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Sample records for central spanish pyrenees

  1. Description of certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts of the Spanish Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.

    1973-01-01

    Certain Lower Devonian platform conodonts are described from the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Of the Polygnathus foveolatus group, defined here, P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson, P. lenzi Klapper, P. pireneae n. sp., P. cf. P. foveolatus Philip & Jackson and P. cf. P. lenzi Klapper are described. P. pire

  2. Spatial pattern and temporal variability of runoff processes in Mediterranean Mountain environments - a case study of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butzen, V.; Seeger, K.M.; Casper, M.C.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean mountain environments like the Central Spanish Pyrenees show a highly variable rainfall-runoff response, mainly explained by the intense intra- and inter-annual variability of precipitation yield. This leads to a highly differentiated moisture status and therefore it is assumed to lead

  3. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm3), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of 238U, 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 210Pb and 137Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for238U, 14 and 40 for 226Ra, 7 and 56 for 210Pb, 19 and 46 for Th232, 1 and 48 for 137Cs and 185 and 610 for 40K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among radionuclides, sediment components and stable elements provided evidence of a

  4. Radionuclides and stable elements in the sediments of the Yesa Reservoir, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navas, Ana; Gaspar, Leticia; Palazon, Leticia [Estacion Experimental Aula Dei (EEAD- CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain). Dept. of Soil and Water; Valero-Garces, Blas [Instituto Pirenaico de Ecologia (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    Purpose: The sediments accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (Central Spanish Pyrenees) have greatly decreased its water storage capacity and are a major threat to the sustainability of water resources in the region. This study examines the contents of radionuclides and stable elements in the reservoir sediments and relates their variations with the sediment composition and local sedimentary dynamics, particularly flood frequency and intensity, which are responsible for changes in the main supply and distribution of radionuclides in the basin. Materials and methods: The sedimentary sequence accumulated in the Yesa Reservoir (471 Hm{sup 3}), which supplies water to ca. 1,000,000 people and for irrigation, was examined in two 4-m long sediment cores (Y1, Y2) and one profile (Y3) retrieved at its central part. In the sediments, radionuclide activities of {sup 238}U, {sup 226}Ra, {sup 232}Th, {sup 40}K, {sup 210}Pb and {sup 137}Cs were measured using a hyperpure Ge coaxial detector. The stable elements Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Cr, Cu, Mn, Fe, Al, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Li, K and Na were analysed by ICP-OES. Complementary analyses to characterize the sediments included: XRD in the profile, grain size distribution by laser equipment and the contents of organic matter, carbonates and the residual fraction by loss on ignition. Results and discussion: The variation in radionuclide activities is associated with grain size and sediment composition. The activity levels (becquerels per kilogram) ranged between 20 and 43 for{sup 238}U, 14 and 40 for {sup 226}Ra, 7 and 56 for {sup 210}Pb, 19 and 46 for Th{sup 232}, 1 and 48 for {sup 137}Cs and 185 and 610 for {sup 40}K. Enriched activity levels are associated with clayey and silty layers, and depleted levels with sandy layers. The levels of radionuclides and trace elements were significantly lower in the cores than in the profile because of its higher silicate content and the influence of inflow of spring mineral-rich waters. The correlations among

  5. Human impact on late Quaternary landscapes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, F.; Raab, T. A.

    2011-12-01

    Like the Alps in Central Europe the Pyrenees in Southeast Europe are well known for their glacial history. Within the scope of the ongoing research project Post-LGM pedogenesis and geomorphodynamics in the Aragonese Pyrenees, Spain, funded by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG), we are studying the landscapes in the Gallego valley and the Aragon valley formed during the late Quaternary period. The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the soil development since the retreat of the valley glaciers from the LGM-moraines which are supposed to have an age of up to 60 ka yrs. To these purposes soil profiles are excavated in sediments and landforms of different ages (LGM to Holocene) and different genesis (glacigenic, glacifluvial, fluvial, gravitational). The soil profiles are arranged as catenas and provide insight into the pedo-stratigraphy of moraines, fluvial terraces, glacis and alluvial fans. Our preliminary results show that besides geogenic process past human land use must be considered as a main trigger of landscape development during the late Holocene. Truncated soil profiles in the backslopes and the correlate sediments of soil erosion burying soil horizons in the footslopes clearly indicate one or even more periods of re-shaping the landforms after deglaciation. Considerable amounts of small charcoal and tile fragments in the translocated sediments hint to an anthropogenic agent. The disturbance in the soil profiles and sediments is visible in the field and by micromorphology. Although 14C and OSL datings on the base of the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate at least one phase of erosion and redeposition at the end of the 17th century, the onset of afresh pedogenic processes in the correlate sediments of soil erosion indicate young soil formation.

  6. POLYGNATHUS ROSAE N. SP. (CONODONTA AND ITS BIOSTRATIGRAPHICAL CORRELATION POTENTIAL (LOWER EMSIAN, LOWER DEVONIANIN THE SPANISH CENTRAL PYRENEES

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    CARLOS MARTÍNEZ-PÉREZ

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The problems around the Pragian/Emsian (P/E boundary have been widely discussed by several authors, who have pointed out that the present Global Stratotype Section and Point (GSSP in the Zinzilban section (Kitab Reserve, Uzbekistan, is much older than the traditional German Siegenian-Emsian boundary, a fact that considerably reduces the duration of the traditional Pragian Stage. A comprehensive conodont study of two important sections (Isábena 1 and Baliera 6 demonstrates the presence of the conodont indexes for the P/E boundary in both senses (official and traditional in the Spanish Central Pyrenees (SCP. Within the important conodont faunas registered, the presence of a new early polygnathid species Polygnathus rosae n. sp. stands out. Its stratigraphic range in the two sections is restricted to a short interval around the traditional beginning of the Emsian Stage. This particular distribution permits direct relation between both indexes, a better characterization of the P/E boundary in the traditional German sense and increases the palaeontological knowledge of this stratigraphic interval. Conodont records in the SCP suggest that Po. rosae n. sp. could be a good local index, too. In addition, Po. rosae n. sp. represents the last known step of the lineage Po. pireneaePo. rosae n. sp., a new early polygnathid lineage that supports the early radiation of the genus around the P/E boundary. 

  7. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

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    M. López-Vicente

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.25 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover ($C$ factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and

  8. Identifying erosive periods by using RUSLE factors in mountain fields of the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. López-Vicente

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean environment is characterized by strong temporal variations in rainfall volume and intensity, soil moisture and vegetation cover along the year. These factors play a key role on soil erosion. The aim of this work is to identify different erosive periods in function of the temporal changes in rainfall and runoff characteristics (erosivity, maximum intensity and number of erosive events, soil properties (soil erodibility in relation to freeze-thaw processes and soil moisture content and current tillage practices in a set of agricultural fields in a mountainous area of the Central Pyrenees in NE Spain. To this purpose the rainfall and runoff erosivity (R, the soil erodibility (K and the cover-management (C factors of the empirical RUSLE soil loss model were used. The R, K and C factors were calculated at monthly scale. The first erosive period extends from July to October and presents the highest values of erosivity (87.8 MJ mm ha−1 h−1, maximum rainfall intensity (22.3 mm h−1 and monthly soil erosion (0.10 Mg ha−1 month−1 with the minimum values of duration of erosive storms, freeze-thaw cycles, soil moisture content and soil erodibility (0.007 Mg h MJ−1 mm−1. This period includes the harvesting and the plowing tillage practices. The second erosive period has a duration of two months, from May to June, and presents the lowest total and monthly soil losses (0.04 Mg ha−1 month−1 that correspond to the maximum protection of the soil by the crop-cover (C factor = 0.05 due to the maximum stage of the growing season and intermediate values of rainfall and runoff erosivity, maximum rainfall intensity and soil erodibility. The third erosive period extends from November to April and has the minimum values of rainfall erosivity (17.5 MJ mm ha−1 h−1 and maximum rainfall intensity (6.0 mm h−1

  9. Topographic control of snowpack distribution in a small catchment in the central Spanish Pyrenees: intra- and inter-annual persistence

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    J. Revuelto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we analyzed the relations between terrain characteristics and snow depth distribution in a small alpine catchment located in the central Spanish Pyrenees. Twelve field campaigns were conducted during 2012 and 2013, which were years characterized by very different climatic conditions. Snow depth was measured using a long range terrestrial laser scanner and analyses were performed at a spatial resolution of 5 m. Pearson's r correlation, multiple linear regressions and binary regression trees were used to analyze the influence of topography on the snow depth distribution. The analyses were used to identify the topographic variables that better explain the snow distribution in this catchment, and to assess whether their contributions were variable over intra- and inter-annual time scales. The topographic position index, which has rarely been used in these types of studies, most accurately explained the distribution of snow accumulation. Other variables affecting the snow depth distribution included the maximum upwind slope, elevation, and northing (or potential incoming solar radiation. The models developed to predict snow distribution in the basin for each of the 12 survey days were similar in terms of the most explanatory variables. However, the variance explained by the overall model and by each topographic variable, especially those making a lesser contribution, differed markedly between a year in which snow was abundant (2013 and a~year when snow was scarce (2012, and also differed between surveys in which snow accumulation or melting conditions dominated in the preceding days. The total variance explained by the models clearly decreased for those days on which the snow pack was thinner and more patchily distributed. Despite the differences in climatic conditions in the 2012 and 2013 snow seasons, some similarities in snow accumulation patterns were observed.

  10. The North Maladeta Fault (Spanish Central Pyrenees) as the Vielha 1923 earthquake seismic source: Recent activity revealed by geomorphological and geophysical research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortuño, M.; Queralt, P.; Martí, A.; Ledo, J.; Masana, E.; Perea, H.; Santanach, P.

    2008-06-01

    The Spanish Central Pyrenees have been the scenario of at least two damaging earthquakes in the last 800 years. Analysis of macroseismic data of the most recent one, the Vielha earthquake (19 November 1923), has led to the identification of the North Maladeta Fault (NMF) as the seismic source of the event. This E-W trending fault defines the northern boundary of the Maladeta Batholith and corresponds to a segment of the Alpine Gavarnie thrust fault. Our study shows that the NMF offsets a reference Neogene peneplain. The maximum observed vertical displacement is ˜ 730 m, with the northern downthrown sector slightly tilting towards the South. This offset provides evidence of normal faulting and together with the presence of tectonic faceted spurs allowed us to geomorphically identify a fault trace of 17.5 km. This length suggests that a maximum earthquake of Mw = 6.5 ± 0.66 could occur in the area. The geomorphological study was improved with a resistivity model obtained at Prüedo, where a unique detritic Late Miocene sequence crops out adjacent to the NMF. The section is made up of 13 audiomagnetotelluric soundings along a 1.5 km transect perpendicular to the fault trace at Prüedo and reveals the structure in depth, allowing us to interpret the Late Miocene deposits as tectonically trapped basin deposits associated with normal faulting of the NMF. The indirect age of these deposits has been constrained between 11.1 and 8.7 Ma, which represents a minimum age for the elevated Pyrenean peneplain in this part of the Pyrenees. Therefore, we propose the maximum vertical dip-slip rate for the NMF to be between 0.06 and 0.08 mm/a. Normal faulting in this area is attributed to the vertical lithospheric stress associated with the thickened Pyrenean crust.

  11. The application of terrestrial laser scanner and photogrammetry in measuring erosion and deposition processes in humid badlands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Revuelto, J.; Errea, P.; López-Moreno, J. I.

    2015-04-01

    Erosion and deposition processes in badland areas are usually estimated using traditional observations of topographic changes, measured by erosion pins or profile meters (invasive techniques). In recent times, geomatic techniques (non-invasive) have been routinely applied in geomorphology studies, especially in erosion studies. These techniques provide the opportunity to build high-resolution topographic models at subcentimeter accuracy. By comparing different 3-D point clouds of the same area, obtained at different time intervals, the variations in the terrain and temporal dynamics can be analyzed. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the functioning of Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS, RIEGL LPM-321) and close range photogrammetry techniques (Camera FUJIFILM, Finepix x100 and Software PhotoScan by AgiSoft), to evaluate erosion and deposition processes in a humid badland area in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Results show that TLS data sets and photogrammetry techniques provide new opportunities in geomorphological erosion studies. The data we recorded over one year demonstrated that north-facing slopes experienced more intense and faster changing geomorphological dynamics than south-facing slopes as well as the highest erosion rates. Different seasonal processes were observed, with the highest topographic differences observed during winter periods and the high intensity rainfalls in summer. While TLS provided the highest resolution models, photogrammetry was still a faster methodology in the field and precise at short distances. Both techniques do not require direct contact with the soil and thus prevent the usual surface disturbance of traditional and invasive methods.

  12. Influence of the Yesa reservoir on floods of the Aragón River, central Spanish Pyrenees

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    J. I. López-Moreno

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Yesa reservoir, the largest Pyrenean reservoir, was constructed in 1959 to supply water to new irrigated areas in the Ebro Depression, NE Spain. It is filled from October to May-June and then releases large quantities of water in the summer via the Bardenas Canal. The results confirm that the frequency of floods downstream of the dam decreased. The reduction mainly depends on two factors: i the water storage level, and ii the season of the year. Floods are very well controlled when the reservoir level is lower than 50%. Between 50 and 70%, only the highest floods are controlled. Finally, the reservoir retains mainly autumn and spring floods; most winter floods are released downstream to ensure the safety of the dam. Keywords: reservoir, flood control, flood seasonality, flood frequency, river regime, Pyrenees

  13. Identification of active erosion areas and areas at risk by remote sensing: an example in the Esera Isabena watershed, Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alatorre, L. C.; Begueria, S.; Vicente Serrano, S. M.

    2009-07-01

    The identification of eroded areas at basin scale can be very useful for environmental planning and can help to reduce land degradation and sediments yield. In this paper remote sensing technique are used to discriminate eroded areas and areas at risk in a badlands landscape developed on Eocene marls. In the Esera Isabena watershed (Spanish Pyrenees). The spatial distribution, the scarce vegetal cover and the high level of erosion let a good visual and digital discrimination of badlands, as opposed to other land covers and surfaces. A maximum likelihood supervised method was used to discriminate heavily eroded areas (badlands) from scarce or densely vegetated lands. the classification distance was used to obtain thresholds for eroded areas and areas at risk. Two error statistics (sensitivity and specificity), where used to determine the most adequate threshold values. The resulting map shows that most areas at risk are located surrounding the badlands areas. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Land reclamation by reforestation in the central Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Ortigosa, L. M.; García-Ruiz, José María; Gil, Eustaquio

    1990-01-01

    [EN] The chief technical characteristics of recent (since 1940) forest plantation programmes in the central Pyrenees are described. Pines are preferred for their fast growth, a demand for wood in Spain and their adaptability to the climate and soils of the Pyrenees, where there are natural pine forests. Pinus sylvestris is predominant in the high valleys, P. nigra is more important in the Pre-Pyrenees and P. halepensis is planted on south-facing slopes and Mediterranean locations. Planting te...

  15. "A shepherd has to invent": Poetic analysis of social-ecological change in the cultural landscape of the central Spanish Pyrenees

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    Maria E. Fernández-Giménez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since the mid-20th century, the Pyrenean pastoral social-ecological system (SES has undergone socioeconomic and demographic transformations leading to changes in grazing practices and a decline in the livestock industry. Land abandonment has contributed to an ecological transition from herbaceous vegetation cover to shrublands and forests, leading to a loss of ecosystem services, including biodiversity and forage. I interviewed 27 stockmen (ganaderos in two valleys of the central Pyrenees to document their traditional ecological knowledge and observations of environmental, social, economic, and cultural changes in the valleys. I used poetic analysis, a qualitative data analysis approach, to illustrate and analyze one ganadero's experience of social-ecological change. First, I created seven poems based on an interview transcript with this ganadero. Second, I analyzed the poetry I created, to see what new insights and understanding about system dynamics and the lived experience of SES change emerged from analysis of the transcript re-presented as poetry. Third, I compared key themes that emerged from this analysis with findings across the other 26 interviews. Fourth, I read the poems and presented the associated analysis to multiple audiences, to gauge their impact and effectiveness in communicating research findings. Finally, I synthesized across the themes raised in the seven poems. Poetic analysis revealed emotional and cultural dimensions of change, especially the importance of occupational and place identity, in the experience of the ganadero. The transcript re-presented as poetry portrayed the ganadero as an agent in creating and maintaining a cultural landscape and as both an adaptor and resister to SES change. Poetic analysis also uncovered telling contradictions, adaptive capacities, and barriers to adaptation in this SES that went unappreciated with conventional qualitative analysis approaches. This exploratory study illustrates the

  16. The application of terrestrial laser scanner and SfM photogrammetry in measuring erosion and deposition processes in two opposite slopes in a humid badlands area (central Spanish Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal-Romero, E.; Revuelto, J.; Errea, P.; López-Moreno, J. I.

    2015-08-01

    Erosion and deposition processes in badland areas are usually estimated using traditional observations of topographic changes, measured by erosion pins or profile metres (invasive techniques). In recent times, remote-sensing techniques (non-invasive) have been routinely applied in geomorphology studies, especially in erosion studies. These techniques provide the opportunity to build high-resolution topographic models at centimetre accuracy. By comparing different 3-D point clouds of the same area, obtained at different time intervals, the variations in the terrain and temporal dynamics can be analysed. The aim of this study is to assess and compare the functioning of terrestrial laser scanner (TLS, RIEGL LPM-321) and structure-from-motion photogrammetry (SfM) techniques (Camera FUJIFILM, Finepix x100 and software PhotoScan by AgiSoft) to evaluate erosion and deposition processes in two opposite slopes in a humid badlands area in the central Spanish Pyrenees. Results showed that TLS data sets and SfM photogrammetry techniques provide new opportunities in geomorphological erosion studies. The data we recorded over 1 year demonstrated that north-facing slopes experienced more intense and faster changing geomorphological dynamics than south-facing slopes as well as the highest erosion rates. Different seasonal processes were observed, with the highest topographic differences observed during winter periods and the high-intensity rainfalls in summer. While TLS provided the highest accuracy models, SfM photogrammetry was still a faster methodology in the field and precise at short distances. Both techniques present advantages and disadvantages, and do not require direct contact with the soil and thus prevent the usual surface disturbance of traditional and invasive methods.

  17. Geological map of the Paleozoic of the Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitter, de L.U.; Zwart, H.J.

    1957-01-01

    Mapping of the Paleozoic of the Central Pyrenees by students in geology of Leiden University under the directorship of Prof. Dr L.U. de Sitter started in 1948 with the Arize massif. Since then the survey has shifted first eastwards, 1949 St. Barthélemy massif; then westwards, 1950 Salat valley; 1951

  18. From plot to regional scales: Interactions of slope and catchment hydrological and geomorphic processes in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Lana-Renault, Noemí; Beguería, Santiago; Lasanta, Teodoro; Regüés, David; Nadal-Romero, Estela; Serrano-Muela, Pilar; López-Moreno, Juan I.; Alvera, Bernardo; Martí-Bono, Carlos; Alatorre, Luis C.

    2010-08-01

    The hydrological and geomorphic effects of land use/land cover changes, particularly those associated with vegetation regrowth after farmland abandonment were investigated in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. The main focus was to assess the interactions among slope, catchment, basin, and fluvial channel processes over a range of spatial scales. In recent centuries most Mediterranean mountain areas have been subjected to significant human pressure through deforestation, cultivation of steep slopes, fires, and overgrazing. Depopulation commencing at the beginning of the 20th century, and particularly since the 1960s, has resulted in farmland abandonment and a reduction in livestock numbers, and this has led to an expansion of shrubs and forests. Studies in the Central Spanish Pyrenees, based on experimental plots and catchments, in large basins and fluvial channels, have confirmed that these land use changes have had hydrological and geomorphic consequences regardless of the spatial scale considered, and that processes occurring at any particular scale can be explained by such processes acting on other scales. Studies using experimental plots have demonstrated that during the period of greatest human pressure (mainly the 18th and 19th centuries), cultivation of steep slopes caused high runoff rates and extreme soil loss. Large parts of the small catchments behaved as runoff and sediment source areas, whereas the fluvial channels of large basins showed signs of high torrentiality (braided morphology, bare sedimentary bars, instability, and prevalence of bedload transport). Depopulation has concentrated most human pressure on the valley bottoms and specific locations such as resorts, whereas the remainder of the area has been affected by an almost generalized abandonment. Subsequent plant recolonization has resulted in a reduction of overland flow and declining soil erosion. At a catchment scale this has caused a reduction in sediment sources, and channel incision in the

  19. Ichnology and sedimentology of deep-marine clastic systems, Middle Eocene, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Heard, T. G.

    2008-01-01

    Despite considerable research into the characterisation of the architectural elements of submarine fans, few studies have attempted the full integration of ichnology and sedimentology. In this thesis, a quantitative analysis of trace fossils from the Early-Middle Eocene deep-marine clastic systems, Ainsa-Jaca basin, Spanish Pyrenees, shows that trace fossils are powerful discriminators of deep-marine fan and related environments. Sixteen fan and related environments have been recognised in th...

  20. Structure of the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    The Anayet Permian basin was generated by strike-slip tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries in the western Spanish Axial Zone (between the Aragon and Tena valleys). A continental succession of Permian age, that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area, fills the basin and covers discordantly Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987): the Grey Unit (50-120 m, Estefanian to Kungurian) with slates, conglomerates, tobaceous slates, coal and pyroclastic deposits, the Transition Unit (50 m maximum) showing grey and red sandstones and lutites with oolitic limestones intercalated, the Lower Red Unit (250 m) composed of cross-bedded red sandstones and andesitic volcanic rocks at the top, and finally the Upper Red Unit (400 m minimum, top eroded) formed by three fining up megasequences of carbonates, red sandstones and lutites with lacustrine carbonates intercalated and alkali basalts at the top. Increasingly older rocks are found towards the western part of the basin, where its depocenter is located. South-vergent angular folds deform the Permian sedimentary succession. Fold axes are N115 °E-trending, almost horizontal and are characterized by a remarkably constant orientation. Folds exhibit a long limb dipping slightly to the north and a short vertical limb, occasionally reversed. In the Anayet basin four main folds, with a wavelength of 400 m, can be distinguished, two anticlines and two synclines, with minor folds associated. Related to the angular folds an axial plane foliation, E-trending and dipping 40 to 60° to the north, is developed in the lutites. The more competent rocks, conglomerates and breccias, only locally show a spaced fracture cleavage. No main thrusts have been detected in Permian rocks. However, minor scale decollements, usually low angle

  1. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees Part II, Valle de Arán, Sheet 4

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1963-01-01

    The structural geology and metamorphic petrology of the Bosost area in the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees) is discussed. The rocks exposed in this area consist of Cambro-Ordovician mica-schists with numerous granite and pegmatite bodies, phyllites and limestones; Silurian slates and schists and Dev

  2. Spontaneous ash tree reforestation in the Central Pyrenees: a future local energy source?

    OpenAIRE

    Bernard Elyakime; Laurent Larrieu; Alain Cabanettes; Laurent Burnel

    2012-01-01

    With the agricultural economy of the Central Pyrenees in steady decline, natural forest stands are colonising abandoned agricultural meadows. The present study seeks to define the economic conditions for a new fuel-wood local economy based on these extensions of the forest cover. Farmer/forest owners are capable of exploiting this resource, involving logging, hauling and cutting the wood to size, to meet their own heating needs. In this way, owners could thus recuperate a maximum unit value e...

  3. /S/ in Central American Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the behavior of the phoneme /s/ in Central American Spanish by comparing the speech patterns of residents of Guatemala City, San Salvador, Tegucigalpa, San Jose, and Managua. Considers the possible diachronic processes which could have given rise to the current configurations and the theoretical consequences implied by the…

  4. Devonian and Lower Carboniferous conodont biostratigraphy, Spanish Central Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boersma, Kerst Th.

    1973-01-01

    Conodont faunas were collected from the Devonian and Lower Carboniferous in an area ranging from the Rio Fsera (prov. of Huesca) in the west to the Rio Llobregat (prov. of Barcelona) in the east. Most conodont zones and -Faunas recognized in Germany and Spain could be distinguished. The ages of the

  5. Risk assessment of flash floods in central Pyrenees (Spain) through land use change analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Notivoli, Roberto; Mora, Daniel; Sánchez-Fabre, Miguel; Ángel Saz, Miguel; Ollero, Alfredo

    2015-04-01

    Nowadays, the main cause of the damages to human areas is the increased risk exposure. The urbanization in touristic areas in Pyrenees has increased enormously in last 25 years, and the most of urban development have been made on land occupied by the stream channel. We present two different case studies in central Pyrenees: one in Aragón river and one in Ésera river. We made a land use analysis from 1956 to 2013 in the headwaters of these two rivers delimiting the channel in different flash floods events, and analysing the amount and distribution of precipitation at the same time. The results show that the risk exposure is one of the main factors of the impact of flash floods. We found that most of the damage on urbanization and human activities was caused by the urban occupation of areas that were located on the floodplain of the river. For both Aragon and Esera headwaters precipitation events were considered extreme in their time series. However, the amount of precipitation of these extreme events does not support the consequences in geomorphological and human environments. The events of high intensity rainfall over the last years could be expected, yet, it had unexpected consequences that could be predictable by land managers through an appropriate regional planning.

  6. Sedimentology, paleoclimatology, and diagenesis of Post-Hercynian continental deposits in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, Peter J.C.

    1969-01-01

    The first chapter of the post-Hercynian geologic history of the South-Central Pyrenees is recorded in a sequence of fluvial and volcanic deposits which reach a total of added maximum thicknesses of more than 2300 m and date from the Westphalian D up to and including the Lower Triassic. The present s

  7. Depositional history and clay minerals of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagtegaal, P.J.C.

    1972-01-01

    An ordered sequence of well-defined sedimentary environments reflects the deepening and shallowing stages in the depositional history of the Upper Cretaceous basin in the South-Central Pyrenees, Spain. The sequence, which has a Santonian age at its base, starts with a calcarenite barrier system on w

  8. Challenges for the management of water resource systems under the impact of global climate change / The Yesa reservoir in the Spanish Pyrenees as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winterscheid, A.

    2003-04-01

    It is becoming obvious that climate change has profound impacts on water resource systems, composed of natural ecosystem, engineered facilities and management institutions. As a consequence a successful management strategy of water resource systems has to meet the challenge of more frequent extremes with respect to the criteria of sustainability. This might lead to reduced water availability facing an increased water demand as well as more severe floods. Behind the background of climate change an integrated analysis of the Yesa reservoir / Spain has been carried out. The Yesa reservoir is a single purpose site located in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. Water is stored during the wet and thaw period to provide sufficient supplies for irrigation in the dry period. To satisfy future water demands an enlargement of the Yesa reservoir storage volume from actual 450 Hm3 up to 1500 Hm3 has been planed since 1982. The project is still in the approval procedure due to many raised objections. Opponents of this enlargement project refer to severe impacts on the ecological and social system. A scenario based hydrological analysis with respect to climate change as well as land use change within the catchment area has been carried out. The obtained results raise doubts on the future performance of an enlarged Yesa reservoir with respect to the criteria of sustainability. The Yesa enlargement project is still in the stage of planning, therefore additional comprehensive studies should be carried out for the assessment of future water resources and evaluation of ecological, economical as well as social risks.

  9. Numerical modelling comparison of slow landslides: the Portalet case study (Central Pyrenees-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Merodo, Jose Antonio; Garcia-Davalillo, Juan Carlos; Herrera, Gerardo

    2013-04-01

    Slow-moving landslides are a wide-spread type of active mass movement that cause severe damages to infrastructures and may be a precursor of sudden catastrophic slope failures. In this context, modelling slow-moving landslide behaviour is an important task in order to quantify and reduce the risk associated to this geological process. In practice, landslide occurrence and stability conditions are evaluated for a given scenario through a stability factor based on limit equilibrium analysis. This "static" approximation is hardly applied when boundary conditions are time dependent. Apart from earthquake studies, time dependent analysis is required when: (i) hydrological conditions change as in the case of rainfall; (ii) resistant parameters are reduced as in the case of strain softening or weathering processes and (iii) creep behaviour is taken into account. Different numerical models can be applied to reproduce the kinematic behaviour of large slow landslides. This paper compares four different models: i) a direct correlation with measured rainfall, ii) a simple 1D infinite slope viscoplastic model [1], iii) a 2D elasto-plastic finite element model [2] and iv) a 2D visco-plastic finite element model [3]. These models, ordered by increasing level of complexity, are compared by applying them to the Portalet case study. The Portalet landslide (Central Spanish Pyrenees) is an active paleo-landslide that has been "reactivated" by the construction of a parking area at the toe of the slope in 2004. This landslide is still active despite the corrective measures carried out to stabilize it. The measurements obtained with different monitoring techniques (ground based SAR, advanced DInSAR processing of satellite SAR images, DGPS and inclinometers) indicate that the hillside is still moving today following two patterns. The first one corresponds to a slow continuous motion of constant speed of about 100 mm/year, the second one corresponds to accelerations of the moving mass when

  10. Land cover changes and shallow landsliding in the flysch sector of the Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ruiz, José M.; Beguería, Santiago; Alatorre, Luis Carlos; Puigdefábregas, Juan

    2010-12-01

    This study investigated the characteristics, triggering factors, and spatial distribution of shallow landslides in relation to historical deforestation in the sub-alpine belt of the Pyrenees, particularly in the flysch sector. Shallow landslides in this area occur on straight and concave slopes, mainly covered by mesophyte grasslands, and contribute substantially to soil erosion and landscape deterioration. The investigated landslides were variable in shape and size, although common features included delimitation by a scar or semi-circular crown (averaging 32 m long × 10.15 m wide) and a tongue with a lobe at the foot of the scar area. The sliding surface coincided with the zone of contact of the C soil horizon with the bedrock, although in 13% of the cases the sliding surface occurred within the soil. The frontal lobes frequently trigger new landslides because of water accumulation and instability, resulting in a succession of interconnected landslides that can attain 100-200 m in length. Slope gradient appeared to be the most important factor correlated with shallow landslides. Thus, with slopes > 30° the soil was unstable and tended to slide even in dry conditions, whereas with slopes decreased root cohesion, mainly coinciding with snowmelt and large rainstorms.

  11. The "bear" essentials: actualistic research on Ursus arctos arctos in the Spanish Pyrenees and its implications for paleontology and archaeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, Maite; Rosell, Jordi; Blasco, Ruth; Domínguez-Rodrigo, Manuel; Pickering, Travis Rayne

    2014-01-01

    Neotaphonomic studies of large carnivores are used to create models in order to explain the formation of terrestrial vertebrate fossil faunas. The research reported here adds to the growing body of knowledge on the taphonomic consequences of large carnivore behavior in temperate habitats and has important implications for paleontology and archaeology. Using photo- and videotrap data, we were able to describe the consumption of 17 ungulate carcasses by wild brown bears (Ursus arctos arctos) ranging the Spanish Pyrenees. Further, we analyzed the taphonomic impact of these feeding bouts on the bones recovered from those carcasses. The general sequence of consumption that we charted starts with separation of a carcass's trunk; viscera are generally eaten first, followed by musculature of the humerus and femur. Long limb bones are not broken open for marrow extraction. Bears did not transport carcasses or carcass parts from points of feeding and did not disperse bones appreciably (if at all) from their anatomical positions. The general pattern of damage that resulted from bear feeding includes fracturing, peeling, crenulation, tooth pitting and scoring of axial and girdle elements and furrowing of the upper long limb bones. As predicted from observational data, the taphonomic consequences of bear feeding resemble those of other non-durophagus carnivores, such as felids, and are distinct from those of durophagus carnivores, such as hyenids. Our results have paleontological and archaeological relevance. Specifically, they may prove useful in building analogical models for interpreting the formation of fossil faunas for which bears are suspected bone accumulators and/or modifiers. More generally, our comparative statistical analyses draw precise quantitative distinctions between bone damage patterns imparted respectively by durophagus (modelled here primarily by spotted hyenas [Crocuta crocuta] and wolves [Canis lupus]) and non-durophagus (modelled here by brown bears and

  12. Sub-MIlankovitch millennial and decadal cyclicity in Middle Eocene deep-marine laminated sediments, Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotchman, J. I.; Pickering, K. T.; Robinson, S. A.

    2010-12-01

    James I. Scotchman1, Kevin T. Pickering1 & Stuart A. Robinson1 1Department of Earth Sciences, UCL (University College London), Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT, U.K. Climate variability on the scale of millennia has become conspicuous within Quaternary records with far fewer such records existing within the pre-Pleistocene geological record. We identify millennial and decadal cyclicity in deep-marine siliciclastic (turbiditic and hemipelagic) sediments from a core in the middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees. Outcrop spectral gamma-ray data from laterally adjacent and age-equivalent strata to the core, together with a re-analysis of bioturbation data from the core, identifies the three main Milankovitch orbital periods. From this data, we derive a robust sediment accumulation rate for these sediments of 27.5 cm/kyr. Spectral analysis of data from high-resolution multi-element XRF scanning of a ~10 m-thick stratigraphic interval of fine-grained laminated sediments reveals the presence of various high-frequency cycles mainly above the 99% confidence level. Applying our derived sediment accumulation rate yields sub-Milankovitch millennial-scale cycles (~5,400, ~2,800, and ~1,000 yr) and decadal (~90, ~50, and ~30 yr) cycles split between allogenic and authigenic deposition. These cycles are manifest in the core as grain-size variations. The ~5,400 and ~2,800 yr cycles, recorded by elemental (Al, K, Ca and Fe) and element/Al ratios (Si/Al, Ca/Al and Zr/Al) are interpreted as representing climatically-driven variation in sediment supply to the deep-marine Ainsa basin. Higher-frequency decadal cycles are coincident with well-known Gleissberg solar cycles or possible multiples of the 11-year Schwabe cycle although how these cycles are expressed within these sediments remains unclear.

  13. Soil removed by voles of the genus Pitymys in the Spanish Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borghi, C. E.

    1990-12-01

    Full Text Available The erosiogenic activity of Pyrenean mountain voles is studied following the measures taken in an experimental plot in the Western Pyrenees. An easy model for estimating the volume and weight of soil carried to the surface by voles is presented and used to quantify this amount in natural conditions. Fossorial Pyrenean rodents seem to dislodge well over 6Tm/ha.yr of soil on the colonized areas above the timberline. The four stages (new, recent, old, and vegetated of the evolution of soil heaps are discussed. Finally, an attempt is made to evaluate the rate of horizontal sediment transport due to the direct action of voles, with a maximum result of 17 cm3/cm.yr, quite comparable to pure geoclimatic rates.

    [es] Se estudia la actividad de movimiento del suelo de los roedores pirenaicos del género Pitymys, a partir de los datos obtenidos en una parcela experimental situada en los Pirineos Occidentales. Se presenta un modelo sencillo para estimar la cantidad de tierra removida a partir de medidas que pueden tomarse fácilmente en el campo, y se emplea dicho modelo para evaluar esta magnitud en condiciones naturales. Al parecer, los roedores subterráneos pueden sacar al exterior más de 6 Tm de tierra por hectárea y año en las zonas epiforestales que colonizan. También se discute la evolución del suelo removido y sus condiciones para la erosión por escorrentía. Finalmente se intenta evaluar la tasa de transporte horizontal del sedimento debida a los animales, que resulta ser de hasta 17 cm3 por cm y año, un valor claramente comparable con los debidos a agentes geoclimáticos.
    [fr] On a étudié l'activité fouisseuse des campagnols pyrénéens du genre Pitymys, d'après les données recueillies dans une enclosure expérimentale située dans les Pyrénées de l'Ouest. On présente un modèle simple permettant d'estimer la quantité de sol mue par les campagnols a partir de mésurements qu

  14. Spontaneous ash tree reforestation in the Central Pyrenees: a future local energy source?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard Elyakime

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available With the agricultural economy of the Central Pyrenees in steady decline, natural forest stands are colonising abandoned agricultural meadows. The present study seeks to define the economic conditions for a new fuel-wood local economy based on these extensions of the forest cover. Farmer/forest owners are capable of exploiting this resource, involving logging, hauling and cutting the wood to size, to meet their own heating needs. In this way, owners could thus recuperate a maximum unit value estimated at 11.2 to 22.3 € per stere (1 cubic metre, or an average value of 16.8 € per stere after deduction of all costs. An economy based on wood energy, using wood from spontaneously generated forest growth on private land, is therefore possible. A development policy for such an activity could be envisaged with appropriate initiatives to stimulate the owners of land where spontaneous ash reforestation has occurred to harvest this potential resource.

  15. Mapping and monitoring geomorphological processes in mountainous areas using PSI data: Central Pyrenees case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Herrera

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the Stable Point Network technique, an established Persistent Scatterer InSAR (PSI technique, (SPN, has been applied for the first time to the analysis of several geomorphological processes present in the Gállego river basin (Central Pyrenees, Spain. The SPN coherence based approach has been used to process three different SAR images datasets covering two temporal periods: 1995 to 2001 and 2001 to 2007. This approach has permitted the detection of more than 40 000 natural ground targets or Persistent Scatterers (PSs in the study area, characterised by the presence of vegetation and a low urban density. Derived displacement maps have permitted the detection and monitoring of deformations in landslides, alluvial fans and erosive areas. In the first section, the study area is introduced. Then the specifics of the SPN processing are presented. The deformation results estimated with the SPN technique for the different processed datasets are compared and analysed with previous available geo-information. Then several detailed studies are presented to illustrate the processes detected by the satellite based analysis. In addition, a comparison between the performance of ERS and ENVISAT satellites with terrestrial SAR has demonstrates that these are complementary techniques, which can be integrated in order to monitor deformation processes, like landslides, that over the same monitoring area may show very different ranges of movement. The most relevant conclusions of this work are finally discussed.

  16. Inversion tectonics in the Anayet Permian basin (Axial Zone, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    During Permian times the Pyrenees were characterized by extensional tectonics that opened subsident basins with pull-apart geometries. The Anayet Permian basin crops out in the western Spanish Axial Zone between the Aragon and Tena valleys. It is WNW-trending and it is filled by a continental Permian succession that represents the first post-variscan deposits in the area. Permian deposits rest discordantly over Devonian to Carboniferous limestones, sandstones and slates. In the Anayet basin, Permian deposits have been classically divided in four main detrital groups, mainly composed of sandstones and conglomerates, with three basic volcanic episodes interbedded (Gisbert, 1984, Bixel, 1987). Due to the lithological characteristics of the Permian rocks in this region, there are almost no accurate age constraints for these units. A detailed structural study of the area, including mapping and balanced cross-sections, shows increasingly older rocks to the west of the Anayet basin. Moreover, it can be deduced a mean slope of around 11 % to the west for the basin. These data confirm that the basin depocenter was located to the west and that the Anayet basin was partitioned by N10 °E-trending normal faults. Although the contacts between the Permian and the Devono-Carboniferous rocks are covered by quaternary deposits in most of its extent, a fault contact can also be recognized. The fault contact is a 3 m thick shear zone oriented N120 ° E and dipping 60° to the North. It develops breccias, fault gouges and sigmoidal S-C tectonites indicating a reverse motion. The contact places Permian slates and sandstones over Carboniferous limestones and is almost parallel to the alpine cleavage deforming Permian rocks. The slope of the contact together with the presence of younger rocks in the hangingwall of the reverse fault points out that the original contact was a normal fault reactivated as a high-angle reverse fault during the positive inversion tectonics induced by the

  17. Immediate changes in topsoil chemical properties after controlled shrubland burning in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zufiaurre-Galarza, Raquel; Fernández Campos, Marta; Badía-Villas, David; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Girona-García, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed fire has recently been adopted as an encroachment-fighting strategy in the Central Pyrenees. Despite relatively large information on wildfire impacts on soil, there is little information on prescribed fire effects, especially in mountain ecosystems (Shakesby et al, 2015). Fire effects are noticeable in the topsoil, particularly in relation to soil organic matter and nutrient contents and quality (Alexis et al, 2012). These components change with time after fire and at the scale of the upper few centimetres of mineral soil (Badía et al, 2014). The aim of this study is to evaluate the immediate effects of prescribed shrubland burning on soil's nutrients and organic matter content to detect changes at cm-scale, trying to differentiate the heat shock from the subsequent incorporation of ash and charcoal. The study area, densely covered with spiny broom (Echinospartum horridum), is located in Tella (Central Pyrenees, NE Spain) at 1900 meters above sea level. Three sites were sampled before burning and immediately after burning just in its adjacent side. The soils belong to the WRB unit Leptic Eutric Cambisol, Soil samples were collected separating carefully the organic layers (litter in unburned soils and ashes and fire-altered organic residues in burned soils) and the mineral horizon at 0-1, 1-2 and 2-3 cm depths. Soil samples were air-dried and sieved to 2 mm. Soil organic C (by the wet oxidation method), total N (Kjeldahl method), water-soluble ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, SO4=, NO3- and NH4+), exchangeable ions (Ca2+, Mg2+, K+, Na+, Fe3+ and Mn2+), total and available P, pH (1:5) and the electrical conductivity (in a 1:10 soil-to-water ratio) were measured. Immediately after the controlled fire, soil organic carbon content on burned topsoil decreases significantly within 0-3 cm of soil depth studied while total N decrease was not significant. Moreover, only a slight increase of the electrical conductivity, water-soluble ions and exchangeable ions was

  18. Thrust kinematics deduced by primary and secondary magnetizations in the Internal Sierras (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, B.; Pueyo, E.

