher organic matter content and lower pH of the soil. (author)

  15. Long-range transport of Siberian forest fire smoke to Canada's west coast identified by Lidar observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strawbridge, Kevin; Cottle, Paul; McKendry, Ian

    2014-05-01

    During the summer of 2012, forest fire smoke wasdetected by two CORALNet lidar systems operated by Environment Canada along Canada's west coast. Based on satellite, model and back trajectory analysis it is thought the smoke originated in Boreal Asia as a result of unusually large amounts of Siberian wildfire activity. The CORALNet lidar systems operate autonomously, measuring the vertical profile of aerosols from near ground to 18 km at a vertical resolution of 3 m and 7.5 m and a temporal resolution of 10 s and 60 s at 1064 nm and 532 nm wavelengths respectively. The lidar also measures the depolarization ratio at 532 nm: and indicator of particle shape. The lidars, located at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver and in the village of Whistler, British Columbia observed an increase in the aerosol backscatter ratio in the free troposphere as the Siberian forest fire smoke was transported across the Pacific Ocean into the region. Of particular importance was the increase in ground level particulate due to the mixing of the smoke into the boundary layer, impacting the air quality in southwestern British Columbia. Lidar depolarization ratios in the boundary layer and the free troposphere were consistent with high concentrations of smoke. Detailed lidar observations will be presented along with supporting satellite, model and ground observations revealing the magnitude of the impact on the region.

  16. Quantity and Quality of Groundwater in Fractured Meta sedimentary Rocks of the West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groundwater in fractured meta sedimentary rock in Malaysia is a potential source of water for drinking and industrial uses. Industries including agricultural processing, mineral water bottling, manufacturing and golf courses pumped the water from the underlying fractured rocks. Fifty eight tube wells belong to private companies operating in various places in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were evaluated for their yield and quality of water. Rotary percussion methods were used for the drilling to a maximum depth of 200 m. The productivity of the wells and the characteristics of the aquifer were evaluated by pumping test using both the constant discharge rate and steps drawdown methods. The average yield of the wells at allowable drawdown of 40 m was found to be 416 m3 per day. Results from water quality analysis indicated that the water was fresh with an average total dissolved solids (TDS) concentration of 101 to 150 mg/ L. The hardness of the water varies from as low as 13 mg/ L to a maximum of 353 mg/ L. On the average, the water was moderately hard with the average hardness value of 80 mg/ L. The water facies of the groundwater was found to be of calcium-sodium-bicarbonate water. (author)

  17. An Exploratory Research of the Usage Level of E-Commerce Among SMEs in the West Coast of Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jetol Bolongkikit

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have indicated that e-commerce development offers apromising way for business to meet the challenges of the ever-changingenvironment. It provides effective and efficient ways, such as buyerscan gather information rapidly about the availability of the productsor services, evaluate, or negotiate with vendors. However, previousstudies on Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs in Malaysia have shownthat the application of e-commerce is still at its infancy. Thus, thisstudy investigates the usage level of e-commerce application for theSMEs in West Coast of Sabah, Malaysia. This achieved by circulating aset of questionnaire to examine the awareness and adoption ofe-commerce application by the SMEs, and recognize the impeding factorsto adopt e-commerce and the perception of e-commerce benefits towardsincorporating e-commerce in their business. The study found that theawareness and adoption level among the SMEs are still in its infancy,although the potential benefits were perceived to be important.

  18. Forensic investigation of aliphatic hydrocarbons in the sediments from selected mangrove ecosystems in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaezzadeh, Vahab; Zakaria, Mohamad Pauzi; Shau-Hwai, Aileen Tan; Ibrahim, Zelina Zaiton; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Abootalebi-Jahromi, Fatemeh; Masood, Najat; Magam, Sami Mohsen; Alkhadher, Sadeq Abdullah Abdo

    2015-11-15

    Peninsular Malaysia has gone through fast development during recent decades resulting in the release of large amounts of petroleum and its products into the environment. Aliphatic hydrocarbons are one of the major components of petroleum. Surface sediment samples were collected from five rivers along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and analyzed for aliphatic hydrocarbons. The total concentrations of C10 to C36 n-alkanes ranged from 27,945 to 254,463ng·g(-1)dry weight (dw). Evaluation of various n-alkane indices such as carbon preference index (CPI; 0.35 to 3.10) and average chain length (ACL; 26.74 to 29.23) of C25 to C33 n-alkanes indicated a predominance of petrogenic source n-alkanes in the lower parts of the Rivers, while biogenic origin n-alkanes from vascular plants are more predominant in the upper parts, especially in less polluted areas. Petrogenic sources of n-alkanes are predominantly heavy and degraded oil versus fresh oil inputs. PMID:26323864

  19. Tsunami vulnerability assessment mapping for the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia using a geographical information system (GIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The catastrophic Indian Ocean tsunami of 26 December 2004 raised a number of questions for scientist and politicians on how to deal with the tsunami risk and assessment in coastal regions. This paper discusses the challenges in tsunami vulnerability assessment and presents the result of tsunami disaster mapping and vulnerability assessment study for West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The spatial analysis was carried out using Geographical Information System (GIS) technology to demarcate spatially the tsunami affected village's boundary and suitable disaster management program can be quickly and easily developed. In combination with other thematic maps such as road maps, rail maps, school maps, and topographic map sheets it was possible to plan the accessibility and shelter to the affected people. The tsunami vulnerability map was used to identify the vulnerability of villages/village population to tsunami. In the tsunami vulnerability map, the intensity of the tsunami was classified as hazard zones based on the inundation level in meter (contour). The approach produced a tsunami vulnerability assessment map consists of considering scenarios of plausible extreme, tsunami-generating events, computing the tsunami inundation levels caused by different events and scenarios and estimating the possible range of casualties for computing inundation levels. The study provides an interactive means to identify the tsunami affected areas after the disaster and mapping the tsunami vulnerable village before for planning purpose were the essential exercises for managing future disasters

  20. Community structure and seasonal variation of an inshore demersal fish community at Goa, West Coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, Z. A.; Chatterji, A.; Ingole, B. S.; Sreepada, R. A.; Rivonkar, C. U.; Parulekar, A. H.

    1995-11-01

    Structure and seasonal variation of an inshore demersal fish assemblage have been described from 52 trawl samples collected between November 1988-November 1989 from Aguada and Marmugao Bays at Goa (west coast of India). A total of 12 519 individuals belonging to 59 species were collected. There was a clear seasonal fluctuation in relative abundance, biomass, species occurrence and species dominance. Families such as Sciaenidae, Leiognathidae, Cynoglossidae, Clupeidae and Ariidae dominated the demersal fish community, both in abundance and in biomass over the two areas. About 50% of the recorded species regularly occurred in the two areas. Density and biomass were high during post- and pre-monsoon seasons and low during the monsoon seasons. The species assemblages at the two sites were similar and showed much overlap of dominant species. Resident and quasi-resident species were dominant throughout the year and the overall population consisted mainly of marine coastal species. Cluster analysis showed species segregation into seasonal groups and intense association among different species groups. There was seasonal fluctuation in diversity indices and a marginal increase in species richness in Aguada bay was noticed. The dominance of juveniles in the catches indicate that the two areas serve as nursery grounds for the juveniles of several commercially important marine teleosts.

  1. Atmospheric pollutants and their influence on acidification of rain water at an industrial location on the West Coast OF India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemani, L. T.; Momin, G. A.; Rao, P. S. P.; Pillai, A. G.; Safai, P. D.; Mohan, K.; Rao, M. G.

    The chemical analysis of rain water samples at 11 locations along with measurements of atmospheric aerosols and their size distributions were made to study the influence of pollutants on acidification of rain water during the monsoon season of 1990 at Chembur-Trombay area, a highly industrialized belt in Bombay region located on the west coast of India. The concentrations of acid precursor gases, namely, SO 2 and NO, emanating from industries were low and their influence on acidification was limited to a few kilometer radius of their sources. Whereas, the deposition of ionic components (Na +, K +, Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and CI -) whose sources are natural (sea and soil) were uniformly distributed throughout the region as compared to those released from man-made sources. The high concentration of alkaline components, especially Ca 2+ from natural sources and NH 3 released from a fertilizer plant, were responsible for neutralising H + ion concentration generated from the acidic components (SO 42- and N0 3-). The variation from acidic (1970s) to alkaline (1990s) nature of rainwater in the area maybe due to the change in the use of fuel from coal to natural gas, which contains less sulphur and also, the pollution control measures taken by the industries.

  2. Long-term forest dynamics in high-altitude mountains of West-Central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Figueroa Rangel, Blanca.; Professor Katherine J. Willis

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of a study to examine long-term forest dynamics in the high-altitude mountains of West-Central Mexico. Vegetation dynamics on temporal scales ranging from 102 to 103 years were reconstructed in order to provide essential information on the temporal variability of ecological patterns and processes in these forests; information that is of direct relevance for their current and future conservation and management strategies. Vegetation and palae...

  3. Legume Diversity Patterns in West Central Africa: Influence of Species Biology on Distribution Models

    OpenAIRE

    Manuel de la Estrella; Mateo, Rubén G.; Wieringa, Jan J.; Barbara Mackinder; Jesús Muñoz

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Species Distribution Models (SDMs) are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of sp...

  4. Winter Movements and Use of Warm-water Refugia by Radio-tagged West Indian Manatees Along the Atlantic Coast of the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Deutsch, Charles J.

    2000-01-01

    The West Indian manatee's metabolic physiology constrains it to subtropical and tropical regions. In waters of the United States, a manatee's ability to find reliable warm-water refugia during winter cold periods is critical to its survival. This report documents how radio-tagged manatees used a network of 14 industrial and 3 "natural" warm-water sites along the east coast of Florida and Georgia duringwinter. Most industrial sites were powerplant discharges but also included pu...

  5. Isolation and characterization of a nodavirus associated with mass mortality in Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) from the west coast of India

    OpenAIRE

    Banerjee, Debashis; Hamod, Mohammed A.; Suresh, Thangavel; Karunasagar, Indrani

    2014-01-01

    A fish nodavirus was detected in the juveniles of Asian seabass (Lates calcarifer) during a massive outbreak in the seabass cage culture farm located in the south west coast of India. The clinical signs of the disease included anorexia, inflated abdomen, exophthalmia, darkening of the whole body, erratic swimming and cork-screw type movement followed by death. The dead and the moribund fish were analyzed for nodavirus by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using specific ...

  6. Temporal changes in some Rajiformes species of cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) from the west coast of İskenderun Bay (northeastern Mediterranean)

    OpenAIRE

    Yeldan, Hacer; Avşar, Dursun; Mavruk, Sinan; MANAŞIRLI, Meltem

    2013-01-01

    Some Rajiformes species among the cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes) that are distributed on the west coast of the Gulf of İskenderun were seasonally obtained by bottom trawling from 2 different depth layers between the years 2004 and 2011. The spatiotemporal changes in catch per unit effort (CPUE) values were investigated by considering 2 depth contours (10 and 20 m). Six species belonging to 6 different Rajiformes families were identified during the sampling period, including Dasyatis past...

  7. Textural studies of beach sediments from Sadashivagad and Karwar, Central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mislankar, P.G.; Antao, F.B.

    . Frequency distribution curves for both the beach sediments differ in their modal class showing unimodal to weakly bimodal trend for the Sadashivagad and strongly bimodal to unimodal trend for the Karwar beach sediments. The plots of mean grain size vs...

  8. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pratima M Kessarkar; V Purnachandra Rao; R Shynu; Ishfaq Mir Ahmad; Prakash Mehra; G S Michael; D Sundar

    2009-08-01

    Systematic studies on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured on a seasonal cycle in the Mandovi Estuary, Goa indicate that the average concentrations of SPM at the regular station are ∼20mg/l, 5mg/l, 19mg/l and 5mg/l for June–September, October–January, February–April and May, respectively. SPM exhibits low-to-moderate correlation with rainfall indicating that SPM is also influenced by other processes. Transect stations reveal that the SPM at sea-end stations of the estuary are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those at the river-end during the monsoon. Estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) of nearly similar magnitude occurs at the same location in two periods, interrupted by a period with very low SPM concentrations. The ETM occurring in June–September is associated with low salinities; its formation is attributed to the interactions between strong southwesterly winds (5.1–5.6ms−1) and wind-induced waves and tidal currents and, dominant easterly river flow at the mouth of the estuary. The ETM occurring in February–April is associated with high salinity and is conspicuous. The strong NW and SW winds (3.2–3.7ms−1) and wind-driven waves and currents seem to have acted effectively at the mouth of the estuary in developing turbidity maximum. The impact of sea breeze appears nearly same as that of trade winds and cannot be underestimated in sediment resuspension and deposition.

  9. Isotopic studies of beach rock carbonates from Konkan, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kumar, B.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Gujar, A.R.

    .7% (PDB) and delta sup(18)O signatures lie in a narrow range of +27.5 to +28.6% (SMOW), respectively. Isotopic data obtained in this study show that cementation of beach rock carbonates might have taken place in a shallow vadose zone. The large variations...

  10. Wind-driven estuarine turbidity maxima in Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessarkar, Pratima M.; Purnachandra Rao, V.; Shynu, R.; Ahmad, Ishfaq Mir; Mehra, Prakash; Michael, G. S.; Sundar, D.

    2009-08-01

    Systematic studies on the suspended particulate matter (SPM) measured on a seasonal cycle in the Mandovi Estuary, Goa indicate that the average concentrations of SPM at the regular station are ˜20mg/l, 5mg/l, 19mg/l and 5mg/l for June-September, October-January, February-April and May, respectively. SPM exhibits low-to-moderate correlation with rainfall indicating that SPM is also influenced by other processes. Transect stations reveal that the SPM at sea-end stations of the estuary are at least two orders of magnitude greater than those at the river-end during the monsoon. Estuarine turbidity maximum (ETM) of nearly similar magnitude occurs at the same location in two periods, interrupted by a period with very low SPM concentrations. The ETM occurring in June-September is associated with low salinities; its formation is attributed to the interactions between strong southwesterly winds (5.1-5.6ms-1) and wind-induced waves and tidal currents and, dominant easterly river flow at the mouth of the estuary. The ETM occurring in February-April is associated with high salinity and is conspicuous. The strong NW and SW winds (3.2-3.7ms-1) and wind-driven waves and currents seem to have acted effectively at the mouth of the estuary in developing turbidity maximum. The impact of sea breeze appears nearly same as that of trade winds and cannot be underestimated in sediment resuspension and deposition

  11. The nature and distribution of particulate matter in the Mandovi Estuary, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Kessarkar, P.M.; Rao, V.P.; Shynu, R.; Mehra, P.; Viegas, B.E.

    and biogenic particles occur everywhere in the estuary. Diatoms are the most common and are of marine type at the sea-end and freshwater dominated at river-end stations of the estuary. SPM is characterized by kaolinite- and smectite-rich clay mineral suites...

  12. Onshore heavy mineral placers of south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.

    environment. Heavy mineral percentage ranges upto 98.37% (average 26.96%). Heavy mineral composition consists of opaques, pyroxenes, amphiboles, rutile, tourmaline, kyanite, zircon, staurolite, titanite, olivine garnet, epidote, sillimanite etc., the light...

  13. Ilmenite, magnetite and chromite beach placers from south Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Ambre, N.V.; Mislankar, P.G.; Iyer, S.D.

    , staurolite, sillimanite, kyanite etc. are reported from beaches as well as nearshore areas along the Indian coastline (Siddiquie et al., 1982, Rajamanickam, 1983; Gujar et al., 1988; Wagle et al., 1989; Gujar, 1995; Gujar et al., 2004; Angusamy et al., 2005... Basalt Ilmenite, Magnetite, Titano-magnetite, Olivine, Augite Gujar (1996) Proterozoic Kaladgi Group Sandstones Tourmaline, Zircon, Rutile, Staurolite, Kyanite, Sillimanite, Epidote, Garnet, Ilmenite, Magnetite Pyrite Sarkar and Soman (1984...

  14. Gas-charged sediments in shallow waters off Redi along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    -estuarine conditions. These gas-charged sediments pose a potintial hazard for the offshore engineering constructions. Hence, the detection of these sediments forms an essential part of any offshroe site investiation programmes....

  15. Barnacle larval transport in the Mandovi–Zuari estuarine system, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    George, G.; Desai, D.V.; Gaonkar, C.A.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Vethamony, P.; Anil, A.C.

    2 is about 55 cm, which is three times higher than the S2 (Principal solar semidiurnal constituent). The dominant diurnal constituents are K1 (Luni-solar declinational) and O1 (Lunar declinational) (Manoj et al. 2009). Tidal elevations at Karwar... data measured at 43.5 m height were reduced to 10 m height using the power law- a method for extrapolating the wind speeds between two heights (Peterson and Hennessey 1978). Winds are assumed to be uniform over the whole domain. As winds such as NCEP...

  16. Contribution from coastal laterites to the nearshore placers of central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Srinivas, K.

    and basalts. The pebbles show genetic relation with the coastal laterites and Deccan trap basalts indicating their derivation from them before the last Holocene transgression. The petrography, mineralogical and geochemical analyses suggest that the minerals...

  17. A note on the ancient mangroves of Goa, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A; Chauhan, O.S.

    marine conditions which were conducive for plant growth. The area appeared to have been colonized by mangrove populations as evidenced by wood fragments and a reddish brown tree stump encrusted with wood borers. Considering the utility of in situ mangrove...

  18. Coastal circulation along the central west coast of India during cyclone Phyan: measurements and numerical simulations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VinodKumar, K.; Aboobacker, V.M.; Saheed, P.P.; Vethamony, P.

    Recording Current Meters (RCM 9 LW) (AADI, 2006). The RCM 9 LW has an accuracy of ± 0.15 cm/s for current speed and upto ±7.5º for direction. The current speed and direction have been converted into u (zonal) and v (meridional) velocity vectors... interest in this study, and the project participants for their involvement in data collection. This is NIO contribution No. xxxx. References AADI (2006) Recording Current Meter RCM 9 LW. User Manual Andersen OB (1994) Global Ocean tides in the Northern...

