Sample records for central spanish pyrenees

  1. Debris flow characteristics and relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    A. Lorente


    Full Text Available Unconfined debris flows (i.e. not in incised channels are one of the most active geomorphic processes in mountainous areas. Since they can threaten settlements and infrastructure, statistical and physically based procedures have been developed to assess the potential for landslide erosion. In this study, information on debris flow characteristics was obtained in the field to define the debris flow runout distance and to establish relationships between debris flow parameters. Such relationships are needed for building models which allow us to improve the spatial prediction of debris flow hazards. In general, unconfined debris flows triggered in the Flysch Sector of the Central Spanish Pyrenees are of the same order of magnitude as others reported in the literature. The deposition of sediment started at 17.8°, and the runout distance represented 60% of the difference in height between the head of the landslide and the point at which deposition started. The runout distance was relatively well correlated with the volume of sediment.

  2. Description of certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts of the Spanish Central Pyrenees

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    Boersma, Kerst Th.


    Certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts are described from the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Of the Polygnathus foveolatus group, defined here, P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson, P. lenzi Klapper, P. pireneae n. sp., P. cf. P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson and P. cf. P. lenzi Klapper are described. P. pire

  3. Missing evidence for the LGM-asynchronity in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological archives (United States)

    Hirsch, Florian; Raab, Thomas


    According to the state of knowledge, the glacial advances in the Eastern Pyrenees were synchronous with the global LGM during the Late Pleistocene (MIS 2), but the glacial advances in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at MIS 3 were asynchron with the global LGM. Whereas in the Eastern Pyrenees the glacial advances are dated in several well agreeing studies by surface exposure dating of boulders from lateral or terminal moraines, the asynchronity of the Central Spanish Pyrenees was postulated mainly by OSL dating on glacial and fluvial sediments and on radiocarbon dating of pollen from lacustrine deposits. The time difference of about 15 ka raises the question if this is a result of (local) climate factors or owed to failures caused by using several dating techniques on different archives. Anyway, if this time lag is correct, post-LGM formation of soils and sediments from the Late Pleistocene should be different between the Eastern Pyrenees and the Central Spanish Pyrenees. We therefore applied a combined approach of geomorphological, sedimentological and pedological investigations to reconstruct the Late Quaternary landscape development in the Aragon- and Gallego Valley of the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Our study reveals that in both valleys the Pre-Holocene geomorphodynamics on the lateglacial deposits show clear analogies with findings from Pleistocene periglacial landscapes in Central Europe. For MIS 4 and early MIS 3 periglacial processes are proven by loess deposition and formation of solifluction sediments. The glacial sediments, which were dated in earlier studies into mid MIS 3 and counted so far as prove for the asynchronous LGM of the Central Spanish Pyrenees, are covered by periglacial deposits of lateglacial age (14 ka to 11 ka). Surprisingly neither the glacial sediments have pedogenic features that indicate lateglacial soil development, nor do the periglacial deposits show indications for lateglacial soil erosion. Therefore we conclude that soil formation

  4. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.


    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  5. Geo-ecological effects of Global Change in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: A review at different spatial and temporal scales


    García-Ruiz, José M.; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Lasanta, Teodoro; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Sanjuán, Yasmina; Beguería, Santiago; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Gómez-Villar, Amelia


    We review the effects of climate variability and land use / land cover changes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at different spatial and temporal scales. Paleoclimatic studies based upon multi-proxy analyses of lacustrine, glacial and speleothematic deposits, among others, have demonstrated the occurrence of intense climatic fluctuations not only during the Late Upper Pleistocene associated to deglaciation, but also during the Holocene, affecting plant cover distribution, runoff generation, fl...

  6. Uncertainty assessment in the prediction of extreme rainfall events: an example from the central Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    García-Ruiz, J. M.; Arnáez, J.; White, S. M.; Lorente, A.; Beguería, S.


    Extreme rainfall events occur frequently in the central Pyrenees, but they are responsible for mass movements and short, very intense erosion periods, accompanied at times by loss of human life and high costs of infrastructure. This paper tries to assess the existence of patterns in the spatial distribution of maximum precipitation. The calculation of return periods of the most intense rainfall demonstrates that in the Pyrenees it exhibits an erratic spatial and temporal distribution and can be extremely localized. In the case of precipitation between 150 and 200 mm in 24 h, some influence from the surrounding relief has been found, but this is not the case for precipitation exceeding 200 mm, characterized by the absence of patterns governing their spatial distribution. Geomorphological approaches are, therefore, the only way for assessing the areas more subject to hydromorphological risks.

  7. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    Navas, Ana; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazon, Leticia [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei (EEAD- CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Soil and Water; Valero-Garces, Blas [Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)


    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm{sup 3}), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for{sup 238}U, 14 and 40 for {sup 226}Ra, 7 and 56 for {sup 210}Pb, 19 and 46 for Th{sup 232}, 1 and 48 for {sup 137}Cs and 185 and 610 for {sup 40}K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among

  8. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.


    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.


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    Full Text Available The problems around the Pragian/Emsian (P/E boundary have been widely discussed by several authors, who have pointed out that the present Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP in the Zinzilban section (Kitab Reserve, Uzbekistan, is much older than the traditional German Siegenian-Emsian boundary, a fact that considerably reduces the duration of the traditional Pragian Stage. A comprehensive conodont study of two important sections (Isábena 1 and Baliera 6 demonstrates the presence of the conodont indexes for the P/E boundary in both senses (official and traditional in the Spanish Central Pyrenees (SCP. Within the important conodont faunas registered, the presence of a new early polygnathid species Polygnathus rosae n. sp. stands out. Its stratigraphic range in the two sections is restricted to a short interval around the traditional beginning of the Emsian Stage. This particular distribution permits direct relation between both indexes, a better characterization of the P/E boundary in the traditional German sense and increases the palaeontological knowledge of this stratigraphic interval. Conodont records in the SCP suggest that Po. rosae n. sp. could be a good local index, too. In addition, Po. rosae n. sp. represents the last known step of the lineage Po. pireneaePo. rosae n. sp., a new early polygnathid lineage that supports the early radiation of the genus around the P/E boundary. 

  10. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    M. López-Vicente


    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.25 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover ($C$ factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and

  11. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    M. López-Vicente


    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.04 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover (C factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and maximum rainfall intensity (6.0 mm h−1

  12. Topographic control of snowpack distribution in a small catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees: intra- and inter-annual persistence

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    J. Revuelto


    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the relations between terrain characteristics and snow depth distribution in a small alpine catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. Twelve field campaigns were conducted during 2012 and 2013, which were years characterized by very different climatic conditions. Snow depth was measured using a long range terrestrial laser scanner and analyses were performed at a spatial resolution of 5 m. Pearson's r correlation, multiple linear regressions and binary regression trees were used to analyze the influence of topography on the snow depth distribution. The analyses were used to identify the topographic variables that better explain the snow distribution in this catchment, and to assess whether their contributions were variable over intra- and inter-annual time scales. The topographic position index, which has rarely been used in these types of studies, most accurately explained the distribution of snow accumulation. Other variables affecting the snow depth distribution included the maximum upwind slope, elevation, and northing (or potential incoming solar radiation. The models developed to predict snow distribution in the basin for each of the 12 survey days were similar in terms of the most explanatory variables. However, the variance explained by the overall model and by each topographic variable, especially those making a lesser contribution, differed markedly between a year in which snow was abundant (2013 and a~year when snow was scarce (2012, and also differed between surveys in which snow accumulation or melting conditions dominated in the preceding days. The total variance explained by the models clearly decreased for those days on which the snow pack was thinner and more patchily distributed. Despite the differences in climatic conditions in the 2012 and 2013 snow seasons, some similarities in snow accumulation patterns were observed.

  13. Regional scale modeling of hill slope sediment delivery: a case study in the Esera-Isabena watershed, central Spanish Pyrenees, with WATEM/SEDEM

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    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.


    Soil ersoion and sediment delivery to streams is an important environmental problem and a major concern for sustainable development. The spatial nature of soil erosion and sediment delivery, as well as the variety of possible soil conservation and sediment control measures, require an integrated approach to catchment management. A spatially-distributed soil erosion and sediment delivery model (WATEM/SEDEM) was applied to the watershed of the Barasona Reservoir (1504 km{sup 2}, central Spanish Pyrenees), which is drained by the Esera and Isabena rivers. Several input data layers with a 20 x 20 m resolution were derived using a GIS package comprising a digital terrain model (DTM), and stream network, land use, rainfall erosivity, soil erodibility and crop management factors. (Author) 6 refs.

  14. Functioning of an ancient sediment routing system; Mass balance and sediment budget of the Eocene Escanilla Formation, Spanish central Pyrenees (United States)

    Michael, N. A.; Whittaker, A. C.; Allen, P. A.


    One of the key challenges that sedimentologists and stratigraphers face is trying to understand what controls grain-size and sedimentary facies in basins, with the ultimate goal of stratigraphic prediction. It has been shown that the crucial parameters that control grain-size trends are the sediment discharge into the basin, the characteristic grain size mix of the supply, and the spatial distribution of subsidence. In this paper we present an outcrop case study of the Escanilla Formation, where all these parameters have been constrained, and explore how knowledge of these parameters translates into stratigraphic architecture. The mid-upper Eocene Escanilla Formation is part of a 200 km-long sediment routing system that was sourced primarily from the Axial Zone of the South-Central Pyrenees and deposited in a series of wedge-top basins (La Pobla, Tremp-Graus, Ainsa and Jaca basins). The Escanilla system consists of a wide variety of depositional environments and is one of the rare examples where all components of the ancient routing system are readily available for study: from proximal alluvial fanglomerates in the Sis and Gurb paleovalleys, braided river deposits in the Tremp-Graus and eastern Ainsa basins, deltaic, shallow marine and continental slope deposits in the western Ainsa Basin, and deep marine turbidite deposits in the Jaca Basin. This makes it a world class siliciclastic analogue for hydrocarbon exploration. In this study we examine how the mass balance and sediment budget influenced sedimentary trends within this paleo-sediment routing system. The entire sediment routing system has been delimited using new provenance data and a correlation from source to sink is proposed, subdividing the 7.7 Myr duration of deposition into three time intervals of roughly equal duration. Within these time intervals, the sedimentary budgets of the Escanilla system have been calculated and a mass balance framework established, enabling the quantitative assessment of how

  15. The application of terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry in measuring erosion and deposition processes in humid badlands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Revuelto, J.; Errea, P.; López-Moreno, J. I.


    Erosion and deposition processes in badland areas are usually estimated using traditional observations of topographic changes, measured by erosion pins or profile meters (invasive techniques). In recent times, geomatic techniques (non-invasive) have been routinely applied in geomorphology studies, especially in erosion studies. These techniques provide the opportunity to build high-resolution topographic models at subcentimeter accuracy. By comparing different 3-D point clouds of the same area, obtained at different time intervals, the variations in the terrain and temporal dynamics can be analyzed. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the functioning of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS, RIEGL LPM-321) and close range photogrammetry techniques (Camera FUJIFILM, Finepix x100 and Software PhotoScan by AgiSoft), to evaluate erosion and deposition processes in a humid badland area in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Results show that TLS data sets and photogrammetry techniques provide new opportunities in geomorphological erosion studies. The data we recorded over one year demonstrated that north-facing slopes experienced more intense and faster changing geomorphological dynamics than south-facing slopes as well as the highest erosion rates. Different seasonal processes were observed, with the highest topographic differences observed during winter periods and the high intensity rainfalls in summer. While TLS provided the highest resolution models, photogrammetry was still a faster methodology in the field and precise at short distances. Both techniques do not require direct contact with the soil and thus prevent the usual surface disturbance of traditional and invasive methods.

  16. Identification of active erosion areas and areas at risk by remote sensing: an example in the Esera Isabena watershed, Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Vicente Serrano, S. M.


    The identification of eroded areas at basin scale can be very useful for environmental planning and can help to reduce land degradation and sediments yield. In this paper remote sensing technique are used to discriminate eroded areas and areas at risk in a badlands landscape developed on Eocene marls. In the Esera Isabena watershed (Spanish Pyrenees). The spatial distribution, the scarce vegetal cover and the high level of erosion let a good visual and digital discrimination of badlands, as opposed to other land covers and surfaces. A maximum likelihood supervised method was used to discriminate heavily eroded areas (badlands) from scarce or densely vegetated lands. the classification distance was used to obtain thresholds for eroded areas and areas at risk. Two error statistics (sensitivity and specificity), where used to determine the most adequate threshold values. The resulting map shows that most areas at risk are located surrounding the badlands areas. (Author) 8 refs.

  17. "A shepherd has to invent": Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees

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    Maria E. Fernández-Giménez


    Full Text Available Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero's experience of social-ecological change. First, I created seven poems based on an interview transcript with this ganadero. Second, I analyzed the poetry I created, to see what new insights and understanding about system dynamics and the lived experience of SES change emerged from analysis of the transcript re-presented as poetry. Third, I compared key themes that emerged from this analysis with findings across the other 26 interviews. Fourth, I read the poems and presented the associated analysis to multiple audiences, to gauge their impact and effectiveness in communicating research findings. Finally, I synthesized across the themes raised in the seven poems. Poetic analysis revealed emotional and cultural dimensions of change, especially the importance of occupational and place identity, in the experience of the ganadero. The transcript re-presented as poetry portrayed the ganadero as an agent in creating and maintaining a cultural landscape and as both an adaptor and resister to SES change. Poetic analysis also uncovered telling contradictions, adaptive capacities, and barriers to adaptation in this SES that went unappreciated with conventional qualitative analysis approaches. This exploratory study illustrates the

  18. Hydrological response of the central Pyrenees to projected environmental change in the 21st century


    López-Moreno, J. I.; S. M. Vicente-Serrano; J. Zabalza; J. Revuelto; Gilaberte, M.; Azorín-Molina, C.; Morán-Tejeda, E.; García-Ruiz, J. M.; Tague, C


    Streamflows in five Mediterranean mountain headwaters in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). The results show that changes in precipitation and temperature could cause a decline of annual streamflow between 13% and 23%, depending on the considered catchment. When the effect of increased forest cover in the basins is added to climate change effe...

  19. The application of terrestrial laser scanner and SfM photogrammetry in measuring erosion and deposition processes in two opposite slopes in a humid badlands area (central Spanish Pyrenees) (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Revuelto, J.; Errea, P.; López-Moreno, J. I.


    Erosion and deposition processes in badland areas are usually estimated using traditional observations of topographic changes, measured by erosion pins or profile metres (invasive techniques). In recent times, remote-sensing techniques (non-invasive) have been routinely applied in geomorphology studies, especially in erosion studies. These techniques provide the opportunity to build high-resolution topographic models at centimetre accuracy. By comparing different 3-D point clouds of the same area, obtained at different time intervals, the variations in the terrain and temporal dynamics can be analysed. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the functioning of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, RIEGL LPM-321) and structure-from-motion photogrammetry (SfM) techniques (Camera FUJIFILM, Finepix x100 and software PhotoScan by AgiSoft) to evaluate erosion and deposition processes in two opposite slopes in a humid badlands area in the central Spanish Pyrenees. Results showed that TLS data sets and SfM photogrammetry techniques provide new opportunities in geomorphological erosion studies. The data we recorded over 1 year demonstrated that north-facing slopes experienced more intense and faster changing geomorphological dynamics than south-facing slopes as well as the highest erosion rates. Different seasonal processes were observed, with the highest topographic differences observed during winter periods and the high-intensity rainfalls in summer. While TLS provided the highest accuracy models, SfM photogrammetry was still a faster methodology in the field and precise at short distances. Both techniques present advantages and disadvantages, and do not require direct contact with the soil and thus prevent the usual surface disturbance of traditional and invasive methods.

  20. Geological Map of the Paleozoic of the Central Pyrenees

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    Sitter, de L.U.; Zwart, H.J.


    The geology of the map sheets 1:50.000, 1 Garonne and 2 Salat of the Geological map of the Central Pyrenees is described. The stratigraphic sequence consists of Paleozoic rocks from the Cambro-Ordovician to the Carboniferous, and of Mesozoic rocks from the Trias up to the Tertiary. Hercynian and Alp

  1. Impact of climate and land use change on water availability and reservoir management: Scenarios in the Upper Aragón River, Spanish Pyrenees



    Streamflows in a Mediterranean mountain basin in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflow series projected for 2021-2050 were used to simulate the management of the Yesa reservoir, which is critical to the downstream supply of irrigation and domestic water. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). The results show that increased forest cover in the basin could decrease annual st...

  2. Modelling the impact of forest loss on shallow landslide sediment yield, Ijuez river catchment, Spanish Pyrenees

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    Full Text Available The SHETRAN model for simulating the sediment yield arising from shallow landslides at the scale of a river catchment was applied to the 45-km2 Ijuez catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees, to investigate the effect of loss of forest cover on landslide and debris flow incidence and on catchment sediment yield. The application demonstrated how such a model, with a large number of parameters to be evaluated, can be used even when directly measured data are not available: rainfall and discharge time series were generated by reference to other local records and data providing the basis for a soil map were obtained by a short field campaign. Uncertainty bounds for the outputs were determined as a function of the uncertainty in the values of key model parameters. For a four-year period and for the existing forested state of the catchment, a good ability to simulate the observed long term spatial distribution of debris flows (represented by a 45-year inventory and to determine catchment sediment yield within the range of regional observations was demonstrated. The lower uncertainty bound on simulated landslide occurrence approximated the observed annual rate of landsliding and suggests that landslides provide a relatively minor proportion of the total sediment yield, at least in drier years. A scenario simulation in which the forest cover was replaced by grassland indicated an increase in landsliding but a decrease in the number of landslides which evolve into debris flows and, at least for drier years, a reduction in sediment delivery to the channel network.

  3. Climate signals in Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.; Cantalejo, B.; Scotchman, J. I.


    The Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, occupies a crucial position between the non-marine, marginal-marine and shallow-marine environments that acted as the sediment-supply and staging areas for sediment transfer processes into the deep-marine environments of the Ainsa Basin, and the more distal Jaca and Pamplona basins. Studies of source-to-sink systems make the Eocene stratigraphy of the Pyrenees and adjoining areas one of the best natural laboratories worldwide for understanding a complete sedimentary system. The hydrocarbon industry requires good predictive models for the distribution of reservoir and non-reservoir deposits. Using a wide range of proxy physical and geochemical data, we show with a high degree of confidence that Milankovitch forcing at a range of astronomical scales controlled deposition of the thin-bedded, fine-grained sandy turbidites and hemipelagites throughout the basin (~ 70% of the stratigraphy). The driver on sandy channelised submarine-fan deposition (the principal sandbodies) cannot be simply related to Milankovitch frequencies and is likely to be due to a combination of climatic, tectonic and/or autocyclic processes.

  4. Groundwater ferricretes from the Silurian of Ireland and Permian of the Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Wright, V. P.; Sloan, R. J.; Valero Garcés, B.; Garvie, L. A. J.


    Haematite nodule horizons occur in alluvial-lacustrine deposits from the Mill Cove Formation (Silurian) of Dingle, Ireland and the Unidad Roja Superior (Permian) of the Spanish Pyrenees. These horizons, generally less than 1 m thick, are not associated with palaeosol profiles but are hosted by laminated or structureless, bioturbated mudstones to sandstones. The sequences contain weakly developed calcrete profiles. The haematite nodules are interpreted as having formed around fluctuating water-tables and are analogous to present-day groundwater ferricretes (laterites or plinthites). Fe 2+, mobilised during periods of reducing groundwaters, was segregated into ferric oxide nodules during falls in the water-table or during influxes of oxygenated meteoric waters. The prevailing climate during deposition of both sequences was probably semi-arid and the presence of ferricrete-like horizons is not evidence of humid climates. The horizons represent early "diagenetic" effects, not related to prevailing soil moisture regime.

  5. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.


    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle

  6. Sedimentology and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoorn, van B.


    The present study deals with the primary lithology, sedimentary structures, depositional history and paleogeography of an Upper Cretaceous turbidite basin in the south-central Pyrenees, and presents a brief review of the lithology and depositional environment of surrounding contemporaneous deposits.

  7. Spatio-temporal analyses of the 19-21 October 2012 torrential events in the Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Peña, Dhais; Cortesi, Nicola; Nadal, Estrela; Serrano, Maria Pilar; García-Ruíz, José Maria; González Hidalgo, José Carlos


    On 19-21 October 2012, a torrential rainfall episode occurred in the central Spanish Pyrenees with catastrophic effects, damaging properties, public infrastructure and disrupting economic activities. The total amount of precipitation was over 150 with maximum around 250 mm. Using data from automatic rain gauge stations (15 min interval, 26 stations) from Water Planning Authorities (Confederación Hidrográfica del Ebro) and synoptic chart from National Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMet) we analyze the spatial and temporal evolution of precipitation in the area in which the maximum precipitation values were recorded headwaters of the Aragón and Gállego rivers). Precipitation was produced by two successive different atmospheric configurations. The first event (19 - noon time 20 October) corresponded to an intrusion of cold air in the upper level trough (500 hPa) and migration of a surface cold front from west to east. This caused a clear temporal and spatial distribution of rainfall; hourly values changed from west to east. The evolution of the trough produced a cut-off-low of cold air in the upper levels to the south-east of the Iberian Peninsula, and the migration to the east during the 20-21 October, causing the second torrential event in which the surface prevalent flow changed from west-east to east-west. This second event, lasting until 21 October, was similar in total precipitation amount, but was quite different with respect to the first ones: it had lower intensity and the spatial distribution of the rainfall was temporarily quite homogeneous. We present different selected hydrograms of the river response to show the behavior of various rivers during both events.

  8. Links between tectonism and exhumation in the Spanish Pyrenees: Evidence from apatite fission track analysis and Ar fault dating (United States)

    Rahl, J. M.; Haines, S. H.; van der Pluijm, B. A.


    Analytical, numerical, and mechanical models of orogenic wedges suggest that the structural and erosional evolution of mountain belts are tightly linked. For example, erosion in the core of a mountain belt may thin a wedge and drive out-of-sequence faulting to reestablish critical taper. To provide a field-based test of these ideas, we present new geochronologic constraints on the deformational and erosional history of the orogenic wedge exposed in the south-central Spanish Pyrenees. Apatite fission-track data from the syn-orogenic sediments of the Sierra de Sis conglomerate reveal generally invariant ages in strata deposited between about 42 and 27 Ma. These data, as well as track-length distributions indicative of rapid cooling, imply the bedrock in the core of the wedge that produced the sediment experienced fast exhumation that began by at least 48 Ma and continued until 42 Ma. Numerical modeling of the detrital data suggests the source region experienced a deceleration in erosion rate from about 1.0 mm/yr to less than 0.5 to 0.2 mm/yr. Published bedrock thermochronometric data collected from the interior of the belt indicate a renewed period of rapid erosional exhumation culminating around 32 Ma. The temporal changes in erosion recorded by thermochronology are correlated with the deformational history of the Pyrenean fold-thrust belt. We present new constraints on fault activity in the Pyrenean foreland through the direct dating of fault gouge by illite age analysis. New fault dates show that tectonic activity youngs towards the interior of the mountain belt, with fault slip correlating to periods of rapid erosion. The relatively outboard Boixols fault has an age of 71 ± 6.4 Ma, reflecting Cretaceous convergence that marks the onset of Pyrenean deformation. Slip on the more inboard Nogueres fault occurred later, at 56 ± 1.4 Ma, consistent with a period of rapid erosion that continued through about 45 Ma inferred from detrital fission-track data. After a long

  9. Milankovitch Modulated Eocene Growth Strata From the Jaca Piggyback Basin, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Hinnov, L. A.; Newton, M. L.; Kodama, K. P.


    New stratigraphic and rock magnetic data from the southern margin of the Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees, shows evidence of Eocene sedimentary cycles modulated by the climatic effects of Milankovitch orbital forcing. Tectonic processes simultaneously controlled larger-scale stratigraphic sequences and overall wedge-top basin development. Within the context of existing magnetostratigraphy, we described 1 km of marine basinal and prodeltaic rocks near Pico del Aguila, a large-scale synsedimentary fold, and collected samples every ~4krs for ~4myrs for lithologic and rock magnetic analysis. In magnetochrons C17r, C18n.1n, and C18n.1r (1.27myrs) anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) variations occur with strong hierarchical bundling patterns suggestive of precession-scale cycles grouped into 100 kyr eccentricity cycles, and "super bundled" into 400 kyr eccentricity cycles. This pattern was exploited to construct an "eccentricity time scale" for the series producing a minimally tuned time series that is 1.3 myrs in duration; comparing well with the magnetochron calibration. Spectral analysis of this ARM time series shows that the 100-kyr tuning has aligned power into all of the principal orbital frequency bands: long eccentricity (1/(400 kyrs)), obliquity (1/(40.4 kyrs)), long precession (1/(24.4 kyrs)), and short precession (1/(20 kyrs)). Lithologic data, including bed thickness and grain size also shows high frequency periodicity we attribute to precessional forcing. ARM variations may result from climate modulated carbonate production or more likely, variable detrital inputs such as atmospheric dust (varying wind intensity or aridity) or watershed erosion (runoff variation) rather than diagenetic sources. The Milankovitch based chronology within the growth stratigraphy was then used to calculate deformation rates. Tilt rates of 9 degrees / myr for folding are comparable to other studies in which deformation was averaged over more time. We show that Milankovitch

  10. Identifying tectonic and climatic drivers for deep-marine siliciclastic systems: Middle Eocene, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.; Scotchman, J. I.; Robinson, S. A.


    Analysis of the sedimentary record in deep time requires the deconvolution of tectonic and climatic drivers. The deep-marine siliciclastic systems in the Middle Eocene Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees, with their excellent outcrops and good temporal resolution, provide an opportunity to identify the relative importance of tectonic and climatic drivers on deposition over ~10 Myr at a time when the Earth’s climate was shifting from a greenhouse to icehouse conditions. The cumulative ~4 km of stratigraphy contains 8 sandy systems with a total of ~25 discrete channelized sandbodies that accumulated in water depths of ~400-800 m, and that were controlled by the ~400-kyr Milkankovitch frequency with modes, at ~100 kyr and ~41 kyr (possibly stacked ~23-kyr) influencing bottom-water conditions, causing periodic stratification in the water column across a submarine sill within the eastern, more proximal depositional systems in the Ainsa basin. We also identify a range of sub-Milankovitch millennial-scale cycles (Scotchman et al. 2009). In the Ainsa basin, the interplay of basin-bounding growth anticlines defined and controlled the position and stacking patterns of the sandy systems and their constituent channelized sandbodies, in a process of seesaw tectonics by: (i) Westward lateral offset-stacking of channelized sandbodies due to growth of the eastern anticline (Mediano), and (ii) Eastward (orogenwards) back-stepping of the depositional axis of each sandy system, due to phases of relative uplift of the opposing Boltaña growth anticline. The first-order control on accommodation, and the flow paths, for deep-marine sedimentation were tectonic, with the pacing of the supply of coarse siliciclastics being driven by global climatic processes, particularly Milankovitch-type frequencies. The dominance of eccentricity and obliquity is similar to results from the continental lacustrine Eocene Green River Formation, and the observations from ODP Site 1258 that the early to

  11. Devonian and Lower Carboniferous conodont biostratigraphy, Spanish Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.


    Conodont faunas were collected from the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous in an area ranging from the Rio Fsera (prov. of Huesca) in the west to the Rio Llobregat (prov. of Barcelona) in the east. Most conodont zones and -Faunas recognized in Germany and Spain could be distinguished. The ages of the

  12. Debris flow relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Lorente, A.; Garcia-Ruiz, J.M.


    It is commonly accepted that, in terms of volume moved in a short space of time, debris flows are one of the most powerful mechanisms for transporting material downslope (Johnson & Rodine, 1984; Takahashi, 1991; Bathurst et al., 1997). They occur if i) sediment availability, ii) water input, and iii

  13. Debris flow characteristics and relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorente, A.; Beguería, S.; Bathurst, J.C.; García-Ruiz, J.M.


    Unconfined debris flows (i.e., not in incised channels) are one of the most active geomorphic processes in mountainous areas. Since they can threaten settlements and infrastructure, statistical and physically based procedures have been developed to assess the potential for landslide erosion. In this

  14. Debris flow relationships in the Central Spanish Pyrenees


    Beguería, S.; A. Lorente; Garcia-Ruiz, J. M.


    Debris flows represent the most active geomorphic risk in mountainous areas, affecting infrastructures, human settlements and touristic resorts (Takahashi et al., 1981). For this reason, much effort has been put in assessing where debris flows occur and ranking the factors that trigger them, but also in defining two essential parameters in establishing debris flow hazards: what is the distance travelled by debris flows (especially the runout distance), and what is the volume of material carri...

  15. SKS splitting beneath the Pyrenees domain: an insight on the upper mantle deformation from central Iberia to French Massif Central (United States)

    Bonnin, Mickael; Chevrot, Sébastien; Gaudot, Ianis; Haugmard, Méric


    We performed shear-wave splitting analysis for 270 permanent (French RLPB, CEA and Catalan) and temporary (PyrOPE and IberArray) broadband stations around the Pyrenees range. These measurements considerably enhance the spatial resolution and regional extent of seismic anisotropy pattern in that region. In particular, we determine the small-scale variations of splitting parameters φ and δt along three dense (5 km inter-station spacing) transects crossing the western, central and eastern Pyrenees. The anisotropy pattern in the Pyrenees is in good agreement with those in previous studies, with relatively constant N100° E directions of polarization of the fast waves and delay times around 1 s. However, the new stations from the PyrOPE experiment installed in the Aquitaine basin indicate a sharp transition both in directions (from N100° E to ˜ N60° E) and delay times (from 1 s to ˜ 0.5 s) just north of the North Pyrenean Fault. This could indicate the presence of the Iberian lithospheric "slab" beneath the North Pyrenean Zone. This transition also suggests that the main contribution to anisotropy is located inside the lithosphere. Further East, the analysis of the French permanent broadband stations complete the anisotropy map beneath western Alps. These new observations, especially in Savoie, confirm the overall N-80° E to N40° E smooth rotation of the directions of polarization following the curvature of the belt.

  16. Soil properties relevant to land degradation in abandoned sloping fields in Aisa valley, Central Pyrenees (Spain

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    Pardini, G.


    Full Text Available A multi-approach characterization of soil properties in abandoned fields in the Aisa valley, at mid mountain in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, demonstrated that the soil's own peculiar characteristics are concerned with conservation problems. Aggregate stability and shrinkage tests pointed to a relatively good soil performance due to the aggregating role of organic matter and calcium carbonates, although calcium ions, in some instances, may exert and additional antagonistic role for a sealed surface, increasing runoff. On the other hand, soil micromorphology suggests that the poor condition of the soils is in some contradiction to paedogenic activity. These findings, together with the presence of ashes, support the hypothesis that land degradation in these areas is mainly related to human activity thought unsuitable management after land abandonment.

    [es] La caracterización de diversas propiedades del suelo en campos abandonados del valle de Aisa, montaña media del Pirineo Central, ha mostrado que dichos suelos presentan algunos caracteres de interés desde el punto de vista de la conservación. La estabilidad de los agregados y los test de agrietamiento evidencian un comportamiento aceptable, gracias al papel agregante de la materia orgánica y carbonatos de calcio, a pesar que los iones calcio, en algunas ocasiones, pueden ejercer un papel antagonista adicional y favorecer el sellado de la superficie del suelo, aumentando la escorrentía superficial. Por otra parte, la micromorfología sugiere que el estado de degradación de los suelos contrasta con la actividad pedogénica. Estos resultados, juntamente con la presencia de cenizas, apoyan la hipótesis de que el estado de degradación en estas áreas es consecuencia principalmente de una utilización incorrecta después del abandono de los cultivos.
    [fr] Un étude des propriétés des sois dans une zone à cultures en pente abandonnées dans la vallée d'Aisa (Pyr

  17. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis (United States)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo


    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  18. Sedimentology, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis of Post-Hercynian continental deposits in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, Peter J.C.


    The first chapter of the post-Hercynian geologic history of the South-Central Pyrenees is recorded in a sequence of fluvial and volcanic deposits which reach a total of added maximum thicknesses of more than 2300 m and date from the Westphalian D up to and including the Lower Triassic. The present s

  19. Depositional history and clay minerals of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, P.J.C.


    An ordered sequence of well-defined sedimentary environments reflects the deepening and shallowing stages in the depositional history of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain. The sequence, which has a Santonian age at its base, starts with a calcarenite barrier system on w

  20. Land cover changes and shallow landsliding in the flysch sector of the Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Beguería, Santiago; Alatorre, Luis Carlos; Puigdefábregas, Juan


    This study investigated the characteristics, triggering factors, and spatial distribution of shallow landslides in relation to historical deforestation in the sub-alpine belt of the Pyrenees, particularly in the flysch sector. Shallow landslides in this area occur on straight and concave slopes, mainly covered by mesophyte grasslands, and contribute substantially to soil erosion and landscape deterioration. The investigated landslides were variable in shape and size, although common features included delimitation by a scar or semi-circular crown (averaging 32 m long × 10.15 m wide) and a tongue with a lobe at the foot of the scar area. The sliding surface coincided with the zone of contact of the C soil horizon with the bedrock, although in 13% of the cases the sliding surface occurred within the soil. The frontal lobes frequently trigger new landslides because of water accumulation and instability, resulting in a succession of interconnected landslides that can attain 100-200 m in length. Slope gradient appeared to be the most important factor correlated with shallow landslides. Thus, with slopes > 30° the soil was unstable and tended to slide even in dry conditions, whereas with slopes decreased root cohesion, mainly coinciding with snowmelt and large rainstorms.

  1. Sustainable monitoring of roe deer in public hunting areas in the Spanish Pyrenees

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    J. Herrero


    Full Text Available Aim of study: Monitoring trends in animal populations is essential for the development of appropriate wildlife management strategies.Area of study: The area is situated in the southern Pyrenees (Aragon, Spain.Material and methods: To measure the abundance, population trends, sex ratio, and mortality of roe deer populations, we analyzed data from i driven hunts for wild boar (hunting seasons 1995/96 – 2009/10, n = 1,417, ii itineraries, which were used to calculate the KAI and density using DS (2003 – 2010, n = 310 itineraries, iii roe deer carcass recoveries (2006 – 2010, n = 100, and iv data from the deer hunting quota fulfillment (2006 – 2010, n = 325 hunted animals.Main results: Based on DS, in 2010, the average density of roe deer populations was 2.3 km-2 (CV 17%. Based on the KAI and the battues, the estimated average annual rate of increase was 5.8% and 4.3%, respectively. Based on the KAI and the carcass recoveries, the estimates of the population sex ratio were 0.75 (n = 641 and 0.9 (n = 100 males per female, respectively. Carcass recoveries indicated that mortality was highest in late winter and early spring. The average body masses and sizes of males and females were within the ranges reported for other Iberian and European populations.Research highlights: Monitoring should be continued in the Aragon population of roe deer, although larger sample sizes are required to increase the accuracy of estimates and assessments of the impact of management actions.Key words: Capreolus capreolus; hunting bag; distance sampling; KAI; Spain; rangers; long-term monitoring.

  2. High-resolution imaging of the Pyrenees and Massif Central from the data of the PYROPE and IBERARRAY portable array deployments (United States)

    Chevrot, Sébastien; Villaseñor, Antonio; Sylvander, Matthieu; Benahmed, Sébastien; Beucler, Eric; Cougoulat, Glenn; Delmas, Philippe; Blanquat, Michel; Diaz, Jordi; Gallart, Josep; Grimaud, Franck; Lagabrielle, Yves; Manatschal, Gianreto; Mocquet, Antoine; Pauchet, Hélène; Paul, Anne; Péquegnat, Catherine; Quillard, Olivier; Roussel, Sandrine; Ruiz, Mario; Wolyniec, David


    The lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees, which holds the key to settle long-standing controversies regarding the opening of the Bay of Biscay and the formation of the Pyrenees, are still poorly known. The temporary PYROPE and IBERARRAY experiments have recently filled a strong deficit of seismological stations in this part of western Europe, offering a new and unique opportunity to image crustal and mantle structures with unprecedented resolution. Here we report the results of the first tomographic study of the Pyrenees relying on this rich data set. The important aspects of our tomographic study are the precision of both absolute and relative traveltime measurements obtained by a nonlinear simulated annealing waveform fit and the detailed crustal model that has been constructed to compute accurate crustal corrections. Beneath the Massif Central, the most prominent feature is a widespread slow anomaly that reflects a strong thermal anomaly resulting from the thinning of the lithosphere and upwelling of the asthenosphere. Our tomographic images clearly exclude scenarios involving subduction of oceanic lithosphere beneath the Pyrenees. In contrast, they reveal the segmentation of lithospheric structures, mainly by two major lithospheric faults, the Toulouse fault in the central Pyrenees and the Pamplona fault in the western Pyrenees. These inherited Hercynian faults were reactivated during the Cretaceous rifting of the Aquitaine and Iberian margins and during the Cenozoic Alpine convergence. Therefore, the Pyrenees can be seen as resulting from the tectonic inversion of a segmented continental rift that was buried by subduction beneath the European plate.

  3. Accelerated wastage of the Monte Perdido Glacier in the Spanish Pyrenees during recent stationary climatic conditions

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    J. I. López-Moreno


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of the Monte Perdido Glacier, the third largest glacier of the Pyrenees, from 1981 to the present. We assessed the evolution of the glacier's surface area by use of aerial photographs from 1981, 1999, and 2006, and changes in ice volume by geodetic methods with digital elevation models (DEMs generated from topographic maps (1981 and 1999, airborne LIDAR (2010 and terrestrial laser scanning (TLS, 2011, 2012, 2013, and 2014. We interpreted the changes in the glacier based on climate data from a nearby meteorological station. The results indicate an accelerated degradation of this glacier after 2000, with a rate of ice surface loss that was almost three-times greater from 2000 to 2006 than for earlier periods, and a doubling of the rate of ice volume loss from 1999 to 2010 (the ice depth decreased 8.98 ± 1.8 m, −0.72 ± 0.14 m w.e. yr−1 compared to 1981 to 1999 (the ice depth decreased 8.35 ± 2.12 m, −0.39 ± 0.1 m w.e. yr−1. This loss of glacial ice has continued from 2011 to 2014 (the ice depth decreased 2.1 ± 0.4 m, −0.64 ± 0.36 m w.e. yr−1. Local climatic changes during the study period cannot explain the acceleration in wastage rate of this glacier, because local precipitation and snow accumulation increased slightly, and local air temperature during the ablation period did not significantly increase. The accelerated degradation of this glacier in recent years can be explained by the lack of equilibrium between the glacier and the current climatic conditions. In particular, the average air temperature increased by at least 0.9 °C in this region since the end of the Little Ice Age (LIA in the mid-1800s. Thus, this glacier shrinks dramatically during years with low accumulation or high air temperatures during the ablation season, but cannot recover during years with high accumulation or low air temperatures during the ablation season. The most recent TLS data support this interpretation. These

  4. High-Resolution Magnetostratigraphic and Rock Magnetic Cyclo-stratigraphic Study of the Eocene Arguis Formation, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Kodama, K. P.; Anastasio, D. J.; Pares, J.; Newton, M. `


    In order to provide a high-resolution chronostratigraphic record, an 800 meter section of the Arguis Formation, an Eocene marine flysch deposited in the Jaca Basin of the Spanish Pyrenees was sampled for magnetostratigraphy and rock magnetic cyclo-stratigraphy. Oriented cores were collected to refine a previously determined magnetostratigraphy. Their paleomagnetic analysis shows that the oldest 600 meters of the Arguis Formation spans chrons C18n.1n to C17n.2n or about two million years. For 300 m of the section 395 un- oriented hand samples were collected for rock magnetic cyclo-stratigraphy at a 75 cm sampling interval (about every 4 kyr) in order to resolve the precessional index. Anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) was measured for each sample to construct a ferromagnetic mineral concentration time series. Spectral analysis of the ARM time series, calibrated by the magnetostratigraphically-determined chron boundaries, shows periodicities consistent with astronomical forcing at Milankovitch frequencies. Decompaction of the time series using a newly developed rock magnetic technique removed the effects of differential compaction and improved the resolution of Milankovitch power. The time series was bandpass filtered and tuned to the precessional index using the La2004 orbital model. The precessional tuning improves spectral power at all orbital frequencies. Primary detrital magnetite controls the ARM signal with minor contributions from secondary authigenic pyrrhotite. The ferromagnetic mineral concentrations are most likely caused by climate-driven source area, runoff or aridity variations. They provide a high resolution (precessional scale) chronostratigraphic record that allows a detailed deformation rate study of a nearby growth fold.

  5. The "bear" essentials: actualistic research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology. (United States)

    Arilla, Maite; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne


    Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass's trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all) from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus]) and non-durophagus (modelled here by brown bears and

  6. Impact of climate and land use change on water availability and reservoir management: scenarios in the Upper Aragón River, Spanish Pyrenees. (United States)

    López-Moreno, J I; Zabalza, J; Vicente-Serrano, S M; Revuelto, J; Gilaberte, M; Azorin-Molina, C; Morán-Tejeda, E; García-Ruiz, J M; Tague, C


    Streamflows in a Mediterranean mountain basin in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflow series projected for 2021-2050 were used to simulate the management of the Yesa reservoir, which is critical to the downstream supply of irrigation and domestic water. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys). The results show that increased forest cover in the basin could decrease annual streamflow by 16%, mainly in early spring, summer and autumn. Regional climate models (RCMs) project a trend of warming and drying in the basin for the period 2021-2050, which will cause a 13.8% decrease in annual streamflow, mainly in late spring and summer. The combined effects of forest regeneration and climate change are expected to reduce annual streamflows by 29.6%, with marked decreases affecting all months with the exception of January and February, when the decline will be moderate. Under these streamflow reduction scenarios it is expected that it will be difficult for the Yesa reservoir to meet the current water demand, based on its current storage capacity (476 hm(3)). If the current project to enlarge the reservoir to a capacity of 1059 hm(3) is completed, the potential to apply multi-annual streamflow management, which will increase the feasibility of maintaining the current water supply. However, under future climate and land cover scenarios, reservoir storage will rarely exceed half of the expected capacity, and the river flows downstream of the reservoir is projected to be dramatically reduced.

  7. Case Study: Effect of Climatic Characterization on River Discharge in an Alpine-Prealpine Catchment of the Spanish Pyrenees Using the SWAT Model

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    Leticia Palazón


    Full Text Available The new challenges in assessment of water resources demand new approaches and tools, such as the use of hydrologic models, which could serve to assist managers in the prediction, planning and management of catchment water supplies in view of increased demand of water for irrigation and climatic change. Good characterization of the spatial patterns of climate variables is of paramount importance in hydrological modelling. This is especially so when modelling mountain environments which are characterized by strong altitudinal climate gradients. However, very often there is a poor distribution of climatic stations in these areas, which in many cases, results in under representation of high altitude areas with respect to climatic data. This results in the poor performance of the models. In the present study, the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT model was applied to the Barasona reservoir catchment in the Central Spanish Pyrenees in order to assess the influence of different climatic characterizations in the monthly river discharges. Four simulations with different input data were assessed, using only the available climate data (A1; the former plus one synthetic dataset at a higher altitude (B1; and both plus the altitudinal climate gradient (A2 and B2. The model’s performance was evaluated against the river discharges for the representative periods of 2003–2005 and 1994–1996 by means of commonly used statistical measures. The best results were obtained using the altitudinal climate gradient alone (scenario A2. This study provided insight into the importance of taking into account the sources and the spatial distribution of weather data in modelling water resources in mountainous catchments.

  8. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

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    Borghi, C. E.


    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  9. Late Pleistocene deglaciation in the upper Gállego Valley, central Pyrenees (United States)

    Palacios, David; de Andrés, Nuria; López-Moreno, Juan I.; García-Ruiz, José M.


    Deglaciation processes in the upper Gállego Valley, central-southern Pyrenees, were studied using geomorphological mapping and 36Cl cosmogenic dating of moraine and rock glacier boulders, as well as polished bedrock. Although the precise position of the Gállego Glacier during the global last glacial maximum is not known, there is evidence that ice tongues retreated to the headwaters, which caused subdivision of the main glacier into a number of individual glaciers prior to 17 ka. A range of ages (16 to 11 ka) was found among three tributary valleys within the general trend of deglaciation. The retreat rate to cirque was estimated to be relatively rapid (approximately 5 km per ka). The mapped glacial sedimentology and geomorphology appears to support the occurrence of multiple minor advances and retreats, or periods of stasis during the late deglaciation. Geomorphological and geological differences among the tributary valleys, and error estimates associated with the results obtained, prevented unambiguous correlations of the advances with the late Pleistocene cold periods. During the latter advances, small glaciers and rock glaciers developed close to the cirque headwalls, and co-occurred under the same climatic conditions. No evidence for Holocene re-advance was found for any of the three tributary valleys.

  10. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.