    2003-04-01

    The Central Southern Pyrenees are composed (from N to S) by the Axial Zone (made by several basement-involved nappes; (Gavarnie and Guarga), the Internal Sierras (IS) fold and thrust belt (Larra and Monte Perdido units), the Jaca piggyback basin (turbiditic and molassic) and the External Sierras. Several paleomagnetic studies have been carried out during the last decades in all units except for the IS. Different amounts of rotation were reported, usually from primary directions. This work shows paleomagnetic results derived from recent investigations in the IS. 78 sites were sampled in different thrust sheets in the Larra and Monte Perdido units. Sites were collected in Upper Cretaceous rocks; all of them were homogeneously distributed along the range strike. A N-S section through the Eocene turbiditic basin was also done (9 sites) to link our results to previous data. Stepwise thermal demagnetization every 25-50^oC was performed to unravel the NRM components. Magnetic mineralogy essays (IRM, IST and low temperature) confirm magnetite as the major magnetic carrier. Two paleomagnetic components can be distinguished; A) an intermediate direction unblocking from 350^o to 450^oC and B) a high temperature component (from 500^o -575^oC). The B component displays two polarities and a positive fold and reverse tests whereas the A component shows only reverse polarity and a pervasive negative fold test. The A component has been also found in the Eocene transect. Two major clues help to constrain the remagnetization age; on one hand the deformation age (Early-Middle Eocene in the Larra and Monte Perdido units) and, on the other hand, the age of the turbiditic rocks (Middle Eocene). Therefore the remagnetization process took place by the end of the IS thrust system configuration or in a later period. Since the rotation detected by the A and B components are similar, the rotation age can be constrained as younger than the remagnetization. All these deductions have important

  19. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Castroviejo, Ricardo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees. Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in diameter, are up to six times more abundant, in percentage of total weight, in transports caused by heavy rainfalls than in the material collected after snowmelt flows. In its turn, bed load mobilized by snowmelt flows is mainly composed by medium and fine gravel, from 2 to 8 mm. These may amount up to 60 % of total weight of bed load. The reasons for these so different size distributions are discussed.

    [es] En una cuenca de alta montaña localizada en el alto valle del río Gallego (Pirineo central se comparan las distribuciones por tamaños de los acarreos movilizados por diferentes tipos de caudal. Tres tipos de eventos hidrológicos han podido ser caracterizados: los ocasionados por intensas lluvias de otoño, los originados por tormentas estivales aisladas y los producidos por la fusión de la nieve acumulada durante el invierno. Se concluye que cada uno de ellos lleva asociada una distribución por tamaños típica de la carga de fondo. Así, se ha comprobado que las fracciones más gruesas consideradas -superiores a los 30 mm de diámetro- son hasta seis veces más abundantes -en porcentaje sobre el peso total- en las exportaciones causadas por lluvias de gran intensidad que en las generadas por caudales de fusión. A su vez, las descargas ocasionadas por la fusión arrastran principalmente gravas de calibre medio y fino -entre 2y8 mm- que llegan a suponer el 60 % en peso del volumen movilizado. Este artículo discute las razones que provocan

  20. Supercritical bedforms in deep-marine lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor setting, Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, K. T.

    2015-12-01

    There is an increasing appreciation that seafloor gradients in many ancient deep-marine clastic environments are likely to have been steep enough to promote upper flow regime (Froude Number >1) processes and deposits. This issue was addressed by Komar (1971) who concluded that for a reasonable friction factor, f = 0.02, turbidity currents would be supercritical on slopes > 0.5°, a value exceeded on many basin-margin slopes and on the upper parts of submarine fans. Many deep-water depositional systems, therefore, probably contain significant volumes of deposits that have been misinterpreted using the classic Bouma Ta-Te divisions for a waning flow rather than as upper flow-regime (supercritical) bedforms. Using outcrop examples from lower-slope, base-of-slope and proximal basin-floor settings in the Middle Eocene Ainsa Basin, Spanish Pyrenees, linked with recent experimental and theoretical work, this paper considers the range of deposits that can be reinterpreted as upper-flow regime bedforms in what might be termed "supercritical clastic systems". Such sedimentary structures involve a very wide range of grain sizes and include discontinuous and irregular sandwaves, backset (upstream-inclined) bedding in mounded gravels and sands and scour-and-fill structures. Irrespective of varying relative base level in the staging area for such flows, supercritical clastic systems show complex facies relationships. Komar, P.D. 1971. Hydraulic jumps in turbidity currents. Geological Society of America Bulletin, 82, 1477-1488.

  1. Les foraminifères benthiques ladino-carniens du "Muschelkalk" des Pyrénées françaises à l'est de la Garonne = Ladinian-carnian benthonic foraminifera from the "Muschelkalk" of the french and spanish Pyrenees to the east of the Garonne

    OpenAIRE

    Fréchengues, Michel; Peybernès, Bernard; Martini, Rossana; Zaninetti, Louisette

    1993-01-01

    The carbonate Transgressive Systems Tracts included within the two Depositional Sequences from the "Muschelkalk" of Pyrenees (DS2.17, Late Anisian - Early Ladinian and DS2.12, Late Ladinian-Carnian pro parte) contain assemblages of alpine-type benthonic Foraminifera and palynomorphs. The first sequence is pointed by the local presence of Meandrospira gr. pusilla-dinarica which was only recognized in the Spanish Pyrenees, not studied herein. The second one includes a diversified microfauna whi...

  2. Extensional salt tectonics in the partially inverted Cotiella post-rift basin (south-central Pyrenees): structure and evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Mir, Berta; Muñoz, Josep Anton; García-Senz, Jesús

    2015-03-01

    The Cotiella Massif in the south-central Pyrenees hosts upper Cretaceous gravity-driven extensional faults which were developed in the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean paleorift margin of the Atlantic Ocean. They accommodate up to 6 km of post-rift carbonates above relict upper Triassic salt. Subsequent Pyrenean contractional deformation preserved the main extensional features, but most of the upper Triassic salt was expulsed and then dissolved, leaving little indications of the original salt volume. Nonetheless, several distinctive salt-related features are still recognizable both at outcrop and at basin scale, providing an exposed analogue for salt-floored extensional basins developed on passive margins. Based on field research, we re-interpret the tectonic evolution of the area and suggest that passive diapirs were coeval with gravity-driven extension during the development of the Cotiella basin. The given interpretations are supported with detailed geological maps, original structural data, cross sections and outcrop photographs. The discovery of previously unknown post-rift salt structures in the Cotiella Massif is an extra element to consider in the paleogeographic reconstructions of the upper Cretaceous passive margin of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean realm and consequently helps in our understanding of the evolution of current Atlantic-type margins.

  3. Patterns of soil carbon and nitrogen in relation to soil movement under different land uses in mountain farmland fields (South Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navas, A.; Gaspar, L.; López-Vicente, M.; Machín, J.

    2009-04-01

    Cultivation on mountain landscapes has been identified as a main factor triggering soil erosion. The loss of soil particles and its redistribution across the landscape is associated to that of soil nutrients. Patterns of soil erosion and of the transport and redistribution of soil particles appear to be closely linked to that of carbon in soils. In this work the redistribution of total organic carbon and nitrogen and that of soil particles is analysed in different geomorphic parts of mountain farmland fields. A southern orientated hillslope in the Central Spanish Pyrenees was selected as representative of main land uses. In the region, farmland abandonment during the last decades affects 74 % of its surface and therefore patterns of soil and nutrient losses in the fields are affected by land abandonments and tillage. A set of cultivated and abandoned fields with different ages of land abandonment, slope gradients and length were selected to conduct this study. In each of the fields, sampling was carried out in different parts of the slope to assess the pattern of particle size distribution and of total organic carbon (TOC) and total nitrogen (TN). Other general soil properties analysed: pH, EC and carbonate contents provided supplementary information for better understanding soil and nutrient redistribution patterns. In addition, information provided by a previous research using fallout caesium 137 was used to document soil movement in these fields. At the bottom slope of the fields significant increases in the sand percentage occurs whereas the clay contents decrease slightly. This could be due to the export of the finest fractions with high runoff in spite that fields are surrounded with stone walls as well as to some clay leaching in the soil profile, as suggested by the lowest values of EC at the bottom of the slope. The results indicate that in general TOC increases from the crest to the bottom slope of the fields. Percentages of TOC increases range from 5 to

  4. Geology of the Valle de Arán (Central Pyrenees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinsmiede, W.F.J.

    1960-01-01

    The results are given of field work undertaken in the central Pyrenean axial zone on low-grade metamorphic, highly folded Palaeozoic rocks. Absence of determinable fossils is chiefly due to severe tectonisation, but occasionally also of non-deposition. Dating is entirely based on the presence of Sil

  5. Physico-chemical study of the ancient and recent accumulations of a braided system (Ara river. Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubio, V.

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical and mineralogical study of the Ara river sediments, in the Central Pyrenees (Spain, allows to recognize the genesis and evolution of its basin. The minerals of the sand fraction, the ones corresponding to the clay fraction and the minority elements, reveal certain processes and associations that, in addition to the identification of the fluvial terraces, fans, glacis and even morainic deposits, contribute to explain the geological history of the Central Pyrenees, the main objective of this work. The application of a multivariate factorial analysis to the data with BMDP-4M program was very helpful for the interpretation of the results. The more resistant minerals are found in the thinner textural fractions, whereas the more alterable are located in the thicker fractions. The cones and glacis, composed by materials of the flysch, reveal an alteration of the carbonated materials which is shown by the formation of feldspars and anphybols. The formation of iron and manganese metal oxides, of different crystallinity degrees, associated with chrome, lead and nickel, is also observed. The morainic deposits, mainly composed by silicate materials, bring along the formation of illite associated with copper and zinc. Finally, the fluvial terraces have a combination of both alteration processes previously described.

    [es] El estudio físico-químico y mineralógico de los sedimentos del río Ara, en el Pirineo Central (España, permite reconocer la génesis y evolución de su cuenca. Los minerales de la fracción arena, los correspondientes a la fracción arcilla y los elementos minoritarios, delatan ciertos procesos y asociaciones que, junto con la identificación de terrazas fluviales, conos, glacis e incluso depósitos morrénicos, ayudan a explicar la historia geológica del Pirineo Central, principal objetivo de este trabajo. La aplicación al conjunto de datos de un análisis factorial multivariante mediante el programa BMDP

  6. Qualitative approach to residual hazard from the 2013 flood effects in the Garonne River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Silvestre, Marta; Victoriano-Lamariano, Ane; Furdada-Bellavista, Gloria

    2015-04-01

    The Val d'Aran is a region located in the central, axial part of the Pyrenees. The Garona River, the main river that drains it, produces relatively frequent flood events. The last significant flood occurred in June 2013 and it caused extensive damages, as well as a large impact on the media. Based on the 2013 flood effects, a qualitative approach to the residual hazard was performed in order to understand the characteristics of the main zones that were affected and, therefore, may be affected in the future. Two representative sectors along the Garona River were chosen for the study: Arties-Vielha and Era Bordeta-Les stretches. The qualitative approach to the residual hazard has been performed considering that the study of the landforms and the flood effects can give orientation to identify the major flood prone areas. The residual hazard is considered as the hazard that remains even when effective mitigation measures to minimize flood processes are in place. The geomorphology in quasi-natural conditions provides information about the natural dynamic of the river. The geomorphology was studied by analysing the landforms from the 1956 aerial pictures that indicate fluvial processes of the area in quasi-natural conditions. Comparing the effects and flooded areas with the fluvial geomorphology and ancient maps, the most significant flood prone areas can be predicted for future episodes. Administration agencies (CHE, ACA) considered the return-period of this flood lower than 50 years. For this low to medium frequency event, two main types of flood effects were identified: erosions and overflows. Erosions were much more significant than overflows. Regarding to erosions, different cases were found: 1) anthropically narrowed channel stretches recovered their original width; 2) the erosions along the river coincided mostly with landfills that nowadays occupy the floodplain; 3) anthropically deviated stretches recovered their natural paths. Furthermore, these erosions caused

  7. Long-term entrenchment and consequences for present flood hazard in the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victoriano, Ane; García-Silvestre, Marta; Furdada, Glòria; Bordonau, Jaume

    2016-09-01

    On 18 June 2013, a damaging flood of the Garona River (Val d'Aran, Central Pyrenees, Spain) caused losses exceeding EUR 100 million. Few studies have related flood events to the geologic, tectonic and geomorphologic context. This study deals with both short- and long-term processes by studying the upper reach of the Garona River on different timescales and space scales. There has been a clear entrenchment tendency of the drainage network since the Miocene. Post-orogenic exhumation and uplift of the Axial Pyrenees determines the recent and active tectonics of the area and leads to fluvial incision. The last Upper Pleistocene glaciation affected Val d'Aran and gave rise to a destabilization period during the glacial-interglacial transition, marked by a postglacial incision tendency. Mean entrenchment rates between 0.68 and 1.56 mm yr-1 since deglaciation have been estimated. The assessment of the 2013 flood, characterized by the predominance of vertical incision and bank erosion, suggests that the long-term tendency of the fluvial system is reflected in short-term processes. The study of the geologic and geomorphologic evolution, combined with the analysis of this 30-50-year return period flood event, helps to improve flood risk management by providing contextual information that can constrain predictions and help guide choices and decisions. In fact, the millennial entrenchment tendency is shown at the human scale, which is considered useful for river management, but could be imperceptible in detailed hydrodynamic and channel morphology studies that describe river dynamics mostly at the 10-15-year timescale.

  8. Analysis of the ground vibration produced by debris flows and other torrential processes at the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Abancó

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of ground vibration sensors for debris-flow monitoring has increased in the last two decades. However, the correct interpretation of the seismic signals produced by debris flows still presents many uncertainties. In the Rebaixader monitoring site (Central Pyrenees, Spain two different ground vibration stations with different characteristics in terms of recording systems and site-specific factors have been compared. The shape of the time series has been recognised as one of the key parameters to identify events and to distinguish between different types of torrential processes. The results show that the site-specific factors strongly influence on the ground vibration registered at each geophone. The attenuation of the signal with the distance has been identified as linear to exponential. In addition, the assembly of the geophones to the terrain also has an important effect on the amplification of the signal. All these results highlight that the definition of ground vibration thresholds for debris-flow detection or warning purposes is a difficult task which is clearly influenced by site-specific conditions of the geophones.

  9. Short-term effects of prescribed fire for pasture management on soil water repellency in the Central Pyrenees (NE-Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona García, Antonio; María Armas-Herrera, Cecilia; Martí-Dalmau, Clara; Badía-Villas, David; Ortiz-Perpiñán, Oriol

    2016-04-01

    The decrease of livestock grazing during the last decades in the Central Pyrenees has led to a regression of grasslands in favour of shrublands, mainly composed by Echinospartum horridum. Prescribed burning might be a suitable tool for the control of this species that limits pastures development and therefore, the reclamation of grasslands; although, its effects on soil properties are still uncertain [1]. Controlled burnings are usually performed in spring or autumn, when soil moisture is high and temperature low, being easier to control and also reducing its effects on soil properties. However, burning during the wet seasons can increase the risk of soil erosion as the vegetation cover is partially destroyed. In this sense, soil water repellency (SWR) plays an important role reducing the infiltration rates and, thus, increasing runoff and soil erosion [2]. Then, it is of special interest to study parameters that influence SWR such as soil moisture, soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil biological activity [3]. The aim of this work is, to analyse the effects of controlled burning on SWR as well as some of the influencing factors on this parameter. To achieve this, soil sampling was carried out in two prescribed fire events that took place in the Central Pyrenees: Tella (April, 2015) and Buisán (November, 2015). Temperature was simultaneously recorded during the fire via thermocouples placed at the surface level and at 1 cm, 2 cm and 3 cm depth. In each event, topsoil was scrapped and sampled from 0-1 cm, 1-2 cm and 2-3 cm depth in each sampling point (3 for Tella and 4 for Buisán) just before and immediately after burning. We analysed SWR persistence (Water Drop Penetration Time, WDPT) and intensity (Ethanol Percentage Test, EPT) as well as total C and N, microbial C, β-glucosidase activity, soil moisture and pH. Temperature measurements indicated a higher fire intensity in Tella than in Buisán burning. Surface unburned samples presented extreme SWR values

  10. Reply to the discussion by Pinyol et al. (2016) on Gutiérrez et al. (2015) "Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Linares, Rogelio; Roqué, Carles; Zarroca, Mario; Carbonel, Domingo; Rosell, Joan; Gutiérrez, Mateo

    2016-06-01

    Gutiérrez et al. (2015) in their paper published in Geomorphology document for the first time five large landslides (L1, L2, L3, L5, L6) in the Canelles Reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees) on the basis of detailed geomorphological-geological mapping. They also analyse a large 40 × 106 m3 translational landslide reactivated in 2006 by a severe decline in the reservoir water level (L4 or Canelles landslide). This landslide was discovered because a 1.1 km long fissure-scarp less than 0.5 m in width and height developed along the head of the landslide. The investigation concerning the Canelles landslide included the construction of site-specific stratigraphic columns, detailed mapping, electrical resistivity imaging, and trenching in the upper part of the landslide. The retrodeformation analysis of the trench log together with radiocarbon dates revealed two displacement events older and larger in magnitude than the 2006 event. Those episodes occurred in the 6th to 7th Centuries and in 1262-1679 yr AD, the latter one probably triggered by the 1373 Ribagorza earthquake (Mw 6.2). Based on these new data, Gutiérrez et al. (2015) discuss the hypothesis proposed in a previous paper by Pinyol et al. (2012) on the kinematic behaviour of the Canelles landslide. Pinyol et al. (2012), based on a thermo-hydro-mechanical numerical model that assumes dilation in the sliding surface induced by frictional heating under undrained conditions, predict a catastrophic reactivation. They forecast that at 35 s after the initiation of the movement, the landslide would reach a displacement of 250 m and a speed of 16 m s- 1, capable of generating an impulse-water wave (tsunami). Pinyol et al. (2016) address three issues in their discussion on Gutiérrez et al. (2015): (1) the geological model used; (2) the validity of the prediction of an extremely rapid reactivation; (3) the effectiveness of the corrective measures proposed. They also add a section with additional comments.

  11. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    OpenAIRE

    Ballesteros Cánovas, Juan Antonio; Rodríguez Morata, Clara; Garofano Gomez, Virginia; Rubiales Jimenez, Juan Manuel; Sánchez Salguero, Raul; Stoffel, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a ...

  12. Long-term summer temperature variations in the Pyrenees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buentgen, Ulf; Frank, David; Esper, Jan [Swiss Federal Research Institute WSL, Dendro Sciences Unit, Birmensdorf (Switzerland); Grudd, Haakan [Stockholm University, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2008-11-15

    Two hundred and sixty one newly measured tree-ring width and density series from living and dry-dead conifers from two timberline sites in the Spanish Pyrenees were compiled. Application of the regional curve standardization method for tree-ring detrending allowed the preservation of inter-annual to multi-centennial scale variability. The new density record correlates at 0.53 (0.68 in the higher frequency domain) with May-September maximum temperatures over the 1944-2005 period. Reconstructed warmth in the fourteenth to fifteenth and twentieth century is separated by a prolonged cooling from {proportional_to}1450 to 1850. Six of the ten warmest decades fall into the twentieth century, whereas the remaining four are reconstructed for the 1360-1440 interval. Comparison with novel density-based summer temperature reconstructions from the Swiss Alps and northern Sweden indicates decadal to longer-term similarity between the Pyrenees and Alps, but disagreement with northern Sweden. Spatial field correlations with instrumental data support the regional differentiation of the proxy records. While twentieth century warmth is evident in the Alps and Pyrenees, recent temperatures in Scandinavia are relatively cold in comparison to earlier warmth centered around medieval times, {proportional_to}1450, and the late eighteenth century. While coldest summers in the Alps and Pyrenees were in-phase with the Maunder and Dalton solar minima, lowest temperatures in Scandinavia occurred later at the onset of the twentieth century. However, fairly cold summers at the end of the fifteenth century, between {proportional_to}1600-1700, and {proportional_to}1820 were synchronized over Europe, and larger areas of the Northern Hemisphere. (orig.)

  13. The Spanish decentralised international cooperation in Central America in the area of municipalism and decentralisation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Haedo

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available In an attempt to link the international dimension with the local one, this article lays out an approach to the situation of Spanish decentralised international cooperation in the area of municipalism and decentralisation in the countries of Central America. In the firstplace, it offers a characterisation of the current state of Spanish decentralised cooperation in order to thus frame the cooperation actions carried out by the Barcelona Provincial Council; the UIM (Unión Iberoamericana de Municipios together with CEMCI (Centro de Estudios Municipales y de Cooperación Internacional; and the Confederación de Fondos de Cooperación y Solidaridad. Finally, it describes bankruptcies and it recovers some of the achievements ofthis kind of cooperation specifically in reference to the field of municipalism.

  14. Spanish Cooperation with Central America: Political will or Transfer of Resources?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Àngels Miralpeix i Güell

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available The economies of the six states of Central America do not form a homogeneous block although they share the common denominators of underdevelopment and dependence. The great dependence of Central American economies on only a few export products whose value has been drastically reduced in international markets was one of the fundamental causes of the economic crisis. The reactivation of the subregional economy largely depends on the opening up of foreign markets, the availability of modern technology, debt renegotiation and the fostering of direct investments.Spanish foreign policy towards Central America has been characterized by a clear political committment to the peace process which set it on the long road towards the end of the so-called Central American crisis. But we can show that the Spanish Policy for Development and Cooperation towards the isthmus has not always been translated into the transfer of resources. The present study which has, as its objective, the analysis of this policy, is based on the study of the PACI-Report (1990-1992 and on the PACIPrevisions (1987-1989 and 1993-1994 given the non-availability of its documented achievements in these years. In order that the political committments taken on by Spain are translated into the assuming of economic responsibilites, it is inevitable that the cooperation be largely technical, based on projects designed in connection with the governments of the isthmus as well as with regional institutions.Political peace will be impossible to reach if the grave economic and social problems are not solved and if the process of democratization and modernization of the State is not consolidated. All these challenges cannot be confronted without intense external support such as that given during the political crisis; regional integration both political (strengthening the Central American Parlament and economic (reactivation of the Central American Common Market offers a clear opportunity for

  15. Presence of Plecotus macrobullaris (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae) in the Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Garin, Inazio; García-Mudarra, Juan L.; Aihartza, J. R.; Goiti, Urtzi; Juste, Javier

    2003-01-01

    In July 2002, several bats of the genus Plecotus (Geoffroy, 1818) were captured at two localities of ‘Ordesa y Monte Perdido’ National Park (Central Pyrenees, Spain). They showed external characters that appeared intermediate between those of P. auritus and P. austriacus. Morphometric and genetic analysis have revealed that these long-eared bats should be ascribed to the recently recognized species P. macrobullaris. This study extends the distribution of this new species, whose western ...

  16. Application of MAGIC to Lake Redó (Central Pyrenees: an assessment of the effects of possible climate driven changes in atmospheric precipitation, base cation deposition, and weathering rates on lake water chemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc VENTURA

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The process-oriented catchment-scale model MAGIC was used to simulate water chemistry at Lake Redó, a high mountain lake in the Central Pyrenees, Spain. Data on lakewater and atmospheric deposition chemistry for the period 1984-1998 were used to calibrate the model, which was then used to reconstruct past and to provide forecasts for three hypothetical future scenarios of deposition. Forecast scenarios considered several combinations of changes in S and N deposition due to abatement strategies, and in base cation deposition due to climate-induced changes in air-mass trajectories from northern Africa. Scenario 1 assumed constant deposition of base cations at the present level plus the expected decrease in S and N deposition resulting from reduced emissions; scenario 2 (best case assumed an increase in base cation deposition plus the same decrease in S and N deposition as in scenario 1; scenario 3 (worst case assumed a decrease in base cation deposition plus no decrease in S and N deposition. The hindcast indicated that during the past 140-year period changes in lake water chemistry have been significant for a remote mountain catchment, although no substantial acidification has occurred. In this regard Lake Redó can be described as a "non-sensitive lake" maintaining a reference condition. The forecasts indicated changes that do not affect this status, but the trends, even if slight, were different between scenarios. A slight decline in the surface water ANC is predicted by Scenario 3. The N budget indicates an unusually low retention in the catchment, which may result in enhanced sensitivity to further increased N deposition. Some of the discrepancy between modelled and measured Ca2+ in lake water during 1984-98 could be explained by changes in rainfall amounts and by increased weathering rates due to increases in air temperature.

  17. Detection of early stage large scale landslides in forested areas by 2 m LiDAR DEM analysis. The example of Portainé (Central Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinau, Marta; Ortuño, Maria; Calvet, Jaume; Furdada, Glòria; Bordonau, Jaume; Ruiz, Antonio; Camafort, Miquel

    2016-04-01

    Mass movements have been classically detected by field inspection and air-photo interpretation. However, airborne LiDAR has significant potential for generating high-resolution digital terrain models, which provide considerable advantages over conventional surveying techniques. In this work, we present the identification and characterization of six slope failures previously undetected in the Orri massif, at the core of the Pyrenean range. The landforms had not been previously detected and were identified by the analysis of high resolution 2 m LiDAR derived bared earth topography. Most of the scarps within these failures are not detectable by photo interpretation or the analysis of 5 m resolution topographic maps owing to their small heights (ranging between 0.5 and 2 m) and their location within forest areas. 2D and 3D visualization of hillshade maps with different sun azimuths, allowed to obtain the overall picture of the scarp assemblage and to analyze the geometry and location of the scarps with respect to the slope and the structural fabric. Near 120 scarps were mapped and interpreted as part of slow gravitational deformation, incipient slow flow affecting a colluvium, rotational rock-sliding and slope creep. Landforms interpreted as incipient slow flow affecting a colluvium have headscarps with horse-shoe shape and superficial (forecast of future catastrophic failures. This presentation is supported by the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation project CHARMA: CHAracterization and ContRol of MAss Movements. A Challenge for Geohazard Mitigation (CGL2013-40828-R).

  18. Integrating Extensive Livestock and Soil Conservation Policies in Mediterranean Mountain Areas for Recovery of Abandoned Lands in the Central Spanish Pyrenees. A Long-Term Research Assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadal-Romero, Estela; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cerda Bolinches, Artemio

    2016-01-01

    Land abandonment is a global issue with important implications in Mediterranean mountain areas. Abandoned Mediterranean croplands start a process of secondary succession that is initially colonized by grasslands, shrubs and forest. In Mediterranean mountain areas, the process is very slow, so the

  19. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tou...

  20. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tou...

  1. Unravelling past flash flood activity in a forested mountain catchment of the Spanish Central System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballesteros-Cánovas, Juan A.; Rodríguez-Morata, Clara; Garófano-Gómez, Virginia; Rubiales, Juan M.; Sánchez-Salguero, Raúl; Stoffel, Markus

    2015-10-01

    Flash floods represent one of the most common natural hazards in mountain catchments, and are frequent in Mediterranean environments. As a result of the widespread lack of reliable data on past events, the understanding of their spatio-temporal occurrence and their climatic triggers remains rather limited. Here, we present a dendrogeomorphic reconstruction of past flash flood activity in the Arroyo de los Puentes stream (Sierra de Guadarrama, Spanish Central System). We analyze a total of 287 increment cores from 178 disturbed Scots pine trees (Pinus sylvestris L.) which yielded indications on 212 growth disturbances related to past flash flood impact. In combination with local archives, meteorological data, annual forest management records and highly-resolved terrestrial data (i.e., LiDAR data and aerial imagery), the dendrogeomorphic time series allowed dating 25 flash floods over the last three centuries, with a major event leaving an intense geomorphic footprint throughout the catchment in 1936. The analysis of meteorological records suggests that the rainfall thresholds of flash floods vary with the seasonality of events. Dated flash floods in the 20th century were primarily related with synoptic troughs owing to the arrival of air masses from north and west on the Iberian Peninsula during negative indices of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The results of this study contribute considerably to a better understanding of hazards related with hydrogeomorphic processes in central Spain in general and in the Sierra de Guadarrama National Park in particular.

  2. Assessment of lead exposure in Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) from spent ammunition in central Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Julia Rodriguez-Ramos; Hofle, Ursula; Mateo, Rafael; de Francisco, Olga Nicolas; Abbott, Rachel; Acevedo, Pelayo; Blanco, Juan-Manuel

    2011-01-01

    The Spanish imperial eagle (Aquila adalberti) is found only in the Iberian Peninsula and is considered one of the most threatened birds of prey in Europe. Here we analyze lead concentrations in bones (n = 84), livers (n = 15), primary feathers (n = 69), secondary feathers (n = 71) and blood feathers (n = 14) of 85 individuals collected between 1997 and 2008 in central Spain. Three birds (3.6%) had bone lead concentration > 20 (mu or u)g/g and all livers were within background lead concentration. Bone lead concentrations increased with the age of the birds and were correlated with lead concentration in rachis of secondary feathers. Spatial aggregation of elevated bone lead concentration was found in some areas of Montes de Toledo. Lead concentrations in feathers were positively associated with the density of large game animals in the area where birds were found dead or injured. Discontinuous lead exposure in eagles was evidenced by differences in lead concentration in longitudinal portions of the rachis of feathers.

  3. Petrogenesis of Permian alkaline lamprophyres and diabases from the Spanish Central System and their geodynamic context within western Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Orejana García, David; Villaseca González, Carlos; Billstrom, Kjell; Paterson, Bruce A.

    2008-01-01

    Basic to ultrabasic alkaline lamprophyres and diabases intruded within the Spanish Central System (SCS) during Upper Permian. Their high LREE, LILE and HFSE contents, together with positive Nb–Ta anomalies, link their origin with the infiltration of sublithospheric K-rich fluids. These alkaline dykes may be classified in two distinct groups according to the Sr–Nd isotope ratios: (1) a depleted PREMA-like asthenospheric component, and (2) a BSE-like lithospheric compone...

  4. The Effects of Work Values and Work Centrality on Job Satisfaction. A study with older spanish workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Orgambídez-Ramos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Since workforces are ageing throughout Europe, interest in the role of age in the workplace is increasing. Older workers with high work centrality are more likely to negotiate a relational contract and express higher levels of job satisfaction than older workers with low work centrality (Armstrong-Stassen and Schlosser, 2008. This study examines the role of work centrality and valued work outcomes as antecedents of job satisfaction. A cross sectional study using questionnaires was conducted. The sample consisted of 203 Spanish employees (M age = 55.78, SD = 3.01. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses have revealed that job satisfaction was significantly predicted by needed income and work centrality. When work is not an important part of older workers’ lives, they will prefer extrinsic outcomes and will not invest in the relationship with their organization (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009. Implications for research and theory are explored in the conclusion.

  5. A Structural Equation Modelling for CRM Development in rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software. 

  6. A Structural Equation Modelling for Crm Development in Rural Tourism in the Catalan Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Mª Prat Forga

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the interrelationships between customer relationship management development in rural tourism, information and communication technologies level in the territory, perceived economic impacts and rural tourism development. A total of 76 respondents completed a survey conducted in the Spanish Pyrenees Mountains in order to examine the structural effects of these impact factors. The results reveal that the support for customer relationship management development in rural tourism shown by rural tourism workers mainly depends on the level of development of information and communication technologies. A confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling procedure were performed, respectively, using the AMOS software.

  7. Weathering landforms exposure and erosion phases in Pedriza de Manzanares (Spanish Central Range)

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Rodríguez, M.; Centeno Carrillo, J. D.; Alvarez de Buergo, M.

    2012-04-01

    The phases of erosion can be reconstructed measuring the position and dimensions of exposed granite underground weathering landforms. We afford a first approach of this kind of "erosion history" in the area of Pedriza de Manzanares. Pedriza de Manzanares is the main part of the Natural Park of High Manzanares River Basin. The area is part also of the Late Paleozoic granites of the Spanish Central Range, intruded during the Variscan orogeny, and uplifted to its present position during Alpine orogeny. The granite shows a complex fracture pattern (related to Variscan and Alpine processes) that defines a landscape with alternance of regolith-connected-depressions and fresh granite outcrops with abundant bornhards and boulders. Pedriza (as most people call it) is a well known area for its granite landforms which attract tourism, educators and rock climbers. In this area, the contrasting hydrological behaviour of fresh and weathered granite, especially in fractures areas, produces small aquifers with a high recharge from adjacent impermeable surfaces. These conditions have been studied in relation to the soil water availability (for both human and ecosystems), and in relation to the geomorphic edaphic processes (taffoni, flared slopes, etc.). In previous works (García et al., 2008, Centeno et al., 2010) a conceptual model using MS-Excel was devised which provided the basis by which were defined the relevant variables and their interconnections (landforms, climate, hydrogeology). From the standpoint of soils water (and the related weathering processes or ecosystem characteristics), this is especially important in semi-arid and arid climates, as has been appreciated by practising farmers for many years, for the contrast in productive potential in stark between the regolithic and rocky areas. At the same time, granite weathering is enhanced by the persistent presence of water in the regolith and, as a consequence, many microforms are initiated or evolve under the regolith

  8. Abiotic ecotypes in south-central Spanish rivers: Reference conditions and pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physico-chemical water quality in five of Spain's main rivers was assessed during the years 2001-2003. A previous physiographical river typology was carried out by applying System B of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE) which distinguished four main river ecotypes: calcareous headwaters, siliceous rivers, plain rivers, and large rivers. The physiographical classification into river ecotypes also corresponded to distinct hydrochemical types. Reference values of ammonium, nitrate and phosphate fitted for local river ecotypes surpassed only slightly Natural and background levels established by the European Environmental Agency (EEA, 2003). Half of the sampled sites were above the limits established as reference conditions. Additionally, concentrations of ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, and phosphate increased when more percentage of land was dedicated to agriculture and less to forest land. - Agriculture by means of nutrient surpluses and water diversion for irrigation, along with poor sewage treatment of urban wastes are the main environmental problems in Spanish rivers

  9. Understanding the lithosphere in complex tectonic scenarios by integrating geophysical data: The Pyrenees case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanyà, Joan; Fullea, Javier; Ledo, Juanjo; Queralt, Pilar; Marcuello, Alex; Liesa, Montserrat; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-04-01

    Tectonic processes dominate the development of the outermost layer of the Earth over a timescale of millions of years. The locations where these processes take place provide a great opportunity for Earth scientists to study and understand the dynamics and properties of the lithosphere. The Pyrenees are a particular case of continental collision formed as a result of the collision between the Iberian and European plates, which caused the subduction of the Iberian lower crust below the European crust. Large amounts of geophysical data have been acquired in the area providing spectacular images of lithospheric subduction beneath the Western and Central Pyrenees, confirming the occurrence of this generally well-understood process. The Eastern Pyrenees, however, are a most puzzling part of the orogen and the geodynamical evolution of this area cannot be understood without the influence of the Neogene Mediterranean rifting, following the continental collision. The complexity of this area and the controversy of the geophysical results set in debate concepts well recognized in the other parts of the Pyrenees such as the subduction of the Iberian lower crust and the depth of the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The aims of this study are to characterise major tectonic and geophysical variations along the Pyrenean mountain range at a lithospheric-scale and constrain the causes of the observed lateral variations. A preliminary model of the lithospheric configuration and dynamics, based on magnetotelluric geophysical results, has been developed and constrained using independent and available geophysical, geological and geochemical data. Computational petrology methods, using Litmod, were used for integrated modelling of all data.

  10. Circulation of whale-bone artifacts in the northern Pyrenees during the late Upper Paleolithic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pétillon, Jean-Marc

    2013-11-01

    The importance of coastal resources in the late Upper Paleolithic of western Europe has been reevaluated in recent years thanks to a growing body of new archeological evidence, including the identification of more than 50 implements made of whale bone in the Magdalenian level of the Isturitz cave (western Pyrenees). In the present study, the assemblages of osseous industry from 23 Magdalenian sites and site clusters in the northern Pyrenees were investigated, systematically searching for whale-bone implements. The objective of this research was to determine if, and how, tools and weapons of coastal origin were circulated beyond Isturitz into the inland, and if similar implements existed on the eastern, Mediterranean side of the Pyrenees. A total of 109 whale-bone artifacts, mostly projectile heads of large dimensions, were identified in 11 sites. Their geographic distribution shows that whale bone in the Pyrenean Magdalenian is exclusively of Atlantic origin, and that objects made of this material were transported along the Pyrenees up to the central part of the range at travel distances of at least 350 km from the seashore. This phenomenon seems to have taken place during the second half of the Middle Magdalenian and the first half of the Late Magdalenian, ca. 17,500-15,000 cal BP (calibrated years before present). The existence of a durable, extended coastal-inland interaction network including the circulation of regular tools is thus demonstrated. Additionally, differences between the whale-bone projectile heads of the Middle Magdalenian and those of the Late Magdalenian document an evolutionary process in the design of hunting weapons. PMID:24103459

  11. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gascoin

    2015-05-01

    a MODIS pixel. Then, a set of Landsat images is used to validate MOD10A1 and MYD10A1 for 157 dates between 2002 and 2010. The resulting accuracies are 97% (κ = 0.85 for MOD10A1 and 96% (κ = 0.81 for MYD10A1, which indicates a good agreement between both data sets. The effect of vegetation on the results is analyzed by filtering the forested areas using a land cover map. As expected, the accuracies decrease over the forests but the agreement remains acceptable (MOD10A1: 96%, κ = 0.77; MYD10A1: 95%, κ = 0.67. We conclude that MODIS snow products have a sufficient accuracy for hydroclimate studies at the scale of the Pyrenees range. Using a gap-filling algorithm we generate a consistent snow cover climatology, which allows us to compute the mean monthly snow cover duration per elevation band and aspect classes. There is snow on the ground at least 50% of the time above 1600 m between December and April. We finally analyze the snow patterns for the atypical winter 2011–2012. Snow cover duration anomalies reveal a deficient snowpack on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, which seems to have caused a drop in the national hydropower production.

  12. Reactivation of a syn-growth unconformity during flexural-slip folding (Bóixols Anticline, Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavani, Stefano; Granado, Pablo; Arbués, Pau; Muñoz, Josep Anton

    2016-04-01

    The contractive growth strata of the Bóixols anticline (Spanish Pyrenees) include a major Upper Cretaceous syn-kinematic unconformity outstandingly exposed at the anticline forelimb. The unconformity divides and decouples the growth-sequence in two units of contrasting geometry. In the outer sector of the forelimb, the unconformity preserves its stratigraphic attitude, showing an angle of less than 20° and separating near-vertical to south-dipping upper and lower unit syn-kinematic strata. In the central portion of the forelimb, the multilayered lower unit acquires a near-vertical attitude, whereas layers of the upper unit become shallow-dipping. The angular unconformity there is about 90° and the unconformity is affected by meso-faults and S-C structures providing a top to the foreland shear sense. Such a shear zone is offset by high-angle reverse faults propagating from the underlying layer-parallel faults of the lower syn-kinematic unit. In the inner sector of the forelimb, strata of the lower and upper units are overturned and near-vertical, respectively. Still, the unconformable contact represents a shear zone, indicating a top to the crest shear sense. Shear senses along with relative timing and cross-sectional distribution of deformation structures, indicate flexural-slip folding in the growth sequence. Layer-parallel anisotropies oblique to each other were active at the same time and only during the later stage of folding, when layers of the lower unit were becoming orthogonal to those of the upper package, the flexural-slip mechanism arrested in the upper package. These observations point out that, regardless of its orientation, layering in the growth sequence of the Bóixols anticline promoted stress channeling, with the maximum stress keeping about parallel to beds almost for the entire folding process.

  13. Achievements and pending issues in psychiatric reform in Panama and Spanish speaking Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Aparicio Basauri

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The return to democracy in Central America has led to economic and social development policies that have had effects on the health sector and, likewise, on mental health plans. From 2001, the World Health Organization (WHO developed a mental health strategy with the purpose of reducing the gap between mental health population needs and resources that are effectively assigned to this area. This article describes and analyzes the results of mental health care systems assessments that were undertaken in the Central American countries based on the Assessment Instrument for Mental Health Systems (WHO. These results lead to optimism in the implementation of the Regional Strategy and Action Plan for Mental Health of the Pan-American Health Organization for 2010-2019, but also open the way to new challenges for the region.

  14. A snow cover climatology for the Pyrenees from MODIS snow products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoin, S.; Hagolle, O.; Huc, M.; Jarlan, L.; Dejoux, J.-F.; Szczypta, C.; Marti, R.; Sanchez, R.

    2015-05-01

    time above 1600 m between December and April. We finally analyze the snow patterns for the atypical winter 2011-2012. Snow cover duration anomalies reveal a deficient snowpack on the Spanish side of the Pyrenees, which seems to have caused a drop in the national hydropower production.

  15. Hydropower landscapes and tourism development in the Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Jean-François

    2012-01-01

    Since the development of hydroelectric power at the end of the 19th century, most of the high mountain valleys in the Pyrenees have been equipped with hydropower facilities (dams, water intake structures, aqueducts, penstocks, access routes, etc.). Thus, today many landscapes in the Pyrenees bear witness to the exploitation of this renewable resource. But in the classical imaginary world, these mountain areas are seen as the archetype of the beautiful natural landscape, in accordance with aes...