  19. Sea breeze-induced wind sea growth in the central west coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Aboobacker, V.M.; Seemanth, M.; Samiksha, S.V.; Sudheesh, K.; Kerkar, J.; Vethamony, P.

    study (Rashmi et al., 2013). The peak frequency (fx), of steepness parameter (ratio between wave height and wavelength) of each frequency is calculated to estimate the separation frequency (fs), fs = Cfx, where C = 0.75 is an empirically determined.... Aboobacker,V.M., Vethamony,P., Sudheesh,K., Rupali, S.P., 2009. Spectral characteristics of the nearshore waves off Paradip, India during monsoon and extreme events. Nat. Hazards 49: 311-323. Aboobacker V. M., R. Rashmi, P. Vethamony and H. B. Menon, 2011...

  20. Karyotype details of Crassostrea gryphoides (Rivalvia: Ostreidae) from central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Goswami, U.

    stream_size 4 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Chromosome_Inf_Ser_50_7.pdf.txt stream_source_info Chromosome_Inf_Ser_50_7.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  1. Morphogenetic controls on the distribution of the littoral placers along central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.

    area also has irregular narrow coastline. The drainage is shallow thereby causing decreasing erosion resulting in low sediment input. In view of the above it is envisaged that the morphogenetic control exists over the placer distribution in the littoral...

  2. Biofoulers on aluminium and stainless steel panels at Vijaydurg harbour, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Srinivas, D; Sawant, S.S.; Wagh, A.B.

    stream_size 3 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name I_J_Mar_Sci_21_143.pdf.txt stream_source_info I_J_Mar_Sci_21_143.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  3. Surficial geology off Karwar, central west coast of India: Its implications for offshore developmental activities

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.; Ramana, M.V.; Pathak, M.C.; Chauhan, O.S

    stream_size 10 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name INCHOE_Proc_1994_1_D63.pdf.txt stream_source_info INCHOE_Proc_1994_1_D63.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  4. Shallow seismic studies on the inner continental shelf off selected bays, Central West coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Gujar, A.R; Rajamanickam, G.V.

    33 _o--o ........ -°-----~----o---~--~---:°_" '"~'T" ~'.~.-~ .z,- . ~ ~,~ ,/ ~.,~r~ ~ ::\\[ L L L L L ,~.,~ ~ ,~ .~ - _ "~a~.~ :I. ~ " ~'~ .:./BR ".~..~. =~ ::( L L L L L L L L L LLLL MIRYA BAY z'}'a~i, ,,%, ~-7, aoz Azo ,

  5. Surfzone wave characteristics during flood tide on the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    JayaKumar, S.; Jishad, M.; Yadhunath, E.M.; Rajasekaran, C.; Gowthaman, R.; Pednekar, P.S.; Luis, R.; Mehra, P.

    -89. Elfrink, B. and Baldock, T.E., 2002. Hydrodynamics and sediment transport in swash zone: A review. Coastal Engineering, 45: 149-167. Fredsøe, J. and Deigaard, R., 1992. Mechanics of coastal sediment transport. Advanced series on ocean engineering.... Wave transformation in the nearshore zone: A review. Coastal Engineering, 21(1-3): 5-39. Janssen, T.T., Battjes, J.A. and Van Dongeren, A.R., 2003. Observations of long waves induced by short wave groups. Journal of Geophysical Research, 108: 3252...

  6. Nematode species diversity as indicator of stressed benthic environment along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nanajkar, M.R.; Ingole, B.S.

    ) and ORV Sagar-Kanya (cruise no.SK-211). Stations were also selected from the disturbed harbour regions for analyzing the community difference in nematodes. Decreased diversity indices from the harbour stations signify the impact of harbour activities...

  7. A comparative study of macrobenthic community from harbours along the central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ingole, B.S.; Sivadas, S.; Nanajkar, M.; Sautya, S.; Nag, A.

    , such as amphipods, mysids, and surface deposit feeders (SDF) polychaetes, than on subsurface deposit feeders (SSDF) (Hines et al. 1990; Franz & Tanacredi, 1992). Demersal fish constitutes the major portion of the commercial fish landing (particularly the prawns... harbour of Montevideo, Uruguay. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 44, 554– 565. 11. Dauvin, J.C. & Ruellet, T. (2007). Polychaete/amphipod ratio revisited. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 55(1-6), 215-224. 12. Franz, D.R. & Tanacredi, J.T. (1999). Secondary...

  8. Distribution of benthic foraminifera within oxygen minima zone, off central west coast, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mazumder, A.; Henriques, P.J.; Nigam, R.

    A total of 128 surface sediment samples (76 grab and 52 core top samples) were analyzed for benthic foraminiferal contents from the region off Goa, India in the eastern Arabian Sea upto a water depth of 3300 m. 195 species of benthic foraminifera...

  9. Geochemistry of surficial sediments along the central southwest coast of India - Seasonal changes in regional distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Das, V.K.; Sheeba, P.

    stream_size 68414 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_19_664.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_19_664.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 ...... ./' / Journal...

  10. Mineral Composition of the Cockle (Anadara granosa Shells of West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia and It?s Potential as Biomaterial for Use in Bone Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noordin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to determine the composition of mineral content of cockle (Anadara granosa shells from 3 major cockle cultivation of West Coast of Malaysia. Three samples of cockle shells from three different sources were evaluated to determine the content of 12 macro-and micro-elements (Calcium (Ca, Carbon (C, Magnesium (Mg, Sodium (Na, Phosphorus (P, Potassium (K, Ferum (Fe, Copper (Cu, Nickel ( Ni, Zink (Zn, Boron and Silica (Si. For convenience and ease of reference, Ca and C were combine into one unit (Calcium Carbonate, CaC while Mg, Na, P and K was evaluated individually and Fe, Cu, Ni, Zn, B and Si were evaluated as one group (others. Analysis of elements content was done using inductively Coupled plasma, Auto Analyzer, an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer and Carbon Analyzer. Results in this study revealed that the mineral compositions of cockle shells from 3 different sources in West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia were consistence almost in all the samples. The percentage of CaC comprises of more than 98.7% of the total minerals content of the cockle shells of the 3 sources. About 1.3 % of the composition are comprises of Mg, Na, P, K and others (Fe, Cu, Ni, B, Zn and Si.Overall, the minerals composition of cockle shells of West Coast of Peninsular Malaysia are as followed: CaC 98.7 %, Mg 0.05%, Na 0.9%, p 0.02 and others 0.2%.

  11. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Conte

    Full Text Available West Nile virus (WNV is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel.

  12. Spatio-Temporal Identification of Areas Suitable for West Nile Disease in the Mediterranean Basin and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Annamaria; Candeloro, Luca; Ippoliti, Carla; Monaco, Federica; De Massis, Fabrizio; Bruno, Rossana; Di Sabatino, Daria; Danzetta, Maria Luisa; Benjelloun, Abdennasser; Belkadi, Bouchra; El Harrak, Mehdi; Declich, Silvia; Rizzo, Caterina; Hammami, Salah; Ben Hassine, Thameur; Calistri, Paolo; Savini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-transmitted Flavivirus belonging to the Japanese encephalitis antigenic complex of the Flaviviridae family. Its spread in the Mediterranean basin and the Balkans poses a significant risk to human health and forces public health officials to constantly monitor the virus transmission to ensure prompt application of preventive measures. In this context, predictive tools indicating the areas and periods at major risk of WNV transmission are of paramount importance. Spatial analysis approaches, which use environmental and climatic variables to find suitable habitats for WNV spread, can enhance predictive techniques. Using the Mahalanobis Distance statistic, areas ecologically most suitable for sustaining WNV transmission were identified in the Mediterranean basin and Central Europe. About 270 human and equine clinical cases notified in Italy, Greece, Portugal, Morocco, and Tunisia, between 2008 and 2012, have been considered. The environmental variables included in the model were altitude, slope, night time Land Surface Temperature, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Enhanced Vegetation Index, and daily temperature range. Seasonality of mosquito population has been modelled and included in the analyses to produce monthly maps of suitable areas for West Nile Disease. Between May and July, the most suitable areas are located in Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and North Cyprus. Summer/Autumn months, particularly between August and October, characterize the suitability in Italy, France, Spain, the Balkan countries, Morocco, North Tunisia, the Mediterranean coast of Africa, and the Middle East. The persistence of suitable conditions in December is confined to the coastal areas of Morocco, Tunisia, Libya, Egypt, and Israel. PMID:26717483

  13. Tidal Current Energy Resources off the South and West Coasts of Korea: Preliminary Observation-Derived Estimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woo-Jin Jeong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study we estimate the prospective tidal current energy resources off the south and west coasts of Korea and explore the influence of modeling tidal current energies based on 15-day versus month-long data records for regimes with pronounced perigean/apogean influences. The tidal current energy resources off southern and western Korea were calculated using 29-day in situ observation data from 264 stations. The resultant annual energy densities found at each station were categorized into six groups, with a greater percentage of sites falling into the lower-energy groups: 1.1% for >10 MWh·m−2; 2.7% for 5 to 10 MWh·m−2; 6.8% for 3 to 5 MWh·m−2; 9.1% for 2 to 3 MWh·m−2 and 80.3% for <2 MWh·m−2. Analysis shows that the greatest concentration of high annual energy densities occurs in the Jeonnam Province coastal region on the western tip of southwest Korea: 23 MWh·m−2 at Uldolmok, 15 MWh·m−2 at Maenggol Sudo, 9.2 MWh·m−2 at Geocha Sudo and 8.8 MWh·m−2 at Jaingjuk Sudo. The second highest annual energy density concentration, with 16 MWh·m−2, was found in Gyudong Suro, in Gyeonggi Province’s Gyeonggi Bay. We then used data from the 264 stations to examine the effect of perigean and apogean influences on tidal current energy density evaluations. Compared to derivations using month-long records, mean annual energy densities derived using 15-day perigean spring-neap current records alone overestimate the annual mean energy by around 10% whereas those derived using only the apogean records underestimate energy by around 12%. In particular, accuracy of the S2 contribution to the energy density calculations is significantly affected by use of the 15-day data sets, compared to the M2 component, which is relatively consistent. Further, annual energy density estimates derived from 29-day records but excluding the N2 constituent underestimate the potential resource by about 5.4%. Results indicate that one month of data is

  14. 渤海湾西岸的几道贝壳堤%A Few of Barrier Sand-bars on the West Coast of Bohai Bay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳军; Dongyue; 张宝华; 耿秀山; 刘雪松; 赵希涛; 牟林; 张百鸣; 韩芳

    2012-01-01

    There are 6 Barrier Sand-bars are outcropped or buried on the west coast of Bohai Bay. Based on the geological survey, it is found that the plane distribution features texture of the Barrier Sand-bars, which are from the old to the new are roughly parallel with the coast along the west coast of Bohai Bay (from the coast to the sea). The distribution of the Barrier Sand-bars can be divided into two kinds, one is from the new to the old, and the other one is from the old to the new. In this paper, the division of the Barrier Sand-bars from I (old) to VI (new) by using the latter one. Through the description of the material composition and the accumulation characteristics to each barrier sand-bar (figure. 2 to figure. 7) , conducting the mathematical statistics for the geometrical morphological features (table 2), comparing analysis the formation age features and the division scheme (table 3), summing up the biological assemblages (table 1), the result reveal the occurrence, formation age and the tidal level change of the Barrier Sand-bars from I to VI (figure. 8). In the basis of the Barrier Sand-bars as a particular geological carrier, the author try to analysis and reveal the genetic mechanism in a macroscopic view, and consider that the generalized Bohai Sea is inland semi-lagoon or local sea in reality, (table. 4 figure. 9) Shangdong Miaodao Island and Liaodong Peninsula constitute barrier coast for Bohai Sea. After comparing analysis to massive data, the barrier coast is an only essential condition to form kebohe delta and beaked delta, both of which may be a possibility condition to form barrier bars (barrier island, barrier beach) or shell ridges. This result is just main genetic mechanism for the shell ridges.

  15. Variability of Water Chemistry in Tundra Lakes, Petuniabukta Coast, Central Spitsbergen, Svalbard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Samples of water from small tundra lakes located on raised marine terraces on the eastern coast of Petuniabukta (Ebbadalen, Central Spitsbergen were examined to assess the changes in water chemistry that had occurred during the summer seasons of 2001–2003 and 2006. The unique environmental conditions of the study region include the predominance of sedimentary carbonate and sulphate rocks, low precipitation values, and an active permafrost layer with a maximum thickness of 1.2 m. The average specific electric conductivity (EC values for the three summer seasons in the four lakes ranged from 242 to 398 μS cm−1. The highest EC values were observed when the air temperature decreased and an ice cover formed (cryochemical effects. The ion composition was dominated by calcium (50.7 to 86.6%, bicarbonates (39.5 to 86.4%, and sulphate anions. The high concentrations of HCO3−, SO42−, and Ca2+ ions were attributed to the composition of the bedrock, which mainly consists of gypsum and anhydrite. The average proportion of marine components in the total load found in the Ebbadalen tundra lake waters was estimated to be 8.1%. Precipitation supplies sulphates (as much as 69–81% and chlorides (14–36% of nonsea origin. The chief source of these compounds may be contamination from the town of Longyearbyen. Most ions originate in the crust, the active layer of permafrost, but some are atmospheric in origin and are either transported or generated in biochemical processes. The concentrations of most components tend to increase during the summer months, reaching a maximum during freezing and partially precipitating onto the bottom sediments.

  16. Distribution of Recent Benthic Foraminifera and its Environmental Conditions of Karaikal, Central Coast of Tamil Nadu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murugan, R.; Gandhi, S.

    2013-05-01

    Foraminifera have been successful inhabitants of every aquatic environment from deep oceans to brackish water lagoons, estuaries and even rarely in freshwater streams, lakes etc. offshore region of Karaikal the present study has been taken up to enhance the existing knowledge on foraminifera of central coast of Tamil Nadu, India. Totally 21 sediment and water samples were collected from the offshore region. The depth of sample collection in offshore area ranges from 1.5 m to 12 m. Standard procedures adopted for the evaluation of different environmental parameters are incorporated. A total of 33 foraminiferal taxa belonging to 17 genera, 12 subfamilies, 14 superfamilies, and 4 suborders have been identified. In Karaikal , the mean size of the sediments on the foreshore ranges from 1.51 to 2.95 φ indicating the predominance of fine sediments (80-85%) with an admixture of medium-grained sands. Calcium carbonate content is generally found to be directly proportional to the population size in both the estuary and shelf area. It clearly indicates that due to the erosional activities whatever sediments deposited near the Arasalar river in that region are transported to the marine region and were drifted towards northern direction by longshore current, hence the deposition of carbonate in the sediments shows negative correlation. Due to strong high energy environment the current action is more in this region the juvinile forms of A. beccarri, A.tepida, A. dendata, E. crispum, P. calar, and P. nipponica only withstand and the other species are absent. The Correlation between Living vs Dead, Dead Vs Calcium carbonate, Salinity Vs living, Organic matter Vs Living, Organic matter Vs Carbonate content shows positive correlation for all the samples like LT, HT, Beach, River, and Offshore. Even though, all the ecological parameters having good correlation with foraminifera, but the distribution are very less in the study area. M.RAJA Dept.of.Geology University of Madras Chennai

  17. Distribution and Apparent Abundance of the Basking Shark, Cetorhinus maximus, off the Central and Southern California Coast, 1962-85

    OpenAIRE

    Squire, Jr. , James L.

    1990-01-01

    Basking sharks, Cetorhinus maximus, are frequently observed along the central and northwestern southern California coast during the winter and spring months. These large plankton feeding elasmobranchs, second in size only to the whale shark, Rhineodon typus, had been the subject of a small commercial fishery off California in the late 1940's and early 1950's for their liver oil, rich in vitamin A, and in later years for reduction into fish meal and oil (Roedel and Ripley, 1950). These fisher...

  18. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from NOAA environmental moored buoys in the Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes. East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 June 2001 to 30 June 2001 (NODC Accession 0000530)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected from NOAA...

  19. Environmental contaminants, species identifiers and characteristics, and other variables from the east and west US coasts for the National Status and Trends Program (NSTP) from 19840101 to 19880405 (NODC Accession 8900125)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This collection contains 1986-1989 Mussel Watch Data collected under National Status and Trends Program. The samples were collected along the east, west, gulf coast...

  20. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from buoy casts in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 October 2000 to 31 October 2000 (NODC Accession 0000348)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in Gulf of Mexico, East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, and Great Lakes from October 1, 2000...

  1. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 November 1999 to 30 November 1999 (NODC Accession 0000120)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  2. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from buoys in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 July 2000 to 31 July 2000 (NODC Accession 0000249)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind Wave spectra and other data were collected at fixed platforms in the East/West Coast US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from July 1, 2000...

  3. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 February 2000 to 29 February 2000 (NODC Accession 0000140)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  4. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 December 2000 to 30 December 2000 (NODC Accession 0000128)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  5. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 October 2001 to 31 October 2001 (NODC Accession 0000682)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  6. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 February 2001 to 28 February 2001 (NODC Accession 0000415)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  7. Wind Wave Spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes from 01 March 2001 to 31 March 2001 (NODC Accession 0000437)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were collected...

  8. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 April 2001 to 30 April 2001 (NODC Accession 0000460)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, Great Lakes and other locations. Data were...

  9. Wind Wave Spectra and other data from moored buoys in the East/West Coast of US, South Pacific, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 August 2000 to 31 August 2000 (NODC Accession 0000282)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind Wave Spectra and other data were collected at the fixed platforms in the Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific Ocean, East/West Coast of US, and Great Lakes from...

  10. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 January 2002 to 31 January 2002 (NODC Accession 0000686)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  11. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 April 2000 to 30 April 2000 (NODC Accession 0000156)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  12. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 May 2000 to 31 May 2000 (NODC Accession 0000169)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  13. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from the East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 December 2001 to 31 December 2001 (NODC Accession 0000685)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  14. Wind wave spectra and meteorological data from moored buoys from East/West coasts of US and other locations from 01 November 2001 to 30 November 2001 (NODC Accession 0000683)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and meteorological data were collected from the East/West coasts of US, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and the Great Lakes. Data were...