    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the

  11. Glacial stages and post-glacial environmental evolution in the Upper Garonne valley, Central Pyrenees. (United States)

    Fernandes, M; Oliva, M; Palma, P; Ruiz-Fernández, J; Lopes, L


    The maximum glacial extent in the Central Pyrenees during the Last Glaciation is known to have occurred before the global Last Glacial Maximum, but the succession of cold events afterwards and their impact on the landscape are still relatively unknown. This study focuses on the environmental evolution in the upper valley of the Garonne River since the Last Glaciation. Geomorphological mapping allows analysis of the spatial distribution of inherited and current processes and landforms in the study area. The distribution of glacial records (moraines, till, erratic boulders, glacial thresholds) suggests the existence of four glacial stages, from the maximum expansion to the end of the glaciation. GIS modeling allows quantification of the Equilibrium Line Altitude, extent, thickness and volume of ice in each glacial stage. During the first stage, the Garonne glacier reached 460m in the Loures-Barousse-Barbazan basin, where it formed a piedmont glacier 88km from the head and extended over 960km(2). At a second stage of glacier stabilization during the deglaciation process, the valley glaciers were 12-23km from the head until elevations of 1000-1850m, covering an area of 157km(2). Glaciers during stage three remained isolated in the upper parts of the valley, at heights of 2050-2200m and 2.6-4.5km from the head, with a glacial surface of 16km(2). In stage four, cirque glaciers were formed between 2260m and 2590m, with a length of 0.4-2km and a glacial area of 5.7km(2). Also, the wide range of periglacial, slope, nival and alluvial landforms existing in the formerly glaciated environments allows reconstruction of the post-glacial environmental dynamics in the upper Garonne basin. Today, the highest lands are organized following three elevation belts: subnival (1500-1900m), nival (1900-2300m) and periglacial/cryonival (2300-2800m).

  12. Thrust kinematics deduced by primary and secondary magnetizations in the Internal Sierras (Central Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Oliva, B.; Pueyo, E.


    The Central Southern Pyrenees are composed (from N to S) by the Axial Zone (made by several basement-involved nappes; (Gavarnie and Guarga), the Internal Sierras (IS) fold and thrust belt (Larra and Monte Perdido units), the Jaca piggyback basin (turbiditic and molassic) and the External Sierras. Several paleomagnetic studies have been carried out during the last decades in all units except for the IS. Different amounts of rotation were reported, usually from primary directions. This work shows paleomagnetic results derived from recent investigations in the IS. 78 sites were sampled in different thrust sheets in the Larra and Monte Perdido units. Sites were collected in Upper Cretaceous rocks; all of them were homogeneously distributed along the range strike. A N-S section through the Eocene turbiditic basin was also done (9 sites) to link our results to previous data. Stepwise thermal demagnetization every 25-50^oC was performed to unravel the NRM components. Magnetic mineralogy essays (IRM, IST and low temperature) confirm magnetite as the major magnetic carrier. Two paleomagnetic components can be distinguished; A) an intermediate direction unblocking from 350^o to 450^oC and B) a high temperature component (from 500^o -575^oC). The B component displays two polarities and a positive fold and reverse tests whereas the A component shows only reverse polarity and a pervasive negative fold test. The A component has been also found in the Eocene transect. Two major clues help to constrain the remagnetization age; on one hand the deformation age (Early-Middle Eocene in the Larra and Monte Perdido units) and, on the other hand, the age of the turbiditic rocks (Middle Eocene). Therefore the remagnetization process took place by the end of the IS thrust system configuration or in a later period. Since the rotation detected by the A and B components are similar, the rotation age can be constrained as younger than the remagnetization. All these deductions have important

  13. Critical rainfall conditions for the initiation of torrential flows. Results from the Rebaixader catchment (Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Abancó, Clàudia; Hürlimann, Marcel; Moya, José; Berenguer, Marc


    Torrential flows like debris flows or debris floods are fast movements formed by a mix of water and different amounts of unsorted solid material. They generally occur in steep torrents and pose high risk in mountainous areas. Rainfall is their most common triggering factor and the analysis of the critical rainfall conditions is a fundamental research task. Due to their wide use in warning systems, rainfall thresholds for the triggering of torrential flows are an important outcome of such analysis and are empirically derived using data from past events. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, rainfall data of 25 torrential flows ("TRIG rainfalls") were recorded, with a 5-min sampling frequency. Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger torrential flows ("NonTRIG rainfalls") were also collected and analyzed. The goal of this work was threefold: (i) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential flows and others that did not; (ii) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment by with different techniques; (iii) analyze how the criterion used for defining the rainfall duration and the spatial variability of rainfall influences the value obtained for the thresholds. The statistical analysis of the rainfall characteristics showed that the parameters that discriminate better the TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total rainfall amount. The antecedent rainfall was not significantly different between TRIG and NonTRIG rainfalls, as it can be expected when the source material is very pervious (a sandy glacial soil in the study site). Thresholds were derived from data collected at one rain gauge located inside the catchment. Two different methods were applied to calculate the duration and intensity of rainfall: (i) using total duration, Dtot

  14. Long-term entrenchment and consequences in present flood hazard in the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees

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    A. Victoriano


    Full Text Available On 18 June 2013, a damaging flood of the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees, Spain caused losses exceeding EUR 100 million. Flood events are rarely related to the geologic, tectonic and geomorphologic context. This study bridges the gap between the short- and long-term processes scope. The upper reach of the Garona River was studied considering different space and time scales in order to establish a relationship between present short-term fluvial processes and the long-term evolution of the area. There is a clear entrenchment tendency of the drainage network since the Miocene. Post-orogenic exhumation and uplift of the Axial Pyrenees proves the recent and active tectonics of the area which leads to valley entrenchment. The last Upper Pleistocene glaciation affected the Aran valley and gave rise to a destabilisation period during the glacial–interglacial transition, characterised by a postglacial incision tendency. Mean entrenchment rates between 0.68 and 1.56 mm yr-1 since deglaciation have been estimated. During the Holocene, the valley evolution is mostly marked by vertical incision and recent fluvial dynamics is characterised by the predominance of erosive processes. The 2013 flood produced lateral and/or vertical erosion along almost all the river length in Val d'Aran. These results suggest that the long-term tendency of the fluvial system is reflected in short-term processes. Thus, understanding the fluvial network development and evolution of the upper reach of the Garona River will serve to predict river response during flood events. This study helps to improve flood risk management, which needs to take into account the long-term river dynamics.

  15. The crustal evolution of the west-central Pyrenees revisited: Inferences from a new kinematic scenario (United States)

    Teixell, Antonio; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves


    New evolutionary models for the Pyrenean orogeny must consider feedbacks between the Mid-Cretaceous hyperextension postulated recently and the Pyrenean inversion. We present a new crustal section of the Pyrenees through the Jaca Basin, the western Axial Zone and the Chaînons Béarnais, which allows identifying the ancient continental margins of the Iberian and European plates and a suture. A sequential restoration allows a reassessment of the style of convergence through time. Restoration leads to a progressively thinned crust in narrow continental margins separated by a domain of exhumed mantle peridotite and overlain by a detached sedimentary lid. Early convergence during the Late Cretaceous and the Earliest Paleogene was accommodated by subduction of the peridotite domain. This was followed in the Eocene by initial collision involving overriding of the Iberian margin onto the European margin along the deep ramp of the North-Pyrenean Frontal thrust, which defines the suture. Subsequent full collision and strong relief generation from the late-Mid or Late Eocene to the Early Miocene were associated with thrust accretion of the Iberian plate, underlain by wedging and northward subduction of the decoupled Iberian lower crust.

  16. Tectono-climatic signals in linear, confined, point-sourced, deep-marine siliciclastic systems as analog for submarine-canyon fills, Eocene, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Pickering, K.


    The linear, confined geometry, and point-sourced nature, of the deep-marine siliciclastic systems in the Eocene Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees, provides a useful ancient spatial-temporal comparison and partial analog for the architecture and controls on the sedimentary infill of large submarine canyons / multiple canyons at continental margins with active tectonics, including salt and shale diapirism. The cumulative ~4 km of stratigraphy contains 8 sandy systems with a total of ~25 discrete channelized sandbodies that accumulated over ~10 Myr in water depths of ~400 to 800 m, that were controlled by the ~400-kyr Milkankovitch frequency with modes, at ~100 kyr and ~41 kyr (possibly stacked ~23-kyr) influencing bottom- water conditions, causing periodic stratification in the water column across a submarine sill within the western part of the more proximal depositional systems. Local tectonics defined and controlled the position and stacking patterns of the 8 sandy systems and their constituent channelized sandbodies, in a process of "seesaw tectonics" by: (i) Westward lateral offset-stacking of channelized sandbodies due to growth of the eastern side of the basin, and (ii) Eastward (orogenwards) "back-stepping" of the depositional axis of each sandy system, due to phases of relative uplift of the opposing lateral margin. Thus, the first-order control on accommodation for deep-marine sedimentation was tectonic, with the pacing of the supply of coarse siliciclastics being driven by global climatic processes, particularly Milankovitch-type frequencies. The dominance of eccentricity and obliquity is similar to results from the continental lacustrine, Eocene Green River Formation. The age model for the Ainsa basin yields an average sediment accumulation rate of ~40 cm kyr-1, that is consistent with that inferred from the spectral analysis on bioturbation intensity for fine-grained sedimentation (~30 cm kyr-1). This paper compares and contrasts depositional patterns

  17. Final « pop-up » structural reactivation of the internal part of an orogenic wedge: west-central Pyrenees (United States)

    Meresse, F.; Jolivet, M.; Labaume, P.; Teixell, A.


    Université Montpellier 2, INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire Géosciences Montpellier, cc060, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France Tectonics-sedimentation relationships are often used to describe the tectonic evolution of orogenic wedges. However, does the sedimentary record associated to the build-up of the wedge recall the entire tectonic history? Numerous studies based on tectono-stratigraphic and thermochronological data, as well as numerical modeling, have demonstrated that on the large scale the growth of the Pyrenees is characterized by a southward propagation of the deformation (e.g., Muñoz, 1992; Morris et al., 1998; Fitzgerald et al., 1999; Beaumont et al., 2000). However, in the west-central Pyrenees, recent thermochronological data have suggested that the in-sequence propagation of the basement thrust system was followed by out-of-sequence (re)activation of hinterland structures after the South-Pyrenean Frontal Thrust had been sealed (Jolivet et al., 2007). To better describe the structural evolution of the Pyrenean prism, we focused our work on a NNE-SSW transect from the northern piedmont (Bagnères-de-Bigorre), through the Axial Zone and down to the Jaca basin where tectonics-sedimentation relationships have been extensively described (e.g., Teixell, 1996). A crustal scale cross-section combined with detailed apatite fission track analysis are used as a case study to unravel in detail the deformation history. Apatite fission track data from the Bagnères-de-Bigorre Paleozoic massif (central ages: 41-42 Ma) and the Lesponne Hercynian granite (central age: 31 Ma) located in the North-Pyrenean Zone and in the north of the Axial Zone, respectively, reveal Middle Eocene-Early Oligocene denudation ages of the northern part of the wedge. Immediately to the south, central ages around 24-20 Ma attest to a Latest Oligocene-Early Miocene denudation ages of the Chiroulet granite. According to the structural context, these results suggest a

  18. Fluvial adjustments to soil erosion and plant cover changes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; López-Moreno, J.I.; Gómez-Villar, A.; Rubio, V.; Lana-Renault, N.; García-Ruiz, J.M.


    Until the middle of the 20th Century, Pyrenean rivers were characterized by braided channels, unstable sedimentary structures and an almost complete lack of plant cover in the alluvial plain, due to the high sediment yield in hillslopes and the occurrence of frequent and intense flooding. This was p

  19. Patterns of soil carbon and nitrogen in relation to soil movement under different land uses in mountain farmland fields (South Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Navas, A.; Gaspar, L.; López-Vicente, M.; Machín, J.


    Cultivation on mountain landscapes has been identified as a main factor triggering soil erosion. The loss of soil particles and its redistribution across the landscape is associated to that of soil nutrients. Patterns of soil erosion and of the transport and redistribution of soil particles appear to be closely linked to that of carbon in soils. In this work the redistribution of total organic carbon and nitrogen and that of soil particles is analysed in different geomorphic parts of mountain farmland fields. A southern orientated hillslope in the Central Spanish Pyrenees was selected as representative of main land uses. In the region, farmland abandonment during the last decades affects 74 % of its surface and therefore patterns of soil and nutrient losses in the fields are affected by land abandonments and tillage. A set of cultivated and abandoned fields with different ages of land abandonment, slope gradients and length were selected to conduct this study. In each of the fields, sampling was carried out in different parts of the slope to assess the pattern of particle size distribution and of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Other general soil properties analysed: pH, EC and carbonate contents provided supplementary information for better understanding soil and nutrient redistribution patterns. In addition, information provided by a previous research using fallout caesium 137 was used to document soil movement in these fields. At the bottom slope of the fields significant increases in the sand percentage occurs whereas the clay contents decrease slightly. This could be due to the export of the finest fractions with high runoff in spite that fields are surrounded with stone walls as well as to some clay leaching in the soil profile, as suggested by the lowest values of EC at the bottom of the slope. The results indicate that in general TOC increases from the crest to the bottom slope of the fields. Percentages of TOC increases range from 5 to

  20. Facies architecture and high-resolution sequence stratigraphy of an Upper Cretaceous platform margin succession, southern central Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Pomar, Luis; Gili, Eulalia; Obrador, Antonio; Ward, William C.


    Excellent exposures of Upper Cretaceous (Santonian) carbonate platforms on the northern flank of Sant Corneli anticline (southern central Pyrenees) provide detailed information of facies architecture in both depositional strike and dip directions. Basic accretional units are differentiated by facies contrast across mappable surfaces. These surfaces do not show clear evidence of subaerial erosion and are correlated basinward with bedding planes across which there are subtle changes in skeletal composition. Two types of basic accretional units have been identified based on bedding patterns, internal facies architecture and skeletal composition: (1) Rudist buildups consist of a rudist and coral belt at the platform margin, passing landward into a slender-hippuritid lithosome, locally overlain by a bioclastic blanket that passes basinward, into bioclastic "apron-like" clinobeds and into fine-grained packstone/wackestone. (2) Calcarenite wedges consist of yellow-brown, benthic-foraminifer-rich grainstones to grain-dominated packstones, with scattered rudist shells and small coral colonies, passing basinward into mud-dominated packstones to wackestones, with variable siliciclastic content (quartz sand to silt and clay). Rudist buildups and calcarenite wedges alternate, although not rhythmically. These changes in platform skeletal composition reflect changes in the dominant type of carbonate-producing biota independently of the changes in accommodation. Both types of basic accretional units: rudist buildups and calcarenite wedges, form simple sequences and parasequences according to internal lithofacies arrangement and inferred sea-level cyclicity (cycles or paracycles). High-frequency sea-level cyclicity fits in the Milankovitch frequency band. Long-term changes in accommodation governing aggradation, progradation and backstepping of basic sequences and parasequences reflect tectonic influence rather than long-term changes in eustatic sea level.

  1. Geology of the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinsmiede, W.F.J.


    The results are given of field work undertaken in the central Pyrenean axial zone on low-grade metamorphic, highly folded Palaeozoic rocks. Absence of determinable fossils is chiefly due to severe tectonisation, but occasionally also of non-deposition. Dating is entirely based on the presence of Sil

  2. Physico-chemical study of the ancient and recent accumulations of a braided system (Ara river. Central Pyrenees, Spain

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    Rubio, V.


    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and mineralogical study of the Ara river sediments, in the Central Pyrenees (Spain, allows to recognize the genesis and evolution of its basin. The minerals of the sand fraction, the ones corresponding to the clay fraction and the minority elements, reveal certain processes and associations that, in addition to the identification of the fluvial terraces, fans, glacis and even morainic deposits, contribute to explain the geological history of the Central Pyrenees, the main objective of this work. The application of a multivariate factorial analysis to the data with BMDP-4M program was very helpful for the interpretation of the results. The more resistant minerals are found in the thinner textural fractions, whereas the more alterable are located in the thicker fractions. The cones and glacis, composed by materials of the flysch, reveal an alteration of the carbonated materials which is shown by the formation of feldspars and anphybols. The formation of iron and manganese metal oxides, of different crystallinity degrees, associated with chrome, lead and nickel, is also observed. The morainic deposits, mainly composed by silicate materials, bring along the formation of illite associated with copper and zinc. Finally, the fluvial terraces have a combination of both alteration processes previously described.

    [es] El estudio físico-químico y mineralógico de los sedimentos del río Ara, en el Pirineo Central (España, permite reconocer la génesis y evolución de su cuenca. Los minerales de la fracción arena, los correspondientes a la fracción arcilla y los elementos minoritarios, delatan ciertos procesos y asociaciones que, junto con la identificación de terrazas fluviales, conos, glacis e incluso depósitos morrénicos, ayudan a explicar la historia geológica del Pirineo Central, principal objetivo de este trabajo. La aplicación al conjunto de datos de un análisis factorial multivariante mediante el programa BMDP

  3. Long-term entrenchment and consequences for present flood hazard in the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Victoriano, Ane; García-Silvestre, Marta; Furdada, Glòria; Bordonau, Jaume


    On 18 June 2013, a damaging flood of the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees, Spain) caused losses exceeding EUR 100 million. Few studies have related flood events to the geologic, tectonic and geomorphologic context. This study deals with both short- and long-term processes by studying the upper reach of the Garona River on different timescales and space scales. There has been a clear entrenchment tendency of the drainage network since the Miocene. Post-orogenic exhumation and uplift of the Axial Pyrenees determines the recent and active tectonics of the area and leads to fluvial incision. The last Upper Pleistocene glaciation affected Val d'Aran and gave rise to a destabilization period during the glacial-interglacial transition, marked by a postglacial incision tendency. Mean entrenchment rates between 0.68 and 1.56 mm yr-1 since deglaciation have been estimated. The assessment of the 2013 flood, characterized by the predominance of vertical incision and bank erosion, suggests that the long-term tendency of the fluvial system is reflected in short-term processes. The study of the geologic and geomorphologic evolution, combined with the analysis of this 30-50-year return period flood event, helps to improve flood risk management by providing contextual information that can constrain predictions and help guide choices and decisions. In fact, the millennial entrenchment tendency is shown at the human scale, which is considered useful for river management, but could be imperceptible in detailed hydrodynamic and channel morphology studies that describe river dynamics mostly at the 10-15-year timescale.

  4. Tectonic control on sediment sources in the Jaca basin (Middle and Upper Eocene of the South-Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Roigé, Marta; Gómez-Gras, David; Remacha, Eduard; Daza, Raquel; Boya, Salvador


    The Eocene clastic systems of the Jaca foreland Basin (southern Pyrenees) allow us to identify changes in sediment composition through time. We provide new data on sediment composition and sources of the northern Jaca basin, whose stratigraphic evolution from Middle Lutetian deep-marine to Priabonian alluvial systems record a main reorganization in the active Pyrenean prowedge. Petrological analysis shows that the Banastón and the Lower Jaca turbidite systems (Middle-Upper Lutetian) were fed from an eastern source, which dominated during the sedimentation of the Hecho Group turbidites. In contrast, the upper part of the Jaca turbidite systems (Lutetian-Bartonian transition) records an increase in the number of subvolcanic rock and hybrid-sandstone fragments (intrabasinal and extrabasinal grains) being the first system clearly fed from the north. This change is interpreted as associated with an uplifting of the Eaux-Chaudes/Lakora thrust sheet in the northern Axial Zone. The Middle Bartonian Sabiñánigo sandstone derives from eastern and northeastern source areas. In contrast, the overlying Late Bartonian-Early Priabonian Atarés delta records sediment input from the east. The Santa Orosia alluvial system records a new distinct compositional change, with a very high content of hybrid-sandstone clasts from the Hecho Group, again from a northern provenance. Such cannibalized clasts were sourced from newly emerged areas of the hinterland, associated with the basement-involved Gavarnie thrust activity in the Axial Zone.

  5. Analysis of the ground vibration produced by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain

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    C. Abancó


    Full Text Available The use of ground vibration sensors for debris-flow monitoring has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the seismic signals produced by debris flows still presents many uncertainties. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain two different ground vibration stations with different characteristics in terms of recording systems and site-specific factors have been compared. The shape of the time series has been recognised as one of the key parameters to identify events and to distinguish between different types of torrential processes. The results show that the site-specific factors strongly influence on the ground vibration registered at each geophone. The attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential. In addition, the assembly of the geophones to the terrain also has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task which is clearly influenced by site-specific conditions of the geophones.

  6. Formation of orogen-perpendicular thrusts due to mechanical contrasts in the basal décollement in the Central External Sierras (Southern Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Vidal-Royo, Oskar; Koyi, Hemin A.; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    Two series of analogue models are used to explore the effect of ductile-frictional contrasts of the basal décollement on the development of oblique and transverse structures during thin-skinned shortening. These models simulate the evolution of the Central External Sierras (CES; Southern Pyrenees, Spain), which constitute the frontal emerging part of the southernmost Pyrenean thrust. The CES are characterised by the presence of N-S to NW-SE anticlines, perpendicular to the Pyrenean structural trend and developed in the hanging-wall of the thrust system. They detach on unevenly distributed Triassic materials (evaporitic-dolomitic interfingering). The models simulated the effect of adjacent ductile versus frictional décollements during shortening. Model Series A tests the thickness ratio between overburden and the ductile layer, whereas model Series B tests the width (perpendicular to the shortening direction) of frictional décollement. Model results confirms that deformation reaches further in areas detached on a ductile layer whereas above frictional décollement areas, shortening is accommodated by additional uplift and penetrative strain. This replicates the structural style of the CES: higher structural relief of N-S anticlines with regard to orogen-parallel structures, absence of a representative ductile décollement in the core, plunging towards the hinterland and foreland-side closure not thrusted by the South Pyrenean thrust.

  7. Short-term effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil water repellency in the Central Pyrenees (NE-Spain) (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Badía-Villas, David; Ortiz-Perpiñán, Oriol


    The decrease of livestock grazing during the last decades in the Central Pyrenees has led to a regression of grasslands in favour of shrublands, mainly composed by Echinospartum horridum. Prescribed burning might be a suitable tool for the control of this species that limits pastures development and therefore, the reclamation of grasslands; although, its effects on soil properties are still uncertain [1]. Controlled burnings are usually performed in spring or autumn, when soil moisture is high and temperature low, being easier to control and also reducing its effects on soil properties. However, burning during the wet seasons can increase the risk of soil erosion as the vegetation cover is partially destroyed. In this sense, soil water repellency (SWR) plays an important role reducing the infiltration rates and, thus, increasing runoff and soil erosion [2]. Then, it is of special interest to study parameters that influence SWR such as soil moisture, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil biological activity [3]. The aim of this work is, to analyse the effects of controlled burning on SWR as well as some of the influencing factors on this parameter. To achieve this, soil sampling was carried out in two prescribed fire events that took place in the Central Pyrenees: Tella (April, 2015) and Buisán (November, 2015). Temperature was simultaneously recorded during the fire via thermocouples placed at the surface level and at 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm depth. In each event, topsoil was scrapped and sampled from 0-1 cm, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm depth in each sampling point (3 for Tella and 4 for Buisán) just before and immediately after burning. We analysed SWR persistence (Water Drop Penetration Time, WDPT) and intensity (Ethanol Percentage Test, EPT) as well as total C and N, microbial C, β-glucosidase activity, soil moisture and pH. Temperature measurements indicated a higher fire intensity in Tella than in Buisán burning. Surface unburned samples presented extreme SWR values

  8. Uncertainties on the definition of critical rainfall patterns for debris-flows triggering. Results from the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya, Jose; Berenguer, Marc


    Empirical rainfall thresholds are a widespread technique in debris-flow hazard assessment and can be established by statistical analysis of historic data. Typically, data from one or several rain gauges located nearby the affected catchment is used to define the triggering conditions. However, this procedure has been demonstrated not to be accurate enough due to the spatial variability of convective rainstorms. In 2009, a monitoring system was installed in the Rebaixader catchment, Central Pyrenees (Spain). Since then, 28 torrential flows (debris flows and debris floods) have occurred and rainfall data of 25 of them are available with a 5-minutes frequency of recording ("event rainfalls"). Other 142 rainfalls that did not trigger events ("no event rainfalls) were also collected and analysed. The goal of this work was threefold: a) characterize rainfall episodes in the Rebaixader catchment and compare rainfall data that triggered torrential events and others that did not; b) define and test Intensity-Duration (ID) thresholds using rainfall data measured inside the catchment; c) estimate the uncertainty derived from the use of rain gauges located outside the catchment based on the spatial correlation depicted by radar rainfall maps. The results of the statistical analysis showed that the parameters that more distinguish between the two populations of rainfalls are the rainfall intensities, the mean rainfall and the total precipitation. On the other side, the storm duration and the antecedent rainfall are not significantly different between "event rainfalls" and "no event rainfalls". Four different ID rainfall thresholds were derived based on the dataset of the first 5 years and tested using the 2014 dataset. The results of the test indicated that the threshold corresponding to the 90% percentile showed the best performance. Weather radar data was used to analyse the spatial variability of the triggering rainfalls. The analysis indicates that rain gauges outside the


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    Full Text Available The lower Eocene Roda Sandstone (Figols Group, south-central Pyrenees mainly consists of mouth bars and delta-front sandstone lobes deposited in a flood-dominated river-delta system. The deposition of these bodies was strongly controlled by an interaction between flood-dominated gravity flows entering seawater, topographic confinement and tidal currents. The Roda Sandstone is made up of six depositional sequences of different hierarchical order each of which is characterized by a basal deltaic sandstone wedge (R1 to R6 that passes upward into a siltstone and mudstone interval. Each basal deltaic sandstone wedge is composed of three types of facies association and respective facies tract (sensu Mutti 1992 that, from proximal to distal zones, are indicated as T1, T2 and T3. These three facies tracts are created by the downcurrent evolution of different types of sediment-laden stream flows entering seawater and related hyperpycnal flows. Their deposits are constituted by three different types of coarse-grained mouth bars and corresponding fine-grained delta-front sandstone lobes. The tidal influence is present in facies tract T3 in the R5 and R6 sandstone units, where the passage between flood-dominated mouth bars and the delta-front sandstone lobes occurs through intermediate facies characterized by different types of sigmoidal-cross stratification whose meaning will be discussed. The basal deltaic sandstone wedges of Roda sandstone are characterized by a progressive forestepping culminating in the R6 unit that erodes the underlying R5 unit and by an overlying backstepping unit indicated as R7. The erosive surface at the base of R6 unit is interpreted as a sequence boundary that divides the Roda Sandstone into two parts: 1 an underlying highstand system tract (HST and falling stage system tract (FSST (units R1 to R5 and 2 an overlying low-stand delta (the R6 unit that passes upward into highstand mudstone through a transgressive system tract

  10. Cirques have growth spurts during deglacial and interglacial periods: Evidence from 10Be and 26Al nuclide inventories in the central and eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Crest, Y.; Delmas, M.; Braucher, R.; Gunnell, Y.; Calvet, M.


    Cirques are emblematic landforms of alpine landscapes. The statistical distribution of cirque-floor elevations is used to infer glacial equilibrium-line altitude, and the age of their frontal moraines for reconstructing glacial chronologies. Very few studies, however, have sought to measure cirque-floor and supraglacial ridgetop bedrock downwearing rates in order to confront these denudation estimates with theoretical models of Quaternary mountain landscape evolution. Here we use 10Be nuclide samples (n = 36) from moraines, bedrock steps, and supraglacial ridgetops among a population of cirques in the east-central Pyrenees in order to quantify denudation in the landscape and detect whether the mountain topography bears any relevance to the glacial buzzsaw hypothesis. Minimum exposure ages (MEAs) obtained for a succession of moraines spanning the Oldest Dryas to the Holocene produced a deglaciation chronology for three different Pyrenean ranges: Maladeta, Bassiès, and Carlit. Based on a series of corrections, calibrations, and chronostratigraphic tuning procedures, MEAs on ice-polished bedrock exposures were further used to model denudation depths at nested timescales during the Würm, the Younger Dryas, and the Holocene. Results show that subglacial cirque-floor denudation was lower during glacial periods (Würm: 10 mm/ka) than during deglacial and interglacial periods (tens to hundreds of mm/ka). The relative inefficiency of glacial denudation in the cirque zone during the Würm would have resulted from (i) cold-based and/or (ii) low-gradient glaciers situated in the upper reaches of the icefield; and/or from (iii) glacier-load starvation because of arrested clast supply from supraglacial rockslopes situated in the permafrost zone. Denudation peaked during the Younger Dryas and Holocene glacial advances, a time when cirque glaciers became steeper, warmer-based, and when frost cracking weakened supraglacial ridgetops, thus enhancing subglacial erosion by providing

  11. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

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    Mariana Haedo


    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  12. Pre-Hispanic agricultural decline prior to the Spanish Conquest in southern Central America (United States)

    Taylor, Zachary P.; Horn, Sally P.; Finkelstein, David B.


    Archeological and paleoenvironmental records from southern Central America attribute population collapse to the Spanish Conquest about 500 years ago. Paleoclimate records from the circum-Caribbean have shown evidence of severe, regional droughts that contributed to the collapse of the Mayan Civilization, but there are few records of these droughts in southern Central America and no records of their effects on prehistoric populations in the region. Here we present a high-resolution lake sediment record of prehistoric agricultural activities using bulk sediment stable carbon isotopes from Laguna Zoncho, Costa Rica. We find isotopic evidence that agriculture was nearly absent from the watershed approximately 220 years prior to the Spanish arrival in Costa Rica and identify two distinct periods of agricultural decline, 1150-970 and 860-640 cal yr BP, which correspond to severe droughts in central Mexico. We attribute decreases in agriculture to a weakened Central American monsoon, which would have shortened the growing season at Laguna Zoncho, reduced crop yields, and negatively affected prehistoric populations.

  13. Spanish Cooperation with Central America: Political will or Transfer of Resources?

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    Mª Àngels Miralpeix i Güell


    Full Text Available The economies of the six states of Central America do not form a homogeneous block although they share the common denominators of underdevelopment and dependence. The great dependence of Central American economies on only a few export products whose value has been drastically reduced in international markets was one of the fundamental causes of the economic crisis. The reactivation of the subregional economy largely depends on the opening up of foreign markets, the availability of modern technology, debt renegotiation and the fostering of direct investments.Spanish foreign policy towards Central America has been characterized by a clear political committment to the peace process which set it on the long road towards the end of the so-called Central American crisis. But we can show that the Spanish Policy for Development and Cooperation towards the isthmus has not always been translated into the transfer of resources. The present study which has, as its objective, the analysis of this policy, is based on the study of the PACI-Report (1990-1992 and on the PACIPrevisions (1987-1989 and 1993-1994 given the non-availability of its documented achievements in these years. In order that the political committments taken on by Spain are translated into the assuming of economic responsibilites, it is inevitable that the cooperation be largely technical, based on projects designed in connection with the governments of the isthmus as well as with regional institutions.Political peace will be impossible to reach if the grave economic and social problems are not solved and if the process of democratization and modernization of the State is not consolidated. All these challenges cannot be confronted without intense external support such as that given during the political crisis; regional integration both political (strengthening the Central American Parlament and economic (reactivation of the Central American Common Market offers a clear opportunity for

  14. Integrating Extensive Livestock and Soil Conservation Policies in Mediterranean Mountain Areas for Recovery of Abandoned Lands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. A Long-Term Research Assessment

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    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio


    Land abandonment is a global issue with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Abandoned Mediterranean croplands start a process of secondary succession that is initially colonized by grasslands, shrubs and forest. In Mediterranean mountain areas, the process is very slow, so the

  15. Detection of early stage large scale landslides in forested areas by 2 m LiDAR DEM analysis. The example of Portainé (Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Guinau, Marta; Ortuño, Maria; Calvet, Jaume; Furdada, Glòria; Bordonau, Jaume; Ruiz, Antonio; Camafort, Miquel


    Mass movements have been classically detected by field inspection and air-photo interpretation. However, airborne LiDAR has significant potential for generating high-resolution digital terrain models, which provide considerable advantages over conventional surveying techniques. In this work, we present the identification and characterization of six slope failures previously undetected in the Orri massif, at the core of the Pyrenean range. The landforms had not been previously detected and were identified by the analysis of high resolution 2 m LiDAR derived bared earth topography. Most of the scarps within these failures are not detectable by photo interpretation or the analysis of 5 m resolution topographic maps owing to their small heights (ranging between 0.5 and 2 m) and their location within forest areas. 2D and 3D visualization of hillshade maps with different sun azimuths, allowed to obtain the overall picture of the scarp assemblage and to analyze the geometry and location of the scarps with respect to the slope and the structural fabric. Near 120 scarps were mapped and interpreted as part of slow gravitational deformation, incipient slow flow affecting a colluvium, rotational rock-sliding and slope creep. Landforms interpreted as incipient slow flow affecting a colluvium have headscarps with horse-shoe shape and superficial (LIDAR derived bared earth topography would significantly help in the rapid detection and mapping of early stage slope deformations in high mountain areas, which could contribute to 1) a better understanding of the spatial controlling factors and 2) obtaining rapid diagnosis of the state of the slopes, critical for the proper forecast of future catastrophic failures. This presentation is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project CHARMA: CHAracterization and ContRol of MAss Movements. A Challenge for Geohazard Mitigation (CGL2013-40828-R).

  16. Los efectos geoecológicos del cambio global en el Pirineo Central español: una revisión a distintas escalas espaciales y temporales


    García-Ruiz, José M.; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Lasanta, Teodoro; Vicente-Serrano, Sergio M.; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Sanjuán, Yasmina; Beguería, Santiago; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Gómez-Villar, Amelia


    We review the effects of climate variability and land use / land cover changes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at different spatial and temporal scales. Paleoclimatic studies based upon multi-proxy analyses of lacustrine, glacial and speleothematic deposits, among others, have demonstrated the occurrence of intense climatic fluctuations not only during the Late Upper Pleistocene associated to deglaciation, but also during the Holocene, affecting plant cover distribution, runoff generation, fl...

  17. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel


    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  18. Refueling outage services in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants; Servicios en recargas de centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landete, J. L.; Soto, M.; Nunuez, A.


    DOMINGUIS Group, through its 75 years of business development, has positioned as the Spanish leader Group in Services for the Nuclear Energy and Petrochemical Sectors. In this article, we present the most significant services summary that, through the companies that constitute DOMINGUIS Group, we have developed in Refueling Outage in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  19. The Effects of Work Values and Work Centrality on Job Satisfaction. A study with older spanish workers

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    Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos


    Full Text Available Since workforces are ageing throughout Europe, interest in the role of age in the workplace is increasing. Older workers with high work centrality are more likely to negotiate a relational contract and express higher levels of job satisfaction than older workers with low work centrality (Armstrong-Stassen and Schlosser, 2008. This study examines the role of work centrality and valued work outcomes as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 203 Spanish employees (M age = 55.78, SD = 3.01. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by needed income and work centrality. When work is not an important part of older workers’ lives, they will prefer extrinsic outcomes and will not invest in the relationship with their organization (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009. Implications for research and theory are explored in the conclusion.

  20. CCS in the Southern Pyrenees? (United States)

    Pueyo, E. L.; Klimowitz, J.; García-Lobón, J. L.; Calvín, P.; Casas, A. M.; Oliva, B.; Algeco2 Team


    The project "Identification and preliminary characterization of geological structures for geological storage of CO2" (ALGECO2) led by the IGME between 2009 and 2010 has made the first rigorous selection of potential CO2 reservoirs in Spain; more than one hundred structures were identified and subjected to preliminary evaluation. This assortment comprises more than thirty structures within the Pyrenees and the Ebro Basin (PE) domain. The discussion, based on the oil-exploration experience and regional geological knowledge (with the compilation of over 500 cross sections) has finally chosen 8 structures in the Pyrenees. Seismic data, oil industry wells and surface mapping have allowed building three-dimensional preliminary models of these structures. These potential reservoirs display storage capacities from a few Mt to hundreds Mt CO2. Besides, some Pyrenean structures are among the most favorable and reliable in the national ranking according to the panel of more than 150 experts of the ALGECO2 project. Two Pyrenean structural traps are notable for their large potential capacity; they have been coded as PE-GE-13 and PE-GE-14. The first one is a large and wide basement antiform located in the Northern Jaca-Pamplona Basin. There is an extensive seismic coverage in the area and a dozen of deep wells (2 of them 4,000 m deep). The reservoir consists of Buntsandstein sands (>80 m in thickness), being the Röt and Keuper facies the seal. The top of the reservoir is 1,720 m deep and the structure has a map-view surface > 500 km2. Preliminary 3D models allow estimating storage capacity > 300 Mt. On the other hand, the PE-GE-14 structure (partially overlapped in map-view with PE-GE-13) is a cover anticline related to an underneath thrust (but structurally higher than PE-GE-13). In this case, the reservoir-seal pair is formed by upper Paleocene platform limestones and the Eocene flysch and talus marls respectively. The structure has an area > 100 km2. The top of the reservoir

  1. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

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    José Mª Prat Forga


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  2. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

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    José Mª Prat Forga


    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.

  3. Weathering landforms exposure and erosion phases in Pedriza de Manzanares (Spanish Central Range) (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M.; Centeno Carrillo, J. D.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.


    The phases of erosion can be reconstructed measuring the position and dimensions of exposed granite underground weathering landforms. We afford a first approach of this kind of "erosion history" in the area of Pedriza de Manzanares. Pedriza de Manzanares is the main part of the Natural Park of High Manzanares River Basin. The area is part also of the Late Paleozoic granites of the Spanish Central Range, intruded during the Variscan orogeny, and uplifted to its present position during Alpine orogeny. The granite shows a complex fracture pattern (related to Variscan and Alpine processes) that defines a landscape with alternance of regolith-connected-depressions and fresh granite outcrops with abundant bornhards and boulders. Pedriza (as most people call it) is a well known area for its granite landforms which attract tourism, educators and rock climbers. In this area, the contrasting hydrological behaviour of fresh and weathered granite, especially in fractures areas, produces small aquifers with a high recharge from adjacent impermeable surfaces. These conditions have been studied in relation to the soil water availability (for both human and ecosystems), and in relation to the geomorphic edaphic processes (taffoni, flared slopes, etc.). In previous works (García et al., 2008, Centeno et al., 2010) a conceptual model using MS-Excel was devised which provided the basis by which were defined the relevant variables and their interconnections (landforms, climate, hydrogeology). From the standpoint of soils water (and the related weathering processes or ecosystem characteristics), this is especially important in semi-arid and arid climates, as has been appreciated by practising farmers for many years, for the contrast in productive potential in stark between the regolithic and rocky areas. At the same time, granite weathering is enhanced by the persistent presence of water in the regolith and, as a consequence, many microforms are initiated or evolve under the regolith

  4. Cardiopulmonary helminths in foxes from the Pyrenees. (United States)

    Garrido-Castañé, Ignasi; Ortuño, Anna; Marco, Ignasi; Castellà, Joaquim


    The present survey was carried out to investigate the prevalence of cardiopulmonary helminths in red foxes in Pyrenees area and to evaluate the role of foxes in the eco-epidemiology of these nematodes. Hearts and entire respiratory tracts were obtained from 87 foxes from Vall d'Aran region, Pyrenees, Catalonia, north-eastern Spain. The cardiopulmonary tracts were dissected, flushed and examined for nematodes using sedimented flushing water. Of the 87 examined foxes, 53 (61%) were positive for cardiopulmonary helminths. The identified nematodes were Crenosoma vulpis (44.8%), Eucoleus aerophilus (29.9%) and Angiostrongylus vasorum (3.4%). Statistical differences were observed only on comparing age and C.vulpis prevalence, with young foxes being more infected than adults. The high prevalence of cardiopulmonary nematodes suggested that red foxes may play an important role in their transmission and maintenance in the studied area.

  5. Transverse fold evolution in the External Sierra, southern Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Anastasio, David J.; Holl, James E.


    Fault-slip data are used to reconstruct varying tectonic regimes associated with transverse fold development along the eastern and southern margins of the Jaca basin, southern Pyrenees, Spain. The Spanish Pyrenean foreland consists of thrust sheets and leading-edge décollement folds which developed within piggyback basins. Guara Formation limestones on the margins of the Jaca basin were deposited synchronously with deformation and are exposed in the External Sierra. Within the transverse folds, principal shortening axes determined from P and T dihedra plots of fault-slip data show a shift from steep shortening in stratigraphically older beds to NNE-SSW horizontal shortening in younger beds. Older strata are characterized by extensional faults interpreted to result from halotectonic (salt tectonics) deformation, whereas younger strata are characterized by contraction and strike-slip faults interpreted to result from thrust sheet emplacement. The interpretation of the timing for the shortening axes in the younger strata is supported by the observation that these axes are parallel to shortening axes determined from finite strain analysis, calcite twins, and regional thrusting directions determined from fault-related folds and slickenlines. This study shows that fault population analysis in syntectonic strata provides an opportunity to constrain kinematic evolution during orogeny.

  6. Implementation of a Single-Column Model for Fog and Low Cloud Forecasting at Central-Spanish Airports (United States)

    Terradellas, Enric; Cano, Darío


    Operations at Central-Spanish airports are often, especially in winter, affected by visibility reduction. The Instituto Nacional de Meteorología (INM), the Spanish Weather Service, has developed a single-column model (SCM) in order to improve short-term forecasts of fog, visibility and low-clouds. The SCM, called H1D, is a one-dimensional version of the HIRLAM limited-area model. It is operationally run for three airports in the region: Madrid-Barajas, Almagro and Albacete-Los Llanos. Since SCMs cannot deal with horizontal heterogeneity, the terms that depend on the horizontal structure of the atmosphere are estimated from the outputs of the three-dimensional (3-D) model and introduced into the SCM as external forcings. The systematic analysis of the meteorological situations has evidenced the existence of a close relationship between fog formation and the presence of drainage winds in the region. Since the 3-D model docs not have the necessary resolution to correctly simulate the main features of the drainage flow caused by the complex topography in the proximity of Madrid-Barajas, it cannot provide the SCM with the correct forcings. This problem has been partially overcome through the introduction of a module that, under certain conditions, substitutes the values computed from the 3-D model outputs by others that are based on a conceptual model of the phenomenon and have been empirically derived from climatological knowledge. This module improves the H1D verification scores for the basic meteorological variables—wind, temperature and humidity—and reduces the false alarm rate in fog forecast.

  7. Understanding the lithosphere in complex tectonic scenarios by integrating geophysical data: The Pyrenees case study (United States)

    Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montserrat; Muñoz, Josep Anton


    Tectonic processes dominate the development of the outermost layer of the Earth over a timescale of millions of years. The locations where these processes take place provide a great opportunity for Earth scientists to study and understand the dynamics and properties of the lithosphere. The Pyrenees are a particular case of continental collision formed as a result of the collision between the Iberian and European plates, which caused the subduction of the Iberian lower crust below the European crust. Large amounts of geophysical data have been acquired in the area providing spectacular images of lithospheric subduction beneath the Western and Central Pyrenees, confirming the occurrence of this generally well-understood process. The Eastern Pyrenees, however, are a most puzzling part of the orogen and the geodynamical evolution of this area cannot be understood without the influence of the Neogene Mediterranean rifting, following the continental collision. The complexity of this area and the controversy of the geophysical results set in debate concepts well recognized in the other parts of the Pyrenees such as the subduction of the Iberian lower crust and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The aims of this study are to characterise major tectonic and geophysical variations along the Pyrenean mountain range at a lithospheric-scale and constrain the causes of the observed lateral variations. A preliminary model of the lithospheric configuration and dynamics, based on magnetotelluric geophysical results, has been developed and constrained using independent and available geophysical, geological and geochemical data. Computational petrology methods, using Litmod, were used for integrated modelling of all data.

  8. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

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    S. Gascoin


    a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85 for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81 for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67. We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the time above 1600 m between December and April. We finally analyze the snow patterns for the atypical winter 2011–2012. Snow cover duration anomalies reveal a deficient snowpack on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, which seems to have caused a drop in the national hydropower production.

  9. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sanchez, R.


    time above 1600 m between December and April. We finally analyze the snow patterns for the atypical winter 2011-2012. Snow cover duration anomalies reveal a deficient snowpack on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, which seems to have caused a drop in the national hydropower production.

  10. Consumers' willingness to pay for beef direct sales. A regional comparison across the Pyrenees. (United States)

    Sanjuán, Ana I; Resano, Helena; Zeballos, Gabriela; Sans, Pierre; Panella-Riera, Nuria; Campo, M Mar; Khliji, Saoussan; Guerrero, Ana; Oliver, M Angels; Sañudo, Carlos; Santolaria, Pilar


    Willingness to pay (WTP) for direct market of beef is investigated in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees. Given the novelty of this distribution system, especially in Spain, a contingent valuation approach is undertaken, and a double-bounded model is estimated. Different patterns of awareness, use and WTP are found across regions. Likewise, the profile of current and potential users of direct sale chains is investigated. Experience in the different stages involved from choice to final consumption of beef, intensity of varied beef consumption, familiarity with direct market of food in general, and beef in particular, are some of the relevant factors to explain WTP and the probability of getting engaged into a direct distribution system of beef.