  16. The application of terrestrial laser scanner and SfM photogrammetry in measuring erosion and deposition processes in two opposite slopes in a humid badlands area (central Spanish Pyrenees)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Nadal-Romero; P. Revuelto; P. Errea; J.I. López-Moreno

    2015-01-01

    Erosion and deposition processes in badland areas are usually estimated using traditional observations of topographic changes, measured by erosion pins or profile metres (invasive techniques). In recent times, remote-sensing techniques (non-invasive) have been routinely applied in geomorphology stud

  17. The Representation of Immigrants in Spanish television fiction. A proposal for a Content Analysis. El Comisario y Hospital Central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Elena Galán Fajardo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Spanish society is getting more and more multicultural. Demographys has changed considerably. Anyway, hegemonic media, especially televisión fiction as one of the most demanded genres on prime-time, avoiding or just showing them into ilegality, exclusion or margination plots. This research analyzes the image of immigrants in the plots of two of the Spanish workplace series with more audience nowadays. They were from 1999 to 2005. Using a content analyses these series has been estudied and the stereotypes used has been observed. In addition, the results of this study has been compared with the information from the Spanish National Institute of Statistics to show similarities and differences with the results obtained of the reality in the same temporary period. Finally, it has been observed a massive employment of negative stereotypes assigned to the image of the immigrant in both series and a correlation between reality and fiction.

  18. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants; Sistemas de gestion ambiental implantados en las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo, R.; Fernandez Guisado, M. B.; Hortiguela, R.; Bustamante, L. F.; Esparza, J. L.; Villareal, M.; Yague, F.

    2013-09-01

    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  19. Thermal analysis of the unloading cell of the Spanish centralized interim storage facility (CISF); Analisis termico de la celda de desarga del almacen temporal centralizado (ATC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez Dominguez, J. R.; Perez Vara, R.; Huelamo Martinez, E.

    2016-08-01

    This article deals with the thermal analysis performed for the Untoading Cell of Spain Centralized Interim Storage Facility, CISF (ATC, in Spanish). The analyses are done using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation, with the aim of obtaining the air flow required to remove the residual heat of the elements stored in the cell. Compliance with the admissible heat limits is checked with the results obtained in the various operation and accident modes. The calculation model is flexible enough to allow carrying out a number of sensitivity analyses with the different parameters involved in the process. (Author)

  20. Detrital zircons from the Ordovician rocks of the Pyrenees: Geochronological constraints and provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalef, Aina; Castiñeiras, Pedro; Casas, Josep Maria; Navidad, Marina; Liesa, Montserrat; Linnemann, Ulf; Hofmann, Mandy; Gärtner, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The first LA-ICP-MS U-Pb detrital zircon ages from quartzites located below (three samples) and above (one sample) the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Central Pyrenees (the Rabassa Dome, Andorra) were investigated. The maximum depositional age for the Jújols Group, below the unconformity, based on the youngest detrital zircon population, is around 475 Ma (Early Ordovician), whereas for the Bar Quartzite Fm., above the unconformity, the presence of only two zircons of 442 and 443 Ma precludes obtaining a precise maximum sedimentation age. A time gap of ~ 20 million years for the Upper Ordovician unconformity in the Pyrenees can be proposed, similar to that of the Sardic unconformity in Sardinia. The similar age patterns obtained on both sides of the Upper Ordovician unconformity suggest that there was no change in the source area of these series, while the absence of a Middle Ordovician age population may be due to a lack of sedimentation at that time. The four study samples present very similar U-Pb age patterns: the main age populations correspond to Neoproterozoic (Ediacarian-Cryogenian, ca. 550-750 Ma); Grenvillian (Tonian-Stenian, ca. 850-1100 Ma); Paleoproterozoic (Orosirian, ca.1900-2100 Ma) and Neoarchean (ca. 2500-2650 Ma). The similarity with the Sardinian age distribution suggests that these two terranes could share the same source area and that they were paleogeographically close in Ordovician times in front of the Arabian-Nubian Shield.

  1. Iberian plate kinematics and Alpine collision in the Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, R.L.M.; Meijer, P.Th.

    2012-01-01

    With the aim to unravel first-order motions associated with the Alpine collisional history of the Pyrenees in SW Europe, we perform a plate-kinematic analysis of Iberia motion since the latest Mesozoic in a six-plate circuit. This analysis leads to reconstructions of the North Atlantic for the lates

  2. Modelisation of northerly snow episodes over Andorra (Pyrenees) using WRF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapero, L.; Esteban, P.

    2010-09-01

    North episodes over the Pyrenees represent a challenge in terms of forecasting associated effects, especially during the winter season. Andorra, a small country located in the Pyrenees, between France and Spain, is highly sensitive to these episodes. Usually these episodes generate heavy snowfalls and intense windstorms which can substantially increase hazards and accident occurrence in this mountainous region. Slight variations of the forecasted snowfall distribution and accumulation can cause a severe impact to the population: avalanche hazard, incidents on the communication systems and transports and other derivates social impacts. With north episodes, precipitation mainly affects the North Slope of the Pyrenees and nearby areas. However, in some cases, certain factors allow the precipitation to cross over to the leeward mountain slope and intense snowfalls can affect an extended area and low elevations. The challenge comes down to the difficulty that the models have in forecasting the regional effects of these events and how far over the southern side of the Pyrenees range will precipitation extend. The episode that took place on the 10-11th February 2009 is a recent example. Previous research done by Esteban et al. (2005) over this area, examined the relationship between circulation types and heavy snowfall days in Andorra. Additionally, this study has provided a first climatology of N-NW episodes with at least 30 cm of snow in a 24h period during the winter seasons from 1986 to 2001 and has pointed out differences between similar atmospheric fluxes in the snow precipitation amount and distribution. The specific objective of this study is to determine common features of these events and evaluate the ability of the high-resolution Weather Research and Forecast model (WRF) over complex terrain to predict them, especially the spatial precipitation distribution. Preliminary experiments for 10-11 February 2009 case have tested the performance of two different land

  3. Detecting human mobility in the Pyrenees through the analysis of chert tools during the Upper Palaeolithic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Sánchez de la Torre

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present the preliminary results of PhD research focused on hunter-gatherer groups that occupied the Central and Eastern Pyrenees during the Magdalenian period. This research aims to improve the knowledge we have about those Magdalenian groups, specifically concerning their lithic procurement strategies. The core of the study is based on the lithic tools collected from two archaeological sites - Alonsé Cave and Forcas I Shelter, both in Huesca, Spain-, and in particular those made from chert, because they are both a spatial and a cultural marker at the same time. These cherts have been studied using petroarchaeological methods, and as a result, it has been possible to detect the type of procurement strategies carried out and to guess the relation existing between those human groups and their environment, especially in what refers to mobility strategies.

  4. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from the Aragonese Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (YSNP) markers, respectively. Po...

  5. Genetic analysis of 7 medieval skeletons from Aragonese Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    Núńez, Carolina; Sosa, Cecilia; Baeta, Miriam; Geppert, Maria; Turnbough, Meredith; Phillips, Nicole; Casalod, Yolanda; Bolea, Miguel; Roby, Rhonda; Budowle, Bruce; Martínez-Jarreta, Begońa

    2011-01-01

    Aim To perform a genetic characterization of 7 skeletons from medieval age found in a burial site in the Aragonese Pyrenees. Methods Allele frequencies of autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) loci were determined by 3 different STR systems. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome haplogroups were determined by sequencing of the hypervariable segment 1 of mtDNA and typing of phylogenetic Y chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP) markers, respectively. Possible familial relationsh...

  6. Regional structure of the southern segment of Central Iberian Zone (Spanish Variscan Belt) interpreted from potential field images and 2.5 D modelling of Alcudia gravity transect

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Lobón, J. L.; Rey-Moral, C.; Ayala, C.; Martín-Parra, L. M.; Matas, J.; Reguera, M. I.

    2014-02-01

    This study presents a structural interpretation of potential field data at the southern segment of the Spanish Central Iberian Zone, where little is known about its geometry and physical properties in depth. We used ground gravity and aeromagnetic data from the Spanish Geological Survey (IGME) databases, together with a gravity survey recently acquired along the Alcudia deep seismic reflection profile, and also petrophysical data from rock samples, in part specifically acquired for this work. The aim is to characterize with potential fields the depth structure and physical properties of a complex area, focusing on features of the upper crust where the potential fields can provide a useful insight, as these features appear to be transparent in the images of seismic surveys carried up to date. After building a 2.5 D model of the magnetic susceptibility and density distribution for the whole crust with the constraints of the Alcudia seismic transect, relationships between lower and upper crustal structures can be better established, and surface geophysical maps allow estimating the lateral extensions of the main structures characterized by the potential field modelling. Interpreted gravity and magnetic Alcudia features consist of: 1) long-wavelength anomalies due to changes in crustal thickness and structure, identified along the Alcudia seismic reflection profile; some crustal boundaries and the seismic Moho have been slightly modified in the potential field model to fit the observed data; and, 2) short wavelength anomalies related to upper crustal features as large NW-SE faults and folds, and plutonic alignments. Northern and southern Alcudia segments show relevant lower-middle crust shortening structures underneath extensive Variscan plutons (Mora, Pedroches) and folded basins (Pedroches). Potential field imaging and modelling of these structures have provided a better understanding of the subsurface geology, particularly in non-reflective areas, unravelling the

  7. Snowpack modelling in the Pyrenees driven by kilometric-resolution meteorological forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quéno, Louis; Vionnet, Vincent; Dombrowski-Etchevers, Ingrid; Lafaysse, Matthieu; Dumont, Marie; Karbou, Fatima

    2016-07-01

    Distributed snowpack simulations in the French and Spanish Pyrenees are carried out using the detailed snowpack model Crocus driven by the numerical weather prediction system AROME at 2.5 km grid spacing, during four consecutive winters from 2010 to 2014. The aim of this study is to assess the benefits of a kilometric-resolution atmospheric forcing to a snowpack model for describing the spatial variability of the seasonal snow cover over a mountain range. The evaluation is performed by comparisons to ground-based measurements of the snow depth, the snow water equivalent and precipitations, to satellite snow cover images and to snowpack simulations driven by the SAFRAN analysis system. Snow depths simulated by AROME-Crocus exhibit an overall positive bias, particularly marked over the first summits near the Atlantic Ocean. The simulation of mesoscale orographic effects by AROME gives a realistic regional snowpack variability, unlike SAFRAN-Crocus. The categorical study of daily snow depth variations gives a differentiated perspective of accumulation and ablation processes. Both models underestimate strong snow accumulations and strong snow depth decreases, which is mainly due to the non-simulated wind-induced erosion, the underestimation of strong melting and an insufficient settling after snowfalls. The problematic assimilation of precipitation gauge measurements is also emphasized, which raises the issue of a need for a dedicated analysis to complement the benefits of AROME kilometric resolution and dynamical behaviour in mountainous terrain.

  8. Beef animal welfare, attitudes and Willingness to Pay: A regional comparison across the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre Sans

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Attitudes towards beef animal welfare (AW and Willingness to Pay (WTP for AW certification are investigated among consumers in two Spanish and two French regions located on both sides of the Pyrenees (n=1213. Attitudes were measured through a scale of 11 animal practices, on which, consumers report their degree of concern and trust on the supply chain compliance. Attitudes significantly differed across regions, especially with respect to those AW practices carried out by farmers, while trust lies behind concerns. Three segments based on individual consumer attitudes are defined by opposing those consumers who are more concerned and who trust more on the compliance with AW standards (n=264, 22% to those less concerned and who are more uncertain about stakeholders´ compliance with AW rules (n=356, 29%. Consumer location, gender, age and education significantly differed across attitudinal clusters. Results from a contingent valuation survey show that WTP for certified animal friendly beef ranged between 20.6% and 22.6% over the average market price of standard beef, in Spain and France, respectively. Both, consumers’ socio-demographic characteristics and habits regarding beef meat purchasing and attitudes towards farmers influenced this WTP (the more consumers trust in farmers’ involvement in animal welfare, the highest is their WTP, while a negative overall attitude significantly reduced WTP.

  9. Development of database for spent fuel and special waste from the Spanish nuclear power plants; Desarrollo de la base de datos para el combustible gastado y residuos especiales de las centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gandal, R.; Rodriguez Gomez, M. A.; Serrano, G.; Lopez Alvarez, G.

    2013-07-01

    GNF Engineering is developing together with ENRESA and with the UNESA participation, the spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste data base of Spanish nuclear power plants. In the article is detailed how this strategic project essential to carry out the CTS (centralized temporary storage) future management and other project which could be emerged is being dealing with, This data base will serve as mechanics of relationship between ENRESA and Spanish NPPS, covering the expected necessary information to deal with mentioned future management of spent fuel and high activity radioactive waste. (Author)

  10. Spanish I

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez, Jill

    2001-01-01

    CliffsQuickReview course guides cover the essentials of your toughest classes. Get a firm grip on core concepts and key material, and test your newfound knowledge with review questions. CliffsQuickReview Spanish I is meant to provide all the foundations of basic Spanish pronunciation, spelling, and sentence construction. Spanish grammar is systematically explained in its most simplistic way, so there's no need for any prerequisite before beginning this ""review"" of the equivalent of two years of high school Spanish. As you work your way through this review, you'll be ready to tackle such conc

  11. Adventure sports and tourism at the beginning of the construction of Europe in the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Suchet

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Organised in the spring of 1993 on the border between France and Spain, the Pyrenees Adventure Games (les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure or los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, brought together more than 1,000 athletes from 26 countries and were attended by 21,000 visitors. An alternative Olympics of adventure and outdoor sports patronised by the IOC, the events took place in the Aure Valley in France (Hautes-Pyrénées and in the Sobrarbe in Spain (Huesca province. This article analyses the governance of this international sports competition. More specifically, this case study will enable us to find out more about the conditions of organisation of a cross-border project in the early 1990s. What were the various political, social and cultural exchanges between the valleys in terms of sports and tourism in the Pyrenees? The results show that the French organisation and the Spanish organisation functioned side by side instead of working together on the field. This division in working enabled them to bypass the language problem. The cross-border dimension of these adventure Olympics in 1993 stemmed from pressure from the French regional planning agency, DATAR right from the beginning of the project, i.e. in October 1989, to be exact. This dimension made the 1993 Pyrenees Adventure Games a testimony to the new political Europe that was being built after 1989. This period was marked by the proactiveness of institutions, which far exceeded the motivations of the populations of the Union.Organisés au printemps 1993 sur la frontière entre la France et l’Espagne, les Jeux Pyrénéens de l’Aventure, ou los Juegos Pirenaicos de la Aventura, réunirent plus de 1 000 athlètes venus de 26 pays du monde sous les yeux de 21 000 visiteurs. Olympiade des sports d’aventure et de nature patronnée par le CIO, les épreuves se déroulèrent dans la vallée d’Aure en France (département des Hautes-Pyrénées et le Sobrarbe en Espagne (province de

  12. Available data on-budget and off-budget activities of Spanish central, state and local governments

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Argimón; Francisco Martí

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we present an analysis of the informative content of available public sector data for Central, State (Regional) and Local Governments in Spain. We first review the framework that defines budgetary arrangements in place in Spain, with a special emphasis on the decentralization process. We then present official budgetary projections for the balance of the different levels of Government and compare them with both outturn and national accounts data. We assess the magnitude of the di...

  13. The Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC) Spanish. General and operational readiness in the management of high level radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The high-level waste will go to Centralized Temporary Storage (ATC) in Villar de Canas (Cuenca), which is the solution to your management until finished designing its final disposal in the Deep Geological Storage (AGP). Transport containers of high activity radioactive waste will be stored on arrival at the ATC. In time of management, waste will be taken remotely, will be encapsulated in secure conditions and stored in vaults designed to be cooled by natural convection of air confinement. The buildings in the facility will have a general provision optimize the movement of packages and people for the development of all these activities. (Author)

  14. Spatial and temporal changes in apportionments by using sediment fingerprinting in a Spanish Pyrenean river catchment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palazón, Leticia; Latorre, Borja; Gaspar, Leticia; Navas, Ana

    2016-04-01

    The Barasona reservoir has suffered from siltation since its construction, with the loss of over one third of its storage volume in around 30 years (period 1972-1996). Information on sediment contribution and transport dynamics from the contributing catchment to the reservoir is needed to develop management plans for maintaining reservoir sustainability. Large variability in sediment delivery was found in previous studies in the Barasona catchment (1509 km2, Central Spanish Pyrenees) and the major sediment sources identified included badlands developed in the middle part of the catchment and the agricultural fields in its lower part. In this study the soils in the southern part of the catchment are main source of sediments (> 50%) for the southern tributaries. Differences in source apportionments between the two time-spanning reservoir samples reveal that agricultural fields contributed more in the 90s. Study fine sediment characteristics and their contributions in river catchments provide unique and diverse information to address catchment management problems, improving the spatial and temporal knowledge of land use sediment source contributions along the catchment to the reservoir infill.

  15. Morphological description and ecology of some rare macroalgae in south-central Spanish rivers (Castilla-La Mancha Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moreno Alcaraz, Jose Luis

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The Castilla-La Mancha Region (south-central Spain is scarcely studied in terms of freshwater algae. However, both the implementation of the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE and the evaluation of the ecological state of European aquatic ecosystems have increased the intensity and frequency of water body monitoring, including the rivers, lakes and wetlands of this region. Thus, our knowledge on algal biodiversity and the geographical distribution of many species is rapidly increasing. In this study we describe the occurrence, ecological conditions and morphological characteristics of five algal species which are rare at the European level: Nostochopsis lobata Wood ex Bornet & Flahault, Batrachospermum atrum (Hudson Harvey, Chroothece richteriana Hansg., Oocardium stratum Nägeli and Tetrasporidium javanicum Möbius. In addition, we include Hydrurus foetidus (Vill. Trev., a more common alga in Spain, since this is the first record for the region. Finally, we compare morphological and ecological characteristics of the studied populations with other European records.El conocimiento sobre la biodiversidad algal de la región de Castilla-La Mancha, situada en la zona centro-sur de España, es escaso en comparación con el de otras regiones peninsulares. Sin embargo, la aplicación de la Directiva Marco del Agua (2000/60/CE, y la evaluación del estado ecológico de los ecosistemas acuáticos europeos, ha traído consigo un aumento en la frecuencia e intensidad en el muestreo de ríos, lagos y humedales. De esta forma, durante los últimos años se han producido nuevos hallazgos en la región que han permitido ampliar el conocimiento de la biodiversidad de algas así como de la distribución geográfica de muchas de sus especies. En este trabajo se describen las condiciones ecológicas y las características morfológicas de cinco especies que pueden considerarse raras a nivel europeo: Nostochopsis lobata Wood & Bornet & Flahault, Batrachospermum

  16. Landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics: comparison of methods and case study in the Spanish Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beguería, S.; Lorente, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper, written as a deliverable of the DAMOCLES project, is a review of the different existing methodologies to landslide hazard mapping by multivariate statistics. Within the DAMOCLES project, multivariate statistical models have been applied to different study regions in Italy and Spain. The

  17. Validation of snow depth reconstruction from lapse-rate webcam images against terrestrial laser scanner measurements in centrel Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revuelto, Jesús; Jonas, Tobias; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio

    2015-04-01

    Snow distribution in mountain areas plays a key role in many processes as runoff dynamics, ecological cycles or erosion rates. Nevertheless, the acquisition of high resolution snow depth data (SD) in space-time is a complex task that needs the application of remote sensing techniques as Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS). Such kind of techniques requires intense field work for obtaining high quality snowpack evolution during a specific time period. Combining TLS data with other remote sensing techniques (satellite images, photogrammetry…) and in-situ measurements could represent an improvement of the available information of a variable with rapid topographic changes. The aim of this study is to reconstruct daily SD distribution from lapse-rate images from a webcam and data from two to three TLS acquisitions during the snow melting periods of 2012, 2013 and 2014. This information is obtained at Izas Experimental catchment in Central Spanish Pyrenees; a catchment of 33ha, with an elevation ranging from 2050 to 2350m a.s.l. The lapse-rate images provide the Snow Covered Area (SCA) evolution at the study site, while TLS allows obtaining high resolution information of SD distribution. With ground control points, lapse-rate images are georrectified and their information is rasterized into a 1-meter resolution Digital Elevation Model. Subsequently, for each snow season, the Melt-Out Date (MOD) of each pixel is obtained. The reconstruction increases the estimated SD lose for each time step (day) in a distributed manner; starting the reconstruction for each grid cell at the MOD (note the reverse time evolution). To do so, the reconstruction has been previously adjusted in time and space as follows. Firstly, the degree day factor (SD lose/positive average temperatures) is calculated from the information measured at an automatic weather station (AWS) located in the catchment. Afterwards, comparing the SD lose at the AWS during a specific time period (i.e. between two TLS

  18. Photosynthetic limitation of several representative subalpine species in the Catalan Pyrenees in summer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernàndez-Martínez, J; Fleck, I

    2016-07-01

    Information on the photosynthetic process and its limitations is essential in order to predict both the capacity of species to adapt to conditions associated with climate change and the likely changes in plant communities. Considering that high-mountain species are especially sensitive, three species representative of subalpine forests of the Central Catalan Pyrenees: mountain pine (Pinus uncinata Mill.), birch (Betula pendula Roth) and rhododendron (Rhododendron ferrugineum L.) were studied under conditions associated with climate change, such as low precipitation, elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] and high solar irradiation incident at Earth's surface, in order to detect any photosynthetic limitations. Short-term high [CO2 ] increased photosynthesis rates (A) and water use efficiency (WUE), especially in birch and mountain pine, whereas stomatal conductance (gs ) was not altered in either species. Birch showed photosynthesis limitation through stomatal closure related to low rainfall, which induced photoinhibition and early foliar senescence. Rhododendron was especially affected by high irradiance, showing early photosynthetic saturation in low light, highest chlorophyll content, lowest gas exchange rates and least photoprotection. Mountain pine had the highest A, photosynthetic capacity (Amax ) and light-saturated rates of net CO2 assimilation (Asat ), which were maintained under reduced precipitation. Furthermore, maximum quantum yield (Fv /Fm ), thermal energy dissipation, PRI and SIPI radiometric index, and ascorbate content indicated improved photoprotection with respect to the other two species. However, maximum velocity of carboxylation of RuBisco (Vcmax ) indicated that N availability would be the main photosynthetic limitation in this species. PMID:26833754

  19. Incidence Patterns and Trends of non-Central Nervous System Solid Tumours in Children and Adolescents. A Collaborative Study of the Spanish Population Based Cancer Registries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrañaga, Nerea; Sanchez, Mª José; Ardanaz, Eva; Felipe, Saray; Marcos-Gragera, Rafael; Ramos, María; Carulla, Marià; Chirlaque, Mª Dolores; Argüelles, Marcial V.; Martos, Carmen; Mateo, Antonio; Peris-Bonet, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe incidence patterns and trends in children (0-14 years) and adolescents (15-19 age-range) with solid tumours, except those of central nervous system (CNS), in Spain. Methods: Cases were drawn from eleven Spanish population-based cancer registries. Incidence was estimated for the period 1983-2007 and trends were evaluated using Joinpoint regression analysis. Results: The studied tumour groups accounted for 36% of total childhood cancers and 47.6% of those diagnosed in adolescence with annual rates per million of 53.5 and 89.3 respectively. In children 0 to 14 years of age, Neuroblastoma (NB) was the commonest (7.8%) followed by Soft-tissue sarcomas (STS) (6.3%), bone tumours (BT) (6.2%) and renal tumours (RT) (4.5%). NB was the most frequently diagnosed tumour before the 5th birthday, while STS and BT were the commonest at 5-9 years of age, and BT and Carcinoma and other epithelial tumours (COET) at 10-14. COET presented the highest incidence in adolescents, followed by germ-cell tumours (GCT), BT and STS. These four diagnostic groups accounted for 94% of total non-CNS solid tumours, in adolescents. Overall incidence rates increased significantly in children up to 1996 with an annual percentage change (APC) of 2.6% (95%CI: 1.7; 3.6). NB and COET showed significant time trend (APCs: 1.4% and 3.8% respectively) while other tumour groups such as RT, STS, BT or GCT had no significant changes over time. A significant increase was present in NB under the age of 5 and in BT and STS in children aged 10-14 years. In adolescents there were significant increases for all tumours combined (APC=2.7; 95%CI: 1.8-3.6) and for STS, GCT and COET (APCs: 3.2%, 4.4% and 3.5% respectively), while other tumour groups such as hepatic tumours, BT or thyroid carcinomas showed a decreasing trend or no increase. Conclusions: Overall, the incidence of the studied cancers in children increased along the period 1983-1996 with no posterior significant rise, while the incidence

  20. Quantifying retro-foreland evolution in the Eastern Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grool, Arjan R.; Ford, Mary; Huismans, Ritske S.

    2015-04-01

    The northern Pyrenees form the retro-foreland of the Pyrenean orogen. Modelling studies show that retro-forelands have several contrasting characteristics compared to pro-forelands: They tend to show a constant tectonic subsidence during the growth phase of an orogen, and no tectonic subsidence during the steady-state phase. Retro-forelands are also not displaced into the core of the orogen once the steady state phase is achieved. This means they tend to preserve the subsidence history from the growth phase of the orogen, but little or no history from the steady state phase. The northeastern Pyrenees (Carcassonne high) are a good location to test these characteristics against real-world data, because syn-orogenic sediments are preserved and the lack of postrift thermal subsidence and Triassic salt reduce complicating factors. In order to test the model, quantification of the following parameters is needed: Timing, amount and distribution of deformation, subsidence and sedimentation. We use subsurface, field, map and literature data to construct 2 balanced and restored cross sections through the eastern north Pyrenean foreland, stretching from the Montagne Noire in the north, to the Axial Zone in the south. We will link this to published thermochronology data to further constrain the evolution of the retro-foreland and investigate the link with the Axial Zone towards the south. We will quantify subsidence, deformation and sedimentation and link them to exhumation phases in the North Pyrenean Zone (NPZ) and the Axial Zone. The north Pyrenean retro-foreland is divided into two parts: the external foreland basin (Aquitaine basin) to the north and the North Pyrenean Zone to the south, separated by the North Pyrenean Frontal Thrust (NPFT). South of the NPZ lies the Axial Zone, separated from the retro-foreland by the North Pyrenean Fault which is believed to be the suture between Iberia and Europe. The NPFT was the breakaway fault on the European continent during the

  1. Spanish Visit

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    On 23 January, CERN welcomed a visit by Pedro Morenés Eulate, Spanish Secretary of State for Scientific and Technological Policy. He was taken on a tour of the LHC Superconducting test facility, the CMS magnet assembly hall and the civil engineering works at Point 5. After a brief presentation on the AMS (Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer) experiment, delivered by Sam Ting, and lunch hosted by Director General Robert Aymar, he continued his tour of the ATLAS assembly hall and the ISOLDE experimental hall. Pedro Morenés finished his visit by meeting with the Spanish scientific community working at CERN. From left to right: Juan-Antonio Rubio, CERN, Responsible for the Education & Communication, Technology transfer and Scientific Information groups; Gonzalo León, General Secretary of the Spanish Ministry; Joaquín Pérez-Villanueva y Tovar, Ambassador, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations Office; Robert Aymar, CERN Director General; Maria-José Garcia-Borge, ISOLDE and NTOF, CSIC Madrid Tea...

  2. Structural behaviour from MAEF (Modified Advanced European Fuel) in the PWR Spanish Nuclear Power Plants; Comportamiento estructural del MAEF en las centrales PWR nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, M.; Garcia-Infanta, J. M.

    2010-07-01

    This article focuses in the results obtained in dimensional inspections carried out under the Coordinated Research Plan and other plans in Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. Data from one hundred thirty irradiated combustible elements, in three different reactors and in a wide range of burnt, are available. The results show an excellent behaviour from MAEF compared to the previous products, and confirm the achievement of the objectives set out during the design.

  3. From hyper-extended rifts to orogens: the example of the Mauléon rift basin in the Western Pyrenees (SW France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masini, E.; Manatschal, G.; Tugend, J.

    2011-12-01

    -extended rift system. In our presentation, we discuss the compressional reactivation of the rift structures by the study of dip sections across the basin, from weakly reactivated sections in the west to strongly reactivated sections in the east. Comparing the sections, it results that the compression reactivated the rift structures (mainly the detachment faults) and that this reactivation occurred in 2 steps. It corresponds to the reactivation through time of the NMB before the SMB. This evolution is in line with an early proto-subduction of the hyper-extended domain beneath the European plate whereas the NMB sediments are wedged, folded and thrust onto the Iberia and Europe margins ("thin-skin" tectonics). The second step occurs when the deformation started to migrate southward resulting in the formation of the axial Pyrenees nappe stack (thick-skin tectonics). These results suggest that the inherited rift structures strongly controlled the initial convergence. Future work will revisit the more reactivated Albian basins throughout the chain to investigate how far the results from western Pyrenees can be used to understand the Central and Eastern Pyrenees. Moreover, this field-oriented study can serve as an example of how rift structures may control style and timing of orogenic processes.

  4. Macrofauna associations and formation of shell concentrations in the Early Eocene Roda Formation (southern Pyrenees, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martinius, A.W.

    1995-01-01

    The invertebrate macrofauna (mainly molluscs) of the Early Eocene Roda Formation (southern Pyrenees, Spain) is reported and classified in seven biofacies associations, representing ecologically related groups of macro-invertebrates of shallow marine fan-delta environments ranging in depth from inter

  5. Fuel cycle management by the electric enterprises and spanish nuclear Power plants; Gestion del ciclo de combustible por las empresas electricas y centrales nucleares espanolas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celma, E. M.; Gonzalez, C.; Lopez, J. V.; Melara, J.; Lopez, L.; Martinez, J. C.; Culbras, F.; Blanco, J.; Francia, L.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Fuel Group reports to the Technology Committee of the UNESA Nuclear Energy Committee, and is constituted by representatives of both the Spanish Utilities and the Nuclear Power Plants. The Group addresses the nuclear plant common issues in relation to the operation and management of the nuclear fuel in their different stages of the Fuel Cycle. The article reviews the activities developed by the Group in the Front-End, mainly in the monitoring of international programs that define criteria to improve the Fuel Reliability and in the establishment of common bases for the implementation of changes in the regulation applying the nuclear fuel. Concerning the Back-End the Group focuses on those activities of coordination with third parties related to the management of used fuel. (Author)

  6. 气候波动与土地利用变化对西班牙比利牛斯山脉中部径流影响的评价%Assessing the Effect of Climate Oscillations and Land-use Changes on Streamfiow in the Central Spanish Pyrenees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Santiago Beguería; Juan I.López-Moreno; Adrián Lorente; Manuel Seeger; José M.García-Ruiz

    2003-01-01

    在地中海国家扩大灌溉土地的面积,应当考虑气候与土地利用变化对水资源的影响.本文利用降水和温度资料,分析了20世纪中叶以来西班牙比利牛斯山脉中部流域径流的变化趋势.降水与径流之间关系的年变化表明,径流在所研究期间的后半时段相对较低,这一趋势与土地利用变化一致.在月水平上,降水量在10月、4月和7月明显增加,而在3月则有下降;温度在1月和2月有所增加,而在4月则趋于下降.但过去50年间径流在大部分月份中呈显著下降趋势,土地利用和植被覆盖的变化是解释年平均径流下降大约30%的惟一非气候因素.

  7. Seed Exchange as an Agrobiodiversity Conservation Mechanism. A Case Study in Vall Fosca, Catalan Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria Reyes-García

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Interest in landraces conservation has grown in the last decades with research on the topic focusing on in situ conservation of agrobiodiversity in the tropics. Researchers agree that home gardens play a key role in the maintenance of in situ agrobiodiversity, but few studies have analyzed how farmers actually maintain agrobiodiversity in home gardens and what mechanisms they use to avoid genetic erosion. We evaluate the functioning of a network of seed exchange and explore its contribution to agrobiodiversity conservation. We focus on the exchange of seeds and seedlings among 55 home garden keepers who grow a total of 62 home gardens in Vall Fosca (Catalan Pyrenees. Fieldwork included visits to gardens and surveys to register the frequency and management of local landraces. We also asked about the farmers' network of seed exchange. We identified 20 local landraces belonging to 17 species. People who were mentioned more often in the network of seed exchange (highest indegree and who had a higher level of intermediation among other people in their personal network (highest egobetweenness conserved more local landraces and had more local landrace knowledge than people who were less central in the network. Our findings suggest that local landrace conservation is strongly associated with individual position in the network of seed exchange.

  8. Transnational Spanish Language Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillan, Eva; And Others

    The Transnational Spanish Language Project curriculum is a set of instructional materials designed to enhance intercultural business communication between North American and Spanish American cultures. The curriculum covers three areas: office procedures; banking; and import/export business. Lessons, all in Spanish, are intended for…

  9. Crustal structure and composition to the S of the Spanish Central System: Effect of Alpine reactivation in an internal Variscan domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayarza, Puy; Carbonell, Ramón; Ehsan, Siddique; Martí, David; Palomeras, Immaculada; Martínez Poyatos, David

    2016-04-01

    The ALCUDIA Project has acquired vertical incidence and wide-angle reflection seismic data in the Variscan Central Iberian Zone of Spain. The NE-SW, ~300 km long profiles sample an area going from the suture between the Variscan Central Iberian and the Ossa-Morena Zones in the S to the boundary between the former and the Alpine Central System to the N. Although crustal thickness appears to be fairly constant along most of the Central Iberian Zone, a gradual increase of 3-5 km in the northern half of the profile is clearly imaged by the wide-angle data. This increase in the Moho depth is accompanied by a decrease in the thickness of the layered lower crust from the Toledo Anatectic Complex to the N. Right in this area, the amount of Variscan metasediments diminish and the surface geology is characterized by granites, migmatites and by the Madrid Basin, a foreland basin of the Alpine Central System that is part of the bigger Tagus Basin. The increase in crustal thickness identified in the neighborhood of the Central System is also accompanied by a slight increase in the Poisson ratio values, which even though still below 0.25, they are higher than those observed in the southern part of the profile, far from the influence of the late Variscan melting episode and of that of the Alpine tectonics. Two scenarios are considered to take part in the Moho deepening near the Central System: Firstly, the Alpine reactivation causing this mountain belt has increased the crustal load giving rise to a foreland basin and a moderate crustal thickening. Also, a gradual change in crustal composition to the N, incorporating denser and more basic rocks, might also play a role in the average crustal density and contribute to Moho deepening by isostatic readjustment. The importance of each of these process is, as yet, unknown. However, the next acquisition of the CIMDEF project wide-angle reflection dataset across the central part of the Iberian Peninsula, crossing the Central System, will

  10. Study geomorphology, past and present, linear trench, tectonics relationship between Pyrenees and Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillemot, J. (Principal Investigator)

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. ERTS-1 images obviously show up some large linear features trending N 80 E or N 30 E common to both Alps and Pyrenees. One of them, the Ligurian Fault, had been previously forecast by Laubscher in an interpretation of the Alps by the plate tectonic theory, but it extends westward farthest from the Alps, cutting the Pyrenees axis. These lineaments have been interpreted as reflections of deep seated wrench faults in the surficial part of the sedimentary series. A large set of such lineaments is perceptible in western Europe, such as the Guadalquivir Fault in southern Spain, Ligurian Fault, Insubrian Fault, Northern-Jura Fault, Metz Fault. Perhaps these may be interpreted as transform faults of the mid-Atlantic ridge or of a paleo-rift seated in the Rhine-Rhone graben.

  11. Impacts of land use changes on physical and chemical soil properties in the Central Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal Romero, Estela; Hoitinga, Leo; Valdivielso, Sergio; Pérez Cardiel, Estela; Serrano Muela, Pili; Lasanta, Teodoro; Cammeraat, Erik

    2015-04-01

    Soils and vegetation tend to evolve jointly in relation to climate evolution and the impacts of human activity. Afforestation has been one of the main policies for environmental management of forest landscapes in Mediterranean areas. Afforestation has been based mainly on conifers because they are fast-growing species, and also because it was believed that this would lead to rapid restoration of soil properties and hydrological processes, and the formation of protective vegetation cover. This study analyses the effects of afforestation on physical and chemical soil properties. Specifically, we addressed this research question: (i) How do soil properties change after land abandonment? The 11 microsites considered were: Afforestation Pinus sylvestris (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), Afforestation Pinus nigra (escarpment, terrace and close to the stem), natural shrubland, grasslands, bare lands, and undisturbed forest site (pine cover and close to the stem). An extensive single sampling was carried out in September 2014. We systematically collected 5 top soil samples (0-10 cm) and 3 deep soil samples (10-20 cm) per microsite (88 composite samples in total). These properties were analysed: (i) soil texture, (ii) bulk density, (iii) pH and electrical conductivity, (iv) total SOC, (v) Total Nitrogen, (vi) organic matter, (vii) CaCO3 and (viii) aggregate stability. Statistical tests have been applied to determine relationships between the different soil properties and are used to assess differences between different soil samples, land use areas and soil depths. Implications of reafforestation for soil development and environmental response are discussed. Acknowledgments This research was supported by a Marie Curie Intra-European Fellowship in the project "MED-AFFOREST" (PIEF-GA-2013-624974).

  12. The geology of the Upper Ribagorzana and Baliera valleys, Central Pyrenees, Spain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mey, P.H.W.

    1968-01-01

    In the mapped area there is a well-exposed low-grade metamorphic marine sequence from Ordovician to Lower Carboniferous, unconformably overlain by Permo-Triassic continental deposits. Determinable fossils are rare. The Ordovician consists of a quartzite/shale sequence with one marly limestone interc

  13. Tracing the Cambro-Ordovician ferrosilicic to calc-alkaline magmatic association in Iberia by in situ U-Pb SHRIMP zircon geochronology (Gredos massif, Spanish Central System batholith)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Alvarado, Juan; Fernández, Carlos; Chichorro, Martim; Castro, Antonio; Pereira, Manuel Francisco

    2016-06-01

    U-Pb geochronological study of zircons from nodular granites and Qtz-diorites comprising part of Variscan high-grade metamorphic complexes in Gredos massif (Spanish Central System batholith) points out the significant presence of Cambro-Ordovician protoliths among the Variscan migmatitic rocks that host the Late Carboniferous intrusive granitoids. Indeed, the studied zone was affected by two contrasted tectono-magmatic episodes, Carboniferous (Variscan) and Cambro-Ordovician. Three main characteristics denote a close relation between the Cambro-Ordovician protholiths of the Prado de las Pozas high-grade metamorphic complex, strongly reworked during the Variscan Orogeny, and other Cambro-Ordovician igneous domains in the Central Iberian Zone of the Iberian Massif: (1) geochemical features show the ferrosilicic signature of nodular granites. They plot very close to the average analysis of the metavolcanic rocks of the Ollo de Sapo formation (Iberia). Qtz-diorites present typical calc-alkaline signatures and are geochemically similar to intermediate cordilleran granitoids. (2) Both Qtz-diorite and nodular granite samples yield a significant population of Cambro-Ordovician ages, ranging between 483 and 473 Ma and between 487 and 457 Ma, respectively. Besides, (3) the abundance of zircon inheritance observed on nodular granites matches the significant component of inheritance reported on Cambro-Ordovician metagranites and metavolcanic rocks of central and NW Iberia. The spatial and temporal coincidence of both peraluminous and intermediate granitoids, and specifically in nodular granites and Qtz-diorite enclaves of the Prado de las Pozas high-grade complex, is conducive to a common petrogenetic context for the formation of both magmatic types. Tectonic and geochemical characteristics describe the activity of a Cambro-Ordovician arc-back-arc tectonic setting associated with the subduction of the Iapetus-Tornquist Ocean and the birth of the Rheic Ocean. The extensional

  14. Analysis of rainfall-induced shallow landslides and debris flows in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portilla Gamboa, M.; Hürlimann, M.; Corominas, J.

    2009-09-01

    The inventory of rainfall-induced mass movements, rainfall data, and slope characteristics are considered the basis of the analysis determining appropriate rainfall thresholds for mass movements in a specific region. The rainfall-induced landslide thresholds established in the literature for the Catalan Pyrenees have been formulated referring to the rainfall events of November 1982, September 1992, December 1997, and others occurred after 1999. It has been shown that a rainfall intensity greater than 190 mm in 24 hours without antecedent rainfall would be necessary to produce mass movements (Corominas and Moya, 1999; Corominas et al, 2002) or 51mm in 24h with 61 mm of accumulated rainfall (Marco, 2007). Short duration-high intensity rainfalls have brought about several mass movements in some Catalonian regions throughout the course of twenty-first century (Berga, Bonaigua, Saldes, Montserrat, Port-Ainé, Riu Runer, and Sant Nicolau). Preliminary analysis of these events shows that it is necessary to review the thresholds defined so far and redo the existing inventory of mass movements for the Catalan Pyrenees. The present work shows the usefulness of aerial photographs in the reconstruction of the inventory of historic mass movements (Molló-Queralbs, 1940; Arties-Vielha, 1963; Barruera-Senet, 1940 and 1963, and Berga-Cercs, 1982, 1997 and 2008). Also, it highlights the treatment given to scarce and scattered rainfall data available inside these Catalonia’s regions, and the application of Geographic Information Systems (ArcGIS) in the management of the gathered information. The results acquired until now show that the historic rainfall events occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees have yielded many more mass movements than those reported in the literature. Besides, it can be said that the thresholds formulated for the Pyrenees are valid for longstanding regional rainfalls, and not for local downpours. In the latter cases it should be necessary to take into account the

  15. Spanish Special Purpose Dictionaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champion, James J.

    1982-01-01

    A variety of special purpose Spanish dictionaries available for students of Spanish are described, including dictionaries of groupings of associated words, technical language, regional and slang language, single authors' usage, historical periods, etymology, frequency, and reverse organization. Several illustrations of dictionary organization are…

  16. Structural and petrofabric analysis of an “Alpine-type” peridotite: the lherzolite of the French Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avé Lallemant, H.G.