  15. Wind wave spectra and other data from moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes from 01 March 2000 to 31 March 2000 (NODC Accession 0000150)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoy in the East/West Coast of United States, South Pacific Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, and Great Lakes....

  16. Geochemical mapping using stream sediments in west-central Nigeria: Implications for environmental studies and mineral exploration in West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides an overview of regional geochemical mapping using stream sediments from central and south-western Nigeria. A total of 1569 stream sediment samples were collected and 54 major and trace elements determined by ICP-MS and Au, Pd and Pt by fire assay. Multivariate statistical techniques (e.g., correlation analysis and principal factor analysis) were used to explore the data, following appropriate data transformation, to understand the data structure, investigate underlying processes controlling spatial geochemical variability and identify element associations. Major geochemical variations are controlled by source geology and provenance, as well as chemical weathering and winnowing processes, more subtle variations are a result of land use and contamination from anthropogenic activity. This work has identified placer deposits of potential economic importance for Au, REE, Ta, Nb, U and Pt, as well as other primary metal deposits. Areas of higher As and Cr (>2 mg/kg and >70 mg/kg respectively) are associated with Mesozoic and younger coastal sediments in SW Nigeria. High stream sediment Zr concentrations (mean >0.2%), from proximal zircons derived from weathering of basement rocks, have important implications for sample preparation and subsequent analysis due to interferences. Associated heavy minerals enriched in high field strength elements, and notably rare earths, may also have important implications for understanding magmatic processes within the basement terrain of West Africa. This study provides important new background/baseline geochemical values for common geological domains in Nigeria (which extend across other parts of West Africa) for assessment of contamination from urban/industrial land use changes and mining activities. Regional stream sediment mapping is also able to provide important new information with applications across a number of sectors including agriculture, health, land use and planning.

  17. Cycling of radionuclides and impact of operational releases in the near-shore ecosystem off the west coast of India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioecology of the near-shore environment was investigated at Bombay and Tarapur on the west coast of India. The major radionuclides released from the processing plant at Bombay were 137Cs, 144Ce and 106Ru and were discharged through a pipeline to Bombay Harbour bay. At Tarapur the major radionuclides discharged were 131I, 134Cs, 137Cs and 60Co. After dilution with condenser-coolant sea water, releases were carried out through open channels along the shoreline to the sea. Studies on radionuclide cycling in clam-bed sediment, the indicator type benthic organism Anadara granosa, and the fish gobiid mudskipper in Bombay Harbour bay showed that the effective half-life of 137Cs is short compared with the physical half-life (30 years). This is attributable to the desorption of 137Cs from sediment and the fact that the benthic organism readily equilibrates with its environment. The dose to the benthic organism was calculated to be about 0.06 to 3μGy/h. Desorption of 144Ce and 106Ru was not observed. Investigations at Tarapur showed the effective distribution of radionuclides in sea water, sediment, seaweed and marine organisms. It was observed that the radionuclides discharged were mainly confined to a region 2 km from the outfall. The highest activity found in these matrices was only 7% of the derived maximum permissible concentration. The highest thyroid dose due to 131I by fresh seafood intake was 3% of the permissible dose and the highest whole-body dose due to other radionuclides was only 1% of the permissible dose. (author)

  18. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, K Alexandra; Moore, Jeffrey E; Benson, Scott R

    2015-01-01

    Biological limit reference points (LRPs) for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ) using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years), limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years), or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years). These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide international

  19. Estimating Limit Reference Points for Western Pacific Leatherback Turtles (Dermochelys coriacea in the U.S. West Coast EEZ.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Alexandra Curtis

    Full Text Available Biological limit reference points (LRPs for fisheries catch represent upper bounds that avoid undesirable population states. LRPs can support consistent management evaluation among species and regions, and can advance ecosystem-based fisheries management. For transboundary species, LRPs prorated by local abundance can inform local management decisions when international coordination is lacking. We estimated LRPs for western Pacific leatherbacks in the U.S. West Coast Exclusive Economic Zone (WCEEZ using three approaches with different types of information on local abundance. For the current application, the best-informed LRP used a local abundance estimate derived from nest counts, vital rate information, satellite tag data, and fishery observer data, and was calculated with a Potential Biological Removal estimator. Management strategy evaluation was used to set tuning parameters of the LRP estimators to satisfy risk tolerances for falling below population thresholds, and to evaluate sensitivity of population outcomes to bias in key inputs. We estimated local LRPs consistent with three hypothetical management objectives: allowing the population to rebuild to its maximum net productivity level (4.7 turtles per five years, limiting delay of population rebuilding (0.8 turtles per five years, or only preventing further decline (7.7 turtles per five years. These LRPs pertain to all human-caused removals and represent the WCEEZ contribution to meeting population management objectives within a broader international cooperative framework. We present multi-year estimates, because at low LRP values, annual assessments are prone to substantial error that can lead to volatile and costly management without providing further conservation benefit. The novel approach and the performance criteria used here are not a direct expression of the "jeopardy" standard of the U.S. Endangered Species Act, but they provide useful assessment information and could help guide

  20. Seasonal Dynamics of Phytoplankton and Environmental Factors around the Chagwi-do off the West Coast of Jeju Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affan, Abu; Lee, Joon-Baek; Kim, Jun-Teck; Choi, Young-Chan; Kim, Jong-Man; Myoung, Jung-Goo

    2007-06-01

    The dynamics of phytoplankton abundance with seasonal variation in physicochemical conditions were investigated monthly at 10 stations around the Chagwi-do off the west coast of Jeju Island, Korea, including inshore, middle shore, and offshore in the marine ranching area from September 2004 to November 2005. Water temperature varied from 12.1 to 28.9°C (average 18.8°C), and salinity from 28.9 to 34.9 psu (average 33.7 psu). The chlorophyll a concentration was 0.02-2.05 µg L1 (average 0.70 µg L1), and the maximum concentration occurred in the bottom layer in April. A total of 294 phytoplankton species belonging to 10 families was identified: 182 Bacillariophyceae, 52 Dinophyceae, 9 Chlorophyceae, 12 Cryptophyceae, 6 Chrysophyceae, 4 Dictyophyceae, 13 Euglenophyceae, 6 Prymnesiophyceae, 5 Prasinophyceae, and 5 Raphidophyceae. The standing crop was 2.21-48.69x104 cells L1 (average 9.23x 104 cells L1), and the maximum occurred in the bottom layer in April. Diatoms were most abundant throughout the year, followed by dinoflagellates and phytoflagellates. A phytoplankton bloom occurred twice: once in spring, peaking in April, and once in autumn, peaking in November. The spring bloom was represented by four Chaetoceros species and Skeletonema costatum; each contributed 10-20% of the total phytoplankton abundance. The autumn bloom comprised dinoflagellates, diatoms, and phytoflagellates, of which dinoflagellates were predominant. Gymnodinium conicum, Prorocentrum micans, and P. triestinum each contributed over 10% of the total phytoplankton abundance.

  1. Dependence of Wind Turbine Curves on Atmospheric Stability Regimes - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Tall Wind Farm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, S.; Lundquist, J. K.; Sharp, J.; Zulauf, M.

    2009-12-01

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, convective or neutral, mean wind speed (U) and turbulence (σU) may vary greatly across a tall turbine swept area (40 m to 120 m). This variation can cause a single turbine to produce difference amounts of power during time periods of identical hub height wind speeds. Our study examines the influence that atmospheric mixing or stability has on power output at a West Coast North American wind farm. We first examine the accuracy and applicability of two, relatively simple stability parameters, the wind shear-exponent, α, and the turbulence intensity, IU, against the physically-based, Obukhov length, L, to describe the wind speed and turbulence profiles in the rotor area. In general, the on-site stability parameters α and IU are in high agreement with the off-site, L stability scale parameter. Next, we divide the measurement period into five stability classes (strongly stable, stable, neutral, convective, and strongly convective) to discern stability-effects on power output. When only the mean wind speed profile is taken into account, the dependency of power output on boundary layer stability is only subtly apparent. When turbulence intensity IU is considered, the power generated for a given wind speed is twenty percent higher during strongly stable conditions than during strongly convective conditions as observed in the spring and summer seasons at this North American wind farm.

  2. Distribution of knock-down resistance mutations in Anopheles gambiae molecular forms in west and west-central Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caccone Adalgisa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Knock-down resistance (kdr to DDT and pyrethroids in the major Afrotropical vector species, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is associated with two alternative point mutations at amino acid position 1014 of the voltage-gated sodium channel gene, resulting in either a leucine-phenylalanine (L1014F, or a leucine-serine (L1014S substitution. In An. gambiae S-form populations, the former mutation appears to be widespread in west Africa and has been recently reported from Uganda, while the latter, originally recorded in Kenya, has been recently found in Gabon, Cameroon and Equatorial Guinea. In M-form populations surveyed to date, only the L1014F mutation has been found, although less widespread and at lower frequencies than in sympatric S-form populations. Methods Anopheles gambiae M- and S-form specimens from 19 sites from 11 west and west-central African countries were identified to molecular form and genotyped at the kdr locus either by Hot Oligonucleotide Ligation Assay (HOLA or allele-specific PCR (AS-PCR. Results The kdr genotype was determined for about 1,000 An. gambiae specimens. The L1014F allele was found at frequencies ranging from 6% to 100% in all S-form samples (N = 628, with the exception of two samples from Angola, where it was absent, and coexisted with the L1014S allele in samples from Cameroon, Gabon and north-western Angola. The L1014F allele was present in M-form samples (N = 354 from Benin, Nigeria, and Cameroon, where both M- and S-forms were sympatric. Conclusion The results represent the most comprehensive effort to analyse the overall distribution of the L1014F and L1014S mutations in An. gambiae molecular forms, and will serve as baseline data for resistance monitoring. The overall picture shows that the emergence and spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae is a dynamic process and that there is marked intra- and inter-form heterogeneity in resistance allele frequencies. Further studies are needed to

  3. On the east-west asymmetry of the central residual intensities and other fraunhofer line parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraunhofer line parameters of the Sun are investigated from the centre to the limb of the solar disk. Observational profiles of 13 Fraunhofer lines in two spectral ranges (6880 and 6980 A) were derived from the photoelectric tracings taken with the doublepass (''double monochromator'') solar spectrograph of the Pulkovo Observatory. The tracings were made in Summer and Autumn 1963 and cover the minimum of the 19 solar 11--year cycle and the beginning of the new cycle. The observations of both the east and west limbs with the spectrograph slit perpendicular to the radius of the solar disk became possible up to μ=cos THETA=0.158 (THETA is the angle between the line of sight and the solar radius at the point of observation). The tracings of some Fraunhofer lines showed systematic and real differences in profile parameters at the east and west limbs. In particular, central residual intensities, which can be measured more accurately than the halfwidth and the equivalent width of an absorption line, are at the same μ, slightly higher at the west limb of the solar disk than at the east one. For the group of lines under consideration, this effect becomes stronger with the increase of lines' intensities. It is noted, that this ''east-west asymmetry'' of the Fraunhofer line parameters may be due to a horizontal motion of matter of the large-scale field of the solar atmosphere

  4. Genetic Diversity of Porang Populations (Amorphophallus Muelleri Blume) In Central Java and West Java Based on LEAFY Second Intron Marker

    OpenAIRE

    Isna Arofatun Nikmah; Rodiyati Azrianingsih; Didik Wahyudi

    2016-01-01

    Porang (Amorphophallus muelleri Blume) is dispersed and grew well in Java island. This research aimed to determine the genetic diversity of porang populations in Central Java and West Java based on LEAFY second intron (nuclear genome encoding flower development). DNA samples of porang were from previous study, which were obtained from Central Java (Pamedaran, Grobogan, Wonogiri, Karangtengah) and West Java (Cisompet) as in-group. Amorphophallus variabilis from Pamedaran Brebes, Amorphophallus...

  5. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Fairweather and R/V Point Sur in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2013 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2013) from 2013-08-05 to 2013-08-28 (NCEI Accession 0132082)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This cruise represents the third dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (Expocode:317W20130803, Cruise ID: WCOA2013), which took place August 3-10, 2013...

  6. Dissolved inorganic carbon, total alkalinity, pH, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from profile and discrete sample observations using CTD, Niskin bottle, and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123467)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the discrete bottle (CTD profile) data of the first dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (WCOA2011). The cruise took place...

  7. Partial pressure (or fugacity) of carbon dioxide, temperature, salinity and other variables collected from surface underway observations using carbon dioxide gas analyzer, shower head equilibrator and other instruments from R/V Wecoma in the U.S. West Coast California Current System during the 2011 West Coast Ocean Acidification Cruise (WCOA2011) from 2011-08-12 to 2011-08-30 (NODC Accession 0123607)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This archival package contains the surface underway pCO2 data of the first dedicated West Coast Ocean Acidification cruise (WCOA2011). The cruise took place August...

  8. West Coast MPA Valuation

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This research employs a stated preference choice experiment survey of households in California, Oregon, and Washington to quantify public preferences and simulate a...

  9. Emerging mosquito-borne flaviviruses in central Europe: Usutu virus and novel West Nile viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Here we summarise the recent emergence of four different mosquito-borne flaviviruses in central Europe: Usutu virus, Rabensburg virus, and two different unique West Nile viruses. During late summer 2001 in Austria, a series of deaths occurred in several species of birds, however mainly in Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula), reminiscent of the beginning of the West Nile virus (WNV) epidemic in the United States. We necropsied the dead birds and examined them by various methods; pathologic and immunohistologic investigations suggested a WNV infection. Subsequently, the virus was isolated, identified, sequenced, and subjected to phylogenetic analysis. The isolates exhibited 97% identity to Usutu virus (USUV), a rather unknown mosquito-borne Flavivirus of the Japanese encephalitis virus group; USUV has never previously been observed outside Africa nor associated with fatal disease in animals or humans. When established in central Europe, this virus will have considerable effects on avian populations. Whether USUV has the potential to cause severe human disease is currently under investigation. USUV was isolated for the first time from mosquitoes in South Africa in 1959 and named after a river in Swaziland; it was sporadically isolated in Africa from several mosquito and bird species over the next decades. USUV was once isolated from a man with fever and rash. The results presented here demonstrate the threat of WNV infection to the animal and human populations in Central Europe, therefore comprehensive investigations of the occurrence, ecology and epidemiology of the virus is of high priority

  10. Determination of Water Sensitivity Index in EstakoWest and Esan Central, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipa O. Idogho

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As world population and industrial-agricultural outputs have increased, the use of water has accelerated. This development leads to extreme difficulty to provide sufficient safe drinking water in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water sensitivity was measured in six major towns in Etasko-West and Esan Central. Water Measuring Indicators such as Water Poverty Index-Real Time (WPIr, Water Factor Value (WFV and Access-Demand Factor (γ were applied to generate water sensitivity iterations. The outputs of these iterations show that Irrua has the fairest water supply and distribution with WPIr, WFA and γ index value of 0.22; 0.77 and 0.76, while Auchi and Ewu experience acute water shortage with the following index values: WPIr-0.43, 0.39; WFV-0.06, 0.16; and γ-0.64, 0.6 respectively. Results of One-Sample Test and Paired Sample Statistics show that the proportion of monthly income spent on portable water is significant at 0.95 confidence interval in all towns, except Auchi. Comparative analysis indicates strong relationship (R 2=0.667 between the resources spent in procuring clean water and accessibility-demand ratio in the region. Private sector participation recorded highest investment value of 62% on water sector; government and corporate organization recorded 23% and 15% respectively. Since private sector determines the progresses of water sector, this accounts for the exorbitant tariff of 1, 500 N per m 3 in this region. It is deduced that the most significant problems faced with water accessibility-affordability are transportation, finance and power supply with computed constraint index value of 47%, 40% and 13% respectively. Finally, Etasko-West and Esan Central are highly waterstressed. Government, corporate organization and private investors need to establish technically-based measures to ensure perfect accessibility and affordability of this scarce utility.

  11. Mortality of vertebrates in irrigation canals in an area of west-central Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Garcia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Mortality patterns of vertebrates in irrigation canals have been poorly studied despite their potential impact on wildlife. Concrete irrigation canals in a cropland area in west-central Spain were monitored over 13 months to assess their impact on small fauna. A total of 134 vertebrates were found dead. Most were amphibians (86.46% or mammals (20.90%, though fishes, reptiles and a bird were also recorded. Mortality peaked in autumn months. Corrective measurements are needed to reduce this cause of non-natural mortality.

  12. Floristic complexes on landslides of different age in Central Yamal, West Siberian Low Arctic, Russia

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Khitun; Ksenia Ermokhina; Irina Czernyadjeva; Marina Leibman; Artem Khomutov

    2015-01-01

    Accurate ground-based datasets are important for correct interpretation of remote sensing data. West-Siberian Arctic has been exposed to rapid land-cover and land-use changes during the last 50 years. Cryogenic landslides are important disturbing agents in the region, especially in the central part of the Yamal Peninsula. Different succession stages in the recovery of cryogenic landslides are described at the example of 4 model ones formed respectively in 1989, in the middle of 1970s, in la...

  13. An Economic Evaluation of Conservation Farming Practices for the Central West of NSW

    OpenAIRE

    Farrell, Terence C.

    2008-01-01

    Economic benefits that arise from conservation farming practices need to be assessed over several years to account for improvements in soil structure and nutrient levels. A gross margin model was used to assess benefits over the eight-year period 1999-2006 for 12 regions in the central west of NSW. The benefits from improved soil structure ranged from $39.85 to $114.26 per hectare (ha). A reduction in tractor power produced savings in the range of $6.74 to $40.98 per ha. The average net benef...