  11. The application of terrestrial laser scanner and SfM photogrammetry in measuring erosion and deposition processes in two opposite slopes in a humid badlands area (central Spanish Pyrenees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Nadal-Romero; P. Revuelto; P. Errea; J.I. López-Moreno


    Erosion and deposition processes in badland areas are usually estimated using traditional observations of topographic changes, measured by erosion pins or profile metres (invasive techniques). In recent times, remote-sensing techniques (non-invasive) have been routinely applied in geomorphology stud

  12. The Representation of Immigrants in Spanish television fiction. A proposal for a Content Analysis. El Comisario y Hospital Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Elena Galán Fajardo


    Full Text Available Spanish society is getting more and more multicultural. Demographys has changed considerably. Anyway, hegemonic media, especially televisión fiction as one of the most demanded genres on prime-time, avoiding or just showing them into ilegality, exclusion or margination plots. This research analyzes the image of immigrants in the plots of two of the Spanish workplace series with more audience nowadays. They were from 1999 to 2005. Using a content analyses these series has been estudied and the stereotypes used has been observed. In addition, the results of this study has been compared with the information from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics to show similarities and differences with the results obtained of the reality in the same temporary period. Finally, it has been observed a massive employment of negative stereotypes assigned to the image of the immigrant in both series and a correlation between reality and fiction.

  13. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants; Sistemas de gestion ambiental implantados en las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.


    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  14. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF); Analisis termico de la celda de desarga del almacen temporal centralizado (ATC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.


    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  15. Description and analysis of the debris flows occurred during 2008 in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Portilla


    Full Text Available Rainfall-triggered landslides taking place in the Spanish Eastern Pyrenees have usually been analysed on a regional scale. Most research focussed either on terrain susceptibility or on the characteristics of the critical rainfall, neglecting a detailed analysis of individual events. In contrast to other mountainous regions, research on debris flow has only been performed marginally and associated hazard has mostly been neglected.

    In this study, five debris flows, which occurred in 2008, are selected; and site specific descriptions and analysis regarding geology, morphology, rainfall data and runout were performed. The results are compared with worldwide data and some conclusions on hazard assessment are presented.

    The five events can be divided into two in-channel debris flows and three landslide-triggered debris flows. The in-channel generated debris flows exceeded 10 000 m3, which are unusually large mass movements compared to historic events which occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees. In contrast, the other events mobilised total volumes less than 2000 m3. The geomorphologic analysis showed that the studied events emphasize similar patterns when compared to published data focussing on slope angle in the initiation zone or catchment area.

    Rainfall data revealed that all debris flows were triggered by high intensity-short duration rainstorms during the summer season. Unfortunately, existing rainfall thresholds in the Eastern Pyrenees consider long-lasting rainfall, usually occurring in autumn/winter. Therefore, new thresholds should be established taking into account the rainfall peak intensity in mm/h, which seems to be a much more relevant factor for summer than the event's total precipitation.

    The runout analysis of the 2008 debris flows confirms the trend that larger volumes generally induce higher mobility. The numerical simulation of the Riu Runer event shows that its dynamic behaviour

  16. Mesozoic rotation of Iberia: Subduction in the Pyrenees?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, R.L.M.; Meijer, P.Th.


    Following on paleomagnetic studies in the sixties showing ~ 35° counterclockwise rotation of Iberia during the Mesozoic, two classes of scenarios have been proposed for the motion history of Iberia which are currently competing. One class infers convergence in the Pyrenees in response to a scissor-t

  17. Guidelines for diagnosis, prevention and management of central nervous system involvement in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO) (United States)

    Peñalver, Francisco-Javier; Sancho, Juan-Manuel; de la Fuente, Adolfo; Olave, María-Teresa; Martín, Alejandro; Panizo, Carlos; Pérez, Elena; Salar, Antonio; Orfao, Alberto


    Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients have a 5% overall risk of central nervous system events (relapse or progression), which account for high morbidity and frequently fatal outcomes,1 and shortened overall survival of <6 months.2 Early diagnosis of central nervous system events is critical for successful treatment and improved prognosis. Identification of patients at risk of central nervous system disease is critical to accurately identify candidates for central nervous system prophylaxis vs. therapy.3–5 This report by the Spanish Lymphoma Group (GELTAMO) aims to provide useful guidelines and recommendations for the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of central nervous system diffuse large B-cell lymphoma patients with, or at risk of, leptomeningeal and/or brain parenchyma lymphoma relapse. A panel of lymphoma experts working on behalf of GELTAMO reviewed all data published on these topics available in PubMed up to May 2016. Recommendations were classified according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.6 A practical algorithm based on the proposed recommendations was then developed (Figure 1). Initial discussions among experts were held in May 2014, and final consensus was reached in June 2016. The final manuscript was reviewed by all authors and the Scientific Committee of GELTAMO. PMID:27846613

  18. Detecting human mobility in the Pyrenees through the analysis of chert tools during the Upper Palaeolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sánchez de la Torre


    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of PhD research focused on hunter-gatherer groups that occupied the Central and Eastern Pyrenees during the Magdalenian period. This research aims to improve the knowledge we have about those Magdalenian groups, specifically concerning their lithic procurement strategies. The core of the study is based on the lithic tools collected from two archaeological sites - Alonsé Cave and Forcas I Shelter, both in Huesca, Spain-, and in particular those made from chert, because they are both a spatial and a cultural marker at the same time. These cherts have been studied using petroarchaeological methods, and as a result, it has been possible to detect the type of procurement strategies carried out and to guess the relation existing between those human groups and their environment, especially in what refers to mobility strategies.

  19. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from the Aragonese Pyrenees


    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa


    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (YSNP) markers, respectively. Po...

  20. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from Aragonese Pyrenees


    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa


    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) markers, respectively. Possible familial relationsh...

  1. Snowpack modelling in the Pyrenees driven by kilometric-resolution meteorological forecasts (United States)

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Dumont, Marie; Karbou, Fatima


    Distributed snowpack simulations in the French and Spanish Pyrenees are carried out using the detailed snowpack model Crocus driven by the numerical weather prediction system AROME at 2.5 km grid spacing, during four consecutive winters from 2010 to 2014. The aim of this study is to assess the benefits of a kilometric-resolution atmospheric forcing to a snowpack model for describing the spatial variability of the seasonal snow cover over a mountain range. The evaluation is performed by comparisons to ground-based measurements of the snow depth, the snow water equivalent and precipitations, to satellite snow cover images and to snowpack simulations driven by the SAFRAN analysis system. Snow depths simulated by AROME-Crocus exhibit an overall positive bias, particularly marked over the first summits near the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation of mesoscale orographic effects by AROME gives a realistic regional snowpack variability, unlike SAFRAN-Crocus. The categorical study of daily snow depth variations gives a differentiated perspective of accumulation and ablation processes. Both models underestimate strong snow accumulations and strong snow depth decreases, which is mainly due to the non-simulated wind-induced erosion, the underestimation of strong melting and an insufficient settling after snowfalls. The problematic assimilation of precipitation gauge measurements is also emphasized, which raises the issue of a need for a dedicated analysis to complement the benefits of AROME kilometric resolution and dynamical behaviour in mountainous terrain.

  2. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sans


    Full Text Available Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW and Willingness to Pay (WTP for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213. Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22% to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%. Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP, while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP.

  3. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.


    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  4. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill


    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  5. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suchet


    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  6. Landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics: comparison of methods and case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Lorente, A.


    This paper, written as a deliverable of the DAMOCLES project, is a review of the different existing methodologies to landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics. Within the DAMOCLES project, multivariate statistical models have been applied to different study regions in Italy and Spain. The

  7. Relationships between thrusting and joint systems in the Jaca thrust-top basin, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Turner, J. P.; Hancock, P. L.

    The Oligo-Miocene rocks of the West Jaca thrust-top basin and adjacent parts of the Ebro basin are cut by up to eight sets of joints and allied mesofractures. The fractures belong to three groups that can be distinguished on the basis of their relative ages and geometry. An older group of joints strikes normal or subnormal to the Pyrenean mountain front and is restricted to subareas (here called front-normal joint domains) coincident with the immediate footwalls of thrusts. Joints striking parallel to a buried lateral ramp characterize a lateral ramp joint domain. Younger joints striking parallel or subparallel to the mountain front occur throughout most of the West Jaca and Ebro basins, and define front-parallel joint domains. The joint domains appear to reflect the geometry and evolution of thrust sheets. Joints in front-normal domains were formed during stretching of footwalls as a result of their loading by overriding thrust sheets. Stretching above a lateral ramp is thought to be responsible for the development of joints in the lateral ramp domain. Joints in the front-parallel domains of the West Jaca basin are related to stretching in growth folds that were amplifying during salt doming. Front-parallel joints in the Ebro basin are attributed to stretching of a foreland basin sequence above a basement flexure related to thrust loading.

  8. Deformation Rates From Climate Cycles in Marine Synorogenic Turbidites, Jaca Basin, Spanish Pyrenees (United States)

    Anastasio, D. J.; Kodama, K. P.; Pares, J. M.; Hinnov, L. A.


    Synsedimentary structures provide a link between depositional and deformational processes in orogenic belts. Marine growth strata offer great promise in determining precise long-term deformation rates such as uplift, shortening, fault-slip, and folding rates. Magnetostratigraphy and cyclostratigraphy of the Eocene Arguis Fm., a delta slope deposit and the overlying delta plain Belsue-Atares Fm. monitors the varying pace of deformation at Pico del Aguila, a transverse decollement fold in the south Pyrenean foothills. Anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) data show hierarchical cyclicity at all predicted Milankovitch frequencies. ARM is a proxy for fine-grained detrital magnetite concentration. The age distorting effects of pre-lithification compaction on bed thickness and on the rock and paleomagnetic data series were removed using empirical calibration of anisotropy of anhysteretic remanence magnetization to volume loss from laboratory compaction experiments. The decompacted ARM depth domain was converted to time using an improved magnetostratigraphy within the growth section. Tuning filtered ARM data series to the precession index according to the LA2004 orbital model refined the magnetostratigraphic time scale. The precession-tuned growth strata mapped with precision GPS record variable folding rates at 100skyr timescales for 7 Myr and55° of limb tilt. Folding rates accelerate twice to ~30°/Myr and are punctuated by more gradual decelerations to 0-3°/Myr. Submarine folding rates at Pico del Aguila are attributed to episodic thrusting in the fold core along a roof ramp fault and along the basal decollement. Formation-scale deposition in the Paleogene wedge-top basin responded to tectonic forcing, however, clastic facies patterns in the prodeltaic and slope environments reflect regional uplift controlling sediment supply, sea level variations controlling delta front position and climate forcing (e.g. monsoon strength and frequency, pedogenesis) of runoff variability and ecology in intermountain watersheds. Lithologic parameters sensitive to sea level, such as bed thickness and grain size variations in the turbidite section record strong obliquity and eccentricity modulation, whereas, the ARM derived magnetite concentrations record terrestrial watershed sensitive processes such as aridity and windiness operating at precessional time scales.

  9. The geology of the Cinqueta region, Spanish Pyrenees, province of Huesca

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, C.


    In the investigated area rocks are exposed of which the ages probably range from Cambro-Ordovician to Upper Triassic. The pre-Hercynian sedimentary rocks generally show a low grade dynamo-metamorphism, upon which is superposed a thermal metamorphism related to the intrusion of late Hercynian granodi

  10. Historical variations in lead fluxes in the Pyrenees (northeast Spain) from a dated lake sediment core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camarero, L.; Masque, P.; Devos, W.; Ani-Ragolta, I.; Catalan, J.; Moor, H.C.; Pla, S.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.A. [University of Barcelona, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. of Ecology


    Variations in Pb concentration in lake sediments reflect changes in the fluxes of this element in the past. A sediment core from a lake in the Pyrenes (Lake Redo at 2,240 m a.s.l., NE Spain) was studied, with the aim of reconstructing past environmental and climatic conditions in the lake and its catchment area. The core was dated using both {sup 210}Pb and {sup 14}C. A surface peak of Pb concentration, which was about 10 times higher than the background level, was found. This peak is attributed to mining activities since the beginning of this century. Although Pb pollution due to the combustion of gasoline is expected to be present, no evidence can be deduced from Pb isotope ratios of sediment due to the masking effect of Pb from mines. A second peak appeared in a deeper layer, with a maximum Pb concentration of about 17 times higher than the background level. The origin of this peak is unclear. All evidence suggests that the ancient peak is due to mining operations in the central Pyrenees area, which were not documented historically. 24 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer. (United States)

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I


    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species.

  12. The 3000-4000 cal. BP anthropogenic shift in fire regime in the French Pyrenees. (United States)

    Rius, D.; Vannière, B.; Galop, D.; Richard, H.


    Fire is a key disturbing agent in a wide range of ecosystems: boreal biome (Pitkanen, 2000), Mediterranean area (Colombaroli et al., 2008) as well as temperate European mountain zones (Tinner et al., 1999). During the Holocene, climate may control fire regime by both ignition and fire spread-favouring conditions (i.e. composition, structure and moisture of biomass) whereas man may change charcoal accumulation patterns through type and intensity of agro-pastoral activities. In western and Mediterranean Europe, single sites charcoal analysis recorded the anthropogenic forcing over fire regime broadly between the mid and the late-Holocene. Turner et al (2008) showed that climate and fire had been disconnected since 1700 cal. BP in Turkey. In central Swiss, Mean Fire Interval decreased by two times 2000 years ago due to increasing human impact (Stahli et al., 2006). In Italy, climate and man have had a combined influence on fire-hazard since ca 4000 cal. BP (Vannière et al., 2008). In the Pyrenees Mountains, the linkage between agro-pastoral practices and fire could be dated back to ca 4000-3000 cal. BP with a clear succession of a clearance phase (high fire frequency) followed by a quite linear trend throughout Middle Ages and Modern times corresponding to a change in fire use (Vanniere et al., 2001; Galop et al., 2002, Rius et al., in press). The quantification of fire regimes parameters such as frequency with robust methodological tools (Inferred Fire Frequency, Mean Fire Interval) is needed to understand and characterise such shifts. Here we present two sequences from the Lourdes basin (col d'Ech peat bog) and from the occidental Pyrenees (Gabarn peat bog), which cover the last 9000 years with high temporal resolution. The main goals of this study were to (1) assess control factors of fire regime throughout the lateglacial and Holocene (climate and/or man) on the local scale, (2) evidence the local/regional significance of these control factors , (3) discuss the

  13. Improving the Flash Flood Frequency Analysis using dendrogeomorphological evidences in the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Spanish Central System) (United States)

    Ruiz-Villanueva, V.; Ballesteros, J. A.; Díez-Herrero, A.; Bodoque, J. M.


    The flash flood frequency analysis in mountainous catchments presents specific scientific challenges. One of the challenges is the relevant gradient in precipitation intensity with altitude. Another challenge is the lack of information from rainfall or discharge gauge stations or from documentary sources. Dendrogeomorphology studies the response in the wood growth pattern and the botanical signs on the trees affected by geomorphological processes. With regard to the flood frequency, the dendrogeomorphological evidences bring forward valuable infomation about single past events (with annual or even seasonal precision) and their occurrence periodicity. The main macro-evidence that we can find in the tree trunk is a stem scar originated by a wound in the bark of the tree. When the tree grows, this wound remains reflected in the tree ring sequence. The best way to analyze the tree ring sequence is by using a complete section of the trunk, this couldn't be possible unless the tree is cut down. Due to the unfeasibility of cutting down the trees, in Dendrogeomorphology is enough to obtain an increment core, using a Pressler borer. Nevertheless, this study has been based on complete stem sections analysis facilitated for the felling works in the riverine vegetation in the Arenal River, carried out by the Tagus River Water Authority. These felling works have allowed us to obtain sections and to analyze the stump of the tree in situ. On this way, 100 samples of Alnus glutinosa and Fraxinus angustifolia located by the river along the Arenal River crossing Arenas de San Pedro Village (Ávila, northern slopes of the Gredos Mountain Range in the Spanish Central System) have been analyzed. This village is known for its historical problems of flood during extreme events. A meticulous fieldwork has been carried out. Every sample was analyzed locating its geomorphological position, the distance to the riverbed and the height of the stump in which the evidences were observed. Using a

  14. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael


    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  15. Quantifying retro-foreland evolution in the Eastern Pyrenees. (United States)

    Grool, Arjan R.; Ford, Mary; Huismans, Ritske S.


    The northern Pyrenees form the retro-foreland of the Pyrenean orogen. Modelling studies show that retro-forelands have several contrasting characteristics compared to pro-forelands: They tend to show a constant tectonic subsidence during the growth phase of an orogen, and no tectonic subsidence during the steady-state phase. Retro-forelands are also not displaced into the core of the orogen once the steady state phase is achieved. This means they tend to preserve the subsidence history from the growth phase of the orogen, but little or no history from the steady state phase. The northeastern Pyrenees (Carcassonne high) are a good location to test these characteristics against real-world data, because syn-orogenic sediments are preserved and the lack of postrift thermal subsidence and Triassic salt reduce complicating factors. In order to test the model, quantification of the following parameters is needed: Timing, amount and distribution of deformation, subsidence and sedimentation. We use subsurface, field, map and literature data to construct 2 balanced and restored cross sections through the eastern north Pyrenean foreland, stretching from the Montagne Noire in the north, to the Axial Zone in the south. We will link this to published thermochronology data to further constrain the evolution of the retro-foreland and investigate the link with the Axial Zone towards the south. We will quantify subsidence, deformation and sedimentation and link them to exhumation phases in the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and the Axial Zone. The north Pyrenean retro-foreland is divided into two parts: the external foreland basin (Aquitaine basin) to the north and the North Pyrenean Zone to the south, separated by the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust (NPFT). South of the NPZ lies the Axial Zone, separated from the retro-foreland by the North Pyrenean Fault which is believed to be the suture between Iberia and Europe. The NPFT was the breakaway fault on the European continent during the

  16. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia


    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  17. Pleistocene Deposits in Pierre Saint-Martin Cave, French Pyrenees (United States)

    Quinif, Yves; Maire, Richard


    Pleistocene deposits in alpine Pierre Saint-Martin cave are preserved in an abandoned river gallery. The deposits, 300 m long and 25 m high, are composed of a lower unit of fallen blocks overlain by debris flows, a main unit of laminated clay, and a series of river terraces inset into these units. The lower and main units are each overlain by speleothems. The lower unit represents a cold period, probably isotope stage 10. Corroded speleothems above it have given U/Th ages greater than 300,000-330,000 yr B.P. The main unit, with carbonate-rich varves devoid of pollen, represents a glaciation that occurred before 225,000 yr B.P. and probably correlates with stage 8, even though such a glaciation has not been previously recognized in the Pyrenees. The river terraces, covered by many noncorroded speleothems, probably formed during stage 7 (U/Th ages between 194,000 and 211,000-225,000 yr B.P.). Subsequent sinking of an underground river protected the deposits from erosion.

  18. From hyper-extended rifts to orogens: the example of the Mauléon rift basin in the Western Pyrenees (SW France) (United States)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.


    -extended rift system. In our presentation, we discuss the compressional reactivation of the rift structures by the study of dip sections across the basin, from weakly reactivated sections in the west to strongly reactivated sections in the east. Comparing the sections, it results that the compression reactivated the rift structures (mainly the detachment faults) and that this reactivation occurred in 2 steps. It corresponds to the reactivation through time of the NMB before the SMB. This evolution is in line with an early proto-subduction of the hyper-extended domain beneath the European plate whereas the NMB sediments are wedged, folded and thrust onto the Iberia and Europe margins ("thin-skin" tectonics). The second step occurs when the deformation started to migrate southward resulting in the formation of the axial Pyrenees nappe stack (thick-skin tectonics). These results suggest that the inherited rift structures strongly controlled the initial convergence. Future work will revisit the more reactivated Albian basins throughout the chain to investigate how far the results from western Pyrenees can be used to understand the Central and Eastern Pyrenees. Moreover, this field-oriented study can serve as an example of how rift structures may control style and timing of orogenic processes.

  19. Macrofauna associations and formation of shell concentrations in the Early Eocene Roda Formation (southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinius, A.W.


    The invertebrate macrofauna (mainly molluscs) of the Early Eocene Roda Formation (southern Pyrenees, Spain) is reported and classified in seven biofacies associations, representing ecologically related groups of macro-invertebrates of shallow marine fan-delta environments ranging in depth from inter

  20. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.


    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  1. 气候波动与土地利用变化对西班牙比利牛斯山脉中部径流影响的评价%Assessing the Effect of Climate Oscillations and Land-use Changes on Streamfiow in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santiago Beguería; Juan I.López-Moreno; Adrián Lorente; Manuel Seeger; José M.García-Ruiz



  2. Crustal structure and composition to the S of the Spanish Central System: Effect of Alpine reactivation in an internal Variscan domain (United States)

    Ayarza, Puy; Carbonell, Ramón; Ehsan, Siddique; Martí, David; Palomeras, Immaculada; Martínez Poyatos, David


    The ALCUDIA Project has acquired vertical incidence and wide-angle reflection seismic data in the Variscan Central Iberian Zone of Spain. The NE-SW, ~300 km long profiles sample an area going from the suture between the Variscan Central Iberian and the Ossa-Morena Zones in the S to the boundary between the former and the Alpine Central System to the N. Although crustal thickness appears to be fairly constant along most of the Central Iberian Zone, a gradual increase of 3-5 km in the northern half of the profile is clearly imaged by the wide-angle data. This increase in the Moho depth is accompanied by a decrease in the thickness of the layered lower crust from the Toledo Anatectic Complex to the N. Right in this area, the amount of Variscan metasediments diminish and the surface geology is characterized by granites, migmatites and by the Madrid Basin, a foreland basin of the Alpine Central System that is part of the bigger Tagus Basin. The increase in crustal thickness identified in the neighborhood of the Central System is also accompanied by a slight increase in the Poisson ratio values, which even though still below 0.25, they are higher than those observed in the southern part of the profile, far from the influence of the late Variscan melting episode and of that of the Alpine tectonics. Two scenarios are considered to take part in the Moho deepening near the Central System: Firstly, the Alpine reactivation causing this mountain belt has increased the crustal load giving rise to a foreland basin and a moderate crustal thickening. Also, a gradual change in crustal composition to the N, incorporating denser and more basic rocks, might also play a role in the average crustal density and contribute to Moho deepening by isostatic readjustment. The importance of each of these process is, as yet, unknown. However, the next acquisition of the CIMDEF project wide-angle reflection dataset across the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, crossing the Central System, will

  3. The influence of inherited extensional structures on the tectonic evolution of an intracratonic chain: the example of the Western Pyrenees (United States)

    Velasque, P. C.; Ducasse, L.; Muller, J.; Scholten, R.


    A geotraverse, constructed on the basis of surface and subsurface data across the Basque-Béarnais portion of the Pyrenees, east of the Pamplona fault, reveals, from north to south, the existence of three major tectono-sedimentary units: the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ), the Central Zone (CZ) and the Axial Zone (AZ). These zones are characterized both by the type and age of their sediments and volcanics, and by the style of their Cretaceous synsedimentary structures. Paleogeographically, they correspond to a Cretaceous platform (AZ), margin (CZ) and basin (NPZ), separated by zones of normal faults. During Alpine convergence, the Cretaceous fault system was to varying degrees reactivated in the reverse sense. The NPZ grades into the CZ without any significant hiatus. By contrast, the CZ is separated from the AZ by a major southward overthrust, the Orly-Lakhoura overthrust, which shows up as the most important fault in the cross-section. Its subsurface continuation is constrained by regional microseismicity and other seismic data. All these data lead us to consider the Orhy-Lakhoura overthrust as the surface evidence of the Alpine crustal underthrust of Iberia below the European continental domain. Restoration of the cross-section suggests that this Alpine underthrust follows a previous crustal discontinuity linked to the Cretaceous extensional episode.

  4. Seed Exchange as an Agrobiodiversity Conservation Mechanism. A Case Study in Vall Fosca, Catalan Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Reyes-García


    Full Text Available Interest in landraces conservation has grown in the last decades with research on the topic focusing on in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity in the tropics. Researchers agree that home gardens play a key role in the maintenance of in situ agrobiodiversity, but few studies have analyzed how farmers actually maintain agrobiodiversity in home gardens and what mechanisms they use to avoid genetic erosion. We evaluate the functioning of a network of seed exchange and explore its contribution to agrobiodiversity conservation. We focus on the exchange of seeds and seedlings among 55 home garden keepers who grow a total of 62 home gardens in Vall Fosca (Catalan Pyrenees. Fieldwork included visits to gardens and surveys to register the frequency and management of local landraces. We also asked about the farmers' network of seed exchange. We identified 20 local landraces belonging to 17 species. People who were mentioned more often in the network of seed exchange (highest indegree and who had a higher level of intermediation among other people in their personal network (highest egobetweenness conserved more local landraces and had more local landrace knowledge than people who were less central in the network. Our findings suggest that local landrace conservation is strongly associated with individual position in the network of seed exchange.




  6. Zircon geochronology of intrusive rocks from Cap de Creus, eastern Pyrenees



    New petrological and U–Pb zircon geochronological information has been obtained from intrusive plutonic rocks and migmatites from the Cap de Creus massif (Eastern Pyrenees) in order to constrain the timing of the thermal and tectonic evolution of this northeasternmost segment of Iberia during late Palaeozoic time. Zircons from a deformed syntectonic quartz diorite from the northern Cap de Creus Tudela migmatitic complex yield a mean age of 298.8±3.8 Ma. A syntectonic granodiori...

  7. Fluid systems and fracture development during syn-depositional fold growth: An example from the Pico del Aguila anticline, Sierras Exteriores, southern Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Huyghe, Damien; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Emmanuel, Laurent; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Ouanhnon, Laure


    This paper reports an integrated, spatio-temporal analysis of the fracture-controlled paleo-fluid system in the Pico del Aguila anticline, a N-S trending fold located in the Sierras Exteriores, the southern front of the Spanish Pyrenees. Eight fracture sets (joints or faults) are recognized throughout the fold and are separated into a fracture sequence that is defined using field relationships and the remarkable temporal constraints offered by the syn-tectonic sedimentary deposits. This fracture sequence records a complex Paleocene to Early Oligocene structural evolution, including map-view, clockwise rotation and tilting of the fold axis. The geochemical analysis of calcite cements from the different mineralized fracture/vein sets reveals a compartmentalized fluid system during most of fold development. This initial paleofluid system was later perturbed when bending-related fractures associated with foreland flexure and outer arc extension triggered small-scale, vertical fluid migration. Fractures developed in shallow strata facilitated downward migration of surficial fluids that controlled the paleo-fluid system in the Late Priabonian/Stampian continental deposits. The study of the Pico del Aguila anticline depicts for the first time the evolution of a fluid system in a shallow, syn-depositional compressional setting, and results further strengthen the statement that fluids migrate vertically across stratigraphic boundaries take place during fold hinge-related deformation.

  8. Structural geometry in the eastern Pyrenees and western Gulf of Lion (Western Mediterranean) (United States)

    Mauffret, Alain; Durand de Grossouvre, Bernard; Tadeu Dos Reis, Antonio; Gorini, Christian; Nercessian, Alex


    We present new seismic data from the Gulf of Lion located east of the Pyrenees on the continental shelf of the Mediterranean Sea. The deep penetration LISA (Ligurian-Sardinia Sea) seismic lines, the shots of the LISA cruise recorded on land, and the high definition ELF seismic sections allow us to present a complete picture of the tectonics in this area from the surface to the Moho level, and also to document late Miocene-early Pliocene extensional tectonics in the area. Previous studies show a prominent thinning of the crust observed from the Pyrenees towards the Gulf of Lion. The Moho depth varies from 48 km beneath the Axial Range crust (thickened during the Pyrenean Eocene Orogeny) to 21 km below the Catalan Basin in the Gulf of Lion. This crustal thinning occurred mainly during the early Miocene extension of the Mediterranean Sea. Balanced reconstructed geological sections derived from reflection and refraction seismic data allow us to evaluate the stretching factors at the crustal level. A maximum extension of 25 km is computed for the Catalan Basin area. This extension is related to detachments that penetrate the crust as deep as 11 km to the base of the brittle crust. These intra basement detachments have been confused in the past with the Paleozoic acoustic basement. The detachments show a clear listric shape and the geometry of horst and grabens can be explained by a hanging wall and footwall configuration with isostatic rebound of the footwall. The uplift in the Eastern Pyrenees (Albères and Canigou Massifs), on the other hand, is related to the late Miocene-early Pliocene extension we mapped in the area. These elevated features, probably formed by isostatic rebound, are surrounded by deep basins such as the Roussillon and El Empordà depressions. A 1.7 km uplift during the late Miocene-early Pliocene is computed in the offshore part of the Albères Massif. The cause of this Late Miocene-early Pliocene extension is not well explained although an uplift

  9. Which Features of Spanish Learners' Pronunciation Most Impact Listener Evaluations? (United States)

    McBride, Kara


    This study explores which features of Spanish as a foreign language (SFL) pronunciation most impact raters' evaluations. Native Spanish speakers (NSSs) from regions with different pronunciation norms were polled: 147 evaluators from northern Mexico and 99 evaluators from central Argentina. These evaluations were contrasted with ratings from…

  10. The geology of the upper Salat and Pallaresa Valleys, Central Pyrenees, France/Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvliet, J.


    A sequence of more than 4000 m of marine sediments, mainly unfossiliferous and apparently without any unconformities, range in age from probable Cambrian to pre-Hercynian Carboniferous. The lower formations are of neritic facies and there is no indication of a Pyrenean basin before the Devonian, the

  11. The geology of the Upper Ribagorzana and Baliera valleys, Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, P.H.W.


    In the mapped area there is a well-exposed low-grade metamorphic marine sequence from Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous, unconformably overlain by Permo-Triassic continental deposits. Determinable fossils are rare. The Ordovician consists of a quartzite/shale sequence with one marly limestone interc

  12. Spanish is Numero Uno for "Project Bright." (United States)

    Larew, Leonor A.


    In New York State, the 24 brightest fifth and sixth graders from Avon, Caledonia, and York participated in a project funded by Title IV minigrants, distributed through BOCES. The children were bussed to a central point and permitted to study whatever they wished; Spanish was the first subject selected. (EJS)

  13. Kinematic Evolution of the Western Pyrenees Thrust Front From Paleomagnetic Analysis on its Foreland Basin. (United States)

    Almar, Y.; Beamud, E.; Muñoz, J. A.; Garcés, M.; Murelaga, X.


    The Pyrenees is a collisional orogen formed during the Alpine orogeny. Its southwestern frontal thrust was originated as a result of the Cenozoic inversion of preexisting extensional faults. The emplacement of the frontal thrust in the Western Pyrenees generated a foreland basin, which locally accumulated more than 4,500 meters of Tertiary sediments. The kinematic evolution of the Western Pyrenees thrust front is poorly constrained due to the scarcity of reliable age constraints within the Tertiary sediments. However, the good exposure conditions of syntectonic continental deposits in its foreland basin makes it an excellent scenario to carry out paleomagnetic and structural studies in order to unravel the kinematic history, geometry and evolution of the thrust front. A magnetostratigraphic composite section along the continental basin infill was sampled covering up to 3,000 m of succession. Correlation of the local magnetostratigraphy with the GPTS was helped by a new mammal fossil locality found in continental sediments and attributed to the Agenian local biozone Y (MN2D). The cronostratigraphy of the tectosedimentary units, ranging from lower Oligocene (Cr12r) to lower Miocene, provides further constraints on the timing of two main tectosedimentary events recorded as major unconformities within the basin infill. From this study, sedimentation rates have been also obtained. The analysis of several paleomagnetic sites revealed that no vertical axes rotations occurred in the Tertiary sediments regardless superimposed folding with oblique axes could be observed, and the proximity of adjacent structures as the Estella diapir and the Pamplona fault. Finally, the analysis of the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility together with collected sedimentary data suggests that magnetic fabrics record both, a depositional and tectonic fabric.

  14. 700 years reconstruction of mercury and lead atmospheric deposition in the Pyrenees (NE Spain) (United States)

    Corella, J. P.; Valero-Garcés, B. L.; Wang, F.; Martínez-Cortizas, A.; Cuevas, C. A.; Saiz-Lopez, A.


    Geochemical analyses in varved lake sediment cores (Lake Montcortès, Pre-Pyrenees) allowed reconstruction of mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) atmospheric deposition over the past seven centuries in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). Accumulation Rates (AR) from the Middle Ages to the Industrial Period ranged from 2500 to 26130 μg m2.y-1 and 15-152 μg m2.y-1 for Pb and Hg respectively. Significant metal pollution started ca CE 1550 during a period of increased exploitation of ore resources in Spain. Colder and humid conditions in the Pyrenees during the Little Ice Age may have also favoured Hg and Pb atmospheric deposition in the lake. Therefore, the interplay between increased rainfall (wet deposition) and mining activities in the Iberian Peninsula has driven Hg and Pb AR during the Pre-industrial Period. More recently, the use of leaded gasoline in Europe in the mid-20th century may explain the highest Pb AR between CE 1953 and 1971. The highest Hg AR occurred in CE 1940 synchronous with the highest Hg production peak in Almadén mining district (southern Spain) and the Second World War. The record of Hg enrichment in Lake Montcortès shows a decrease during the last decades in Western Europe similar to other regional records and global emission models. This study highlights the exceptional quality of varved sequences to tease apart pollutants depositional mechanisms, identify historical periods of increased atmospheric pollution and provide a historical context for pollutant baseline values to make correct assessments of recent (atmospheric) pollution in lake ecosystems.

  15. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees


    André Suchet


    Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura), brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées) and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province). This article analyses the ...

  16. Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides and debris flows in the Eastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Portilla Gamboa, M.; Hürlimann, M.; Corominas, J.


    The inventory of rainfall-induced mass movements, rainfall data, and slope characteristics are considered the basis of the analysis determining appropriate rainfall thresholds for mass movements in a specific region. The rainfall-induced landslide thresholds established in the literature for the Catalan Pyrenees have been formulated referring to the rainfall events of November 1982, September 1992, December 1997, and others occurred after 1999. It has been shown that a rainfall intensity greater than 190 mm in 24 hours without antecedent rainfall would be necessary to produce mass movements (Corominas and Moya, 1999; Corominas et al, 2002) or 51mm in 24h with 61 mm of accumulated rainfall (Marco, 2007). Short duration-high intensity rainfalls have brought about several mass movements in some Catalonian regions throughout the course of twenty-first century (Berga, Bonaigua, Saldes, Montserrat, Port-Ainé, Riu Runer, and Sant Nicolau). Preliminary analysis of these events shows that it is necessary to review the thresholds defined so far and redo the existing inventory of mass movements for the Catalan Pyrenees. The present work shows the usefulness of aerial photographs in the reconstruction of the inventory of historic mass movements (Molló-Queralbs, 1940; Arties-Vielha, 1963; Barruera-Senet, 1940 and 1963, and Berga-Cercs, 1982, 1997 and 2008). Also, it highlights the treatment given to scarce and scattered rainfall data available inside these Catalonia’s regions, and the application of Geographic Information Systems (ArcGIS) in the management of the gathered information. The results acquired until now show that the historic rainfall events occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees have yielded many more mass movements than those reported in the literature. Besides, it can be said that the thresholds formulated for the Pyrenees are valid for longstanding regional rainfalls, and not for local downpours. In the latter cases it should be necessary to take into account the

  17. Small-Scale Effect of Pine Stand Pruning on Snowpack Distribution in the Pyrenees Observed with a Terrestrial Laser Scanner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Revuelto


    Full Text Available Forests in snow-dominated areas have substantial effects on the snowpack and its evolution over time. Such interactions have significant consequences for the hydrological response of mountain rivers. Thus, the impact of forest management actions on the snow distribution, and hence the storage of water in the form of snow during winter and spring, is a major concern. The results of this study provide the first detailed comparison of the small-scale effect of forest characteristics on the snowpack distribution, assessed prior to and following major modification of the structure of the canopy by pruning of the lower branches of the trees to 3 m above the ground. This is a common management practice aimed at reducing the spread of forest fires. The snowpack distribution was determined using terrestrial laser scanning (LiDAR technology at a high spatial resolution (0.25 m over a 1000 m2 study area during 23 survey dates over three snow seasons in a small study area in the central Pyrenees. The pruning was conducted during summer following the snow season in the second year of the study (i.e., the study duration encompassed two seasons prior to canopy pruning and one following. Principal component analysis (PCA was used to identify recurring spatial patterns of snow distribution. The results showed that pruning reduced the average radius of the canopy of trees by 1.2 m, and increased the clearance around the trunks, as all the branches that formerly contacted the ground were removed. However, the impact on the snowpack was moderate. The PCA revealed that the spatial configuration of the snowpack did not change significantly, as the principal components included survey days from different periods of the snow season, and did not discriminate days surveyed prior to and following pruning. Nevertheless, removal of the lower branches reduced the area beneath the canopy by 36%, and led to an average increase in total snow depth of approximately 14%.

  18. First report of Mycoplasma conjunctivae from wild Caprinae with infectious keratoconjunctivitis in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Ballesteros, Cristina; Bischof, Daniela F; Lavín, Santiago; Vilei, Edy M


    Frequent outbreaks of infectious keratoconjunctivitis have been reported in wild Caprinae in Europe. While etiologic studies in the Alps indicate that the main etiologic agent is Mycoplasma conjunctivae, there are few reports from other mountain areas, such as the Pyrenees, where M. conjunctivae has never been reported. In 2006 and 2007, five adult Pyrenean chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica; two males and three females) and one adult male European mouflon (Ovis orientalis musimon) were studied; they exhibited clinical symptoms of infectious keratoconjunctivitis such as blindness, corneal opacity, and ulceration. In three of the five chamois tested, and in the mouflon, Mycoplasma conjunctivae was identified from conjunctival swabs by means of a TaqMan(R) polymerase chain reaction based on the lipoprotein gene lppS. Cluster analysis indicated that the three southern chamois isolates form a cluster that is distinct from the mouflon isolate. This is the first report of M. conjunctivae in Pyrenean chamois, and it supports the hypothesis that M. conjunctivae also could be the main cause of infectious keratoconjunctivitis in areas other than the Alps, such as the Pyrenees.

  19. Avalanche mapping and related G.I.S. applications in the Catalan Pyrenees (United States)

    Furdada, G.; Martí, G.; Oller, P.; García, C.; Mases, M.; Vilaplana, J. M.


    The Avalanche Risk Project for the Catalan Pyrenees was started in 1986 by the Servei Geològic de Catalunya and the Dpt. de Geologia Dinàmica, Geofísica i Paleontologia. One of the aims of this project is to carry out the “Map of Probable Avalanche Paths”, which is a thematic map in where the land areas affected by avalanches are represented. This information is the result of: 1) aerial photointerpretation, 2) field work: observations of the avalanche effects and interviews to the inhabitants and people who work in the mountain areas. All the descriptive complementary information about each avalanche zone has been stored in a database, thus constituting the avalanche Cadastre. A Geographic Information System (G.I.S.) is an informatic system which can acquire, store and manipulate data that describe the land surface. The Cadastre and Map of Probable Avalanche Paths constitutes a complex document. It is also a basic document to perform further analysis, risk maps and defense actions, so it must have the following characteristics: easy to update, possibility to combine with other documents and to exploit as a source of diverse informations. Therefore, a G.I.S. is the most appropriate tool to store, manage, analyze and restore this avalanche data. The area of the Catalan Pyrenees that has been mapped and automated until now is also presented.

  20. Succession of Permian and Mesozoic metasomatic events in the eastern Pyrenees with emphasis on the Trimouns talc-chlorite deposit (United States)

    Boutin, Alexandre; de Saint Blanquat, Michel; Poujol, Marc; Boulvais, Philippe; de Parseval, Philippe; Rouleau, Caroline; Robert, Jean-François


    Recent studies proposing pre-orogenic mantle exhumation models have helped renew the interest of the geosciences community in the Pyrenees, which should be now interpreted as a hyper-extended passive margin before the convergence between Iberia and Eurasia occurred. Unresolved questions of the Pyrenean geology, as well as the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended passive margins, are how the crust was thinned, and when, where and how the crustal breakoff occurred. The study of the Variscan and pre-Variscan Pyrenean basement is thus critical to document and understand this Cretaceous crustal thinning. In order to specify the timing of Mesozoic metasomatism and the associated deformation in the pre-Mesozoic basement of the Pyrenees, we carried out a U-Th-Pb laser ablation ICP-MS study on a large panel of REE and titanium-rich minerals (titanite and rutile) from talc-chlorite ores from the eastern Pyrenees, with a special emphasis on the Trimouns deposit, the world's largest talc quarry. Our results suggest that the Trimouns talc formation was restricted to the upper Aptian-Cenomanian time, while the talc and chlorite formation in the eastern Pyrenees occurred during several distinct Permian, Jurassic and Cretaceous episodes. These results give strong constraints on the tectonic setting of the Pyrenean domain during the transition between the Variscan and Alpine orogenic cycles, and particularly on when and how the upper crust was thinned before the crustal breakoff and the final mantle exhumation.

  1. Structural and petrofabric analysis of an “Alpine-type” peridotite: the lherzolite of the French Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avé Lallemant, H.G.


    A narrow E-W-striking “graben” containing Mesozoic sediments is separated from the Hercynian mountain chain of the Pyrenees in the south by the North-Pyrenean fault and in the north by a detachment plane. In the region around Vicdessos and the Etang de Lers (Ariège, France), three Alpine phases of d

  2. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.


    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper thrust system) affecting the Marboré sandstones and the Paleocene limestones, deformed by angular south-vergent folds and their related axial plane foliation. The transect explained above clearly summarizes the alpine evolution of northern part of the Sierras Interiores. Moreover, well data available indicate the presence of two thrust soled in the lower calcareous section covering Triassic evaporites at 5 km depth and 8 km to the south of the Sierras Interiores. Because the Triassic evaporites constitute a main decollement level in the South Pyrenean Zone, the deeper thrust system is associated to the emplacement of the Gavarnie nappe. Lanaja, J.M., 1987, Contribución de la exploración petrolífera al conocimiento de la Geología de España, IGME, Madrid, 465 p. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., 2008. Geogaceta 44, 51-54. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., Tubia, J.M., 2011. Geophysical Research Abstracts 13, 2273.

  3. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress (United States)

    Saalfeld, Anita K.


    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  4. Mapping the indentation between the Iberian and Eurasian plates beneath the Western Pyrenees/Eastern Cantabrian Mountains from receiver function analysis (United States)

    Díaz, J.; Pedreira, D.; Ruiz, M.; Pulgar, J. A.; Gallart, J.


    In the last decades, active seismic profiling in the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula has evidenced that the Alpine collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates resulted in a complex crustal structure, with the Iberian crust underthrusting the Eurasian crust and reaching depths of at least 45-50 km beneath the Pyrenean chain and the Cantabrian Mountains. In the transition between these two zones the situation is particularly complex, as evidenced in previous wide-angle and passive seismic studies. This contribution focuses in getting new clues on the crustal structure of this transitional zone through receiver function (RF) analysis of teleseismic data recorded at permanent and temporary stations located in both the Spanish and French sides of the Western Pyrenees. Different techniques (H-κ stacking, pseudo-migration, synthetic 2D modeling) have been considered in the analysis. Passive seismic data from previous temporary deployments in the zone have been reworked and added to the discussion. A first order result is that passive seismic data are broadly consistent with the indentation of the Iberian and Eurasian crusts inferred from active seismic profiling, thus providing a completely independent confirmation of this feature. For the first time, an Iberian Moho underlying the Eurasian crust is documented from RF beneath the stations located at the Northern side of the Pyrenean range. Moreover, clear indications of dipping interfaces are observed at some stations. The new RF results suggest that in the crustal indentation beneath the Basque Massifs area, the Eurasian crust extends farther south with respect to the image inferred from active seismic data. This new geometry implies that the Pamplona transfer zone has played a major role in the regional geodynamic history.

  5. Spanish Visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia


    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  6. Influence of spring snowpack melting on thunderstorm activity in the Catalan Pyrenees (United States)

    Pascual, R.; Callado, A.; Terradelles, E.; Téllez, B.


    Catalan Pyrenees, the eastern half of the Pyrenees range, is a very popular area for tourism, hiking and climbing. This sector of the range is 200 km long and, on average, 80 km wide. Its highest peaks reach 3000 m ASL and there are many summits above 2500 m ASL. Two of the main climatic characteristics of the region are the very frequent summer convective storms and the late autumn, winter and spring snow-cover. Both characteristics have normally been studied from different points of view, and weather forecasts in late spring have not normally considered the plausible relationship between them. The snowpack melting from April to June, especially rapid in May, leads to important changes on the surface energy balance since the evolution from snow-covered ground to bare soil or canopy, significantly alters the surface albedo and the turbulent, latent and sensible, heat fluxes. These modifications have a noticeable influence in developing or inhibiting thermally-induced mesoscale circulations such as upslope winds, valley breezes or plane-mountain breezes, and could condition the triggering of convection, showers and storm activity. In order to gain insight into the relationship between the spring snowpack melting and the location of thunderstorm activity, a comparison between seasonal snow-cover and thunderstorm frequency evolution (using lightning network data) for a period of 5 years has been carried out, showing a progressive transition from a non-convective to a convective precipitation regime in areas where the snowpack has melted recently Furthermore, a meso-beta scale non-hydrostatic numerical weather prediction model at a 2.5-km horizontal resolution is used to study the sensitivity of snowpack extension on the thunderstorms development over the complex orography of the Catalan Pyrenees. A spring case with thunderstorm activity restricted to snow-free areas has been selected and accurately simulated. A number of sensitivity runs with different initial snow

  7. Characteristics of spanish fly ashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Luxán, M. P.


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is the characterization of fly ashes produced by Spanish thermoelectric power plants, according to sampling taken in 1981 and 1982. The study takes in the following characteristics: physical characteristics (size distribution of particles, ...; chemical ones (chemical analysis...; and mineralogical ones (application of instrumental techniques of X-ray diffraction and infrared absorption spectroscopy. From a general point of view, it can be said that the samples of Spanish fly ashes are similar to those produced in other countries. The results obtained are a contribution to the knowledge of Spanish fly ashes and form part of the antecedents of investigations carried out in subsequent years.