    1969-01-01

    A narrow E-W-striking “graben” containing Mesozoic sediments is separated from the Hercynian mountain chain of the Pyrenees in the south by the North-Pyrenean fault and in the north by a detachment plane. In the region around Vicdessos and the Etang de Lers (Ariège, France), three Alpine phases of d

  17. Teaching L2 Spanish Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saalfeld, Anita K.

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of training on the perception of Spanish stress, an important feature in the Spanish verbal morphology system. Participants were two intact classes of native English speakers enrolled in a six-week session of second-semester Spanish, as well as native English and native Spanish control groups. During the…

  18. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper thrust system) affecting the Marboré sandstones and the Paleocene limestones, deformed by angular south-vergent folds and their related axial plane foliation. The transect explained above clearly summarizes the alpine evolution of northern part of the Sierras Interiores. Moreover, well data available indicate the presence of two thrust soled in the lower calcareous section covering Triassic evaporites at 5 km depth and 8 km to the south of the Sierras Interiores. Because the Triassic evaporites constitute a main decollement level in the South Pyrenean Zone, the deeper thrust system is associated to the emplacement of the Gavarnie nappe. Lanaja, J.M., 1987, Contribución de la exploración petrolífera al conocimiento de la Geología de España, IGME, Madrid, 465 p. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., 2008. Geogaceta 44, 51-54. Rodríguez, L., Cuevas, J., Tubia, J.M., 2011. Geophysical Research Abstracts 13, 2273.

  19. Spanish Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas C. Bruneau

    2000-01-01

    Spain has frequently and correctly been offered as a model of how to negotiate a democratic transition and consolidate a democracy. The transition from authoritarianism to democracy was initiated in the late 1970s and completed with the election of the Spanish Socialist Party (PSOE) in 1982. It was the forerunner in the contemporary “third wave” of democracy. A, if not the, crucial factor in the overall process of the Spanish transition was the resolution of civil–military rela...

  20. Spanish Visit to CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Last week CERN was visited by the Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, Josep Piqué i Camps. While here, he was able to visit the ATLAS assembly hall where many items of equipment are being built in collaboration with Spanish academic institutions or firms. These include the vacuum vessels for the ATLAS barrel toroid magnets supplied by the Spanish firm Felguera Construcciones Mechanics. Similarly, the Universidad Autónoma de Madrid is participating in the manufacture of the electromagnetic calorimeter endcaps, while the Barcelona Institute for High Energy Physics and the Valencia IFIC (Instituto de Física Corpuscular) are highly involved in the production of barrel modules for the tile calorimeter. The delegation, accompanied by Spanish scientists at CERN, also visited the LHC superconducting magnet test hall (photo). From left to right: Felix Rodriguez Mateos of CERN LHC Division, Josep Piqué i Camps, Spanish Minister of Science and Technology, César Dopazo, Director-General of CIEMAT (Spanish ...

  1. Dynamic similarity in titanosaur sauropods: ichnological evidence from the Fumanya dinosaur tracksite (southern Pyrenees.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernat Vila

    Full Text Available The study of a small sauropod trackway from the Late Cretaceous Fumanya tracksite (southern Pyrenees, Catalonia and further comparisons with larger trackways from the same locality suggest a causative relationship between gait, gauge, and body proportions of the respective titanosaur trackmakers. This analysis, conducted in the context of scaling predictions and using geometric similarity and dynamic similarity hypotheses, reveals similar Froude numbers and relative stride lengths for both small and large trackmakers from Fumanya. Evidence for geometric similarity in these trackways suggests that titanosaurs of different sizes moved in a dynamically similar way, probably using an amble gait. The wide gauge condition reported in trackways of small and large titanosaurs implies that they possessed similar body (trunk and limbs proportions despite large differences in body size. These results strengthen the hypothesis that titanosaurs possessed a distinctive suite of anatomical characteristics that are well reflected in their tracks and trackways.

  2. Modelling regional land change scenarios to assess land abandonment and reforestation dynamics in the Pyrenees (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacquie, Laure; Houet, Thomas; Sohl, Terry L.; Reker, Ryan; Sayler, Kristi L.

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decades and centuries, European mountain landscapes have experienced substantial transformations. Natural and anthropogenic LULC changes (land use and land cover changes), especially agro-pastoral activities, have directly influenced the spatial organization and composition of European mountain landscapes. For the past sixty years, natural reforestation has been occurring due to a decline in both agricultural production activities and rural population. Stakeholders, to better anticipate future changes, need spatially and temporally explicit models to identify areas at risk of land change and possible abandonment. This paper presents an integrated approach combining forecasting scenarios and a LULC changes simulation model to assess where LULC changes may occur in the Pyrenees Mountains, based on historical LULC trends and a range of future socio-economic drivers. The proposed methodology considers local specificities of the Pyrenean valleys, sub-regional climate and topographical properties, and regional economic policies. Results indicate that some regions are projected to face strong abandonment, regardless of the scenario conditions. Overall, high rates of change are associated with administrative regions where land productivity is highly dependent on socio-economic drivers and climatic and environmental conditions limit intensive (agricultural and/or pastoral) production and profitability. The combination of the results for the four scenarios allows assessments of where encroachment (e.g. colonization by shrublands) and reforestation are the most probable. This assessment intends to provide insight into the potential future development of the Pyrenees to help identify areas that are the most sensitive to change and to guide decision makers to help their management decisions.

  3. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  4. Baseball/Beisbol. Spanish-English, English-Spanish. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    The bilingual glossary, in both English-to-Spanish and Spanish-to-English, defines words and phrases related to the game of baseball as it is reported by Spanish-language newspapers and magazines in Mexico and the United States. A list of U.S. and Mexican baseball league teams is appended. (MSE)

  5. Lichens biomonitoring as feasible methodology to assess air pollution in natural ecosystems: Combined study of quantitative PAHs analyses and lichen biodiversity in the Pyrenees Mountains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blasco, Maria; Domeno, Celia; Nerin, Cristina [Grupo GUIA-Instituto de Investigacion de Ingenieria en Aragon (I3A), Centro Superior de Ingenieros (CPS), Zaragoza (Spain)

    2008-06-15

    The air quality in the Aragon valley, in the central Pyrenees, has been assessed by evaluation of lichen biodiversity and mapped by elaboration of the Index of Air Purity (IAP) based on observations of the presence and abundance of eight kinds of lichen with different sensitivity to air pollution. The IAP values obtained have been compared with quantitative analytical measures of 16 PAHs in the lichen Evernia prunastri, because this species was associated with a wide range of traffic exposure and levels of urbanization. Analyses of PAHs were carried out by the DSASE method followed by an SPE clean-up step and GC-MS analysis. The concentration of total PAHs found in lichen samples from the Aragon valley ranged from 692 to 6420 ng g{sup -1} and the PAHs profile showed predominance of compounds with three aromatic rings. The influence of the road traffic in the area has been shown because values over the median concentration of PAHs (>1092 ng g{sup -1}), percentage of combustion PAHs (>50%), and equivalent toxicity (>169) were found in lichens collected at places exposed to the influence of traffic. The combination of both methods suggests IAP as a general method for evaluating the air pollution referenced to PAHs because it can be correlated with the content of combustion PAHs and poor lichen biodiversity can be partly explained by the air pollution caused by specific PAHs. (orig.)

  6. Judeo-Spanish in Morocco

    OpenAIRE

    Paloma, Vanessa

    2012-01-01

    The hybrid identity of the Jews of Northern Morocco is exemplified in their language “Haketía” and through multiple expressions of oral traditions. I have participated in Jewish community life between 2005 and 2011 with the extant community in Tangier, and they practice synagogue chants in Hebrew, liturgical poetry in Hebrew and Spanish, readings from the prophets in Spanish on certain holidays and the Passover seder in both Hebrew and Spanish. They put their children to sleep in Spanish and ...

  7. Noteworthy Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Provides a list of recently published children's books in Spanish for Spanish-speaking children or students learning Spanish as a second or foreign language. The list is divided into one section for very young children and another for middle grade students. Information is also given about a Web site where users can access a searchable database of…

  8. Characterization of Zinc and Cadmium Hyperaccumulation in Three Noccaea (Brassicaceae) Populations from Non-metalliferous Sites in the Eastern Pyrenees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martos, Soledad; Gallego, Berta; Sáez, Llorenç; López-Alvarado, Javier; Cabot, Catalina; Poschenrieder, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    The Southern slope of the Pyrenees is the meridional limit for the distribution of several Noccaea populations. However, the systematic description of these populations and their hyperaccumulation mechanisms are not well established. Morphological and genetic analysis (ITS and 3 chloroplast regions) were used to identify Noccaea populations localized on non-metallicolous soils during a survey in the Catalonian Pyrenees. Cd and Zn concentrations were analyzed in soils and plants both sampled in the field and grown hydroponically. The expression of selected metal transporter genes was assessed by quantitative PCR. The populations were identified as Noccaea brachypetala (Jord.) F.K. Mey by conspicuous morphological traits. Principal component analysis provided a clear separation among N. brachypetala, Noccaea caerulescens J. Presl & C. Presl and Noccaea occitanica (Jord.) F.K. Mey., three Noccaea species reported in the Pyrenees. Contrastingly, ITS and cpDNA analyses were unable to clearly differentiate these taxa. Differences in the expression of the metal transporter genes HMA3, HMA4, and MTP1 between N. caerulescens and N. brachypetala, and those amongst the N. brachypetala populations suggest differences in the strategies for handling enhanced Cd and Zn availability. This is the first report demonstrating Cd and Zn hyperaccumulation by N. brachypetala both in the field and in hydroponics. This comprehensive study based on taxonomic, molecular, and physiological data allows both the correct identification of this species and the characterization of population differences in hyperaccumulation and tolerance of Zn and Cd. PMID:26904085

  9. Spanish Consensus Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, Guillermo Álvarez; Cuesta, Jordi Ardevol; Loureda, Rafael Arriaza; España, Fernando Ávila; Matas, Ramón Balius; Pazos, Fernando Baró; de Dios Beas Jiménez, Juan; Rosell, Jorge Candel; Fernandez, César Cobián; Ros, Francisco Esparza; Colmenero, Josefina Espejo; de Prado, Jorge Fernández; Cota, Juan José García; González, Jose Ignacio Garrido; Santander, Manuela González; Munilla, Miguel Ángel Herrador; Ruiz, Francisco Ivorra; Díaz, Fernando Jiménez; Marqueta, Pedro Manonelles; Fernandez, Antonio Maestro; Benito, Juan José Muñoz; Vilás, Ramón Olivé; Teres, Xavier Peirau; Amaro, José Peña; Roque, Juan Pérez San; Parenteu, Christophe Ramírez; Serna, Juan Ribas; Álvarez, Mikel Sánchez; Marchori, Carlos Sanchez; Soto, Miguel del Valle; Alonso, José María Villalón; García, Pedro Guillen; de la Iglesia, Nicolas Hugo; Alcorocho, Juan Manuel Lopez

    2016-01-01

    On the 21st of March, 2015, experts met at Clínica CEMTRO in Madrid, Spain, under the patronage of The Spanish Society for Sports Traumatology (SETRADE), The Spanish Federation of Sports Medicine (FEMEDE), The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Football Clubs (AEMEF), and The Spanish Association of Medical Services for Basketball Clubs (AEMB) with the aim of establishing a round table that would allow specialists to consider the most appropriate current general actions to be taken when treating muscle tears in sport, based on proven scientific data described in the medical literature. Each expert received a questionnaire prior to the aforementioned meeting comprising a set of questions concerning therapeutic indications generally applied in the different stages present during muscle repair. The present Consensus Document is the result of the answers to the questionnaire and resulting discussion and consensus over which are the best current indications in the treatment of muscle tears in sport. Avoiding immobilization, not taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) randomly, fostering early mobilization, increasing vascularization of injured, site and regulating inflammatory mechanisms—without inhibiting these from the early stages of the recovery period—all stood out as main points of the Consensus Document. Additionally, there is controversy concerning cell stimulation techniques and the use of growth factors or cell inhibitors. The decision concerning discharge was unanimous, as was the criteria considered when it came to performing sport techniques without pain. PMID:27213161

  10. interpretation of Spanish architecuture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    While Spanish architecture has experienced a remarkable creative flourishing over the last 25 years, this boom has occurred chiefly in the public sector under the patronage of new national and regional institutions. The private and business sectors have generally been much more conservative in their building, less willing to take risks and less interested in design innovation.

  11. A Sociolinguistic Study of Sustained Veneto-Spanish Bilingualism in Chipilo, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Hilary

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation project examines the language contact situation of Chipilo, a Veneto-Spanish bilingual community of immigrant origin in central Mexico, focusing both on the social motivations for the sustained bilingualism observed and the linguistic outcomes in the Spanish of the community. Chipilo is a unique community in that Veneto, a…

  12. Woodland clearance alters geomorphic, hydrologic, and pedogenic drivers of ecosystem services: examples from the southern Blue Ridge (USA) and the French western Pyrenees Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, David

    2016-04-01

    The southern Blue Ridge (USA) and French western Pyrenees both are humid-temperate mountains where native woodlands have been cleared on soils formed in residuum and colluvium on hillslopes. Forest removal increased rates of erosion and sediment yield that drove both negative and positive ecosystem services. For example, the supportive ecosystem service of soil formation was diminished on eroded hillslopes, but may have been enhanced by accumulation of sediment on bottomlands far downstream from the highland source areas. Negative effects on provisional ecosystem services (e.g. water supply) resulted in aggraded bottomlands by increasing the depth to the water table. Legacy effects linger on hillslopes that reforested (diminished soil properties), and ongoing alteration of pedogenic and hydrologic processes affect pastures that persisted from cleared woodlands. Beyond those general similarities, pastures of the two regions exhibit very different pedogenic pathways and ecosystem service outcomes. Soils of the Blue Ridge pastures adhere to a typical degradation scenario of erosion, compaction, and reduced infiltration capacities, whereas Pyrenees pastures exhibit soil qualities trending in the opposite direction and arguably now are better quality soils than their forested predecessors. Major differences in temporal duration and management styles apparently have led to such contrasts in soil quality. The Blue Ridge pastures are only tens to hundreds of years old, whereas Pyrenees pastures are thousands of years old. Blue Ridge pastures are maintained by mowing with tractors and year-round grazing primarily with beef cattle, whereas Pyrenees pastures (outfields) lack tractors and are only grazed seasonally (summer), primarily with sheep. Fire is rarely used as a management tool in the Blue Ridge, while Pyrenees pastures frequently are burned. Such management practices, and their influence on pedogenic and hydrologic processes, generally have resulted in negative

  13. Significance of organic matter in Eocene turbidite sediments (SE Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caja, M. A.; Permanyer, A.

    2008-11-01

    Although turbidite deposits are classically considered to be good reservoir rocks for oil and gas, there are no reports concerning their source rock potential in the literature. The sediments from the Vallfogona Formation in the South-Eastern Pyrenees present numerous organic matter-rich levels interbedded in sandstones and coarse turbidite deposits. Two types of organic matter deposits were differentiated on the basis of organic geochemistry and petrography: type A and type B. Type A was deposited in a carbonate marine environment under hypersaline conditions as indicated mainly by even/odd n-alkane predominance, pristane and phytane ratio (Pr/Ph) 1. Type B was deposited in a more mud-rich marine environment evidenced by the predominance of odd n-alkane, Pr/Ph ≥ 1, Ts/Tm diasteranes. Turbidite facies can be regarded as an environment where organic matter sedimentation is heterogeneous in type and amount. This study suggests that turbidite deposits with interbedded organic matter-rich levels may act as a combined source reservoir system.

  14. Non-interferometric GB-SAR measurement: application to the Vallcebre landslide (eastern Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Monserrat

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last decade, ground-based interferometry has proven to be a powerful technique for continuous deformation monitoring of landslides, glaciers, volcanoes, or manmade structures, among others. However, several limitations need to be addressed in order to improve the performances of the technique, especially for long-term monitoring. These limitations include the reduction of measurable points with an increase in the period of observation, the ambiguous nature of the phase measurements, and the influence of the atmospheric phase component. In this paper, a new procedure to process the amplitude component of ground-based synthetic aperture radar (GB-SAR data acquired in discontinuous mode is compared and validated. The use of geometric features of the amplitude images combined with a matching technique will allow the estimation of the displacements over specific targets. Experimental results obtained during 19 months, in eight different campaigns carried out in the active landslide of Vallcebre (eastern Pyrenees, Spain, were analysed. During the observed period, from February 2010 to September 2011, displacements up to 80 cm were measured. The comparison with other surveying technique shows that the precision of the method is below 1 cm.

  15. The safety analysis and thermohydraulic methodologies for the power updating analyses in Spanish PWR plants; Methodologias de diseno termohidraulico y de analisis de seguridad en los aumentos de potencia de centrales PWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salesa, F.

    2014-02-01

    This article describes the Safety Analysis and Thermohydraulic methodologies used by ENUSA for the Power Updating analyses in Spanish PWR plants of Westinghouse design: Design tools have been developed over the first cycles resulting new correlations of DNB, fitted to the new fuel assemblies, new DNBR calculation methodology and other improvements in the design areas. Using these methodologies, the available margins between design and limit values are wider. These new margins have allowed to accomplish the design criteria under the new power updating operational conditions. (Author)

  16. 7 CFR 51.2734 - Spanish type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spanish type. 51.2734 Section 51.2734 Agriculture... Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Definitions § 51.2734 Spanish type. Spanish type means peanuts of varieties which belong to the Spanish classification group and which are free from kernels...

  17. "Castellano" y "Espanol" (Castilian and Spanish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Plaja, Guillermo

    1977-01-01

    Argues that the term "Castilian" should replace "Spanish" to denote the Castilian form of the language. "Spanish" may then be a more inclusive term, enbracing all the dialects of the language. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  18. How the Pyrenees influence the δ18O and δD compositions of rain and rivers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Damien; Mouthereau, Frederic; Sebilo, Mathieu; Segalen, Loic

    2016-04-01

    Documenting Earth surface past elevation is critical to understand the dynamics of collisional domains and to investigate tectonics vs. climate interactions and their relative influence on erosion and sedimentation. Topography exerts a direct control on precipitation and it is possible to determine the paleoelevation of a mountain range from analyses of minerals created from paleorainfall, because the isotopic composition of rain (δ18O & δD) decreases with elevation. Topography modifies the patterns of atmospheric circulation and thus the local isotopic lapse rate and the resulting isotope-in-precipitation patterns at high elevation. Thus, before reconstructing paleoelevation, the local modern isotope lapse rate has to be documented to quantify the amount of orographic effect on precipitation and get a first-order understanding of the interactions of topography and rainfall in the study area. Here, we characterize the modern isotope lapse rate in the Pyrenees, a well-know collisional orogen, which is a privileged area for paleotopographic investigations. It presents the advantage to be a small orogen, with mean maximum elevation of ~3000 m, which allows for a reliable and large sampling. We sampled streams and creeks from small catchments that integrate near-surface runoff (i.e., precipitation) over months to years and hence provide a time-averaged signal of elevation. We collected 100 samples in 9 different valleys from N and S Pyrenees during the dry season (August and July), because it is the period during which groundwater, which is comprised by a mixture of rainfall of the annual cycle, dominates the stream water budget. Results reveal a good correlation of δ18O vs. δD values and mean δ18O and δD altitudinal gradients of -3.6‰ and -29‰ /km respectively. Distinct areas can be distinguished over the range according to their isotopic features. In particular, the southern Pyrenees exhibit lowers ratios than the north, suggesting an orographic effect of

  19. Restoring paleomagnetic data in complex superposed folding settings: The Boltaña anticline (Southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochales, T.; Pueyo, E. L.; Casas, A. M.; Barnolas, A.

    2016-03-01

    Complex kinematic scenarios in fold-and-thrust belts often produce superposed and non-coaxial folding. Interpretation of primary linear indicators must be based on a careful restoration to the undeformed stage following the reverse order of the deformation events. Therefore, sequential restoration to the ancient coordinate system is of key importance to obtain reliable kinematic interpretations using paleomagnetic data. In this paper, a new paleomagnetic study in the western flank of the Boltaña anticline (Southern Pyrenees) illustrates a case study of a complex tectonic setting having superposed, non-coaxial folds. The first stage of NW-SE folding linked to the oblique Boltaña anticline took place during Lutetian times. The second stage was linked to the vertical axis rotation and placed the Boltaña anticline in its present-day N-S configuration. Our data support a long-lasting Lutetian to Priabonian period with main rotational activity during the Bartonian-Priabonian; other authors support a VAR coeval with anticlinal growth. The third stage resulted in southwards tilting related to the emplacement of the N120E striking Guarga basement thrust (Oligocene-Early Miocene). Based on this deformational history, a sequential restoration was applied and compared with the classic bedding correction. At the site scale, single bedding correction gives errors ranging between 31° and - 31° in the estimation of vertical axis rotations. At the locality scale, in sites grouped in three folds (from W to E Arbella, Planillo and San Felizes), the bedding corrected data display rotation values in accordance with those found in the Ainsa Basin by other authors. Sequential restoration (based on the afore-mentioned evolution in three-steps) improves both some locality-means and the internal consistency of the data. Therefore, reasonably-constrained sequential restoration becomes essential to reconstruct the actual history of superposed folding areas.

  20. Perception of teratogenic and foetotoxic risk by health professionals: a survey in Midi-Pyrenees area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damase-Michel C

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Counselling or prescribing drugs during pregnancy requires health professionals to assess risk/benefit ratio for women and their baby. A misperception of the risk may lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes. The aim of the present study was to assess teratogenic and/or foetotoxic risk perception of common medications by general practitioners (GPs and community pharmacists (CPs from the Midi-Pyrenees area.Methods: 103 GPs and 104 CPs were interviewed. For 21 given drugs, a visual-analogue scale was used to evaluate the risk to give birth to a malformed infant if the mother had taken the drug during first trimester of pregnancy. For 9 drugs, health professionals had to say if they thought there was a potential foetotoxic and/or neonatal risk when drugs were administered during late pregnancy.Results: 97% and 91% of GPs and CPs respectively thought that isotretinoin and thalidomide are teratogenic and more than 80% thought that amoxicillin and acetaminophen are safe in early pregnancy. However, 19% of the GPs and 33% of CPs answered there were no teratogenic risk for valproate. Around 11% of both GPs and CPs said that warfarin was safe during pregnancy. For 22% of GPs and for 13% and 27% of CPs respectively, ibuprofen and enalapril were safe on late pregnancy. For each drug, mean value of perceived teratogenic risk by health professionals was higher than values that can be found in scientific references. Concerning isotretinoin, thalidomide and metoclopramide, perceived teratogenic risk was higher for CPs.Conclusion: These data show that the potential teratogenic and foetotoxic risk of several commonly used drugs is unknown by health professionals. Conversely, GPs and CPs who think that a risk exists, overestimate it. This misperception can lead to inappropriate decisions for pregnancy outcomes.

  1. Mountain accidents associated with winter northern flows in the Mediterranean Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Pascual

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Pyrenees, at the eastern end of the range, is a very popular area. Its highest peak is at 2900 m a.s.l. and there are numerous peaks above 2000 m, with rounded relief and sparse vegetation on the latter height. One of its significant winter climatic features is the sudden entrance of cold air with violent northern winds, drop in temperatures and very low wind chill values. Such advections are established after the passage of a snowy cold front and, consequently, there is abundant transport of both new and existing snow that reduces horizontal visibility. The post-frontal conditions at high altitudes represent a serious threat to humans. The review done shows that the hikers immersed in an environment of low visibility, strong winds and very low temperatures can quickly become disoriented, suffer frostbite and hypothermia and slip on the ice. The characterization of a series of accidents occurred in this geographical area, identified in the press, shows in this paper that the phenomena associated with northern winter advections is an element of danger to be considered in the evaluation of natural hazards in that area. In addition, the multiple character of many of the events suggests that there is high vulnerability to such dangers. The climatological analysis presented suggests that such weather conditions are not uncommon in the winter, although the most serious accidents have been registered under especially strong and cold flows. The conclusions recommend that the weather conditions described, locally called torb, should be known by the visitors to these mountains in the winter, and its appearance should be announced in weather reports, which in turn must be sufficiently disseminated in the areas of greater abundance of tourists and hikers.

  2. AMERICAN SOURCES OF SPANISH REALIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kansas State Teachers Coll., Emporia.

    DESIGNED FOR SPANISH TEACHERS AT ALL LEVELS, THIS BIBLIOGRAPHY OF SELECTED SPANISH REALIA CURRENTLY AVAILABLE IN THE UNITED STATES CONTAINS SECTIONS OF PICTURES, SLIDES, FLIMS, MAPS, NEWSPAPERS AND MAGAZINES, TAPES AND PHONOGRAPH RECORDS, AND PINS AND MEDALS. EACH ITEM IS ANNOTATED FOR CONTENT, COST (WHEN APPROPRIATE), NAME AND ADDRESS OF…

  3. On "Tough" Movement in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reider, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A survey of native Spanish speakers from both Spain and Latin America found that the choice of predicate adjectives governing "tough" constructions in Spanish (e.g., "el libro es facil de leer") varies by individual, but some patterns did emerge that suggest "tough" constructions and "it is" constructions are transformationally related. (17…

  4. The Spanish flu in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolte, Ida Viktoria; Skinhøj, Peter; Keiding, Niels;

    2008-01-01

    The spread of H5N1 influenza and the similarity between this avian virus and the Spanish flu virus causes fear of a new influenza pandemic, but data from the Spanish flu may also be of guidance in planning for preventive measures. Using data on influenza cases, influenza deaths and total deaths...

  5. Western Pyrenees facing global change: comparison of the effects of climatic and anthropogenic change on water abstractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the French Western Pyrenees, the trend to the decrease of low water flows that has been observed during the current years should be going on in the future. This may increase the hydric stress on aquatic ecosystems, and the competition among water uses and users for accessing water resources. The research project ANR-VULCAIN compared the impacts of climatic and socio-economic change on the hydro-systems of the French Western Pyrenees. Modeling and participative prospect analysis have been coupled to quantify the evolution of water abstractions under these two types of change. Socio-economic scenarios have been built together with local stakeholders during workshops (urbanism / land planning on the one hand and agriculture on the other hand). Their results have been quantified with the models developed so as to assess anthropogenic change impacts on domestic and agricultural abstractions. In parallel, the agricultural model has been fed with climatic scenarios so as to assess the impacts of climate change on agricultural water needs. In the created scenarios, the evolution of agricultural water needs under climate change have a bigger range than the evolution of abstractions for domestic water and agricultural needs under anthropic change, which are the same order of magnitude. To satisfy this evolution, there are some rooms to maneuver: make distribution modalities more efficient, optimize the management of storage capacity, or use substitution resources. This paper presents the approach that has been followed, and some of the main results. (authors)

  6. Imprints of multiple glacial refugia in the Pyrenees revealed by phylogeography and palaeodistribution modelling of an endemic spider.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidegaray-Batista, Leticia; Sánchez-Gracia, Alejandro; Santulli, Giulia; Maiorano, Luigi; Guisan, Antoine; Vogler, Alfried P; Arnedo, Miquel A

    2016-05-01

    Mediterranean mountain ranges harbour highly endemic biota in islandlike habitats. Their topographic diversity offered the opportunity for mountain species to persist in refugial areas during episodes of major climatic change. We investigate the role of Quaternary climatic oscillations in shaping the demographic history and distribution ranges in the spider Harpactocrates ravastellus, endemic to the Pyrenees. Gene trees and multispecies coalescent analyses on mitochondrial and nuclear DNA sequences unveiled two distinct lineages with a hybrid zone around the northwestern area of the Catalan Pyrenees. The lineages were further supported by morphological differences. Climatic niche-based species distribution models (SDMs) identified two lowland refugia at the western and eastern extremes of the mountain range, which would suggest secondary contact following postglacial expansion of populations from both refugia. Neutrality test and approximate Bayesian computation (ABC) analyses indicated that several local populations underwent severe bottlenecks followed by population expansions, which in combination with the deep population differentiation provided evidence for population survival during glacial periods in microrefugia across the mountain range, in addition to the main Atlantic and Mediterranean (western and eastern) refugia. This study sheds light on the complexities of Quaternary climatic oscillations in building up genetic diversity and local endemicity in the southern Europe mountain ranges. PMID:26878195

  7. Estimating the Ontogenetic Status of an Enantiornithine Bird from the Lower Barremian of El Montsec, Central Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buscalioni, A. D.

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available An Enantiornithes specimen from El Montsec was initially described as an immature individual based upon qualitative traits such as its relatively large orbit and overall proportions of the skull and the postcranium. In this study we re-evaluate the precise determination of the ontogenetic stage of this individual, establishing a cross-talk among taphonomic, anatomic, and morphometric data. The exceptional preservation of the specimen has allowed pondering ontogenetic influence versus preservational bias in features like the external patterns of bone surfaces, instead of being aprioristically considered due to taphonomic alterations only. The rough texture of the periosteal bone associated with pores in the distal, proximal and mid-shaft areas of the humeral shaft, indicates a subadult stage when compared with long bones of modern birds. Forelimb proportions of embryo and juvenile Enanthiornithes are equivalent to those of adult individuals of other taxa within this clade, though this is not a reliable criterion for establishing a precise ontogenetic stage. The El Montsec specimen may be attributed a close adulthood, yet only if growth regimes in Enantiornithes are considered equivalent to those in Neornithes birds.Un ejemplar de Enantiornithes del Montsec fue inicialmente descrito como un individuo inmaduro sobre la base de caracteres cualitativos tales como su órbita relativamente grande y sus proporciones generales en cuerpo y cráneo. En este estudio se realiza una reevaluación del estado ontogenético preciso de este individuo, estableciendo una argumentación cruzada con datos tafonómicos, anatómicos y morfométricos. La preservación excepcional de este ejemplar ha permitido ponderar la influencia ontogenética versus el sesgo tafonómico en caracteres como los patrones externos de las superficies óseas, en lugar de considerarlos apriorísticamente como debidos únicamente a alteraciones tafonómicas. La textura rugosa del periostio, asociada a la presencia de poros en las áreas distal, proximal, y del centro de la epífisis humeral, sugiere un estado subadulto si se compara con los huesos largos de las aves modernas. Las proporciones del miembro anterior de embriones y adultos de enanthiornithes son equivalentes a las de adultos de otros taxa dentro de este clado, aunque ello no constituye un criterio fiable para establecer un estado ontogenético preciso. Se puede atribuir una edad relativa al ejemplar del Montsec cercana a la de un adulto, aunque únicamente si los regímenes de crecimiento de las enantiornites son considerados equivalentes a los de las aves neornites.

  8. Metamorphic history of the Central Pyrenees part 1; Arize, Trois Seigneurs and Saint-Barthelemy Massifs (sheet 3).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwart, H.J.

    1957-01-01

    The relation between orogenic movements and metamorphism is discussed. Schistosity and especially lineations are characteristic for metamorphites of the synkinematic phase. Lineations show a regular pattern. Late-kinematic metamorphism accompanied by different kinds of movement result in irregular r

  9. Biomass-modulated fire dynamics during the last glacial-interglacial transition at the central pyrenees (Spain)

    OpenAIRE

    Gil-Romera, Graciela; González-Sampériz, Penélope; Lasheras Álvarez, Laura; Sevilla-Callejo, Miguel; Moreno Caballud, Ana; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; López-Merino, Lourdes; José S Carrión; Pérez Sanz, Ana; Aranbarri, J.; Garcia-Prieto, E

    2014-01-01

    Understanding long-term fire ecology is essential for current day interpretation of ecosystem fire responses. However palaeoecology of fire is still poorly understood, especially at high-altitude mountain environments, despite the fact that these are fire-sensitive ecosystems and their resilience might be affected by changing fire regimes. We reconstruct wildfire occurrence since the Lateglacial (14.7. cal. ka BP) to the Mid-Holocene (6. cal. ka BP) and investigate the climate-fuel-fire relat...

  10. The spanish nuclear choice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this thesis was to examine the present state and projections of the nuclear energy development in Spain, the limits and conditions of this development, as also the industrial and politic-economical stakes resulting. The analysis is considered through the evolution of the energetic balance up to 1990, taking into account the exceptional role of the nuclear energy: description of the various economic and social development plans since 1964, history of the energy consumption in Spain, structures of the nuclear sector (mining, production, and the private industry), importance of the electric energy in the spanish industry, structures of the electric sector in Spain, roles and interventions of the government in the nuclear electric subsector

  11. The Preconstitutional Spanish Nation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio MORALES MOYA

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Almost unanimously, the modernist school linked the emergence of nations with the modern world, starting with the American and French revolutions, whose Spanish equivalent would be the liberal revolution that began in Cadiz with the decrees of Las Cortes and the Constitution of 1812. However, Spain’s national identity, apart from its medieval roots, seems to have asserted itself strongly in the 16th and 17th Centuries. A key moment following the «imperial» spirit that had imbued the monarchy of Charles V was the reign of Philip II —«an abrupt switch to nationalism»— that was kept alive in his successors Philip III and Philip IV.

  12. Managerial style in Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dra. Cristina Etayo Pérez

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the management style of the Spanish advertising agencies. For this purpose, it explores the way in which the dimensions that define the nature of this concept arise in the sector chosen. The analysis begins with the definition of management style as concept followed by an exposition of its main functions and its fundamental dimensions. Then, the paper presents the methodology used to verify how these dimensions appear among managers as well as the results obtained during the fieldwork. Such methodology includes the achievement of in-depth interviews, with the help of a questionnaire of semi-structured questions, and the descriptive analysis of qualitative and quantitative information obtained from those interviews. The revision of these aspects enriches the study of management at the advertising agencies since it contributes to understand why certain actions have as a consequence one particular kind of relationship between directors and collaborators or another.

  13. Adult Second Language Learning of Spanish Vowels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Katherine; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present study reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of Spanish vowels by three different groups of speakers: 1) native Spanish speakers; 2) native English intermediate learners of Spanish; and 3) native English advanced learners of Spanish. In particular, we examined the production of the five Spanish…

  14. 3-D GPS velocity field and its implications on the present-day post-orogenic deformation of the Western Alps and Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ninh Nguyen, Hai; Vernant, Philippe; Mazzotti, Stephane; Khazaradze, Giorgi; Asensio, Eva

    2016-09-01

    We present a new 3-D GPS velocity solution for 182 sites for the region encompassing the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The velocity field is based on a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) solution, to which we apply a common-mode filter, defined by the 26 longest time series, in order to correct for network-wide biases (reference frame, unmodeled large-scale processes, etc.). We show that processing parameters, such as troposphere delay modeling, can lead to systematic velocity variations of 0.1-0.5 mm yr-1 affecting both accuracy and precision, especially for short (< 5 years) time series. A velocity convergence analysis shows that minimum time-series lengths of ˜ 3 and ˜ 5.5 years are required to reach a velocity stability of 0.5 mm yr-1 in the horizontal and vertical components, respectively. On average, horizontal residual velocities show a stability of ˜ 0.2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps, Pyrenees, and southern France. The only significant horizontal strain rate signal is in the western Pyrenees with up to 4 × 10-9 yr-1 NNE-SSW extension, whereas no significant strain rates are detected in the Western Alps (< 1 × 10-9 yr-1). In contrast, we identify significant uplift rates up to 2 mm yr-1 in the Western Alps but not in the Pyrenees (0.1 ± 0.2 mm yr-1). A correlation between site elevations and fast uplift rates in the northern part of the Western Alps, in the region of the Würmian ice cap, suggests that part of this uplift is induced by postglacial rebound. The very slow uplift rates in the southern Western Alps and in the Pyrenees could be accounted for by erosion-induced rebound.

  15. Magnetostratigraphy of Lutetian marine sediments in the External Sierras (Southern Pyrenees)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Pinto, A.; Pueyo, E. L.; Barnolas, A.; Pocovi, A.; Gil-Pena, I.; Villain, J. J.; Mochales, T.; Samso, J. M.

    2007-05-01

    Magnetostratigraphy has been extensively applied in the southern Pyrenees (Spain). At the moment there are more than 50 km of series most of them in continental and transitional facies and only a few in marine sediments. Seeing that Lutetian age has received very little attention and Ypresian - Lutetian transit in marine series has been rarely studied, in this work we present a composite Lutetian magnetostratigraphic study made of three sections of carbonate platform facies. The composite section has been calibrated with the available biostratigraphic studies (mostly benthonic faunas). The three sections are located in hanging wall of the Southwestern Pyrenean sole thrust (External Sierras). The SIV section (260 m and 105 samples), is located in the southeastern limb of the Balzez anticline, and comprises lower Guara Formation. The BZ profile (600 m and 285 samples) is located in the northwestern flank and cuts a progressive unconformity within the Guara formation. The ISU section (550 m and 237 samples) is located along the Isuela valley immediately south of the well-known Pico del Aguila anticline. In total more than 600 standard cores were sampled every 2 - 3 meters of section. Paleomagnetic analyses were conducted in the University of Burgos paleomagnetic laboratory. Detailed stepwise thermal demagnetization (every 25-50°C) and some AF demagnetizations were able to unravel the NRM components. IRM essays and the thermal demagnetization of three components IRM allowed controlling the magnetic mineralogy. A 2G magnetometer, an ASC TD-SC oven and a M2T-1 pulse magnetizer were utilized. Only one paleomagnetic component has been characterized between 200° - 250° and 450°C - 575°. This component represents a primary record of the Eocene magnetic field because it presents two antipodal directions and passes the fold test (Balzez data). Comparison with the global polarity time scale (GPTS) displays the following correlation; chrons C21 and C20 were unambiguously

  16. The role of salt tectonics in the evolution of the northeastern Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Mary; Christophoul, Frédéric; Menzer, Lionel; Simonis, Jules; Saura, Eduard; Vergés, Jaume

    2016-04-01

    Evaporites can play a major role in controlling the architecture of external orogenic belts, both during extensional and subsequent compressional phases. However, salt can also 'hide' deformation due to its ability to flow and dissolve. The challenge is to recognise the imprint of its past presence and influence. In the NE Pyrenees multiple deformation phases have been identified based on locally anomalous stratigraphic and structural relationships. This has resulted in complex, sometimes incoherent and often conflictual models of orogenic history. For example, a pre-Cenomanian deformation phase has been interpreted as either extensional or compressional. As part of the ANR-PYRAMID project, we have re-examined key localities around the eastern Mouthoumet massif, in the Corbières foreland and along the Corbières thrust front to reconstruct a coherent deformation history involving salt tectonics. Keuper (Carnian - Rhetian) evaporitic deposits gave rise to diapirs and detachments that were particularly active during Early to Late Cretaceous extension and later during Late Cretaceous to Eocene compression. Growth unconformities and rapid thickness changes in the Aptian Quillan basin indicate that it developed as a salt controlled minibasin. Olistoliths, gypsum breccias and presence of bipyramidal quartz in Albian strata preserved as footwall imbricates along the North Pyrenean thrust front (e.g. around Cucugnan) attest to the proximity of a large diapiric body. Below the Cenomanian unconformity, rotated fault blocks of Liassic to Albian strata lie above a Keuper detachment. These extensional fault blocks have already been recognised at the Serre de Bouchard. They are also preserved north of Cucugnan, in the Montagne de Tauch and in the Fontfroide massif with little or no alpine inversion. In the Corbières foreland area salt-influenced extensional and compressional deformation generated growth folds, with completely overturned limbs (flaps), welds, growth

  17. Predicting aquatic macrophyte occurrence in soft-water oligotrophic lakes (Pyrenees mountain range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Pulido

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Distribution of aquatic macrophytes in lakes is related to geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables as well as human impacts, which modify the original environment. Here, we aim at building statistical models to establish the ecological niches of 11 aquatic macrophytes (10 different phanerogams and the genus Nitella from oligotrophic soft-water lakes and infer their ecological requirements and environmental constraints at the southernmost limit of their distribution. Macrophyte occurrence and environmental variables were obtained from 86 non-exploited oligotrophic soft-water lakes from the Pyrenees (Southern Europe; 42º50´N, 1º00´E; macrophytes inhabited 55 of these lakes. Optimum ranges and macrophyte occurrence were predicted in relation to 18 geographical, morphological, catchment and water chemistry variables using univariate and multivariate logistic models. Lakes at low altitude, in vegetated catchments and with low water concentration of NO3- and SO4-2, were the most suitable to host macrophytes. In general, individual species of aquatic macrophytes showed clear patterns of segregation along conductivity and pH gradients, although the specific combination of variables selected in the best models explaining their occurrence differed among species.  Based on the species response to pH and conductivity, we found Isoetes lacustris have its optimum in waters with low conductivity and pH (i.e. negative monotonic response. In contrast, Callitriche palustris, Ranunculus aquatilis, Subularia aquatica, Nitella spp., and Myriophyllum alterniflorum showed an optimum at intermediate values (i.e. unimodal response, whereas Potamogeton berchtoldii, Potamogeton alpinus, and Ranunculus trichophyllus as species had their optimum at relatively high water pH and conductivity (i.e. positive monotonic response. This pattern has been observed in other regions for the same species, although with different optima and tolerance

  18. The mountainous space as a commodity: the Pyrenees at the age of globalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismael Vaccaro

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In these pages we reflect on the process of transformation of the Catalan Pyrenees from a peripheral and economically decaying area to a first-rate tourism center. Real estate speculation has replaced depopulation. The economic and social value of the territory has dramatically shifted as it has gone from supporting low profitability ranching activities to become the space where resorts and parks are built. The paper analyzes the process of commodification and patrimonialization that have reintegrated the area into the national and international leisure markets paying special attention to the role of conservation practices, ski resorts and second residences in such a process. Finally, we attempt to identify the similarities and differences that characterize the two emergent tourism models: mass tourism versus small scale ecotourism.Au fil de ces pages, nous réfléchissons au processus de transformation des Pyrénées catalanes de zone périphérique et en déclin économique en centre touristique de qualité. La spéculation immobilière a remplacé le dépeuplement. La valeur économique et sociale du territoire a radicalement changé, la promotion des activités d’élevage peu rentables ayant cédé la place aux stations touristiques et aux parcs. Cet article analyse le processus de marchandisation et de patrimonialisation qui a réintégré la région sur les marchés de loisirs nationaux et internationaux en prêtant une attention particulière au rôle des pratiques de conservation, des stations de ski et des résidences secondaires. Enfin, nous tentons d’identifier les similitudes et les différences qui caractérisent les deux modèles touristiques émergents : le tourisme de masse contre l’écotourisme à l’échelle locale.