  14. A SHALLOW WATER MODEL FOR COMPUTING TSUNAMI ALONG THE WEST COAST OF PENINSULAR MALAYSIA AND THAILAND USING BOUNDARY-FITTED CURVILINEAR GRIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Fazlul Karim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand is curvilinear in nature and the bending is especially high along the coast of South Thailand. In hydrodynamic models for coastal seas, bays and estuaries, the use of boundary-fitted curvilinear grids not only makes the model grids fit well with the coastline and bathymetry, but also makes the finite difference scheme simple. In this study, a shallow water model is developed using boundary fitted curvilinear mesh. The west coast of Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand and the western open boundary are represented by two curves, which are defined by two functions. The other two boundaries are considered as straight lines along the open sea. Appropriate transformations of independent coordinates are applied so that the curvilinear physical domain transforms to a rectangular domain and the curvilinear grid system transforms to a rectangular system. The depth averaged shallow water equations and the boundary conditions are transformed to the new space domain and these are solved in the rectangular mesh of the transformed space. The model is applied to compute some aspects of the tsunami associated with the 26 December 2004 Indonesian tsunami along the coastal belts of Penang in Malaysia and Phuket in Thailand. The computed results along the coastal belts are in excellent agreement with the observe data available in the USGS website.

  15. Towards Harmonisation of Construction Industry Payment Legislation: A Consideration of the Success Afforded by the East and West Coast Models in Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremy Coggins

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the success of the two distinct construction industry payment legislative models operating in Australia – “East Coast” and “West Coast” – in achieving their objective of improving cash flow throughout the construction industry. Success parameters are identified by the authors – namely: the levels of justice afforded by the legislation, the administrative and legal burden generated by the legislation, and the impact of the legislation on the relationships between the contracting parties – which are used as a basis to discuss and compare the performances of the East and West Coast models. It is concluded that the West Coast model provides a more just dispute resolution process, generates less administrative and legal burden, and is more conducive towards establishing positive relationships between contracting parties. However, it is recognised that there is a need for more data to be gathered from construction industry stakeholders before any firm recommendations can start to be made as to the most appropriate conceptual framework and detail for a harmonised approach.

  16. Atmospheric Stability Impacts on Power Curves of Tall Wind Turbines - An Analysis of a West Coast North American Wind Farm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wharton, S; Lundquist, J K

    2010-02-22

    Tall wind turbines, with hub heights at 80 m or above, can extract large amounts of energy from the atmosphere because they are likely to encounter higher wind speeds, but they face challenges given the complex nature of wind flow and turbulence at these heights in the boundary layer. Depending on whether the boundary layer is stable, neutral, or convective, the mean wind speed, direction, and turbulence properties may vary greatly across the tall turbine swept area (40 to 120 m AGL). This variability can cause tall turbines to produce difference amounts of power during time periods with identical hub height wind speeds. Using meteorological and power generation data from a West Coast North American wind farm over a one-year period, our study synthesizes standard wind park observations, such as wind speed from turbine nacelles and sparse meteorological tower observations, with high-resolution profiles of wind speed and turbulence from a remote sensing platform, to quantify the impact of atmospheric stability on power output. We first compare approaches to defining atmospheric stability. The standard, limited, wind farm operations enable the calculation only of a wind shear exponent ({alpha}) or turbulence intensity (I{sub U}) from cup anemometers, while the presence at this wind farm of a SODAR enables the direct observation of turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) throughout the turbine rotor disk. Additionally, a nearby research meteorological station provided observations of the Obukhov length, L, a direct measure of atmospheric stability. In general, the stability parameters {alpha}, I{sub U}, and TKE are in high agreement with the more physically-robust L, with TKE exhibiting the best agreement with L. Using these metrics, data periods are segregated by stability class to investigate power performance dependencies. Power output at this wind farm is highly correlated with atmospheric stability during the spring and summer months, while atmospheric stability exerts

  17. Shallow seismic and geomorphic expression of buried wave-cut terrace and erosional valleys off Redi, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subbaraju, L.V; Wagle, B.G.

    stream_size 6 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt stream_source_info J_Coast_Res_12_205.pdf.txt Content-Encoding ISO-8859-1 Content-Type text/plain; charset=ISO-8859-1 ...

  18. Environmental interpretation of lithofacies and biofacies, lower Sierra Madre Limestone, west central Chiapas, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, D.K.T.

    1989-03-01

    The Jiquipilas section of the Cretaceous Sierra Madre Limestone, which encompasses the lower part of the formation, was measured northwest of the town of Ocozocuautla in west-central Chiapas, Mexico. The section is 2140 m thick and is characterized by six lithofacies interpreted to represent supratidal, intertidal platform, restricted inner shelf, open inner shelf, shoal, and open-marine middle shelf environments. Overall, the sequence is submergent, with minor emergent episodes. Based upon cluster analysis, three biofacies associations were established: offshore middle shelf, nearshore middle shelf, and inner shelf. The lower 2045 m of the section are dominated by the inner shelf association, while the upper 95 m are dominated by the offshore association. The nearshore middle-shelf association is a minor component throughout the section. Correlation with a measure section from a previous study resulted in a composite thickness for the Sierra Madre Limestone in west-central Chiapas of 3355 m. This figure is considerably greater than previously reported thicknesses for the formation. It indicates that sedimentation on the Yucatan carbonate platform during the middle Cretaceous may have approached sediment accumulation rates in modern sedimentary basins.

  19. Hydrologic and microclimate characterizations of Thornton’s Cave, West-Central Florida (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorien K. McGee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A cave’s environment is controlled by a suite of factors unique to the environments in which they formed, including, but not limited to, regional geologic and climate settings. These factors collectively owe to wide variations in cave biology, geomorphology and overall speleogenesis. This report combines local climate, hydrologic, and CO2 data collected over the course of a two-year study at Thornton’s Cave, a partially-flooded cave in the West-Central Florida karst belt, to characterize its current environment and yield insight regarding how changes in regional climate and hydrology impact its past and future speleogenesis. Data loggers continuously monitoring cave and surface air temperatures, water levels and surface rainfall documented immediate responses in the cave to long- and short-term fluctuations in these parameters at the surface. Atmospheric CO2 in the cave and at the surface demonstrate seasonal trends, though the cave maintains higher concentrations and lower δ13C of CO2 than the surface, suggesting decomposition of organic matter, and to a lesser degree macroorganisms are contributing proportionally more CO2 to the cave. Collectively, these interpretations provide insight on the impact of surface processes on cave formation here, and suggest that a biotic model of speleogenesis using bacterially-sourced CO2 as a component of dissolution may be possible. Further, they can be used to further the understanding of the karstification in West-Central Florida and analogous karst regions.

  20. Assessment of WSSV prevalence and distribution of disease-resistant shrimp among the wild population of Penaeus monodon along the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Usri; Mallik, Ajoy; Mondal, Debabrata; Dutta, Sourav; Mandal, Nripendranath

    2014-06-01

    Shrimp aquaculture is threatened by many diseases, among which white spot disease (WSD) caused by white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is the leading one. Information related to the geographical distribution and seasonal prevalence of WSD is necessary to obtain a clear understanding of the disease biology in shrimp. Identification of WSD-resistant individual shrimp with DNA markers is also an important technique to develop better WSD-free shrimp health management. The present study aim is to estimate the occurrence of WSSV in Penaeus monodon qualitatively and quantitatively during three different seasons during the years 2011 to 2013 along the west coast of India. Additionally, the disease resistance prevalence using previously developed 71 bp microsatellite and 457 bp RAPD-SCAR DNA markers is also investigated. Samples were collected throughout the year from four locations along the west coast of India: Kochi, Kerala; Mangalore, Karnataka; Vasco-da-Gama, Goa; and Veraval, Gujarat. The results depicted that the average WSSV prevalence, as determined by the nested PCR method and taken cumulatively over the four locations, was the lowest (0%) during the post-monsoon season and the highest (31.6%) during the monsoon season. The WSD prevalence was observed to increase when the latitude was decreased along the west coast of India (from Veraval to Kochi). Out of the three different seasons, the average WSSV copy number was the highest (approximately 10(3) copies μg(-1) shrimp genomic DNA) during the monsoon season. The disease-resistant prevalence, as determined using the developed DNA markers, was found to be the highest in Vasco-da-Gama (59.5%) and the lowest in Kochi (40.9%). The present study suggests better options for the efficient collection of disease-free and disease-resistant brood stocks, which would be a more cost-effective and safer approach toward disease prevention over conventional trends of seed generation from unselected wild brood stock. PMID:24681359

  1. Trajectory analysis on the origin of air mass and moisture associated with Atmospheric Rivers over the west coast of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-M. Ryoo

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The origins and pathways of air masses leading to heavy rainfall over the west coast of the United States are examined by computing the back-trajectories in a Lagrangian quasi-isentropic trajectory model. Extreme precipitation over the west coast of the United States often coincides with transport in a deep and narrow corridor of concentrated water vapor band from the ocean, commonly referred to as Atmospheric Rivers (ARs. They also occur in conjunction with moisture plumes emanating from the tropics, or along the mid-latitude storm track. However, the actual moisture sources and the dynamic and thermodynamic processes of the moisture transport, are still unclear. Trajectories are found to be insensitive to the reanalysis data set used; we examined NCEP, GMAO MERRA, and ECMWF ERA-Interim. Reconstructed water vapor mixing ratios along trajectories are in generally good agreement among the reanalysis datasets in most of the subtropics and extratropics, indicating that the large-scale circulation is a primary control for moisture transport over those regions. Clustering and pdf (probability density function analyses illustrate that trajectories over the west coast of United States have different origins. One group of trajectories (cluster 1 originates in the warm part of extratropical cyclones in the low level. The other group of trajectories (cluster 2 originates in the cold and dry regions in the mid-level (pressures less than 600 hPa over northeastern Asia, then cross the Pacific Ocean. This study demonstrates that the quasi-isentropic Lagrangian trajectory model and clustering analysis (that have been typically used to analyze trajectories in the upper troposphere and higher altitudes can be used to examine sources of air masses and moisture, and also associated transport processes in the lower troposphere.

  2. Ancient DNA Analysis Suggests Negligible Impact of the Wari Empire Expansion in Peru's Central Coast during the Middle Horizon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Valverde

    Full Text Available The analysis of ancient human DNA from South America allows the exploration of pre-Columbian population history through time and to directly test hypotheses about cultural and demographic evolution. The Middle Horizon (650-1100 AD represents a major transitional period in the Central Andes, which is associated with the development and expansion of ancient Andean empires such as Wari and Tiwanaku. These empires facilitated a series of interregional interactions and socio-political changes, which likely played an important role in shaping the region's demographic and cultural profiles. We analyzed individuals from three successive pre-Columbian cultures present at the Huaca Pucllana archaeological site in Lima, Peru: Lima (Early Intermediate Period, 500-700 AD, Wari (Middle Horizon, 800-1000 AD and Ychsma (Late Intermediate Period, 1000-1450 AD. We sequenced 34 complete mitochondrial genomes to investigate the potential genetic impact of the Wari Empire in the Central Coast of Peru. The results indicate that genetic diversity shifted only slightly through time, ruling out a complete population discontinuity or replacement driven by the Wari imperialist hegemony, at least in the region around present-day Lima. However, we caution that the very subtle genetic contribution of Wari imperialism at the particular Huaca Pucllana archaeological site might not be representative for the entire Wari territory in the Peruvian Central Coast.

  3. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  4. Summer monsoon onset-induced changes of autotrophic pico- and nanoplankton in the largest monsoonal estuary along the west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mohan, A.P.; Jyothibabu, R.; Jagadeesan, L.; Lallu, K.R.; Karnan, C.

        Environ. Monit. Assess., vol.188; 2016; no.93 doi: 10.1007/s10661-016-5096-7 Summer Monsoon Onset -induced Changes of Autotrophic Pico - and Nano - plankton in the Largest Monsoonal Estuary along the West Coast of India Arya P. Mohan, Jyothibabu, R...: Phytoplankton, Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, Picoeukaryotes, Cochin Backwaters  2    1. Introduction Smaller autotrophic plankton consist of pico - (0.2 - 2 μm) and nano - (2 - 20 μm) size ranges inhabiting the euphotic ocean surface layer. Earlier studies...

  5. Study of Modis satellite derived aerosol angstrom exponent and in-situ measured values using Sun photometer in part of the west coast of Indian Peninsula

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SunilKumar R.K.; Suresh, T.; Govindaraju; SureshKumar, B.V.

    , 59:501-502. Gregory L. Schuster. (2005), The Angstrom Exponent and Bimodal Aerosol Size Distributions: J. Geophysical Research, DOI: 10.1029. Hoffmann, T., Odum, J.R., Bowman, F., Collins, D., Klockow, D., Flagan, R.C. and Seinfeld, J.H. (1997.... J. Marine Scis. 38(4): 390-396. Suresh T, Elgar Desa,( 2005): Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula a coastal site on the west coast of India, Atmospheric Environment, 39/19; 3471-3, Satheesh, S. K., Krishnamurthy, K and Das, I. (2001...

  6. Geochemical and mineralogical analysis of stone anchors from west coast of India: Provenance study using thin sections, XRF and SEM-EDS

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tripati, S.; Mudholkar, A.V.; Vora, K.H.; Rao, B.R.; Gaur, A.S.; Sundaresh

    of the texture and mineral characteristics of samples. 2.2. XRF studies Another part of the rock chip was powdered using the agate ball mill for non-contamination. This powder was dried in the find sites in India. Fig. 2. Stone anchors of west coast of India (a... incalcareous cement. PPL: Plane Polarised Light BXN: Between Crossed Nicols. S. Tripati et al. / Journal of Archaeological2004 oven at 110 C14 C overnight to remove the moisture. Later the same powder was heated to w1050 C14 Cforw3 h to determine the loss...

  7. Muroto Project: Scientifi c Drilling of the Late Pliocene Forearc Basin Deposit on the West Coast of Muroto Peninsula, Shikoku, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuto Kodama

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available The Muroto Peninsula on the Pacifi c margin of southwest Japan (Fig.1 formed as a result of tectonic events associated with oblique subduction along the Nankai Trough (Sugiyama, 1992, 1994. Late Pliocene forearc basin deposits of the Tonohama Group are exposed on the west coast of the peninsula. Until recently, stratigraphical and paleontological data have been collected only from rather scattered and poorly exposed outcrops (e.g., Yokoyama, 1926; Katto, et al.,1953; Kurihara, 1968; Nishida, 1979; Okumura and Takei, 1993, and no detailed chronological and sequence-stratigraphic framework has been established. The paleoenvironmental changes recorded in the formation thus remain poorly understood.

  8. Model equations for Calculating Rn-gas Concentrations in Air of Uranium Exploratory Tunnels, Allouga, West-Central Sinai , Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabal Allouga area is located some 40 km due east from Abu Zenima town on the east coast of the Gulf of Suez, West-Central Sinai, Egypt. A network of exploratory tunnels totaling 670m in length and approximately 2x2 m in cross section, were excavated within a paleosol clayey bed. They host (Fe, Mn)-, Cu-, and U-mineralizations. Portions of the tunnels are naturally ventilated and others portions are non-ventilated and show ground water seepage through fractures. Model equations were developed for calculating the Rn-gas concentrations in the air of the tunnels under dry conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by air flow through porous media as well as for wet conditions where Rn-gas transport is mainly by ground water flow into the tunnels. Under dry conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations(15.2-60.6 PCi/1) are consistent with measured values by active techniques (3.26-22.85 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (19-69.1 pCi/1) when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha= 0.05-0.2), the emanating rock thickness (X=10 cm) and U-concentration averages 30 ppm. Under wet and non-ventilated conditions the model calculated Rn-gas concentrations (159-1248 pCi/1) are consistent with the measured values by active techniques (231-1348 pCi/1) and by SSNTD techniques (144-999pCi/1), when the Rn-emanation coefficient (alpha=0.1-0.25), the ground water flow (F=0.04-0.10 ml/s-1cm-2) and U-concertrations (100-250ppm)

  9. Spatial and temporal variations of carbonate content in the beach and nearshore environments off Goa, west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Veerayya, M.

    Sediment samples collected from dunes, beaches (Calangute, Baina and Colva) and nearshore environments along the coast of Goa, have been analysed for their carbonate content. The results show the presence of very high carbonate content (60...

  10. Hydrodynamic and geomorphic controls on the morphology of an island ecosystem in the Vembanad Lake, West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Laluraj, C.M.; Gopinath, G.; DineshKumar, P.K.; Balachandran, K.K.

    Textural characteristics of the surficial sediments around Perumbalam Island located within the Vembanad Lake, southwest coast of India, were studied on a seasonal basis to understand the geomorphic response of the region. Sediment grain size...

  11. Seasonal changes of the sediment size distribution and stability along the beaches of Kerala, south west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sajeev, R.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Chandramohan, P.; Nampoodiripad, K.S.N.

    Mean grain size distribution under different environmental conditions along the coast of Kerala showed considerable spatial variation (0.14-0.96 mm). Standard deviation values indicated a very well sorted class along all the beaches with a lowest...

  12. A manual for the identification of marine birds and mammals of the North American West Coast: Preliminary draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Dichotomous keys for birds and mammals that might be found in Alaska or along the pacific coast. Includes, birds, whales, porpoise, and pinnipeds.

  13. Hydrography and zooplankton off the central Oregon coast during the 1997-1998 El Nino event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, W.T.; Emmett, B.; Jacobson, K. [NOAA, NMFS, NWFSC, Hatfield Marine Science Center, Newport, OR (United States); Schiewe, M.; Casillas, E. [NOAA, NWFSC Northwest Fisheries Science Center, Seattle, WA (United States)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrography and zooplankton were monitored at several ocean stations off the coast of Oregon to compare 1997 ocean conditions with conditions observed in the 1970s. It was shown that in the early spring of 1997, the Oregon upwelling zone began in a normal fashion and was followed by an increase in zooplankton production. In May, zooplankton numbers declined and continued to do so throughout the summer. The study, which also included sea surface temperature monitoring, showed that the sea surface temperature on the shelf was warmer by one degree than previous El Nino events. It was suggested that the warming in 1997 was due to onshore advection of warm offshore waters. The issue of how atmospheric pressure patterns and equatorial events influence coastal upwelling off the coast of Oregon was also explored. 1 tab., 3 figs.