    Este trabajo tiene por objeto la caracterización de las cenizas volantes producidas en las Centrales Termoeléctricas españolas, según un muestreo realizado entre 1981 y 1982. El estudio comprende las siguientes características: físicas (distribución del tamaño de partículas,...; químicas (análisis químico, …; y mineralógicas (aplicación de las técnicas instrumentales de difracción de rayos X y espectroscopía de absorción infrarroja. Desde un punto de vista general, se puede afirmar que las muestras de ceniza volante estudiadas son semejantes a las producidas en otros países. Los resultados obtenidos son una aportación al conocimiento de las cenizas volantes españolas y forman parte de los antecedentes de las investigaciones llevadas a cabo en años posteriores.

  8. Dynamic Similarity in Titanosaur Sauropods: Ichnological Evidence from the Fumanya Dinosaur Tracksite (Southern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Vila, Bernat; Oms, Oriol; Galobart, Àngel; Bates, Karl T.; Egerton, Victoria M.; Manning, Phillip L.


    The study of a small sauropod trackway from the Late Cretaceous Fumanya tracksite (southern Pyrenees, Catalonia) and further comparisons with larger trackways from the same locality suggest a causative relationship between gait, gauge, and body proportions of the respective titanosaur trackmakers. This analysis, conducted in the context of scaling predictions and using geometric similarity and dynamic similarity hypotheses, reveals similar Froude numbers and relative stride lengths for both small and large trackmakers from Fumanya. Evidence for geometric similarity in these trackways suggests that titanosaurs of different sizes moved in a dynamically similar way, probably using an amble gait. The wide gauge condition reported in trackways of small and large titanosaurs implies that they possessed similar body (trunk and limbs) proportions despite large differences in body size. These results strengthen the hypothesis that titanosaurs possessed a distinctive suite of anatomical characteristics that are well reflected in their tracks and trackways. PMID:23451221

  9. Dynamic similarity in titanosaur sauropods: ichnological evidence from the Fumanya dinosaur tracksite (southern Pyrenees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Vila

    Full Text Available The study of a small sauropod trackway from the Late Cretaceous Fumanya tracksite (southern Pyrenees, Catalonia and further comparisons with larger trackways from the same locality suggest a causative relationship between gait, gauge, and body proportions of the respective titanosaur trackmakers. This analysis, conducted in the context of scaling predictions and using geometric similarity and dynamic similarity hypotheses, reveals similar Froude numbers and relative stride lengths for both small and large trackmakers from Fumanya. Evidence for geometric similarity in these trackways suggests that titanosaurs of different sizes moved in a dynamically similar way, probably using an amble gait. The wide gauge condition reported in trackways of small and large titanosaurs implies that they possessed similar body (trunk and limbs proportions despite large differences in body size. These results strengthen the hypothesis that titanosaurs possessed a distinctive suite of anatomical characteristics that are well reflected in their tracks and trackways.

  10. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France) (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Sayler, Kristi L.


    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  11. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains. (United States)

    Blasco, María; Domeño, Celia; Nerín, Cristina


    The air quality in the Aragón valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragón valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g(-1) and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g(-1)), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs.

  12. ¿Hacia dónde evolucionaría la composición del paisaje si la actividad humana fuera mínima? Una aproximación a los cambios probables del paisaje actual en el Pirineo central español

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sferi, E.


    Full Text Available What direction would landscape composition evolve if human activities were minimal?. An approach to probable changes in current landscape in the Spanish Central Pyrenees. This paper compares the current landscape composition, in the Aragon Subordán Basin (Central Pyrenees, a potential one charecterized by lov^ human intervention. To evaluate these changes a land uses map was generated, using Landsat satellite images, as well as a potential vegetation map. Several transitions in land uses are evaluated and the different landscape compositions are analyzed using the diversity, dominance and equitability index. The results show that current landscape presenst higher biodiversity and lower dominance indexes than the potential landscape.

    [es] Se analizan, en la cuenca del Aragón Subordán (Pirineo Central, los cambios en la composición del paisaje desde una situación actual a otra potencial, originada por una escasa intervención humana. Para ello se han elaborado un mapa de cubiertas vegetales actuales, a partir de imágenes del satélite Landsat, y otro de cubiertas potenciales. Se presentan las transiciones en las cubiertas del suelo y se estudia la distinta composición del paisaje, aplicando los índices de diversidad, dominancia y equitabilidad. Los resultados señalan que el paisaje actual presenta mayor diversidad y menor dominancia que el potencial. [fr] Dans quel sens évoluerait la composition du paysage si l´activité humaine aurait été minime? Une approximation des changements probables du paysage actuel dans les Pyrénées Centrales. On analyse, dans le bassin de Aragón Subordán (Pyrénées Centrales, les changements dans la composition du paysage, à partir d'une situation actuelle jusqu'à une situation potentielle, qui serait le résultat d'une légère intervention humaine. Ainsi, on a élaboré une carte de couvertures végétales actuelle, à partir d'images de satellite Landsat, et une autre de

  13. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised. (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  14. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.' (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.


    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  15. Spanish Consensus Statement (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez


    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  16. interpretation of Spanish architecuture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    While Spanish architecture has experienced a remarkable creative flourishing over the last 25 years, this boom has occurred chiefly in the public sector under the patronage of new national and regional institutions. The private and business sectors have generally been much more conservative in their building, less willing to take risks and less interested in design innovation.

  17. Developmental assessment of Spanish grammar. (United States)

    Toronto, A S


    The Developmental Assessment of Spanish Grammar (DASG) provides a language analysis procedure for Spanish-speaking children similar to the Developmental Sentence Scoring (DSS) procedure in English. The DASG is not an attempted translation of the DSS but was developed independently, taking into consideration the present knowledge of Spanish language acquisition. The purpose of the DASG is to evaluate the language of children with deficient grammatical skills in Spanish and to serve as a model for structuring Spanish language therapy. Proposed syntactic hierarchies for the following six grammatical categories are presented: indefinite pronouns and noun modifiers, personal pronouns, primary verbs, secondary verbs, conjunctions, and interrogative words. Weighted scores are assigned to groups of structures within the hierarchies and are used to score Spanish sentences children use spontaneously in conversation with an adult. The DASG was standardized on 128 Spanish-speaking children between the ages of 3.0 and 6.11 years. Norms and reliability measures are presented.

  18. Inventory and Spatial distribution of rock glaciers in the Eastern Pyrenees: paleoenvironmental implications (United States)

    Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Pérez-Sánchez, Jordi; Salvà-Catarineu, Montserrat; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio


    In this communication we present a detailed analysis of the spatial distribution and morphometric characteristics of all the rock glaciers identified in the massifs located in the easternmost fringe of the Eastern Pyrenees. From west to east, this area encompasses the massifs of Puigmal (2910 m)-Bastiments (2881 m)-Costabona (2465 m) and Canigó (2784 m). The presence of rock glaciers in these mountains shows evidence of the cold-climate geomorphological processes that occurred during the Late Pleistocene in the Pyrenees. Moreover, they constitute a paleoclimate indicator of the conditions that occurred during their development. Up to 122 rock glaciers have been identified, either formed by individualized or by complex landforms formed by coalescence units. For each of these units several variables have been determined: a) location: topographic and geomorphological setting, valley and flow aspect, maximum and minimum elevation, slope, maximum and mean slope; b) lithology and morphology: underlying/prevailing lithology, general morphology, surface morphological features, grain size characterization, vegetation cover, degree of preservation, maximum elevation of the surrounding area; and c) morphometry: maximum length of the landform in the flow direction, width, perimeter and total surface. The Puigmal-Bastiments-Costabona massifs, most extensive and higher, concentrate 89% of the landforms, while the Canigó massif encompasses the remaining 11%. Most of them are located on the north slopes (69%), with a significant percentage south exposed (31%). In total, they extend over an area of 985 Ha. The distribution of rock glaciers in the study area presents significant irregularities, with a remarkable asymmetry between slopes in some sections. Consequently, we have also analyzed the dual presence/absence of rock glaciers based on the identification and morphometry of all headwaters that due to their altitude and/or morphotopography could be susceptible to house them

  19. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains (United States)

    Leigh, David


    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  20. Effectiveness of a School HIV/AIDS Prevention Program for Spanish Adolescents (United States)

    Espada, Jose P.; Orgiles, Mireia; Morales, Alexandra; Ballester, Rafael; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.


    Due to a lack of controlled studies on HIV prevention interventions among Spanish adolescents, COMPAS, a five-session behavioral intervention, was developed and tested on Spanish adolescents aged 15-18. Participants included 827 adolescents from central, east and north Spain. Six hundred and seven students (M = 15.71 years) received the…

  1. A Sociolinguistic Study of Sustained Veneto-Spanish Bilingualism in Chipilo, Mexico (United States)

    Barnes, Hilary


    This dissertation project examines the language contact situation of Chipilo, a Veneto-Spanish bilingual community of immigrant origin in central Mexico, focusing both on the social motivations for the sustained bilingualism observed and the linguistic outcomes in the Spanish of the community. Chipilo is a unique community in that Veneto, a…

  2. The safety analysis and thermohydraulic methodologies for the power updating analyses in Spanish PWR plants; Methodologias de diseno termohidraulico y de analisis de seguridad en los aumentos de potencia de centrales PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesa, F.


    This article describes the Safety Analysis and Thermohydraulic methodologies used by ENUSA for the Power Updating analyses in Spanish PWR plants of Westinghouse design: Design tools have been developed over the first cycles resulting new correlations of DNB, fitted to the new fuel assemblies, new DNBR calculation methodology and other improvements in the design areas. Using these methodologies, the available margins between design and limit values are wider. These new margins have allowed to accomplish the design criteria under the new power updating operational conditions. (Author)

  3. Maximum extent of Late Pleistocene glaciers and last deglaciation of La Cerdanya mountains, Southeastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Palacios, David; Gómez-Ortiz, Antonio; Andrés, Nuria; Vázquez-Selem, Lorenzo; Salvador-Franch, Ferran; Oliva, Marc


    This paper examines glacial evolution in the La Pera and Malniu cirques, and Arànser, La Llosa and Duran valleys, in the Cerdanya massifs on the south-facing slopes of the eastern Pyrenees. A geomorphologic analysis and dating of moraine boulders, glacially polished bedrock and rock glacier blocks were carried out by means of cosmogenic 36Cl surface exposure dating. The maximum ice advance was contemporary with the Last Glacial Maximum at 23 ka ago, and it was of greater or only slightly lesser magnitude than for previous Quaternary advances. The termini of glaciers remained close to maximum positions, with minor advances and retreats until 18-17 ka when the glacial tongues disappeared from the valleys. Depending on the previous topography, these glaciers left behind a single polygenic moraine, in the case of confined valleys, or multiple moraines next to each other in the case of flat, more open areas. A final glacial advance is detected during the Oldest Dryas close to the cirque headwalls, and the glaciers finally disappeared during the Bølling interstadial. The glaciers were then replaced by rock glaciers, whose front immediately became inactive, although their activity continued near their source area until the early Holocene.

  4. A multi-proxy perspective on millennium-long climate variability in the Southern Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Morellón


    Full Text Available A review of selected, well-dated, multiproxy paleoclimatic records (lacustrine, dendrochronological, geomorphological characterizes the main environmental changes occurred in the Southern Pyrenees during the last millennium. Warmer and relatively arid conditions prevailed during the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA, <1300 AD, with a significant development of xerophytes and Mediterranean vegetation and limited deciduous tree formations (mesophytes. The Little Ice Age (LIA, 1300–1800 AD was generally colder and moister, with an expansion of deciduous taxa and cold-adapted mountainous conifers. Two major phases occurred within this period: (i a transition MCA-LIA, characterized by fluctuating, moist conditions and relatively cold temperatures (ca. 1300 and 1600 AD; – (ii a second period, characterized by coldest conditions and higher humidity, coinciding with maximum (recent glacier advances (ca. 1600–1850 AD. After the LIA a warming and more arid phase started coinciding with glacier retreat, and interrupted by a short-living cooling episode during the late 19th to early 20th centuries. Some records suggest a response to solar activity with colder and slightly moister conditions during solar minima. Centennial-scale hydrological fluctuations are in phase with reconstructions of NAO variability, which appears to be the main forcing for humidity in the region during the last millennium.

  5. Rift-to-collision transition recorded by tectonothermal evolution of the northern Pyrenees (United States)

    Vacherat, Arnaud; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Pik, Raphaël.; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Gautheron, Cécile; Bernet, Matthias; Daudet, Maxime; Balansa, Jocelyn; Tibari, Bouchaib; Pinna Jamme, Rosella; Radal, Julien


    The impact of rift-related processes on tectonic and thermal evolution of collisional orogens is poorly documented. Here, we study the northern Pyrenees, a region that has preserved a geological record of the transition from rifting to collision. Using modeling of new low-temperature thermochronological data, including fission track and (U-Th)/He on apatite and zircon, we propose a temporal reconstruction of the inversion of the European rifted margin. Our data confirm that rifting and related cooling started in the Late Paleozoic-Triassic. Throughout the Jurassic and Early Cretaceous the European margin recorded slow heating during postrift subdsidence. Modeling of thermochronological data allows distinguishing subsidence and denudation controlled by south dipping normal faults in granitic massifs that reflect a second episode of crustal thinning at 130-110 Ma. Following onset of convergence at 83 Ma, shortening accumulated into the weak and hot Albian-Cenomanian rift basins floored by both hyperextended continental crust and exhumed subcontinental mantle. The lack of cooling during this initial stage of convergence is explained by the persistence of a high geothermal gradient. The onset of exhumation-related cooling is recognized in the whole Pyrenean region at 50-35 Ma. This timing reveals that the main phase of mountain building started when hyperextended rift basins closed and collision between proximal domains of the rifted margin occurred.

  6. Significance of organic matter in Eocene turbidite sediments (SE Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Caja, M. A.; Permanyer, A.


    Although turbidite deposits are classically considered to be good reservoir rocks for oil and gas, there are no reports concerning their source rock potential in the literature. The sediments from the Vallfogona Formation in the South-Eastern Pyrenees present numerous organic matter-rich levels interbedded in sandstones and coarse turbidite deposits. Two types of organic matter deposits were differentiated on the basis of organic geochemistry and petrography: type A and type B. Type A was deposited in a carbonate marine environment under hypersaline conditions as indicated mainly by even/odd n-alkane predominance, pristane and phytane ratio (Pr/Ph) 1. Type B was deposited in a more mud-rich marine environment evidenced by the predominance of odd n-alkane, Pr/Ph ≥ 1, Ts/Tm diasteranes. Turbidite facies can be regarded as an environment where organic matter sedimentation is heterogeneous in type and amount. This study suggests that turbidite deposits with interbedded organic matter-rich levels may act as a combined source reservoir system.

  7. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat


    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  8. Estructura de un ecotono bosque Subalpino-pastos alpinos (Las Cutas, Ordesa, Pirineos Centrales)


    J.J. Camarero; Gutiérrez, E.


    We describe the structure of a subalpine forest-alpine pasture ecotone in the Central Pyrenees, that includes altitudinal timberline and treeline, and it is dominated by Pinus uncinata Ram. We measured for each P. uncinata 21individual located inside a rectangular plot parallel to the slope: the location and several structural and groivth form variables (number and type of stems per individual). Then, P. uncinata individuals were classified according to their size (adults, poles, saplings and...

  9. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  10. Microvariation in Accentual Alignment in Basque Spanish (United States)

    Elordieta, Gorka; Calleja, Nagore


    This paper presents patterns of accentual alignment in two varieties of Spanish spoken in the Basque Country: Lekeitio Spanish (LS), with speakers whose other native language is Lekeitio Basque (LB); and Vitoria Spanish (VS), with monolingual speakers of Spanish from the city of Vitoria. These patterns are compared to those of Madrid Spanish (MS),…

  11. Paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic constraints on transverse fault kinematics during basin inversion: The Pamplona Fault (Pyrenees, north Spain) (United States)

    LarrasoañA, Juan Cruz; ParéS, Josep MaríA.; MilláN, HéCtor; Del Valle, JoaquíN.; Pueyo, Emilio Luis


    The Pamplona Fault in the Pyrenees is a major transverse structure that has been classically interpreted as a strike-slip fault. However, lack of consensus concerning the sense of movement casts doubt on its actual kinematics and, as a consequence, its role in the Cenozoic evolution of the Pyrenees remains controversial. In order to assess its kinematics, we have conducted a paleomagnetic, structural, and stratigraphic study focused on the Mesozoic and Tertiary sedimentary rocks that outcrop around the southern segment of the fault. Restoration of balanced cross sections allows us to examine the present-day spatial relationship of the sedimentary sequences on both sides of the fault and to reconstruct the geometry of the extensional basins formed during Mesozoic rifting episodes in the Bay of Biscay and Pyrenean domains. Paleomagnetic results indicate that no significant tectonic rotations occurred around the fault during Tertiary inversion of the Pyrenees. The lack of tectonic rotations and revaluation of previous hypotheses argues against a strike-slip movement of the fault. We propose a new model in which the Pamplona Fault is treated as a large-scale "hanging wall drop" fault whose kinematics was determined by variations in the geometry and thickness of Mesozoic sequences on both sides of the fault. These variations influenced the geometry of the thrust sheet developed during Tertiary compression. We are unaware of any other transverse fault that has been interpreted in this fashion; thus the Pamplona Fault serves as a case study for the evolution of transverse faults involved in basin inversion processes.

  12. "Castellano" y "Espanol" (Castilian and Spanish) (United States)

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo


    Argues that the term "Castilian" should replace "Spanish" to denote the Castilian form of the language. "Spanish" may then be a more inclusive term, enbracing all the dialects of the language. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  13. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C


    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  14. Restoring paleomagnetic data in complex superposed folding settings: The Boltaña anticline (Southern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Mochales, T.; Pueyo, E. L.; Casas, A. M.; Barnolas, A.


    Complex kinematic scenarios in fold-and-thrust belts often produce superposed and non-coaxial folding. Interpretation of primary linear indicators must be based on a careful restoration to the undeformed stage following the reverse order of the deformation events. Therefore, sequential restoration to the ancient coordinate system is of key importance to obtain reliable kinematic interpretations using paleomagnetic data. In this paper, a new paleomagnetic study in the western flank of the Boltaña anticline (Southern Pyrenees) illustrates a case study of a complex tectonic setting having superposed, non-coaxial folds. The first stage of NW-SE folding linked to the oblique Boltaña anticline took place during Lutetian times. The second stage was linked to the vertical axis rotation and placed the Boltaña anticline in its present-day N-S configuration. Our data support a long-lasting Lutetian to Priabonian period with main rotational activity during the Bartonian-Priabonian; other authors support a VAR coeval with anticlinal growth. The third stage resulted in southwards tilting related to the emplacement of the N120E striking Guarga basement thrust (Oligocene-Early Miocene). Based on this deformational history, a sequential restoration was applied and compared with the classic bedding correction. At the site scale, single bedding correction gives errors ranging between 31° and - 31° in the estimation of vertical axis rotations. At the locality scale, in sites grouped in three folds (from W to E Arbella, Planillo and San Felizes), the bedding corrected data display rotation values in accordance with those found in the Ainsa Basin by other authors. Sequential restoration (based on the afore-mentioned evolution in three-steps) improves both some locality-means and the internal consistency of the data. Therefore, reasonably-constrained sequential restoration becomes essential to reconstruct the actual history of superposed folding areas.


    Kansas State Teachers Coll., Emporia.


  16. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels


    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  17. On "Tough" Movement in Spanish. (United States)

    Reider, Michael


    A survey of native Spanish speakers from both Spain and Latin America found that the choice of predicate adjectives governing "tough" constructions in Spanish (e.g., "el libro es facil de leer") varies by individual, but some patterns did emerge that suggest "tough" constructions and "it is" constructions…

  18. On "Tough" Movement in Spanish. (United States)

    Reider, Michael


    A survey of native Spanish speakers from both Spain and Latin America found that the choice of predicate adjectives governing "tough" constructions in Spanish (e.g., "el libro es facil de leer") varies by individual, but some patterns did emerge that suggest "tough" constructions and "it is" constructions are transformationally related. (17…

  19. Annual and seasonal analysis of temperature and precipitation in Andorra (Pyrenees) from 1934 to 2008: quality check, homogenization and trends (United States)

    Esteban, Pere; Prohom, Marc; Aguilar, Enric; Mestre, Olivier


    The analysis of temperature and precipitation change and variability in high elevations is a difficult issue due to the lack of long term climatic series in those environments. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate how much high elevations follow the same climate evolution than low lying sites. In this work, using daily data from three Andorran weather stations (maintained by the power company Forces Elèctriques d'Andorra, FEDA), climate trends of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation were obtained for the period 1934-2008. The series are complete (99.9%) and are located in a mountainous area ranging from 1110 m to 1600 m asl. As a previous step to the analysis, data rescue, quality control and homogeneity tests were applied to the daily data. For quality control, several procedures were applied to identify and flag suspicious or erroneous data: duplicated days, outliers, excessive differences between consecutive days, flat line checking, days with maximum temperature lower that minimum temperature, and rounding analysis. All the station sites were visited to gather the available metadata. Concerning homogeneity, a homogeneous climate time series is defined as one where variations are caused only by variations in climate and not to non-climatic factors (i.e., changes in site location, instruments, station environment…). As a result, homogeneity of the series was inspected from several methodologies that have been used in a complementary and independent way in order to attain solid results: C3-SNHT (with software developed under the Spanish Government Grant CGL2007-65546-C03-02), and Caussinus-Mestre (C-M) approaches. In both cases, tests were applied to mean annual temperature and precipitation series, using Catalan and French series as references (provided respectively by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia and Météo-France, in the framework of the Action COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated

  20. The FlatModel: a 2D numerical code to evaluate debris flow dynamics. Eastern Pyrenees basins application. (United States)

    Bateman, A.; Medina, V.; Hürlimann, M.


    Debris flows are present in every country where a combination of high mountains and flash floods exists. In the northern part of the Iberian Peninsula, at the Pyrenees, sporadic debris events occur. We selected two different events. The first one was triggered at La Guingueta by the big exceptional flood event that produced many debris flows in 1982 which were spread all over the Catalonian Pyrenees. The second, more local event occurred in 2000 at the mountain Montserrat at the Pre-litoral mountain chain. We present here some results of the FLATModel, entirely developed at the Research Group in Sediment Transport of the Hydraulic, Marine and Environmental Engineering Department (GITS-UPC). The 2D FLATModel is a Finite Volume method that uses the Godunov scheme. Some numerical arranges have been made to analyze the entrainment process during the events, the Stop & Go phenomena and the final deposit of the material. The material rheology implemented is the Voellmy approach, because it acts very well evaluating the frictional and turbulent behavior. The FLATModel uses a GIS environment that facilitates the data analysis as the comparison between field and numerical data. The two events present two different characteristics, one is practically a one dimensional problem of 1400 m in length and the other has a more two dimensional behavior that forms a big fan.

  1. Debris-flow monitoring at the Rebaixader torrent, Central Pyrenees, Spain: results on initiation, volume and dynamic behaviour


    Hurlimann Ziegler, Marcel; Abancó, Clàudia; Moya Sánchez, José


    The sophisticated monitoring system installed in the Rebaixader catchment incorporates a total of 6 different stations: four stations recording information on the initiation mechanisms (two meteorological stations and two infiltration stations), and two stations focussing on the debris flow detection and the dynamic behaviour of the flows. Between August 2009 and August 2013, seven debris flows and seventeen debris floods were detected. The volumes of the debris flows ranged from 2,100 to 16,...

  2. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees part 1; Arize, Trois Seigneurs and Saint-Barthelemy Massifs (sheet 3).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.


    The relation between orogenic movements and metamorphism is discussed. Schistosity and especially lineations are characteristic for metamorphites of the synkinematic phase. Lineations show a regular pattern. Late-kinematic metamorphism accompanied by different kinds of movement result in irregular r

  3. Origin of a thick, redeposited carbonate bed in Eocene turbidites of the Hecho Group, south-central Pyrenees, Spain (United States)

    Johns, D. R.; Mutti, E.; Rosell, J.; Séguret, M.


    Large-scale carbonate beds interbedded in basin-plain turbidites of the Eocene Hecho Group, northern Spain, are interpreted as giant turbidity-current deposits because of their internal organization and lateral extent. One such bed, the Roncal Unit, has been traced down the axis of the basin for 75 km and commonly reaches thicknesses in excess of 100 m. Internally, the Roncal Unit displays an overall upward decrease in grain size, from a basal megabreccia with large slabs of carbonate platform debris to a calcareous mudstone. The Roncal Unit was probably deposited from a highly mobile and competent sediment gravity flow generated by an earthquake shock, which led to the catastrophic collapse and subsequent transport of the upper part of a carbonate platform flanking the basin. *Present addresses: (Johns) Koninklijke/Shell Exploratie en Produktie Laboratorium, Rijswijk, Netherlands; (Mutti) Istituto di Geologia, Universitá di Ferrara, Ferrara, Italy

  4. Estimating the Ontogenetic Status of an Enantiornithine Bird from the Lower Barremian of El Montsec, Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscalioni, A. D.


    Full Text Available An Enantiornithes specimen from El Montsec was initially described as an immature individual based upon qualitative traits such as its relatively large orbit and overall proportions of the skull and the postcranium. In this study we re-evaluate the precise determination of the ontogenetic stage of this individual, establishing a cross-talk among taphonomic, anatomic, and morphometric data. The exceptional preservation of the specimen has allowed pondering ontogenetic influence versus preservational bias in features like the external patterns of bone surfaces, instead of being aprioristically considered due to taphonomic alterations only. The rough texture of the periosteal bone associated with pores in the distal, proximal and mid-shaft areas of the humeral shaft, indicates a subadult stage when compared with long bones of modern birds. Forelimb proportions of embryo and juvenile Enanthiornithes are equivalent to those of adult individuals of other taxa within this clade, though this is not a reliable criterion for establishing a precise ontogenetic stage. The El Montsec specimen may be attributed a close adulthood, yet only if growth regimes in Enantiornithes are considered equivalent to those in Neornithes birds.Un ejemplar de Enantiornithes del Montsec fue inicialmente descrito como un individuo inmaduro sobre la base de caracteres cualitativos tales como su órbita relativamente grande y sus proporciones generales en cuerpo y cráneo. En este estudio se realiza una reevaluación del estado ontogenético preciso de este individuo, estableciendo una argumentación cruzada con datos tafonómicos, anatómicos y morfométricos. La preservación excepcional de este ejemplar ha permitido ponderar la influencia ontogenética versus el sesgo tafonómico en caracteres como los patrones externos de las superficies óseas, en lugar de considerarlos apriorísticamente como debidos únicamente a alteraciones tafonómicas. La textura rugosa del periostio, asociada a la presencia de poros en las áreas distal, proximal, y del centro de la epífisis humeral, sugiere un estado subadulto si se compara con los huesos largos de las aves modernas. Las proporciones del miembro anterior de embriones y adultos de enanthiornithes son equivalentes a las de adultos de otros taxa dentro de este clado, aunque ello no constituye un criterio fiable para establecer un estado ontogenético preciso. Se puede atribuir una edad relativa al ejemplar del Montsec cercana a la de un adulto, aunque únicamente si los regímenes de crecimiento de las enantiornites son considerados equivalentes a los de las aves neornites.

  5. Rockfall travel distance analysis by using empirical models (Solà d'Andorra la Vella, Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Copons, R.; Vilaplana, J. M.; Linares, R.


    The prediction of rockfall travel distance below a rock cliff is an indispensable activity in rockfall susceptibility, hazard and risk assessment. Although the size of the detached rock mass may differ considerably at each specific rock cliff, small rockfall (government has been documenting rockfalls since 1999. This documentation consists in mapping the release point and the individual fallen blocks immediately after the event. The documentation of historical rockfalls by morphological analysis, eye-witness accounts and historical images serve to increase available information. In total, data from twenty small rockfalls have been gathered which reveal an amount of a hundred individual fallen rock blocks. The data acquired has been used to check the reliability of the main empirical models widely adopted (reach and shadow angle models) and to analyse the influence of parameters which affecting the travel distance (rockfall size, height of fall along the rock cliff and volume of the individual fallen rock block). For predicting travel distances in maps with medium scales, a method has been proposed based on the "reach probability" concept. The accuracy of results has been tested from the line entailing the farthest fallen boulders which represents the maximum travel distance of past rockfalls. The paper concludes with a discussion of the application of both empirical models to other study areas.

  6. Middle Jurassic shear zones at Cap de Creus (eastern Pyrenees, Spain) : a record of pre-drift extension of the Piemonte–Ligurian Ocean?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, Reinoud L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, Douwe J. J.; Wilkinson, Camilla M.; Ganerød, Morgan


    The Cap de Creus peninsula in NE Spain consists of greenschist- to amphibolite-facies metasediments and granitoid bodies of the Variscan Axial Zone of the Pyrenees, overprinted in the north by anastomosed greenschist-facies shear zones. Current tectonic interpretations ascribe these shear zones to t

  7. Judeo-Spanish expressions in life stories of Greek survivors of the Shoah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Pinto-Abecasis


    Full Text Available

    What is the role of Judeo-Spanish expressions in the life stories written by Ladino-speaking Holocaust survivors? To what extent do the Judeo-Spanish language and expressions determine the center of gravity of the stories? And why do the tellers of the stories choose to incorporate Judeo-Spanish expressions into their Hebrew-written life stories? These are some of the central questions addressed in the present paper, which suggests that the purpose of incorporating Judeo-Spanish to these stories is to render them more powerful and to make the Judeo-Spanish experience more accessible to those who are not part of it. It is interesting to note that it is the very fact that Judeo-Spanish was a minority language in the extermination camps which makes the life stories of its speakers who survived particularly forceful. The Judeo-Spanish language preserved in their memory, which became an “informal language” in the camps, acquires a new vitality in their life stories. We center our discussion on the autobiographies of Greek survivors and on testimonies gathered in interviews with those survivors. We examine the incorporation of Judeo-Spanish expressions to their life stories and the references to the status of the Judeo-Spanish language during the Holocaust.

  8. Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. (United States)

    Kim-Romo, Dawn N; Barner, Jamie C; Brown, Carolyn M; Rivera, José O; Garza, Aida A; Klein-Bradham, Kristina; Jokerst, Jason R; Janiga, Xan; Brown, Bob


    OBJECTIVE To assess Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity, while controlling for patients' sociodemographic, clinical, and communication factors, as well as pharmacist factors, and to identify clinical pharmacists' cultural factors that are important to Spanish-speaking patients. DESIGN Cross-sectional study. SETTING Central Texas during August 2011 to May 2012. PARTICIPANTS Spanish-speaking patients of federally qualified health centers (FQHCs). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S) A Spanish-translated survey assessed Spanish-speaking patients' satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. RESULTS Spanish-speaking patients (N = 101) reported overall satisfaction with their clinical pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patients also indicated that pharmacists' cultural rapport (e.g., ability to speak Spanish, respectfulness) was generally important to Spanish speakers. Multiple linear regression analyses showed that cultural rapport was significantly related to satisfaction with pharmacists' communication skills and demonstration of cultural sensitivity. CONCLUSION Overall, patients were satisfied with pharmacists' communication skills and cultural sensitivity. Patient satisfaction initiatives that include cultural rapport should be developed for pharmacists who provide care to Spanish-speaking patients with limited English proficiency.

  9. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez


    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  10. The Preconstitutional Spanish Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio MORALES MOYA


    Full Text Available Almost unanimously, the modernist school linked the emergence of nations with the modern world, starting with the American and French revolutions, whose Spanish equivalent would be the liberal revolution that began in Cadiz with the decrees of Las Cortes and the Constitution of 1812. However, Spain’s national identity, apart from its medieval roots, seems to have asserted itself strongly in the 16th and 17th Centuries. A key moment following the «imperial» spirit that had imbued the monarchy of Charles V was the reign of Philip II —«an abrupt switch to nationalism»— that was kept alive in his successors Philip III and Philip IV.

  11. 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees (United States)

    Ninh Nguyen, Hai; Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva


    We present a new 3-D GPS velocity solution for 182 sites for the region encompassing the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The velocity field is based on a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, to which we apply a common-mode filter, defined by the 26 longest time series, in order to correct for network-wide biases (reference frame, unmodeled large-scale processes, etc.). We show that processing parameters, such as troposphere delay modeling, can lead to systematic velocity variations of 0.1-0.5 mm yr-1 affecting both accuracy and precision, especially for short (< 5 years) time series. A velocity convergence analysis shows that minimum time-series lengths of ˜ 3 and ˜ 5.5 years are required to reach a velocity stability of 0.5 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. On average, horizontal residual velocities show a stability of ˜ 0.2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The only significant horizontal strain rate signal is in the western Pyrenees with up to 4 × 10-9 yr-1 NNE-SSW extension, whereas no significant strain rates are detected in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 yr-1). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates up to 2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). A correlation between site elevations and fast uplift rates in the northern part of the Western Alps, in the region of the Würmian ice cap, suggests that part of this uplift is induced by postglacial rebound. The very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees could be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound.

  12. The mountainous space as a commodity: the Pyrenees at the age of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Vaccaro


    Full Text Available In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activities to become the space where resorts and parks are built. The paper analyzes the process of commodification and patrimonialization that have reintegrated the area into the national and international leisure markets paying special attention to the role of conservation practices, ski resorts and second residences in such a process. Finally, we attempt to identify the similarities and differences that characterize the two emergent tourism models: mass tourism versus small scale ecotourism.Au fil de ces pages, nous réfléchissons au processus de transformation des Pyrénées catalanes de zone périphérique et en déclin économique en centre touristique de qualité. La spéculation immobilière a remplacé le dépeuplement. La valeur économique et sociale du territoire a radicalement changé, la promotion des activités d’élevage peu rentables ayant cédé la place aux stations touristiques et aux parcs. Cet article analyse le processus de marchandisation et de patrimonialisation qui a réintégré la région sur les marchés de loisirs nationaux et internationaux en prêtant une attention particulière au rôle des pratiques de conservation, des stations de ski et des résidences secondaires. Enfin, nous tentons d’identifier les similitudes et les différences qui caractérisent les deux modèles touristiques émergents : le tourisme de masse contre l’écotourisme à l’échelle locale.

  13. The role of salt tectonics in the evolution of the northeastern Pyrenees (United States)

    Ford, Mary; Christophoul, Frédéric; Menzer, Lionel; Simonis, Jules; Saura, Eduard; Vergés, Jaume


    Evaporites can play a major role in controlling the architecture of external orogenic belts, both during extensional and subsequent compressional phases. However, salt can also 'hide' deformation due to its ability to flow and dissolve. The challenge is to recognise the imprint of its past presence and influence. In the NE Pyrenees multiple deformation phases have been identified based on locally anomalous stratigraphic and structural relationships. This has resulted in complex, sometimes incoherent and often conflictual models of orogenic history. For example, a pre-Cenomanian deformation phase has been interpreted as either extensional or compressional. As part of the ANR-PYRAMID project, we have re-examined key localities around the eastern Mouthoumet massif, in the Corbières foreland and along the Corbières thrust front to reconstruct a coherent deformation history involving salt tectonics. Keuper (Carnian - Rhetian) evaporitic deposits gave rise to diapirs and detachments that were particularly active during Early to Late Cretaceous extension and later during Late Cretaceous to Eocene compression. Growth unconformities and rapid thickness changes in the Aptian Quillan basin indicate that it developed as a salt controlled minibasin. Olistoliths, gypsum breccias and presence of bipyramidal quartz in Albian strata preserved as footwall imbricates along the North Pyrenean thrust front (e.g. around Cucugnan) attest to the proximity of a large diapiric body. Below the Cenomanian unconformity, rotated fault blocks of Liassic to Albian strata lie above a Keuper detachment. These extensional fault blocks have already been recognised at the Serre de Bouchard. They are also preserved north of Cucugnan, in the Montagne de Tauch and in the Fontfroide massif with little or no alpine inversion. In the Corbières foreland area salt-influenced extensional and compressional deformation generated growth folds, with completely overturned limbs (flaps), welds, growth

  14. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido


    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  15. Determinants of Research Productivity in Spanish Academia (United States)

    Albert, Cecilia; Davia, María A.; Legazpe, Nuria


    This article aims to widen the empirical evidence about the determinants of Spanish academics' publication productivity across fields of study. We use the Spanish Survey on Human Resources in Science and Technology addressed to Spanish resident PhDs employed in Spanish universities as academics. Productivity is measured as the total number of…

  16. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels (United States)

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel


    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  17. The Shared Conceptual System and Language Processing in Bilingual Children: Findings from Literacy Assessment in Spanish and Nahuatl. (United States)

    Francis, Norbert


    Findings are reported from a series of literacy assessments in which four classes of bilingual Grade 3 and Grade 5 students from an indigenous community in Central Mexico participated. Subjects who completed the battery of tests of reading and writing in Spanish and Nahuatl range from balanced bilinguals to Spanish-dominant speakers with at least…

  18. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle


    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  19. Visit of Spanish Government delegation

    CERN Multimedia


    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  20. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  1. Sinkholes and caves related to evaporite dissolution in a stratigraphically and structurally complex setting, Fluvia Valley, eastern Spanish Pyrenees. Geological, geomorphological and environmental implications (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Fabregat, Ivan; Roqué, Carles; Carbonel, Domingo; Guerrero, Jesús; García-Hermoso, Fernando; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio


    Evaporite karst and sinkhole development is analysed in a geologically complex area of NE Spain, including four evaporite units with different characteristics and affected by compressional and extensional tectonic structures. The exposed paleosinkholes, including remarkable Early Pleistocene paleontological sites, provide valuable information on the subsidence mechanisms and reveal the significant role played by interstratal karstification in the area. These gravitational deformation structures, including hectometre-scale bending folds and oversteepened normal faults, strongly suggest that the present-day compressional regime inferred in previous studies may be largely based on the analysis of non-tectonic structures. Two gypsum caves ca. 1 km long show that passages with restricted cross-sectional area may produce large breccia pipes and sinkholes thanks to the removal of breakdown boulders by high-competence episodic floods. Moreover, the upward progression of cave ceilings by paragenesis and condensation dissolution contributes to increase the probability of sinkhole occurrence. An inventory of 135 sinkholes together with their geological and geomorphological context has been developed. This data base has been used to infer several properties of the sinkholes with practical implications: a magnitude and frequency scaling relationship, spatial distribution patterns, dominant controlling factors and risk implications.

  2. A 2D finite volume model for bebris flow and its application to events occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    FLATModel is a 2D finite volume code that contains several original approaches to improve debris-flow simulation.Firstly,FLATModel incorporates a "stop-and-go" technique in each cell to allow continuous collapses and remobilizations of the debris-flow mass.Secondly,flow velocity and consequently yield stress is directly associated with the type of rheology to improve boundary accuracy.Thirdly,a simple approach for entrainment is also included in the model to analyse the effect of basal erosion of debris flows.FLATMODEL was tested at several events that occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees and simulation results indicated that the model can represent rather well the different characteristics observed in the field.

  3. Tree-ring proxy based temperature reconstructions and climate model simulations: cross-comparison at the Pyrenees

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    I. Dorado Liñán


    Full Text Available May-to-September mean temperatures over the larger Pyrenees area (Northern Spain and Southern France are reconstructed for the last Millennium from 22 maximum density (MXD tree-ring chronologies. For the standardization of the tree-ring series, two detrending methods (Regional Curve Standardization (RCS and 300-yr spline were combined with and without an adaptive power transform (PT for variance stabilization in the individual series. Thus, four different standardization procedures were applied to the data. Additionally, different regional chronologies were generated by computing a mean composite, averaging the local chronologies, or by applying Principal Components Analysis (PCA to extract common variance from the subsets of individual MXD chronologies.

    Calibration-verification trials were performed using the product of the three regional aggregation methods in split periods: 1900–1952 and 1953–2006. Two methods were used to calibrate the regional chronology: regression and a simple variance-matching, sometimes also known as composite-plus-scaling. The resulting set of temperature reconstructions was compared with climate simulations performed with global (ECHO-G over the last Millennium for the target region and regional (MM5 climate models.

    The reconstructions reveal inter-annual to multi-centennial temperature variations at the Pyrenees region for the last 750 yr. Generally, variations at inter-decadal timescales, including the cold periods associated with the solar minima, are common to all reconstruction variants although some discrepancies are found at longer timescales.

    The simulations of the global circulation model ECHO-G and the regional model MM5 agree with the tree-ring based reconstructions at decadal to multi-decadal time-scales. However, the comparison also highlights differences that need to be understood, such as the amplitude of the temperature variations and the discrepancies regarding the 20th

  4. Reactivation of a segmented hyper-extended rift system: the example of the Pamplona transfer zone in the western Pyrenees (United States)

    Lescoutre, Rodolphe; Schaeffer, Frédéric; Masini, Emmanuel; Manatschal, Gianreto


    Numerous studies have revealed the importance of rift-inheritance on the formation of orogens but little consideration was given to rift segmentation and the role of transfer zones on the architecture of mountain chains. Indeed, structural mapping of passive margins pointed out the occurrence of a strong variability in the rift architecture along the margin when crossing through peculiar features that represent transfer zones. These transfer zones are generally oriented in the extension direction and relay the deformation between rift segments. The aim of this study is twofold: 1) characterize and define the Pamplona fault system as well as the structures and architecture of the basins bounding this major paleo-transfer fault located in the Western Pyrenees, and 2) understand its role during the subsequent Pyrenean convergence. The influence of the Pamplona fault system on the structuration of the Mauléon basin to the northeast and the Basque-Cantabrian basin to the southwest is substantial as expressed by their large offset and the occurrence of exhumed deep crustal and mantle rocks flooring the two basins. On the one hand, field work in the Labourd Massif and the western termination of the Mauléon basin enabled to describe faults and their relations to sedimentary sequences. This work also allowed describing the formation and reactivation of faults according to their orientation and their activity with respect to key markers (pre-Trias and post-Cenomanian). A strong relationship between rift architecture (proximal to distal domains) and structural inheritance is suggested. On the other hand, preliminary results from fieldwork, literature compilation and new tomographic imaging enable to determine the role and the history of the Pamplona fault system during Late Cretaceous compression. A significant work of this starting PhD project will be to determine the rift structures that have been reactivated and to assess their influence on the final architecture of the

  5. High resolution imaging of lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees by full waveform inversion of shortperiod teleseismic P waves (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Monteiller, Vadim; Durochat, Clément


    Thanks to the deployment of permanent and temporary broadband arrays, coverage and data quality have dramatically improved in the last decade, especially for regional-scale studies. In addition, owing to the progress of high-performance resources and numerical simulation techniques, waveform inversion approaches nowadays become a viable alternative to classical asymptotic ray based tomographic approaches. Exploiting full waveforms in seismic tomography requires an efficient and precise method to solve the elastic wave equation in 3D inhomogeneous media. Since resolution of waveform inversion is limited by the seismic wavelength as well as the wavefield sampling density, it is crucial to exploit short-period teleseismic waves recorded by dense regional arrays. However, modeling the propagation of short-period body waves in heterogeneous media is still very challenging, even on the largest modern supercomputers. For this reason, we have developed a hybrid method that couples a global wave propagation method in a 1D Earth to a 3D spectral-element method in a regional domain. This hybrid method restricts the costly 3D computations to inside the regional domain, which dramatically decreases the computational cost, allows us to compute teleseismic wavefields down to 1s period, thus accounting for the complexities that affect the propagation of seismic waves in the regional domain. We present the first application of this new waveform inversion approach to broadband data coming from two dense transects deployed during the PYROPE experiment across the Pyrenees mountains. We obtain the first high-resolution lithospheric section of compressional and shear velocities across an orogenic belt. The tomographic model provides clear evidence for the under-thrusting of the thinned Iberian crust beneath the European plate and for the important role of rift-inherited mantle structures during the formation of the Pyrenees.

  6. Soil formation on Holocene moraines in the cirque de Troumouse, Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson, Robert


    Full Text Available Factors affecting rates and degree of soil formation on Holocene moraines are discussed with reference to moraine sequences in the Cirque de Troumouse, French Pyrenees. In particular, the role of time, slope position and post-depositional history are evaluated for three moraines ranging in age from c. 5000 to c. 1000 yr BP. Soil profile development, as determined by visual criteria, indicates differences in soil development between moraines of different age as well as between soils developed on the same moraine but occupying different slope positions. Particle size analysis and soil chemical analyses confirm that microtopography exerts a strong control on the extent and rate of soil formation, and must therefore be considered when sampling and describing soil chronosequences on glacial moraines.