  19. The Shared Conceptual System and Language Processing in Bilingual Children: Findings from Literacy Assessment in Spanish and Nahuatl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Norbert

    2000-01-01

    Findings are reported from a series of literacy assessments in which four classes of bilingual Grade 3 and Grade 5 students from an indigenous community in Central Mexico participated. Subjects who completed the battery of tests of reading and writing in Spanish and Nahuatl range from balanced bilinguals to Spanish-dominant speakers with at least…

  20. A Spanish Tagset for the CRATER Project

    OpenAIRE

    León, Fernando Sánchez

    1994-01-01

    This working paper describes the Spanish tagset to be used in the context of CRATER, a CEC funded project aiming at the creation of a multilingual (English, French, Spanish) aligned corpus using the International Telecommunications Union corpus. In this respect, each version of the corpus will be (or is currently) tagged. Xerox PARC tagger will be adapted to Spanish in order to perform the tagging of the Spanish version. This tagset has been devised as the ideal one for Spanish, and has been ...

  1. Spanish Multinational Firm and its Internationalization Process

    OpenAIRE

    David de Matías Batalla

    2015-01-01

    The article responds to the need to study and analyze the evolution of the Spanish multinational firm in order to be able to identify the characteristics of success and what kind of factors are drivers to internationalize the activities in the Spanish economy. The first part reviews the evolution of the Spanish firm internationalization; meanwhile the second part describes the characteristics of Spanish multinational firm, resulted of a survey of 166 Spanish multinational firms.

  2. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, Miguel [INITEC Nuclear- Westinghouse, Padilla 17, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-07-01

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  3. Spanish Young Generation (JJNN) Activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spanish Young Generation has been very active during 2006-2008. JJNN have mainly focused on communication activities, as conferences at universities, schools and nuclear companies. Lately, becoming in referent of the young politics, journalist and the young people in Nuclear Subjects is the new and most challenging target of the Spanish Young Generation. In order to accomplish with their objects and commitments with their members, JJNN are developing all kinds of activities focused in the young people and the JJNN members. (authors)

  4. Visit of Spanish Government delegation

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Delegates interested in advanced technologies visited the ISR workshop clean room, where Romeo Perin explained fabrication and properties of stainless steel, titanium and inconel components of vacuum chambers for experiments at the ISR. Left to right: Technical Director Giorgio Brianti, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine , Romeo Perin, a delegate and Director-General Herwig Schopper. See also 8202369.

  5. Mapping hyper-extended rift systems offshore and onshore: insights from the Bay of Biscay- Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugend, Julie; Manatschal, Gianreto; Kusznir, Nicolas J.; Masini, Emmanuel; Thinon, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Research conducted at present-day passive continental margins shows more varied crustal architectures than previously assumed. New seismic data together with drill-holes have revealed the occurrence of extremely thinned continental crust in the distal part of the margin as well as exhumed serpentinised sub-continental mantle oceanwards. In addition the understanding of the formation of hyper-extended rift systems has also greatly benefited from the study of onshore analogs preserved in mountain belts. The Bay of Biscay and Western Pyrenees correspond to a Lower Cretaceous rift system leading to the development of hyper-extended domains and ultimately oceanic crust in the Bay of Biscay. This domain represents one of the best natural laboratories to study the formation processes and evolution of hyper-extended domains. During late Cretaceous compression, these rifted domains were inverted resulting in the present-day Pyrenean mountain belt. In this contribution, we present a new paleogeographic map of the Bay of Biscay-Pyrenean rift system. We integrate results from previous works and new work using different mapping methods to distinguish distinctive crustal domains related to hyper-extended systems both offshore and onshore. We combine seismic interpretations with gravity anomaly inversion and residual depth anomaly analysis to distinguish the different crustal domains across the offshore margin. Onshore, we use an innovative approach based on observations from present-day rifted margin architecture associated with classical field work to map the former hyper-extended domains. Another outcome of this work is the creation of a crustal thickness map using gravity inversion linking offshore and onshore domains from the Bay of Biscay to that of the Western-Pyrenees. This multidisciplinary approach enables us to investigate the spatial and temporal evolution of the Bay of Biscay rift system with the aim of better understanding the formation of hyper-extended domains

  6. Predicting runoff and sediment connectivity and soil erosion by water for different land use scenarios in the Spanish Pre-Pyrenees

    OpenAIRE

    López-Vicente, Manuel; Poesen, Jean; Navas Izquierdo, Ana; Gaspar Ferrer, Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Overland flow connectivity and runoff and sediment trap effectiveness are currently the cutting edge topics in soil erosion research. The effect of agricultural terraces, irrigation channels and trails on runoff and soil erosion modelling at catchment scale is still a remaining research question. In this study we run the index of connectivity of Borselli et al. (2008) and a modified version of the revised Morgan, Morgan and Finney (RMMF) model to predict the hydrological connectivity and the ...

  7. Sinkholes and caves related to evaporite dissolution in a stratigraphically and structurally complex setting, Fluvia Valley, eastern Spanish Pyrenees. Geological, geomorphological and environmental implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Francisco; Fabregat, Ivan; Roqué, Carles; Carbonel, Domingo; Guerrero, Jesús; García-Hermoso, Fernando; Zarroca, Mario; Linares, Rogelio

    2016-08-01

    Evaporite karst and sinkhole development is analysed in a geologically complex area of NE Spain, including four evaporite units with different characteristics and affected by compressional and extensional tectonic structures. The exposed paleosinkholes, including remarkable Early Pleistocene paleontological sites, provide valuable information on the subsidence mechanisms and reveal the significant role played by interstratal karstification in the area. These gravitational deformation structures, including hectometre-scale bending folds and oversteepened normal faults, strongly suggest that the present-day compressional regime inferred in previous studies may be largely based on the analysis of non-tectonic structures. Two gypsum caves ca. 1 km long show that passages with restricted cross-sectional area may produce large breccia pipes and sinkholes thanks to the removal of breakdown boulders by high-competence episodic floods. Moreover, the upward progression of cave ceilings by paragenesis and condensation dissolution contributes to increase the probability of sinkhole occurrence. An inventory of 135 sinkholes together with their geological and geomorphological context has been developed. This data base has been used to infer several properties of the sinkholes with practical implications: a magnitude and frequency scaling relationship, spatial distribution patterns, dominant controlling factors and risk implications.

  8. A 2D finite volume model for bebris flow and its application to events occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    V.MEDINA; A.BATEMAN; M.H(U)RLIMANN

    2008-01-01

    FLATModel is a 2D finite volume code that contains several original approaches to improve debris-flow simulation.Firstly,FLATModel incorporates a "stop-and-go" technique in each cell to allow continuous collapses and remobilizations of the debris-flow mass.Secondly,flow velocity and consequently yield stress is directly associated with the type of rheology to improve boundary accuracy.Thirdly,a simple approach for entrainment is also included in the model to analyse the effect of basal erosion of debris flows.FLATMODEL was tested at several events that occurred in the Eastern Pyrenees and simulation results indicated that the model can represent rather well the different characteristics observed in the field.

  9. High resolution imaging of lithospheric structures beneath the Pyrenees by full waveform inversion of shortperiod teleseismic P waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Chevrot, Sébastien; Komatitsch, Dimitri; Monteiller, Vadim; Durochat, Clément

    2016-04-01

    Thanks to the deployment of permanent and temporary broadband arrays, coverage and data quality have dramatically improved in the last decade, especially for regional-scale studies. In addition, owing to the progress of high-performance resources and numerical simulation techniques, waveform inversion approaches nowadays become a viable alternative to classical asymptotic ray based tomographic approaches. Exploiting full waveforms in seismic tomography requires an efficient and precise method to solve the elastic wave equation in 3D inhomogeneous media. Since resolution of waveform inversion is limited by the seismic wavelength as well as the wavefield sampling density, it is crucial to exploit short-period teleseismic waves recorded by dense regional arrays. However, modeling the propagation of short-period body waves in heterogeneous media is still very challenging, even on the largest modern supercomputers. For this reason, we have developed a hybrid method that couples a global wave propagation method in a 1D Earth to a 3D spectral-element method in a regional domain. This hybrid method restricts the costly 3D computations to inside the regional domain, which dramatically decreases the computational cost, allows us to compute teleseismic wavefields down to 1s period, thus accounting for the complexities that affect the propagation of seismic waves in the regional domain. We present the first application of this new waveform inversion approach to broadband data coming from two dense transects deployed during the PYROPE experiment across the Pyrenees mountains. We obtain the first high-resolution lithospheric section of compressional and shear velocities across an orogenic belt. The tomographic model provides clear evidence for the under-thrusting of the thinned Iberian crust beneath the European plate and for the important role of rift-inherited mantle structures during the formation of the Pyrenees.

  10. Tree-ring proxy based temperature reconstructions and climate model simulations: cross-comparison at the Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Dorado Liñán

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available May-to-September mean temperatures over the larger Pyrenees area (Northern Spain and Southern France are reconstructed for the last Millennium from 22 maximum density (MXD tree-ring chronologies. For the standardization of the tree-ring series, two detrending methods (Regional Curve Standardization (RCS and 300-yr spline were combined with and without an adaptive power transform (PT for variance stabilization in the individual series. Thus, four different standardization procedures were applied to the data. Additionally, different regional chronologies were generated by computing a mean composite, averaging the local chronologies, or by applying Principal Components Analysis (PCA to extract common variance from the subsets of individual MXD chronologies.

    Calibration-verification trials were performed using the product of the three regional aggregation methods in split periods: 1900–1952 and 1953–2006. Two methods were used to calibrate the regional chronology: regression and a simple variance-matching, sometimes also known as composite-plus-scaling. The resulting set of temperature reconstructions was compared with climate simulations performed with global (ECHO-G over the last Millennium for the target region and regional (MM5 climate models.

    The reconstructions reveal inter-annual to multi-centennial temperature variations at the Pyrenees region for the last 750 yr. Generally, variations at inter-decadal timescales, including the cold periods associated with the solar minima, are common to all reconstruction variants although some discrepancies are found at longer timescales.

    The simulations of the global circulation model ECHO-G and the regional model MM5 agree with the tree-ring based reconstructions at decadal to multi-decadal time-scales. However, the comparison also highlights differences that need to be understood, such as the amplitude of the temperature variations and the discrepancies regarding the 20th

  11. Spatial and temporal distribution of Tabanidae in the Pyrenees Mountains: the influence of altitude and landscape structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldacchino, F; Porciani, A; Bernard, C; Jay-Robert, P

    2014-02-01

    In high-altitude summer pastures, horseflies (Diptera: Tabanidae) can be a serious nuisance to livestock, as well as mechanical vectors of animal diseases such as besnoitiosis, an enzootic disease in the Pyrenees. However, the activity of horseflies in mountainous environments is poorly documented. To study the seasonality and distribution of tabanids in the Pyrenees Mountains, a sampling design was set up in two valleys on opposite sides of the mountain, one north-facing and one south-facing, along high-elevation gradients and at different distances from a water body between May and October 2011. The influence of the landscape on species richness and abundance was assessed by taking into account forested and unforested areas in 200 m radii around the trapping sites. Our findings indicated that: (1) The slope, the altitude and the size of unforested patches significantly influenced community composition of tabanids. (2) Altitude had a positive or a negative effect, depending on the species. (3) Species richness and abundance were negatively correlated with large open habitats and positively correlated with patch-shape complexity. (4) Seasonal succession of the most abundant species was observed in both valleys, with a maximum of catches at the beginning of August; however, tabanid activity ended earlier in the southern valley, which was more exposed to sunlight. (5) Philipomyia aprica, Tabanus bromius, Tabanus glaucopis and Hybomitra auripila were active from 9:00 to 19:00 h (GMT+1), with a peak of activity at midday. This paper also discusses the implications of these findings in relation to changes in horsefly distribution and their control in mountainous environments. PMID:23614942

  12. Soil formation on Holocene moraines in the cirque de Troumouse, Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parkinson, Robert

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available Factors affecting rates and degree of soil formation on Holocene moraines are discussed with reference to moraine sequences in the Cirque de Troumouse, French Pyrenees. In particular, the role of time, slope position and post-depositional history are evaluated for three moraines ranging in age from c. 5000 to c. 1000 yr BP. Soil profile development, as determined by visual criteria, indicates differences in soil development between moraines of different age as well as between soils developed on the same moraine but occupying different slope positions. Particle size analysis and soil chemical analyses confirm that microtopography exerts a strong control on the extent and rate of soil formation, and must therefore be considered when sampling and describing soil chronosequences on glacial moraines.

    [es] Se discuten los factores que afectan a las tasas y al grado de formación del suelo en morrenas Holocenas, con referencia a la secuencia de morrenas en el Circo de Troumouse, Pirineo francés. En particular, se evalúa el papel del tiempo, la posición de la pendiente y la historia postdeposicional para tres morrenas ordenadas en edad desde c. 5000 a c. 1000 años BP. El desarrollo del perfil del suelo, determinado por criterios visuales, indica diferencias de desarrollo del suelo entre morrenas de diferente edad así como entre suelos desarrollados en la misma morrena, pero ocupando diferentes posiciones de la pendiente. Análisis granulométricos y químicos del suelo confirman que la microtopografía ejerce un fuerte control en la extensión y en la tasa de formación del suelo y, por tanto, deberla ser tenida en cuenta en los muéstreos y descripciones de las cronosecuencias del suelo en morrenas glaciares.
    [fr] On discute les facteurs qui affectent les taux et le degré de formation du sol en moraines Holocènes, avec référence à la séquence de moraines du Cirque de Troumouse, Pyrénées français. En particulier, on

  13. Job creation under liquidity constraints: The Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Rend??n, Silvio

    2000-01-01

    This paper shows that liquidity constraints restrict job creation even when labor markets are flexible. In a dynamic model of labor demand, I show that in an environment of imperfect capital and imperfect labor markets, firms use temporary contracts to relax financial constraints. Evidence for the predictions of the model is presented using Spanish data from the CBBE (Central de Balances del Banco de Espa?a - Balance Sheet data from the Bank of Spain). It is shown...

  14. Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits: Isotopic and fluid inclusion evidence for formation during the mesozoic extension in the pyrenees of Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C.A.; Cardellach, E.; Tritlla, J.; Hanan, B.B.

    1996-01-01

    The Cierco Pb-Zn-Ag vein deposits, located in the central Pyrenees of Spain, crosscut Paleozoic metasedimentary rocks and are in close proximity to Hercynian granodiorite dikes and plutons. Galena and sphalerite in the deposits have average ??34S values of -4.3 and -0.8 per mil (CDT), respectively. Coexisting mineral pairs give an isotopic equilibration temperature range of 89?? to 163??C which overlaps with the 112?? to 198??C range obtained from primary fluid inclusions. Coexisting quartz has a ??18O value of 19 ?? 1 per mil (VSMOW). The fluid which deposited these minerals is inferred to have had ??18OH2o and ??34SH2s values of 5 ?? 1 and -1 ?? 1 per mil, respectively. Chemical and microthermometric analyses of fluid inclusions in quartz and sphalerite indicate salinities of 3 to 29 wt percent NaCl equiv with Na+ and Ca2+ as the dominant cations in solution. The Br/Cl and I/Cl ratios differ from those characteristic of magmatic waters and pristine seawater, but show some similarity to those observed in deep ground waters in crystalline terranes, basinal brines, and evaporated seawater, Barite, which postdates the sulfides, spans isotopic ranges of 13 to 21 per mil, 10 to 15 per mil, and 0.7109 to 0.7123 for ??34S, ??18O, and 87Sr/86Sr, respectively. The three parameters are correlated providing strong evidence that the barites are products of fluid mixing. We propose that the Cierco deposits formed along an extensional fault system at the margin of a marine basin during the breakup of Pangea at some time between the Early Triassic and Early Cretaceous. Sulfide deposition corresponded to an upwelling of hydrothermal fluid from the Paleozoic basement and was limited by the amount of metals carried by the fluid. Barite deposition corresponded to the waning of upward flow and the collapse of sulfate-rich surface waters onto the retreating hydrothermal plume. Calcite precipitated late in the paragenesis as meteoric or marine waters descended into the fault system

  15. Ecologia: Spanish Ecology Packet Resource Units and Materials for Intermediate and Advanced Spanish Classes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mozelle Sawyer; Arribas, E. Jaime

    This Spanish ecology packet contains resource units and materials for intermediate and advanced Spanish classes. It is designed to be used for individual and small-group instruction in the senior high school to supplement the Spanish language curriculum. Included are articles, pictures, and cartoons from Spanish-language newspapers and magazines…

  16. Spanish Is Foreign: Heritage Speakers' Interpretations of the Introductory Spanish Language Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeFeo, Dayna Jean

    2015-01-01

    This article presents a case study of the perceptions of Spanish heritage speakers enrolled in introductory-level Spanish foreign language courses. Despite their own identities that were linked to the United States and Spanish of the Borderlands, the participants felt that the curriculum acknowledged the Spanish of Spain and foreign countries but…

  17. Attitudes of Teachers of Spanish as a Foreign Language towards Teaching Spanish to Hispanic Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Rossana R.

    This study explored the attitudes of high school teachers of Spanish as a foreign language regarding the following: the use of Spanish, teaching Spanish as a heritage language to Hispanic students, the role of English in the United States, and the use of English at school or home. Participants were teachers of Spanish in three Louisiana school…

  18. Paleosol charcoal : Reconstructing vegetation history in relation to agro−pastoral activities since the Neolithic. A case study in the Eastern French Pyrenees.

    OpenAIRE

    Bal, Marie; Bal, Marie-Claude; Rendu, Christine; Ruas, Marie-Pierre; Campmajo, Pierre

    2010-01-01

    International audience This article uses a method that combines pedoanthracological and pedo-archaeological approaches to terraces, complemented with archaeological pastoral data, in order to reconstruct the history of ancient agricultural terraces on a slope of the Enveitg Mountain in the French Pyrenees. Four excavations revealed two stages of terrace construction that have been linked with vegetation dynamics, which had been established by analyses of charcoal from the paleosols and soi...

  19. Post-orogenic evolution of the coupled foreland megafan/mountainous catchment system : the Lannemezan megafan and its cactchment in the Northern Pyrenees (SW France)

    OpenAIRE

    Mouchené, Margaux

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims at deciphering the respective roles of autogenic processes and allogenic forcing in the post-orogenic evolution of a coupled mountain catchment/foreland megafan system, with a focus on the Lannemezan megafan and its mountainous catchment in the northern Pyrenees (France). AFT data are consistent with previously published thermochronological data, showing (i) the main exhumation phase of the Axial Zone (AZ; ~50-30 Ma) with lateral variations in the exhumation rates, (ii) a lat...

  20. The Temporality of the Spanish Verb: From Narrative to Poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Pihler

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The verb is the first indicator of time in language; therefore it is a fundamental starting point for all research into textual temporality. The Spanish verb system consists of ten verbal paradigms in the indicative mood, and four (or six verbal paradigms in the subjunctive mood. This allows for a wide range of temporal values in different contexts. Every linguistic act and every type of text is realized as a dynamic process of communication where the utterer creates a discourse in order to give rise to certain effects in the recipient. The pragmatic dimension must, therefore, be inherent to each linguistic commentary on the temporality of any text, including a poetic text, where a lyrical discourse is being established in fictional time and space. The understanding of all components of communicative process is unavoidable for the proper interpretation of the textual network because with each statement the speaker “enters” into the language, and its communicative purpose is reflected not only through the meaning and vocabulary, but also at the morphological-syntactic level. This paper presents central views on the temporality of the Spanish verbal paradigms and proposes guidelines for the systematization of the expression of temporality in poetry. The survey is based on the hypothesis that it is possible to detect a certain distribution of Spanish verbal paradigms in poetic texts. The proposed temporal-modal systematization of the Spanish verb is based on the criterion of relevance.

  1. English Loanwords in Spanish Computer Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabanillas, Isabel de la Cruz; Martinez, Cristina Tejedor; Prados, Mercedes Diez; Redondo, Esperanza Cerda

    2007-01-01

    Contact with the English language, especially from the 20th century onwards, has had as a consequence an increase in the number of words that are borrowed from English into Spanish. This process is particularly noticeable in Spanish for Specific Purposes, and, more specifically, in the case of Spanish computer language. Although sociocultural and…

  2. Neolithic flint mines of Treviño (Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Tarriño

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available English:The prehistoric Treviño flint mine complex is located in the Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Treviño, Burgos, inside the lacustrine-palustrine Cenozoic (Aquitanian, Miocene materials of the South-Pyrenean syncline of the Basque-Cantabrian Basin. It is a landscape unit constituted by a set of carbonated layers with abundant nodular and stratiform silicifications. The extraction mining works (often referred to as ‘tailing’ are usually identified as dumps or trenches, subtly visible and associated with archaeological materials.An archaeological excavation was carried out in one potential mining structure (dump or pit that was detected by LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging in the mountain pass of “Pozarrate” near the villages of Grandival and Araico (Treviño, Burgos. In this work we present the results of the excavation of the last two years. The existence of a Neolithic mining dump (the tailings with a chronology ca. 5000 cal. BC was confirmed. The base rock level with nodular flint was reached and the impressions of the exploited nodules have been identified. As well, the extraction front which reaches about 4.0-5.0 metres in height was delimited. Thousands of lithic remains associated with the extraction and the initial processing (shaping of flint were collected, as along with mining tools. We have found and described three types of mining structures: trenches, linear dumps and crescent-shaped (or “half-moon-shaped” dumps.This site is one of the few prehistoric flint mines dated in the Iberian Peninsula. Recent investigations in the Cantabrian Mountains and Western Pyrenees indicate that the circulation and use of Treviño flint during Prehistory reached many Holocene and Pleistocene archaeological sites, located hundreds of kilometres away from the outcrops.Español:El complejo prehistórico minero de sílex de Treviño se sitúa en la Sierra de Araico-Cucho (Berantevilla, Alava - Condado de Trevi

  3. The Spanish-Language Roundtable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Criticas: An English Speaker's Guide to the Latest Spanish Language Titles, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Reports on a meeting with a group of experts including Leylha Ahuile, Rene Alegria, Rueben Martinez, Diana Martinez Calice, Silvia Matute, Anne Messitte, and Teresa Mlawer from the Spanish language market for books. Topics include publishing; school and library markets; bookstores; the role of the Latino press and Latino authors; coverage in…

  4. A strontium, neodymium and oxygen isotope study of hydrothermal metamorphism and crustal anatexis in the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickle, M. J.; Wickham, S. M.; Chapman, H. J.; Taylor, H. P.

    1988-12-01

    Nd, Sr, and O isotope analyses have been made on metamorphic and igneous rocks and minerals from a 310 340 Ma Hercynian-age metamorphic terrane in the Pyrenees, France. Lower Paleozoic shales and phyllites have 87Sr/86Sr values of 0.707 0.717 at 310 Ma, but model values at 310 Ma of 0.709 0.736 (based on assumed depositional age of 450 Ma and an initial 87Sr/86Sr=0.707). On a regional scale, 87Sr/86Sr was homogenized to about 0.713 to 0.717 in the higher-grade pelitic schists during metamorphism. Much of this 87Sr/86Sr exchange occurred at very low grades (below the biotite isograd), but significant changes also accompanied the δ 18O lowering of the phyllites (+13 to +16) during their transformation to andalusite- and sillimanite-grade schists ( δ 18O=+11 to +12); all of these effects are attributed to pervasive interactions with hydrothermal fluids (Wickham and Taylor 1985). The data also show that a syn-metamorphic plutonic complex, dominated by a biotite granite body, was derived by mixing of a relatively mafic magmatic end-member (87Sr/86Sr˜ 0.7025 0.7050 and δ 18O˜ +7.5 to +8.0) with two metasedimentary sources, both having 87Sr/86Sr˜0.715 and δ 18O˜ +10.0 to +12.0, but with one being more homogeneous than the other. The more homogeneous component and the (mantle-derived?) magmatic end-member dominate at low structural levels within the complex. The less homogeneous end-member that dominates at high levels is clearly derived from the local Paleozoic pelitic schists. A Rb-Sr age of 330±20 Ma was obtained on hornblende from a deep level within the complex, which fixes this age for the regional metamorphism, as well. Although a post-metamorphic granodiorite magma body at Trois Seigneurs also displays heterogeneities in δ 18O and 87Sr/86Sr (and thus does not give a clear-cut Rb-Sr isochron), the data are consistent with an emplacement age between 260 and 310 Ma, similar to ages of other late granodiorites in the Pyrenees. 143Nd/ 144Nd is very uniform

  5. Set-up of debris-flow monitoring stations in the Eastern Pyrenees. Preliminary results and first experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hürlimann, Marcel; Abancó, Claudia; Moya, Jose; Chevalier, Guillaume; Raïmat, Carles; Luis-Fonseca, Roberto

    2010-05-01

    Direct observations of debris flows in the field by monitoring stations are of great importance to improve understandings of triggering, flow behaviour and accumulation of debris flows. Upon the knowledge of the authors, in Europe debris-flow monitoring stations are only situated in the Alps (Italy and Switzerland), while no test site is located in a catchment affected by Mediterranean climate. In 2005, the first monitoring system was set up by GEOBRUGG IBERICA SA in the Erill catchment, situated in the Axial Pyrenees. A flexible ring net VX160-H4 with load-cells was installed together with a video camera and four geophones. In addition, a meteorological station completed the instrumentation. During 2009, the monitoring of two additional catchments has been set up; Senet in the Axial Pyrenees and Ensija in the Pre-Pyrenees. Four geophones and one ultrasonic device are installed along the torrent in order to determine the flow velocity and flow depth/discharge of the events. As in Erill, a meteorological station completes the devices and measures rainfall and temperature. The main objective of the three monitoring stations is to get some insights on how the Mediterranean climate influences the critical rainfall for debris-flow initiation. The flow behaviour of debris flows is another major goal, while the Erill test site focuses basically on the effectiveness of flexible ring nets. In addition, the Erill installation also acts as protection for the village located on the fan. The calibration, installation and analysis during the testing phase showed that a correct implementation of the different sensors is not an easy task and needs knowledge in geophysics, electronics, telecommunications etc. Especially geophones and ultrasonic devices need special attentions. Geophone outputs are strongly affected by the type of underground and the distance to the torrent, while the measures of the ultrasonic sensor clearly depend on the temperature. To simplify the data storage

  6. Spectral Fingerprinting: The potential of VNIR-SWIR spectral characteristics for tracing sediment sources in a Spanish mesoscale catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brosinsky, Arlena; Foerster, Saskia; Segl, Karl; Bronstert, Axel; Kaufmann, Hermann; Lopéz-Tarazón, José-Andrés

    2014-05-01

    Knowledge on the origin of suspended sediment can greatly facilitate erosion prevention and thus sustainable watershed management. One approach providing information on the origin of suspended sediments is the fingerprinting technique. It is based on the assumption that potential sediment sources can be discriminated and that the contribution of these sources to the sediment can be determined on the basis of distinctive characteristics (fingerprints). Recent studies indicate that VNIR-SWIR reflectance characteristics of soil may be a rapid, inexpensive alternative to traditional fingerprinting properties such as e.g. geochemical composition. In this study, we aim at further assessing the potential of this innovative sediment tracing technique, specifically whether (a) potential sediment sources can be reliably identified based on spectral features, (b) field derived source information (more rapid) is sufficient for spectral fingerprinting, (c) spectral fingerprints permit the quantification of source contribution, and (d) to examine changes in the relative contributions from different sources both, between and within individual storm events. Therefore, samples were collected in the Isábena catchment (445 km²) in the central Spanish Pyrenees: 1) soil samples from the main potential source areas and 2) suspended sediment samples during four flood events in autumn 2011 and spring 2012 at the catchment outlet and at several subcatchment outlets. In addition, 3) artificial mixtures of known proportions were produced from soil samples for testing of key assumptions in a controlled environment. Soil samples (1) were spectrally measured in the field using an ASD spectrometer and subsequently all samples (1-3) were dried and spectrally measured in the laboratory using the same equipment. Colour parameters and physically based features with relation to organic carbon, iron oxide and clay content were calculated from field- and laboratory spectra. Principal component

  7. A Spanish Tagset for the CRATER Project

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez-León, F

    1994-01-01

    This working paper describes the Spanish tagset to be used in the context of CRATER, a CEC funded project aiming at the creation of a multilingual (English, French, Spanish) aligned corpus using the International Telecommunications Union corpus. In this respect, each version of the corpus will be (or is currently) tagged. Xerox PARC tagger will be adapted to Spanish in order to perform the tagging of the Spanish version. This tagset has been devised as the ideal one for Spanish, and has been posted to several lists in order to get feedback to it.

  8. On the Entropy of Written Spanish

    CERN Document Server

    Guerrero, Fabio G

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on results on the entropy of the Spanish language. They are based on an analysis of natural language for n-word symbols (n = 1 to 18), trigrams, digrams, and characters. The results obtained in this work are based on the analysis of twelve different literary works in Spanish, as well as a 279917 word news file provided by the Spanish press agency EFE. Entropy values are calculated by a direct method using computer processing and the probability law of large numbers. Three samples of artificial Spanish language produced by a first-order model software source are also analyzed and compared with natural Spanish language.

  9. "The Way to a Man's Heart." Journey and War Metaphors. Metaphorical Conceptualisations of the Western Romance Model in English and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Maria Angeles Navarrete

    2001-01-01

    This paper examines two examples of the Western model of romance in English and Spanish discourse: the English metaphor, "the (best) way to a man's heart is through his stomach" (journey metaphor) and its Spanish counterpart, "Al hombre se le conquista por el estomago" (war metaphor). Both central metaphors entail a number of perceptual,…

  10. The influence of knowledge on the public policy making process: the case of renewable energies in Midi Pyrenees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Even though energy policy makers were novices when wind power was introduced in the Midi Pyrenees region, the situation had changed when the photovoltaic was implemented. The new challenges policy makers experimented about the wind power and their opponents, the wood energy and the primacy of the wood's industrials, the photovoltaic and the preservation of the agricultural lands, fostered their learning and gradually lead them to change their perception of inherent issues. The coalitions forged between technical experts and policy makers unbind along the progressive empowerment of the formers. Shared between different forms of knowledge, however, the resources needed to implement renewable energies projects cannot be reduced to the technical dimension. Local knowledge and engineering knowledge increasingly compete with expert knowledge. This evolution corresponds to a policy arrangement change. Since the dynamic but also the elements that compose this political system change, a new reality gradually emerges. This whole process will be the main concern of this thesis. We will finally notice that there are some differences between the implementation of these renewable energies among the territories but also among the three forms of renewable energies we analyze. This means that although renewable energy policy are based on interactions between actors' resources, discourse and rules, they also emerge from the action of intermediates actors, and from the characteristic of each territories in which they are implemented. (author)

  11. Astronomy books in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fierro, Julieta

    Great cultures have created language. They have discovered its strength among other reasons for education. For a long time the Bible was one of the few books available in western culture, its influence is beyond any doubt. Many developing nations have no science books in their mother tongue. They might carry a few translations but these do not convey the local culture so it is harder for students to grasp the concepts and to build on what they know. Books, even if they are extremely simple, should be written in local languages because that will facilitate the conveying of knowledge and the creation of scientific culture. In the books examples that pertain to every day local life must be given, in particular examples that have to do with women. Women play a central role in developing nations by child bearing; if they become literate they will influence enormously the quality of their children's education, in particular their science comprehension. In Mexico a collection that includes astronomy books has recently been edited by the National Council for Culture and Arts. The books are small and light, which encourages middle-school students to carry them around and read them while traveling in public transportation, such as the subway. Every other page is a new subject, that carries illustrations, abstracts and conclusions. The astronomy books are on search for extraterrestrial life, the stars and the universe. These books are distributed nation-wide and are inexpensive. They have been written by Mexican astronomers.

  12. Performance of spanish wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this document we can find a statistical evaluation for the wind energy generation from each spanish wind farm referred to 1994, going on with the work that has been carried out since 1992, by initiative of the Wind Energy Division from Renewable Energy Institute. The purpose of this work is to contribute with interesting information for the wind environment and offer a global view from monthly performances of different wind farms. (Author)

  13. Visualizing archives: Spanish archives map

    OpenAIRE

    Colmenero-Ruiz, María-Jesús

    2016-01-01

    The 2014/2015 academic year was the first to be taught the Master in Archives, Records Management and Digital Continuity at the University Carlos III Madrid, based on a blended learning model of attendance. This article describes the implementation of a visualization project based on geolocation of Spanish archives and its justification. The project arose from an optional practice proposed to the students of the subject “Re-use of data and documents” of this master course. This subject is opt...

  14. 7 CFR 51.2731 - U.S. Spanish Splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. Spanish Splits. 51.2731 Section 51.2731... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2731 U.S. Spanish Splits. “U.S. Spanish Splits” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are split or...

  15. A portrait of the Spanish accounting community

    OpenAIRE

    Amat, Oriol; Gowthorpe, Catherine; Moya, Soledad; Oliveras, Ester

    1998-01-01

    This study presents a portrait of the Spanish academic accounting community in 1995, based upon a questionnaire circulated to Spanish accounting academics in 1995 and upon an analysis of authorship and citations in the main Spanish accounting journals. The approach to these analyses is grounded in similar studies which have been carried out in the United States, Spain and elsewhere. but the combination of techniques used in this study is particularly broad in range. The r...

  16. An on-line, cloud-based Spanish-Spanish Sign Language translation system

    OpenAIRE

    Tejedor Noguerales, Javier; López-Colino, Fernando; Porta, Jordi; Colás, José

    2012-01-01

    An on-line Spanish-Spanish Sign Language (LSE) translation system is presented in which Spanish speech content is translated into LSE to provide Spanish deaf people access to speech information. It is cloud-based, built over a speech recognition module, a transfer-based machine translation module and a Sign Language synthesis module that employs an avatar to present the signed content.

  17. Overview of the Spanish Fuel Cycle: Technical Tours Organized by Spanish young Generation in Nuclear.

    OpenAIRE

    Rubio Oviedo, I.P.; Jimenez Varas, Gonzalo; Ochoa Valero, Raquel

    2013-01-01

    Spanish Young Generation in Nuclear (Jóvenes Nucleares, JJNN) is a non-profrt organization that depends on the Spanish Nuclear Society (Sociedad Nuclear Española, SNE).Since one of rts main goals is to spread the knowledge about nuclear power,severa! technical tours to facilities wrth an importan!role in the nuclear fuel cycle have been organized for the purpose ofleaming about the different stages of the Spanish tuel cycle. Spanish Young Generation in Nuclear h...

  18. Keeping Pace: Science Trade Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1985-01-01

    Describes elementary school science trade books written in Spanish. Topics considered in these books include: animal life; astronomy; biology; earth sciences; mathematics; general science; and general technology. (DH)

  19. Acoustic Correlates of Stress in Central Catalan and Castilian Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Llebaria, Marta; Prieto, Pilar

    2011-01-01

    The general literature on the phonetic correlates of stress agrees that duration, and in stress accent languages, are consistent correlates of stress. However, the role of amplitude changes in the speech signal is more controversial. In particular, the conflicting results of spectral tilt as a correlate of stress have been attributed to the…

  20. High School Spanish Teachers' Attitudes and Practices toward Spanish Heritage Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, Brittany D.; Kuriscak, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    This case study uses survey data to examine the attitudes and pedagogical practices of preservice and current high school Spanish teachers toward Spanish heritage language learners (HLLs). The research questions addressed were (1) the extent to which participants were aware of the challenges facing Spanish HLLs who are enrolled in traditional…

  1. An Investigation of Anglicized Spanish as a Communication Strategy in the Beginning Spanish Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobeck, Ashley Brianne

    2013-01-01

    Considering the recent increase in Spanish use in the United States, particularly as reflected in the media, beginning Spanish students are entering their classrooms with knowledge of phrases such as "hasta la vista" and "numero uno," regardless of their amount of previous formal Spanish study. The present research focuses on…

  2. Recent Children's Books about Hispanics [and] Recent Notable Books in Spanish for the Very Young.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1989-01-01

    The first of two bibliographies describes 20 children's books about Mexican Americans; the history, government, people and economics of Central and South American countries; the artists, food and government of Spain; and legends from Nicaragua, Mexico and Puerto Rico. The second identifies 21 books for young Spanish speaking children and children…

  3. Individuos centrales como protagonistas del proceso de innovación: un estudio con blogs españoles relacionados con alimentación = Central individuals as leading actors in the innovation process: a case study with Spanish food-related weblogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Sahelices Pinto

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available En el momento actual, el sector agroalimentario español atraviesa una de sus etapas más inciertas. Mientras el consumo extradoméstico se desploma, el doméstico se ralentiza por la búsqueda de fórmulas más racionales que resulten en un menor gasto. Las exportaciones, la válvula de escape, crecen a ritmos nunca antes vistos abriéndose paso en escenarios internacionales especialmente regulados. Como consecuencia de este entorno, el esfuerzo dirigido hacia la innovación se convierte en ineludible para las compañías del sector. Ante este hecho, el mismo consumidor se perfila como un recurso muy importante para la obtención de información acerca de nuevas ideas y necesidades no satisfechas que, gracias a Internet y a la Web 2.0, se encuentra ahora más que nunca al alcance de la empresa. Este trabajo de investigación aborda el estudio de una de estas redes sociales online, basado en el examen del comportamiento innovador de los individuos que las forman y en la identificación de aquéllos que socialmente destacan sobre los demás. El documento finaliza con una reflexión y justificación globales e indica además ciertos aspectos de utilidad para el mundo empresarial y sendas líneas de investigación futura.The Spanish food sector experiences at the present an especially uncertain conjunction. Whereas the extra-domestic consumption collapses, the domestic consumption slows down. Moreover, consumers look for more rational options at lower costs. In contrast, exports grow at really high rates in particularly regulated international scenarios. As a result of this scene, innovation efforts are unavoidable for food companies. In view of this, the very consumer, who is now easily reachable on the Internet and Web 2.0, represents a valuable resource for obtaining information about new ideas and uncovered needs. This research paper, working with one of these online social networks, presents an examination of the innovative behavior of

  4. Revisiting the crustal evolution of the Pyrenees and the Cantabrian Mountains: inferences from new concepts and data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixell, Antonio; Labaume, Pierre; Lagabrielle, Yves

    2016-04-01

    The evolution of the Pyrenean-Cantabrian orogenic system at the crustal scale is currently reformulated in the light of new concepts of continental hyperextension and mantle exhumation applied to the preorogenic stages. Major advances are being obtained in the frame of programs as TOPOIBERIA, TOPOEUROPE, GDR Marge, PYRAMID, PYROPE and BRGM-RGF. Crustal models developed in the 80's and 90's after the ECORS reflection profiles depicted a precursor Mesozoic rift basin floored by a strongly thinned, but entirely continental substratum, using Airy isostasy. In the past years, a restatement of the significance of the Pyrenean peridotites and the application of concepts from passive continental margins has led to scenarios of extreme crustal attenuation and mantle exhumation during mid-Cretaceous times. New paleothermometrical databases show a generalized high heat flow during the mid and late Cretaceous that accounts for thermal isostasy and explains the apparent disequilibrium between extreme crustal thinning and not so great synrift sedimentary thickness and paleobathymetry. Models for the evolution of the Pyrenean orogeny must consider feedbacks between the Cretaceous hyperextension and the late Cretaceous to Cenozoic inversion. A key challenge is to identify the ancient continental margins of the European and Iberian plates and their suture. New sequential restorations of the compressional structure to selected steps allow a reassessment of the style of convergence through time. In preorogenic reconstructions, end-member models show a tilted-block structure vs. smoothly thinned (boudinaged) margins, overlain by a sedimentary lid detached in the Triassic evaporites. As for the Pyrenees, different models agree that the early stages of convergence involved the subduction of the peridotite "ocean", which was followed by early collision of the thinned continental margins until the crust regained thickness. Late collision involved northward subduction of decoupled lower

  5. A simulation model proposed to Spanish electricity pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the last decade, a liberalization process of the electricity sector was undertaken in many countries with the objective of increasing the internal efficiency of electricity enterprises. In this context, the creation of the wholesaler electricity market is the central element of the new electricity systems. However, although the functioning of such a market is based, in many cases, on a mechanism of competitive auctions, the international experience shows the presence of higher prices compared to the competitive levels. This paper develops a simulation model of the Spanish electricity pool with the objective of analyzing if such a market is really competitive or if generator enterprises have developed strategic behaviours. (Author)

  6. Assessing the effect of soil use changes on soil moisture regimes in mountain regions. (Catalan Pre-Pyrenees NE Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soil moisture regimes under different land uses were observed and modeled in a representative forest basin in the Catalonian Pre-Pyrenees, more specifically in the Ribera Salada catchment (222.5 km2). The vegetation cover in the catchment consists of pasture, tillage and forest. A number of representative plots for each of these land cover types were intensely monitored during the study period. The annual precipitation fluctuates between 516 and 753 mm, while the soil moisture content oscillates between 14 and 26% in the middle and low lying areas of the basin, and between 21 and 48% in shady zones near the river bed, and in the higher parts of the basin. Soil moisture and rainfall are controlled firstly by altitude, with the existence of two climatic types in the basin (sub-Mediterranean and sub-alpine), and further, by land use. Two models were applied to the estimated water moisture regimes: the Jarauta Simulation Newhall model (JSM) and the Newhall simulation model (NSM) were found to be able to predict the soil moisture regimes in the basin in the different combinations of local abiotic and biotic factors. The JSM results are more precise than the results obtained using another frequently used method, more specifically the Newhall Simulation Model (NSM), which has been developed to simulate soil moisture regimes. NSM was found to overestimate wet soil moisture regimes. The results show the importance of the moisture control section size and Available Water Capacity (AWC) of the profile, in the moisture section control state and variability. The mountain soils are dominated by rustic and occasionally xeric regimes. Land use changes leading to an increase in forest areas would imply drier soil conditions and therefore drier soil water regimes. These effects are most evident in degraded shallow and stony soils with low AWC.