  14. Age and growth of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula (tetraodontiformes, balistidae of the central coast of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albuquerque Cristiano Queiroz de

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Dorsal spines (n=649 of the queen triggerfish Balistes vetula were collected between 1997 to 1999 at the central coast of Brazil and used to evaluate fish growth. The marginal increment analysis validated that 1 increment was formed annually (n=476, with minimum values observed at the summer, and coinciding with the maximum proportion of translucent growth bands. Fish's maximum fork length and age were 460 mm and 14 years respectively. The parameters of the von Bertalanffy function were: Fl∞ = 441.3 mm, K = 0.14 and T0= -1.8. Weight gain by year ranged from about 110 g yr-1 for age 5 to about 30 g yr-1 for age 14. Compared to other studies, B. vetula growth in the Central coast of Brazil was slow, which could be related to the influence of the oligotrophic water from Brazil current. Our results indicate that B. vetula's fisheries in the Central coast of Brazil until 1999 have caught mostly adult individuals over the sexual maturation lenght, 60% of them with ages from 6 to 8 yr.Entre 1997 e 1999 foram amostrados 649 espinhos de Balistes vetula na costa central do Brazil e foram utilizados para a avaliação de crescimento. A validação de anéis anuais de crescimento foi realizada através da analise de incrementos marginais, cujos valores mínimos foram observados durante o verão, coincidindo com a maior proporção de anéis translúcidos na borda do espinho. Portanto, forma-se um anel de crescimento a cada ano. A idade e o comprimento padrão máximos observados foram respectivamente 14 anos e 460 mm. Os parâmetros da equação de von-Bertalanffy foram: Fl∞ = 441,3 mm, K = 0,14 e T0= -1,8. O incremento anual em peso variou de 110 g yr-1 para a idade 5 a 30 g yr-1 para a idade 14. Comparados a outros estudos, nossos resultados indicam taxas de crescimento mais baixas, que podem ter sido induzidas pela influência oligotrófica da corrente do Brasil ao longo da costa central do Brasil. Nossos resultados indicam que a pesca do peroá at

  15. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the southern Great Salt Lake Desert and summary of the hydrology of west-central Utah

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gates, Joseph S.; Kruer, Stacie A.

    1981-01-01

    This report is the last of 19 hydrologic reconnaissances of the basins in western Utah. The purposes of this series of studies are (1) to analyze available hydrologic data and describe the hydrologic system, (2) to evaluate existing and potential water-resources development, and (3) to identify additional studies that might be needed. Part 1 of this report gives an estimate of recharge and discharge, an estimate of the potential for water-resources development, and a statement on the quality of water in the southern Great Salt Lake Desert part of west-central Utah. Part 2 deals with the same aspects of west-central Utah as a whole. Part 2 also summarizes the evidence of interbasin ground-water flow in west-central Utah and presents a theory for the origin of the water discharged from Fish Springs.

  16. Radiological re-survey results at 130 West Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ029)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray, M.E.; Johnson, C.A.

    1994-01-01

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from 1916 to 1959. During the early years of operation, MCW stored wastes and residues in low-lying areas west of the processing facilities and consequently some of the residuals containing radioactive materials migrated offsite to the surrounding area. Subsequently, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designated for remedial action the old MCW property and several vicinity properties. Additionally, in 1984, the property at 130 West Central Ave., Maywood, New Jersey and properties in its vicinity were included as a decontamination research and development project under the DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program. In 1987 and 1988, at the request of DOE, ORNL conducted a radiological survey on this property. A second radiological survey by ORNL was conducted on this property in May, 1993 at the request of DOE after an ad hoc radiological survey, requested by a new property owner and conducted by Bechtel National, Inc. (BNI), identified some contamination not previously found by ORNL. The purpose of the survey was to determine if residuals from the old MCW were present on the property, and if so, if any radiological elements present were above guidelines. A certified civil survey was requisitioned by ORNL to determine actual property boundaries before beginning the radiological survey. The radiological re-survey included a surface gamma scan and the collection of a large number of soil samples for radionuclide analyses.

  17. Spatial distribution of upwelling off the central east coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, T.V.N.

    and subsurface expressions of sea level variations off Peru, 1976–1977. Journal of Physical Oceanography 10, 1755–1768. Johnson, D. R. 1977 Determining vertical velocities during up- welling off the Oregon coast. Deep Sea Research, Oceanography Abstracts 24, 171... regions: Oregon, North Africa and Peru. In Coastal upwelling (Richards, F. A., ed.). Geophysical Union, Washington DC. Coastal and Estuarine Sciences 1, 107–118. Stetsjuk, B. A. 1983 Seasonal location of upwelling zones in ICSEAF divisions 1·3 to 1·6 based...

  18. Mercury speciation in coastal sediments from the central east coast of India by modified BCR method.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chakraborty, P.; Babu, P.V.R.; Vudamala, K.; Ramteke, D.; Chennuri, K.

    of India as shown in Figure 1. The sites were (1) Bheemili (BHI), (2) Vishakhapatnam (VSKP), and (3) Gangavaram (GVM) (4) Goutami Godavari Estuary (GGE) (5) Kakinada (KKD). The Bheemili (BHI) site is located in the north of Andhra Pradesh. This city... is not industrially developed. The approximate population of this city is ~50,000. Vishakhapatnam (VSKP) is the second largest city in the state of Andhra Pradesh and the third largest city (after Kolkata and Chennai) in the east coast of India. VSKP has become a...

  19. Geologic map of the west-central Buffalo National River region, northern Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Mark R.; Turner, Kenzie J.

    2014-01-01

    This map summarizes the geology of the west-central Buffalo National River region in the Ozark Plateaus region of northern Arkansas. Geologically, the region lies on the southern flank of the Ozark dome, an uplift that exposes oldest rocks at its center in Missouri. Physiographically, the map area spans the Springfield Plateau, a topographic surface generally held up by Mississippian cherty limestone and the higher Boston Mountains to the south, held up by Pennsylvanian rocks. The Buffalo River flows eastward through the map area, enhancing bedrock erosion of an approximately 1,600-ft- (490-m-) thick sequence of Ordovician, Mississippian, and Pennsylvanian carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks that have been mildly deformed by a series of faults and folds. Quaternary surficial units are present as alluvial deposits along major streams, including a series of terrace deposits from the Buffalo River, as well as colluvium and landslide deposits mantling bedrock on hillslopes.

  20. Near-surface water balance of an undeveloped upland site in west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, W.R.; Boetcher, P.F.

    1996-01-01

    A study was made to examine the near-surface water balance of a dry prairie site in west-central Florida. The water balance, which was defined on a unit area basis and for a depth of 5.5 meters, was described for the period June 1991 to October 1992. Precipitation during the 498 days of field measurements was 2,245 millimeters. Evapotranspiration, the second largest component, was 1,419 millimeters. Water yield was 808 millimeters and the change in soil water storage was 19 millimeters. Computed vertical water flux was less than 4 percent of evapotranspiration because of the small hydraulic conductivity of a clay layer that began at a depth of 5.5 meters.

  1. Tectonic setting of blueschist and island-arc terranes of west-central Baja California, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sedlock, R.L.

    1988-07-01

    Diverse oceanic rocks exposed in west-central Baja California (Mexico) are assigned to three shallowly dipping tectonic units. The lower plate is a subduction complex consisting of regionally metamorphosed blueschists and divided into structurally and petrologically distinct subterranes. The upper plate consists of Triassic-Lower Cretaceous arc rocks and overlapping mid-Cretaceous turbidites. A fault-bounded serpentinite-matrix melange between lower and upper plate rocks contains blueschist, eclogite, amphibolite, and variably serpentinized mafic and ultramafic blocks. Lower plate blueschists were metamorphosed in the late Early Cretaceous and uplifted along shallowly dipping normal faults during conditions of steady-state subduction. Exotic blocks of blueschist, eclogite, and amphibolite are derived from a cryptic terrane or terranes, record varied P-T-t histories, and were uplifted via tectonic emplacement or diapiric rise of serpentinite along the normal faults.

  2. Antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental bovine mastitis pathogens in west central Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi, Azizollah; Kheirabadi, K H Pirali; Nikookhah, Farzaneh

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe antimicrobial susceptibility of environmental mastitis pathogens isolated from dairy herds of Chahar Mahal province in west central Iran. Out of the 620 milk samples collected from the four districts, 180 were CMT (California mastitis test) positive that cultured and yield, 7 (3.88%) coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS), 15 (8.33%) Streptococci other than agalactiae and 17 (9.44%) E. coli. CNS resistance to penicillin was 14.28% but for streptomycin, Oxytetracycline and Colistin, were 28.57%. Non agalactiae Streptococci resistance to Oxytetracycline and Kanamycin were 20 and 13.33%, respectively. E. coli resistance to penicillin, oxytetracycline, streptomycin, erythromycin and Colistin were 88.23, 82.35, 76.47, 76.47 and 52.94%, respectively. PMID:19090221

  3. The West Central Alberta Woodland Caribou Landscape Plan: Using a Modeling Approach to Develop Alternative Scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Hubbs

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus are classified as threatened in Alberta. In support of Canada's Species at Risk Act, a Recovery Plan for Woodland Caribou in Alberta was completed in 2004 which required local implementation plans to be completed within 5 areas of the province. The West Central Alberta Caribou Landscape Plan (WCCLP is the first of these to be initiated and it addresses the recovery strategies for 4 herds. Two aspatial computer models built on the STELLA© modelling platform (ISee Systems, 2007 were used to assist the planning team in evaluating cumulative effects and alternative scenarios for caribou conservation. The ALCES© (Forem Technologies 2008 modelling tool was used to forecast potential changes in the west central Alberta landscape over time. Yearly landscape condition outputs from ALCES© were then exported into a caribou-specific population model, REMUS© (Weclaw, 2004, that was used to project potential population responses by woodland caribou, other primary prey species [moose (Alces alces, elk (Cervus elaphus and deer (Odocoileus sp.] and wolves (Canis lupus (Weclaw & Hudson, 2004. Simulated habitat management strategies that resulted in the highest likelihood of caribou recovery included the maintenance of a high proportion of old forest, the aggregation of industrial footprints and the reclamation of historic seismic lines (although the latter took decades to provide real dividends. Sharing of industrial roads, protection of fragments of old-growth, and expanding an already aggressive fire control strategy in Alberta had little additional effect on caribou recovery. Simulated population management strategies that were successful all involved decades of intensive wolf control, either directly or indirectly through intensive primary prey control (with the exception of woodland caribou until old-growth forests recovered to densities that provided caribou habitat and decreased alternate prey of wolves. Although

  4. Legume diversity patterns in West Central Africa: influence of species biology on distribution models.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de la Estrella

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Species Distribution Models (SDMs are used to produce predictions of potential Leguminosae diversity in West Central Africa. Those predictions are evaluated subsequently using expert opinion. The established methodology of combining all SDMs is refined to assess species diversity within five defined vegetation types. Potential species diversity is thus predicted for each vegetation type respectively. The primary aim of the new methodology is to define, in more detail, areas of species richness for conservation planning. METHODOLOGY: Using Maxent, SDMs based on a suite of 14 environmental predictors were generated for 185 West Central African Leguminosae species, each categorised according to one of five vegetation types: Afromontane, coastal, non-flooded forest, open formations, or riverine forest. The relative contribution of each environmental variable was compared between different vegetation types using a nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis analysis followed by a post-hoc Kruskal-Wallis Paired Comparison contrast. Legume species diversity patterns were explored initially using the typical method of stacking all SDMs. Subsequently, five different ensemble models were generated by partitioning SDMs according to vegetation category. Ecological modelers worked with legume specialists to improve data integrity and integrate expert opinion in the interpretation of individual species models and potential species richness predictions for different vegetation types. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Of the 14 environmental predictors used, five showed no difference in their relative contribution to the different vegetation models. Of the nine discriminating variables, the majority were related to temperature variation. The set of variables that played a major role in the Afromontane species diversity model differed significantly from the sets of variables of greatest relative important in other vegetation categories. The traditional approach of stacking all

  5. Morphologic and hydrodynamic controls on the occurrence of tidal bundles in an open-coast macrotidal environment, northern Gyeonggi Bay, west coast of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Kyungsik; Kim, Do Hyeong

    2016-06-01

    Tidal dunes with well-defined rhythmic tidal bundles are documented from the lower intertidal zone of an open-coast macrotidal environment in Gyeonggi Bay, Korea. Based on combined morphologic, sedimentologic and hydrodynamic datasets, this study aims to characterize the factors that govern the temporal and spatial variability of tidal bundles in a non-barred, unconfined macrotidal environment. The tidal dunes are flood-asymmetric and of longer wavelength (10-20 m) with small ebb caps on the upper bank, and symmetric to slightly ebb-asymmetric and of shorter wavelength (5-10 m) with larger ebb caps on the lower bank. The upper-bank dunes are characterized by more steeply dipping flood-directed planar cross-beds and thinner mud drapes than the lower-bank dunes. Each tidal bundle consists of a single mud drape that is stratified to cross-stratified, rich in silt and very fine sand. It overlies ebb-directed ripples and represents dynamic mud deposition during the ebb tidal phase. The presence of strong rotary currents (up to 0.25 m/s) and low suspended-sediment concentration of flood currents prevent deposition of mud drapes during the high-tide slack-water period. The distinct asymmetry in the water elevation at which the velocity peaks during the ebb and flood phases results in the preferential preservation of flood-directed cross-beds in the lower intertidal zone, where the ebb current - although stronger than the flood currents - is of shorter duration and hence unable to reverse the dune profile. The pronounced time-velocity asymmetry at the higher elevation combined with the distinct velocity peak asymmetry leads to a better preservation of hierarchical tidal cycles in the upper-bank dunes. The present study suggests that the persistent occurrence of single, stratified to cross-stratified mud drapes, which reflect dynamic mud deposition during the ebb phase, and the dominance of flood-directed cross-beds are diagnostic features of tidal bundles in the intertidal

  6. Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica.

    OpenAIRE

    Nield, G.A.; Whitehouse, P.L.; King, M. K.; Clarke, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might con...

  7. Los mamíferos marinos en la costa central de Oaxaca Marine mammals along the central coast of Oaxaca

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Meraz; Víctor Manuel Sánchez-Díaz

    2008-01-01

    Con la finalidad de conocer las especies de mamíferos marinos que se encuentran en la costa central de Oaxaca, se elaboró un listado comentando las características de los registros obtenidos. Se incluyeron las observaciones hechas a lo largo de 30 recorridos por mar, entre junio de 1999 y enero de 2004, realizadas entre las bahías de Huatulco y la playa de La Escobilla. Adicionalmente se incluyeron registros de animales varados, así como observaciones realizadas desde la costa. Se presentan c...

  8. Riparian litter inputs to streams in the central Oregon Coast Range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Stephanie K.; Hibbs, David E.; Perakis, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Riparian-zone vegetation can influence terrestrial and aquatic food webs through variation in the amount, timing, and nutritional content of leaf and other litter inputs. We investigated how riparian-forest community composition, understory density, and lateral slope shaped vertical and lateral litter inputs to 16 streams in the Oregon Coast Range. Riparian forests dominated by deciduous red alder delivered greater annual vertical litter inputs to streams (504 g m−2 y−1) than did riparian forests dominated by coniferous Douglas-fir (394 g m−2 y−1). Deciduous forests also contributed greater lateral litter inputs per meter of stream bank on one side (109 g m−1 y−1) than did coniferous forests (63 g m−1 y−1). Total litter inputs from deciduous forests exceeded those from coniferous forests most strongly in November, coincident with an autumn peak in litter inputs. Lateral litter inputs contributed most to total inputs during winter in both forest types. Annual lateral litter movement increased with slope at deciduous sites, but only in spring/summer months at coniferous sites. Neither experimental removal of understory vegetation nor installation of mesh fences to block downslope litter movement affected lateral litter inputs to streams, suggesting that ground litter moves litter fractions were higher at deciduous sites and, when combined with greater litter amounts, yielded twice as much total litter N flux to streams in deciduous than coniferous sites. The presence of red alder in riparian forests along many small streams of the deeply incised and highly dendritic basins of the Oregon Coast Range enhances total fluxes and seasonality of litter delivery to both terrestrial and aquatic food webs in this region and complements the shade and large woody debris provided by large coniferous trees.

  9. Investigating the intellectual origins of Euroland's macroeconomic policy regime: central banking institutions and traditions in West Germany after the war

    OpenAIRE

    Bibow, Jörg

    2004-01-01

    This paper investigates the (re-) establishment of central banking in West Germany after 1945 and the history of the Bundesbank Act of 1957. The main focus is on the early emphasis on the ‘independence’ of the central bank, which, together with a ‘stability-orientation’ in monetary policy, proved a lasting German peculiarity. The paper inquires whether contemporary German economic thought may have provided a theoretical case for this peculiar tradition and scrutinizes the political calculus t...

  10. 78 FR 54394 - Determination of Attainment for the West Central Pinal Nonattainment Area for the 2006 Fine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... 2006 Fine Particle Standard; Arizona; Determination Regarding Applicability of Clean Air Act...-hour fine particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS). This determination is based... Action On July 12, 2013 (78 FR 41901), EPA proposed to determine that the West Central...

  11. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition – central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Joevivek; N Chandrasekar

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  12. Seasonal impact on beach morphology and the status of heavy mineral deposition - central Tamil Nadu coast, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joevivek, V.; Chandrasekar, N.

    2014-02-01

    The aim of the present research was to investigate the seasonal impact on nearshore beach dynamics and the status of heavy mineral distribution along central Tamil Nadu coast, India. Beach profile measurements were made in 10 profiling sites between Thirukadaiyur and Velankanni on monthly and seasonal basis from January 2011 to July 2012. Using beach profile data, variation in beach width, slope and volumetric changes have been calculated. Beach slope and nearshore wave parameters were used to quantify the longshore sediment transport rate. Beaches between Thirukadaiyur and Karaikkal attained predominant transport rate in northern direction whereas, the rest of the beaches are in southern direction. The seasonal action of wind and wave currents create nearshore bar during northeast (NE) monsoon and frequent berms at tidal zone during southwest (SW) monsoon. Surface sediment samples were collected in each location for quantifying the heavy mineral weight percentage during the period of pre- and post-Thane cyclone. Sediments were also studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) to evaluate the changes and occurrence of heavy minerals in beach sands. The XRD results show that sediments in the study area have enriched heavy mineral distribution even after strong cyclonic event. It confirms the redistribution of heavy mineral deposits present in the coast. The results suggested that monsoonal action has influenced the seasonal changes in beach morphology and it does not affect the heavy mineral distribution.