    [es] Se discuten los factores que afectan a las tasas y al grado de formación del suelo en morrenas Holocenas, con referencia a la secuencia de morrenas en el Circo de Troumouse, Pirineo francés. En particular, se evalúa el papel del tiempo, la posición de la pendiente y la historia postdeposicional para tres morrenas ordenadas en edad desde c. 5000 a c. 1000 años BP. El desarrollo del perfil del suelo, determinado por criterios visuales, indica diferencias de desarrollo del suelo entre morrenas de diferente edad así como entre suelos desarrollados en la misma morrena, pero ocupando diferentes posiciones de la pendiente. Análisis granulométricos y químicos del suelo confirman que la microtopografía ejerce un fuerte control en la extensión y en la tasa de formación del suelo y, por tanto, deberla ser tenida en cuenta en los muéstreos y descripciones de las cronosecuencias del suelo en morrenas glaciares.
    [fr] On discute les facteurs qui affectent les taux et le degré de formation du sol en moraines Holocènes, avec référence à la séquence de moraines du Cirque de Troumouse, Pyrénées français. En particulier, on

  7. Short-term monitoring of the Spanish government balance


    Leal, Teresa; Diego J. Pedregal; Javier J. Pérez


    We construct multivariate, state-space mixed-frequencies models for the main components of the Spanish General Government sector made up of blocks for each one of its subsectors: Central Government, Social Security and aggregate of Regional and Local government sectors. Each block is modelled through its total revenue and expenditure categories, and encompasses a number of indicators, depending on data availability. The mixed-frequencies approach is particularly relevant for the case of Spain...

  8. Assessment of snowfall accumulation underestimation by tipping bucket gauges in the Spanish operational network (United States)

    Buisán, Samuel T.; Earle, Michael E.; Luís Collado, José; Kochendorfer, John; Alastrué, Javier; Wolff, Mareile; Smith, Craig D.; López-Moreno, Juan I.


    Within the framework of the World Meteorological Organization Solid Precipitation Intercomparison Experiment (WMO-SPICE), the Thies tipping bucket precipitation gauge was assessed against the SPICE reference configuration at the Formigal-Sarrios test site located in the Pyrenees mountain range of Spain. The Thies gauge is the most widely used precipitation gauge by the Spanish Meteorological State Agency (AEMET) for the measurement of all precipitation types including snow. It is therefore critical that its performance is characterized. The first objective of this study is to derive transfer functions based on the relationships between catch ratio and wind speed and temperature. Multiple linear regression was applied to 1 and 3 h accumulation periods, confirming that wind is the most dominant environmental variable affecting the gauge catch efficiency, especially during snowfall events. At wind speeds of 1.5 m s-1 the tipping bucket recorded only 70 % of the reference precipitation. At 3 m s-1, the amount of measured precipitation decreased to 50 % of the reference, was even lower for temperatures colder than -2 °C and decreased to 20 % or less for higher wind speeds.The implications of precipitation underestimation for areas in northern Spain are discussed within the context of the present analysis, by applying the transfer function developed at the Formigal-Sarrios and using results from previous studies.

  9. Reproductive potential of a vole pest (Arvicola scherman in Spanish apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Somoano


    Full Text Available Fossorial water voles, Arvicola scherman, feed on tree roots causing important damages in European apple orchards. Since the intensity of crop damage produced by rodents ultimately depends on their inherent capacity to increase their population, the main goal of this study was to determine the reproductive potential of the subspecies A. scherman cantabriae in apple orchards from Asturias (NW Spain, where voles breed over the whole year. Our results were compared with those reported for the subspecies A. scherman monticola from the Spanish Pyrenees (where reproduction ceases in winter. Sexual characteristics, body condition, relative age class and number of embryos were recorded from 422 females caught in apple orchards along two years. We found pregnant females all along the year, which were able to produce a high number of litters per year (7.30 although litter size was relatively moderate (first year: 3.87 embryos/female; second year: 3.63 embryos/females. The potential number of pups per female and year (first year: 28.25; second year: 26.50 was substantially higher than that reported for Pyrenean voles, what is probably related with differences in the length of the breeding season and in life histories between subspecies. In our population, the number of implanted embryos correlated positively with the body condition of the mother. Our results reveal that management efforts should not be seasonal as they used to be so far and invite to explore the physiological consequences of management practices.

  10. The presence of the Oldest Dryas in Spanish mountain landscapes (United States)

    Palacios, David; Andres, Nuria


    The important advances in our understanding of the Oldest Dryas (OD) in the evolution of the continental ice caps and the oceanic basin have not yet reached the European mountains, or have only affected a small part of them. In practice, research into the impact of this period on European mountains has focused on the Alps, where the Gschnitz stadial, a glacial re-advance phase, has been clearly differentiated. This is shown in the landscape by families of moraines present in many valleys, above all in small and medium ones, with minimum age 15.9 ka, but which may represent glacial advances of at least a thousand years older. Traces of this same phase are gradually appearing in other European mountains, including some mountains in Spain. The aim of this paper is to emphasise the importance of the Oldest Dryas in the configuration of high mountain landscape in Spain: (Sierra Nevada, Central System and Pyrenees), through the analysis of the latest studies of glacial chronology. In Sierra Nevada, in the SE sector of the Iberian Peninsula, the definitive deglaciation occurred just at the end of the OD, between 15 and 14.5 ka, according to dates obtained from many polished thresholds. There are moraines which obtain dates between 17 and 16 ka, very close to those of the Maximum Ice Extent (MIE), although as there are still only a few of these and because of slope instability they may be morainic boulders from the MIE phase which have been destabilized, disturbed or exhumed, so that more detailed research is required. Nevertheless, it is known for certain that the end of the OD was accompanied by the massive formation of rock glaciers, resting on the polished thresholds mentioned above and with their fronts stabilized at the end of the OD, around 14.5 ka, although their roots remained active until the Holocene. In the Central System, in both Gredos and Guadarrama, the OD was a phase of great advance after almost disappearing after the MIE. During the OD the glaciers

  11. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo Central. III. Evaluación de las condiciones en profundidad y evolución de las soluciones hidrotermales durante su ascenso


    Gimeno, M. J.; Lapuente, M. P.; López, P. L.; Mandado, J.; Auqué, L. F.


    Reservoir temperature and physicochemical conditions are determined by modelling the heating of alkaline waters in Caldas de Bohi, Arties, Luchon, Cauterets, Panticosa and Benasque geothermal systems (Central Pyrenees). Kaolinite reequilibrium occurs during the ascent of these thermal waters and therefore simulations are performed in open system conditions with kaolinite. Calculations indicate that thermal waters are in equilibrium with a common mineral assemblage constituted by albite, micro...

  12. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo central. I. Caracteres geoquímicos y fisicoquímicos de los manantiales termales


    Gómez, J.; López, P. L.; Gimeno, M. J.; Mandado, J.; Auqué, L. F.


    The compositional characters of selected hot springs from the Panticosa, Benasque, Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Luchon and Cauterets geothermal systems in the Central Pyrenees have been studied. All the springs have the same global geochemical features (high pH, low total dissolved solids, very low Mg concentrations, Na as the dominant cation, and absence of a dominant anion) and belong to the same granite-related alkaline thermal waters group. Chemical composition of the springs is similar t...

  13. Los sistemas geotermales del Pirineo Central. II. Resultados de la aplicación de técnicas geotermométricas


    Gimeno, M. J.; López, P. L.; Mandado, J.; Auqué, L. F.


    Reservoir temperatures are calculated for six geothermal systems in the Central Pyrenees (Arties, Caldas de Bohí, Benasque, Panticosa, Luchon and Cauterets) using different geothermometrical methods. In general, the selected hot springs have similar geochemical features belonging to the group of alkaline thermal systems installed in granitic environments. More in detail, however, it is important to note that Na and K concentrations of Panticosa and Benasque thermal springs are the lowest...

  14. Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System (United States)

    Borges, A.; Cerezo, F.; Fernandez, M.; Lomba, J.; Lopez, M.; Moreno, J.; Neira, A.; Quintana, C.; Torres, J.; Trigo, R.; Urena, J.; Vega, E.; Vez, E.


    The Spanish Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade (MITyC) and the Ministry of Defense (MoD) signed an agreement in 2007 for the development of a "Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System" based, in first instance, on two satellites: a high resolution optical satellite, called SEOSAT/Ingenio, and a radar satellite based on SAR technology, called SEOSAR/Paz. SEOSAT/Ingenio is managed by MITyC through the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology (CDTI), with technical and contractual support from the European Space Agency (ESA). HISDESA T together with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial (INTA, National Institute for Aerospace Technology) will be responsible for the in-orbit operation and the commercial operation of both satellites, and for the technical management of SEOSAR/Paz on behalf of the MoD. In both cases EADS CASA Espacio (ECE) is the prime contractor leading the industrial consortia. The ground segment development will be assigned to a Spanish consortium. This system is the most important contribution of Spain to the European Programme Global Monitoring for Environment and Security, GMES. This paper presents the Spanish Earth Observation Satellite System focusing on SEOSA T/Ingenio Programme and with special emphasis in the potential contribution to the ESA Third Party Missions Programme and to the Global Monitoring for Environment and Security initiative (GMES) Data Access.

  15. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean


    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  16. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes. (United States)

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  17. The Temporality of the Spanish Verb: From Narrative to Poetry

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    Barbara Pihler


    Full Text Available The verb is the first indicator of time in language; therefore it is a fundamental starting point for all research into textual temporality. The Spanish verb system consists of ten verbal paradigms in the indicative mood, and four (or six verbal paradigms in the subjunctive mood. This allows for a wide range of temporal values in different contexts. Every linguistic act and every type of text is realized as a dynamic process of communication where the utterer creates a discourse in order to give rise to certain effects in the recipient. The pragmatic dimension must, therefore, be inherent to each linguistic commentary on the temporality of any text, including a poetic text, where a lyrical discourse is being established in fictional time and space. The understanding of all components of communicative process is unavoidable for the proper interpretation of the textual network because with each statement the speaker “enters” into the language, and its communicative purpose is reflected not only through the meaning and vocabulary, but also at the morphological-syntactic level. This paper presents central views on the temporality of the Spanish verbal paradigms and proposes guidelines for the systematization of the expression of temporality in poetry. The survey is based on the hypothesis that it is possible to detect a certain distribution of Spanish verbal paradigms in poetic texts. The proposed temporal-modal systematization of the Spanish verb is based on the criterion of relevance.

  18. English Loanwords in Spanish Computer Language (United States)

    Cabanillas, Isabel de la Cruz; Martinez, Cristina Tejedor; Prados, Mercedes Diez; Redondo, Esperanza Cerda


    Contact with the English language, especially from the 20th century onwards, has had as a consequence an increase in the number of words that are borrowed from English into Spanish. This process is particularly noticeable in Spanish for Specific Purposes, and, more specifically, in the case of Spanish computer language. Although sociocultural and…

  19. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

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    Antonio Tarriño


    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  20. A strontium, neodymium and oxygen isotope study of hydrothermal metamorphism and crustal anatexis in the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France (United States)

    Bickle, M. J.; Wickham, S. M.; Chapman, H. J.; Taylor, H. P.


    Nd, Sr, and O isotope analyses have been made on metamorphic and igneous rocks and minerals from a 310 340 Ma Hercynian-age metamorphic terrane in the Pyrenees, France. Lower Paleozoic shales and phyllites have 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.707 0.717 at 310 Ma, but model values at 310 Ma of 0.709 0.736 (based on assumed depositional age of 450 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.707). On a regional scale, 87Sr/86Sr was homogenized to about 0.713 to 0.717 in the higher-grade pelitic schists during metamorphism. Much of this 87Sr/86Sr exchange occurred at very low grades (below the biotite isograd), but significant changes also accompanied the δ 18O lowering of the phyllites (+13 to +16) during their transformation to andalusite- and sillimanite-grade schists ( δ 18O=+11 to +12); all of these effects are attributed to pervasive interactions with hydrothermal fluids (Wickham and Taylor 1985). The data also show that a syn-metamorphic plutonic complex, dominated by a biotite granite body, was derived by mixing of a relatively mafic magmatic end-member (87Sr/86Sr˜ 0.7025 0.7050 and δ 18O˜ +7.5 to +8.0) with two metasedimentary sources, both having 87Sr/86Sr˜0.715 and δ 18O˜ +10.0 to +12.0, but with one being more homogeneous than the other. The more homogeneous component and the (mantle-derived?) magmatic end-member dominate at low structural levels within the complex. The less homogeneous end-member that dominates at high levels is clearly derived from the local Paleozoic pelitic schists. A Rb-Sr age of 330±20 Ma was obtained on hornblende from a deep level within the complex, which fixes this age for the regional metamorphism, as well. Although a post-metamorphic granodiorite magma body at Trois Seigneurs also displays heterogeneities in δ 18O and 87Sr/86Sr (and thus does not give a clear-cut Rb-Sr isochron), the data are consistent with an emplacement age between 260 and 310 Ma, similar to ages of other late granodiorites in the Pyrenees. 143Nd/ 144Nd is very uniform

  1. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.) (United States)

    Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.


    Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1&minus10), black carbon (BC) and number of particles (N3: number of particles with an aerodynamic diameter higher than 3 nm, and N10: higher than 10 nm) concentrations at the high-altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. At MSC, PM10 (12 μg m-3) and N7 (2140 # cm-3) three-year arithmetic average concentrations were higher than those measured at other high-altitude sites in central Europe during the same period (PM10: 3-9 μg m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 μg m-3) were equal to or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 μg m-3). These differences were attributed to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and to the higher importance of the biogenic precursor emissions and new particle formation (NPF) processes, and to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African air outbreaks (PM1&minus10: 13 μg m-3, PM1: 8 μg m-3 and BC: 0.3 μg m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 μg m-3, PM1: 4 μg m-3 and BC: 0.1 μg m-3). PM and BC concentrations increased in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest in winter, due to the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter). The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes that mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles, with maxima at midday in the

  2. Spectral Fingerprinting: The potential of VNIR-SWIR spectral characteristics for tracing sediment sources in a Spanish mesoscale catchment (United States)

    Brosinsky, Arlena; Foerster, Saskia; Segl, Karl; Bronstert, Axel; Kaufmann, Hermann; Lopéz-Tarazón, José-Andrés


    Knowledge on the origin of suspended sediment can greatly facilitate erosion prevention and thus sustainable watershed management. One approach providing information on the origin of suspended sediments is the fingerprinting technique. It is based on the assumption that potential sediment sources can be discriminated and that the contribution of these sources to the sediment can be determined on the basis of distinctive characteristics (fingerprints). Recent studies indicate that VNIR-SWIR reflectance characteristics of soil may be a rapid, inexpensive alternative to traditional fingerprinting properties such as e.g. geochemical composition. In this study, we aim at further assessing the potential of this innovative sediment tracing technique, specifically whether (a) potential sediment sources can be reliably identified based on spectral features, (b) field derived source information (more rapid) is sufficient for spectral fingerprinting, (c) spectral fingerprints permit the quantification of source contribution, and (d) to examine changes in the relative contributions from different sources both, between and within individual storm events. Therefore, samples were collected in the Isábena catchment (445 km²) in the central Spanish Pyrenees: 1) soil samples from the main potential source areas and 2) suspended sediment samples during four flood events in autumn 2011 and spring 2012 at the catchment outlet and at several subcatchment outlets. In addition, 3) artificial mixtures of known proportions were produced from soil samples for testing of key assumptions in a controlled environment. Soil samples (1) were spectrally measured in the field using an ASD spectrometer and subsequently all samples (1-3) were dried and spectrally measured in the laboratory using the same equipment. Colour parameters and physically based features with relation to organic carbon, iron oxide and clay content were calculated from field- and laboratory spectra. Principal component

  3. On the Entropy of Written Spanish

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Fabio G


    This paper reports on results on the entropy of the Spanish language. They are based on an analysis of natural language for n-word symbols (n = 1 to 18), trigrams, digrams, and characters. The results obtained in this work are based on the analysis of twelve different literary works in Spanish, as well as a 279917 word news file provided by the Spanish press agency EFE. Entropy values are calculated by a direct method using computer processing and the probability law of large numbers. Three samples of artificial Spanish language produced by a first-order model software source are also analyzed and compared with natural Spanish language.

  4. A Spanish Tagset for the CRATER Project

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-León, F


    This working paper describes the Spanish tagset to be used in the context of CRATER, a CEC funded project aiming at the creation of a multilingual (English, French, Spanish) aligned corpus using the International Telecommunications Union corpus. In this respect, each version of the corpus will be (or is currently) tagged. Xerox PARC tagger will be adapted to Spanish in order to perform the tagging of the Spanish version. This tagset has been devised as the ideal one for Spanish, and has been posted to several lists in order to get feedback to it.

  5. Morphogenetic evolution of the Têt river valley (eastern Pyrenees) using 10Be/21Ne cosmogenic burial dating (United States)

    Sartégou, Amandine; Blard, Pierre-Henri; Braucher, Régis; Bourlès, Didier L.; Calvet, Marc; Zimmermann, Laurent; Tibari, Bouchaïb; Hez, Gabriel; Gunnell, Yanni; Aumaitre, Georges; Keddadouche, Karim


    The rates and chronologies of valley incision are closely modulated by the tectonic uplift of active mountain ranges and were controlled by repeated climate changes during the Quaternary. The continental collision between the Iberian and Eurasian plates induced a double vergence orogen, the Pyrenees, which has been considered as a mature mountain range in spite of significant seismicity (e.g. Chevrot et al., 2011) and evidence of neotectonics (e.g. Goula et al., 1999). Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that the range may have never reached a steady state (Ford et al., in press). One option for resolving this controversy is to quantify the incision rates since the Miocene by reconstructing the vertical movement of geometric markers such as fluvial terraces. However, the few available ages from the Pyrenean terrace systems do not exceed the middle Pleistocene. Thus, to enlarge the time span of this dataset, we studied alluvium-filled horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone karstic networks. Such landforms are used as substitutes of fluvial terraces because they represent former valley floors (e.g. Palmer, 2007; Audra et al., 2013). They record the transient position of former local base levels during the process of valley deepening. The Têt river valley (southern Pyrenees) was studied near the Villefranche-de-Conflent limestone gorge where 8 cave levels have been recognized over a vertical height of 600 meters. Given that 26Al/10Be cosmogenic burial dating in this setting was limited to the last ~5 Ma (Calvet et al., 2015), here we used the cosmogenic 10Be/21Ne method in order to restore a more complete chronology of valley incision (e.g. Balco & Shuster, 2009; McPhilipps et al., 2016). Burial age results for alluvial deposits from 12 caves document incision rates since the Langhian (~14 Ma). Preliminary results indicate a history of valley deepening in successive stages. The data show a regular incision rate of 70-80 mm/a from the Langhian to the Messinian

  6. A website for astronomical news in Spanish (United States)

    Ortiz-Gil, A.


    Noticias del Cosmos is a collection of web pages within the Astronomical Observatory of the University of Valencia's website where we publish short daily summaries of astronomical press releases. Most, if not all of, the releases are originally written in English, and often Spanish readers may find them difficult to understand because not many people are familiar with the scientific language employed in these releases. Noticias del Cosmos has two principal aims. First, we want to communicate the latest astronomical news on a daily basis to a wide Spanish-speaking public who would otherwise not be able to read them because of the language barrier. Second, daily news can be used as a tool to introduce the astronomical topics of the school curriculum in a more immediate and relevant way. Most of the students at school have not yet reached a good enough level in their knowledge of English to fully understand a press release, and Noticias del Cosmos offers them and their teachers this news in their mother tongue. During the regular programme of school visits at the Observatory we use the news as a means of showing that there is still a lot to be discovered. So far the visits to the website have been growing steadily. Between June 2003 and June 2007 we had more than 30,000 visits (excluding 2006). More than 50% of the visits come from Spain, followed by visitors from South and Central America. The feedback we have received from teachers so far has been very positive, showing the usefulness of news items in the classroom when teaching astronomy.

  7. "The Way to a Man's Heart." Journey and War Metaphors. Metaphorical Conceptualisations of the Western Romance Model in English and Spanish. (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete


    This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of…

  8. Astronomy books in Spanish (United States)

    Fierro, Julieta

    Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

  9. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern~Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ripoll


    Full Text Available Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1−10, black carbon (BC and particle number (N concentrations at the high altitude site of Montsec (MSC in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010–2012. The MSC site registered higher PM10 (12 μg m−3 and N > 7 nm (2209 # cm−3 concentrations than those measured at other high altitude sites in central Europe (PM10: 3–9 μg m−3 and N: 634–2070 # cm−3. By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 μg m−3 were equal or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2–0.4 μg m−3. These differences were attributed to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions and to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and new particle formation (NPF processes at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African outbreaks (PM1−10: 13 μg m−3, PM1: 8 μg m−3 and BC: 0.3 μg m−3 and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1−10: 5 μg m−3, PM1: 4 μg m−3 and BC: 0.1 μg m−3. Because of the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter, PM and BC concentrations showed a marked increase in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest during winter. The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes which mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to

  10. Three years of aerosol mass, black carbon and particle number concentrations at Montsec (southern~Pyrenees, 1570 m a.s.l.) (United States)

    Ripoll, A.; Pey, J.; Minguillón, M. C.; Pérez, N.; Pandolfi, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.


    Time variation of mass particulate matter (PM1 and PM1-10), black carbon (BC) and particle number (N) concentrations at the high altitude site of Montsec (MSC) in the southern Pyrenees was interpreted for the period 2010-2012. The MSC site registered higher PM10 (12 μg m-3) and N > 7 nm (2209 # cm-3) concentrations than those measured at other high altitude sites in central Europe (PM10: 3-9 μg m-3 and N: 634-2070 # cm-3). By contrast, BC concentrations at MSC (0.2 μg m-3) were equal or even lower than those measured at these European sites (0.2-0.4 μg m-3). These differences were attributed to the lower influence of anthropogenic emissions and to the higher relevance of Saharan dust transport and new particle formation (NPF) processes at MSC. The different time variation of PM and BC concentrations compared with that of N suggests that these aerosol parameters were governed by diverse factors at MSC. Both PM and BC concentrations showed marked differences for different meteorological scenarios, with enhanced concentrations under North African outbreaks (PM1-10: 13 μg m-3, PM1: 8 μg m-3 and BC: 0.3 μg m-3) and low concentrations when Atlantic advections occurred (PM1-10: 5 μg m-3, PM1: 4 μg m-3 and BC: 0.1 μg m-3). Because of the contrasting origin of the air masses in the warmer seasons (spring and summer) and in the colder seasons (autumn and winter), PM and BC concentrations showed a marked increase in summer, with a secondary maximum in early spring, and were at their lowest during winter. The maximum in the warmer seasons was attributed to long-range transport processes which mask the breezes and regional transport breaking the daily cycles of these pollutants. By contrast, PM and BC concentrations showed clear diurnal cycles with maxima at midday in the colder seasons. A statistically significant weekly variation was also obtained for the BC concentrations, displaying a progressive increase from Tuesday to Saturday, followed by a significant

  11. Variation of growth rate and survival in embryos and larvae of Rana temporaria populations from the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neus Oromi


    Full Text Available Variations on embryonic and larval life history traits of ectotherm organisms are strongly affected by temperature conditions. However, these effects can vary between species and populations depending on the mechanisms that act in a determinate local habitat. In the present study, we analysed the effects of temperature on several embryonic and larval traits (survival, development and growth rate until the metamorphosis of Rana temporaria in two populations living at different altitude (1540 and 2100 m in the Pyrenees. Five spawns from each population were distributed in a common garden experiment at different temperature treatments according to the normal temperature range that tadpoles might experience in the field and also considering a high treatment (24 °C to test a possible effect of global warming. Like in other studies of the same species in a latitudinal gradient, the temperature effects depended on the analysed trait. Our results support the general rule that the rate of development is faster at higher temperatures, although survival was significantly affected by the highest temperature in the highland population. Size varied at embryonic and larval stages and was largest at metamorphosis in the highland population. In concordance, the growth rate was higher in the highland population suggesting a countergradient variation in response to the short growing season. However, this possible adaptation can be altered in a global warming scenario with an increase of mortality and limited growth.

  12. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits. (United States)


    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  13. Acoustic Correlates of Stress in Central Catalan and Castilian Spanish (United States)

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Prieto, Pilar


    The general literature on the phonetic correlates of stress agrees that duration, and in stress accent languages, are consistent correlates of stress. However, the role of amplitude changes in the speech signal is more controversial. In particular, the conflicting results of spectral tilt as a correlate of stress have been attributed to the…

  14. Individuos centrales como protagonistas del proceso de innovación: un estudio con blogs españoles relacionados con alimentación = Central individuals as leading actors in the innovation process: a case study with Spanish food-related weblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Sahelices Pinto


    Full Text Available En el momento actual, el sector agroalimentario español atraviesa una de sus etapas más inciertas. Mientras el consumo extradoméstico se desploma, el doméstico se ralentiza por la búsqueda de fórmulas más racionales que resulten en un menor gasto. Las exportaciones, la válvula de escape, crecen a ritmos nunca antes vistos abriéndose paso en escenarios internacionales especialmente regulados. Como consecuencia de este entorno, el esfuerzo dirigido hacia la innovación se convierte en ineludible para las compañías del sector. Ante este hecho, el mismo consumidor se perfila como un recurso muy importante para la obtención de información acerca de nuevas ideas y necesidades no satisfechas que, gracias a Internet y a la Web 2.0, se encuentra ahora más que nunca al alcance de la empresa. Este trabajo de investigación aborda el estudio de una de estas redes sociales online, basado en el examen del comportamiento innovador de los individuos que las forman y en la identificación de aquéllos que socialmente destacan sobre los demás. El documento finaliza con una reflexión y justificación globales e indica además ciertos aspectos de utilidad para el mundo empresarial y sendas líneas de investigación futura.The Spanish food sector experiences at the present an especially uncertain conjunction. Whereas the extra-domestic consumption collapses, the domestic consumption slows down. Moreover, consumers look for more rational options at lower costs. In contrast, exports grow at really high rates in particularly regulated international scenarios. As a result of this scene, innovation efforts are unavoidable for food companies. In view of this, the very consumer, who is now easily reachable on the Internet and Web 2.0, represents a valuable resource for obtaining information about new ideas and uncovered needs. This research paper, working with one of these online social networks, presents an examination of the innovative behavior of

  15. Using apatite fission track thermochronology to document the deformation sequence in an exhumed foreland basin: an example from the southern Pyrenees. (United States)

    Meresse, F.; Labaume, P.; Jolivet, M.; Teixell, A.


    Université Montpellier 2, INSU-CNRS, Laboratoire Géosciences Montpellier, cc060, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5, France The study of foreland basins provides important constraints on the evolution of orogenic wedges. In particular, the study of tectonics-sedimentation relationships is essential to date the tectonic activity. However, processes linked to wedge growth are not always completely recorded by the tecto-sedimentary markers, and thermochronological study of the basin-fill can provide further insights. In this work, we have combined apatite fission track analysis (apatite FTA) with structural analysis to precise the timing of the deformation sequence and to characterise the coupling between thrust activity, burial and denudation in the south-Pyrenean foreland basin, a proximal foredeep of the Pyrenees that has been incorporated in the Pyrenean thrust wedge. We have focused the study on a NNE-SSW cross-section of the south-vergent thrust system from the southern flank of the Axial Zone to the South-Pyrenean Frontal Thrust (SPFT), in the west-central part of the belt. This section provides a complete transverse of the South-Pyrenean Zone, here corresponding to the Ainsa and Jaca basins. Apatite FTA provides important new constraints on the south-Pyrenean foreland basin evolution: (i) Data show the southward decrease of the fission track reset level, from a total reset (indicating heating at Tmax>110°C) in the Paleozoic of the Axial Zone, to a partial reset (110°C>Tmax>60°C) in the lower-middle Eocene Hecho Group turbidites in the northern part of the Jaca basin, and to the absence of reset (TmaxJaca basin. This indicates a decreasing amount of denudation going southwards, from more than 4.5 km in the north to less than 2.5 km in the south if we assume an average geothermal gradient around 25°/km. The structural setting of the Jaca basin attests that the burial of sediments was mainly due to sedimentary accumulation. (ii

  16. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne


    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  17. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners (United States)

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.


    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  18. Attitudes toward Spanish and Code-Switching in Belize: Stigmatization and Innovation in the Spanish Classroom (United States)

    Balam, Osmer; de Prada Pérez, Ana


    Through the analysis of survey and interview data, we investigated the attitudes and perceptions of 32 multilingual teachers of Spanish in Belize, a code-switching (CS) context where Spanish is in intense contact with English and Belizean Kriol. More specifically, we examined teachers' and students' attitudes toward Spanish and CS and teachers'…

  19. The Dimensionality of Spanish in Young Spanish-English Dual-Language Learners (United States)

    Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research, 2015


    Purpose: This study examined the latent dimensionality of Spanish in young Spanish-English dual-language learners (DLLs). Method: Two hundred eighty-six children participated. In their prekindergarten year, children completed norm-referenced and experimental language measures in Spanish requiring different levels of cognitive processing in both…

  20. West Nile virus in the endangered Spanish imperial eagle. (United States)

    Höfle, Ursula; Blanco, Juan M; Crespo, Elena; Naranjo, Victoria; Jiménez-Clavero, Miguel Angel; Sanchez, Azucena; de la Fuente, José; Gortazar, Christian


    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is considered to be the most endangered European eagle. The species is an endemic resident in the Southwestern Iberian Peninsula. We used RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and seroneutralization to test samples from 13 wild and 18 captive eagles. WNV was detected by RT-PCR in tissues and/or oropharyngeal swabs of eight of 10 (80%) imperial eagles analyzed, and both in apparently clinically healthy birds, and in animals that died due to secondary infections but had symptoms/lesions compatible with WNV. Immunohistochemistry detected WNV antigen in Purkinje cells in the cerebellum, epithelial cells of the gizzard and duodenum, perivascular inflammatory cells, and in Kupffer-cells and hepatocytes. Serum antibodies against WNV were detected in a total of five out of 21 imperial eagles (23.8%), including free-living nestlings (two out of nine samples, 22.2%) and captive adult eagles (three out of 12 samples, 25%). Our results evidence WNV circulation among free-living and captive Spanish imperial eagles in South-central Spain, a dry inland region with no previous WNV evidence, throughout 6 consecutive years. They also indicate the need for further research into this important zoonosis in order to better understand its epidemiology in the Mediterranean ecosystem and in order to understand the role of WNV in the population dynamics of the critically endangered Spanish imperial eagle.

  1. Examining the concept of “mousterian variability” at Roca dels Bous (Southeast pre-pyrenees, Lleida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mora, Rafael


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with the implications arising from changes in the movement of raw materials from levels N10 and N12 of Roca dels Bous (Southeastern Prepyrenees. Studies of the lithic assemblages reveal differences in stone tool technologies, especially knapping and retouching. These variations enable us to reflect on the function of the settlement within the context of Neanderthal mobility patterns in the area that connects the Ebro Valley with the Pyrenees. The characteristics of the artefacts suggest changes in the strategies employed in the acquisition, production, use and discard of stone tools. Importantly, these observations allow us to examine issues related to “variability”, a key concept in any discussion related to the cultural change in the Middle Palaeolithic.

    En este artículo se discute las implicaciones derivadas del cambio en la aportación de materias primas detectado en los niveles N10 y N12 de Roca dels Bous (Prepirineo suroriental. En estos contextos se recuperan conjuntos líticos con unos atributos en los métodos de talla y en el instrumental retocado que sugieren modificaciones en los comportamientos relacionados con la adquisición, elaboración, uso y abandono del instrumental. De estas observaciones se derivan varias implicaciones sobre la función del asentamiento dentro de los patrones de movilidad de los neandertales que habitan en la vertiente sur de los Pirineos. Paralelamente, permite abordar la noción de “variabilidad”, concepto clave al referir el significado cultural del Paleolítico Medio.

  2. Reorganization Of Magnetic Carriers Due To Pressure-Solution, A New Remagnetization Mechanism From The Southwestern Pyrenees (United States)

    Oliva-Urcia, B.; Pueyo, E. L.; Larrasoa¤a, J. C.


    The ultimate cause of widespread remagnetizations remains elusive. Mechanisms such as orogenic fluids, burial diagenesis dolomitization, dedolomitization, maturation of organic matter, migration of hydrocarbons and thermal metamorphism can also account for widespread remagnetizations, but only under specific geochemical scenarios that do not apply to many widespread remagnetizations. Paleomagnetic analyses in the South Pyrenean Zone in Spain, show the presence of a widespread remagnetization in the Internal Sierras, the southern border of the Axial Zone and the northern part of the Jaca-Pamplona basin. This remagnetization component has always a reverse polarity, was acquired after folding and affects Triassic red beds, Upper Cretaceous carbonatic rocks and Tertiary turbidites. The areal distribution of the remagnetization coincides with a domain of pressure-solution cleavage, outside of the cleavage domain there is not such a secondary component. This circumstance together with the apparent correlation between the intensity of the remagnetization and the density of cleavage planes lead us to propose a new, and alternative remagnetization mechanism that can explain widespread remagnetizations in orogens. The mechanism that produces the new orientation of magnetic minerals is related to the evolution of the orogenic wedge when the highest tectonic load produces an extensive cleavage domain in the core of the Western Pyrenees. Formation of pressure-solution cleavage planes drives the partial dissolution of the matrix allowing the ferromagnetic minerals (less soluble and heavier) to reorient freely in the presence of the ambient magnetic field. We are aware of other studies reporting remagnetizations in relation of cleavage formation. The appeal of our new mechanism is that it does not necessarily involve the dissolution or neoformation of magnetic minerals, as typically assumed regardless of clear evidence, but rather reorganization of preexisting magnetic grains

  3. On the arsenic source mobilisation and its natural enrichment in the sediments of a high mountain cirque in the Pyrenees. (United States)

    Zaharescu, Dragos George; Hooda, Peter S; Fernandez, Javier; Soler, Antonio Palanca; Burghelea, Carmen Ionela


    Recently arsenic contamination and its environmental and human health problems have been raising concerns worldwide. The occurrence of natural high levels of arsenic contamination has generally been reported for low altitude environments. Here we report a study conducted to assess the extent of arsenic mobilisation/transportation from previously identified arsenic source areas in a high altitude cirque of the Pyrenees as well as the potential contribution of As by snow. The concentration of arsenic in sediments of several tributaries was enriched up to about ten folds due to mobilisation of arsenic from the source areas within the catchment. The highest arsenic enrichments were found in an area dominated by quartzite and slate formation in the southern side of the basin, and it generally diminished towards the major lake downstream, possible due to mixing with sediments from non-source areas. At these sites arsenic exceeded the hazard quotient (HQ) limits for the protection of aquatic life. The potential hazard of the As-enriched sediments may be further enhanced outside the catchment as samples collected downstream the cirque have also shown arsenic concentration exceeding HQ unity. The arsenic concentrations in the water collected at a number of sites exceeded its guide value for the protection of aquatic life. The potential As contribution by snow in the area was low and was largely of lithospheric origin. The PCA analysis showed strong association of arsenic in sediments with the sediment mineralogical composition (Fe2O3, TiO2 and Mn). Arsenic in water was positively correlated with its concentration in the sediments and could potentially increase if the environmental/climate conditions change.

  4. Horizontal Divergence and Vertical Velocity Adjacent to the Pyrenees Measured During the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon & Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) Experiment (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Lothon, M.


    Because of the dominant influence of surface solar heating on atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows, the character and even underlying theories of turbulence vary diurnally over the continents. While great strides have been made in our understanding of the stable boundary layers that prevail overnight, the period of transition from a convective daytime to a stable nighttime ABL remains a very challenging problem in no small part because of its inherently non-stationary nature and because both of the main forcings, wind stress and surface heat flux, tend to flag at this time of day. These underexplored topics motivated the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field experiment held in the summer of 2011 at the CNRS Laboratorie d'Aerologie in Campistrous, France. On three of the twelve intensive observational days of the experiment, three rawinsondes were launched simultaneously approximately 3 km apart throughout the afternoon transition in order to directly measure mesoscale horizontal divergence in the ABL and lower free troposphere. Using the assumption of incompressibility, the observed divergence is integrated and a vertical profile of mean vertical wind is derived for the lower troposphere. Although the magnitude of the inferred vertical winds are much larger than expected (of order 0.1 ms-1), the measurements do indicate a clear trend in afternoon subsidence giving way to evening uplift at the site, which is within ~10 km of the Pyrenees' foothills. The observed transition from low-level divergence to convergence was accompanied by a deep surface pressure minimum that fluctuated by nearly 300 Pa diurnally, and we propose that it is likely related to the reversal of the plain-mountain circulation across the region. The impact of such behavior on boundary layer growth and entrainment during the afternoon hours are discussed along with evidence of similar behavior observed elsewhere in mountainous terrain.

  5. Relationships between suspended sediment concentrations and discharge in two small research basins in a mountainous Mediterranean area (Vallcebre, Eastern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Soler, Montserrat; Latron, Jérôme; Gallart, Francesc


    The relationships between suspended sediment concentrations and discharge were studied at the Can Vila (0.56 km 2) and Ca l'Isard (1.32 km 2) sub-basins of the Vallcebre research area (Eastern Pyrenees) during a period of 5 years that included 67 events of diverse magnitude. Abandoned agricultural fields and forests are the main land use in the Can Vila basin, whereas the Ca l'Isard basin is mainly forested, though there are also some heavily eroded landscapes (badlands). The most frequent events were of a single discharge peak, although double and multiple peaked events were also recorded. Clockwise (positive) hysteretic loops occurred in both catchments, mainly during the wet seasons when precipitation was of moderate intensity (average of 18 mm h - 1) and baseflow before the event was rather high (average for Ca l'Isard 8.1 l s - 1 km - 2, and for Can Vila 11.76 l s - 1 km - 2); the bulk of stream discharge came from saturated areas, whereas sediments came mainly from the stream channels. Counter-clockwise (negative) hysteretic loops were much more frequent in the Ca l'Isard basin, mainly in summer when rainfall intensity was high (average of 32.5 mm h - 1) and baseflow was low (average for Ca l'Isard 0.94 l s - 1 km - 2 and for Can Vila 0.73 l s - 1 km - 2); most of the water and sediment came from the badlands. Eight-shaped loops occurred in transition periods, mainly in the Ca l'Isard basin.

  6. Multi-proxy record of land use change derived from colluvial soils of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France (United States)

    Leigh, David S.; Gragson, Theodore L.; Coughlan, Michael R.


    Archaeological evidence and paleoenvironmental proxies from wetland bogs (e.g. charcoal, pastoral pollen, fungal spores of sheep dung) clearly outline the regional chronology of Holocene pastoral activity in the Pyrenees. We increase the spatial and temporal resolution of this chronology through a place-based, millennial-scale investigation of land use activities within individual fields in the commune of Larrau, Pyrénées Atlantiques, France. We have identified several stratigraphic records of slopewash colluvium that span the entire Holocene that occur at the outlets of zero-order watersheds, each draining several hectares. To examine forest-to-pasture transformation, two to three meter long auger holes were sampled in contiguous five centimeter intervals. These samples were analyzed for charcoal content, radiocarbon age, magnetic susceptibility, particle size, organic matter, and n-alkane concentrations. Results indicate that intentional burning and clearing were initiated by the Late Neolithic (ca. 5000-6000 cal. BP), but more intense burning, clearing, and pronounced soil erosion occurred later during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Charcoal concentrations and low frequency magnetic susceptibility provide evidence of initial burning and subsequent variation in the intensity of fire use. Radiocarbon chronologies exhibit order-of-magnitude spikes in sedimentation rates (1-10 mm/yr) during the Bronze Age and Iron Age that are asynchronous between sites. Asynchronous records suggest anthropic, rather than climatic, drivers and imply that land use varied in intensity across the landscape, unlike the uniform intensity of pasture use typical of the modern landscape. Sedimentation rates, and presumably erosion rates, returned to very near pre-pastoral background levels (world persist with stereotypical degraded soils. N-alkane analyses are in progress, testing for changes in past vegetation communities (trees vs. grass), and we anticipate results and interpretation of

  7. Las uniones conjuntivas en espanol (Conjunctive Correspondences in Spanish) (United States)

    Perez Botero, Luis


    This study of the medieval Spanish concept of order examines uses made of the word "y" ("and") in Spanish medieval writing to join words and phrases connoting social, natural and human order. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  8. Learning Spanish dialects through Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Bruno


    We map the large-scale variation of the Spanish language by employing a corpus based on geographically tagged Twitter messages. Lexical dialects are extracted from an analysis of variants of tens of concepts. The resulting maps show linguistic variations on an unprecedented scale across the globe. We discuss the properties of the main dialects within a machine learning approach and find that varieties spoken in urban areas have an international character in contrast to country areas where dialects show a more regional uniformity.

  9. Bibliografia en Espanol (Bibliography in Spanish). (United States)

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    Teachers, librarians and resource teachers are provided with a list of 110 high quality books in the Spanish language which will help the needs of limited and non-English-speaking students. The entries are annotated in English and graded "Primary,""Intermediate," and/or "Junior High." Four of the stories are classified as Spanish/English. The…

  10. Subverting Cervantes: Language Authority in Global Spanish (United States)

    Mar-Molinero, Clare


    This article seeks to situate Spanish as a global language by exploring both the top-down institutional processes that promote it and the bottom-up grassroots actions that are also increasingly important in the spread and maintenance of global Spanish. This article argues that one of the most important influences now in the explosion of Spanish…

  11. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers. (United States)

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  12. Workplace Spanish for Health Care Workers. (United States)

    Garcia, Paula

    This syllabus and curriculum guide were developed for a 12-week course in workplace Spanish for clinical workers at the Claretian Medical Center on the south side of Chicago. The purpose of the class was to provide basic communicative abilities in Spanish to the medical staff---registered nurses, triage nurses, and laboratory technologists--such…

  13. Commercial Spanish at Eastern Michigan University. (United States)

    Voght, Geoffrey M.

    The commercial Spanish courses at Eastern Michigan University, examinations in commercial Spanish, and cooperative education exchange programs are described, and the university's new programs that combine the study of foreign language and business are briefly addressed. A six-course sequence offered on the junior, senior, and graduate levels cover…

  14. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively. (United States)

    Fernandez, Enrique


    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  15. Black Frontier Settlements in Spanish Colonial Florida. (United States)

    Landers, Jane


    Addresses the much neglected area of Black frontier experience in the Spanish colonies. Concentrates on the role played by Black settlers and one Black township in defending the Spanish frontier in colonial Florida against the threat of growing English settlements to the north. Provides an introduction to the 18th century Southeastern Spanish…

  16. Commercial Spanish: Developing Proficiencies and Business Practices. (United States)

    Reyes-Tudela, Jose E.

    A commercial Spanish course offered at Marywood College (Scranton, Pennsylvania) serves both Spanish majors and majors in international business. In addition to language proficiency activities common to most commercial language courses, students have identified two projects as most functional and challenging: (1) a "carpeta" or file into which…

  17. Commercial Communication in the Spanish Language. (United States)

    Reinhardt-Childers, Ilva

    A college course in commercial Spanish is described. The course objectives are to: build a solid foundation of business and professional vocabulary, grammar, spelling, and punctuation; prepare for oral and written communication with commonly-used Spanish business phrases and terminology; expose students to the different types of written…

  18. Development of Spanish Consonants in Preschool Children. (United States)

    Acevedo, Mary Ann


    This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…

  19. Variation in Conversational Discourse: Spanish "Pragmatic Expressions." (United States)

    Carranza, Isolda

    This study reports on preliminary findings of two research projects conducted during the 1988-89 and 1990-91 in Cordoba, Argentina, that examined fixed, idiomatic, Spanish-language expressions that are very common, but often ignored, in oral Spanish discourse. Study 1 subjects were 13 university-educated, adults, born in the city; study 2 subjects…

  20. Mesozoic vein-type Pb-Zn mineralization in the Pyrenees: Lead isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence from the Les Argentières and Lacore deposits (United States)

    Munoz, Marguerite; Baron, Sandrine; Boucher, Adrien; Béziat, Didier; Salvi, Stefano


    The Axial Zone of the Pyrenees contains numerous sedimentary-exhalative Pb-Zn deposits formed during the Early Palaeozoic, which have been the subject of several studies. In addition to these, base-metal vein-type mineralizations are also exposed within the Axial Zone metasediments. These deposits, however, have not been investigated in depth and the timing and geodynamic context of their formation has not been specifically addressed. The vein-type Pb-Zn deposits of Les Argentières and Lacore are located in Devonian terranes of the eastern Pyrenees, south of the Mesozoic Aulus basin. They are interpreted as having been emplaced under an extensional setting. They are characterized by silver-rich tetrahedrite that occurs with Pb-Zn sulphides deposited by low-temperature NaCl-CaCl2 brines. Lead isotopic 208Pb/204Pb and 206Pb/204Pb ratios acquired on galena show more radiogenic values compared to those from the Palaeozoic sedimentary-exhalative mineralization, thus indicating younger ages. According to the model ages, the formation of the two deposits may be narrowed down to middle Late Triassic and Late Jurassic periods, respectively, which allows us to argue in favour of the role of pre-Alpine rifting phases in hydrothermal fluids circulation and mineralization deposition in a vein system bounding the Mesozoic Aulus basin.

  1. Respuesta hidrológica del Pirineo central al cambio ambiental proyectado para el siglo XXI

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    López-Moreno, J. I.