  7. Horizontal Divergence and Vertical Velocity Adjacent to the Pyrenees Measured During the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon & Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faloona, I. C.; Lothon, M.

    2014-12-01

    Because of the dominant influence of surface solar heating on atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) flows, the character and even underlying theories of turbulence vary diurnally over the continents. While great strides have been made in our understanding of the stable boundary layers that prevail overnight, the period of transition from a convective daytime to a stable nighttime ABL remains a very challenging problem in no small part because of its inherently non-stationary nature and because both of the main forcings, wind stress and surface heat flux, tend to flag at this time of day. These underexplored topics motivated the Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence (BLLAST) field experiment held in the summer of 2011 at the CNRS Laboratorie d'Aerologie in Campistrous, France. On three of the twelve intensive observational days of the experiment, three rawinsondes were launched simultaneously approximately 3 km apart throughout the afternoon transition in order to directly measure mesoscale horizontal divergence in the ABL and lower free troposphere. Using the assumption of incompressibility, the observed divergence is integrated and a vertical profile of mean vertical wind is derived for the lower troposphere. Although the magnitude of the inferred vertical winds are much larger than expected (of order 0.1 ms-1), the measurements do indicate a clear trend in afternoon subsidence giving way to evening uplift at the site, which is within ~10 km of the Pyrenees' foothills. The observed transition from low-level divergence to convergence was accompanied by a deep surface pressure minimum that fluctuated by nearly 300 Pa diurnally, and we propose that it is likely related to the reversal of the plain-mountain circulation across the region. The impact of such behavior on boundary layer growth and entrainment during the afternoon hours are discussed along with evidence of similar behavior observed elsewhere in mountainous terrain.

  8. A Spanish perspective on LD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J E; Valle, I H

    1999-01-01

    This article offers an overview of special education in Spain, specifically in the area of learning disabilities (LD). The term LD in Spain implies a different conception of the definition that enjoys considerable international agreement and consensus. We give a historical perspective of Spanish legislation and place the proposed definition of LD in the context of recent school reform in Spain. The support services model and the assessment practices and instructional approaches in the LD field are described. Finally, some educational implications of the new school reform regarding teacher training programs to assist special educational needs are presented. PMID:15508246

  9. Learning Spanish dialects through Twitter

    CERN Document Server

    Gonçalves, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    We map the large-scale variation of the Spanish language by employing a corpus based on geographically tagged Twitter messages. Lexical dialects are extracted from an analysis of variants of tens of concepts. The resulting maps show linguistic variations on an unprecedented scale across the globe. We discuss the properties of the main dialects within a machine learning approach and find that varieties spoken in urban areas have an international character in contrast to country areas where dialects show a more regional uniformity.

  10. Reflexive intensification in Spanish: Toward a complex reflexive?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Johan

    2005-01-01

    Spanish, intensifier, intensification, reflexive pronouns, anaphor, reanalysis, grammaticalization, sí, mismo......Spanish, intensifier, intensification, reflexive pronouns, anaphor, reanalysis, grammaticalization, sí, mismo...

  11. Bibliografia en Espanol (Bibliography in Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Diego County Office of Education, CA.

    Teachers, librarians and resource teachers are provided with a list of 110 high quality books in the Spanish language which will help the needs of limited and non-English-speaking students. The entries are annotated in English and graded "Primary,""Intermediate," and/or "Junior High." Four of the stories are classified as Spanish/English. The…

  12. A Marketing Strategy for Spanish for Business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber

    The development of a marketing strategy for business Spanish courses by means of situational analysis is described. The planner of marketing strategy must consider demand for a course, institutional acceptance, and financial support. A survey of 508 universities revealed a low level of demand for business Spanish which could potentially be…

  13. Testing Standard Spanish as a Second Dialect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles W.

    This discussion begins with a brief description of three approaches to teaching standard Spanish as a second dialect (S.S.S.D.), called the "eradication" approach, the "second dialect" approach, and the "both dialects" approach, which is favored here. Because the teacher of standard Spanish as a second dialect is concerned with developing in the…

  14. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    This annotated bibliography includes 18 titles that appeal to Spanish-speaking teens under the categories of contemporary novels, historical fiction, longtime favorites, health, and myths and legends. A sidebar lists dealers of books in Spanish for children and young adults. (LRW)

  15. Selecting Books in Spanish To Teach Mathematics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Victoria R.; Bennett, Tom R.; Bullock, Cathy

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a resource for identifying and obtaining high-quality children's literature printed in Spanish and published worldwide. Presents some guidelines for selecting literature to teach mathematics. Provides specific examples of Spanish language books that are high-quality and have strong potential for furthering students' mathematical…

  16. Foreign Language: Introductory Spanish. Part I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This introductory course teaches students to speak contemporary Spanish through the use of short dialogues based on typical school activities. Emphasis is on oral Spanish, "-ar" verbs in the present, interrogatives, and hints on how to read. Objectives for culture study and the development of student attitudes are also presented. Performance…

  17. Commercial Spanish: Developing Proficiencies and Business Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyes-Tudela, Jose E.

    A commercial Spanish course offered at Marywood College (Scranton, Pennsylvania) serves both Spanish majors and majors in international business. In addition to language proficiency activities common to most commercial language courses, students have identified two projects as most functional and challenging: (1) a "carpeta" or file into which…

  18. "Proyecto Sherezade": Teaching Spanish Literature Interactively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Enrique

    2001-01-01

    Describes "Proyecto Sherezade," an Internet-based project publicly available to anyone. Founded in 1996 by a group of Spanish language and literature academics in Canada and the United States, the project began as an Internet literary magazine that published non-established writers's short stories in Spanish and commentaries sent by readers.…

  19. Black Frontier Settlements in Spanish Colonial Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landers, Jane

    1988-01-01

    Addresses the much neglected area of Black frontier experience in the Spanish colonies. Concentrates on the role played by Black settlers and one Black township in defending the Spanish frontier in colonial Florida against the threat of growing English settlements to the north. Provides an introduction to the 18th century Southeastern Spanish…

  20. Language Transference by Mentally Retarded Spanish Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flaherty, Carol

    In an investigation of language transference vs. language interference, 12 trainable mentally retarded Spanish speakers (5 to 9 years old) were trained to name in English objects previously identified receptively and objects not previously identified receptively in Spanish. Results indicated no significant difference in the number of words learned…

  1. Variation in Miami Cuban Spanish Interrogative Intonation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvord, Scott M.

    2010-01-01

    The interrogative intonation of Cubans and Cuban Americans living in Miami is investigated. Two different intonation patterns are used in this variety of Spanish to convey absolute interrogative meaning: one with a falling final contour, as has been observed in Cuban Spanish, and one with a rising final contour, as is used in American English and…

  2. Development of Spanish Consonants in Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Mary Ann

    1993-01-01

    This study tested the production of 18 Spanish consonants by 120 Mexican-American preschool children (ages 3-5), to determine the age of acquisition of Spanish consonants. Data are provided on percent of correct production of each sound at six different age levels and are graphically illustrated to compare age of acquisition with another study's…

  3. Should Jose Be Tested In Spanish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Roy

    To prepare for the national norming of El Circo (the Spanish-language equivalent of the Circus Assessment Battery) three research questions were posed. First, will the presentation of test instructions in both English and Spanish significantly increase achievement? Second, what level of language competency is necessary for valid use of the various…

  4. Studying Colonialism in Spanish History Textbooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brescó, Ignacio

    2016-01-01

    representation of the nation’s historical past. Along these lines, this paper aims to examine the representation of an especially controversial past, such as colonialism, in Spanish secondary history textbooks in two different periods, in late 70’-early 80’ (just after the loss of the last Spanish colonies...

  5. The Liberalisation Process of the Spanish Electricity Sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the beginning of 1998, the 54/1997 Electricity Law entered into force, introducing a new configuration for the Spanish electricity system. Before this, the electric utilities and the Spanish Ministry of Industry and Energy signed a Protocol outlining the general structure of the future changes which would lead to the transformation of the Spanish electricity system from one based on a central purchasing agent model to one based on wholesale and retail competition. The structure of the power industry prior to the 54/1997 Electricity Law consisted of a number of vertically integrated electricity companies, most of them privately owned. One company (REE, Red Electrica de Espana) controlled by the State, was the System Operator, with the property of most of the Transmission Network. This company was created in 1984, as an attempt to improve overall efficiency in the sector by central co-ordination of all available resources and by central planning of new investments. Later, in 1987 a New Legal Framework (Marco Legal Estable) was established in order to assure financial stabilisation to the electric utilities, fixing revenues based on standard costs and setting a National tariff system. The start for the liberalisation process began with the 1994 Electricity Act (LOSEN) with the creation of the Regulatory Commission and the allowance to open access to new entrants. The Spanish electricity model finally set in 1998 seeks the introduction of competitiveness in the power sector through a few basic principles: Shorter state intervention by rationalisation of the energy policy constraints and by leaving to the market forces the system operation and planning (except for transmission planning); Separation of activities: Regulated activities (transmission and distribution) are separated form non-regulated activities (generation, trading); The design of a bulk power competitive market, including competition in generation, freedom of entry, a power pool managed by a market

  6. K-Ar age of hornblende from a hornblendite vein in the Alpine-type ultramafic mass of the Étang de Lers (Ariège), French Pyrenees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschure, R.H.; Hebeda, E.H.; Boelrijk, N.A.I.M.; Priem, H.N.A.; Avé Lallemant, H.G.

    1969-01-01

    The Alpine-type ultramafic mass of Étang de Lers in the French Pyrenees (the type locality of lherzolite) is transected by a number of hornblendite veins. These veins cut through the lherzolite-pyroxenite layering and obviously are the youngest ultramafic rocks present. Geological field evidence and

  7. [A state of need: the Spanish Red Cross in Morocco, 1886-1927].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    This article studies the central role of nation-states in the Red Cross during the interwar period. In the late nineteenth century, Spain pioneered the creation of European-style humanitarian institutions in Morocco. However, its perennial instability as a state, aggravated by the colonial disaster of 1898, put an end to the regenerationist project of a Moroccan Red Cross. When the Spanish protectorate was established in 1912, the Spanish Red Cross was overshadowed by competition from its French counterpart, the internationalization of Tangiers and resistance from the local inhabitants. This culminated in the so-called Rif War of 1921-1927, a mixture of anticolonial revolt and international war that vividly exposed the ingrained deficiencies of the Spanish State and its Red Cross. PMID:27557359

  8. Stable isotopic evidence for large-scale seawater infiltration in a regional metamorphic terrane; the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Stephen M.; Taylor, Hugh P.

    1985-10-01

    Oxygen isotopic analyses of 95 metamorphic and igneous rocks and minerals from a Hercynian metamorphic sequence in the Trois Seigneurs Massif, Pyrenees, France, indicate that all lithologies at higher metamorphic grades than the “andalusite in” isograd have relatively homogeneous δ 18O values. The extent of homogenization is shown by the similarity of δ 18O values in metacarbonates, metapelites and granitic rocks (+11 to +13), and by the narrow range of oxygen isotopic composition shown by quartz from these lithologies. These values contrast with the δ 18O values of metapelites of lower metamorphic grade ( δ 18O about +15). Homogenization was caused by a pervasive influx of hydrous fluid. Mass-balance calculations imply that the fluid influx was so large that its source was probably high-level groundwaters or connate formation water. Hydrogen isotopic analyses of muscovite from various lithologies are uniform and exceptionally heavy at δD=-25 to -30, suggesting a seawater origin. Many lines of petrological evidence from the area independently suggest that metamorphism and anatexis of pelitic metasediment occurred at depths of 6 12 km in the presence of this water-rich fluid, the composition of which was externally buffered. Deep penetration of surface waters in such environments has been hitherto unrecognized, and may be a key factor in promoting major anatexis of the continental crust at shallow depth. Three types of granitoid are exposed in the area. The leucogranites and the biotite granite-quartz diorite are both mainly derived from fusion of local Paleozoic pelitic metasediment, because all these rocks have similar whole-rock δ 18O values (+11 to +13). The post-metamorphic biotite granodiorite has a distinctly different δ 18O (+9.5 to +10.0) and was probably derived from a deeper level in the crust. Rare mafic xenoliths within the deeper parts of the biotite granite-quartz diorite also have different δ 18O (+8.0 to +8.5) and possibly represent

  9. Multi-proxy record of land use change derived from colluvial soils of the western Pyrenees Mountains, France

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh, David S.; Gragson, Theodore L.; Coughlan, Michael R.

    2016-04-01

    Archaeological evidence and paleoenvironmental proxies from wetland bogs (e.g. charcoal, pastoral pollen, fungal spores of sheep dung) clearly outline the regional chronology of Holocene pastoral activity in the Pyrenees. We increase the spatial and temporal resolution of this chronology through a place-based, millennial-scale investigation of land use activities within individual fields in the commune of Larrau, Pyrénées Atlantiques, France. We have identified several stratigraphic records of slopewash colluvium that span the entire Holocene that occur at the outlets of zero-order watersheds, each draining several hectares. To examine forest-to-pasture transformation, two to three meter long auger holes were sampled in contiguous five centimeter intervals. These samples were analyzed for charcoal content, radiocarbon age, magnetic susceptibility, particle size, organic matter, and n-alkane concentrations. Results indicate that intentional burning and clearing were initiated by the Late Neolithic (ca. 5000-6000 cal. BP), but more intense burning, clearing, and pronounced soil erosion occurred later during the Bronze Age and Iron Age. Charcoal concentrations and low frequency magnetic susceptibility provide evidence of initial burning and subsequent variation in the intensity of fire use. Radiocarbon chronologies exhibit order-of-magnitude spikes in sedimentation rates (1-10 mm/yr) during the Bronze Age and Iron Age that are asynchronous between sites. Asynchronous records suggest anthropic, rather than climatic, drivers and imply that land use varied in intensity across the landscape, unlike the uniform intensity of pasture use typical of the modern landscape. Sedimentation rates, and presumably erosion rates, returned to very near pre-pastoral background levels (<1mm/yr) during the last 1500 years. A pristine-degraded-recovery cycle is thus indicated for the span of the Holocene illustrating that not all pastures around the world persist with stereotypical

  10. Calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution using a Terrestrial Laser Scanner in the Montsec Area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    Magnitude-frequency relations are a key issue when evaluating the rockfall hazard. It is a common practice to calculate them using databases of past events. However, in some cases, they are not available or complete. Alternatively, the analysis of the scar volume distribution on the wall face provides useful information on the slope's rockfall activity. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, is a limestone cliff from upper cretaceous. In some parts, clear evidences of rockfall activities are present: Large recent rockfall scars are distinguished by their orange colour in comparison with grey non active surfaces on the slope face. To identify the scars and analyse their volume distribution, a methodology has been carried out (Santana et al. 2011) which is based on the elaboration of data from a high resolution Digital Elevation Model (DEM) obtained with Terrestrial Laser Scanner (TLS). This methodology requires a point cloud of the slope and it includes the following steps: a) identification of discontinuity sets b) generation of discontinuity surfaces c) calculation of areas of the exposed discontinuity surfaces and rockfall scar heights, and d) calculation of the rockfall scar volume distribution. Three discontinuity sets were identified on the point cloud. To generate the discontinuity surfaces, SEFL software was used. The input data for accepting that two neighbouring points of the point cloud belong to the same surface, was a minimum spacing of 0.4m. The resulting planes were visually checked. Assuming that the discontinuities of set 1 preserve the basal shape of the rockfall scars and the altitude is parallel to the discontinuities of set 2, the volume can be calculated as the product of the area of surfaces of set 1 with the length of the surfaces of set 2 using the afore mentioned SEFL software. Areas were found to follow a Lognormal distribution and lengths a Pearson6 one. The volume calculation was then made probabilistically by means

  11. Respuesta hidrológica del Pirineo central al cambio ambiental proyectado para el siglo XXI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Moreno, J. I.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Streamflows in five Mediterranean mountain headwaters in the central Spanish Pyrenees were projected under various climate and land use change scenarios. Streamflows were simulated using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys. The results show that changes in precipitation and temperature could cause a decline of annual streamflow between 13% and 23%, depending on the considered catchment. When the effect of increased forest cover in the basins is added to climate change effects, the decrease in annual streamflow is enhanced up to 19% and 32%. The largest hydrological changes resulting from environmental change are projected mainly in early spring, summer and autumn, when the decline may exceed 40%. Winter is the least affected season by environmental change because of increased runoff as a consequence of reduced storage of water in the snowpack and an earlier onset of the snowmelt, and the lower consumption of water by vegetation during the cold season. The magnitude of hydrological change as a result of the assumed environmental change scenarios may lead to serious impacts on water management and ecology of the studied region, as well as the water availability in the Ebro basin.Se han simulado los caudales de cinco cabeceras de ríos en los Pirineos centrales españoles, considerando diferentes escenarios de cambio climático y de uso del suelo. Los caudales fueron simulados utilizando el modelo hidroecológico RHESSys (Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System. Los resultados muestran que los cambios proyectados por un conjunto de modelos climáticos regionales en precipitaciones y temperaturas en el siglo XXI podrían causar una disminución del caudal anual entre el 13% y el 23%, dependiendo de la cuenca considerada. Cuando se añade a los efectos del cambio climático el efecto del aumento de la cubierta forestal en las cuencas, la disminución de los caudales anuales oscila entre el 19% y el 32%, dependiendo de la cuenca

  12. Reconsidering Subextraction: Evidence from Spanish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Bosque

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that so-called subextraction (e.g., Whoi has John seen a picture of ti ?; cf. Corver 2006 for recent discussion does not involve movement of a wh-phrase to a DP internal escape hatch position before reaching the CP layer. Instead, we claim that apparently subextracted wh-phrases are actually direct dependents of the verb after a process of reanalysis (or readjustment; cf. Chomsky 1977, Kayne 2002 applies. Our proposal rethinks an old (Bach & Horn 1976 idea, reframes it in modern terms and argues against the cyclic status of DPs (cf. Bruening 2009, Leu 2008, Ott 2008, and references therein, by leaning on new evidence from Spanish. The non-cyclic status of DPs is a fairly standard idea ever since clausal properties were assumed to hold for nominal domains (cf. Chomsky 1970, Brame 1982, Abney 1987, and much subsequent literature.

  13. Intercultural education in spanish shools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henar Rodríguez Navarro

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available There are many initiatives about intercultural education in our country. This work focuses on highlighting intercultural teaching practices that have been done in Spain in recent decades. Firstly, Spanish educational policies are presented; then some teaching practices are described. The analysis has been divided into seven areas: I.- Welcome Plans; II.- Linguistic and Cultural Attention; III.- Cooperative Management Strategies in classrooms; IV.- Community Implication; V.-Intercultural Mediation and resolution of conflicts ; VI.- Teachers´ training and VII.- Observatories of several communities. We could analyze these topics from two points of view: one related to inclusive education and, on the other hand, the related to compensatory education. Finally, intercultural practices and learning Communities experiences are connected, considering that both could give an answer to intercultural practices described before. This article presents part of a research project carried out by the group ACOGE of the University of Valladolid.

  14. The Amuesha People of Central Peru: Their Struggle to Survive. IWGIA Document No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard Chase

    In 1742, the national liberation movement led by Juan Santos Atahualpa forced the Franciscan missionaries, their military back-up, and the Spanish colonists they brought, out of central Peru and allowed the Amuesha and Campa peoples of the area to continue determining their own destinies independent of the Spanish and later Peruvian occupational…

  15. Publishing Spanish-Language Books in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the need for Spanish language materials as a result of the growth of the Hispanic population, and describes issues faced by one children's book publisher. Topics include how books are selected for translation; Spanish only versus bilingual editions; selecting translators; standard Spanish versus regional Spanish; and information for…

  16. Espanol para Hoteleria y Turismo = Spanish for Travel and Tourism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montes, Yara G.

    This beginning through advanced Spanish text includes grammar explanations, readings, and exercises with the emphasis on situations involving travel and tourism. The introductory lesson covers the Spanish language, the importance of Spanish in the United States, the Spanish alphabet, pronunciation, capitalization, punctuation, syllabication,…

  17. Spanish Intonation of Hungarian Learners of Spanish: Yes or No Questions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kata Baditzné Pálvölgyi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present dissertation is a comparative study of the intonation of yes-no questions in Hungarian and Spanish. Based especially on my own corpora, I examine the realization of the main accent in utterances, pitch range, and the intonational patterns applied. First, these aspects will be investigated in a Spanish corpus (Corpus 1 then in a Hungarian corpus (Corpus 2 and after that, I will make hypotheses about the ways Hungarians pronounce Spanish yes-no questions. These predictions then will be validated by means of a corpus containing Spanish yes-no questions produced by Hungarian learners of Spanish (Corpus 3. My predictions were the following: (a As the place of main accent in an utterance depends on lexical stress, and lexical stress placement obeys different rules in the two languages, it is predictable that Hungarian learners of Spanish will not produce Spanish main accents according to the Spanish norms. (b Hungarian uses a narrower pitch range than Spanish, thus, the Spanish yes-no interrogatives produced by Hungarian learners are expected to have a narrower pitch range. (c The intonation contours applied will be investigated in 3 subgroups of yes-no questions: ordinary yes-no questions, echo yes-no questions and yes-no questions followed by a vocative. Ordinary yes-no questions in Hungarian are typically accompanied by rising-falling contours, whereas in Spanish, by rising ones; Hungarian echo yes-no questions have several main accents, each triggering a rise-fall contour, while in their Spanish counterparts there is one main accent in these cases, with a characteristically rising pattern. Yes-no question + vocative sequences contain two intonation units in both languages, but in Hungarian the yes-no interrogative conserves its rising-falling melody, and the vocative is accompanied by a fall, unlike in Spanish, where both contours are rising, and the final vocative is given the higher rise. Based on these observations, the prediction

  18. Spanish in Chicago: Writing an Online Placement Exam for Spanish Heritage Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Burgo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available United States is the third country in the world with the largest Hispanic population (over 45 million of Spanish speaking people. As Fairclough (2003 claims, the national, ethnic and socioeconomic differences of Hispanic immigrants provide a heterogeneous community whose unifying element is the Spanish language. Chicago is third largest city in the country with a significant Hispanic population. In the latest years, Spanish for Heritage speakers’ programs in higher education have developed and effective placement tests are needed.

  19. The Impact of a Systematic and Explicit Vocabulary Intervention in Spanish with Spanish-Speaking English Learners in First Grade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cena, Johanna; Baker, Doris Luft; Kame'enui, Edward J.; Baker, Scott K.; Park, Yonghan; Smolkowski, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of a 15-min daily explicit vocabulary intervention in Spanish on expressive and receptive vocabulary knowledge and oral reading fluency in Spanish, and on language proficiency in English. Fifty Spanish-speaking English learners who received 90 min of Spanish reading instruction in an early transition model were…

  20. Systematic mapping of the Spanish continental margin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, Juan; Muñoz, Araceli; Uchupi, Elazar

    2012-07-01

    For economic, environmental, recreational, military, and political reasons it is critical for coastal states to have up-to-date information on their marine margins. Spain began to acquire such data 17 years ago. From 1995 to the present, the Spanish Oceanographic Institute (IEO), a research organization of the state, has carried out a systematic geological and geophysical study of the Spanish margins. Among these projects are (1) the hydrographic and oceanographic study of the Spanish Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) that was implemented by the Navy Hydrographic Institute (IHM); (2) the Espace Project, a study of the Spanish continental shelf; and (3) the Capesme Project, which created fisheries maps of the Mediterranean Sea. The latter two projects were carried out in collaboration with the Secretariat General of the Sea (SGM).

  1. MedlinePlus Spanish Widgets and Buttons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Widgets are small applications that allow you to access Spanish-language health information from MedlinePlus content directly from your own Web sites. You can embed...

  2. The History of Spanish Steamer Marzo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman V. Lapshin

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The article considers the history of Spanish steamer Marzo. By the time of the demise of the Republic in 1939, it was anchored in Murmansk. The paper studies the major versions of its afterlife in Soviet fleet.

  3. Intonational phonology description of Porteno Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barjam, John P.

    2003-10-01

    In this study the intonational patterns of Porteno Spanish (PS) are described within an Autosegmental Metrical (AM) (Ladd, 1996) approach. Porteno Spanish is the Spanish spoken in Buenos Aires, Argentina, and because of the influence from Italian and other languages, it differs markedly from varieties of Spanish that have been previously described. Six monolingual PS speakers were recorded saying 99 sentences which include declaratives, interrogatives, imperatives, and focused declarative and interrogative sentences. A ToBI framework, based on the F0 contour, was developed for labeling the sentences intonation. Preliminary results suggest that each phrase contains a somewhat regular pattern: (1) the stressed syllables of content words carry one of five pre-nuclear pitch accents, (2) nuclear pitch accents are more restrictive and tend to vary depending on the sentence type, and (3) boundary tones, both intermediate and intonational, are regular but also vary depending on sentence type.

  4. THE SPANISH MOOD/SUBORDINATION/REFERENCE INTERFACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy E. Gregory

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the discourse function of the Spanish subjunctive mood. Traditional approaches focus on its semantics, invoking the notions of volition, doubt, negation, and emotion while maintaining the importance of the clause's subordinate status and change of subject from matrix verb to subordinate verb. Notwithstanding, thirty years of linguistic research on the Spanish mood contrast have given rise to the descriptors ± assertion: indicative is +assertive while subjunctive is -assertive. Although these descriptors are appropriate, viewing the subjunctive mood as a discourse cohesive device makes apparent the true nature of the mood contrast. Anaphoric, exophoric, and cataphoric features of languages refer to antecedents, elements of the physical context, or foreshadowed events/information, respectively. This article proposes a mechanism by which Spanish subjunctive clauses fulfill all three functions, circumscribing the Spanish mood contrast within the language's deictic system, and suggests avenues for future research.

  5. Disentangling discrimination on spanish boards of directors

    OpenAIRE

    Mateos de Cabo, Ruth; Gimeno, Ricardo; Escot, Lorenzo

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Manuscript Type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This study seeks to find evidence of discrimination behind the scarce presence women on Spanish boards of directors through factors within firms linked with different theories of discrimination. Research findings/Insights: Using data on the boards of directors from the top 1000 Spanish companies in 2005 and 2008, we identify some signals of discrimination. We find that women directors are scarcer in those sectors wh...

  6. Spanish Constitution and Education. Parliamentary debates

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Carlos Hernández Beltrán

    2008-01-01

    Alter thirty years of being passed the spanish Constitution in 1978, the aim of this paper try to remind the on-going debates celebrated at the House of Representatives about one of the most controversy issues: the education. Through the parliamentary debates we can take into account the political figh- ting between the differents parties on how education should be set up in Spanish democracy. Finally, the Constitution shows a balance between the recognition of right of education and the free...

  7. Geographical Linked Data: a Spanish Use Case

    OpenAIRE

    A. León; Saquicela, V.; Vilches-Blázquez, LM.; Villazón-Terrazas, B.; Priyatna, F.; Corcho, Oscar

    2010-01-01

    We present the process that has been followed for the development of an application that makes use of several heterogeneous Spanish public datasets that are related to administrative, hydrographic, and statistical domains. Our application aims at analysing existing relations between the Spanish coastal area and dierent statistical variables such as unemployment, population, dwelling, industry, and building trade. Moreover, we provide an important innovation with respect to other similar proce...

  8. Advertising in digital television: The spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Sádaba, Ch. (Charo)

    2002-01-01

    Over the last decade, the Spanish television market has radically changed, buttelevision has never ceased being a favourite medium for advertisers, not only because of its potential to communicate emotions with a unique touch but above all because it reaches 98 per cent of Spanish households. In recent years, consumption of television has increased in Spain, now on the digital threshold, and there is already evidence from the US that households with access to fully interactive digital televis...

  9. The spanish mood/subordination/reference interface

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory, Amy E.

    2007-01-01

    This study deals with the discourse function of the Spanish subjunctive mood. Traditional approaches focus on its semantics, invoking the notions of volition, doubt, negation, and emotion while maintaining the importance of the clause's subordinate status and change of subject from matrix verb to subordinate verb. Notwithstanding, thirty years of linguistic research on the Spanish mood contrast have given rise to the descriptors ± assertion: indicative is +assertive while subjunctive is -asse...

  10. The Spanish diet: an update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregorio Varela-Moreiras

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The Food Consumption Survey, conducted for over 20 years by the Spanish Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Environment (MAGRAMA, is the most reliable source of data to evaluate the food consumption and dietary patterns of Spain. The aim of the present article was to review the diet trends in Spain and its evolution. Food availability assessment per capita per day, which allows the calculation of energy and nutrient intake and comparison with the Recommended Nutrient Intakes for the Spanish population is described. In addition, different markers of the quality of the diet have been also evaluated. Methods: The sample consisted of consumption and distribution data, obtained from the nationwide representative Food Consumption Survey for the period 2000-2012. A two-stage sampling method was applied, where in the first stage the units to be sampled were towns or local entities, and in the second stage households which were going to be part of the final sample from those entities were selected. Units consisted of towns or local entities in the national territory. The data allowed the calculation of energy and nutrient intakes, using the Food Composition Tables (Moreiras et al, 2013. The quality of the diet was also evaluated: the adequacy of the diet in meeting the recommended intakes for energy and nutrients; energy profile; dietary fat quality; dietary protein quality; nutrient density; Mediterranean diet adequacy indices. The present data were compared with previous data obtained by our research group in 1964, 1981 and 1991. Results: Using the most recent data, average intake comprised: milk and derivatives (356 g/person/day, fruits (323 g/person/day, vegetables and greens (339 g/ person/day, cereals and derivatives (197 g/person/day, meat and meat products (181 g/day, fish (88,6 g/person/ day, oils and fats (41,6 g/person/day, sugar and derivatives (25,6 g/person/day, eggs (27,1 g/person/day, legumes (13,9 g/person/day. There was

  11. Can Recent Global Changes Explain the Dramatic Range Contraction of an Endangered Semi-Aquatic Mammal Species in the French Pyrenees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charbonnel, Anaïs; Laffaille, Pascal; Biffi, Marjorie; Blanc, Frédéric; Maire, Anthony; Némoz, Mélanie; Sanchez-Perez, José Miguel; Sauvage, Sabine

    2016-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDMs) are the main tool to predict global change impacts on species ranges. Climate change alone is frequently considered, but in freshwater ecosystems, hydrology is a key driver of the ecology of aquatic species. At large scale, hydrology is however rarely accounted for, owing to the lack of detailed stream flow data. In this study, we developed an integrated modelling approach to simulate stream flow using the hydrological Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT). Simulated stream flow was subsequently included as an input variable in SDMs along with topographic, hydrographic, climatic and land-cover descriptors. SDMs were applied to two temporally-distinct surveys of the distribution of the endangered Pyrenean desman (Galemys pyrenaicus) in the French Pyrenees: a historical one conducted from 1985 to 1992 and a current one carried out between 2011 and 2013. The model calibrated on historical data was also forecasted onto the current period to assess its ability to describe the distributional change of the Pyrenean desman that has been modelled in the recent years. First, we found that hydrological and climatic variables were the ones influencing the most the distribution of this species for both periods, emphasizing the importance of taking into account hydrology when SDMs are applied to aquatic species. Secondly, our results highlighted a strong range contraction of the Pyrenean desman in the French Pyrenees over the last 25 years. Given that this range contraction was under-estimated when the historical model was forecasted onto current conditions, this finding suggests that other drivers may be interacting with climate, hydrology and land-use changes. Our results imply major concerns for the conservation of this endemic semi-aquatic mammal since changes in climate and hydrology are expected to become more intense in the future. PMID:27467269

  12. Spanish anarchism and human rigths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús LÓPEZ SANTAMARÍA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The libertarian world’s proverbial aversion against Law seems evident. Not less obvious is the complex attack led by governmental and non-anarchist media in order to construe the topic of «anti-law» and to counter the libertarian idea of a new society with a chaotic image of a system without Law. This paper questions both the ideological stereotype of anarchism as allergic to everything that relates to Law as well as the biased perception of the anti-Law movement. It refutes both extreme interpretations, on the one hand, on the basis of the theoretical renovation of anarchism and the updating of the new theoretical arguments that since the end of the last century have thrown the anarchist group into confusion; and on the other, retrieving and sequencing the organic textual production of the anarchists with the purpose of revealing the recurrent intervention of Spanish anarchists in their fight for human rights. This is of special importance, since as long as anarchist sectors adopt an attitude of dubious acceptance of these facts, it will not be surprising to see that specialists foreign to anarchism ignore such issues altogether.

  13. Relationships between mountain pine and climate in the French Pyrenees (Font-Romeu studied using the radiodensitometrical method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolland, Cristian

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available A radiodensitometrical study was carried out on 46 Pinus uncinata (Ramond in Font-Romeu (French Pyrenees. Correlation functions with monthly climatical data were calculated using separately the ring-widths, the earlywood and the latewood densities. The Mountain Pine shows narrow rings (1.5 mm and a high sensitivity to climate (M.S. = 0.221, but it does not seem to suffer from drought despite the dryness of the climate (788 mm rainfall per year. This species is more sensitive to temperature than to precipitation, since temperature governs latewood formation. A hot spring and a mild autumn with maximum temperatures above threshold levels will extend the growing period. A warm autumn also increases the latewood density, whereas cold nights during the previous year's autumn are unfavourable to growth because they may affect the cambium and bud initiations.

    [es] Se ha llevado a cabo un trabajo densitométrico sobre 46 Pinus uncinata (Ramond en Font-Romeu (Cerdaña francesa. Las funciones de correlación con el clima han sido calculadas sucesivamente con el espesor de los anillos de crecimiento, la densidad de la madera temprana y de la madera tardía. Esta especie produce anillos de crecimiento delgados (1.5 mm y presenta una elevada sensibilidad con el clima (S.M. = 0.221 pero no parece afectada por la falta de lluvia aunque el clima es más xérico (788 mm/ año. La madera tardía parece muy sensible a las temperaturas. Una primavera cálida ejerce un efecto favorable y un otoño suave con temperaturas máximas superiores a límites críticos permite continuar su desarollo. De la misma manera un otoño caliente aumenta la densidad de la madera tardía aunque las noches frías durante el otoño precedente son desfavorables para el crecimiento porque pueden afectar al Inicio de las yemas y del cambium.
    [fr] Une étude radiodensitométrique de46 Pinus uncinata (Ramond a été réalisée à Font-Romeu (Pyrénées Françaises. Les

  14. Spanish Teachers' Sense of Humor and Student Performance on the National Spanish Exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Peter B.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that second/foreign language teachers' sense of humor is directly related to many outcomes for teachers and their students. This research investigates the relationship between the perceived sense of humor of in-service Spanish teachers' (n?=?102) and their students' (n?=?5,419) score on the National Spanish Exams…

  15. Teaching Numeric Concepts to Spanish-Speaking Second Graders: English or Spanish Instruction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Elenor Rubin

    Seventeen Spanish-speaking children received mathematics instruction in either Spanish or English. Numeric concepts were chosen as the content area so that the results could be understood non-verbally at the outset, the teachers ranked the children's abilities in English and math, and no significant difference between groups was found. However,…

  16. Depositional history and diagenesis of quartz-sand bars and lime-mud environments in the Devonian Basibé Formation (Central Pyrenees, Spain)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habermehl, M.A.

    1970-01-01

    The Basibé Formation, of Lower Devonian age (Emsian) according to conodonts, consists, in the area between the Esera River and Mañanet River, of nodular weathering limestones, dolomites, silty to sandy argillaceous dolomites, quartzites and limestones. Thickness variations of the lower member (nodul

  17. Gm and Km alleles in two Spanish Pyrenean populations (Andorra and Pallars Sobirà): a review of Gm variation in the Western Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, M P; Esteban, E; Aluja, M P; Nogués, R M; Backés-Duró, C; Dugoujon, J M; Moral, P

    2001-11-01

    Two Spanish eastern Pyrenean populations, Andorra and Pallars Sobirà, have been tested for G1m(1,2,3,17), G2m(23), G3m(5,6,10,11,13,14,15,16,21,24,28) and Km(1) immunoglobulin allotypes. Km allele and Gm haplotype frequencies in both samples fit well into the Western Mediterranean and, more strictly, Pyrenean ranges with some peculiarities: Andorra showed an elevated frequency (14.7%) of the typical Asian and European Gm21,28;1,2,17;. haplotype, while Pallars Sobirà was characterized by high values (3.7%) of Gm5*;1,17;., a typical sub-Saharan Gm haplotype. Gm diversity assessed through genetic distance and variance analyses revealed a significant geographic partition (4.3%) of Mediterraneans among south, north-east, and north-west groups. It is interesting to note the relatively low genetic variance (2.1%) found between south and north-western Mediterraneans that could reflect ancient population relationships. More locally, genetic boundaries and diversity analyses failed to indicate any geographic pattern and/or genetic differentiation related with the political border in the Pyrenees. The present pattern of variation in this area is probably the result of genetic isolation processes, in addition to some specific demographic phenomena, in the Pyrenean valleys. PMID:11851984

  18. THE PHONOLOGICAL SYSTEM OF SPANISH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia S. Salcedo

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Spanish articulatory phonetics, the classification of sounds and the physiological mechanism used in the production of phonemes are discussed in this article. The process of learning a language consists of classifying sounds within the target language. Since the learner may be hearing the utterance in a different way than the native speaker some objective criteria are needed to classify sounds. If these distinctions are not mastered, he may be perceived as sounding awkward. Other phonological processes are applied in informal situations due to socio-linguistic factors such as age, social class, and education. Sound deletion in particular phonological environments are not done randomly by the speaker, but by necessity to retain semantic comprehension. Allophonic choices within phonemes make up the dialect for a particular area.

  1. Accumulative effects of regulatory actions. Exercise of analysis of CER, consideration of the cumulative Effects of regulation in the rulemaking process in Spanish NPP; Efectos acumulativos de la ccion reguladora. ejercicio de analisis del CER, Consideration of the cummulative Effects of Regulation in the rulemaking process en una central espanola

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Ayestaran, P.; Castella, L.