  13. A survey of syrphid predators of Nasonovia ribisnigri in organic lettuce on the central coast of California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Hugh A; Chaney, William E

    2007-02-01

    Organic lettuce, Lactuca sativa L., producers on California's Central Coast rely on endemic syrphid flies (Diptera: Syrphidae) to suppress populations of Nasonovia ribisnigri Mosley (Homoptera: Aphididae) and other aphids affecting lettuce. Growers are using various forms of habitat manipulation to enhance biological control. We surveyed syrphids collected from organic romaine in and around the Salinas Valley from March through September 2005 to gain a better understanding of the species responsible for aphid suppression and to examine possible implications for biocontrol. The primary species of syrphid fly reared were Toxomerus marginatus (Say) (39%), Platycheirus stegnus (Say) (27%), Sphaerophoria sulfuripes (Thomson) (13%), and Allograpta obliqua (Say) (10%). Syrphus opinator Osten Sacken (2%), Toxomerus occidentalis (Curran) (1.3%), and Eupeodes volucris Osten Sacken (1%) were less common. Sphaerophoria pyrrhina Bigot, Scaeva pyrastri (L.), Platycheirus obscurus Say, Allograpta exotica Wiedemann, and Eupeodes americanus Wiedemann each made up parasitized by either Diplazon sp. (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonidae) or Pachyneuron sp. (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). PMID:17370807

  14. Ecological response of foraminiferal component in the sediments of Kharo Creek, Kachchh (Gujarat), west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chaturvedi, S.K.; Nigam, R.; Khare, N.

    Creek, of East Coast of India, Setty (1982) and Setty and Nigam (1984) who studied foraminifera for pollution effect in Thane Creek, Bombay and Nigam and Chaturvedi (2000) of Kharo Creek of Kachchh, no other attempt has so far been made to study... flow in the creek and therefore less affected as compared to middle stream. The effect of tides on foraminifera have also been reported by other workers in vicinity of this region (Nigam, 1984). Earlier researchers have explained that turbulence...

  15. Evidence for an eastward flow along the Central and South American Caribbean Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Carlos Alberto; Barton, Eric Desmond; Mooers, Christopher N. K.

    2003-06-01

    Hydrographic transects suggest an eastward flow with a subsurface core along the entire southern boundary of the Caribbean Sea. The transport of the coastal limb of the Panama-Colombia Gyre (PCG), known as the Panama-Colombia Countercurrent, decreases toward the east (from ˜6 Sv off Panama), as water is lost into the recirculation of the PCG. Off Panama, the flow is strongest at the surface, but, off Colombia, it is strongest at around 100 m. A portion of the counterflow (˜1 Sv) continues eastward along the Colombian coast as far as the Guajira region (12°N, 72°W), where it submerges to become an undercurrent beneath the coastal upwelling center there. The eastward flow also occurs in the Venezuela Basin, beneath the coastal upwelling region off Cariaco Basin and exits the Caribbean through the Grenada Channel at around 200 m depth. Numerical simulations suggest that this flow, counter to the Caribbean Current, is a semi-continuous feature along the entire southern boundary of the Caribbean, and that it is associated with offshore cyclonic eddies. It probably constitutes part of the Sverdrup circulation of the Tropical North Atlantic cyclonic cell.

  16. Characterization and cycling of atmospheric mercury along the central US Gulf Coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engle, M.A.; Tate, M.T.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Kolker, A.; Olson, M.L.; Edgerton, E.S.; DeWild, J.F.; McPherson, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Concentrations of atmospheric Hg species, elemental Hg (Hg{ring operator}), reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5) were measured at a coastal site near Weeks Bay, Alabama from April to August, 2005 and January to May, 2006. Mean concentrations of the species were 1.6 ?? 0.3 ng m-3, 4.0 ?? 7.5 pg m-3 and 2.7 ?? 3.4 pg m-3, respectively. A strong diel pattern was observed for RGM (midday maximum concentrations were up to 92.7 pg m-3), but not for Hg{ring operator} or Hg-PM2.5. Elevated RGM concentrations (>25 pg m-3) in April and May of 2005 correlated with elevated average daytime O3 concentrations (>55 ppbv) and high light intensity (>500 W m-2). These conditions generally corresponded with mixed continental-Gulf and exclusively continental air mass trajectories. Generally lower, but still elevated, RGM peaks observed in August, 2005 and January-March, 2006 correlated significantly (p 2.5 ??m). A potential source of the large fraction of coarse particulate Hg in the study area is sequestration of RGM within sea salt aerosols. The presence of rapidly depositing RGM and coarse particulate Hg may be important sources of Hg input along the Gulf Coast. However, the impact of these species on deposition rates is yet to be determined. ?? 2008.

  17. Low-Level Waste Ocean Disposal Program final report: Site characterization of the Pacific Study Area, West Coast, Northern Site (W-N)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the outcome of a Pacific Ocean research program begun in November 1978 by Sandia National Laboratories for the Bettis Atomic Power Laboratory. The six-year oceanographic program was in support of a US Navy environmental evaluation of possible sea disposal of defueled, decommissioned, nuclear-powered submarines. Evaluation guidelines were written to define a site suitable for such sea disposal. This final report, which combines results from two previous progress reports and data from recently completed studies, characterizes a suitable site, the West Coast, Northern Site (W-N). Although W-N is neither the only possible nor the best Pacific site, it is one suitable location under the site evaluation guidelines. 95 refs., 29 figs., 10 tabs

  18. An investigation of the feasibility of building a harbor on the West coast of South America using explosive power of nuclear weapons, a preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zodtner, H. H.

    1971-12-31

    There is an interest in discovering the various peace time uses of nuclear explosives. One of the proposals is the building of harbors. There are several ports along the west coast of South America where lighterage is necessary. This implies a need for expanded harbor facilities. The problem is to find a good location for creating a harbor, and the feasibility of accomplishing this with the use of nuclear force. Feasibility includes blast effects, radiation hazards, the number of weapons needed, and economic considerations. Economic considerations include the cost of treating a harbor of sufficient depth and area, the building of harbor facilities, and the estimated savings and advantages of the new harbor. Several meetings were held with naval personnel of the Military Liaison group at UCRL to discuss the general problems of harbors. Thirty-three different ports were given a preliminary investigation.

  19. Comparison ecological characteristics of mound-building mouse (mus spicilegus in two natural hotbeds of tularemia at North-West coast of the Black sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    І. T. Rusev

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of ecology-epizootic monitoring of North-West coast of the Black sea carried out in wintering seasons of 2004, 2005 and 2011 testifies the basic role of the Mound-building mouse (Mus spicilegus Petenyi, 1882 as a carrier of Francisella tularensis. Spatial distribution of the Mound-building mouse strongly dependson a biotope, geographical region and weather conditions of a specific season. Mice nests in the storage mounds are located normally at a depth of 20–40 cm under the food storage chamber. Average number of the mice in storage mounds is 3.08 ± 1.54 in the south of investigated region and 3.88 ± 2.63 – in the NE of the region.

  20. Tropospheric profiles of nitrogen oxides, ozone, and other related trace species measured over the Atlantic near the west coast of Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrer, F.; Bruening, D.; Grobler, E.S.; Koppmann, R.; Kraus, A.B.; Schrimpf, W.; Weber, M.; Ehhalt, D.H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Atmosphaerische Chemie

    1997-12-31

    In June and December 1994, the concentrations of the nitrogen oxides NO, NO{sub 2} and NO{sub y} were measured together with ozone, photolysis frequency of NO{sub 2}, methane, CO, CO{sub 2}, PAN, and light hydrocarbons near the west coast of Europe above the Atlantic Ocean. Two vertical profiles for each season were obtained in the altitude range 1.5 to 12 km at four locations: near Prestwick (56 deg N, 9 deg W), Brest (49 deg N, 6 deg W), Faro (37 deg N, 12 deg W) and Tenerife (30 deg N, 18 deg W). The measured vertical profiles of NO are compared to the results of a low resolution 3-D chemical tracer model. (author)

  1. Linkage between speciation of Cd in mangrove sediment and its bioaccumulation in total soft tissue of oyster from the west coast of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Parthasarathi; Ramteke, Darwin; Gadi, Subhadra Devi; Bardhan, Pratirupa

    2016-05-15

    This study established a mechanistic linkage between Cd speciation and bioavailability in mangrove system from the west coast of India. High bioaccumulation of Cd was found in the oyster (Crassostrea sp.) even at low Cd loading in the bottom sediment. Bioaccumulation of Cd in the oyster gradually increased with the increasing concentrations of water soluble, exchangeable and carbonate/bicarbonate forms of Cd in the sediments. Fe/Mn oxyhydroxide phase was found to control Cd bioavailability in the sediment system. Cd-associated with sedimentary organic matter was bioavailable and organic ligands in the sediments were poor chelating agents for Cd. This study suggests that bioaccumulation of Cd in oyster (Crassostrea sp.) depends not on the total Cd concentration but on the speciation of Cd in the system. PMID:26874748

  2. New Tooth Enamel Isotopic Data from the West Coast of South Africa and a Comparison of Terrestrial and Marine Records of Plio-Pleistocene Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehmann, S. B.; Levin, N. E.; Stynder, D. D.; Bishop, L. C.; Forrest, F.; Braun, D. R.

    2012-12-01

    taxonomic group. However, δ18O values of the EFT teeth are more than 2‰ higher than δ18O values of LBW teeth for each herbivore family that was sampled. Enamel δ13C values from LBW and EFT indicate herbivore diets that were dominated by C3 vegetation during the Pliocene and Pleistocene. Mesowear studies of teeth suggest that the West Coast of South Africa was a forested environment with seasonal grasses during the Pliocene but that it supported trees, fynbos and grasses in the mid-Pleistocene. The isotopic indications of C3 diets among grazers from both sites suggest that a WRZ must have existed across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. The positive shift in δ18O values of fossil tooth enamel between the early Pliocene and the mid-Pleistocene on the West Coast of South Africa might suggest a change in the oxygen isotopic composition of rainfall and a decrease in the amount of rainfall across the Plio-Pleistocene transition. Excluding diagenesis, these conclusions are consistent with marine records. This study indicates the potential for using the stable isotope records from fossil teeth from the West Coast of South Africa to evaluate how the intensification of the Benguela Upwelling System, which is well documented in the marine records, affected terrestrial ecosystems across the Plio-Pleistocene transition.

  3. The climatological moisture sources and sinks for Atmospheric Rivers impacting the West Coast of the United States in modern and doubled CO2 climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nusbaumer, J. M.; Noone, D. C.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers are known to be major drivers of precipitation in many parts of the globe, including the West Coast of the United States. Atmospheric rivers are usually identified as long, filamentary structures of elevated vertically-integrated water vapor transport, and can extend over thousands of km, from the tropics all the way to the midlatitudes. However, it is generally unclear where exactly the moisture in atmospheric rivers comes from, and if that moisture is transported over long distances across the entire river, or if it is continuously precipitated out and replenished by local moisture. By better constraining the sources and sinks of moisture in atmospheric rivers, one can learn which geographic regions or meteorological processes are important for forecasting the rivers' hydrological impacts. Also, by determining how these moisture sources and sinks will change with the global climate, one can gain a better understanding of future atmospheric river conditions, and thus better future hydroclimate projections. We show the sources and sinks of water vapor and cloud condensate in atmospheric rivers as simulated by the water tracer-enabled NCAR Community Atmosphere Model Version 5 (CAM5). Specifically, numerous regions in the North Pacific and Western North America are tagged with water tracers, and their relative contributions to atmospheric river moisture and precipitation are calculated for rivers that impact the West Coast of the United States. Two simulations using the model are performed, one with modern-day boundary conditions, and another with doubled-CO2 conditions. It is found that the majority of moisture in atmospheric rivers comes from the subtropical (20 to 30° N) Pacific, although a substantial portion of moisture for some atmospheric rivers also comes from the tropics (river is from the source, indicating a continuous loss by precipitation, and a replacement by locally evaporated moisture. However, there can still be non

  4. CalWater Field Studies Designed to Quantify the Roles of Atmospheric Rivers and Aerosols in Modulating U.S. West Coast Precipitation in a Changing Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph, F. M.; Prather, Kimberly A.; Cayan, Dan; Spackman, J. R.; DeMott, Paul J.; Dettinger, M.; Fairall, C.; Leung, Lai-Yung R.; Rosenfeld, Daniel; Rutledge, Steven A.; Waliser, D.; White, A. B.; Cordeira, J.; Martin, A.; Helly, J.; Intrieri, J.

    2016-08-22

    The variability of precipitation and water supply along the U.S. West Coast creates major challenges to the region’s economy and environment, as evidenced by the recent California drought. This variability is strongly influenced by atmospheric rivers (AR), which deliver much of the precipitation along the U.S. West Coast and can cause flooding, and by aerosols (from local sources and transported from remote continents and oceans) that modulate clouds and precipitation. A better understanding of these processes is needed to reduce uncertainties in weather predictions and climate projections of droughts and floods, both now and under changing climate conditions.To address these gaps a group of meteorologists, hydrologists, climate scientists, atmospheric chemists, and oceanographers have created an interdisciplinary research effort, with support from multiple agencies. From 2009-2011 a series of field campaigns (CalWater 1) collected atmospheric chemistry, cloud microphysics and meteorological measurements in California and associated modeling and diagnostic studies were carried out. Based on remaining gaps, a vision was developed to extend these studies offshore over the Eastern North Pacific and to enhance land based measurements from 2014-2018 (CalWater 2). The data set and selected results from CalWater 1 are summarized here. The goals of CalWater-2, and measurements to date, are then described. CalWater is producing new findings and exploring new technologies to evaluate and improve global climate models and their regional performance and to develop tools supporting water and hydropower management. These advances also have potential to enhance hazard mitigation by improving near-term weather prediction and subseasonal and seasonal outlooks.

  5. Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Trace Metals (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in Coastal Waters off the West Coast of Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Tung Jiann

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Surface water samples were collected along the west coast of Taiwan during two expedition cruises which represent periods of different regional climatic patterns. Information on hydrochemical parameters such as salinity, nutrients, suspended particulate matter (SPM, and Chlorophyll a concentrations were obtained, and dissolved and particulate trace metal (Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations were determined. Spatial variations were observed and the differences were attributed to (1 influence of varying extents of terrestrial inputs from the mountainous rivers of Taiwan to the coast, and (2 urbanization and industrialization in different parts of the island. Geochemical processes such as desorption (Cd and adsorption to sinking particles (Pb also contributed to the variability of trace metal distributions in coastal waters. Results showed temporal variations in chemical characteristics in coastal waters as a consequence of prevailing monsoons. During the wet season when river discharges were higher, the transport of particulate metals was elevated due to increased sediment loads. During the dry season, lower river discharges resulted in a lesser extent of estuarine dilution effect for chemicals of anthropogenic sources, indicated by higher dissolved concentrations present in coastal waters associated with slightly higher salinity.

  6. Distribution, biomass and size of grooved Tanner crabs (Chionoecetes tanneri) from annual bottom trawl surveys (2003-2010) along the U.S. west coast (Washington to California)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Aimee A.; Harms, John H.; Buchanan, John C.

    2012-09-01

    Catch and distribution of grooved Tanner crab (Chionoecetes tanneri Rathbun, 1893) from the Northwest Fisheries Science Center's bottom trawl survey (55-1280 m) were examined along the U.S. west coast (lat. 32°30'N-48°30'N). Grooved Tanner crabs were present in 28% of tows and occurred primarily at depths from 300 to 1280 m. Annual biomass (metric tons, mt) indices and density (kg km-2) estimates for the population varied significantly throughout the study area and within five International North Pacific Fisheries Commission (INPFC) statistical areas. Highest estimates occurred in the Monterey INPFC area (lat. 36°N-40°30'N) and within the 601-800 m depth interval. Depth distribution varied by year and coast-wide catch-weighted average depths (m) were significantly correlated with average annual Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) indices (2003-2010), a measure of Pacific climate variability. Annual mean carapace widths (CW), measured from 2005 to 2010, were always greater for males (96.9-113.9 mm) relative to females (85.3-95.8 mm). Size frequency distributions varied by year with strong recruitment for both sexes apparent in 2010. Grooved Tanner crabs were partially segregated by depth and stage. Males and females were found in all depth intervals but the average depth of adult females was significantly shallower (756 m) than adult males (837 m); adults were significantly shallower than subadult female (907 m) and subadult male (927 m) crabs.

  7. Glacial isostatic adjustment in response to changing Late Holocene behaviour of ice streams on the Siple Coast, West Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nield, Grace A.; Whitehouse, Pippa L.; King, Matt A.; Clarke, Peter J.

    2016-04-01

    The Siple Coast region of Antarctica contains a number of fast-flowing ice streams, which control the dynamics and mass balance of the region. These ice streams are known to undergo stagnation and reactivation cycles, which lead to ice thickness changes that may be sufficient to excite a viscous solid Earth response (glacial isostatic adjustment; GIA). This study aims to quantify Siple Coast ice thickness changes during the last 2000 yr in order to determine the degree to which they might contribute to GIA and associated present-day bedrock uplift rates. This is important because accurate modelling of GIA is necessary to determine the rate of present-day ice-mass change from satellite gravimetry. Recently-published reconstructions of ice-stream variability were used to create a suite of kinematic models for the stagnation-related thickening of Kamb Ice Stream since ˜1850 AD, and a GIA model was used to predict present-day deformation rates in response to this thickening. A number of longer-term loading scenarios, which include the stagnation and reactivation of ice streams across the Siple Coast over the past 2000 yr, were also constructed, and used to investigate the longer term GIA signal in the region. Uplift rates for each of the ice loading histories, based on a range of earth models, were compared with regional GPS-observed uplift rates and an empirical GIA estimate. We estimate Kamb Ice Stream to have thickened by 70-130 m since stagnation ˜165 years ago. Modelled present-day vertical motion in response to this load increase peaks at -17 mm yr-1 (i.e. 17 mm yr-1 subsidence) for the weakest earth models tested here. Comparison of the solid Earth response to ice load changes throughout the last glacial cycle, including ice stream stagnation and reactivation across the Siple Coast during the last 2000 yr, with an empirical GIA estimate suggests that the upper mantle viscosity of the region is greater than 1 × 1020 Pa s. When upper mantle viscosity values of

  8. Climate Change in Central and West Asia. Routes to a More Secure, Low-Carbon Future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-11-15

    ADB's Central and West Asian countries are Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan. Geoclimatic and environmental factors make this region highly vulnerable to the risks and hazards of climate change. For example, accelerated glacial melt has serious implications for agriculture, water supply, and energy generation - problems exacerbated by overexploitation of natural resources. Countries may find it difficult to shift to low-carbon growth, since many have abundant fossil fuel and tend to use energy inefficiently. ADB is responding to these climate hazards and low-carbon pathways with a comprehensive strategy that strengthens policies, governance, and capacity support; expands the use of clean and renewable energy; encourages sustainable transport and urban development; promotes development that will be more resilient to climate change, especially in water-dependent sectors; and manages land use and forests for carbon sequestration. ADB's support is helping its developing member countries face the challenges of climate change and, with partners, is providing innovative solutions, while continuing to work to reduce poverty.