    Full Text Available Streamflows in five Mediterranean mountain headwaters in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys. The results show that changes in precipitation and temperature could cause a decline of annual streamflow between 13% and 23%, depending on the considered catchment. When the effect of increased forest cover in the basins is added to climate change effects, the decrease in annual streamflow is enhanced up to 19% and 32%. The largest hydrological changes resulting from environmental change are projected mainly in early spring, summer and autumn, when the decline may exceed 40%. Winter is the least affected season by environmental change because of increased runoff as a consequence of reduced storage of water in the snowpack and an earlier onset of the snowmelt, and the lower consumption of water by vegetation during the cold season. The magnitude of hydrological change as a result of the assumed environmental change scenarios may lead to serious impacts on water management and ecology of the studied region, as well as the water availability in the Ebro basin.Se han simulado los caudales de cinco cabeceras de ríos en los Pirineos centrales españoles, considerando diferentes escenarios de cambio climático y de uso del suelo. Los caudales fueron simulados utilizando el modelo hidroecológico RHESSys (Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System. Los resultados muestran que los cambios proyectados por un conjunto de modelos climáticos regionales en precipitaciones y temperaturas en el siglo XXI podrían causar una disminución del caudal anual entre el 13% y el 23%, dependiendo de la cuenca considerada. Cuando se añade a los efectos del cambio climático el efecto del aumento de la cubierta forestal en las cuencas, la disminución de los caudales anuales oscila entre el 19% y el 32%, dependiendo de la cuenca

  2. The Cycles of Snow Cover in Pyrenees Mountain and Mont Lebanon Analyzed Using the Global Modeling Technique. (United States)

    Drapeau, L.; Mangiarotti, S.; Le Jean, F.; Gascoin, S.; Jarlan, L.


    The global modeling technique provides a way to obtain ordinary differential equations from single time series1. This technique, initiated in the 1990s, could be applied successfully to numerous theoretic and experimental systems. More recently it could be applied to environmental systems2,3. Here this technique is applied to seasonal snow cover area in the Pyrenees mountain (Europe) and Mont Lebanon (Mediterranean region). The snowpack evolution is complex because it results from combination of processes driven by physiography (elevation, slope, land cover...) and meteorological variables (precipitation, temperature, wind speed...), which are highly heterogeneous in such regions. Satellite observations in visible bands offer a powerful tool to monitor snow cover areas at global scale, with large resolutions range. Although this observable does not directly inform about snow water equivalent, its dynamical behavior strongly relies on it. Therefore, snow cover area is likely to be a good proxy of the global dynamics and global modeling technique a well adapted approach. The MOD10A2 product (500m) generated from MODIS by the NASA is used after a pretreatment is applied to minimize clouds effect. The global modeling technique is then applied using two packages4,5. The analysis is performed with two time series for the whole period (2000-2012) and year by year. Low-dimensional chaotic models are obtained in many cases. Such models provide a strong argument for chaos since involving the two necessary conditions in a synthetic way: determinism and strong sensitivity to initial conditions. The models comparison suggests important non-stationnarities at interannual scale which prevent from detecting long term changes. 1: Letellier et al 2009. Frequently asked questions about global modeling, Chaos, 19, 023103. 2: Maquet et al 2007. Global models from the Canadian lynx cycles as a direct evidence for chaos in real ecosystems. J. of Mathematical Biology, 55 (1), 21-39 3

  3. Stable isotopic evidence for large-scale seawater infiltration in a regional metamorphic terrane; the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France (United States)

    Wickham, Stephen M.; Taylor, Hugh P.


    Oxygen isotopic analyses of 95 metamorphic and igneous rocks and minerals from a Hercynian metamorphic sequence in the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France, indicate that all lithologies at higher metamorphic grades than the “andalusite in” isograd have relatively homogeneous δ 18O values. The extent of homogenization is shown by the similarity of δ 18O values in metacarbonates, metapelites and granitic rocks (+11 to +13), and by the narrow range of oxygen isotopic composition shown by quartz from these lithologies. These values contrast with the δ 18O values of metapelites of lower metamorphic grade ( δ 18O about +15). Homogenization was caused by a pervasive influx of hydrous fluid. Mass-balance calculations imply that the fluid influx was so large that its source was probably high-level groundwaters or connate formation water. Hydrogen isotopic analyses of muscovite from various lithologies are uniform and exceptionally heavy at δD=-25 to -30, suggesting a seawater origin. Many lines of petrological evidence from the area independently suggest that metamorphism and anatexis of pelitic metasediment occurred at depths of 6 12 km in the presence of this water-rich fluid, the composition of which was externally buffered. Deep penetration of surface waters in such environments has been hitherto unrecognized, and may be a key factor in promoting major anatexis of the continental crust at shallow depth. Three types of granitoid are exposed in the area. The leucogranites and the biotite granite-quartz diorite are both mainly derived from fusion of local Paleozoic pelitic metasediment, because all these rocks have similar whole-rock δ 18O values (+11 to +13). The post-metamorphic biotite granodiorite has a distinctly different δ 18O (+9.5 to +10.0) and was probably derived from a deeper level in the crust. Rare mafic xenoliths within the deeper parts of the biotite granite-quartz diorite also have different δ 18O (+8.0 to +8.5) and possibly represent

  4. Iodine status and thyroid volume changes during pregnancy: results of a survey in Aran Valley (Catalan Pyrenees). (United States)

    Vila, L; Legaz, G; Barrionuevo, C; Espinel, M L; Casamitjana, R; Muñoz, J; Serra-Prat, M; Puig-Domingo, M


    The Aran Valley (Catalan Pyrenees, Spain) has a long-standing history of iodine deficiency. A survey was performed to determine the prevalence of iodine deficiency (urinary iodine<150 microg/l) in pregnant women from this region during the 1st and 3rd trimesters of gestation and to evaluate the changes in thyroid volume (TV). Of all the registered pregnancies in the area, in the first semester of the year 2000, 35 women (90%) were studied. Urinary iodine (UI) was measured and a thyroid ultrasonography performed during the 1st and 3rd trimester and their iodized salt consumption was recorded. Of the whole group, 77.1% of pregnant women reported regular intake of iodized salt.Median UI in the first trimester was 134.5 microg/l. Iodine deficiency was observed in 57.1%of women in the 1st trimester and in 46.7% in the 3rd trimester (p=0.1). In 10 women supplemented with iodine (150 microg/day) from the 1st trimester, median UI increased from 138.5 microg/l in the 1st trimester to 168 mug/l in the 3rd trimester (p=0.037), and no changes were observed in the rest. TV increased in the whole group during pregnancy (median 7.5 ml in the 1st trimester vs 9.5 ml in the 3rd trimester; p<0.001). The change in TV was significant in those cases with iodine deficiency in the 1st trimester, 3rd trimester or both (median 7.5ml in the 1st trimester vs 10.01 ml in the 3rd trimester; p=0.001) and between multiparous women (8.2 vs 10.9 ml; p=0.005). In 2000, iodine deficiency among pregnant women in the Aran Valley was still very high. Iodine deficiency as well as multiparity contributes to goitrogenesis during pregnancy. Taking this data in account, pre-conceptional supplements with iodine are required for its prevention.

  5. Calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner in the Montsec Area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio


    Magnitude-frequency relations are a key issue when evaluating the rockfall hazard. It is a common practice to calculate them using databases of past events. However, in some cases, they are not available or complete. Alternatively, the analysis of the scar volume distribution on the wall face provides useful information on the slope's rockfall activity. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, is a limestone cliff from upper cretaceous. In some parts, clear evidences of rockfall activities are present: Large recent rockfall scars are distinguished by their orange colour in comparison with grey non active surfaces on the slope face. To identify the scars and analyse their volume distribution, a methodology has been carried out (Santana et al. 2011) which is based on the elaboration of data from a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). This methodology requires a point cloud of the slope and it includes the following steps: a) identification of discontinuity sets b) generation of discontinuity surfaces c) calculation of areas of the exposed discontinuity surfaces and rockfall scar heights, and d) calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution. Three discontinuity sets were identified on the point cloud. To generate the discontinuity surfaces, SEFL software was used. The input data for accepting that two neighbouring points of the point cloud belong to the same surface, was a minimum spacing of 0.4m. The resulting planes were visually checked. Assuming that the discontinuities of set 1 preserve the basal shape of the rockfall scars and the altitude is parallel to the discontinuities of set 2, the volume can be calculated as the product of the area of surfaces of set 1 with the length of the surfaces of set 2 using the afore mentioned SEFL software. Areas were found to follow a Lognormal distribution and lengths a Pearson6 one. The volume calculation was then made probabilistically by means

  6. Intercultural education in spanish shools

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    Henar Rodríguez Navarro


    Full Text Available There are many initiatives about intercultural education in our country. This work focuses on highlighting intercultural teaching practices that have been done in Spain in recent decades. Firstly, Spanish educational policies are presented; then some teaching practices are described. The analysis has been divided into seven areas: I.- Welcome Plans; II.- Linguistic and Cultural Attention; III.- Cooperative Management Strategies in classrooms; IV.- Community Implication; V.-Intercultural Mediation and resolution of conflicts ; VI.- Teachers´ training and VII.- Observatories of several communities. We could analyze these topics from two points of view: one related to inclusive education and, on the other hand, the related to compensatory education. Finally, intercultural practices and learning Communities experiences are connected, considering that both could give an answer to intercultural practices described before. This article presents part of a research project carried out by the group ACOGE of the University of Valladolid.

  7. Reconsidering Subextraction: Evidence from Spanish

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    Ignacio Bosque


    Full Text Available This paper argues that so-called subextraction (e.g., Whoi has John seen a picture of ti ?; cf. Corver 2006 for recent discussion does not involve movement of a wh-phrase to a DP internal escape hatch position before reaching the CP layer. Instead, we claim that apparently subextracted wh-phrases are actually direct dependents of the verb after a process of reanalysis (or readjustment; cf. Chomsky 1977, Kayne 2002 applies. Our proposal rethinks an old (Bach & Horn 1976 idea, reframes it in modern terms and argues against the cyclic status of DPs (cf. Bruening 2009, Leu 2008, Ott 2008, and references therein, by leaning on new evidence from Spanish. The non-cyclic status of DPs is a fairly standard idea ever since clausal properties were assumed to hold for nominal domains (cf. Chomsky 1970, Brame 1982, Abney 1987, and much subsequent literature.

  8. Spanish Intonation of Hungarian Learners of Spanish: Yes or No Questions

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    Kata Baditzné Pálvölgyi


    Full Text Available The present dissertation is a comparative study of the intonation of yes-no questions in Hungarian and Spanish. Based especially on my own corpora, I examine the realization of the main accent in utterances, pitch range, and the intonational patterns applied. First, these aspects will be investigated in a Spanish corpus (Corpus 1 then in a Hungarian corpus (Corpus 2 and after that, I will make hypotheses about the ways Hungarians pronounce Spanish yes-no questions. These predictions then will be validated by means of a corpus containing Spanish yes-no questions produced by Hungarian learners of Spanish (Corpus 3. My predictions were the following: (a As the place of main accent in an utterance depends on lexical stress, and lexical stress placement obeys different rules in the two languages, it is predictable that Hungarian learners of Spanish will not produce Spanish main accents according to the Spanish norms. (b Hungarian uses a narrower pitch range than Spanish, thus, the Spanish yes-no interrogatives produced by Hungarian learners are expected to have a narrower pitch range. (c The intonation contours applied will be investigated in 3 subgroups of yes-no questions: ordinary yes-no questions, echo yes-no questions and yes-no questions followed by a vocative. Ordinary yes-no questions in Hungarian are typically accompanied by rising-falling contours, whereas in Spanish, by rising ones; Hungarian echo yes-no questions have several main accents, each triggering a rise-fall contour, while in their Spanish counterparts there is one main accent in these cases, with a characteristically rising pattern. Yes-no question + vocative sequences contain two intonation units in both languages, but in Hungarian the yes-no interrogative conserves its rising-falling melody, and the vocative is accompanied by a fall, unlike in Spanish, where both contours are rising, and the final vocative is given the higher rise. Based on these observations, the prediction

  9. 16 CFR 455.5 - Spanish language sales. (United States)


    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish language sales. 455.5 Section 455.5... § 455.5 Spanish language sales. If you conduct a sale in Spanish, the window form required by § 455.2... vehicle both an English language window form and a Spanish language translation of that form. Use...

  10. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism. (United States)

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  11. Academic Relations Between Italian and Spanish Archaeologists and Prehistorians, 1916–1936

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    Franciso Gracia Alonso


    Full Text Available Relations between Spain and Italy are always described, by the inhabitants of both countries, as ‘fraternal’. Spanish archaeologists had close intellectual and personal ties with Italian archaeology and its archaeologists, after all they shared a Latin culture and a Roman past. Prior to the Spanish Civil War, and through the efforts of Spanish archaeologists Bosch Gimpera and Hugo Obermaier, this network, that spanned both Classical and prehistoric archaeologies, was used to support the holding of the IV International Congress on Classical Archaeology in Barcelona in 1929, and this lead, among other things, to the foundation of the Congrès International des Sciences Préhistoriques et Protohistoriques in Berne in 1932 (CISPP, the forerunner of today’s UISPP. However, common Spanish and Italian archaeological interests also caused the development of Italian-style monumentalist archaeological projects at Romano-Hispanic sites. Eventually under the new Fascist government in Spain, and archaeologists such as García y Bellido, Santa Olalla, Taracena and Almagro, archaeology was used to justify Spanish nationalism, and its ideology of empire, strong central leadership, and political and linguistic unity.

  12. Spanish in Chicago: Writing an Online Placement Exam for Spanish Heritage Speakers

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    Clara Burgo


    Full Text Available United States is the third country in the world with the largest Hispanic population (over 45 million of Spanish speaking people. As Fairclough (2003 claims, the national, ethnic and socioeconomic differences of Hispanic immigrants provide a heterogeneous community whose unifying element is the Spanish language. Chicago is third largest city in the country with a significant Hispanic population. In the latest years, Spanish for Heritage speakers’ programs in higher education have developed and effective placement tests are needed.

  13. Spanish in Chicago: Writing an Online Placement Exam for Spanish Heritage Speakers



    United States is the third country in the world with the largest Hispanic population (over 45 million of Spanish speaking people). As Fairclough (2003) claims, the national, ethnic and socioeconomic differences of Hispanic immigrants provide a heterogeneous community whose unifying element is the Spanish language. Chicago is third largest city in the country with a significant Hispanic population. In the latest years, Spanish for Heritage speakers’ programs in higher education have developed ...

  14. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith


    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  15. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world



    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...

  16. Prevention of Adolescent Depression in the Spanish-Speaking World



    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research c...


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    Amy E. Gregory


    Full Text Available This study deals with the discourse function of the Spanish subjunctive mood. Traditional approaches focus on its semantics, invoking the notions of volition, doubt, negation, and emotion while maintaining the importance of the clause's subordinate status and change of subject from matrix verb to subordinate verb. Notwithstanding, thirty years of linguistic research on the Spanish mood contrast have given rise to the descriptors ± assertion: indicative is +assertive while subjunctive is -assertive. Although these descriptors are appropriate, viewing the subjunctive mood as a discourse cohesive device makes apparent the true nature of the mood contrast. Anaphoric, exophoric, and cataphoric features of languages refer to antecedents, elements of the physical context, or foreshadowed events/information, respectively. This article proposes a mechanism by which Spanish subjunctive clauses fulfill all three functions, circumscribing the Spanish mood contrast within the language's deictic system, and suggests avenues for future research.

  18. The History of Spanish Steamer Marzo

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    Roman V. Lapshin


    Full Text Available The article considers the history of Spanish steamer Marzo. By the time of the demise of the Republic in 1939, it was anchored in Murmansk. The paper studies the major versions of its afterlife in Soviet fleet.

  19. Big increase in Spanish reseach funding

    CERN Multimedia

    Bosch, X


    The Spanish government plans to increase spending on civilian science research and development by between 8 and 10 per cent. The exact figure is unclear since it has been included in the budget along with military research projects (1 page).

  20. The Spanish diet: an update

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    Gregorio Varela-Moreiras


    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Food Consumption Survey, conducted for over 20 years by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA, is the most reliable source of data to evaluate the food consumption and dietary patterns of Spain. The aim of the present article was to review the diet trends in Spain and its evolution. Food availability assessment per capita per day, which allows the calculation of energy and nutrient intake and comparison with the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for the Spanish population is described. In addition, different markers of the quality of the diet have been also evaluated. Methods: The sample consisted of consumption and distribution data, obtained from the nationwide representative Food Consumption Survey for the period 2000-2012. A two-stage sampling method was applied, where in the first stage the units to be sampled were towns or local entities, and in the second stage households which were going to be part of the final sample from those entities were selected. Units consisted of towns or local entities in the national territory. The data allowed the calculation of energy and nutrient intakes, using the Food Composition Tables (Moreiras et al, 2013. The quality of the diet was also evaluated: the adequacy of the diet in meeting the recommended intakes for energy and nutrients; energy profile; dietary fat quality; dietary protein quality; nutrient density; Mediterranean diet adequacy indices. The present data were compared with previous data obtained by our research group in 1964, 1981 and 1991. Results: Using the most recent data, average intake comprised: milk and derivatives (356 g/person/day, fruits (323 g/person/day, vegetables and greens (339 g/ person/day, cereals and derivatives (197 g/person/day, meat and meat products (181 g/day, fish (88,6 g/person/ day, oils and fats (41,6 g/person/day, sugar and derivatives (25,6 g/person/day, eggs (27,1 g/person/day, legumes (13,9 g/person/day. There was

  1. The Spanish participation in the SKA (United States)

    Verdes-Montenegro, L.; Garrido, J.; González-García, M.


    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will be a radio interferometer aiming to answer fundamental questions in Astrophysics, Fundamental Physics, and Astrobiology. It will be composed of thousands of antennas distributed over distances of more than 3000 kilometres on both Africa and Australia. The SKA has been recently identified as a Landmark Project in the European Strategy Forum on Research Infrastructures (ESFRI) roadmap. Spain has been participating in SKA-related activities since the 1990s, coordinated since 2011 by the Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC). Up to now, 21 researchers participate in 7 out of the 11 main SKA Science Working Groups, and a total of 119 researchers from 40 Spanish centres have participated in the Spanish SKA White Book, published in 2015. From a technological point of view, more than 20 research centres and companies are contributing to the design of the SKA as part of 7 international consortia. The Spanish contribution was estimated in 2M euro (2014), officially recognized by the SKA Organisation Director General in a letter to the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness. In addition, the Spanish Astronomy Infrastructures Network (RIA from its Spanish initials) issued a recommendation on the interest of the scientific community and industry that Spain explores the possibility to join the SKA project as Full Member before the construction phase starts. In December 2015, the Spanish Secretary of State of Research, Development and Innovation sent a letter to the SKA Organisation Director General proposing to establish a dialogue in order to explore scenarios for Spain to join the SKA, what constitutes a further motivation for the Spanish community to continue its efforts.

  2. Copular alternation in Spanish and Catalan attributive sentences

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    José María Brucart


    Full Text Available This paper deals with copular selection in Spanish and Catalan attributive clauses. We develop an analysis of the copular alternation that is based on the relation of coincidence. Locative attributives, the class of copular sentences that has received less attention in the literature, are analyzed in detail. It is concluded that locative attributives express an abstract path; that is, a terminal coincidence relation between a figure (the entity that is located and a ground (the location. The use of estar in these sentences is justified by the fact that this copula has an interpretable terminal coincidence feature that can license its uninterpretable counterpart in the attributive clause. Nevertheless, ser –the default copula– can also co-occur in locative attributives when the notion of bounded path is already incorporated in the entity that is being located. This is the case in Catalan, which uses a –a preposition that expresses a limit– instead of en –a central coincidence preposition. The copula ser also appears in the location of eventive entities and in path noun constructions. The terminal coincidence feature of estar can also superimpose a delimiting aspectual boundary to the attributive relation when there is no uninterpretable terminal coincidence feature to value in it. In these cases, evidential and sensorial readings are conveyed. Finally, a possible analysis is sketched for the differences in the selection of the copula between Spanish and Catalan with participles and perfective adjectives. It is suggested that the selection of estar in these cases may be due to the fact that both classes have a weaker functional structure in Spanish than in Catalan.

  3. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees? (United States)

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine


    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future. PMID:27467269

  4. Spanish-for-Native-Speaker Matters: Narrowing the Latino Achievement Gap through Spanish Language Instruction (United States)

    Carreira, Maria


    This paper argues that Spanish-for-native-speakers (SNS) instruction at the secondary level can play a key role in narrowing the Latino achievement gap. To this end, SNS curricula and practices should be configured to: 1) support Spanish-English biliteracy, 2) support and facilitate learning across the curriculum, 3) socialize Latino students and…

  5. Teaching Numeric Concepts to Spanish-Speaking Second Graders: English or Spanish Instruction? (United States)

    Denker, Elenor Rubin

    Seventeen Spanish-speaking children received mathematics instruction in either Spanish or English. Numeric concepts were chosen as the content area so that the results could be understood non-verbally at the outset, the teachers ranked the children's abilities in English and math, and no significant difference between groups was found. However,…

  6. Depositional history and diagenesis of quartz-sand bars and lime-mud environments in the Devonian Basibé Formation (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habermehl, M.A.


    The Basibé Formation, of Lower Devonian age (Emsian) according to conodonts, consists, in the area between the Esera River and Mañanet River, of nodular weathering limestones, dolomites, silty to sandy argillaceous dolomites, quartzites and limestones. Thickness variations of the lower member (nodul

  7. The Black Top Hat function applied to a DEM: A tool to estimate recent incision in a mountainous watershed (Estibère Watershed, Central Pyrenees) (United States)

    Rodriguez, Felipe; Maire, Eric; Courjault-Radé, Pierre; Darrozes, José


    The Top Hat Transform function is a grey-level image analysis tool that allows extracting peaks and valleys in a non-uniform background. This function can be applied onto a grey-level Digital Elevation Model (DEM). It is herein applied to quantify the volume of recent incised material in a mountainous Pyrenean watershed. Grey-level Closing operation applied to the Present-Day DEM gives a new image called ``paleo'' DEM. The Black Top Hat function consists in the subtraction of the ``paleo'' DEM with the Present-Day DEM. It gives a new DEM representing all valleys whose sizes range between the size of the structuring element and the null value as no threshold is used. The calculation of the incised volume is directly derived from the subtraction between the two DEM's. The geological significance of the quantitative results is discussed.

  8. Sedimentary facies and sequential architecture of tide-influenced alluvial deposits : an example from the middle Eocene Capella formation, South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuevas Gozalo, M.C


    The sediments investigated consist of a thick sequence of clastic deposits of middle Eocene age, the Capella Formation. At the time of deposition the sedimentary basin was tectonically active. Tectonic influence in the sedimentary sequence is recognized from angular unconformities, synsedimentary fa

  9. Internationalisation of small consultancy firms: An exploratory study on how small Dutch consultancy firms achieve and maintain successful establishment in the Spanish market


    Schnepper, Nicolette


    This paper analyse the internationalisation process of small Dutch consultancy firms into the Spanish market. The central research question is: How do small Dutch consultancy firms achieve and maintain successful establishment in the Spanish market? In order to answer this question, a literature review has been conducted about factors that concern why and how SMEs internationalise, what problems and obstacles they encounter, internationalisation in the consultancy sector, inves...

  10. Innovation et patrimoine alimentaire en Midi-Pyrénées. Innovation in food heritage in the department of the Midi-Pyrenees: types of innovation and links with territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurence Tibère


    Full Text Available Food habits and cultures are constantly evolving – changing in response to new innovations that are driven by agribusiness players large and small. As the ‘actors of innovation’ these people reinvent their relationship with tradition. This article is based on a study of three rural areas in the department of the Midi-Pyrenees: Southern Aveyron, Pays du Haut Rouergue (North Aveyron and Pays d’Armagnac in the Gers. It highlights three main profiles of innovators in the field of food heritage, each one corresponding to a form of organization that in turn flows from a particular relationship with the territory and its local players. It also highlights the importance of local perceptions and attitudes towards these innovators, demonstrating the pivotal role of local companies in the appropriation of innovative process.Les cultures alimentaires sont évolutives et font l’objet de différentes formes d’innovation. Qu’ils soient artisans, industriels ou institutionnels, reconnus ou plus marginaux, les différents acteurs de la filière agro-alimentaire portent ces mouvements d’innovation, renouvellant ou inversant ainsi leur rapport à la « tradition ». Cette dernière se trouve alors remaniée dans le projet de valorisation. L’étude fait ressortir trois principaux profils d’innovateurs dans le champ de la patrimonialisation alimentaire. Chacun de ces profils correspond à une forme d’organisation, elle-même inscrite dans un rapport particulier au territoire et au système d’acteurs local. Cette typologie souligne par ailleurs l’importance du regard de la population locale sur ces innovateurs ; elle montre le rôle central des sociétés locales dans l’appropriation des processus d’innovation, participant ou non à leur légitimation. Si le processus d’innovation a longtemps été porté par des groupes d’acteurs structurés, reconnus par la société locale, il est également, le fait de petits groupes ou

  11. The State of Ethical Learning of Students in the Spanish University System: Considerations for the European Higher Education Area (United States)

    Buxarrais, Maria Rosa; Esteban, Francisco; Mellen, Teodor


    With the establishment of the European higher education area (EHEA), the ethical learning of students is a matter of central importance in European universities. This paper examines the current state of ethical learning of students in the Spanish university system. We present the results of a descriptive survey, which used a training model for…


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Salcedo


    Full Text Available Spanish articulatory phonetics, the classification of sounds and the physiological mechanism used in the production of phonemes are discussed in this article. The process of learning a language consists of classifying sounds within the target language. Since the learner may be hearing the utterance in a different way than the native speaker some objective criteria are needed to classify sounds. If these distinctions are not mastered, he may be perceived as sounding awkward. Other phonological processes are applied in informal situations due to socio-linguistic factors such as age, social class, and education. Sound deletion in particular phonological environments are not done randomly by the speaker, but by necessity to retain semantic comprehension. Allophonic choices within phonemes make up the dialect for a particular area.

  1. How useful are monetary policy rules to deal with inflation: The Spanish case.


    Carmen Díaz Roldán; Alberto Montero Soler


    The role of monetary policy rules to explain the behaviour of central banks has received an increasing attention during the last few years. The Spanish case could be of interest given that, with an inflation above the European average, was able to conduct its monetary policy and to control the inflation in order to join the European monetary union. But after the adoption of the European Central Bank’s monetary policy in January 1999, a higher inflation can be observed. In this paper we explor...




  3. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts. (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  4. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish) (United States)

    Perez B., L. A.


    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  5. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela


    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their classroom…

  6. On the L1 Attrition of the Spanish Present Tense (United States)

    Cuza, Alejandro


    This study examines the potential native language (L1) attrition of the ongoing value of the Spanish present tense among long-term Spanish immigrants. Based on the assumption of second-language (L2) transfer and proposals on the permeability of interface-conditioned structures, it is hypothesized that long-term Spanish immigrants will show…

  7. La Dicha de Los Libros--Children's Books in Spanish. (United States)

    Schon, Isabel


    Reviews a collection of high-quality books in Spanish which can help encourage Spanish-speaking children and adolescents to read. From creative books for the very young to the lives of famous women, to fantasies and animated traditional tales, these recently published books are designed to appeal to Spanish speakers and those wishing to learn…

  8. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela


    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their…

  9. New Thoughts on the Origins of Zamboangueno (Philippine Creole Spanish). (United States)

    Lipski, John M.


    Attempts to reconcile the similarities and differences among Philippine Creole Spanish (PCS) dialects by suggesting that Zamboangueno was formed gradually in a downward fashion from received Spanish, aided by two components. The first is pidginization that resulted in the Spanish garrison at Zamboanga, and the second was the arrival of Manila Bay…

  10. Audiovisual Translation and Subtitling. Spanish and Latin American Spanish subtitles: Analysis of Sex And The City translation


    González Ruiz, Carmen


    Subtitling is one of the most common types of audiovisual translation used nowadays. Besides, subtitling may become even a more complex process if we are dealing with Spanish language, which is one of the most extensive languages in the world. For this reason, we have decided to analyze and compare two different variants of Spanish: Peninsular Spanish and Latin American Spanish. Therefore, we can find some factors such as culture and language variants which may influence in these two varietie...

  11. Spanish-Hispanic Culture from A to V (Actualidades to Venezuela): 72 Spanish-Language Interdisciplinary Cultural Themes with Suggested Resource Materials and Activities. (United States)

    Moore, Merriam M.

    This guidebook is intended for use by teachers of Spanish (FLES through college level) and by teachers in Spanish bilingual programs. It lists all of the Spanish-speaking countries and 72 Spanish-language cultural themes, such as "Actualidades" (Current Events), "Carreras y espanol comercial" (Careers and Commercial Spanish), "Deportes" (Sports),…

  12. Phonological Production in Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers. (United States)

    Goldstein, Brian A.; Iglesias, Aquiles

    Approximately 10 percent of Latino preschoolers are at risk for developing communication problems unrelated to second language acquisition. Many of these children are Spanish-speaking and have difficulties in producing speech sounds in their native language. One of the services afforded Latino preschoolers by speech-language pathologists is the…

  13. The Pedestrian Behaviour of Spanish Adolescents (United States)

    Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.


    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…

  14. Stance and the Subjunctive in Isleno Spanish (United States)

    Coles, Felice A.


    Isleno Spanish speakers maintain few contexts firmly in the subjunctive (for example, adverbial clauses with the conjunctions "para que" and "antes que" and nominal clauses with "querer"), with most other semantic or syntactic categories optionally licensing the subjunctive. This study will outline the obligatory and optional uses of present and…

  15. Family Planning: Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, Nuer. (United States)

    Anoka County Community Health and Environmental Services, Coon Rapids, MN.

    This guide provides information in English, Bosnian, Russian, Spanish, and Nuer on family planning. Topics covered include a variety of birth control methods: abstinence, condoms, contraceptive foam, birth control pills, the Depo-Provera shot, the Norplant implant, diaphragms, intrauterine devices, natural family planning, sterilization, and the…

  16. Redundancy and Phonological Rules in Spanish. (United States)

    Martinez-Gil, Fernando


    Analyzes three recent models of phonological representation (underspecification theory, autosegmental spreading of features, and feature hierarchy), focusing on such diachronic and synchronic issues of Spanish phonology as the rule of voicing of voiceless obstruents, vowel raising cum desyllabification, homorganic nasal/lateral assimilation, and…

  17. The Development of Locative Comprehension in Spanish. (United States)

    Connor, Peggy S.; Chapman, Robin S.


    Describes a study of 40 monolingual Spanish-speaking Peruvian children in which comprehension of six locative phrases was tested. Results are analyzed in terms of developmental sequence, locative acquisition, the effects of intrinsic label on projective locative comprehension, the effects of linguistic form, and the effects of context. (SED)

  18. Genetic Structure of the Spanish Population

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    Gutiérrez Marta


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic admixture is a common caveat for genetic association analysis. Therefore, it is important to characterize the genetic structure of the population under study to control for this kind of potential bias. Results In this study we have sampled over 800 unrelated individuals from the population of Spain, and have genotyped them with a genome-wide coverage. We have carried out linkage disequilibrium, haplotype, population structure and copy-number variation (CNV analyses, and have compared these estimates of the Spanish population with existing data from similar efforts. Conclusions In general, the Spanish population is similar to the Western and Northern Europeans, but has a more diverse haplotypic structure. Moreover, the Spanish population is also largely homogeneous within itself, although patterns of micro-structure may be able to predict locations of origin from distant regions. Finally, we also present the first characterization of a CNV map of the Spanish population. These results and original data are made available to the scientific community.

  19. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando


    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  20. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina


    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  1. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish (United States)

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez


    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  2. Spanish Basic Course: Radio Communications Procedures, USAF. (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This guide to radio communication procedures is offered in Spanish and English as a means of securing a closer working relationship among United States Air Force personnel and Latin American aviators and technicians. Eight dialogues concerning routine flight procedures and aerospace technology are included. It is suggested that two rated students…

  3. A Spanish Borderlands Community: San Antonio. (United States)

    Teja, Jesus F. de la


    Discusses the founding of San Antonio, originally San Antonio de Bexar, which, in 1718, came into being as a military settlement involved in Spanish imperial defensive measures. Focuses on the development and continued growth of San Antonio, Texas's most populous city in the 19th century. (CMK)

  4. Current Usage of Relative Pronouns in Spanish. (United States)

    Ozete, Oscar


    Examines variations in current usage that pose problems in teaching Spanish relative pronouns. Discusses their treatment in first-year college textbooks, in the professional literature and in newspapers and magazines prose. Attempts to provide a description of the use of these pronouns applicable to classroom presentation. (MES)

  5. Children's Literature Studytour of Spanish America (United States)

    Shachter, Jacqueline


    Describes a tour of several Spanish American countries to study the children's literature and culture. Discussion focuses on the children's literature found in theatrical performances, government-sponsored magazines, schools, and libraries. Also discussed are the writers and illustrators who create for children. (JMB)

  6. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding. (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  7. The external dimension of the Spanish transition

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    Charles T. Powell


    Full Text Available The author intends to go beyond the unanimous opinion that the processes of political transition must be explained, almost exclusively, in terms of national forces and calculations. In the case of the Spanish transition he intends to demonstrate how thestrategies of the national actors (crown, government and parties were moulded largely by the pressure of regulations and structures drawn up outside its frontiers. Firstly, by the United States’ discreet support (always putting forward first her strategic interests of the political evolution whilst it did not put in danger the Spanish contribution to the western defensive system (while the USSR hardly played any role. The Spanish transition did not offer a threat to the alliance system from the beginning and with which the result was practically guaranteed. The European governments for their part, worried least about security and more about the political dimension pressurizing the regime and supporting the leaders of the democratic opposition more and more. The European institutions, withtheir veto, ended up legitimizing the Spanish process of democratization while the different Internationals came together and helped their coreligionists in Spain. Their political and diplomatic pressure were complemented, with the paradigm in the case of PSOE, with the contribution of means and resources by the political foundations, largely German, whose highly visible participation did not lessen the credibiity of those it protected.

  8. Elaboration and Simplification in Spanish Discourse (United States)

    Granena, Gisela


    This article compares spoken discourse models in Spanish as a second language textbooks and online language learning resources with naturally occurring conversations. Telephone service encounters are analyzed from the point of view of three different dimensions of authenticity: linguistic, sociolinguistic, and psycholinguistic. An analysis of 20…

  9. Governance in Spanish Universities: Changing Paradigms (United States)

    Ion, Georgeta; Castro, Diego


    This article reviews the current model of governance within Spanish universities, focusing on the areas of state regulation, academic goals, and organizational management. A qualitative approach was adopted for this research, comprising the use of a survey and a focus group. The conclusions of this study provide some insights into the new…

  10. Business Spanish: Role Playing for Oral Proficiency. (United States)

    Doyle, Michael Scott

    The situation card used in the American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages/Educational Testing Service (ACTFL/ETS) Oral Proficiency Interview provides a kind of linguistic-topographical map of the student's foreign language ability by measuring what the student of business Spanish is able or unable to do in business situations in that…

  11. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts. (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  12. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra


    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  13. The Power of Belief: Spanish Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Student Performance on the National Spanish Examinations (United States)

    Swanson, Pete


    In this study, the researcher investigated Spanish teachers' sense of efficacy as it relates to their students' achievement on the AATSP National Spanish Examinations. Results suggest that there is a link between Spanish teacher efficacy and students' scores on the exams. That is, the higher one's belief about his or her…

  14. Senales de Trafico. Ingles-Espanol = Traffic Signs. English-Spanish [and] English-Spanish Road Signs for American Tourists. (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    Two English/Spanish bilingual glossaries define words and phrases found on traffic signs. The first is an extensive alphabetical checklist of sign messages, listed in English with translations in Spanish. Some basic traffic and speed limit rules are included. The second volume, in Spanish-to-English form, is a pocket version designed for American…

  15. The Development and Validation of an Auditory Perception Test in Spanish for Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish. (United States)

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.


    A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)

  16. The Major Obstacles of Correct Pronunciation: for Lithuanians Learning Spanish and for Spanish Learning Lithuanian

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    Loreta Alešiūnaitė


    Full Text Available When a person starts learning a new foreign language and tries to speak to a native speaker, it is a common situation when he/she is asked to repeat (sometimes more than once because the listener does not understand the speaker‘s pronunciation. As a consequence, the speaker’s confidence in his/her language competence is shaken as well as motivation for the use of this foreign language. This situation shows the importance of correct pronunciation which is one of the significant components of successful foreign language learning. Recently, the learning of Spanish and Lithuanian as foreign languages has become increasingly popular in Kaunas. From 2009 a quarter of LUHS foreign students are Spanish students, and Spanish is the first most chosen from 26 of those taught as a second foreign language at VMU. During the analysis of Spanish and Lithuanian phonetic similarities and differences, the main purpose is to discuss, compare and identify the major obstacles in pronunciation for Lithuanians learning Spanish and for Spanish students learning Lithuanian. The experimental mirror principle reveals the main obstacles to correct pronunciation which indicate the cases where Spanish students make pronunciation mistakes in the Lithuanian language, and, respectively, those cases are the same where the pronunciation obstacles for Lithuanians speaking Spanish arise. Learning of phonetics is one of the most important parts of communicative competence – that is why it is recommended to pay attention to the orthoepy in foreign languages and begin to develop pronunciation from the very first levels of language learning, because the positive results appear in the long run and after much practice.

  17. Age of Acquisition and Allophony in Spanish-English Bilinguals



    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context (based on the second formant [F2] and the difference between F2 and the first formant [F1]), but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English b...

  18. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals


    Barlow, Jessica A.


    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English b...

  19. Spanish historical sources to reconstruct climate in the Americas during the XIXth Century (United States)

    García-Herrera, R.; Rubio, F.; Prieto, M.; Hernández, E.; Gimeno, L.


    The Spanish colonization of the Americas expanded since the beginning of the XVIth century until the beginning of the XIXth century, when most of the colonies became independent. During this period, a large amount of documentary information was produced, due to the fact that the Spanish Empire was highly centralized and bureaucracy was one of its core elements. Most of these documents are well preserved either in local archives in the Americas or in the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla, which keeps thousands of bundles relative to any relevant aspect of the ordinary life of the colonies. Different projects are now searching climatic information in this archive with very encouraging results. During the XIXth century Spain kept two colonies in the Americas: Cuba and Puerto Rico, which became independent in 1898. This has allowed that a lot of information survived in Spanish Archives for this period. After a preliminary inspection of different Spanish Archives: Archivo General de Indias, Archivo del Museo Naval and Archivo Histórico Nacional (General Archive of Indies, Archive of the Naval Museum and National Historic Archive), it has been possible to identify two main areas of climatic interest: 1) information from ship logbooks connecting Spain with Cuba and Puerto Rico and 2) reports about hurricanes. The information contained in the ship logbooks is very rich and could help to better characterize elements of the large-scale circulation in the Atlantic; the reports on hurricanes can be very detailed and were elaborated by very skilled personnel. The presentation will provide different examples of the potential of these sources and describe different Spanish projects involved in the abstraction of this type of data.

  20. Seismotectonic constraints at the western edge of the Pyrenees: aftershock series monitoring of the 2002 February 21, 4.1 Lg earthquake (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Díaz, J.; Gallart, J.; Pulgar, J. A.; González-Cortina, J. M.; López, C.


    Seismic data recorded from a temporary network deployed at the western edge of the Pyrenees is used to study the aftershocks series following a magnitude 4.1 earthquake that took place on 2002 February 21, to the NW of Pamplona city. Aftershock determinations showed events distributed between 1 and 4 km depth in a small active area of about 4 km2, E-W oriented delineating the southern sector of the Aralar thrust unit. This seismogenic feature is supported by focal solutions showing a consistent E-W nodal plane with normal faulting following the main strike-slip rupture. The Aralar structure with its shallow activity may be interpreted as a conjugate system of the NE-SW deep-seated Pamplona active fault nearby. Cross-correlation techniques and relative location of event clusters further constrained the epicentral domain to 2 km long and 1 km wide. Statistical relations and parameters established indicate a rather low b-value of 0.8 for the Gutenberg-Richter distribution, denoting a region of concentrated seismicity, and a P-parameter of 0.9 for the Omori's law corresponding to a low decay of the aftershock activity in this area. More than 100 aftershocks were accurately located in this high-resolution experiment, whereas only 13 of them could be catalogued by the permanent agencies in the same period, due to a much sparser distribution. The results enhance the importance of using dense temporary networks to infer relevant seismotectonic and hazard constraints.

  1. A high-order 3D spectral-element method for the forward modelling and inversion of gravimetric data - Application to the western Pyrenees (United States)

    Martin, Roland; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Seoane, Lucia; Spangenberg, Hannah; Wang, Yi; Dufréchou, Grégory; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Bruinsma, Sean


    We image the internal density structure of the Pyrenees by inverting gravity data using an a priori density model derived by scaling a Vp model obtained by full waveform inversion of teleseismic P-waves. Gravity anomalies are computed via a 3D high-order finite-element integration in the same high-order spectral-element grid as the one used to solve the wave equation and thus to obtain the velocity model. The curvature of the Earth and surface topography are taken into account in order to obtain a density model as accurate as possible. The method is validated through comparisons with exact semi-analytical solutions. We show that the spectral element method drastically accelerates the computations when compared to other more classical methods. Different scaling relations between compressional velocity and density are tested, and the Nafe-Drake relation is the one that leads to the best agreement between computed and observed gravity anomalies. Gravity data inversion is then performed and the results allow us to put more constraints on the density structure of the shallow crust and on the deep architecture of the mountain range.

  2. Tumour banking: the Spanish design. (United States)

    Morente, M M; de Alava, E; Fernandez, P L


    In the last decade the technical advances in high throughput techniques to analyze DNA, RNA and proteins have had a potential major impact on prevention, diagnosis, prognosis and treatment of many human diseases. Key pieces in this process, mainly thinking about the future, are tumour banks and tumour bank networks. To face these challenges, diverse suitable models and designs can be developed. The current article presents the development of a nationwide design of tumour banks in Spain based on a network of networks, specially focusing on its harmonization efforts mainly regarding technical procedures, ethical requirements, unified quality control policy and unique sample identification. We also describe our most important goals for the next years. This model does not correspond to a central tumour bank, but to a cooperative and coordinated network of national and regional networks. Independently from the network in which it is included, sample collections reside in their original institution, where it can be used for further clinical diagnosis, teaching and research activities of each independent hospital. The herein described 'network of networks' functional model could be useful for other countries and/or international tumour bank activities.

  3. José del Valle: a Benthamite in Central America


    Gómez, Alejandro


    This paper examines the relationship between Jeremy Bentham and José Cecilio del Valle, one of the most important leaders of Central America’s independence process. Since this relationship has received little attention from those studying the links between Bentham and Spanish American politicians, with the exception of Miriam Williford, we consider that is very important to explore the influence of the utilitarian philosophy in Central America. With this purpose in mind, we will examine the i...

  4. Assessing morphosyntax in Spanish-speaking children. (United States)

    Bedore, L M


    Accurate assessment of the morpho-syntactic skills of Spanish-speaking children depends on the clinician's understanding of the morpho-syntactic system and on the development of tasks that obligate the use of structures of interest. In this article, the nature and acquisition of the Spanish morpho-syntactic system is outlined. The aspects of the system that are likely to be difficult for children with language impairments and those that are critical to communicative competence are emphasized, as the clinician must take these into account when planning assessment tasks. The analysis of spontaneous language samples and the use of structured probes are discussed as alternatives for assessment. The naturalness and linguistic demands of assessment tasks are also considered because they are critical to understanding children's performance on morpho-syntactic tasks.

  5. Science in the Spanish Virtual Observatory (United States)

    Solano, E.


    Since the beginning of the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) in 2004 science is playing a key role. In order to boost the use of the VO capabilities among the Spanish astronomical community our group is fostering an initiative based on the collaboration with research teams having science cases that could benefit from using the VO. Our role in the collaboration is to evaluate the science case from the VO point of view, to provide information and support about the existing VO tools to tackle the scientific problem and, if necessary, to develop new analysis tools. Effective liaisons have been established between the SVO and a number of funded projects and, as a result of this, several refereed VO papers have been published. In this presentation an overview of these collaborations and the results obtained so far are presented.

  6. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents. (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M


    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry.

  7. An investigation into Spanish EFL learners' anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de Dios Martínez Agudo

    Full Text Available This research article reports the results of a study designed to measure and analyse Spanish students' perceived anxiety when learning and using EFL inside the classroom. This article first includes a review of the literature on foreign language anxiety. Then it describes the participants of the investigation and the research methodology procedures. This is followed by the presentation and discussion of the results and, finally, the conclusions derived from this study. The resulting data revealed interesting information about the anxiety levels present among Spanish EFL learners. While relatively high levels of speaking anxiety have been identified, somewhat lower levels of listening anxiety associated with error correction, by contrast, have also been found. More specifically, the results suggested that the level of listening anxiety seems to slightly increase when error correction is somehow involved in the process.

  8. Studying Colonialism in Spanish History Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio


    in classrooms in the 19th Century has aimed at transmitting a shared past in order to encourage subjects to identify with their nation. In psychology different studies have focused on history textbooks as cultural tools for memory and identity, drawing attention to their role in conveying a social......The interwoven dynamics underpinning national identity and collective memory have received growing interest from different disciplines in light of an increasingly globalized and multicultural world. In this context, history textbooks play an important role inasmuch as the introduction of history...... representation of the nation’s historical past. Along these lines, this paper aims to examine the representation of an especially controversial past, such as colonialism, in Spanish secondary history textbooks in two different periods, in late 70’-early 80’ (just after the loss of the last Spanish colonies...