    2014-02-01

    Through its interaction with the American industry, the NRC has been aware for a number of years of the concern about the impact of the accumulative effect of some regulatory actions. In response to this concern, which was highlighted by the industry, the NRC has carried out initiative to review a number of regulatory requirements order to ensure that NRC regulation and practices dno not lead to an unnecessary regulatory load. The foregoing was in response to what has become commonly known as the CER. Cumulative Effects of Regulation in the Rulemaking Process. In view of the regulatory actuation by the Spanish Nuclear Safety Council (CSN) and, in particular after the events which occurred in Japan, a pilot study has been carried out to examine the CER on a Spanish plant in order to analyse the cumulative effects of regulation and to propose improvements to the management of regulation in line with that set our by the NRC in various documents (SECY-02-081, SECY-11-0032 among others). (Authors)

  2. Typological and social constraints on language contact : Amerindian languages in contact with Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Rendón, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    P130.52.A47, Languages in contact --Ecuador, Languages in contact --Paraguay, Spanish language --Influence on Quechua, Languages in contact --Mexico, Guarani language --Foreign elements --Spanish, Quechua language --Foreign elements --Spanish, Spanish language --Influence on Guarani, Otomi language --Foreign elements --Spanish, Spanish language --Influence on Otomi

  3. El idioma espanol en el mundo (The Spanish Language in the World)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron Castro, Rodolfo

    1975-01-01

    This report to the Office of Ibero-American Education concerns the status of Spanish in five areas: 1) A program on Spanish in the Philippines; 2) Spanish in the United States; 3) Cooperation with the Commission on Spanish of UNESCO; 4) A professorship in Bogota, and 5) Spanish scientific terminology. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  4. Perspectives on Spanish research on Bentham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Escamilla

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available There is no great interest in Jeremy Bentham in Spain in our days. There was in his time. Bentham’s Spanish contemporaries did indeed want to know and to spread his theories. But in the second half of the 19th century, for causes connected with the turbulent history of Spanish liberalism in that century, as in the rest of Europe, that interest vanished. It was not until the last quarter of the 20th century that there was again interest in our author’s thought with the translation and publicat...

  5. Sharing information on intangibles in Spanish organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Ramírez Córcoles

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the knowledge-based economy, the wealth creation is associated with the development and maintenance of competitive advantages based on intangible elements. Faced with this growing strategic importance of intangibles, it seems necessary that companies disclosure information on those elements. However, although companies disclosure information increasingly on a voluntary basis, they are still many which merely comply with legal requirements, omitting highly relevant information on their intangible resources. The objective of this paper is to have data on what level of interest in providing this information by Spanish companies. Therefore, a review of the most important literature about intangibles disclosure in Spanish companies is shown.

  6. Spanish version of the Meta-Cognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Cejudo, Juan; Salguero, José M; Cano-Vindel, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The Meta-cognitions Questionnaire 30 (MCQ-30; Wells & Cartwright-Hatton, 2004) has been used to assess individual differences in metacognitive beliefs considered to be central in the metacognitive theory of generalized anxiety disorder (Wells, 2005). In the present study, the psychometric properties, reliability, and validity of a Spanish adaptation of the MCQ-30 were tested in a broad sample of participants (N = 768) of Spanish nationality aged 16-81 years (31.1% males, 68.9% females). Confirmatory factor analysis showed the expected five-factor structure, which was found to be invariant across gender. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability of the subscales were adequate, and the expected relationships to theoretically related variables such as pathological worry, meta-worry, thought suppression and trait anxiety were obtained. Convergent validity with other measures of beliefs about worry was also found. Taken together, these findings suggest that the Spanish version of the MCQ-30 is a valid instrument for evaluating metacognitive beliefs in the Spanish-speaking population. PMID:24230958

  7. Apuntes sobre Latinismos en Espanol (Notes on Latinisms in Spanish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez B., L. A.

    1977-01-01

    Several Latinisms appear in Latin American Spanish, which would logically be farther from its Latin roots than Spanish in Spain. The existence of these elements and their importance as linguistic facts is analyzed here. Four words are treated: "Cliente,""cuadrar,""cuarto" and "rabula." (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  8. Recent Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Young Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1992-01-01

    This annotated bibliography for school library media specialists and teachers lists 34 recent books that encourage reading by Spanish-speaking students or others who wish to learn Spanish. Grade levels are indicated for each title, and a list of U.S. dealers for books in Spanish for children and adolescents is included. (LRW)

  9. VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN SPANISH AND ENGLISH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    KRIPPNER, STANLEY

    A VOCABULARY GUIDE OF COGNATE WORDS IN ENGLISH AND SPANISH IS PRESENTED. THE VALUE OF THE GUIDE RESTS ON THE ASSUMPTIONS THAT THE LEARNING OF SIMILAR WORDS IN BOTH LANGUAGES COULD CHANGE SPANISH-SPEAKING AMERICAN PUPILS' NEGATIVE ATTITUDE ABOUT ENGLISH AS WELL AS INCREASE THEIR VOCABULARY. WORDS IN THE "VELAZQUEZ SPANISH AND ENGLISH DICTIONARY" OF…

  10. A Responsive, Integrative Spanish Curriculum at UNC Charlotte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Michael S.

    2010-01-01

    The Spanish program at UNC Charlotte is timely and responsive because it is designed to meet documented societal (job market) needs in today's and tomorrow's global village and economy by providing graduates with strong specialties in English-Spanish translating and in business Spanish. It is integrative in that it does so while maintaining its…

  11. La Dicha de Los Libros--Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Reviews a collection of high-quality books in Spanish which can help encourage Spanish-speaking children and adolescents to read. From creative books for the very young to the lives of famous women, to fantasies and animated traditional tales, these recently published books are designed to appeal to Spanish speakers and those wishing to learn…

  12. "Ficciones," Jorge Luis Borges. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and discover…

  13. Inglaterra, primitiva colonia espanola (England, Primitive Spanish Colony)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Til, Brianes

    1975-01-01

    The author fantasizes that at some point in the distant past England was a Spanish colony. He supports his thesis by revealing fantastic etymologies of some English place names showing the influence of Spanish on English, for example "Surrey" comes from "su rey." (Text is in Spanish.) (TL)

  14. Input, Output, and Negotiation of Meaning in Spanish Conversation Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rondon-Pari, Graziela

    2014-01-01

    This research study is based on the analysis of speech in three Spanish conversation classes. Research questions are: What is the ratio of English and Spanish spoken in class? Is classroom speech more predominant in students or the instructor? And, are teachers' beliefs in regards to the use of English and Spanish consistent with their…

  15. Spanish Translation and Validation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A; Fouad, Nadya

    1987-01-01

    The Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) was translated into Spanish, and 32 preschool and primary age bilingual children were assessed in a counter-balanced format with the English and newly translated Spanish forms to assess the adequacy of the translation. Preliminary content validity of the Spanish BBCS was demonstrated. (Author/JAZ)

  16. 27 CFR 24.214 - Spanish type blending sherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Spanish type blending... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Production of Other Than Standard Wine § 24.214 Spanish..., produced under this section, is designated “Spanish Type Blending Sherry.” Upon removal, the...

  17. Spanish-Hispanic Culture from A to V (Actualidades to Venezuela): 72 Spanish-Language Interdisciplinary Cultural Themes with Suggested Resource Materials and Activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Merriam M.

    This guidebook is intended for use by teachers of Spanish (FLES through college level) and by teachers in Spanish bilingual programs. It lists all of the Spanish-speaking countries and 72 Spanish-language cultural themes, such as "Actualidades" (Current Events), "Carreras y espanol comercial" (Careers and Commercial Spanish), "Deportes" (Sports),…

  18. Senales de Trafico. Ingles-Espanol = Traffic Signs. English-Spanish [and] English-Spanish Road Signs for American Tourists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Philip

    Two English/Spanish bilingual glossaries define words and phrases found on traffic signs. The first is an extensive alphabetical checklist of sign messages, listed in English with translations in Spanish. Some basic traffic and speed limit rules are included. The second volume, in Spanish-to-English form, is a pocket version designed for American…

  19. The Development and Validation of an Auditory Perception Test in Spanish for Hispanic Children Receiving Reading Instruction in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, James A.; Michael, William B.

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish auditory perception test, La Prueba de Analisis Auditivo, was developed and administered to 158 Spanish-speaking Latino children, kindergarten through grade 3. Psychometric data for the test are presented, including its relationship to SOBER, a criterion-referenced Spanish reading measure. (Author/BW)

  20. The Power of Belief: Spanish Teachers' Sense of Efficacy and Student Performance on the National Spanish Examinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, Pete

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the researcher investigated Spanish teachers' sense of efficacy as it relates to their students' achievement on the AATSP National Spanish Examinations. Results suggest that there is a link between Spanish teacher efficacy and students' scores on the exams. That is, the higher one's belief about his or her…

  1. Comparison of Spanish Morphology in Monolingual and Spanish-English Bilingual Children with and without Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Gareth P.; Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Auza, Alejandra

    2013-01-01

    This study compares Spanish morphosyntax error types and magnitude in monolingual Spanish and Spanish-English bilingual children with typical language development (TD) and language impairment (LI). Performance across groups was compared using cloze tasks that targeted articles, clitics, subjunctives, and derivational morphemes in 57 children.…

  2. Do the Spanish regions converge? A unit root analysis for the HDI of the Spanish regions

    OpenAIRE

    Montañés, Antonio; Olmos, Lorena

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses to what extent the Spanish regions have undergone a process of convergence since 1980. The application of unit root techniques to the data of the Human Development Index allow us to show that the evolution of the Spanish economy can be understood as a sum of divergent forces, while the per capita GDP offers much more evidence in favour of convergence. These insights encourage the use of different economic measures when studying stochastic convergence.

  3. The potentiality of Spanish Cultural Events in Finnish society : Case: Introducing Cultural Spanish Events in Vaasa

    OpenAIRE

    Abadin Iglesias, Angeles

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the thesis is to find a potential target group in the city of Vaasa which would be highly interested in participating in Spanish Cultural Events, as well as find out how Finnish citizens are attached to Spanish Culture, and how authenticity is important for the target group. The theoretical framework covers all the elements of Culture, Event Management, Experience and Authenticity, and it relates to the empirical part of the thesis by presenting these concepts, providing the knowle...

  4. Spanish Law on Genetically Modified Organisms

    OpenAIRE

    Borrillo, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The advances in genetic engineering and in molecular biology have permitted the manipulation and modification of the genomes of numerous organisms. This article analyze the principles and the overall characteristics established by the European Law and then move on to a study of the Spanish project within the framework of the directives and the other current European legislation.

  5. The Pedestrian Behaviour of Spanish Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullman, M. J. M.; Gras, M. E.; Font-Mayolas, S.; Masferrer, L.; Cunill, M.; Planes, M.

    2011-01-01

    Adolescent pedestrians are a particularly vulnerable group of road users. This research tested the applicability of the recently developed Adolescent Road user Behaviour Questionnaire (ARBQ) amongst a sample of 2006 Spanish adolescents. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the full scale found that the original three factors did not adequately fit the…

  6. The external dimension of the Spanish transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles T. Powell

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available The author intends to go beyond the unanimous opinion that the processes of political transition must be explained, almost exclusively, in terms of national forces and calculations. In the case of the Spanish transition he intends to demonstrate how thestrategies of the national actors (crown, government and parties were moulded largely by the pressure of regulations and structures drawn up outside its frontiers. Firstly, by the United States’ discreet support (always putting forward first her strategic interests of the political evolution whilst it did not put in danger the Spanish contribution to the western defensive system (while the USSR hardly played any role. The Spanish transition did not offer a threat to the alliance system from the beginning and with which the result was practically guaranteed. The European governments for their part, worried least about security and more about the political dimension pressurizing the regime and supporting the leaders of the democratic opposition more and more. The European institutions, withtheir veto, ended up legitimizing the Spanish process of democratization while the different Internationals came together and helped their coreligionists in Spain. Their political and diplomatic pressure were complemented, with the paradigm in the case of PSOE, with the contribution of means and resources by the political foundations, largely German, whose highly visible participation did not lessen the credibiity of those it protected.

  7. Plant Nutrition in Spanish Secondary Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Rodriguez, Concepcion; Garcia-Barrios, Susana; Martinez-Lozada, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the authors analyse the conceptual contents related to plant nutrition in the widely-used school texts of six Spanish publishers. An analysis dossier was elaborated based on the epistemological and pedagogical study of this subject. The publishers deal with the issue of plant nutrition at three different levels (multicellular,…

  8. Lexical Connection: Semiterm Grammatical Patterns in Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Carmen Lopez

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this article is to describe the grammatical patterns of a set of nouns frequently used in Spanish specialized discourse: the so-called "semiterms". The following nouns were selected for the study: "problema" "problem", "resultado" "result", "motivo" "motive/reason", "razon" "reason", and "consecuencia" "consequence". Apart from…

  9. Cultural Myopia: A Challenge to Spanish Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Bryan J.; Perez-Dominguez, Servando

    1996-01-01

    Considers current thinking about intercultural attitudes in Spain to demonstrate reasons why the Spanish approach to interculturalism, particularly in schools, has not been at the forefront of societal, governmental, or educational thinking. Discusses the dangers of ignoring immigrants' needs and abilities within the community and the…

  10. Selecting Spanish Books in the Elementary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corona, Elia

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author recommends a certain criteria for selecting Spanish-language books for elementary students such as cultural factors, setting, time, age, language and visuals. She also enumerates some authors and a listing of their many bilingual texts, which can be used to enrich a school or classroom library.

  11. Reading Difficulties in Spanish Adults with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez-Coalla, Paz; Cuetos, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies show that dyslexia persists into adulthood, even in highly educated and well-read people. The main characteristic that adults with dyslexia present is a low speed when reading. In Spanish, a shallow orthographic system, no studies about adults with dyslexia are available; and it is possible that the consistency of the orthographic…

  12. Spanish Education during the 1980s.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benavent, Jose A.

    1980-01-01

    If we consider the political, social, and economic factors on which the Spanish educational system rests, short-term prospects cannot be optimistic. Futurological studies are lacking. Projections for the 1980s must take account of four issues: the crisis in social values, energy problems, political change, and the regional autonomy question.…

  13. Spanish Language Briefs for Parents, 1995.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools, Charleston, WV.

    This packet contains six briefs developed specifically for Spanish-speaking parents of Mexican origin, and English translations of the briefs. In plain language, these briefs state what researchers and practitioners have learned about various ways parents can help their children do well in school. Titles of the briefs are (1) "Apoyando el…

  14. Revista «Spanish Doctors»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel García Gimeno

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available El programa «Spanish Doctors», consistente en una revista impresa mensual con componente «online» de audio y evaluación, es un instrumento a la vez flexible y consistente para aprender o perfeccionar el inglés médico, dirigido fundamentalmente a médicos de todas las especialidades y niveles de inglés, pero del que se pueden beneficiar también otros profesionales de la salud, del lenguaje o la comunicación en salud. Está elaborado por la organización Spandoc (, que aporta el trabajo de médicos bilingües, los únicos que pueden ofrecer una enseñanza realmente específica y totalmente a la medida de los médicos de habla española. ------------------------------------------------- «Spanish Doctors» magazine. The «Spanish Doctors» program, consisting of a printed monthly magazine with an online component for audio and assessment tests, is both a flexible and solid tool to learn medical English or to improve its knowledge and practice. Targeted essentially to physicians in all medical specialties and English levels, it can also benefit other professionals involved in healthcare or medical language and communication. It is developed by Spandoc (, an organization that compiles the work of bilingual physicians, the only professionals who can tailor their teaching to suit the needs of Spanish-speaking doctors.

  15. Governance in Spanish Universities: Changing Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ion, Georgeta; Castro, Diego

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews the current model of governance within Spanish universities, focusing on the areas of state regulation, academic goals, and organizational management. A qualitative approach was adopted for this research, comprising the use of a survey and a focus group. The conclusions of this study provide some insights into the new…

  16. Soldadura (Welding). Spanish Translations for Welding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohhertz, Durwin

    Thirty transparency masters with Spanish subtitles for key words are provided for a welding/general mechanical repair course. The transparency masters are on such topics as oxyacetylene welding; oxyacetylene welding equipment; welding safety; different types of welds; braze welding; cutting torches; cutting with a torch; protective equipment; arc…

  17. Stance and the Subjunctive in Isleno Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Felice A.

    2012-01-01

    Isleno Spanish speakers maintain few contexts firmly in the subjunctive (for example, adverbial clauses with the conjunctions "para que" and "antes que" and nominal clauses with "querer"), with most other semantic or syntactic categories optionally licensing the subjunctive. This study will outline the obligatory and optional uses of present and…

  18. A Spanish Borderlands Community: San Antonio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teja, Jesus F. de la

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the founding of San Antonio, originally San Antonio de Bexar, which, in 1718, came into being as a military settlement involved in Spanish imperial defensive measures. Focuses on the development and continued growth of San Antonio, Texas's most populous city in the 19th century. (CMK)

  19. Current Usage of Relative Pronouns in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozete, Oscar

    1981-01-01

    Examines variations in current usage that pose problems in teaching Spanish relative pronouns. Discusses their treatment in first-year college textbooks, in the professional literature and in newspapers and magazines prose. Attempts to provide a description of the use of these pronouns applicable to classroom presentation. (MES)

  20. Children's Literature Studytour of Spanish America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shachter, Jacqueline

    1975-01-01

    Describes a tour of several Spanish American countries to study the children's literature and culture. Discussion focuses on the children's literature found in theatrical performances, government-sponsored magazines, schools, and libraries. Also discussed are the writers and illustrators who create for children. (JMB)

  1. The Cultural Content of Business Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosse, Christine Uber; Uber, David

    A study examined eight business Spanish textbooks for cultural content by looking at commonly appearing cultural topics and themes, presentation of cultural information, activities and techniques used to promote cultural understanding, and incorporation of authentic materials. The texts were evenly divided among beginning, intermediate, and…

  2. Empire, Reform, and Corruption : : José de Gálvez and Political Culture in the Spanish World, 1765-1787

    OpenAIRE

    Zepeda Cortés, María Bárbara

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes state modernization and political culture in the eighteenth-century Spanish World. The central paradox unpacked by this study is how positive reform of the Spanish Empire was achieved by statesman José de Gálvez (1720-1787) employing exactly the sort of nepotism and patronage with was considered damaging to the old regime. Gálvez was the central architect of the so- called Bourbon Reforms, a set of measures addressed at raising colonial revenue to enhance Spain's po...

  3. Spanish historical sources to reconstruct climate in the Americas during the XIXth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Herrera, R.; Rubio, F.; Prieto, M.; Hernández, E.; Gimeno, L.

    2001-12-01

    The Spanish colonization of the Americas expanded since the beginning of the XVIth century until the beginning of the XIXth century, when most of the colonies became independent. During this period, a large amount of documentary information was produced, due to the fact that the Spanish Empire was highly centralized and bureaucracy was one of its core elements. Most of these documents are well preserved either in local archives in the Americas or in the Archivo General de Indias in Sevilla, which keeps thousands of bundles relative to any relevant aspect of the ordinary life of the colonies. Different projects are now searching climatic information in this archive with very encouraging results. During the XIXth century Spain kept two colonies in the Americas: Cuba and Puerto Rico, which became independent in 1898. This has allowed that a lot of information survived in Spanish Archives for this period. After a preliminary inspection of different Spanish Archives: Archivo General de Indias, Archivo del Museo Naval and Archivo Histórico Nacional (General Archive of Indies, Archive of the Naval Museum and National Historic Archive), it has been possible to identify two main areas of climatic interest: 1) information from ship logbooks connecting Spain with Cuba and Puerto Rico and 2) reports about hurricanes. The information contained in the ship logbooks is very rich and could help to better characterize elements of the large-scale circulation in the Atlantic; the reports on hurricanes can be very detailed and were elaborated by very skilled personnel. The presentation will provide different examples of the potential of these sources and describe different Spanish projects involved in the abstraction of this type of data.

  4. Allodaposuchus palustris sp. nov. from the upper cretaceous of Fumanya (South-Eastern Pyrenees, Iberian Peninsula: systematics, palaeoecology and palaeobiogeography of the enigmatic allodaposuchian crocodylians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blanco

    Full Text Available The controversial European genus Allodaposuchus is currently composed of two species (A. precedens, A. subjuniperus and it has been traditionally considered a basal eusuchian clade of crocodylomorphs. In the present work, the new species A. palustris is erected on the base of cranial and postcranial remains from the lower Maastrichtian of the southern Pyrenees. Phylogenetic analyses here including both cranial and postcranial data support the hypothesis that Allodaposuchus is included within Crocodylia. The studied specimen suggests little change in postcranial skeleton along the evolutionary history of crocodylians, except for some bone elements such as the axis, the first caudal vertebra and the ilium. The specimen was found in an organic mudstone corresponding to a coastal wetland environment. Thus, A. palustris from Fumanya is the first Allodaposuchus reported in lacustrine-palustrine settings that expand the ecological range for this genus. The S-DIVA palaeobiogeographic reconstruction of ancestral area suggests that early members of Crocodylia rapidly widespread for the Northern Hemisphere landmasses no later than the Campanian, leading the apparition of endemic groups. In that way "Allodaposuchia" represents an endemic European clade probably originated in the Ibero-Armorican domain in the late Campanian and dispersed by the Southern European archipelago prior to the early Maastrichtian.

  5. Age dependence of the accumulation of organochlorine pollutants in brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a remote high mountain lake (Redo, Pyrenees)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs), hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and DDT were examined in the muscle of brown trout (Salmo trutta) from a high mountain lake located in the Pyrenees (Catalonia, Spain) that was used as a model of these lacustrine environments. Results indicate that fish age is the main factor of variability among specimens in this population that is subjected to atmospheric inputs of the organochlorine compounds (OC). Increases of 2- and 20-fold between fish aged 1 year and 15 years old are found. The observed pattern cannot be explained in terms of fish size, condition factor, or muscle lipid content. Higher molecular weight compounds (higher lipophilicity) are better correlated with fish age than low molecular weight compounds. A transformation from 4,4'-DDT to 4,4'-DDE occurs in fish after ingestion; this results in amplified age-dependent signals, especially in male specimens. In contrast, PCB congener no. 180 has lower age dependence than the general OC group, which could be due to its high hydrophobicity (log Kow > 7). In any case, selective accumulation of hydrophobic compounds is already observed among younger fish (age, 1 year). Due to this effect, the relative OC composition does not reflect the main OC pollutants in the lake waters. - Trout in high mountain lakes display age-dependent accumulation of certain organochlorine pollutants

  6. Discussion on "Large landslides associated with a diapiric fold in Canelles reservoir (Spanish Pyrenees): Detailed geological-geomorphological mapping, trenching and electrical resistivity imaging" by Gutiérrez et al. (2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinyol, Núria M.; Alonso, Eduardo E.; Corominas, Jordi; Moya, Jose

    2016-06-01

    This discussion a) reviews the geological model adopted for the landslide analysis and argues that there is nothing new in the reference paper, b) examines the conditions for fast catastrophic sliding and demonstrates that conditions for such a phenomenon may be present in the case of Canelles slide, against the opinion of the authors, and c) justifies the corrective measures adopted to stabilize the landslide.

  7. Exploratory analysis of Spanish energetic mining accidents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanmiquel, Lluís; Freijo, Modesto; Rossell, Josep M

    2012-01-01

    Using data on work accidents and annual mining statistics, the paper studies work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining sector in 1999-2008. The following 3 parameters are considered: age, experience and size of the mine (in number of workers) where the accident took place. The main objective of this paper is to show the relationship between different accident indicators: risk index (as an expression of the incidence), average duration index for the age and size of the mine variables (as a measure of the seriousness of an accident), and the gravity index for the various sizes of mines (which measures the seriousness of an accident, too). The conclusions of this study could be useful to develop suitable prevention policies that would contribute towards a decrease in work-related accidents in the Spanish energetic mining industry. PMID:22721539

  8. Radiation protection in Spanish nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation Protection was born as a discipline at the same time as the use of ionizing radiation, once the potential harmful effects on living beings of this new phenomenon was recognized. The evolution of the use of the nuclear energy at an industrial scale brought about the evolution of this discipline , initially in association with responsibilities relating to hygiene and safety at work and subsequently as an independent responsibility within organizations involved in nuclear electricity production. From the very beginning, in the year 1968, the Spanish nuclear plant organizations included specific resources for the radiation protection of both the plant workers and the general public living around the installations. Since that time, however, radiation protection organizations and technology have evolved considerably. The purpose of this article is to present a general overview of the current status of the radiation protection activities carried out at Spanish nuclear power plants. (Author)

  9. Internal Incommunication at the Spanish University

    OpenAIRE

    Dr. Manuel Palencia-Lefler Ors

    2008-01-01

    The management of Internal Communication is increasingly occupying a preferential place in organizations, in spite of the great contradiction that entails to accept that and to recognize it. At the same time it should be taken into account the lack of material and human resources available in the majority of the organizations. Spanish Universities have had successful experiences in this field, forced by the necessity of assisting the constant demands of more and more diverse and exigent stud...

  10. Coordinate compounding in English and Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Renner, Vincent; Fernández Domínguez, Jesús

    2011-01-01

    International audience Coordinate compounding is a process which has been only sporadically considered in word-formation studies on Germanic and Romance languages. In this paper, we compare the situation in English with that in Spanish as far as formal structure and semantics are concerned. To this end, an operational definition of coordinate compounding is first provided, after which a semantic classification of coordinate compounds is developed. For each type, variants are discussed, rep...

  11. Trust in Spanish Governments: Antecedents and Consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Gloria Alarcón García; Edgardo Ayala Gaytán

    2013-01-01

    We used the Fiscal Observatory Survey of the University of Murcia (2007) to examine the antecedents of trust in the Spanish government (at city, regional and state levels). We found that the main drivers of trust are individuals’ perception of the government’s performance and the socio-economic environment in which they live. Regarding the consequences, we tested a variant of the rule compliance hypothesis: the higher the trust in the government, the higher the citizens’ fiscal awareness, mea...

  12. Governance mechanisms in Spanish financial intermediaries

    OpenAIRE

    Crespí i Cladera, Rafel; Miguel A. García-Cestona; Salas Fumás, Vicente

    2002-01-01

    This paper examines the governance of Spanish Banks around two main issues. First, does a poor economic performance activate those governance interventions that favor the removal of executive directors and the merger of non-performing banks? And second, does the relationship between governance intervention and economic performance vary with the ownership form of the bank? Our results show that a bad performance does activate governance mechanisms in banks, although for the case of Savings Ban...

  13. SECRECY IN THE SPANISH CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

    OpenAIRE

    Brenno Gimenes Cesca

    2016-01-01

    This paper analyzes the secrecy in the Spanish Criminal Procedure, explaining, first, its constitutional matrix. Due to the amplitude of the subject, it was decided to focus on specific issues. So, at first, it was studied the secrecy in the criminal procedure phases (sumario and juicio oral), referring also to secrecy in judicial decisions. After, it was researched the secrecy as protection to witnesses and experts. Then, the secrecy in evidence collection means, such as search and seizure; ...

  14. Heterogeneity across immigrants in the Spanish labour

    OpenAIRE

    Nicodemo, Catia

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze the diferences that immigrants have in the Spanish labour market. Immigrants in Spain come from a diversity of continents (Africa, South America, Eastern Europe, Asia, etc.), and there are substantial diferences in characteristics not only among continents but also among countries in each continent. Using a quantile regression method of decomposition we estimate these diferences that are reflected in the labour market and in particular are mirrored in t...

  15. Westinghouse support for Spanish nuclear industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the major commitments Westinghouse has with the nuclear industry is to provide to the utilities the support necessary to have their nuclear units operating at optimum levels of availability and safety. This article outlines the organization the Energy Systems Business Unit of Westinghouse has in place to fulfill this commitment and describes the evolution of the support Westinghouse is providing to the operation o f the Spanish Nuclear Power plants. (Author)

  16. Light Pollution Spanish REECL SQM Network

    OpenAIRE

    Zamorano Calvo, Jaime; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Nievas Rosillo, Miguel; Tapia Ayuga, Carlos; Ocaña González, Francisco; Izquierdo Gómez, Jaime; Gallego Maestro, Jesús; Pascual Ramírez, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    The SQM network of the Spanish Light Pollution Research collaboration (http://guaix.fis.ucm.es/splpr/SQM-REECL) is growing with the help of amateur astronomers and interested citizens. Up to now there are 18 stations. SQM photometers provide measures of the night sky brightness every night using the PySQM software. The analysis of the data provided by the photometers allows the researchers to monitor the nightly, monthly and yearly evolution of the NSB and the relationship with sources of ...

  17. Stress removal and stress addition in Spanish

    OpenAIRE

    Hualde, José Ignacio

    2007-01-01

    In Spanish function words and expressions can be classified as lexically stressed or unstressed. Unstressed function words are usually realized without word-level prominence. There is also a contrast between compounds with stress on all their components and compound with a single stress, on the last member. Both in the case of function words and in the case of compounds, the facts are idiosyncratic in some respects. In this paper, these facts are presented in some detail and an analysis along...

  18. Insolvency institutions and efficiency: the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Miguel García-Posada

    2013-01-01

    The paper warns about the potential efficiency losses associated with low business bankruptcy rates (number of firms filing for bankruptcy as a proportion of the total stock of firms) and shows that welfare could be improved by increasing the protection of creditors in the bankruptcy system. These ideas are illustrated with the Spanish case. The paper also predicts a positive correlation between welfare and bankruptcy rates, a finding that seems consistent with the empirical evidence. The arg...

  19. Entrepreneurial Orientation Scale: Adaptation to Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boada-Grau, Joan; Sánchez-García, José Carlos; Viardot, Eric; Boada-Cuerva, Maria; Vigil-Colet, Andreu

    2016-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is linked to the perception of opportunities, to orientation, to attitudes, to the fear of failure and to entrepreneurial motivations. Entrepreneurial orientation is a fundamental construct for understanding the phenomenon of entrepreneurship. What is more, it is multidimensional and has attracted considerable attention from researchers in recent years. The objective of this study was to adapt the original 12-item English scale to Spanish and to analyze its psychometric properties. The participants in the present study were 925 Spanish employees (48.2% men, 51.5% women, M age = 42.49 years, SD age = 11.25) from the Autonomous Communities of Catalonia and Castilla-León. After applying an ESEM (RMSEA = .06; CFI = .97 and TLI = .95) a structure was determined made up of four factors which corroborated the structure of the original scale: Autonomy (α = .71 and CI = .68 - .73), Innovativeness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73), Risk Taking (α = .72 and CI = .68 - .74) and Competitive Aggressiveness (α = .70 and CI = .67 - .73). The four factors displayed suitable reliability. The study also found evidences of validity in relation to a series of external correlates and various scales which refer to workaholism, irritation and burnout. The scale presented here may prove useful for satisfactorily identifying, in Spanish, the entrepreneurial orientation of the working population. PMID:27453429

  20. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm. PMID:22033813

  1. Bioethics in Mediterranean culture: the Spanish experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busquets, Ester; Roman, Begoña; Terribas, Núria

    2012-11-01

    This article presents a view of bioethics in the Spanish context. We may identify several features common to Mediterranean countries because of their relatively similar social organisation. Each country has its own distinguishing features but we would point two aspects which are of particular interest: the Mediterranean view of autonomy and the importance of Catholicism in Mediterranean culture. The Spanish experience on bioethics field has been marked by these elements, trying to build a civic ethics alternative, with the law as an important support. So, Spanish bioethics has been developed in two parallel levels: in the academic and policy maker field (University and Parliament) and in clinical practice (hospitals and healthcare ethics committees), with different paces and methods. One of the most important changes in the paternalistic mentality has been promoted through the recognition by law of the patient's rights and also through the new generation of citizens, clearly aware on the exercise of autonomy. Now, the healthcare professionals have a new challenge: adapt their practice to this new paradigm.

  2. Mexican and Central-American Contributions to the Study of the Civil War: Two Historical Traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge de HOYOS PUENTE

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This article analyses the historiography about the Spanish Civil War from Mexico and Central America. The result is quite different from the point of view of the interest raised by the Spanish conflict. This is can be explained by the different levels of involvement of the Mexican and Central American authorities in the war. However, the importance of the Republican exile in Mexico and its relative insignificance in Central America is also a contributing factor. The present day interest in the civil war is still based on that involvement and not of the evolution of the conflict.

  3. Spanish internal migration: is there anything new to say?

    OpenAIRE

    Mulhern, Alan; Watson, John

    2009-01-01

    Spanish internal migration has long been resistant to traditional economic explanations. However this paper examines the data from 1999-2006 after considerable changes in the Spanish economy. Moreover it examines migration at the disaggregated level of Spanish provinces rather than regions, the usual unit of measurement. Using a spatial error model as well as a spatial autoregression model it finds the differentials in wages and unemployment between provinces to be significant explanatory var...

  4. Using Network Centrality Measures to Improve National Journal Classification Lists

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zuccala, Alesia Ann; Robinson-Garcia, Nicolas; Repiso, Rafael;

    2016-01-01

    In countries like Denmark and Spain classified journal lists are now being produced and used in the calculation of nationwide performance indicators. As a result, Danish and Spanish scholars are advised to contribute to journals of high 'authority' (as in the former) or those within a high class...... mismatches of journal categories and implementing list revisions....... (as in the latter). This can create a few problems. Based on a sample of Library and Information Science publications, the aim of this paper is to examine both the Danish and Spanish classification lists, and determine the potential use of network centrality measures for identifying possible...

  5. Cave levels as proxies for measuring post-orogenic uplift: Evidence from cosmogenic dating of alluvium-filled caves in the French Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvet, M.; Gunnell, Y.; Braucher, R.; Hez, G.; Bourlès, D.; Guillou, V.; Delmas, M.

    2015-10-01

    The rates and chronology of valley incision in mountain ranges have been studied in various parts of the globe, but the causes of river incision are often blurred because tectonic, climatic, and sea level-related forcing signals are difficult to distinguish from one another. The Têt River limestone gorge in the Eastern Pyrenees, which displays multiple cave levels containing datable alluvial deposits, provides an opportunity for clarifying this debate. Horizontal epiphreatic passages in limestone can be used as substitutes for fluvial terraces because they correspond to former valley floors and, therefore, also record the position of former local base levels. In the Têt canyon, the passages are filled with quartz-rich sand and gravel sequences that can be dated by 26Al/10Be burial dating. The canyon has cut into a Middle Miocene pediment system-now forming a raised plateau at 1250-1500 m-and displays nine cave levels over a vertical height of 1 km. One alluvial fill sequence in a cave at + 270 m above datum (i.e., the local river bed) yielded a weighted mean age of 5.14 ± 0.41 Ma; another, situated at + 110 m above datum, yielded weighted mean ages of 2.23 ± 0.230 Ma and 1.20 ± 0.286 Ma. The data convert to a mean incision rate of ~ 52 m·Ma- 1 since the beginning of the Pliocene, and involved an acceleration to 92 m·Ma- 1 during the Quaternary. Pre-burial catchment denudation rates range from 35 to 7 m·Ma- 1, and these also doubled during the early Quaternary. It is concluded that: (i) valley incision into the Miocene pediment has been occurring since 5, probably 10 Ma; (ii) there is no evidence of a Messinian canyon in the Villefranche gorge, strongly suggesting through various additional indicators that interference of the Messinian Salinity Crisis with the canyon incision history was minimal; (iii) valley deepening was not a steady process, and recorded periods of stability around 1-2 Ma and perhaps 6-5 Ma; and (iv) the terraced network of epiphreatic

  6. Obtaining magnitude-cumulative frequency curves from rockfall scar size distribution using cosmogenic chlorine-36 in the Montsec area (Eastern Pyrenees, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domènech, Guillem; Mavrouli, Olga; Corominas, Jordi; Abellán, Antonio; Merchel, Silke; Pavetich, Stefan; Rugel, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Magnitude-cumulative frequency (MCF) relations are commonly used components for assessing the rockfall hazard using databases of recorded events. However, in some cases, data are lacking or incomplete. To overcome this restriction, the volume distribution of the rockfall scars has been used instead. The latter may yield the temporal probability of occurrence if the time span required to generate the scars is known. The Montsec range, located in the Eastern Pyrenees, Spain, was chosen as a pilot study area for investigating MCF distributions. This cliff, which is composed of limestones from Upper Cretaceous age, shows distinct evidences of rockfall activity, including large recent rockfall scars. These areas are identifiable by their orange colour, which contrasts in front of the greyish old stable (reference) surface of the cliff face. We present a procedure to obtain the MCF of the rockfall scars by dating an old reference cliff surface and measuring the total volume released since then. The reference cliff surface was dated using the terrestrial cosmogenic nuclide (TCN) chlorine-36 (Merchel et al., 2013). We used the Rockfall Scar Size Distribution (RSSD) obtained in Domènech et al. (2014) that considers several rockfall pattern scenarios. Scenario 1 allows for, mostly, large rockfall scar volumes, scenario 2 considers smaller occurrences and scenario 3 suggests that rockfall scars can be the result of one or several rockfall events, and thus contemplating a wider range of scar volumes. The main steps of the methodology are: a) Obtaining the RSSD, b) Volume calculation of material lost, c) Calculation of time (T0) elapsed for the cliff to retreat (age of the old reference surface), and d) generation of the MCF curve from the RSSD. A total volume of material lost of 78900 m3 was obtained as well as an elapsed period of time of 15350 years. The MCF curves for different rockfall scenarios are found to be well fitted by a power law with exponents -1.7, -1.1 and -1

  7. Characterisation and quantification of trace metal elements in atmospheric deposition and particularities in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees): implementation of road traffic air quality indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study of inputs of trace metal elements (TME) in the Aspe valley (Pyrenees Atlantiques) has two objectives: (1) to define a reference state of metallic contaminants for the monitoring of road traffic emissions since the opening of the Somport tunnel and, (2) to evaluate sources and climatic conditions which contribute to TME inputs in the Aspe valley. To establish air quality indicators, TME (Al, Na, Mg, K, V, Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, Rb, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Ce, Pb and U) and lead isotopic ratios (208Pb/206Pb, 206Pb/207Pb and 208Pb/207Pb) were determined in the atmospheric receptors (fresh snow, wet deposition, atmospheric particulates and lichen). Sampling and analyses with ultra clean procedures were employed for TME quantification. Variability of atmospheric receptors studied, allows integration on a daily and pluri-annual temporal scale and a spatial scale in the North-South axis of the valley and as a function of the altitude from the road. The Aspe valley presents a level of contamination characteristic of remote European areas and the metallic contaminants identified are Cd, Sb, Zn, Cu, Pb and Sn. In the low valley, air quality indicators indicate contaminant contributions (i) from local emissions of domestic heat sources, from agricultural burning practices and road traffic, and (ii) from regional anthropogenic sources of waste incinerators, metallurgic industries and urban centres. In altitude, the valley is significantly influenced by wind erosion and long range transport of TME in the Northern Hemisphere. Characterisation of TME and the isotopic ratios of Pb in the Somport tunnel indicate (i) a significant emission of Cu, Sb, Zn and Ba and (ii) an isotopic composition from a slightly radiogenic source even though Pb concentrations indicate low emissions from road traffic emissions. Nevertheless, the low traffic volume in the Aspe valley prevents conclusive evidence of significant contamination from road traffic. (author)

  8. The Legal Status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle in Spain and Thoughts on Environmental Law and Policy as Contributing Factors in the Conservation of Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johann C Knobel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This contribution reflects on the contributory role of environmental law and policy in the successful conservation interventions on behalf of the rare Spanish Imperial Eagle (Aquila Adalberti, with the aim of gaining insights that may be more universally applicable, including in jurisdictions such as South Africa. An overview of applicable international, European and Spanish laws and policies is given, and the role played by these instruments is considered together with successes attained with diverse conservation goals in respect of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. The exceptionally comprehensive character of the legal protection of the Spanish Imperial Eagle is highlighted, in conjunction with some extra-legal factors that have contributed to successful outcomes. While quantification of the role of the law in the conservation of a species remains elusive, it is probably safe to conclude that environmental law and policy have played a vital and central role in the improvement of the conservation status of the Spanish Imperial Eagle. It is submitted that the conservation interventions on behalf of the Spanish Imperial Eagle show that concerted legal and other conservation interventions can effectively halt and reverse the decline of an endangered species. However, such interventions are onerous and expensive and ideally, effective conservation measures should be in place before populations have declined to a critical level. Birds of prey face similar threats in South Africa and Spain, and a number of South African raptor species will soon be classified as endangered. While South African biodiversity laws and policy are similar to the European and Spanish laws in general import and methodology, the South African laws and policy are more restricted in scope, less detailed and less prescriptive. When comparing the use of Spanish and South African legislation in the conservation of birds of prey, sight must not be lost of the varying conservation needs

  9. Knowledge and Attitudes Towards Biotechnology of Elementary Education Preservice Teachers: The first Spanish experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casanoves, Marina; González, Ángel; Salvadó, Zoel; Haro, Juan; Novo, Maite

    2015-11-01

    Due to the important impact that biotechnology has on current Western societies, well-informed critical citizens are needed. People prepared to make conscious decisions about aspects of biotechnology that relate to their own lives. Teachers play a central role in all education systems. Thus, the biotechnological literacy of preservice teachers is an important consideration as they will become an influential collective as future teachers of the next generation of children. The attitudes toward science (and biotechnology) that teachers have affect their behavior and influence the way they implement their daily practice of science teaching in school. This study analyzes the attitudes and knowledge of Spanish preservice teachers toward biotechnology. We designed a new survey instrument that was completed by 407 university students who were taking official degree programs in preschool and primary education. Our results point out that although they are aware of biotechnology applications, topics concerning the structure of DNA, management of genetic information inside the cell, genetically modified organism technology and the use of microorganisms as biotechnological tools were not correctly answered. According to our attitude analysis, Spanish preservice teachers could be defined as opponents of genetically modified product acquisition, supporters of biotechnology for medical purposes and highly interested in increasing their knowledge about biotechnology and other scientific advances. Our results show a positive correlation between better knowledge and more positive attitudes toward biotechnology. A Spanish preservice teacher with positive attitudes toward biotechnology tends to be a student with a strong biology background who scored good marks in our knowledge test.