  9. Traits associated with winter wheat grain yield in Central and West Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marta Silva Lopes; Didem Saglam; Mutlu Ozdogan; Matthew Reynolds

    2014-01-01

    Improved adaptation of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to drought and heat may be influenced by days to heading, plant height, biomass, canopy temperature (CT) at grain fil ing, and rate of senescence. This study shows that, under supplemental irrigation or rainfed conditions, days to heading and plant height together explain up to 68%of grain yield (GY) variation, and these associations were further confirmed in several locations across West and Central Asia. Days to heading can be slightly reduced below that of check line Karahan to further improve GY while avoiding the effect of late frosts. Plant height has been decreased in recent germplasm, but further reductions below that of check line Karahan could stil improve GY in a wide range of environ-ments. However, in Iranian sites, tal er genotypes showed better adaptation with higher biomass and increased reserves for grain fil ing. Canopy temperature and rate senescence were not associated with GY. A normalized difference vegetation index, used to estimate biomass (Feekes stages 4-5), had intermediate heritability across environments and correlated positively with GY under low plant density and should be explored further as a tool for early selection.

  10. New evidence for hybrid zones of forest and savanna elephants in Central and West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondol, Samrat; Moltke, Ida; Hart, John; Keigwin, Michael; Brown, Lisa; Stephens, Matthew; Wasser, Samuel K

    2015-12-01

    The African elephant consists of forest and savanna subspecies. Both subspecies are highly endangered due to severe poaching and habitat loss, and knowledge of their population structure is vital to their conservation. Previous studies have demonstrated marked genetic and morphological differences between forest and savanna elephants, and despite extensive sampling, genetic evidence of hybridization between them has been restricted largely to a few hybrids in the Garamba region of northeastern Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Here, we present new genetic data on hybridization from previously unsampled areas of Africa. Novel statistical methods applied to these data identify 46 hybrid samples--many more than have been previously identified--only two of which are from the Garamba region. The remaining 44 are from three other geographically distinct locations: a major hybrid zone along the border of the DRC and Uganda, a second potential hybrid zone in Central African Republic and a smaller fraction of hybrids in the Pendjari-Arli complex of West Africa. Most of the hybrids show evidence of interbreeding over more than one generation, demonstrating that hybrids are fertile. Mitochondrial and Y chromosome data demonstrate that the hybridization is bidirectional, involving males and females from both subspecies. We hypothesize that the hybrid zones may have been facilitated by poaching and habitat modification. The localized geography and rarity of hybrid zones, their possible facilitation from human pressures, and the high divergence and genetic distinctness of forest and savanna elephants throughout their ranges, are consistent with calls for separate species classification. PMID:26577954

  11. Chronic morbidity in women, namely in pregnancy. (Comparative study between West, Central and East European centres).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukla, L; Bouchalova, M; Shkiriak-Nyzhnyk, Z; Chyslovska, N; Golding, J; Goodfellow, S; Ignatjeva, R

    2008-01-01

    18 chronic diseases were investigated in a population of 13,115 women living in six settings of West- (Avon UK, the Isle of Man), Central- (the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic) and East-Europe (the Ukraine and Russia), that collaborate in the European Longitudinal Study of Pregnancy and Childhood (ELSPAC project). In prenatal questionnaires filled in after the first half of pregnancy, women reported 25,795 chronic diseases they ever suffered, out of them 11,188 having in present pregnancies. In the whole sample, lifelong prevalence was 11,2%, and prevalence in pregnancy 4,8% which means that 43,4% of all chronic diseases recurred in pregnancy. Up to mean age of 255 years in the whole sample, 39,6% women reported ever having indigestion, 29% back pains, 22,6% migraine, about 16% haemorrhoids, hay fever and eczema, about 10% varicose veins, anorexia nervosa, heavy depression and kidney diseases, over 5% rheumatism and 4% asthma. Less prevalent were infections of pelvic organs, febrile convulsions, joint inflammations, stomach ulcers, psoriasis and epilepsy. Lifetime prevalence of chronic diseases and their prevalence in pregnancy were the highest in the western zone and decreased eastwards, but recurrence grew in the opposite direction, being the highest in the eastern zone. The variation of each morbidity indicator is followed in all diseases between geographical zones as well as between individual study centres. PMID:18822844

  12. Reproductive biology of yellowfin tuna T. albacares in the west-central Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Guoping; Xu, Liuxiong; Zhou, Yingqi; Song, Liming

    2008-08-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese longliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1 023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is estimated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female’s along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  13. Geochemical studies of some uraniferous sedimentary rock varieties of west central Sinai, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new radioactive mineralization has been lately discovered in Wadi Nasib, west central Sinai. The radioactivity is essentially associated with the Lower Carboniferous sandstone, shale, clay, and gravel. The uranium and thorium distribution in some investigated samples showed that uranium content generally ranges from 105ppm to 5083ppm in the sandstone and siltstone respectively. However, thorium content ranges from nil up to 330 in some ferruginous siltstone and ferruginous sandstones respectively. The geochemical relationships between uranium and/or thorium and the other analyzed constituents including iron, copper, manganese, sulphate, soluble chlorides and organic matter, have been manifested. This geochemical study clarifies that the siltstones are the most radioactive rock type. The presence of uranium in the hexavalent state has been ascertained by the presence of secondary uranium minerals like uvanite, meta tyuyamunite, meta zeunerite, liebigite, and uranophane. At the same time, there are other radioactive minerals such as xenotime, atacamite, and jarosite. It has been concluded that the secondary uranium minerals may represent the oxidation products of the pre-existing uranium minerals in the basement rocks. The clay and shale components in the siltstones are the most suitable lithological facies for uranium trapping via absorption, concentration, and deposition stages

  14. Radiation-hazardous objects at the west and central Kazakstan territory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1965-1987, there were conducted 39 industrial underground explosions in the territory of Kazakhstan Republic, in particular in its west and central region (explosions conducted at Semipalatinsk test site, East-Kazakhstan oblates are not included). These explosions were conducted in terms of the Program 7 Peaceful nuclear explosions for industrial purposes with the purpose of test-industrial investigation conducting for testing a technology for formation of cavities in rock salt in order to be used as multipurpose large volume storage. Energy from underground nuclear explosions was used for peaceful technological purposes, in particular, in the territories of hydrocarbon raw materials mining and industrial developing. It is obvious, that residual radioactivity, even if it is very small, is a factor, that hampers to use nuclear explosions for this purpose. The major problems are the following: safety measures, which are necessary for implementation of the projects on nuclear explosion usage in peaceful purposes, admissible level of environment pollution in whole and possible consequences. All necessary measures must be taken to ensure safety in the regions, where explosions were conducted, including all the least probable accidents (for instance, breach during camuflet explosions). To make sure, that existing admissible standards will not be exceeded, it is necessary to know the level of environment radiation contamination and to forecast probable contamination caused by explosions

  15. Structural influences on seismic stratigraphy of Nias forearc basin, west of central Sumatra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matson, R.G.; Moore, G.F.

    1988-02-01

    The Nias forearc basin is a 250-km long, 100-km wide bathyal depression located between the mainland of west-central Sumatra and the island of Nias. A grid of multichannel reflection seismic data covering the basin and adjacent shelves was used to map Neogene structure and to delineate the Neogene seismic stratigraphy. Six major structural features, including the continental margin, strike-slip faults traversing the forearc, and uplifts within the accretionary wedge, were mapped, while 11 seismic sequences were identified within Neogene reflectors. Positive correlations between the structure and seismic facies distributions indicate structure has influenced subsidence and depositional patterns through the developmental history of the basin. From a developmental standpoint, the Nias forearc basin can be subdivided into two smaller basins, the Singkel basin to the north and the Pini basin to the south. During the Miocene and early Pliocene, distinct facies distributions indicate that these two basins developed independently of each other. Subsidence in the Singkel basis was initiated between two parallel strike-slip faults that traverse the forearc. The geometry of the Pini basin, on the other hand, was controlled by the local character of the continental margin and by the uplift of the developing accretionary wedge. In the late Pliocene, a more unified facies distribution across the study area indicates subsidence of a more regional character and an increased regional structural influence over the entire Nias basin area.

  16. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  17. Virucidal activity and chemical composition of essential oils from aromatic plants of central west Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Cybele C; Acosta, Eliana G; Carro, Ana C; Fernández Belmonte, María C; Bomben, Renata; Duschatzky, Claudia B; Perotti, Marina; Schuff, Carola; Damonte, Elsa B

    2010-08-01

    The essential oils of seven aromatic plants from central west Argentina were isolated by steam distillation and analyzed by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry technique. The oils were screened for cytotoxicity and in vitro inhibitory activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1), dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2) and Junin virus (JUNV). The oils showed a variable virucidal action according to the virus. JUNV was the least susceptible virus in comparison with HSV-1 and DENV-2. The better relationship between cytotoxicity and inhibitory activity was observed for the essential oil of Lantana grisebachiii (Seckt.) var. grisebachii against DENV-2 and HSV-1 with IC50 (inhibitory concentration 50%) values of 21.1 and 26.1 ppm, respectively. This effect was specific since the selectivity indices (ratio cytotoxicity/virucidal activity) were > 23.7 and > 19.1 for DENV-2 and HSV-1, respectively. Furthermore, the oil from L. grisebachii was also an effective inhibitor of HSV-2 and acyclovir resistant variants of herpes virus. This study demonstrates the effective and selective inhibitory activity of the essential oil from Lantana grisebachii against HSV and DENV by direct virus inactivation. PMID:20839642

  18. Land use patterns and the risk of West Nile virus transmission in central Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Allison M; Lampman, Richard L; Muturi, Ephantus J

    2014-05-01

    Understanding how human land use patterns influence mosquito ecology and the risk of mosquito-borne pathogens is critical for the development of disease management strategies. We examined how different environments influenced mosquito species composition, abundance, and West Nile virus (WNV) infection rates in central Illinois. Using a combination of gravid traps and CDC light traps, adult mosquitoes were collected every other week from June 24 to September 16, 2012, in four major land use categories-row crops, prairies, forest fragments, and residential neighborhoods. The mosquitoes were identified to species morphologically, and pools of pure and mixed Culex mosquitoes (primarily Culex pipiens and Culex restuans) were tested for WNV-RNA by qRT-PCR. Mosquito species diversity was significantly higher in forest habitats compared to residential, agricultural, and prairie land use categories. All the four landscape types were equally important habitats for WNV vectors Cx. pipiens and Cx. restuans, contrary to previous findings that these species principally inhabit the residential areas. WNV-infected mosquito pools were observed in all land use types, and the infection rates overlapped among land use categories. Although our findings support the importance of residential habitats for WNV transmission to humans, they also establish that prairie, row crops, and wood lots are potentially important refuges for enzootic transmission. This is particularly important in urban ecosystems where these land use categories are small, interspersed fragments serving as potential refuge sites during periods of low rainfall. PMID:24746038

  19. Prevalence of dog intestinal nematode parasites in south central West Virginia, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savilla, Tashina M; Joy, James E; May, Jeffrey D; Somerville, Charles C

    2011-05-31

    Coprological examination was used to determine prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes in a sample of 231 dogs (117 females and 114 males) during the summer of 2009 at a veterinary clinic in south central West Virginia, USA. Clinical signs (e.g., diarrhea, vomiting, weight gain or loss) were noted in addition to a history of anthelmintic usage. A total of 79 dogs (33.6%) were infected with one or more intestinal nematodes. Most dogs (58) were parasitized with a single species, 19 were parasitized with 2 species, and 2 were parasitized by 3 species. There was no significant difference (i.e., X(2)0.05) in prevalence of infection between female and male dogs for any of the identified nematode species. The chi-square test for equality of proportions was used to determine prevalence of infection in 3 age categories of dogs (females and males combined): young dogs (≤12 months of age); mature dogs (13-83 months); and old dogs >83 months. Prevalences of infection for Ancylostoma caninum and Toxocara canis were significantly (P0.05) in prevalence by age category for Trichuris vulpis. Dogs exhibiting clinical signs were no more likely to harbor intestinal nematodes than dogs that were asymptomatic. Additionally, dogs receiving heartworm treatment were significantly less likely to be parasitized than dogs receiving no heartworm prophylaxis. PMID:21277089

  20. Quaternary Geology and Geomorphology of Terna River Basin in West Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Babar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the morphostratigraphy, lithostratigraphy and sedimentary structures of Terna River basin in the Deccan Basaltic Province (DBP of West Central India. These Quaternary deposits have been divided into three informal formations (i dark grey silt formation – Late Holocene, (ii Light grey silt formations – Early Holocene, (iii Dark grayish brown silt formation – Late Pleistocene with the older Quaternary Alluvial deposits of Upper Pleistocene age. The fine clay and silt formations in the lower reaches reflect that the streams are of low gradient and more sinuous. The river shows evidences of channel movement by avulsion, largely controlled by lineaments. Palaeo-levees, in the form 4–5 m high ridges exist along the Terna River floodplain, specifically in the Ter, Killari, Sastur, Dhuta and Makni villages. Several lineaments occur along NE-SW, NW-SE, E-W and WNW-ESE directions, which control the basement structure in the study area. The values of the Topographic Sinuosity Index (TSI indicate rejuvenation of the area leading to the dominance of topography on the sinuosity of the river channels. The break in slope in the long profile is also indication of the Quaternary tectonic uplift of the area. Radiocarbon dating of some charcoal fragments collected from folded beddings indicates that paleoseismic activity might have taken place along the basin between AD 120 and AD 1671.

  1. Assessment of processes affecting low-flow water quality of Cedar Creek, west-central Illinois

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Arthur R.; Freeman, W.O.; McFarlane, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    Water quality and the processes that affect dissolved oxygen, nutrient (nitrogen and phosphorus species), and algal concentrations were evaluated for a 23.8-mile reach of Cedar Creek near Galesburg, west-central Illinois, during periods of warm-weather, low-flow conditions. Water quality samples were collected and stream conditions were measured over a diel (24 hour) period on three occasions during July and August 1985. Analysis of data from the diel-sampling periods indicates that concentrations of iron, copper, manganese, phenols, and total dissolved-solids exceeded Illinois ' general-use water quality standards in some locations. Dissolved-oxygen concentrations were less than the State minimum standard throughout much of the study reach. These data were used to calibrate and verify a one-dimensional, steady-state, water quality model. The computer model was used to assess the relative effects on low-flow water quality of processes such as algal photosynthesis and respiration, ammonia oxidation, biochemical oxygen demand, sediment oxygen demand, and stream reaeration. Results from model simulations and sensitivity analysis indicate that sediment oxygen demand is the principal cause of low dissolved-oxygen concentrations in the creek. (USGS)

  2. Evapotranspiration from areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidlake, W.R.; Woodham, W.M.; Lopez, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    A study was made to examine the suitability of three different micrometeorological methods for estimating evapotranspiration from selected areas of native vegetation in west-central Florida and to estimate annual evapotranspiration from those areas. Evapotranspiration was estimated using the energy- balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation methods. Potential evapotranspiration was computed using the Penman equation. The energy-balance Bowen ratio method was used to estimate diurnal evapotrans- piration at unforested sites and yielded reasonable results; however, measurements indicated that the magnitudes of air temperature and vapor-pressure gradients above the forested sites were too small to obtain reliable evapotranspiration measurements with the energy balance Bowen ratio system. Analysis of the surface energy-balance indicated that sensible and latent heat fluxes computed using standard eddy correlation computation methods did not adequately account for available energy. Eddy correlation data were combined with the equation for the surface energy balance to yield two additional estimates of evapotranspiration. Daily potential evapotranspiration and evapotranspira- tion estimated using the energy-balance Bowen ratio method were not correlated at a unforested, dry prairie site, but they were correlated at a marsh site. Estimates of annual evapotranspiration for sites within the four vegetation types, which were based on energy-balance Bowen ratio and eddy correlation measurements, were 1,010 millimeters for dry prairie sites, 990 millimeters for marsh sites, 1,060 millimeters for pine flatwood sites, and 970 millimeters for a cypress swamp site.

  3. Results of the radiological survey at 21 West Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ046)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maywood Chemical Works (MCW) of Maywood, New Jersey, generated process wastes and residues associated with the production and refining of thorium and thorium compounds from monazite ores from 1916 to 1956. MCW supplied rare earth metals and thorium compounds to the Atomic Energy Commission and various other government agencies from the late 1940s to the mid-1950s. Area residents used the sandlike waste from this thorium extraction process mixed with tea and cocoa leaves as mulch in their yards. Some of these contaminated wastes were also eroded from the site into Lodi Brook. At the request of the US Department of Energy (DOE), a group from Oak Ridge National Laboratory conducts investigative radiological surveys of properties in the vicinity of MCW to determine whether a property is contaminated with radioactive residues, principally 232Th, derived from the MCW site. The survey typically includes direct measurement of gamma radiation levels and soil sampling for radionuclide analyses. The survey of this site, 21 West Central Avenue, Maywood, New Jersey (MJ046), was conducted during 1988. 5 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Gyrfalcon feeding behavior during the nestling period in central west Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booms, Travis; Fuller, Mark R.