  9. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE


    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  10. Spanish in Context: Foundations and New Ideas


    Willey, Tempe Mabe


    This portfolio demonstrates the author's beliefs about Spanish language instruction and learning. The first section contains the author's teaching philosophy, comparing teaching and learning to construction work and the four resultant roles a teacher must be able to fulfill in the classroom. The following section contains three artifacts in which the author further elaborates on her views. The language artifact discusses the role that self-reflection and peer-assessment play in teacher observ...

  11. The Spanish Square Kilometre Array White Book



    The Square Kilometre Array (SKA) is called to revolutionise essentially all areas of Astrophysics. With a collecting area of about a square kilometre, the SKA will be a transformational instrument, and its scientific potential will go beyond the interests of astronomers. Its technological challenges and huge cost requires a multinational effort, and Europe has recognised this by putting the SKA on the roadmap of the European Strategy Forum for Research Infrastructures (ESFRI). The Spanish SKA...

  12. Presentational Focus in Heritage and Monolingual Spanish (United States)

    Hoot, Bradley


    In Spanish, it is most commonly claimed that constituents in narrow presentational focus appear rightmost, where they also get main stress (1a), while stress in situ (1b) is infelicitous. (1) [Context: Who bought a car?]. a. Compró un carro mi [mamá][subscript F]. bought a car my mom. b. Mi [mamá ][subscript F] compró un carro. However, some…

  13. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish. (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu


    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population.

  14. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience. (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria


    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  15. Nutritional objectives for the Spanish population. Consensus from the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition. (United States)

    Serra-Majem, L; Aranceta, J


    The objective of this paper is to present the development of the Nutritional Objectives for the Spanish Population. Preparation of draft documents contributed by different working groups was followed by a consensus meeting held in Bilbao on 5-7 October 2000, hosted by the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition and sponsored by the World Health Organisation. Establishing nutritional guidelines was conducted by: (1) analysing current food and nutritional data from nutritional surveys, for intermediate objectives; and (2) reviewing current scientific knowledge for final objectives. The objectives include intermediate and ultimate figures, and comprise percentage of energy from macronutrients and fatty acids, fruit and vegetable consumption, frequency of sweets, physical activity and body mass index, folate, calcium, sodium, fluoride and iodine intake, dietary fibre, cholesterol, alcohol and duration of breast-feeding. The nutritional objectives for the Spanish population create a rational framework for the development of dietary guidelines and nutritional policies in Spain, within a Mediterranean context.

  16. Using Network Centrality Measures to Improve National Journal Classification Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Repiso, Rafael;


    In countries like Denmark and Spain classified journal lists are now being produced and used in the calculation of nationwide performance indicators. As a result, Danish and Spanish scholars are advised to contribute to journals of high 'authority' (as in the former) or those within a high class...... mismatches of journal categories and implementing list revisions....... (as in the latter). This can create a few problems. Based on a sample of Library and Information Science publications, the aim of this paper is to examine both the Danish and Spanish classification lists, and determine the potential use of network centrality measures for identifying possible...

  17. Video games and mobile learning: A Spanish developers approach


    Fernández Gómez, Carlos; Martí Parreño, José


    This research presents a work in progress aiming to map Spanish video games developers’ production in the area of mobile educational video games. A sample of 30 Spanish video games developers was analyzed in order to explore the weight that educational video games for mobile devices represents in their product portfolio. Primary findings suggest that Spanish video games developers’ production of educational video games for mobile devices is very scarce. While 23,3% of the analyzed video games...

  18. Ventanas : windows to new cultures in Spanish Class



    An analysis of state and national standards demonstrates a need to integrate more meaningful, cultural content in Spanish language instruction for non native speakers. Students complete Spanish course requirements with a limited knowledge of the cultures of Latin America. The curriculum Ventanas is a resource for teachers to provide transformational lessons about culture. Ventanas helps students to broaden their definition of culture by the use of Spanish song texts from Latin America. This c...

  19. Obtaining magnitude-cumulative frequency curves from rockfall scar size distribution using cosmogenic chlorine-36 in the Montsec area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain) (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio; Merchel, Silke; Pavetich, Stefan; Rugel, Georg


    Magnitude-cumulative frequency (MCF) relations are commonly used components for assessing the rockfall hazard using databases of recorded events. However, in some cases, data are lacking or incomplete. To overcome this restriction, the volume distribution of the rockfall scars has been used instead. The latter may yield the temporal probability of occurrence if the time span required to generate the scars is known. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, was chosen as a pilot study area for investigating MCF distributions. This cliff, which is composed of limestones from Upper Cretaceous age, shows distinct evidences of rockfall activity, including large recent rockfall scars. These areas are identifiable by their orange colour, which contrasts in front of the greyish old stable (reference) surface of the cliff face. We present a procedure to obtain the MCF of the rockfall scars by dating an old reference cliff surface and measuring the total volume released since then. The reference cliff surface was dated using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) chlorine-36 (Merchel et al., 2013). We used the Rockfall Scar Size Distribution (RSSD) obtained in Domènech et al. (2014) that considers several rockfall pattern scenarios. Scenario 1 allows for, mostly, large rockfall scar volumes, scenario 2 considers smaller occurrences and scenario 3 suggests that rockfall scars can be the result of one or several rockfall events, and thus contemplating a wider range of scar volumes. The main steps of the methodology are: a) Obtaining the RSSD, b) Volume calculation of material lost, c) Calculation of time (T0) elapsed for the cliff to retreat (age of the old reference surface), and d) generation of the MCF curve from the RSSD. A total volume of material lost of 78900 m3 was obtained as well as an elapsed period of time of 15350 years. The MCF curves for different rockfall scenarios are found to be well fitted by a power law with exponents -1.7, -1.1 and -1

  20. Vertical axis rotations in fold and thrust belts: Comparison of AMS and paleomagnetic data in the Western External Sierras (Southern Pyrenees) (United States)

    Pueyo Anchuela, Ó.; Pueyo, E. L.; Pocoví Juan, A.; Gil Imaz, A.


    Geometry and kinematics of fold-and-thrust belts can be complex settings when oblique structures and vertical-axis rotations (VAR) take place during thrust emplacement. Many techniques can be used to unravel such complex tectonic histories, from classic ones like strain analysis and changes of paleocurrents, to more modern approaches such as paleomagnetism and calcite twin analysis. In this paper, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility is compared to vertical axis rotations deduced from paleomagnetic data along three cross-sections in the External Sierras and the Jaca Basin (southwestern Pyrenees). These data enable us to state that: 1) AMS represents pre-tilting deformation fabrics and magnetic lineation behaves like a passive marker during later deformation; and 2) a primary record of the paleomagnetic field can be found in the area. Therefore, the difference with the paleomagnetic reference is the local VAR. The comparison of the two datasets allows us to draw the following conclusions: A) the changes in both paleomagnetic VAR and magnetic lineation orientation between neighbouring sites are similar; and B) there is a significant linear regression between VAR and trend changes in magnetic lineation. Deviations in magnetic lineation with respect to the expected local magnetic lineation permit vertical axis rotations to be quantified using the AMS dataset. The combined analysis of paleomagnetic and AMS data enables: 1) a quicker comparison of the kinematic evolution in areas with similar AMS patterns; 2) the identification of anomalous orientations of magnetic lineation linked to VARs; and 3) the use of AMS analysis as a homogeneity test for VARs determined from other techniques. AMS is proposed as a suitable preliminary technique to select further sites for paleomagnetic analysis since paleomagnetic laboratory procedures are much more time-consuming than AMS measurements, AMS does not usually modify sample remanence and hence samples can be used for both types of

  1. Epidemiological study of border disease virus infection in Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) after an outbreak of disease in the Pyrenees (NE Spain). (United States)

    Marco, Ignasi; Rosell, Rosa; Cabezón, Oscar; Mentaberre, Gregorio; Casas, Encarna; Velarde, Roser; López-Olvera, Jorge Ramón; Hurtado, Ana; Lavín, Santiago


    In 2001 and 2002, an outbreak of a previously unreported disease, associated with a border disease virus (BDV), caused high mortality in the Southern chamois (Rupicapra pyrenaica) population in the Alt Pallars-Aran National Hunting Reserve in the Catalan Pyrenees (NE Spain). Between 2002 and 2006, sera and/or tissue samples taken from 116 healthy chamois shot during the hunting season, plus 42 from chamois affected by different diseases, were studied. A blocking enzyme-immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used to study pestivirus seroprevalence in 114 healthy hunted and 31 diseased chamois, yielding positive results in 73.7 and 22.6% of the chamois, respectively. Comparative virus neutralization tests (VNT) performed on 42 seropositive samples with 6 pestivirus strains yielded statistically higher titres to BDV Spain 97, followed by BDV chamois, BDV 137/4, BDV Moredun, Bovine Diarrhoea virus-1 (BVDV-1) NADL and BVDV-2 atypical. Virological investigations for pestivirus detection were performed using an antigen ELISA test in 82 healthy and 18 diseased chamois, RT-PCR in 16 healthy and in all diseased chamois, and virus isolation in 14 diseased chamois. No viral antigen was detected in any of the healthy animals. A pestivirus, characterized as BDV by monoclonal antibodies, was detected in the 10 chamois showing clinical signs consistent with BDV infection. Sequence analysis in the 5' untranslated region (5'-UTR) revealed that they were grouped into the BDV-4 genotype. In the remaining chamois, infectious keratoconjunctivitis, pneumonia, trauma and contagious ecthyma were diagnosed. The cause of death was unknown in five chamois. The results suggest that the infection has become endemic in the population and that it could have a significant impact on chamois population dynamics.

  2. Microbial plankton assemblages, composition and biomass, during two ice-free periods in a deep high mountain lake (Estany Redó, Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana HALAC


    Full Text Available Microbial plankton composition and biomass were monitored for two ice-free periods in a deep oligotrophic high-mountain lake (Redó, Pyrenees. Phytoplankton dominated microbial biomass, while the relationship between total water-column-integrated autotrophic and heterotrophic biomass ranged from 1.5 to 6.5 (an average of 4.4. Heterotrophic biomass was dominated by bacteria (an average of 47 %, but heterotrophic nanoflagellates and, to a lesser degree, ciliates occasionally constituted a sizeable proportion. In general, the microbial biomass ratios were 10:2:2:1 for PHY:BAC:HNF:CIL. About one hundred eukaryotic species were found, although most of them in low abundance and frequency. Phytoplankton biomass was dominated by flagellated chrysophytes and dinoflagellates (an average of 40 and 32% respectively; occasionally cryptophytes (in deep layers and chlorococcal chlorophytes (during the autumn mixing period were also significant. In the two years sampled, the maximum phytoplankton diversity was observed during the autumn mixing period. Heterotrophic flagellate biomass was dominated by chrysophytes (78% on average, but sporadically a non-identified species reached high abundances. Oligotrichs, (an average of 43% of total ciliate biomass dominated the ciliate community, still other groups (gymnostomatida and prostomatida were also significant. Bacteria biomass was largely homogeneous throughout the two periods, but size segregation was observed especially when the lake was stratified, with larger bacteria appearing in the upper layers. The highest planktonic microbial biomass occurred during the mixing periods, mainly during spring. But no clear relationships were found between the temporal distribution of bacteria, phytoplankton, heterotrophic flagellate and ciliate biomass.

  3. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?


    Helmut Schröder; Lourdes Ribas; Corinna Koebnick; Anna Funtikova; Gomez, Santiago F; Montserat Fíto; Carmen Perez-Rodrigo; Lluis Serra-Majem


    BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among nor...

  4. The Spanish Modernity as the Narration of the Peripheral. Architectural Laboratory and Urban Visions in the Distant Iberian South



    The evaluation and dissemination of Spanish Modern architecture has been conditioned by its peripheral condition that, similarto all those works external to the central European phenomenon, has marked the definition of its production. In the light of thecultural crisis that the Western World has been experiencing since the Sixties, critics such as Ignasi de Solà-Morales considerthat this interpretation of the architectonic panorama of a dominating centre and a dominated periphery has been ove...

  5. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite


    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  6. The soul of Spain: Spanish scholastic psychology and the making of modem subjectivity (1875-1931). (United States)

    Castro, Jorge; Lafuente, Enrique; Jiménez, Belén


    The aim of this article is to provide an approach to the study of the relations between psychology and Roman Catholic Scholasticism in the making of Spain as a modern nation-state. The crucial period in this process-extending from the beginning of King Alfonso XII's reign in 1875 to the proclamation of the Second Spanish Republic in 1931-is considered. Attention is focused on Ethics textbooks published by Spanish Scholastic authors throughout the period. Through these school manuals, young students were trained in the ideas of citizenship and social coexistence held by the Catholic Church. An analysis of these didactic, programmatic works shows the central role played by the theory of faculties and modern psychological technologies (psychopedagogy, psychopathology, psychotechnics) in the Scholastic outlook. Thus, an attempt is made to show that psychology was used by Spanish Scholasticism as a way of legitimating a reactionary view of Spain, which eventually led to the emergence of National-Catholicism as the official ideology of the Franco regime (1939-1975).

  7. The Legal Status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle in Spain and Thoughts on Environmental Law and Policy as Contributing Factors in the Conservation of Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel


    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila Adalberti, with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of applicable international, European and Spanish laws and policies is given, and the role played by these instruments is considered together with successes attained with diverse conservation goals in respect of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. The exceptionally comprehensive character of the legal protection of the Spanish Imperial Eagle is highlighted, in conjunction with some extra-legal factors that have contributed to successful outcomes. While quantification of the role of the law in the conservation of a species remains elusive, it is probably safe to conclude that environmental law and policy have played a vital and central role in the improvement of the conservation status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. It is submitted that the conservation interventions on behalf of the Spanish Imperial Eagle show that concerted legal and other conservation interventions can effectively halt and reverse the decline of an endangered species. However, such interventions are onerous and expensive and ideally, effective conservation measures should be in place before populations have declined to a critical level. Birds of prey face similar threats in South Africa and Spain, and a number of South African raptor species will soon be classified as endangered. While South African biodiversity laws and policy are similar to the European and Spanish laws in general import and methodology, the South African laws and policy are more restricted in scope, less detailed and less prescriptive. When comparing the use of Spanish and South African legislation in the conservation of birds of prey, sight must not be lost of the varying conservation needs

  8. Spanish Peaks, Sangre de Cristo Range, Colorado (United States)


    The Spanish Peaks, on the eastern flank of the Sangre de Cristo range, abruptly rise 7,000 feet above the western Great Plains. Settlers, treasure hunters, trappers, gold and silver miners have long sighted on these prominent landmarks along the Taos branch of the Santa Fe trail. Well before the westward migration, the mountains figured in the legends and history of the Ute, Apache, Comanche, and earlier tribes. 'Las Cumbres Espanolas' are also mentioned in chronicles of exploration by Spaniards including Ulibarri in 1706 and later by de Anza, who eventually founded San Francisco (California). This exceptional view (STS108-720-32), captured by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS108, portrays the Spanish Peaks in the context of the southern Rocky Mountains. Uplift of the Sangre de Cristo began about 75 million years ago and produced the long north-trending ridges of faulted and folded rock to the west of the paired peaks. After uplift had ceased (26 to 22 million years ago), the large masses of igneous rock (granite, granodiorite, syenodiorite) that form the Peaks were emplaced (Penn, 1995-2001). East and West Spanish Peaks are 'stocks'-bodies of molten rock that intruded sedimentary layers, cooled and solidified, and were later exposed by erosion. East Peak (E), at 12,708 ft is almost circular and is about 5 1/2 miles long by 3 miles wide, while West Peak (W), at 13,623 ft is roughly 2 3/4 miles long by 1 3/4 miles wide. Great dikes-long stone walls-radiate outward from the mountains like spokes of a wheel, a prominent one forms a broad arc northeast of East Spanish Peak. As the molten rock rose, it forced its way into vertical cracks and joints in the sedimentary strata; the less resistant material was then eroded away, leaving walls of hard rock from 1 foot to 100 feet wide, up to 100 feet high, and as long as 14 miles. Dikes trending almost east-west are also common in the region. For more information visit: The Spanish Peaks (accessed January 16

  9. Developing English and Spanish Literacy in a One-Way Spanish Immersion Program (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Lindsay Kay


    This quantitative, causal-comparative study examined the possible cause and effect relationship between educational programming, specifically one-way Spanish immersion and traditional English-only, and native English-speaking fifth graders' vocabulary and reading comprehension. Archival data was used to examine students' reading achievement as…

  10. SPANISH 1992 (S92) corpus-based analysis of present-day Spanish for medical purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler-Burns, R M


    S92 research was begun in 1987 to analyze word frequencies in present-day Spanish for making speech pathology evaluation tools. 500 2,000-word samples of children, adolescents and adults' language were input between 1988-1991, calculations done in 1992; statistical and Lewandowski analyses were carried out in 1993.

  11. Cuentos y fabulas (Stories and Fables), Spanish-S: 7509.13. (United States)

    Suarez, Maria S.

    This course offers students the opportunity to read and listen to 19th and 20th century Spanish short stories as well as moral, literary, and satirical fables of different epochs. (Several of the fables are included.) The student is thus exposed to new vocabulary and to the literary form of the short story. The authors represented here belong to…

  12. Removal verbs and locative alternations in Spanish


    Cifuentes Honrubia, José Luis


    Este trabajo analiza los verbos de remoción dentro del conjunto de las alternancias locales consideradas en español. Demostraremos que, en español, la diferenciación entre verbos de manera y verbos de resultado no se correlaciona con verbos con alternancias y verbos sin alternancias. Analizaremos diversos subtipos de verbos de remoción y sus pautas diferenciadoras. This paper analyzes the removal verbs within the set of the locative alternations concerning Spanish. It is shown that the dif...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenno Gimenes Cesca


    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the secrecy in the Spanish Criminal Procedure, explaining, first, its constitutional matrix. Due to the amplitude of the subject, it was decided to focus on specific issues. So, at first, it was studied the secrecy in the criminal procedure phases (sumario and juicio oral, referring also to secrecy in judicial decisions. After, it was researched the secrecy as protection to witnesses and experts. Then, the secrecy in evidence collection means, such as search and seizure; mailing and telephone calls interceptions; undercover agent. Finally, the professional secrecy

  14. Impact of obesity-related genes in Spanish population (United States)


    Background The objective was to investigate the association between BMI and single nucleotide polymorphisms previously identified of obesity-related genes in two Spanish populations. Forty SNPs in 23 obesity-related genes were evaluated in a rural population characterized by a high prevalence of obesity (869 subjects, mean age 46 yr, 62% women, 36% obese) and in an urban population (1425 subjects, mean age 54 yr, 50% women, 19% obese). Genotyping was assessed by using SNPlex and PLINK for the association analysis. Results Polymorphisms of the FTO were significantly associated with BMI, in the rural population (beta 0.87, p-value <0.001). None of the other SNPs showed significant association after Bonferroni correction in the two populations or in the pooled analysis. A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed using the risk alleles of the Tag-SNPs with a positive Beta parameter in both populations. From the first to the fifth quintile of the score, the BMI increased 0.45 kg/m2 in Hortega and 2.0 kg/m2 in Pizarra. Overall, the obesity predictive value was low (less than 1%). Conclusion The risk associated with polymorphisms is low and the overall effect on BMI or obesity prediction is minimal. A weighted genetic risk score based on genes mainly acting through central nervous system mechanisms was associated with BMI but it yields minimal clinical prediction for the obesity risk in the general population. PMID:24267414

  15. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora


    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  16. Contribution to the study of the geographical distribution of Pyrenean funerary stone circles (baratze, cromlech in the western Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Miguel EDESO FITO


    Full Text Available ‘Baratze’ or Pyrenean funerary stone circles, also known as Pyrenean cromlech, are funerary cremation monuments constructed between the Late Bronze Age and the beginning of the Roman period. These monuments consist of small circles, which consist of isolated standing stone blocks that enclose a central funerary deposit. The densest geographical distribution of Pyrenean funerary stone circles is located east of the Leizaran river and the lower basin of the Oria river up to approximately Andorra. Pyrenean cromlechs are located across mountain chains and occasionally share space with other funerary monuments constructed between the Middle Neolithic period and the Bronze Age –dolmens and cists–, whereas in other locations, cromlechs appear to be established in previously unoccupied mountain zones in an approximately continuous fashion by groups of farmers. The discovery of some Pyrenean circles in Ondarre and Beaskin (Sierra de Aralar, away from the nuclear zone and in a space continuously exploited since the Neolithic period, as indicated by the presence of other funerary monuments –dolmens and cists–, generates new questions regarding their distribution and the reasons for distinct densities of these rituals in some areas of the nuclear zone. Therefore, we propose different explanatory hypotheses, adapted to the distinct circumstances, as lithology, history, etc.

  17. Central line infections - hospitals (United States)

    ... infection; Central venous catheter - infection; CVC - infection; Central venous device - infection; Infection control - central line infection; Nosocomial infection - central line infection; Hospital acquired ...

  18. The Undergraduate Spanish Major Curriculum: Realities and Faculty Perceptions (United States)

    Hertel, Tammy Jandrey; Dings, Abby


    This article presents the quantitative and qualitative results of a nationwide survey of Spanish department faculty on the components of their undergraduate Spanish major curriculum and their perceptions of these components, as well as their perceptions of recent Modern Language Association (MLA) reports (2007, 2009) and the reports'…

  19. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education. (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis


    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  20. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy (United States)

    Briceño, Allison


    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  1. Age of Acquisition and Allophony in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Barlow


    Full Text Available This study examines age of acquisition (AoA in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context (based on the second formant [F2] and the difference between F2 and the first formant [F1], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English Monolinguals. Participants’ /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late Bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker’s two languages.

  2. El Diccionario Del Espanol Chicano (The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish). (United States)

    Galvan, Roberto A.; Teschner, Richard V.

    This is a supplementary dictionary of the Spanish spoken by Chicanos in the states of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. The nearly 8,000 entries represent a compilation of Chicano words and phrases not typically found in standard dictionaries. Items are listed alphabetically in Spanish, followed by an English…

  3. Factors Influencing the Second Language Acquisition of Spanish Vibrants (United States)

    Hurtado, Luz Marcela; Estrada, Chelsea


    This article examines the role of linguistic and sociolinguistic factors in the second language (L2) acquisition of Spanish vibrants. The data consist of 2 sets of recordings from 37 students enrolled in a Spanish pronunciation class. The statistical program VarbRul was used to analyze 7,597 samples. The vibration (simple or multiple) and the…

  4. Spanish Second Language Acquisition: State of the Science. (United States)

    Lafford, Barbara A., Ed.; Salaberry, Rafael, Ed.

    This collection of papers provides an overview of previous studies on the acquisition of Spanish as a second or foreign language, theoretical approaches used in these studies, and effects of various pedagogical approaches on the development of Spanish interlanguage systems. The 10 chapters include the following: (1) "Phonology: Staking Out…

  5. Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.


    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

  6. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals. (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A


    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals' phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants' /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker's two languages.

  7. Is Software Available for Early Childhood Spanish Speaking Children? (United States)

    Cardona de Divale, Maria Victoria

    A search was conducted on the Internet for software available for bilingual Spanish-speaking children. The only programs found under this heading were 18 programs for learning Spanish. Five of the least expensive were selected for review using a standardized scale for evaluating children's software. Four of the programs were found to be…

  8. Spanish/English Speech Practices: Bringing Chaos to Order (United States)

    Toribio, Almeida Jacqueline


    This paper presents a linguistic analysis of Spanish-English bilingual speech for scholars and practitioners of bilingualism. More specifically, the study surveys several outcomes of language contact, among these, inter-lingual transference, codeswitching, and convergence, as evidenced in the speech practices of heritage Spanish speakers in the…

  9. Aspects of Spanish Deictic Expressions in Barcelona: A Quantitative Examination. (United States)

    Vann, Robert E.


    This sociolinguistic investigation analyzes an innovative usage of Spanish motion verbs, demonstratives, and locatives in Barcelona, Spain that involves crosslinguistic pragmatic transfer. Speakers in the two social networks examined (n=58) use these Spanish deictics following pragmatic rules that generally correspond to the rules for their…

  10. Clitic Placement in Spanish-English Bilingual Children (United States)

    Perez-Leroux, Ana Teresa; Cuza, Alejandro; Thomas, Danielle


    Can transfer occur in child bilingual syntax when surface overlap does not involve the syntax-pragmatics interface? Twenty-three Spanish/English bilingual children participated in an elicited imitation study of clitic placement in Spanish restructuring contexts, where variable word order is not associated with pragmatic or semantic factors.…

  11. An Overview of Medical Spanish Curricula in the United States (United States)

    Hardin, Karol


    The US health care system faces linguistic challenges. Disparities in language-concordant care for Spanish speakers persist due to current demographics and a paucity of bilingual providers. A proliferation of courses in Spanish for health care professions suggests that universities and post-graduate institutions are attempting to meet this need;…

  12. U.S. Spanish and Education: Global and Local Intersections (United States)

    García, Ofelia


    The author of this chapter argues that the failure of Spanish language education policies in the United States to educate both Latinos and non-Latinos has to do with the clash between three positions--(a) the English language, characterized by U.S. educational authorities as the unique and powerful lingua franca; (b) the Spanish language, as…

  13. Third Dialogue Between Chinese and Spanish Mayors Held in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni; Yuan


    <正>The Third Dialogue between Chinese and Spanish Mayors sponsored by the CPAFFC,the Federation of Spanish Municipalities and Provinces(Federacion Espanola de Municipios y Provincias-FEMP)and the Shanxi Provincial People’s Government and hosted by the Foreign and Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the Shanxi Provincial Government was held in Taiyuan on September 16,2013.

  14. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude


    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  15. Hybrid Spanish Programs: A Challenging and Successful Endeavor (United States)

    Hermosilla, Luis


    Several types of hybrid Spanish programs have been developed in US colleges and universities for more than ten years, but the most common structure consists of a course in which the instruction combines face-to-face time with an instructor and the use of an online platform. Studies have demonstrated that a well-developed hybrid Spanish program can…

  16. Descubriendo La Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish. (United States)

    Escamilla, Kathy; Andrade, Anna


    Research suggests that use of a child's native language in initial literacy instruction is beneficial. The Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL) Spanish-language application of the English Reading Recovery Program is described as implemented for one Spanish-speaking first grade boy. The DLL program capitalizes on strengths children demonstrate in reading.…

  17. Spanish Validation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Mendez, Xavier; Spence, Susan H.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a sample of 1,708 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years. The SCAS was demonstrated to have satisfactory internal consistency with the Spanish sample, and factor analysis confirmed the six-factor…

  18. Chicano Spanish: Cross Hispanic Language Attitudes toward Specific Lexical Items. (United States)

    Giron, Robert LeRoy

    A study was undertaken to gather attitudes of Spanish-speakers toward specific types of Chicano Spanish dialect lexical items. Reactions were randomly taken from 11 Latin American students who attended Southern Illinois University at Carbondale during the 1975 spring semester; 20 Mexican residents of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who attended English as…

  19. Extraction Methods of Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Katović


    Full Text Available Effects of different extraction methods of the Spanish Broom shoots were measured and compared with the purpose of obtaining composite material. The content of cellulose, lignin, pentosan and ash in the Spanish Broom fibers was determined. SEM analyses were performed.

  20. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language) (United States)

    Mijares, Jose


    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  1. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution. (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  2. Demonstrative pronouns in Spanish : a discourse-based study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zulaica Hernández, Iker


    This dissertation constitutes an exploration into the discourse anaphoric properties of Spanish demonstrative anaphors esto eso and aquello (cf. this/that). This basic issue, largely ignored in the studies of Spanish linguistics so far, is fully addressed here from a semantic and pragmatic perspecti

  3. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: Spanish. (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching Spanish in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. Spanish is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  4. Tracing Mexican Spanish /s/: A Cross-Section of History. (United States)

    Lipski, John M.


    Examines linguistic data from peripheral areas of Mexico and suggests that the contemporary resistance of the final /s/ in Spanish is characteristic only of urban regions. The study also hypothesizes that Spanish final /s/ was once more generally weakened throughout Mexico. An indirect Nahuatl contribution is also postulated. (62 references)…

  5. Metalinguistic Awareness and Reading Acquisition in the Spanish Language. (United States)

    Gonzalez, Juan E. Jimenez; Gonzalez, Maria del Rosario Ortiz


    Investigated metalinguistic awareness in learning to read Spanish, focusing on print awareness, phonological awareness, decoding, and reading comprehension. Studies of 136 preliterate Spanish children indicated a relationship between phonological awareness and reading and revealed the importance of syllabic awareness in developing other levels of…

  6. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.


    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  7. The Spanish network for Gaia Science Exploitation (United States)

    Figueras, F.; Jordi, C.; Luri, X.; Torra, J.; REG Executive Committee Team; Gaia UB team


    The ''Red Española de Explotación Científica de Gaia'' (REG) continues to intensify its activities facing the imminent publication of the first and second Gaia data releases (14 September, 2016 and Q4-2017, respectively). The network, supported by the MINECO under contract Acciones de dinamizaci ´on, Redes de Excelencia (2016-2017), has as major priority the task to coordinate and support the collective activities developed by its more than 150 members. At present, REG plays a prominent role in the preparation of the Spanish community for the use of the Gaia data archive (a task lead by the Spanish team), in the work to exploit the Gaia-ESO survey collected during the last four years and in supporting the preparation of the science case and survey plan for WEAVE, the new multi-object spectrograph for the WHT at Canary Islands (commissioning, 2018). These activities are described together with the schedule of future national and international science meetings and the outreach activities being organized for the first and second Data Releases

  8. Stewardship of the Spanish national health system. (United States)

    Bankauskaite, Vaida; Novinskey, Christina M


    Along with resource generation, financing, and health service delivery, stewardship is a key health system function. However, very little empirical analysis has been carried out on it. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature by assessing the Ministry of Health's (MoHs) role as a steward of the Spanish National Health System (NHS) after the 2001 decentralization reform of health care management to the Autonomous Communities. We use the following stewardship framework with six sub-functions for the analysis, looking at the MoH's ability to: (1) formulate strategic policy framework; 2) ensure a fit between policy objectives and organizational structure and culture; (3) ensure tools for implementation; (4) build coalitions and partnerships; (5) generate intelligence, and (6) ensure accountability. We describe the stewardship function, identify existing challenges and issues in the Spanish case, and reflect upon methodological aspects of this exercise. We use reports, documents, articles, and official statistics to complete the analysis. Overall, we find the MoH to give an average performance in its role as the steward of the health system. The MoH has progressed particularly well in generating intelligence as well as formulating a strategic policy framework over recent years. However, it lacks the appropriate authority to efficiently coordinate the health system and to ensure that the Autonomous Communities implement policies that are in-line with overall NHS objectives.

  9. Light Pollution REECL Spanish SQM Network (United States)

    Zamorano, Jaime; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Nievas, Miguel; Tapia, Carlos; Ocaña, Francisco; Izquierdo, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús; Pascual, Sergio; Colomer, Francisco; Bará, Salvador; Ribas, Salvador; Morales, Ángel; Marco, Enric; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Solano, Enrique; Alacid, José Manuel; Naves, Ramón; lluis Salto, Josep; García, Faustino; Luque, Sergi; Quejigo, Rubén; Ribas, Julio


    There are some networks of SQM photometers that provide measures of the night sky brightness every night. The analysis of the data provided by the photometers allows the researchers to monitor the nightly, monthly and yearly evolution of the NSB and the relationship with light sources of pollution in intensity and distance. The photometers that are measuring in protected areas will alarm the researchers about eventual increasing of light pollution that could affect the environment.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at different places and in which extension. Networks of fixed photometers acquiring data every night are one of the main inputs to test these models. The collaborative effort of many people provides the necessary data to derive scientific results.We present the SQM network of the Spanish Light Pollution Research collaboration ( that is growing with the help of amateur astronomers and interested citizens. Data are being archived in the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) using the IAU and IDA community standard data format for light pollution measurements.

  10. The Webquests in the spanish university area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Martín


    Full Text Available This article reports on the WebQuest's (WQ use, dissemination and perception experienced by Spanish universities -a methodology for which the interest has been renewed since the establishment of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA and its competency-based teaching system.The article summarizes the theoretical aspects and the key findings about the impact of the WQ implementation in different areas of knowledge in higher education. The study considers data collected within an international research as well as in the Spanish context.The theoretical review is complemented with a summary of the results from two surveys. The first one examines the role of university organisms with competences in university teacher training in the methodological integration of ICT in its practice and, particularly, in the dissemination of WQ. The second survey reflects the opinion of an expert group in order to know, among other things, their views on the advantages and disadvantages of the method, its acceptance by the students and the appropriateness of its use in connection with the implementation of the EHEA

  11. The Spanish Inquisition and the Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kılıç


    Full Text Available The year 1492 was a turning point in the history of Iberian peninsula. Ferdinand and Isabella, namely the Catholic Monarchs had led the reconquista to a successful end and thus laid the foundation for the emergence of a powerful state. The unification of the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon had been reached with the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. The military and political struggle for the unity of Spain was completed by the end of the reconquista. They now wanted to reach out to the religious unity. Expulsion of the Jews, namely the problem of the conversos or judeoconversos had been solved. Isabella and Ferdinand hoped that, the Muslims voluntarily adopt the Christian faith and would adjust to their Christian environment. But the conversion campaigns and missionary efforts are run only half-heartedly and therefore remained largely unsuccessful. The Muslims of Andalusia took refuge in the crypto-Islam, that is, they tried in hidden continue to pursue the Islamic religion and outwardly feign assimilation. Task of the Spanish Inquisition was about to verify actual faith of the crypto-Muslims and bring them to justice. The Spanish Inquisition had proceeded very differently on the regional level against the Moriscos. The everyday life of the Moriscos as Christians, with compulsive baptisms and discriminating regulations, was very hard to endure. The purpose of this article is to focus on the unfair practices that the Muslims are faced with and the methods they used to get rid of them.

  12. Orthographic transparency and morphology of Spanish-English Cognate adjectives. (United States)

    Montelongo, José A; Hernández, Anita C; Herter, Roberta J; Hernández, Carissa


    The English and Spanish languages share over 20,000 cognates. Cognates are words that are orthographically, semantically, and syntactically similar in two languages. In 2009, Montelongo, Hernández, and Herter collected orthographic transparency ratings for over 2,000 Spanish-English cognate nouns and cognate adjectives drawn from the Juilland and Chang-Rodríguez' Frequency Dictionary of Spanish Words. The present analysis of the cognate adjectives in the Montelongo, et al. norms identified orthographic and morphological characteristics which affected ratings of cognate transparency. The analysis identified an initial-letter effect: the earlier an English word deviates from its Spanish equivalent, the lower it is rated. Similarly, the more orthographically similar an English suffix is to its Spanish suffix equivalent, the higher its rating.

  13. "Spanish for Medical Professionals" an interactive videodisc program. (United States)

    Shmarak, A D


    "Spanish for Medical Professionals" is an application authored using the IBM InfoWindow Presentation System (IWPS). It consists of a double-sided videodisc featuring four doctor/patient dialogues interrupted by comprehension quizzes, plus a large visual and audio data base for drill and practice of Spanish words and phrases in the following classifications: Medical History, Review of Systems, Anatomy Vocabulary, General Vocabulary and Pronunciation Guide. These five broad headings yield easy access to more than seventy sub-groups of material available for practice. The entire application stresses communication, not diagnostic skill or interview techniques. This is not a course in basic Spanish, but rather a needs-based language course designed to teach Spanish for a medical environment. Basic knowledge of Spanish is strongly recommended as a prerequisite.

  14. Developing a course to teach Spanish for health care professionals. (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Timmerman, Gayle M; Sands, Dolores


    To make the baccalaureate nursing curriculum more responsive to changing U.S. demographics, the School of Nursing at The University of Texas at Austin instituted a required course, titled Spanish for Health Care Professionals. This course, developed in collaboration with the University's Department of Spanish and Portuguese, focuses on conversational Spanish using the communicative language teaching approach, rather than grammar and medical terminology instruction. Class activities, along with course materials, are linked to nursing practice. Course assignments are designed to develop authentic communication in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and understanding culture, and students demonstrated oral and written linguistic gains in relation to their Spanish fluency and accuracy. Because the Hispanic population is now the largest minority group in the United States, this course will help nurses communicate with Spanish-speaking patients.

  15. Validation of the Spanish SIRS with monolingual Hispanic outpatients. (United States)

    Correa, Amor A; Rogers, Richard; Hoersting, Raquel


    Psychologists are faced with formidable challenges in making their assessment methods relevant to growing numbers of Hispanic clients for whom English is not the primary or preferred language. Among other clinical issues, the determination of malingering has profound consequences for clients. In this investigation, we evaluated a Spanish translation of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms (SIRS; Rogers, Bagby, & Dickens, 1992) with 80 Spanish-speaking Hispanic American outpatients. Using a between-subjects simulation design, the Spanish SIRS was found to produce reliable results with small standard errors of measurement. Regarding validity, very large effect sizes (mean Cohen's d= 2.00) were observed between feigners and honest responders for the SIRS primary scales. We consider the potential role of the Spanish SIRS with reference to Spanish translations for other assessment instruments.

  16. Accuracy of physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency. (United States)

    Rosenthal, Anne; Wang, Frances; Schillinger, Dean; Pérez Stable, Eliseo J; Fernandez, Alicia


    As health systems strive to meet the needs of linguistically diverse patient populations, determining a physician's non-English language proficiency is becoming increasingly important. However, brief, validated measures are lacking. To determine if any of four self-reported measures of physician Spanish language proficiency are useful measures of fluency in Spanish. Physician self-report of Spanish proficiency was compared to Spanish-speaking patients' report of their physicians' language proficiency. 110 Spanish-speaking patients and their 46 physicians in two public hospital clinics with professional interpreters available. Physicians rated their Spanish fluency with four items: one general fluency question, two clinically specific questions, and one question on interpreter use. Patients were asked if their doctor speaks Spanish ("yes/no"). Concordance, sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values (PPV, NPV) were calculated for each of the items, and receiver operating (ROC) curves were used to compare performance characteristics. Concordance between physician and patient reports of physician Spanish proficiency ranged from 84 to 91%. The PPV for each of the four items ranged from 91 to 99%, the NPV from 60 to 90%, and the area under their ROC curves from 90 to 95%. The general fluency question gave the best combination of PPV and NPV, and the item on holding sensitive discussions had the highest PPV, 99%. Physicians who reported fluency as "fair" were as likely to have patients report they did not speak Spanish as that they did. Physician self-report of Spanish language proficiency is highly correlated with patient report, except when physicians report "fair" general fluency. In settings where no financial or other incentives are linked to language skills, simple questions may be a useful way to assess physician language proficiency.

  17. Spanish-English or English-Spanish in California: The Dialectics of Language in a Sociocultural Historical Context (United States)

    Garcia, Sara Soledad


    This is an analysis of California history of the shifting of language policies from Spanish to English, as an Official Language The focus is English as an imposed language that from the beginning of schooling policies stifle a process of language acquisition for the majority of Spanish speakers. In 1849 the California Constitution stipulated that…

  18. Self-Regulation Abilities and Spanish-Speaking Preschoolers' Vocabulary and Letter-Word Skills in Spanish and English (United States)

    Palermo, Francisco; Mikulski, Ariana M.; Conejo, L. Diego


    Research Findings: This study examined the heterogeneity in Spanish-speaking children's (N = 117; M age = 53 months; SD = 5 months; 57% boys) vocabulary and letter-word skills in English and Spanish after one year of preschool and the extent to which early self-regulation abilities (i.e., executive function and effortful control) were associated…

  19. How Native Do They Sound? An Acoustic Analysis of the Spanish Vowels of Elementary Spanish Immersion Students (United States)

    Menke, Mandy R.


    Language immersion students' lexical, syntactic, and pragmatic competencies are well documented, yet their phonological skill has remained relatively unexplored. This study investigates the Spanish vowel productions of a cross-sectional sample of 35 one-way Spanish immersion students. Learner productions were analyzed acoustically and compared to…

  20. Curriculum Guide for Spanish for Spanish Speakers = Curso de Estudios de Espanol para los Hispano-Parlantes. (United States)

    Chicago Board of Education, IL. Dept. of Curriculum.

    The City of Chicago's curriculum guide for public school Spanish native language instruction in grades 7, 8, and 9 has two sections, one in English and a corresponding one in Spanish. The program is primarily, though not exclusively, oriented toward the large Mexican immigrant community in the city with varied academic skills and experience with…

  1. Predicting Bilingual Spanish-English Children's Phonological Awareness Abilities from Their Preschool English and Spanish Oral Language (United States)

    Scarpino, Shelley E.; Lawrence, Frank R.; Davison, Megan D.; Hammer, Carol S.


    This longitudinal study investigated the relationship between oral language abilities and phonological awareness in 85 typically developing, Spanish-English preschool children (average age in preschool was 3 years, 9 months). Receptive language skills in Spanish and English were assessed in the autumn and spring during the children's 2 years in…

  2. Cuentos de ayer y de hoy (Stories of Yesterday and Today), Spanish-S: 7509.02. (United States)

    Suarez, Maria

    This course is designed to help students improve their oral and written expression as well as their ability to summarize. Stories by Spanish and Spanish American writers are used. Students also have the opportunity to reinforce skills in recognizing the importance of writing as an efficient means of communication, and experience is provided in…

  3. Stroke prevalence among the Spanish elderly: an analysis based on screening surveys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz-Guzmán Jaime


    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study sought to describe stroke prevalence in Spanish elderly populations and compare it against that of other European countries. Methods We identified screening surveys -both published and unpublished- in Spanish populations, which fulfilled specific quality requirements and targeted prevalence of stroke in populations aged 70 years and over. Surveys covering seven geographically different populations with prevalence years in the period 1991–2002 were selected, and the respective authors were then asked to provide descriptions of the methodology and raw age-specific data by completing a questionnaire. In addition, five reported screening surveys in European populations furnished useful data for comparison purposes. Prevalence data were combined, using direct adjustment and logistic regression. Results The overall study population, resident in central and north-eastern Spain, totalled 10,647 persons and yielded 715 cases. Age-adjusted prevalences, using the European standard population, were 7.3% for men, 5.6% for women, and 6.4% for both sexes. Prevalence was significantly lower in women, OR 0.79 95% CI 0.68–0.93, increased with age, particularly among women, and displayed a threefold spatial variation with statistically significant differences. Prevalences were highest, 8.7%, in suburban, and lowest, 3.8%, in rural populations. Compared to pooled Spanish populations, statistically significant differences were seen in eight Italian populations, OR 1.39 95%CI (1.18–1.64, and in Kungsholmen, Sweden, OR 0.40 95%CI (0.27–0.58. Conclusion Prevalence in central and north-eastern Spain is higher in males and in suburban areas, and displays a threefold geographic variation, with women constituting the majority of elderly stroke sufferers. Compared to reported European data, stroke prevalence in Spain can be said to be medium and presents similar age- and sex-specific traits.

  4. Central Solenoid

    CERN Multimedia


    The Central Solenoid (CS) is a single layer coil wound internally in a supporting cylinder housed in the cryostat of the Liquid Argon Calorimeter. It was successfully tested at Toshiba in December 2000 and was delivered to CERN in September 2001 ready for integration in the LAr Calorimeter in 2003. An intermediate test of the chimney and proximity cryogenics was successfully performed in June 2002.

  5. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK


    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  6. Performance of Spanish/English bilingual children on a spanish-language neuropsychological battery: preliminary normative data. (United States)

    Rosselli, Mónica; Ardila, Alfredo; Navarrete, M Gina; Matute, Esmeralda


    Despite a population of close to 40 million Hispanics/Latinos in the USA who have at least some level of Spanish/English bilingualism, there are few neuropsychological tests and norms available for this group, especially when assessing Spanish/English bilingual children. The purpose of the present research was to provide preliminary normative data for a bilingual population on a comprehensive neuropsychological battery developed for Spanish-speaking children (Evaluación Neuropsicológica Infantil). Norms by age are presented on the performance of 108 Spanish/English bilingual children (ages 5-14 years) and are expected to be useful when testing other Spanish/English bilingual children in the USA.

  7. Aftershocks series monitoring of the September 18, 2004 M = 4.6 earthquake at the western Pyrenees: A case of reservoir-triggered seismicity? (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Gaspà, O.; Gallart, J.; Díaz, J.; Pulgar, J. A.; García-Sansegundo, J.; López-Fernández, C.; González-Cortina, J. M.


    On September 18, 2004, a 4.6 mbLg earthquake was widely felt in the region around Pamplona, at the western Pyrenees. Preliminary locations reported an epicenter less than 20 km ESE of Pamplona and close to the Itoiz reservoir, which started impounding in January 2004. The area apparently lacks of significant seismic activity in recent times. After the main shock, which was preceded by series of foreshocks reaching magnitudes of 3.3 mbLg, a dense temporal network of 13 seismic stations was deployed there to monitor the aftershocks series and to constrain the hypocentral pattern. Aftershock determinations obtained with a double-difference algorithm define a narrow epicentral zone of less than 10 km 2, ESE-WNW oriented. The events are mainly concentrated between 3 and 9 km depth. Focal solutions were computed for the main event and 12 aftershocks including the highest secondary one of 3.8 mbLg. They show mainly normal faulting with some strike-slip component and one of the nodal planes oriented NW-SE and dipping to the NE. Cross-correlation techniques applied to detect and associate events with similar waveforms, provided up to 33 families relating the 67% of the 326 relocated aftershocks. Families show event clusters grouped by periods and migrating from NW to SE. Interestingly, the narrow epicentral zone inferred here is located less than 4 km away from the 111-m high Itoiz dam. These hypocentral results, and the correlation observed between fluctuations of the reservoir water level and the seismic activity, favour the explanation of this foreshock-aftershock series as a rapid response case of reservoir-triggered seismicity, burst by the first impoundment of the Itoiz reservoir. The region is folded and affected by shallow dipping thrusts, and the Itoiz reservoir is located on the hangingwall of a low angle southward verging thrust, which might be a case sensible to water level fluctuations. However, continued seismic monitoring in the coming years is mandatory in

  8. Fluid systems and fracture development during syn-depositional fold growth: example from the Pico del Aguilla anticline, Sierras Exteriores, Southern Pyrenees, Spain. (United States)

    Beaudoin, Nicolas; Huyghe, Damien; Bellahsen, Nicolas; Lacombe, Olivier; Emmanuel, Laurent; Mouthereau, Frédéric; Ouanhon, Laure


    This study presents a reconstruction of fold-fracture-fluid evolution at the Pico del Aguila Anticline, located on the southwestern front of the Jaca piggy-back basin, Southern Pyrenees, Spain. The kinematic evolution of the Pico del Aguila anticline is related to the successive development of N-S ramps and reactivation of E-W striking basement thrusts that occurred coevally with sedimentation in the foreland basin. Consequently, this anticline offers an ideal frame to assess the evolution of the fluid system during the syn-depositional deformation at the front of a fold-thrust belt. Eight fracture sets (joints or faults) observed at fold-scale compose the fracture sequence defined by field and micro-scale chronological relationships. This fracture sequence reflects the Middle Eocene to Early Oligocene tectonic events and the progressive rotation of some fracture sets from NE-SW to E-W witnesses the clockwise rotation that occurred during folding. ∂18O and ∂13C values from vein cements suggest a fluid system buffered by host rocks in most cases. Fluid inclusion microthermometry measurements indicate a fluid entrapment temperature <50°C, supporting that the fluid system reflects strata burial during the main part of strata history. Small-scale vertical migrations from reservoir to reservoir are triggered by fractures related to strata-curvature, both during foreland flexure/forebulge and fold development. After folding, fractures developing in shallow sub-continental to continental strata triggered downward migration of surficial fluids, likely of meteoric origin. This phenomenon is poorly developed in early marine deposits but strongly influenced the fluid system recorded in the late continental deposits. The case study of the Pico del Aguila supports recent finding that fold-fluid systems seem to exhibit a common behavior during folding, with development of curvature-related joints triggering vertical migration of fluids from a reservoir to another. It also

  9. Stable isotope constraints on the origin and depth of penetration of hydrothermal fluids associated with Hercynian regional metamorphism and crustal anatexis in the Pyrenees (United States)

    Wickham, Stephen M.; Taylor, Hugh P.


    Late Carboniferous (Hercynian) tectonism in the Pyrenees generated extremely steep thermal gradients at 8 14 km depth in the continental crust, producing andalusite- and sillimanite-grade metamorphism and partial melting of Lower Paleozoic metasediments under water-rich conditions. At the same time, amphibolite- and granulitefacies “basal gneisses” were equilibrated under dryer conditions at pressures of 4 to 7 kbar (14 25 km depth), beneath these higher-level rocks. We present 95 new oxygen isotopic analyses of samples from the Agly, St. Barthelemy, Castillon and Trois Seigneurs Massifs, highlighting contrasting 18O/16O systematics at different structural levels in the Hercynian crust, here termed Zones 1, 2, and 3. The unmetamorphosed, fossiliferous, Paleozoic shales and carbonates of Zone 1 have typical sedimentary δ 18O values, mostly in the range +14 to +16 for the pelitic rocks and +20 to +25 for the carbonates. The metamorphosed equivalents of these rocks in Zone 2 all have strikingly uniform and much lower δ 18O values; the metapelites mostly have δ 18O=+10 to +12, and interlayered metacarbonates from the Trois Seigneurs Massif have δ 18O of about +12 to +14. Typically, the Zone 3 “basal gneisses” are isotopically heterogeneous with variable δ 18O values ranging from +6 in mafic lithologies to +22 in carbonate-rich lithologies. Steep gradients in δ 18O (as much as 10 per mil over a few cm) are preserved at the margins of some metacarbonate layers. These data indicate that the Zone 3 gneisses were infiltrated by much smaller volumes of metamorphic pore fluids than were the overlying Zone 2 rocks, and that circulation of surface-derived H2O (either seawater or formation waters, as evidenced by high δD values) was mainly confined to the Paleozoic supracrustal sedimentary pile. This is compatible with an overall reduction of interconnected porosity with increasing depth, but perhaps even more important, the extensive partial melting at the base

  10. Spanish Darwinian iconography: Darwin and evolutionism portrayed in Spanish press cartoons. (United States)

    Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna


    The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science.

  11. Posthumous Tales of One, Great, Free Nation: Spanishness in post-Franco Spanish Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Expósito, Alfredo


    Full Text Available An important form of transmission of knowledge about the Spanish nation is based on the continuous telling of stories in which the nation features as a suprahistorical, perennial entity. Myths of national origin, golden-age legends, and epics of national heroes are some of these stories. This mode of access to knowledge assumes a suspension of disbelief for the audience, and precludes other attempts to comprehend the nation through scientific research. Subjective national identities constructed upon such suspension of disbelief have a tendency to reify, personify or even deify the nation. In the struggle between mythic and objective knowledge, the question of authenticity becomes a hotly contested arena. This paper attempts to address questions of mythical national representation in Spanish films of 1975-2000.

  12. Longitudinal analysis of Spanish doctoral theses in education (1841-2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Bautista, Andrés


    Full Text Available This article analyzes the research output of doctoral theses in the field of Education defended in Spain from 1841-2012. It offers a quantified global and diachronic view of such series. As a landmark to note is the fact that until 1954, obtaining a doctoral degree was centralized at the Complutense University of Madrid. They are used as search engines bibliographic databases: TESEO and institutional repositories, and basic bibliography of the area to carry out the collection of the sample. The contrasting hypothesis is to verify whether the time series partially follows the pattern of growth of the science of Derek J. de Solla Price. The central finding is that the Spanish production of doctoral theses in education is adjusted to a quasi-logistic model with a worrying falling trend in the last twelve years.

  13. Spanish Atlanteans’: Crisis of Empire and reconstruction of Spanish Monarchy (1672-1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Albaladejo, Pablo


    Full Text Available As a result of a internal crisis, the Spanish Monarchy underwent a process of redefinition between the end of the seventeenth century and the decade of the 1740s. By synthesizing traditional Spanish historiography with the insights of an incipient brand of European modernity, Spanish authors crafted a peculiar account of the “unknown past” of their body politic. The Spanish atlántidas rose to become creators of a great empire and protagonists in the founding of European culture. A new national imaginary emerged that legitimized the task of redefinition. With variations, this concern with origins dominated Spain’s introspection in the eighteenth century.Afectada por una profunda crisis interna, la Monarquía de España experimentó un proceso de redefinición identitaria entre el último tercio del siglo XVII y los años cuarenta del siglo XVIII. En una particular síntesis entre la tradición historiográfica propia y las propuestas que llegaban desde la incipiente modernidad europea, los autores de ese proceso configuraron un primer relato del “tiempo desconocido” de ese cuerpo político. Los atlántidas españoles irrumpieron como protagonistas de un renovado imaginario nacional, como un pueblo instituyente de la cultura europea y creador a la vez de un imperio grandioso que legitimaba la propia tarea de reconstrucción. Con variantes, esa preocupación por los orígenes dominaría la reflexión del siglo XVIII.

  14. Fiesta! Mexico and Central America: A Global Awareness Program for Children in Grades 2-5. Bridges between Nations Series. (United States)

    Linse, Barbara; Judd, Dick

    Mexican and Central American cultures are a blend of Native American influences and Spanish traditions and religions. These are seen in aspects of Mexican and Central American celebrations. This book explores those celebrations through activities in art, folk and classical music, dances and fiestas. The book is organized into two sections to…

  15. Towards methodological improvement in the Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amante García


    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has triggered many changes in the new degrees in Spanish universities, mainly in terms of methodology and assessment. However, in order to make such changes a success it is essential to have coordination within the teaching staff as well as active methodologies in use, which enhance and encourage students’ participation in all the activities carried out in the classroom. Most of all, when dealing with formative and summative evaluation, in which students become the ones responsible for their own learning process (López-Pastor, 2009; Torre, 2008. In this second issue of JOTSE we have included several teaching innovation experiences related to the above mentioned methodological and assessment changes.

  16. [The Spanish influence in Colombian nursing]. (United States)

    Velandia, A L


    Four statements inferenced from: religious traditions, gender or woman status, military heritage and ethnic inheritance, and their influence in nursing, are presented in this article. The ethnic inheritance analyses the issue based upon the cultural influences of the native-indigenous groups and the spanish and mediterranean attributes in nursing development. The religious tradition began with Pedro Claver's J.C. presence between 1610 and 1617. His presence is followed by the "Hermanos Hospitalarios de San Juan de Dios" in 1768, and further with the presence of the sisters of Charity in 1873. Lastly, the article compares the Barcelona's Santa Cruz hospital organization, where at that time, seems to appear a new type of nursing arrangement; with present functions and charges, currently utilized in colombian hospitals (administrator of patient rooms, "servidor", women in charge of female patients and sick children, "ecónoma", chief in charge, and senior male nurse).

  17. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax. (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J


    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo


    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  19. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia eAfonso


    Full Text Available Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Armas QUINTA


    Full Text Available In the current Information Society cities enjoy a privileged position when it comes to transport and communication infrastructures. The post-industrial society has brought with it a notable change, changing from an economy based on the production of merchandise to another based on the production of services. The metropolitan areas act as key areas and markets for predominant sectors, such as finance and specialised services for business. In another way, big cities fulfil new roles in the global economy of the Information society, operating as command points in the world economy. They bring equipment together highly-qualified workers, they are big information and knowledge consumers and have been able to reinvent themselves, changing from industrial to cultural cities. They are, as well, ideal areas for big telecommunication companies and they are, for this reason, those who most benefit from information and communication technology. An important social area difference has then been introduced, with respect to other urban areas of lesser importance, or rather, with respect to rural areas that stay on the margin of the new technology revolution. In this context, it is right to ask what is happening in Spain. Why are ICT inequalities happening in Spain? Are there urban system differences before the arrival of the Information Society? Can it be said that Spanish urban areas are consolidated in the Information Society? In this article we try to outline the reality of the immersion the Information Society in the Spanish urban system, and, in the same way, bring to light a new idea of „Digital Divide‟, amongst those sectors of the population that make the most of all or a great part of the potential new technology offers and those that limit themselves to using the most basic functions, such as looking up information and using communication.

  1. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults. (United States)

    Afonso, Olivia; Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando


    Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  2. Central pain. (United States)

    Singh, Supreet


    Questions from patients about pain conditions and analgesic pharmacotherapy and responses from authors are presented to help educate patients and make them more effective self-advocates. The topic addressed in this issue is central pain, a neuropathic pain syndrome caused by a lesion in the brain or spinal cord that sensitizes one's perception of pain. It is a debilitating condition caused by various diseases such as multiple sclerosis, strokes, spinal cord injuries, or brain tumors. Varied symptoms and the use of pharmacological medicines and nonpharmacological therapies will be addressed.

  3. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez


    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  4. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks (United States)

    Hardin, Karol


    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  5. The Traits of Effective Spanish Writing = Las caracteristicas de la buena escritura en espanol. Second Edition. (United States)

    Flores, Will A.; Arrasmith, Dean G.

    This English-Spanish language report includes the rationale for creating an assessment model for Spanish writing, offering an overview of the components of high quality assessment for any subject area, particularly Spanish writing. It presents the characteristics of effective Spanish writing, rubrics for scoring student performance based on the…

  6. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (United States)


    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  7. How Important Is Teaching Phonemic Awareness to Children Learning to Read in Spanish? (United States)

    Goldenberg, Claude; Tolar, Tammy D.; Reese, Leslie; Francis, David J.; Bazán, Antonio Ray; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca


    This comparative study examines relationships between phonemic awareness and Spanish reading skill acquisition among three groups of Spanish-speaking first and second graders: children in Mexico receiving reading instruction in Spanish and children in the United States receiving reading instruction in either Spanish or English. Children were…

  8. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.


    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  9. Tracing the Spanish Language/Determinando el Origen del Idioma Espanol. (United States)

    Lozano, Anthony G.


    Discusses the history of the Spanish language in America and notes the influence of Caribbean languages, Nahuatl, and English on Spanish. Describes the archaisms in lexicon, phonology, and grammar of the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado. Discusses Spanish language maintenance in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the United States. (SB)

  10. A Non-Traditional Approach to the Teaching of Urban Spanish and Caribbean Literature. (United States)

    Angerosa, Nicholas F.

    Two courses in the La Salle University (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) M.A. Program in Bilingual-Bicultural (Spanish) Studies are described: Urban Spanish and Caribbean Literature. The urban Spanish component consists of five courses, one of which is intensive, to provide broad exposure to the technical or practical Spanish encountered in the…

  11. Asymmetrical Mixing Patterns of Spanish and English in a New Immigrant Community (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J.


    Analysis of Spanish and English speech in a new immigrant community of Latinos in Georgia, USA, shows that Spanish and English pattern differently. There is a higher frequency of Spanish sentences containing English words than English sentences containing Spanish words. But the reverse is true of grammatical influence without mixing words. There…

  12. Paginas del estudiante de espanol (Pages for the Student of Spanish) (United States)

    Carballo Picazo, Alfredo


    The fifteenth in a series of workbook lessons, this consists of a passage in Spanish concerning the Spanish city of Avila. Following are exercises on vocabulary and passives in English and Spanish to be completed by the student. (Text is in English and Spanish.) (CK)

  13. Cuentos Faciles. Habia una vez.... (Simple Stories. There was a Time....) (Presenting Simple Stories in Spanish.) (United States)

    Arroyo, Nancy; And Others

    For Spanish-speaking children, simple stories in Spanish, told in a natural language suitable for their age, are not only entertaining, but a means of developing vocabulary and concepts. Non-Spanish-speaking children, too, need exposure to more language than they can understand word for word. However, the simple stories for the Spanish speaker…

  14. Masked Translation Priming: Varying Language Experience and Word Type with Spanish-English Bilinguals (United States)

    Davis, Chris; Sanchez-Casas, Rosa; Garcia-Albea, Jose E.; Guasch, Marc; Molero, Margarita; Ferre, Pilar


    Spanish-English bilingual lexical organization was investigated using masked cognate and non-cognate priming with the lexical decision task. In Experiment 1, three groups of bilinguals (Spanish dominant, English dominant and Balanced) and a single group of beginning bilinguals (Spanish) were tested with Spanish and English targets primed by…

  15. Perceptual assimilation of Dutch vowels by Peruvian Spanish listeners. (United States)

    Escudero, Paola; Williams, Daniel


    Many cross-language and L2 speech perception studies have been conducted on English sounds and a limited number of speakers or synthetic tokens have been used for auditory stimuli. The Spanish listeners of the present study were presented with natural tokens of Dutch vowels produced by males and females selected from the corpus reported in Adank et al. [(2004) J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 1729-1738]. The results show that single category assimilations are common and that certain Dutch vowels frequently assimilate to Spanish diphthongs. Predictions are made for Spanish learners' initial stage in the acquisition of the Dutch vowel system.

  16. The influence of English on Spanish fashion terminology: -ing forms


    Balteiro Fernández, Isabel


    As has been the case with other European languages, Spanish has welcomed the arrival of English words, in spite of all purist efforts to the contrary. Moreover, it has not only adopted and adapted true Anglicisms but it has also created other forms based on English patterns, such mechanisms particularly visible in the fashion jargon in Spanish. In this paper we focus on -ing forms in the Spanish language of fashion, which may at times be genuine Anglicisms (formal or semantic ones) or false A...

  17. Economic anglicisms: adaptation to the Spanish linguistic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma López Zurita


    Full Text Available The enormous number of anglicisms used everyday in Spanish language generates lexical interference between both languages. This paper provides a semantic analysis of the changes in lexis this language contact brings about, through the different linguistic mechanisms of inter-language adaptation involved. When these anglicisms come from the current trend to include English words in Spanish discourse, we also add appropriate equivalents which could avoid the excess of redundant neologisms. A glossary of the most habitual terms derived from interference in English and Spanish in the economic field is included as a result of this study.

  18. A study the degree of concentration of the Spanish bunkering



    This paper shows the Gini Coefficient of the Spanish bunkering, for the Spanish Port System 1960 to the year 2010 with the aim to describe the Spanish bunkering in these periods and propose future strategies. The stage of bunkering must change due to new regulations of marine fuels but to predict the future you must know the past On December 17 came into force on community standard marine fuels. After a complicated negotiation with the industry moves forward a project that is fully compliant ...

  19. Spanish stop-rhotic sequences in Spanish-Basque bilinguals and second language learners: An acoustic study (United States)

    Weissglass, Christine A.

    This dissertation investigates transfer and markedness in bilingual and L2 Spanish stop-rhotic sequences (e.g., the 'br' in brisa 'breeze'). It also examines the phonetics-phonology interface in Spanish. To this end, it explores the production of these sequences in two different experiments. Experiment 1 compares the production of these sequences by 6 Spanish monolinguals and 6 Spanish-Basque bilinguals. Experiment 2 does so for 25 L2 learners and 5 native Spanish speakers. Acoustic analysis of these sequences revealed that Spanish-Basque bilinguals produced trills 5% of the time whereas Spanish monolinguals did not have any trills. Additionally, fricative rhotics and coarticulation accounted for 35% of L2 realizations, but were not present in the native Spanish speaker dataset. These findings indicate a role for transfer in both bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, although it is more prevalent in the L2 learner dataset. This is in line with the Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995), which posits a stronger role for transfer amongst late learners (i.e., L2 learners) than early learners (i.e., Spanish-Basque bilinguals). In order to examine the role of markedness in bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, this dissertation investigates the role of sonority in bilingual and L2 Spanish syllable structure. To do so, it proposes a sonority hierarchy for rhotic variants based on their specifications for voicing, intensity and continuancy. According to this hierarchy, approximant rhotics are the most sonorous, followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Therefore, approximant rhotics were expected to be the most common realization followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Although Spanish monolinguals adhered to this expectation, the other groups did not; taps were the most common realization for Spanish-Basque bilinguals, L2 learners, and native Spanish speakers and fricative rhotics were more common than trills for Spanish-Basque bilinguals and L2

  20. Spanish R and D programs on hydrogen and fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Garcia-Conde, A.; Ben Pendones, R. [Instituto Nacional de Tecnica Aeroespacial (INTA), Departamento de Aerodinamica y Propulsion, Madrid (Spain)


    Since 1988 INTA (the National Institute for Aerospace Technology in Spain) has been running hydrogen and fuel cells activities supported by own funds. Up to 1996, subsidies from the regional government of Andalucia (south of Spain), were provided for building a solar hydrogen production pilot plant based on photovoltaic powered water electrolysis. At present there is not a specific programme devoted to hydrogen energy and fuel cells in Spain, however, the Spanish Plan for Scientific Research, Technological Development and Innovation (2004-2007) in the energy area, will consider these topics as separate items included in the priority devoted to renewable energies and emerging technologies. This means that part of the R and D budget will be allocated for hydrogen and fuel cells projects but competing with the rest of renewable energies projects. Nevertheless the possibilities to approve projects for national funding are considered in a very wide and detailed way in the rationale of the national R and D programme, as mentioned in the following paragraphs: Hydrogen, by means of fuel cells technological evolution, presents a potential to become in the long term an energy carrier that changes the energetic sector configuration, making it safer, more efficient and more respectful with environment. For achieving this goal, a number of technological barriers must be overcome within production, storage, distribution and final supply, both for its utilization in transport and stationary applications. Fuel Cells are gaining in Spain increasing importance both for stationary and transport utilization, as a consequence of its different types, modular characteristics and the possibility for utilization in different applications, as domestic use, distributed and centralized generation. Due to its wide variety of possibilities and its characteristics of low environmental impact and reduced noise production, fuel cells become themselves a energetic objective. (O.M.)

  1. Community Colleges and Spanish Language Instruction: Peer Pedagogy in Prison (United States)

    Drew, Jenifer D.; Duval, José; Cyr, James R.


    Three authors describe a collaboration between a Massachusetts college and a nearby prison, which leveraged the volunteer efforts of a college professor by including incarcerated men who assisted in Spanish language teaching inside and outside the classroom.

  2. Libros y mas libros: Recommended Children's Books in Spanish. (United States)

    Schon, Isabel


    Provides an annotated bibliography of recommended Spanish-language children's books. A total of 15 books are grouped in the following categories: (1) books for the very young; (2) fiction; (3) folklore; (4) literature; (5) poetry; and (6) history. (EV)

  3. Let Them Talk!: Teaching High School Spanish Conversation. (United States)

    Konopacki, Steven


    Describes the use of conversational partnerships (CP) in high school Spanish classes. CPs seek to improve spoken proficiency by allowing students to rehearse conversational roles, plan strategies, and polish pronunciation. (CB)

  4. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Children and Adolescents. (United States)

    Schon, Isabel


    Lists Spanish language books for children ranging from wordless picture books to adolescent love stories and translated popular novels. This year's list includes publishers from Latin America, in particular Mexico's Fondo de Cultura Economica. (MMU)

  5. Trace elements based classification on clinkers. Application to Spanish clinkers


    Tamás, F. D.; Abonyi, J.; Puertas, F.


    The qualitative identification to determine the origin (i.e. manufacturing factory) of Spanish clinkers is described. The classification of clinkers produced in different factories can be based on their trace element content. Approximately fifteen clinker sorts are analysed, collected from 11 Spanish cement factories to determine their Mg, Sr, Ba, Mn, Ti, Zr, Zn and V content. An expert system formulated by a binary decision tree is designed based on the collected data. The performance of the...

  6. Spanish "fine tuning" of language to describe depression and anxiety


    Noguera, A. (Antonio); Centeno-Cortes, C. (Carlos); Carvajal,A; Portela, M.A. (María Angustias); Urdiroz, J. (Julia); M. Martínez


    On screening tools for emotional distress, the terms "depression" and "anxiety" are commonly used for patients with advanced cancer. However, these terms could have negative connotations in Spanish such that cultural and unexpected differences in perception may invalidate or skew the results of the screening if the best terms are not chosen. The goal of this study was to determine the best expression that can be used to explore anxiety and depression in Spanish. A prospective study of 100 Spa...

  7. False anglicisms in the Spanish language of fashion and beauty


    Isabel Balteiro; Miguel Ángel Campos


    Many works have already dealt with anglicisms in Spanish, especially in science and information technologies. However, despite the high and growing number of English terms incorporated daily by the language of fashion, it has received comparative less attention in lexicographic and terminological studies than that of other areas, such as science or business. For several reasons, which include prestige or peer pressure, Spanish has not only adopted English words with new meanings and usage, bu...

  8. Spanish Government delegation in the ISR workshop clean room

    CERN Multimedia


    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Some delegates were particularly interested in advanced technologies. The picture shows them in the ISR workshop clean room looking at components of vacuum chambers for experiments. From left to right: a delegate, Director-General Herwig Schopper demonstrating the lightness of a titanium chamber, another delegate, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine and Romeo Perin. See also 8202369.

  9. The Universality of Semantic Prototypes in Spanish Lexical Availability


    Marjana Šifrar Kalan


    The article presents the words with highest index of availability on the basis of semantic fluency tests. The conceptual stability of highly available words in various semantic categories enables them to be classified as semantic prototypes according to the theory of prototype. The aim of this article is to compare the semantic prototypes in nine semantic categories from different lexical availability studies: those carried out in Spanish as a mother tongue and Spanish as a foreign language (...

  10. An overview of Spanish labour market reforms, 1985-2002


    Gil Martín, Samuel


    Most European countries are affected by high unemployment rates. Among the OECD countries, the performance of the Spanish labour market is among the worst as far as employment activity is concerned, with unemployment rates during the 1990s having reached levels far exceeding 20%. Accordingly, employment creation has been one of the primary challenges facing the Spanish government since 1980. We follow the approached used by the OECD, by which a division into passive and active polici...

  11. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO)

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R; Balaguer-Núñez, L; Jordi, C; Pancino, E; Allende-Prieto, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Mártinez-Vázquez, C E; Murabito, S; del Pino, A; Aparicio, A; Gallart, C; Recio-Blanco, A


    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 open clusters older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc using open clusters as tracers.

  12. Characteristics of Spanish adolescents’ and youngsters’ civic activity: e- citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fuentes Esparrell


    Full Text Available In this study we aim to illustrate and provide data on the access, use, equipment, habits and motivations of Spanish adolescents and young people towards ICT (computers, networks, internet, mobile phones.... We will focus mainly on social networks and mobile telephony as the main technologies currently in use. Thus, we can gain an insight into the main features of civic activity among Spanish adolescents and youngsters for proper e‐citizenship.

  13. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories Survey (OCCASO) (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Pancino, E.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Murabito, S.; del Pino, A.; Aparicio, A.; Gallart, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.


    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 OCs older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk using OCs as tracers.

  14. Bauhäusler on the Franco-Spanish Border


    Laura Martínez de Guereñu


    This article focuses on the travels of Bauhaus masters and instructors and on the transport of Bauhaus products to Spain in 1929, when the Franco-Spanish border was still culturally permeable. Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Marcel Breuer introduced their tubular-steel furniture in the Spanish market. Mies and Lilly Reich designed the interiors of all German industrial sections at the Barcelona International Exposition, where the Bauhaus sent objects from its carpentry, metal, and weaving worksh...

  15. Prevention of adolescent depression in the Spanish-speaking world. (United States)

    Horn, Andrea B; Cañizares, Catalina; Gómez, Yvonne


    This paper aims at presenting programs targeted at the prevention of adolescent depression applied with Spanish-speaking populations that have been developed in Spanish-speaking countries and are mostly published in Spanish. These programs have been developed under different cultural contexts in Spain and Latin-America. The main goal of this paper is to make the studies and movements of the Spanish-speaking literature in this field accessible to the non-Spanish-speaking part of the research community. Therefore, after an introduction referring to possible cultural differences regarding depression in general and epidemiological basics, several programs are introduced. In total 11 programs will be shortly presented and discussed. After revising the programs it can be concluded that in the Spanish-speaking world many programs have been developed and conducted following current state of the art-approaches for adolescent depression prevention. Further research is needed especially targeting possible cultural and contextual aspects of prevention measures and their efficacy and efficiency.

  16. Elemental compositions of Spanish and Spanish-colonial majolica ceramics and their use in the identification of provenience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, J.S.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.


    Neutron activation analysis, x-ray diffraction, and petrographic analysis were used to obtain evidence of the origin of pottery and ceramic sherds found in the New World and related to the Spanish empire. (GHT)

  17. Effects of a Supplemental Spanish Oral Language Program on Sentence Length, Complexity, and Grammaticality in Spanish-Speaking Children Attending English-Only Preschools (United States)

    Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Castilla, Anny P.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Hamilton, Claire E.; Arboleda, Alejandra


    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supplemental Spanish language instruction program for children who spoke Spanish as their native language and were attending English-only preschool programs. Specifically, the study evaluated the program's effects on the children's Spanish sentence length in words, subordination…

  18. Enticing Spanish-Speaking Adolescents: Recent Books in Spanish for Every Taste/Cautivar a los Adolescentes Hispanohablantes: Libros Recientes en Espanol Para Todos los Gustos. (United States)

    Schon, Isabel


    Argues that books in Spanish can engage Spanish-speaking students in the reading process, and that fostering the love of reading is a necessary first step to reading proficiency in any language. Offers brief descriptions of 16 recently published books in Spanish, and describes a large database of recommended books for children and adolescents in…

  19. Using Spanish-speaking films for helping learners of Spanish as a foreign language acquire cultural competence



    This paper aims to point out the usefulness of Spanish-speaking films in teaching Spanish as a foreign language. As feature films are not created for the purposes of language teaching, they cannot be considered didactic materials per se. However, their usefulness for teaching a foreign language lies exactly in this feature of theirs, distinguishing them from other resources created solely for educational purposes, because they can be used as didactic materials in a different guise, which make...

  20. The Beginning Spanish Lexicon: A Web-based interface to calculate phonological similarity among Spanish words in adults learning Spanish as a foreign language. (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S; Stamer, Melissa K; Kieweg, Douglas


    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon. The present report describes the words contained in this web-accessible resource, and the information about those words provided by the interface. This information is freely accessible at:

  1. [Spelling development in the Spanish language]. (United States)

    Jiménez, Juan E; O'Shanahan, Isabel; de la Luz Tabraue, María; Artiles, Ceferino; Muñetón, Mercedes; Guzmán, Remedios; Naranjo, Francisco; Rojas, Estefanía


    This study focused on spelling development in Spanish children from elementary grades. A sample of 1045 was selected from 2nd to 6th grade belonging to four schools in Tenerife Island with an age range between 7 and 12 years old (M = 113.8, SD = 17.6). We administered a standardized writing test that includes diverse subtests to assess spelling, ruled and not ruled, and various written composition tasks (i.e., writing a story based on vignettes, describing a character and writing a story). We calculated the average of correct spellings in each variable and school level, and we also analyzed the type of misspellings that children made across different writing tasks. We found that spelling is acquired by 4th-grade children when it is not ruled, whereas the spelling of ruled words is acquired by 5th-grade children. When we analyzed the misspellings in a dictation task, we found that the children confused spelling of the graphemes c/s/z/x. Across different writing tasks, we found that students committed more misspellings with the graphemes b/v, h y c/s/z/x before they finished the 4th elementary grade.

  2. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents. (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A


    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  3. CERN welcomes the Spanish Vice-President

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer


    On 29 September, CERN had the pleasure of welcoming the Vice-President of the Government of Spain, Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría, for a visit of the Laboratory.   From left to right: Lluis Miralles (Head of the General Infrastructure Services department), Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría (Vice-President of the Government of Spain) and José Miguel Jiménez (Head of the Technology department).   The Vice-President was accompanied by Carmen Vela, Spanish Secretary of State for Research, Development and Innovation, Bernardo de Sicart Escoda, Ambassador of Spain to Switzerland, and Ana Menéndez Pérez, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva. Their tour started at LHC Point 1, where CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer welcomed them and gave them an introduction to CERN's activities. Jos&ea...

  4. The Sonnets of Seamus Heaney in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert J. Miles


    Full Text Available This paper seeks to offer a more nuanced and further-reaching exploration of the translation of all of Seamus Heaney’s sonnets into a Spanish ‘collected’, lead by the Mexican poet Pura López-Colomé. Taking in critical thinking oncreativity and the ‘post-colonial’ sonnet as well as Heaney’s and López-Colomé’s own views and metaphorics relating to literary translation, this paper asks not only what Sonetos brings to the originals, but what they bring also to poetry and translation. The paper argues that Sonetos offers a distinct insight into questions of semantic faithfulness and the translator’s visibility, but also that whilst we must eschew metaphysical or essentialist language in analysis,the project of Sonetoshas alsobeen to communicate not just original poetry’s, but also translation’squalitiesas a strategyof (secular revelation. Keywords: Translation; Versioning, Sonnet, Poetry, Mexico, Seamus Heaney; Pura López Colomé, Creativity

  5. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers

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    Roberto Ramírez Heredia


    Full Text Available This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., creampuff. We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003 and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015.

  6. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers. (United States)

    Heredia, Roberto R; Cieślicka, Anna B


    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., "creampuff"). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015).

  7. Sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents: associations with TV watching and leisure-time physical activity. (United States)

    Ortega, Francisco B; Chillón, Palma; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Delgado, Manuel; Albers, Ulrike; Alvarez-Granda, Jesús L; Marcos, Ascensión; Moreno, Luis A; Castillo, Manuel J


    We aimed to describe the sleep patterns in Spanish adolescents and to examine the relationships of sleep duration and morning tiredness with participation in leisure-time physical-sporting activities (LT-PA) and television (TV) watching. Sleep duration, morning tiredness, participation in LT-PA and time spent on watching TV were reported by 2,179 (1,139 females) Spanish adolescents (AVENA study). Data were analyzed by binary logistic regression. One-fifth of the adolescents reported insufficient night sleep (sleep as long as adolescents from central Europe, and longer than those from other Mediterranean countries, South Africa, Asia and North America. Insufficient sleep duration doubled the odds of excessive TV watching (≥3 h/day) in males, regardless of morning tiredness (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.42-3.27). Morning tiredness reduced the odds of participating in any LT-PA in both males and females (0.49, 0.34-0.70 and 0.49, 0.35-0.69, respectively), and increased the odds of excessive TV watching in females, regardless of sleep duration (2.49, 1.64-3.79). We conclude that non-participation in LT-PA is associated with morning tiredness in male and female adolescents, while excessive TV watching is more associated with short sleep or morning tiredness depending on gender.

  8. Individual and social predictors of screen-viewing among Spanish school children. (United States)

    Hoyos Cillero, Itziar; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon


    Many children exceed suggested screen-viewing guidelines and this is likely to be a risk factor for obesity. Understanding the predictors of screen-viewing may be the first step in designing interventions that target these behaviours, but there is lack of information on predictors among Spanish children. This study examined associations between individual, friend and family based social variables and screen-viewing behaviours, and how these associations differ by age and gender in a sample of Spanish children. Participants were 247 primary school-aged and 256 secondary school-aged children and their parents. Children reported time spent in screen-viewing and information about individual and friend and family based social variables. Body mass index was assessed and children were classified using International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Parents reported sociodemographic characteristics and family co-viewing practices. Lower self-efficacy for reducing screen-viewing (console playing p influence children's screen-viewing and operate differently during childhood. Increasing self-efficacy may be important for screen-viewing based behaviour changes. Friends and parents play a central role, therefore understanding the dynamics of friends and targeting family influences may be critical to the success of interventions to reduce screen-viewing.

  9. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league. (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B


    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.

  10. Spanish "fine tuning" of language to describe depression and anxiety. (United States)

    Noguera, Antonio; Centeno, Carlos; Carvajal, Ana; Tejedor, María Angustias Portela; Urdiroz, Juliana; Martínez, Marina


    On screening tools for emotional distress, the terms "depression" and "anxiety" are commonly used for patients with advanced cancer. However, these terms could have negative connotations in Spanish such that cultural and unexpected differences in perception may invalidate or skew the results of the screening if the best terms are not chosen. The goal of this study was to determine the best expression that can be used to explore anxiety and depression in Spanish. A prospective study of 100 Spanish-speaking patients was performed. Spanish patients with cancer completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and six Verbal Numerical Scales (VNS) exploring the level of anxiety using the terms ansioso (anxious), nervioso (nervous), or intranquilo (uneasy/disquiet), and the level of depression using the terms deprimido (depressed), desanimado (discouraged), or triste (sad). The correlation, sensitivity, and specificity for all the VNS and HADS (8 and 11 cutoff points) were analyzed. The correlation (Spearman rho) between HADS and the anxiety VNS was r = 0.557 using "anxious"; r = 0.603 using "nervous"; and r = 0.594 using "uneasy." The correlation for the depression VNS was r = 0.662 using "depression"; r = 0.759 using "discouraged" and r = 0.596 using "sad"; alpha anxiety achieved the best levels for sensitivity (0.80) and specificity (0.70). The term "discouraged" with a cutoff point of 4 of 10 shows a sensitivity of 0.89, a specificity of 0.84, as well as a predictive positive value of 0.77 and a negative value of 0.93. In Spanish, the term desanimado seems to be more suitable in screening for depression. Alternate terms could be used to explore anxiety in Spanish. Exploring depression with simple questions in Spanish achieves greater accuracy than the same approach to exploring anxiety.

  11. Los efectos geoecológicos del cambio global en el Pirineo Central español: una revisión a distintas escalas espaciales y temporales

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    García-Ruiz, José M.


    Full Text Available We review the effects of climate variability and land use / land cover changes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at different spatial and temporal scales. Paleoclimatic studies based upon multi-proxy analyses of lacustrine, glacial and speleothematic deposits, among others, have demonstrated the occurrence of intense climatic fluctuations not only during the Late Upper Pleistocene associated to deglaciation, but also during the Holocene, affecting plant cover distribution, runoff generation, flood frequency, and the spatial organization of human activities, particularly during the 8.2 event, the Bronze Age, the Medieval Climatic Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. The study of the impact of human activity on landscape dynamics during the last 150 years has revealed dramatic changes in plant cover structure and distribution, in both the montane and the sub-alpine belts and, consequently, changes in runoff generation, soil erosion intensity, and sediment sources, whatever the spatial scale used. In general, the maximum human pressure on the territory was reached during the middle of the 19th century, with the cultivation of most of the south-facing slopes up to approximately 1650 m a.s.l., and the frequent use of fire to control shrub colonization, resulting in intense soil erosion and degradation processes, as well as the development of braided rivers with a high torrentiality. Farmland abandonment since the beginning of the 20th century (and, particularly, since the 1960s and the declining livestock pressure have favoured plant recolonization, with the expansion of shrubs and forests in the old cultivated and grazing areas, the human-induced reforestation of large hillslopes, and the treeline upward in the subalpine belt, in this latter case with the contribution of climate warming. The most outstanding consequences of such an evolution have been: (i the sustained decline of discharge in the Pyrenean rivers since the 1970s because of increasing actual

  12. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

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    Alfredo Arahuetes García


    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  13. Measuring parenting practices and family functioning with brief and simple instruments: validation of the Spanish version of the PAFAS. (United States)

    Mejia, Anilena; Filus, Ania; Calam, Rachel; Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R


    A set of instruments with different response formats is usually used to assess parenting practices in clinical settings and in research studies. These complex protocols can be problematic for parents with low-literacy levels. The Parenting and Family Adjustment Scales (PAFAS) is a brief, easy to read instrument that has been developed to address these concerns. The English version of this instrument suggested that it has good internal consistency (range from .70 to .96), as well as satisfactory construct and predictive validity. The aim of the present study was to explore the validity and reliability of the Spanish version of the PAFAS. A sample of 174 Spanish-speaking parents (85% mothers; M = 37 years old; SD = 9.1) from Panama in Central America completed the instrument alongside the Parenting Scale and the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS-21). Psychometric evaluations revealed that the measure had satisfactory construct and concurrent validity as well as good internal consistency (values >.60 for all subscales) and test-retest reliability (ICC >.60 for all subscales). The PAFAS shows promise as a brief outcome measure to assess parenting practices and family functioning with Spanish-speaking parents. Potential uses of the measure and implications for further validation with diverse samples are discussed.

  14. El espanol familiar y zonas afines--ensayo bibliografico: 26 (Colloquial Spanish and Related Areas--Bibliographic Essay: 26) (United States)

    Polo, Jose


    Discusses the study of colloquial Spanish in literary texts. Presents an annotated list of Spanish colloquial expressions extracted from "Paralelo 40" by Jose Luis Castillo-Puche. (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  15. Spanish listeners' perceptual patterns for English /i/ and /I/ (United States)

    Morrison, Geoffrey Stewart


    Spanish has five monophthongs which differ only in spectral properties. General Canadian English has ten monophthongs which differ in steady-state spectral properties and duration, and many nominal monophthongs have substantial diphthongization. Unlike Spanish, Canadian English also uses duration as a cue to postvocalic obstruent voicing. The present study investigates L1-English and L1-Spanish L2-English listeners perception of a Canadian English /bIt, bit, bId, bid/ continuum varying in steady-state spectral values and duration. Several patterns emerge in the L1-Spanish listeners data, including a contrary pattern in which duration is used in the same direction as L1-English listeners but spectral properties in the opposite direction. With respect to /i/ and /I/ perception, these patterns are generally consistent with the stages of learning proposed by Escudero [Unpublished Masters Thesis, Edinburgh University, 2000]: L1-Spanish listeners cannot initially perceive the difference, next they use duration properties, later they begin to use spectral properties, and finally they have L1-English-like primary use of spectral properties and secondary use of duration. Production data adds additional insight into the relationship of the perceptual patterns to the stages of learning.

  16. Abusive head trauma in Spanish language medical literature. (United States)

    Cooper, M Townsend; Szyld, Edgardo; Darden, Paul M


    Anecdotal experiences raise concerns that abusive head trauma (AHT) is significantly underdiagnosed and perhaps poorly recognized in Latin American settings. With increasing interest in international collaboration in pediatrics, differences in perspectives regarding complex diagnoses should be explored to facilitate a productive exchange of knowledge and ideas. The purpose of this study was to describe the medical literature pertaining to AHT available to physicians who read only in Spanish. In this review, LILACS, SciELO (major Spanish language databases) and Pubmed were searched with appropriate terms and filters in English, Spanish, and Portuguese for Spanish language articles on AHT. Identified articles' reference lists were then examined for possible additional articles on AHT. All relevant articles were sorted by country and examined for article type and content. Thirty-four unique articles were located for review from 8 of 21 countries. Most of the articles identified were case reports, case series, or educational, and there were no studies regarding overall incidence or prevalence of AHT. Some scientific information contained in the articles varied considerably from that in the English language literature in the areas of etiology and preventive strategies. This survey highlights that the Spanish language literature regarding AHT is sparse and variable. This must be considered when working collaboratively in a global setting. Additionally, identification of this gap presents an opportunity for education and information exchange among global medical communities.

  17. Stratigraphie et sédimentologie des « calcaires à Productus » du Carbonifère inférieur de la Montagne noire (Massif central, France)Stratigraphy and sedimentology of the Lower Carboniferous 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire (Massif Central, France) (United States)

    Poty, Édouard; Aretz, Markus; Barchy, Laurent

    The 'Calcaires à Productus' of the Montagne Noire are microbial build-ups. Two formations are defined and dated respectively as Uppermost Visean (Upper Warnantian-Brigantian) and Serpukhovian on the basis on corals. That makes these limestones out to be younger than previously stated (Lower and base of Upper Warnantian-Asbian and base of Brigantian) and indicates that the development of the olistoliths and thrusts including them, due to the Variscan orogeny, was at least as young as the Upper Serpukhovian. The Serpukhovian limestones of the Montagne Noire are correlated with the Lanet Limestone (Mouthoumet Massif, Corbières) and Ardengost Limestone (central Pyrenees). To cite this article: É. Poty et al., C. R. Geoscience 334 (2002) 843-848.

  18. Handwriting Development in Spanish Children With and Without Learning Disabilities: A Graphonomic Approach. (United States)

    Barrientos, Pablo


    The central purpose of this study was to analyze the dynamics of handwriting movements in real time for Spanish students in early grades with and without learning disabilities. The sample consisted of 120 children from Grades 1 through 3 (primary education), classified into two groups: with learning disabilities and without learning disabilities. The Early Grade Writing Assessment tasks selected for this purpose were writing the alphabet in order from memory, alphabet copying in cursive and manuscript, and allograph selection. The dynamics of these four handwriting tasks were recorded using graphonomic tablets (type Wacom Intuos-4), Intuos Inking pens, and Eye and Pen 2 software. Several events were recorded across four different tasks: velocity, pressure, time invested in pauses, and automaticity. The results demonstrated significant graphonomic variations between groups across grades, depending on the type of task.

  19. Selective linking from social platforms to university websites: a case study of the Spanish academic system

    CERN Document Server

    Orduna-Malea, Enrique


    Mention indicators have frequently been used in Webometric studies because they provide a powerful tool for determining the degree of visibility and impact of web resources. Among mention indicators, hypertextual links were a central part of many studies until Yahoo discontinued the linkdomain command in 2011. Selective links constitute a variant of external links where both the source and target of the link can be selected. This paper intends to study the influence of social platforms (measured through the number of selective external links) on academic environments, in order to ascertain both the percentage that they constitute and whether some of them can be used as substitutes of total external links. For this purpose, 141 URLs belonging to 76 Spanish universities were compiled in 2010 (before Yahoo! stopped their link services), and the number of links from 13 selected social platforms to these universities were calculated. Results confirm a good correlation between total external links and links that co...

  20. Perception of the Varieties of Spanish by Students of Spanish Language and Literature at the University of Zagreb

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    Maša Musulin


    Full Text Available In 2016 a survey was carried out among students of Spanish Language and Literature at the University of Zagreb. The survey consisted of two parts and in this work we present the data obtained by the questionnaire, in which the students’ sociolinguistic knowledge of the Spanish language and its varieties was ascertained. The questionnaire was completed anonymously and voluntarily by 154 participants. The results showed that the Zagreb students recognize, among all the varieties of Spanish, the one from Madrid as the representative and the most identifiable, which can be explained by the fact that Spain is a European country and, therefore, much more accessible for Croatian students but also because of the influence of the RAE and its lexicographical works that predominate in the teaching of Spanish. A certain percentage of the questioned students believe that there is a less correct variety of Peninsular Spanish – Andalusian. The results also show the influence not only of the linguistic knowledge obtained during studies but furthermore the attitudes towards certain varieties. It is noted that Croatian students acquire not only the language but also sometimes the attitudes and stereotypes that generally exist among Spaniards. That means that the attitudes towards certain varieties are not necessary the result of their own evaluation but the stereotypes reflected by the greater contact with Spain and Spaniards.