    2003-01-01

    We studied gyrfalcon (Falco rusticolus) food delivery and feeding behavior during the nestling period in central West Greenland during the 2000 and 2001 field seasons. We used time-lapse video cameras installed at three nests to record 2677.25 hours of nestling video. Ptarmigan delivered to nests were usually plucked prior to delivery and included the breast and superior thoracic vertebrae. Arctic hare leverets were rarely plucked and often delivered in parts. The most commonly delivered leveret part was the hind legs attached to the lower back. Passerines were rarely plucked and usually delivered whole. After feeding the young, adults removed 20.9% of prey items from the nest, which included items both with and without obvious muscle still attached. Prey delivery rates were similar among nests and increased as nestlings aged. Prey delivery frequency peaked in the morning and evening, with a distinct lull in the late evening and early morning hours. Male and female adults delivered a similar number of prey, though males typically delivered smaller prey than females. Gyrfalcons cached and re-delivered at least 9.1% of all items delivered, and one item was cached and retrieved three times.

  5. Reproductive Biology of Yeilowfin Tuna T. albacares in the West-Central Indian Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guoping; XU Liuxiong; ZHOU Yingqi; SONG Liming

    2008-01-01

    Survey of yellowfin tuna in the west-central Indian Ocean was conducted on board of Chinese Iongliners during 2003, 2004 and 2005, which is a part of Chinese Tuna Fishery Scientific Observer Program (CTFSOP). The reproductive biology has been investigated. A total of 1023 samples are collected including 417 ovaries and 606 testes. Spawning activities of yellowfin tuna have been studied for both male and female from January to June. The data showed that the average monthly sex ratio is 0.59, and the minimum length at sexual maturity is 101 cm for female and 110 cm for male respectively. Length at 50% sexual maturity is esti- mated at 113.77 cm for female and 120.20 cm for male, whereas maturation rate is 0.066 cm-1 for female and 0.091 cm-1 for male. Sex ratio by length class indicates that the proportion of male is higher than female's along with size increasing; for instance, in the group of the body length longer than 145 cm, some females have their body length from 145 to 160 cm and males have their body length at 160 cm and even longer. Statistically, yellowfin tuna has a significant seasonal reproduction.

  6. Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 infection (Nematoda: Anisakidae) in Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 from west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiazon, Karl Marx A

    2016-09-01

    Cetaceans are definitive hosts of anisakid nematodes known to cause human anisakidosis. Despite the reported strandings of different cetaceans in the Philippines, studies on anisakids from these definitive hosts are limited. Here, the morphologically and molecularly identified anisakid species, specifically those of the genus Anisakis Dujardin, 1845 in stranded Pygmy Sperm Whale Kogia breviceps Blainville, 1838 in the west Pacific region off Philippine waters are presented. Morphological data using SEM and LM revealed multi-infections with different Anisakis species belonging to Anisakis type I and type II groups. Molecularly, PCR-RFLP on the ITS rDNA and sequence data analyses of both ITS rDNA and mtDNA cox2 regions identified those from Anisakis type I group as A. typica (Diesing, 1860), whereas those from type II group as A. brevispiculata Dollfus, 1968, and A. paggiae Mattiucci et al. (Syst Parasitol 61:157-171, 2005). This is the first record of Anisakis infection from this host stranded in the west Pacific region off the coast of Philippine waters and new geographical record for A. paggiae. PMID:27300704

  7. Wind waves spectra and other data collected using moored buoy in the Great Lakes, Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific and East/West coast of US from 01 June 2000 to 30 June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000217)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wind wave spectra and other data were collected using moored buoys in the Great lakes, Gulf of Mexico, South Pacific and East/West coast of US from June 01, 2000 to...

  8. Hybridising Medicine: Illness, Healing and the Dynamics of Reciprocal Exchange on the Upper Guinea Coast (West Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havik, Philip J

    2016-04-01

    The present article seeks to fill a number of lacunae with regard to the study of the circulation and assimilation of different bodies of medical knowledge in an important cultural contact zone, that is the Upper Guinea Coast. Building upon ongoing research on trade and cultural brokerage in the area, it focuses upon shifting attitudes and practices with regard to health and healing as a result of cultural interaction and hybridisation against the background of growing intra-African and Afro-Atlantic interaction from the fifteenth to the late seventeenth century. Largely based upon travel accounts, missionary reports and documents produced by the Portuguese Inquisition, it shows how forms of medical knowledge shifted and circulated between littoral areas and their hinterland, as well as between the coast, the Atlantic and beyond. It shows that the changing patterns of trade, migration and settlement associated with Mandé influence and Afro-Atlantic exchange had a decisive impact on changing notions of illness and therapeutic trajectories. Over the centuries, cross-cultural, reciprocal borrowing contributed to the development of healing kits employed by Africans and non-African outsiders alike, which were used and brokered by local communities in different locations in the region. PMID:26971596

  9. Diversity of pulsed field gel electrophoresis pulsotypes, serovars and antibiotic resistance among Salmonella isolates from wild amphibians and reptiles in the California central coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    A survey of cold-blooded vertebrates and associated surface waters in a produce-growing region on the Central California Coast was done between May and September, 2011 to determine the diversity of Salmonella strains in these habitats and individuals. Samples from 460 amphibians and reptiles and 119...

  10. Shipboard measurements of gaseous elemental mercury along the coast of Central and Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Williams, E. J.; Lerner, B. M.; Bates, T. S.; Gaston, C.; Prather, K.; Vlasenko, A.; Li, S. M.

    2013-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) in the atmosphere was measured during an oceanographic cruise in coastal waters between San Diego and San Francisco, California during the CalNex 2010 campaign. The goal of the measurements was to quantify GEM in the various environments that the ship encountered, from urban outflow, the Port of Long Beach and associated shipping lanes, coastal waters affected by upwelling, the San Francisco Bay, and the Sacramento ship channel. Mean GEM for the whole cruise was 1.41 ± 0.20 ng m-3, indicating that background concentrations were predominantly observed. The ship's position was most often in waters off the coast of Los Angeles (74% of time with latitude 0.05) higher than the whole cruise mean. South of 34.3°N, GEM was observed to vary diurnally and as a function of wind direction, displaying significantly higher concentrations at night and in the morning associated with general transport from the land to the sea. GEM and CO concentrations were positively correlated with a slope of 0.0011 ng m-3 ppbv-1 (1.23 × 10-7 mol mol-1) during periods identified as "Los Angeles urban outflow", which given the inventoried CO emissions for the region, suggests a larger source of GEM than is accounted for by the inventory. The timing of the diel maximum in GEM (9:00 local time) was intermediate between the maxima of CO and NO2 (6:00) and that of NO and SO2 (10:00-12:00), suggesting that a mixture of urban and industrial sources were contributing to GEM. There was no observable postsunrise dip in GEM concentrations due to reaction with atomic chlorine in the polluted coastal atmosphere. On three occasions, significantly higher GEM concentrations were observed while in the Port of Long Beach (~ 7 ng m-3), and analyses of wind directions, ratios of GEM with other copollutants, and the composition of single particles, suggest that these plumes originated from the local waste incinerator in the Port area. A plume encounter from a large cargo ship

  11. Twentieth-century atmospheric river activity along the west coasts of Europe and North America: algorithm formulation, reanalysis uncertainty and links to atmospheric circulation patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, S.; Gutiérrez, J. M.; San-Martín, D.

    2016-04-01

    A new atmospheric-river detection and tracking scheme based on the magnitude and direction of integrated water vapour transport is presented and applied separately over 13 regions located along the west coasts of Europe (including North Africa) and North America. Four distinct reanalyses are considered, two of which cover the entire twentieth-century: NOAA-CIRES Twentieth Century Reanalysis v2 (NOAA-20C) and ECMWF ERA-20C. Calculations are done separately for the OND and JFM-season and, for comparison with previous studies, for the ONDJFM-season as a whole. Comparing the AR-counts from NOAA-20C and ERA-20C with a running 31-year window looping through 1900-2010 reveals differences in the climatological mean and inter-annual variability which, at the start of the twentieth-century, are much more pronounced in western North America than in Europe. Correlating European AR-counts with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) reveals a pattern reminiscent of the well-know precipitation dipole which is stable throughout the entire century. A similar analysis linking western North American AR-counts to the North Pacific index (NPI) is hampered by the aforementioned poor reanalysis agreement at the start of the century. During the second half of the twentieth-century, the strength of the NPI-link considerably varies with time in British Columbia and the Gulf of Alaska. Considering the period 1950-2010, AR-counts are then associated with other relevant large-scale circulation indices such as the East Atlantic, Scandinavian, Pacific-North American and West Pacific patterns (EA, SCAND, PNA and WP). Along the Atlantic coastline of the Iberian Peninsula and France, the EA-link is stronger than the NAO-link if the OND season is considered and the SCAND-link found in northern Europe is significant during both seasons. Along the west coast of North America, teleconnections are generally stronger during JFM in which case the NPI-link is significant in any of the five considered

  12. Synergistic effects of hypoxia and increasing CO2 on benthic invertebrates of the central Chilean coast

    KAUST Repository

    Steckbauer, Alexandra

    2015-07-10

    Ocean acidification (OA) and hypoxic events are an increasing worldwide problem, but the synergetic effects of these factors are seldom explored. However, this synergetic occurrence of stressors is prevalent. The coastline of Chile not only suffers from coastal hypoxia but the cold, oxygen-poor waters in upwelling events are also supersaturated in CO2, a study site to explore the combined effect of OA and hypoxia. We experimentally evaluated the metabolic response of different invertebrate species (2 anthozoans, 9 molluscs, 4 crustaceans, 2 echinoderms) of the coastline of central Chile (33°30′S, 71°37′W) to hypoxia and OA within predicted levels and in a full factorial design. Organisms were exposed to 4 different treatments (ambient, low oxygen, high CO2, and the combination of low oxygen and high CO2) and metabolism was measured after 3 and 6 days. We show that the combination of hypoxia and increased pCO2 reduces the respiration significantly, compared to a single stressor. The evaluation of synergistic pressures, a more realistic scenario than single stressors, is crucial to evaluate the effect of future changes for coastal species and our results provide the first insight on what might happen in the next 100 years.

  13. Environmental radioactivity near the central coast of Venezuela and its radiological impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of 40K, 226Ra, 232Th and 137Cs were determined in the upper layers of soils in the central coastal region of Venezuela. The activities of 137Cs are higher in the areas where the forest is well developed, oriented towards the wind and at higher elevations. The origin of the 137Cs deposition is from water input from the clouds directly in the cloudforest and rainfall from the northeast trade winds. Even though the values of 137Cs are much higher in these areas, there is little or no significant increase in the health risk. The natural radioactivity is correlated with the geology in the region except in the area of Urama. The values for the natural radiation background are as follows: for potassium between 1-3%, for radium between 1-3 ppm and for thorium the range was 6-39 ppm. The corresponding amounts of absorbed dose rates in air, the exposure rates and the annual effective dose equivalents are in the following ranges respectively: 11-39 pGy/s, 4-16 uR/h and 0.25-0.86 mSv/y. The annual effective dose equivalents include the contribution of the global average (2.57 mSv/y) of the rest of the natural sources of radiation. Finally, the largest natural radioactivity background, was found near Chichiriviche as a result of the massive granite deposits in this area, but again there is no significant health risk. (author)

  14. Rise of the central Andean coast by earthquakes straddling the Moho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnick, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Surface movements during the largest subduction zone earthquakes commonly drown coastlines. Yet, on geological timescales, coastlines above subduction zones uplift. Here I use a morphometric analysis combined with a numerical model of landscape evolution to estimate uplift rates along the central Andean rasa--a low-relief coastal surface bounded by a steep cliff formed by wave erosion. I find that the rasa has experienced steady uplift of 0.13 +/- 0.04 mm per year along a stretch of more than 2,000 km in length, during the Quaternary. These long-term uplift rates do not correlate with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of interseismic movements over the decadal scale, which implies that permanent uplift is not predominantly accumulated during the interseismic period. Instead, the rate of rasa uplift correlates with slip during earthquakes straddling the crust-mantle transition, the Moho. Such deeper earthquakes with magnitude 7 to 8 that occurred between 1995 and 2012 resulted in decimetres of coastal uplift. Slip during these earthquakes is located below the locked portion of the plate interface, and therefore may translate into permanent deformation of the overlying plate, where it causes uplift of the coastline. Thus, lower parts of the plate boundary are stably segmented over hundreds to millions of years. I suggest the coastline marks the surface expression of the transition between the shallow, locked seismogenic domain and the deeper, conditionally stable domain where modest earthquakes build up topography.

  15. A model for the bioaccumulation of 99Tc in lobsters (Homarus gammarus) from the West Cumbrian coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A biokinetic model is presented that simulates the uptake and release of 99Tc by the European lobster (Homarus gammarus). This organism is of significant radioecological interest since lobsters, in contrast to most other organisms, have a high affinity for 99Tc. The model is designed to represent annually averaged 99Tc concentrations in lobsters from the Cumbrian coast, where significant levels of 99Tc have been released under authorisation by the nuclear fuel reprocessing plant at BNFL Sellafield. This paper describes the construction of the model, how it was calibrated using data from published literature, and preliminary results indicating that model output agrees well with the available monitoring data. Given that this model successfully combines laboratory and field data, this research could potentially make a significant contribution to the field, as, to date, it has been difficult to predict and explain concentrations of 99Tc in lobsters

  16. Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Dharmaraj; M N Patil; R T Waghmare; P Ernest Raj

    2012-08-01

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the coast of Arabian Sea, Goa (15°21′N, 73° 51′E) in India. These observations were collected, in association with the surface layer turbulent parameters for the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). In the summer monsoon period, concentration of CO2 was in the range of 550–790 mg m−3 whereas the water vapour was in the range of 17.5–24.5 g m−3. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has been performed on these observations to investigate the spectral behaviour of CO2 and water vapour. The relation between CO2 and water vapour on various atmospheric scales has been proposed. CO2 and water vapour observations confirmed the existence of periodicities of large (11, 8 days), meso (5 days) and micrometeorological (20 min) scales.

  17. Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmaraj, T.; Patil, M. N.; Waghmare, R. T.; Ernest Raj, P.

    2012-08-01

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the coast of Arabian Sea, Goa (15°21'N, 73°51'E) in India. These observations were collected, in association with the surface layer turbulent parameters for the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). In the summer monsoon period, concentration of CO2 was in the range of 550-790 mg m - 3 whereas the water vapour was in the range of 17.5-24.5 g m - 3. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has been performed on these observations to investigate the spectral behaviour of CO2 and water vapour. The relation between CO2 and water vapour on various atmospheric scales has been proposed. CO2 and water vapour observations confirmed the existence of periodicities of large (11, 8 days), meso (5 days) and micrometeorological (20 min) scales.

  18. The study of bacterioplankton dynamics in the Berlengas Archipelago (West coast of Portugal by applying the HJ-biplot method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between bacterioplankton and environmental forcing in the Berlengas Archipelago (Western Coast of Portugal were studied between February 2006 and February 2007 in two sampling stations: Berlenga and Canal, using an HJ-biplot. The HJ-biplot showed a simultaneous display of the three main metabolic groups of bacteria involved in carbon cycling (aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and nitrate-reducing bacteria and environmental parameters, in low dimensions. Our results indicated thatbacterial dynamics are mainly affected by temporal gradients (seasonal gradients with a clear winter versus summer opposition, and less by the spatial structure (Berlenga and Canal. The yearly variation in the abundance of aerobic heterotrophic bacteria were positively correlated with those in chlorophyll a concentration, whereas ammonium concentration and temperature decreased with increasing phosphates and nitrites concentration. The relationship between aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, chlorophyll a and ammonium reveals that phytoplankton is an important source of organic substrates for bacteria.

  19. Spatial variability in growth and reproduction of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Thunberg, 1793) along the west European coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Joana F. M. F.; Langlet, Denis; Loff, José F.; Martins, Ana R.; Witte, Johannes IJ.; Santos, Paulo T.; van der Veer, Henk W.

    2007-05-01

    The Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas was introduced in Europe for commercial purposes in the mid 1960s. It was initially thought that low winter temperatures would restrain this species' reproduction and settlement; however, its present distribution in areas where no introduction has taken place suggests that natural invasion and expansion has occurred. Along the European coast, wild populations of Pacific oysters are already found from northern Germany to southern Portugal. Whether C. gigas will continue to further expand through northern waters will depend on its physiological performance. In this study, the performance of wild oyster populations has been studied in terms of growth and reproduction at three stations: La Rochelle (France; 46°N), Yerseke (Oosterschelde estuary, The Netherlands, 51°N), and Texel (Wadden Sea estuary, The Netherlands, 53°N). The French population had the lowest somatic-shell mass ratio and an increase in maximum shell length, somatic and gonadal mass was observed from France to the Netherlands. In addition, mean oocyte diameter decreased significantly from south to north. The combination of increasing gonadal mass and decreasing oocyte volume suggests an increasing reproductive output in terms of egg numbers from France to The Netherlands. Differences in temperature between locations will at least be partly responsible for the observed patterns; however, other environmental factors (such as food availability, predation pressure, sediment type and/or seston concentration) cannot be excluded. Since smaller eggs (oocytes) are thought to have a longer development time, the environmental conditions along the Dutch coast may result in increased larval dispersal and possibly in further population expansion.

  20. Extraction of uranium and copper from sulphate leach liquors of West Central Sinai uraniferrous siltstone of Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of uranium and copper from sulphate leach liquors of west central Sinai ore samples were performed using solvent extraction technique. Sulphate leach solutions were processed for the extraction of copper using 3% v/v LIX 973N. Copper extractions higher than 98.1% were obtained. Then, uranium was extracted using a tertiary amine. Two amines have been studied 2% v/v tri-n-octyl amine and 1.5% Alamine 336. Parameters studied included solvents concentration, contact time and solution pH. Stripping of uranium and copper were studied using sodium carbonate and sulphuric acid, respectively. Conditions were established for determining the number of stages required for extraction and stripping of copper and uranium through the construction of the corresponding McCabe-Theile diagrams. The results obtained have been utilized to formulate a proposed flowsheet for the production of uranium and copper from west central Sinai ore samples. (author)