  10. Prevalence of Abdominal Obesity in Spanish Children and Adolescents. Do We Need Waist Circumference Measurements in Pediatric Practice?

    OpenAIRE

    Helmut Schröder; Lourdes Ribas; Corinna Koebnick; Anna Funtikova; Gomez, Santiago F; Montserat Fíto; Carmen Perez-Rodrigo; Lluis Serra-Majem

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Evidence indicates that central adiposity has increased to a higher degree than general adiposity in children and adolescents in recent decades. However, waist circumference is not a routine measurement in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of abdominal obesity based on waist circumferences (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) in Spanish children and adolescents aged 6 to 17 years. Further, the prevalence of abdominal obesity (AO) among nor...

  11. Google's Obligation to De-index Constitutional Court Decisions Published in the Spanish Official Journal

    OpenAIRE

    Blasi Casagran, Cristina; BLASI CASAGRAN, Eduard

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the both the premises and effects of the landmark decision, adopted in March 2012 by Spanish data protection authority (DPA), by which the DPA recognised itself as competent to require Google to de-index Constitutional Court judgments published in the Spanish official journal. Previously, Spanish citizens were usually unsuccessful in requesting Google to remove information included in the Spanish official journal, since the Spanish DPA believed that it was the Spanish Co...

  12. Cuentos y fabulas (Stories and Fables), Spanish-S: 7509.13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Maria S.

    This course offers students the opportunity to read and listen to 19th and 20th century Spanish short stories as well as moral, literary, and satirical fables of different epochs. (Several of the fables are included.) The student is thus exposed to new vocabulary and to the literary form of the short story. The authors represented here belong to…

  13. SPANISH 1992 (S92) corpus-based analysis of present-day Spanish for medical purposes

    CERN Document Server

    Chandler-Burns, R M

    1994-01-01

    S92 research was begun in 1987 to analyze word frequencies in present-day Spanish for making speech pathology evaluation tools. 500 2,000-word samples of children, adolescents and adults' language were input between 1988-1991, calculations done in 1992; statistical and Lewandowski analyses were carried out in 1993.

  14. Operational safety evolution in Spanish nuclear units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the European Union, Spain is the fourth largest producer of nuclear power and the third in terms of reliance on this kind of electricity generation. At present, the total nuclear capacity installed is 7400 MW(e), of which 6780 came into commercial operation between 1981 and 1988. During the past decade Spain has mainly been involved with construction activity. However, Spain has more than 100 reactor-years of operating experience and new regulations, regulatory guides and requirements have been introduced. The nuclear experience acquired and the degree of maturity during the past 20 years have made it evident since the beginning of the 1980s that additional measures would be needed in order to reach the intended level of safety, reliability and economic operation of Spanish nuclear units. New safety criteria and methodologies developed through the 1980s and safety and quality culture concepts were considered as well. A systematic evaluation programme for two units (Santa Maria de Garona and Jose Cabrera NPPs) built to earlier standards was developed and significant post-Three Mile Island requirements were implemented for the remaining Spanish units. The paper summarizes the organization structures established by the Spanish nuclear sector to follow and covers significant safety and operational issues and the important areas in which safety improvements were made to upgrade operational safety in our nuclear power plants. Areas such as probabilistic safety analysis and its applications, technology innovation incorporated in some safety systems, accident management procedures and guidance, operational experience feedback, safety and quality culture programmes, etc., are described in the paper, with the lessons learned from each process and the benefits obtained. (author). 8 figs

  15. MONEY IN SERBIAN, FRENCH AND SPANISH PHRASEOLOGY

    OpenAIRE

    Ksenija Šulović; Dragana Drobnjak

    2015-01-01

    Combining conceptual metaphor and field, we have got layered and colorful image about perception of money in Serbian, French and Spanish. The main aim of this research is to show that the phraseological units with component Sr. novac (‘money’) / Fr. argent / Sp. Dinero and semantically similar lexemes are numerous in three languages and in colloquial language. The semantic field of ‘money’ is intertwined with semantic fields of ‘wealth’ and ‘poverty’. We defined five groups and determined...

  16. SECRECY IN THE SPANISH CRIMINAL PROCEDURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenno Gimenes Cesca

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the secrecy in the Spanish Criminal Procedure, explaining, first, its constitutional matrix. Due to the amplitude of the subject, it was decided to focus on specific issues. So, at first, it was studied the secrecy in the criminal procedure phases (sumario and juicio oral, referring also to secrecy in judicial decisions. After, it was researched the secrecy as protection to witnesses and experts. Then, the secrecy in evidence collection means, such as search and seizure; mailing and telephone calls interceptions; undercover agent. Finally, the professional secrecy

  17. External analysis of the Spanish telecommunication industry

    OpenAIRE

    Casado Izcue, Ibán

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the project is to determine the attractiveness of the Spanish telecommunication industry. This sector shows a great dynamism with continuous mergers and acquisitions, market regulations in response to company’s market power and, in addition, it is present in the daily life of millions of people. The PESTLE, Porter´s Five Forces and the Strategic Groups analyses are the tools that helped to define this industry´s attractiveness. The Pestle analysis showed some positive and very nega...

  18. Benthos of Spanish lakes and reservoirs

    OpenAIRE

    Prat i Fornells, Narcís; Real i Ortí, Montserrat; Rieradevall i Sant, Maria

    1992-01-01

    A summary of the results from the study of benthos of lakes and reservoirs in Spain is provided, with a list of the species found to date. Spanish natural lakes are smaller than European lakes; the largest is Lake Sanabria, of glacial origin, which is 3 Km long and half a kilorneter wide. Many are very small and situated in the mountains; more than 200 hundred have been recorded in Spain, but only in Lake Sanabria and Lake Banyoles have the benthos been studied. Lake Sanabria is a cold oligot...

  19. Spanish yellow cake production by bioleaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eighty-seven percent of Spanish uranium production is obtained by bioleaching of the metamorphic shales of Salamanca. The deposit's paragenesis and mineralogy, with pitchblende and pyrite enrichening in the breccias and fissures are an optimum combination for direct attack of the pyrite by bacteria and the uranium's subsequent indirect leaching. The only acid which is introduced into the system is that used for conditioning the pregnant liquids before solvent extraction. Recycling (60-95%) of raffinates to leaching contributes sufficient acidity to have an optimum pH (2 - 2.6) for developing microorganisms. (author). 14 refs, 6 figs

  20. The development of the Spanish verb ir into auxiliary of voice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther, Thora

    2005-01-01

    spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development......spanish, syntax, grammaticalisation, past participle, passive voice, middle voice, language development...

  1. Annual and seasonal analysis of temperature and precipitation in Andorra (Pyrenees) from 1934 to 2008: quality check, homogenization and trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban, Pere; Prohom, Marc; Aguilar, Enric; Mestre, Olivier

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of temperature and precipitation change and variability in high elevations is a difficult issue due to the lack of long term climatic series in those environments. Nonetheless, it is important to evaluate how much high elevations follow the same climate evolution than low lying sites. In this work, using daily data from three Andorran weather stations (maintained by the power company Forces Elèctriques d'Andorra, FEDA), climate trends of annual and seasonal temperature and precipitation were obtained for the period 1934-2008. The series are complete (99.9%) and are located in a mountainous area ranging from 1110 m to 1600 m asl. As a previous step to the analysis, data rescue, quality control and homogeneity tests were applied to the daily data. For quality control, several procedures were applied to identify and flag suspicious or erroneous data: duplicated days, outliers, excessive differences between consecutive days, flat line checking, days with maximum temperature lower that minimum temperature, and rounding analysis. All the station sites were visited to gather the available metadata. Concerning homogeneity, a homogeneous climate time series is defined as one where variations are caused only by variations in climate and not to non-climatic factors (i.e., changes in site location, instruments, station environment…). As a result, homogeneity of the series was inspected from several methodologies that have been used in a complementary and independent way in order to attain solid results: C3-SNHT (with software developed under the Spanish Government Grant CGL2007-65546-C03-02), and Caussinus-Mestre (C-M) approaches. In both cases, tests were applied to mean annual temperature and precipitation series, using Catalan and French series as references (provided respectively by the Meteorological Service of Catalonia and Météo-France, in the framework of the Action COST-ES0601: Advances in homogenisation methods of climate series: an integrated

  2. Impact of obesity-related genes in Spanish population

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective was to investigate the association between BMI and single nucleotide polymorphisms previously identified of obesity-related genes in two Spanish populations. Forty SNPs in 23 obesity-related genes were evaluated in a rural population characterized by a high prevalence of obesity (869 subjects, mean age 46 yr, 62% women, 36% obese) and in an urban population (1425 subjects, mean age 54 yr, 50% women, 19% obese). Genotyping was assessed by using SNPlex and PLINK for the association analysis. Results Polymorphisms of the FTO were significantly associated with BMI, in the rural population (beta 0.87, p-value <0.001). None of the other SNPs showed significant association after Bonferroni correction in the two populations or in the pooled analysis. A weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed using the risk alleles of the Tag-SNPs with a positive Beta parameter in both populations. From the first to the fifth quintile of the score, the BMI increased 0.45 kg/m2 in Hortega and 2.0 kg/m2 in Pizarra. Overall, the obesity predictive value was low (less than 1%). Conclusion The risk associated with polymorphisms is low and the overall effect on BMI or obesity prediction is minimal. A weighted genetic risk score based on genes mainly acting through central nervous system mechanisms was associated with BMI but it yields minimal clinical prediction for the obesity risk in the general population. PMID:24267414

  3. The Spanish regulation of the photovoltaic demand-side generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is usually expected that demand-side generation gains momentum in places where retail grid parity is being reached. This is, for example, the case of photovoltaic generation in Spain. However, many different support schemes can be implemented. In Spain, the PV promotion policy gave priority to the ground-mounted installations. For years, the coupling of customer-side generation with excess energy exports was never specifically considered. Nonetheless, some months ago this option was suggested as a way to recover Spain's PV sector from the current moratorium on the RES-E policy. A first decree draft on on-site generation was issued, its central point being the consideration of electricity exports as delayed consumption rights. But several barriers hindered its entry into force. Finally, a second decree draft was issued in July 2013, which is expected to enter into force soon. This second draft impedes the economic viability of demand-side generation, thus complicating the recovery of the Spanish PV sector

  4. Age of Acquisition and Allophony in Spanish-English Bilinguals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica A Barlow

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examines age of acquisition (AoA in Spanish-English bilinguals’ phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context (based on the second formant [F2] and the difference between F2 and the first formant [F1], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English Monolinguals. Participants’ /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late Bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker’s two languages.

  5. Phonological Acquisition in Bilingual Spanish-English Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabiano-Smith, Leah; Goldstein, Brian A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: In this study, the authors aimed to determine how between-language interaction contributes to phonological acquisition in bilingual Spanish-English speaking children. Method: A total of 24 typically developing children, ages 3;0 (years;months) to 4;0, were included in this study: 8 bilingual Spanish-English speaking children, 8…

  6. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals' phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants' /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker's two languages.

  7. Dictation as a Measure of Spanish Language Proficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Charles

    Recent research by Valette, Oller, and others has shown the utility of dictation as a measure of general language competence when correlated with achievement and proficiency batteries for French and English as a second language. No such studies have been conducted with Spanish. The investigator hypothesized that since Spanish is a phonetic…

  8. Spanish Language Versions of the Depression Adjective Check Lists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Bernard; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The study aimed to develop an instrument that could be used for mental health research with Spanish-speaking populations. The Depression Adjective Check Lists (DACL) used to measure depressive mood was translated into Spanish and administered to 70 Hispanic subjects. Reliability determinations were high and close to those for the English version.…

  9. Extraction Methods of Spanish Broom (Spartium Junceum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drago Katović

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different extraction methods of the Spanish Broom shoots were measured and compared with the purpose of obtaining composite material. The content of cellulose, lignin, pentosan and ash in the Spanish Broom fibers was determined. SEM analyses were performed.

  10. The Nature of Spanish versus English Language Use at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branum-Martin, Lee; Mehta, Paras D.; Carlson, Coleen D.; Francis, David J.; Goldenberg, Claude

    2014-01-01

    Home language experiences are important for children's development of language and literacy. However, the home language context is complex, especially for Spanish-speaking children in the United States. A child's use of Spanish or English likely ranges along a continuum, influenced by preferences of particular people involved, such as parents,…

  11. Deaf Lives: Nineteenth-Century Spanish Deaf Girls and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plann, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This article is about the lives of nineteenth-century Spanish deaf girls and women. The research presented is contained in a larger work, a book titled "Portraits from the Spanish National Deaf-Mute School," to be published by Gallaudet University Press. These "portraits" are in fact biographical essays on nineteenth-century deaf people and their…

  12. From "Pinocho" to "Papa Noel": Recent Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2002-01-01

    Provides a list of recently published books in Spanish for children and adolescents. A tentative grade level is indicated for each book, but it is suggested that the individual child's Spanish-reading ability, interest, taste, and purpose should be the main criteria for determining the true level of each book. (Author/VWL)

  13. Tracing Mexican Spanish /s/: A Cross-Section of History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipski, John M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines linguistic data from peripheral areas of Mexico and suggests that the contemporary resistance of the final /s/ in Spanish is characteristic only of urban regions. The study also hypothesizes that Spanish final /s/ was once more generally weakened throughout Mexico. An indirect Nahuatl contribution is also postulated. (62 references)…

  14. Descubriendo La Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Kathy; Andrade, Anna

    1992-01-01

    Research suggests that use of a child's native language in initial literacy instruction is beneficial. The Descubriendo la Lectura (DLL) Spanish-language application of the English Reading Recovery Program is described as implemented for one Spanish-speaking first grade boy. The DLL program capitalizes on strengths children demonstrate in reading.…

  15. Foreign Language Experience in the Elementary School: Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne Arundel County Public Schools, Annapolis, MD.

    Guidelines for teaching Spanish in the elementary school are presented. The program is designed to develop the skills of careful listening and accurate pronunciation and to provide pleasurable learning experiences through dialogues, songs, and games. Spanish is contrasted with English to relate the language experience to other aspects of the…

  16. Encountering Difference: Images of Otherness in Contemporary Spanish Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrea Meador; Campbell, Sarah Cox

    2015-01-01

    Addressing the underrepresentation of films by female directors in Spanish language and culture classes, this work proposes the inclusion of two films, Chus Gutiérrez's "Retorno a Hansala" (2008) and Icíar Bollaín's "También la lluvia" (2010), in the curriculum of advanced or upper-level Spanish courses. Both films expand…

  17. Spanish Validation of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Mendez, Xavier; Spence, Susan H.; Huedo-Medina, Tania B.; Espada, Jose P.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the factorial structure and psychometric properties of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale (SCAS) in a sample of 1,708 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years. The SCAS was demonstrated to have satisfactory internal consistency with the Spanish sample, and factor analysis confirmed the six-factor…

  18. El Espanol como Idioma Universal (Spanish as a Universal Language)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mijares, Jose

    1977-01-01

    A proposal to transform Spanish into a universal language because it possesses the prerequisites: it is a living language, spoken in several countries; it is a natural language; and it uses the ordinary alphabet. Details on simplification and standardization are given. (Text is in Spanish.) (AMH)

  19. Fundamental Laws of the State: The Spanish Constitution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ministerio de Informacion y Turismo, Madrid (Spain).

    This political document is introduced by the head of the Spanish State, His Excellency Don Francisco Franco Bahamonde in a speech given on 22 November 1966 to the session of the Spanish Cores. The speech outlines in general terms the political and philosophical ideals of His Excellency. The Constitution is presented in several sections including:…

  20. Relations between School Performance and Depressive Symptoms in Spanish Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orgiles, Mireia; Gomez, Marta; Piqueras, Jose A.; Espada, Jose P.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Despite data showing the relationship between depression and decreased school performance, there is a lack of studies with Spanish children. The objective of this research is to examine school performance as a function of depression and gender. Method: Participants were 658 Spanish children aged between 8 and 12 years, 49.6% male,…

  1. Spanish/English Speech Practices: Bringing Chaos to Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toribio, Almeida Jacqueline

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a linguistic analysis of Spanish-English bilingual speech for scholars and practitioners of bilingualism. More specifically, the study surveys several outcomes of language contact, among these, inter-lingual transference, codeswitching, and convergence, as evidenced in the speech practices of heritage Spanish speakers in the…

  2. Age of acquisition and allophony in Spanish-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlow, Jessica A

    2014-01-01

    This study examines age of acquisition (AoA) in Spanish-English bilinguals' phonetic and phonological knowledge of /l/ in English and Spanish. In English, the lateral approximant /l/ varies in darkness by context [based on the second formant (F2) and the difference between F2 and the first formant (F1)], but the Spanish /l/ does not. Further, English /l/ is overall darker than Spanish /l/. Thirty-eight college-aged adults participated: 11 Early Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English before the age of 5 years, 14 Late Spanish-English bilinguals who learned English after the age of 6 years, and 13 English monolinguals. Participants' /l/ productions were acoustically analyzed by language and context. The results revealed a Spanish-to-English phonetic influence on /l/ productions for both Early and Late bilinguals, as well as an English-to-Spanish phonological influence on the patterning of /l/ for the Late Bilinguals. These findings are discussed in terms of the Speech Learning Model and the effect of AoA on the interaction between a bilingual speaker's two languages. PMID:24795664

  3. Chicano Spanish: Cross Hispanic Language Attitudes toward Specific Lexical Items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giron, Robert LeRoy

    A study was undertaken to gather attitudes of Spanish-speakers toward specific types of Chicano Spanish dialect lexical items. Reactions were randomly taken from 11 Latin American students who attended Southern Illinois University at Carbondale during the 1975 spring semester; 20 Mexican residents of Ciudad Juarez, Mexico, who attended English as…

  4. U.S. Spanish and Education: Global and Local Intersections

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Ofelia

    2014-01-01

    The author of this chapter argues that the failure of Spanish language education policies in the United States to educate both Latinos and non-Latinos has to do with the clash between three positions--(a) the English language, characterized by U.S. educational authorities as the unique and powerful lingua franca; (b) the Spanish language, as…

  5. Vocabulary and Sentence Structure in Emergent Spanish Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briceño, Allison

    2016-01-01

    Dual language and bilingual education programs are increasing in number and popularity across the country. However, little information is available on how to teach children to read and write in Spanish. This article explores some of the similarities and differences in vocabulary and sentence structure in Spanish and English and considers the…

  6. Third Dialogue Between Chinese and Spanish Mayors Held in Taiyuan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ni; Yuan

    2014-01-01

    <正>The Third Dialogue between Chinese and Spanish Mayors sponsored by the CPAFFC,the Federation of Spanish Municipalities and Provinces(Federacion Espanola de Municipios y Provincias-FEMP)and the Shanxi Provincial People’s Government and hosted by the Foreign and Overseas Chinese Affairs Office of the Shanxi Provincial Government was held in Taiyuan on September 16,2013.

  7. Article Use in Spanish-Speaking Children with SLI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, Maria Adelaida; Gutierrez-Clellen, Vera F.

    2001-01-01

    Analyzed article use in Spanish-speaking children with specific language impairment who are learning English as a Second Language. The surface hypothesis account of specific language impairment was evaluated in relation to the use of articles in these children. Language samples were obtained from 15 Spanish-speaking children with language…

  8. El Diccionario Del Espanol Chicano (The Dictionary of Chicano Spanish).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galvan, Roberto A.; Teschner, Richard V.

    This is a supplementary dictionary of the Spanish spoken by Chicanos in the states of Texas, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, and Florida. The nearly 8,000 entries represent a compilation of Chicano words and phrases not typically found in standard dictionaries. Items are listed alphabetically in Spanish, followed by an English…

  9. Overview of Spanish and Latin American Distance Higher Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Garrido, Jose Luis

    1991-01-01

    Provides a brief overview of Spanish and Latin American distance education programs for higher education and describes the three most important institutions: (1) the Spanish UNED (Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia); (2) the Costa Rican UNED (Universidad Estatal a Distancia); and (3) the Venezuelan UNA (Universidad Nacional Abierta).…

  10. Developing a course to teach Spanish for health care professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Melanie; Timmerman, Gayle M; Sands, Dolores

    2006-07-01

    To make the baccalaureate nursing curriculum more responsive to changing U.S. demographics, the School of Nursing at The University of Texas at Austin instituted a required course, titled Spanish for Health Care Professionals. This course, developed in collaboration with the University's Department of Spanish and Portuguese, focuses on conversational Spanish using the communicative language teaching approach, rather than grammar and medical terminology instruction. Class activities, along with course materials, are linked to nursing practice. Course assignments are designed to develop authentic communication in reading, writing, listening, speaking, and understanding culture, and students demonstrated oral and written linguistic gains in relation to their Spanish fluency and accuracy. Because the Hispanic population is now the largest minority group in the United States, this course will help nurses communicate with Spanish-speaking patients.

  11. Nuclear power plants seismic instrumentation: Spanish practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seismic Instrumentation system of Spanish plants are required to reach the following main goals: first at all to determine the OBE exceedance, and second to obtain site specific data in order to capture or reduce both uncertainties from the site and the structural design (e.g. near field attenuation and site effects models, or structural ageing effects and design models), and to Improve the safety re-evaluation analysis. From licensing, the main Spanish NPP's (5 sites) were equipped with the best analogical Instrumentation at that time, adequate to record strong earthquakes, but with limited resolution to register on free field low accelerations with reasonably confidence. In a general way, seismic PRA results addressed new and higher perception on the earthquake occurrence probability in Spain, and a cost/benefit program to Improve seismic Instrumentation of all plants was planned. Implementing this action requires to get new digital free field Instrumentation, and to develop procedures to quickly decide an OBE exceedance, like it is recommended in USNRC regulatory guides 1.12, rev. 2, and 1.166. Plant owners endorsed these guides and proposed a full change of their seismic monitoring system Instrumentation, what includes a review of the plant Technical Specifications. Some instrumental improvements like universal time reference or higher resolution than 12 bits are recommended. (authors)

  12. Stewardship of the Spanish national health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankauskaite, Vaida; Novinskey, Christina M

    2010-01-01

    Along with resource generation, financing, and health service delivery, stewardship is a key health system function. However, very little empirical analysis has been carried out on it. This paper aims to fill this gap in the literature by assessing the Ministry of Health's (MoHs) role as a steward of the Spanish National Health System (NHS) after the 2001 decentralization reform of health care management to the Autonomous Communities. We use the following stewardship framework with six sub-functions for the analysis, looking at the MoH's ability to: (1) formulate strategic policy framework; 2) ensure a fit between policy objectives and organizational structure and culture; (3) ensure tools for implementation; (4) build coalitions and partnerships; (5) generate intelligence, and (6) ensure accountability. We describe the stewardship function, identify existing challenges and issues in the Spanish case, and reflect upon methodological aspects of this exercise. We use reports, documents, articles, and official statistics to complete the analysis. Overall, we find the MoH to give an average performance in its role as the steward of the health system. The MoH has progressed particularly well in generating intelligence as well as formulating a strategic policy framework over recent years. However, it lacks the appropriate authority to efficiently coordinate the health system and to ensure that the Autonomous Communities implement policies that are in-line with overall NHS objectives.

  13. Light Pollution REECL Spanish SQM Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamorano, Jaime; Sánchez de Miguel, Alejandro; Nievas, Miguel; Tapia, Carlos; Ocaña, Francisco; Izquierdo, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús; Pascual, Sergio; Colomer, Francisco; Bará, Salvador; Ribas, Salvador; Morales, Ángel; Marco, Enric; Muñoz-Tuñón, Casiana; Solano, Enrique; Alacid, José Manuel; Naves, Ramón; lluis Salto, Josep; García, Faustino; Luque, Sergi; Quejigo, Rubén; Ribas, Julio

    2015-08-01

    There are some networks of SQM photometers that provide measures of the night sky brightness every night. The analysis of the data provided by the photometers allows the researchers to monitor the nightly, monthly and yearly evolution of the NSB and the relationship with light sources of pollution in intensity and distance. The photometers that are measuring in protected areas will alarm the researchers about eventual increasing of light pollution that could affect the environment.Using models of light dispersion on the atmosphere one can determine which light pollution sources are increasing the sky brightness at different places and in which extension. Networks of fixed photometers acquiring data every night are one of the main inputs to test these models. The collaborative effort of many people provides the necessary data to derive scientific results.We present the SQM network of the Spanish Light Pollution Research collaboration (http://guaix.fis.ucm.es/splpr/SQM-REECL) that is growing with the help of amateur astronomers and interested citizens. Data are being archived in the Spanish Virtual Observatory (SVO) using the IAU and IDA community standard data format for light pollution measurements.

  14. The Spanish Inquisition and the Muslims

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşe Kılıç

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The year 1492 was a turning point in the history of Iberian peninsula. Ferdinand and Isabella, namely the Catholic Monarchs had led the reconquista to a successful end and thus laid the foundation for the emergence of a powerful state. The unification of the Kingdoms of Castile and Aragon had been reached with the marriage of Ferdinand and Isabella. The military and political struggle for the unity of Spain was completed by the end of the reconquista. They now wanted to reach out to the religious unity. Expulsion of the Jews, namely the problem of the conversos or judeoconversos had been solved. Isabella and Ferdinand hoped that, the Muslims voluntarily adopt the Christian faith and would adjust to their Christian environment. But the conversion campaigns and missionary efforts are run only half-heartedly and therefore remained largely unsuccessful. The Muslims of Andalusia took refuge in the crypto-Islam, that is, they tried in hidden continue to pursue the Islamic religion and outwardly feign assimilation. Task of the Spanish Inquisition was about to verify actual faith of the crypto-Muslims and bring them to justice. The Spanish Inquisition had proceeded very differently on the regional level against the Moriscos. The everyday life of the Moriscos as Christians, with compulsive baptisms and discriminating regulations, was very hard to endure. The purpose of this article is to focus on the unfair practices that the Muslims are faced with and the methods they used to get rid of them.

  15. The Webquests in the spanish university area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Victoria Martín

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the WebQuest's (WQ use, dissemination and perception experienced by Spanish universities -a methodology for which the interest has been renewed since the establishment of the European Higher Education Area (EHEA and its competency-based teaching system.The article summarizes the theoretical aspects and the key findings about the impact of the WQ implementation in different areas of knowledge in higher education. The study considers data collected within an international research as well as in the Spanish context.The theoretical review is complemented with a summary of the results from two surveys. The first one examines the role of university organisms with competences in university teacher training in the methodological integration of ICT in its practice and, particularly, in the dissemination of WQ. The second survey reflects the opinion of an expert group in order to know, among other things, their views on the advantages and disadvantages of the method, its acceptance by the students and the appropriateness of its use in connection with the implementation of the EHEA

  16. Cuentos de ayer y de hoy (Stories of Yesterday and Today), Spanish-S: 7509.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez, Maria

    This course is designed to help students improve their oral and written expression as well as their ability to summarize. Stories by Spanish and Spanish American writers are used. Students also have the opportunity to reinforce skills in recognizing the importance of writing as an efficient means of communication, and experience is provided in…

  17. The Spanish Language Book Challenge: How Librarians and Distributors Can Work Together To Better Serve Spanish-Language Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, Karin

    2001-01-01

    Discusses challenges facing libraries trying to order Spanish language materials. Highlights include distribution issues, including small stocks, paying in advance, size of print runs, and varying prices; the Guadalajara International Book Fair; online ordering; communication; and a list of Spanish language book distributors that specialize in…

  18. Spanish-English or English-Spanish in California: The Dialectics of Language in a Sociocultural Historical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Sara Soledad

    2008-01-01

    This is an analysis of California history of the shifting of language policies from Spanish to English, as an Official Language The focus is English as an imposed language that from the beginning of schooling policies stifle a process of language acquisition for the majority of Spanish speakers. In 1849 the California Constitution stipulated that…

  19. Aftershocks series monitoring of the September 18, 2004 M = 4.6 earthquake at the western Pyrenees: A case of reservoir-triggered seismicity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, M.; Gaspà, O.; Gallart, J.; Díaz, J.; Pulgar, J. A.; García-Sansegundo, J.; López-Fernández, C.; González-Cortina, J. M.

    2006-10-01

    On September 18, 2004, a 4.6 mbLg earthquake was widely felt in the region around Pamplona, at the western Pyrenees. Preliminary locations reported an epicenter less than 20 km ESE of Pamplona and close to the Itoiz reservoir, which started impounding in January 2004. The area apparently lacks of significant seismic activity in recent times. After the main shock, which was preceded by series of foreshocks reaching magnitudes of 3.3 mbLg, a dense temporal network of 13 seismic stations was deployed there to monitor the aftershocks series and to constrain the hypocentral pattern. Aftershock determinations obtained with a double-difference algorithm define a narrow epicentral zone of less than 10 km 2, ESE-WNW oriented. The events are mainly concentrated between 3 and 9 km depth. Focal solutions were computed for the main event and 12 aftershocks including the highest secondary one of 3.8 mbLg. They show mainly normal faulting with some strike-slip component and one of the nodal planes oriented NW-SE and dipping to the NE. Cross-correlation techniques applied to detect and associate events with similar waveforms, provided up to 33 families relating the 67% of the 326 relocated aftershocks. Families show event clusters grouped by periods and migrating from NW to SE. Interestingly, the narrow epicentral zone inferred here is located less than 4 km away from the 111-m high Itoiz dam. These hypocentral results, and the correlation observed between fluctuations of the reservoir water level and the seismic activity, favour the explanation of this foreshock-aftershock series as a rapid response case of reservoir-triggered seismicity, burst by the first impoundment of the Itoiz reservoir. The region is folded and affected by shallow dipping thrusts, and the Itoiz reservoir is located on the hangingwall of a low angle southward verging thrust, which might be a case sensible to water level fluctuations. However, continued seismic monitoring in the coming years is mandatory in

  20. Stable isotope constraints on the origin and depth of penetration of hydrothermal fluids associated with Hercynian regional metamorphism and crustal anatexis in the Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickham, Stephen M.; Taylor, Hugh P.

    1987-03-01

    Late Carboniferous (Hercynian) tectonism in the Pyrenees generated extremely steep thermal gradients at 8 14 km depth in the continental crust, producing andalusite- and sillimanite-grade metamorphism and partial melting of Lower Paleozoic metasediments under water-rich conditions. At the same time, amphibolite- and granulitefacies “basal gneisses” were equilibrated under dryer conditions at pressures of 4 to 7 kbar (14 25 km depth), beneath these higher-level rocks. We present 95 new oxygen isotopic analyses of samples from the Agly, St. Barthelemy, Castillon and Trois Seigneurs Massifs, highlighting contrasting 18O/16O systematics at different structural levels in the Hercynian crust, here termed Zones 1, 2, and 3. The unmetamorphosed, fossiliferous, Paleozoic shales and carbonates of Zone 1 have typical sedimentary δ 18O values, mostly in the range +14 to +16 for the pelitic rocks and +20 to +25 for the carbonates. The metamorphosed equivalents of these rocks in Zone 2 all have strikingly uniform and much lower δ 18O values; the metapelites mostly have δ 18O=+10 to +12, and interlayered metacarbonates from the Trois Seigneurs Massif have δ 18O of about +12 to +14. Typically, the Zone 3 “basal gneisses” are isotopically heterogeneous with variable δ 18O values ranging from +6 in mafic lithologies to +22 in carbonate-rich lithologies. Steep gradients in δ 18O (as much as 10 per mil over a few cm) are preserved at the margins of some metacarbonate layers. These data indicate that the Zone 3 gneisses were infiltrated by much smaller volumes of metamorphic pore fluids than were the overlying Zone 2 rocks, and that circulation of surface-derived H2O (either seawater or formation waters, as evidenced by high δD values) was mainly confined to the Paleozoic supracrustal sedimentary pile. This is compatible with an overall reduction of interconnected porosity with increasing depth, but perhaps even more important, the extensive partial melting at the base

  1. Geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin, Western Pyrenees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankovic, Allen; Eguiluz, Luis; Martínez-Torres, Luis M.

    2016-02-01

    The Salinas de Añana diapir is located in the Basque-Cantabrian basin part of the great evaporite basin, along with the Gulf of Mexico and the Central European basin, when the fragmentation of Pangea started. The evolution of these basins can only be achieved by understanding the control of salt in the sedimentary and tectonic evolution of these basins. Sedimentation began with clastic Buntsandstein sediments and minor Muschelkalk limestones. Subsequent Keuper evaporites are the bottom of sedimentary cover constituted by Jurassic limestones and marls, a clastic Lower Cretaceous and an alternant limestone and marl Upper Cretaceous, whose deposition has been conditioned by salt tectonics. The emplacement of salt extends from the Aptian until now, favored by the duplication of the salt thickness associated with the thrust of Sierra Cantabria, so it is an excellent example to study changes in the regime of intrusion along the time. The geodynamic evolution of the Salinas de Añana diapir was determined through the interpretation of 45 reprocessed seismic lines, along with information from three wells. Migration of the salt in this diapir, conditioned by N120E and N30E pre-Alpine basement lineations, was determined using time isopach maps of the various rock layers. Vertical evolution of the diapir was determined through the reconstruction of a north-south section at various geologic times by flattening the respective seismic horizons. A minimum of salt flow into the diapir coincides with a minimum rate of sedimentation during the Turonian. Similarly, maximum flows of salt into the diapir occurred during the Coniacian and Lower Santonian and again from the end of the Lower Miocene to the present, coinciding with maximum rates of sedimentation during these times. In the Tertiary, probably during the Oligocene, the diapir was displaced to the south by the Sierra Cantabria thrust, maintaining the contact between the evaporites of diapir and the same evaporites of the

  2. Spanish Darwinian iconography: Darwin and evolutionism portrayed in Spanish press cartoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Martí; Mateu, Anna

    2013-11-01

    The theory of evolution has played a major role in the press since it was put forward by Charles Darwin in 1859. Its key role in biology and human philosophy is reflected by its presence in press cartoons, sections where the image of social reality is depicted in a more direct and satirical light. Through cartoons, artists have used their ingenuity or wit to portray one of the most controversial scientific figures of the past two centuries. This study examines the views portrayed by Spanish cartoonists about Charles Darwin and evolutionary theory in 2009, the bicentenary of the naturalist's birth and the celebration of 150 years since the publication of On the Origin of Species. These cartoons show how the controversy between Darwinism and religion remain latent in the heart of Spanish society, and how the figure of Darwin has become one of the main icons of science.

  3. Posthumous Tales of One, Great, Free Nation: Spanishness in post-Franco Spanish Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Expósito, Alfredo

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An important form of transmission of knowledge about the Spanish nation is based on the continuous telling of stories in which the nation features as a suprahistorical, perennial entity. Myths of national origin, golden-age legends, and epics of national heroes are some of these stories. This mode of access to knowledge assumes a suspension of disbelief for the audience, and precludes other attempts to comprehend the nation through scientific research. Subjective national identities constructed upon such suspension of disbelief have a tendency to reify, personify or even deify the nation. In the struggle between mythic and objective knowledge, the question of authenticity becomes a hotly contested arena. This paper attempts to address questions of mythical national representation in Spanish films of 1975-2000.

  4. Spanish Atlanteans’: Crisis of Empire and reconstruction of Spanish Monarchy (1672-1740

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández Albaladejo, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a internal crisis, the Spanish Monarchy underwent a process of redefinition between the end of the seventeenth century and the decade of the 1740s. By synthesizing traditional Spanish historiography with the insights of an incipient brand of European modernity, Spanish authors crafted a peculiar account of the “unknown past” of their body politic. The Spanish atlántidas rose to become creators of a great empire and protagonists in the founding of European culture. A new national imaginary emerged that legitimized the task of redefinition. With variations, this concern with origins dominated Spain’s introspection in the eighteenth century.Afectada por una profunda crisis interna, la Monarquía de España experimentó un proceso de redefinición identitaria entre el último tercio del siglo XVII y los años cuarenta del siglo XVIII. En una particular síntesis entre la tradición historiográfica propia y las propuestas que llegaban desde la incipiente modernidad europea, los autores de ese proceso configuraron un primer relato del “tiempo desconocido” de ese cuerpo político. Los atlántidas españoles irrumpieron como protagonistas de un renovado imaginario nacional, como un pueblo instituyente de la cultura europea y creador a la vez de un imperio grandioso que legitimaba la propia tarea de reconstrucción. Con variantes, esa preocupación por los orígenes dominaría la reflexión del siglo XVIII.

  5. The Political Role of Spanish Press in Spanish Transition to Democracy, 1975-1978

    OpenAIRE

    Montero, M.; Rodríguez-Virgili, J. (Jordi); García-Ortega, C. (Carmela)

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the behavior and attitude of the Spanish press at the beginning of the transition towards democracy (November 1975 – December 1978), during the most significant political and institutional change. The role of the main newspapers is assessed from different perspectives, together with the reasons for their consensus on the basic issues that were in the public eye. Through examples from several papers, taken one by one and as a whole, we will explain the exceptional charact...

  6. Hydrotreating of distillates from Spanish coal liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benito, A.M.; Martinez, M.T.; Cebolla, V.; Fernandez, I.; Miranda, J.L. (Inst. de Carboquimica, CSIC, Zaragoza (Spain))

    1993-02-01

    Distillates obtained from a first-stage Spanish coal liquefaction process have been catalytically hydrotreated in microreactor in two steps. A commercially available Harshaw HT-400 E (Co-Mo/Al[sub 2]O[sub 3]) catalyst, 10 MPa hydrogen pressure and two temperatures (400 and 425deg C) have been used. The results have been evaluated for heteroatoms removal, oils yield, boiling point distribution and aromaticity by several techniques (GC, FT-i.r., [sup 1]H n.m.r., ultrasonic extraction and liquid chromatography). At the first step of hydrotreating, preasphaltenes rather than asphaltenes have been hydrocracked to produce smaller-size polar compounds in the oil fraction but aromaticity has not varied significatively. In the second step, heteroatoms content have been considerably reduced and the product meets refinery specifications for nitrogen but does not meet sulphur refinery specifications for feedstocks. (orig.).

  7. Internal Incommunication at the Spanish University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Manuel Palencia-Lefler Ors

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The management of Internal Communication is increasingly occupying a preferential place in organizations, in spite of the great contradiction that entails to accept that and to recognize it. At the same time it should be taken into account the lack of material and human resources available in the majority of the organizations. Spanish Universities have had successful experiences in this field, forced by the necessity of assisting the constant demands of more and more diverse and exigent students, and some professional associations that expect to participate in the future of the institution. Even so, the contradictions are distinctly evident at the University, where the Directorship and the internal publics have different levels of information and do not really want to change the situation. The different channels and formats of Internal Communication are not enough to balance the necessary bi-directional communication. Two-way communication is precisely what occupies the key issue of this paper.

  8. Health services accessibility among Spanish elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Mayoralas, G; Rodríguez, V; Rojo, F

    2000-01-01

    The paper aims to identify the variables that best explain the use of health services by people aged 65 and over in Spain. The data comes from the 1993 Spanish National Health Survey (ENSE 93). The conceptual framework is the model proposed by Andersen, who suggests that utilisation is a function of predisposition to use the services, the ability to use them and of need. A bivariate and multivariate analysis (SPSS-X Discriminant Procedure) is conducted to define the predictors that best discriminate users and non-users. The use of each health service is explained by a different set of variables. The need variables play a more important role in predicting the use of non-discretionary services that are more closely related to healing processes (medical consultations, emergencies and hospitalisation). The predisposing and enabling variables are more relevant in explaining the use of dental services, indicating a certain degree of inequity of these discretionary services. PMID:10622691

  9. Hydraulic performance of an ancient Spanish watermill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pujol, Toni; Sola, Jordi; Montoro, Lino; Pelegri, Marc [Area de Mecanica de Fluids, Departament d' Enginyeria Mecanica i de la Construccio Industrial, Universitat de Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2010-02-15

    Here we analyze the hydraulic performance of an ancient Spanish horizontal watermill. Previous studies of similar devices have focused on qualitative descriptions of their technical functioning, providing efficiency curves based on two-dimensional analytical approximations. In contrast, here we perform three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations that allow us to obtain quantitative values for both the hydraulic torque and the power. The results here found reveal how previous studies clearly overestimated the efficiency of these devices. Finally, we make use of the capabilities of CFDs by investigating the performance of a modified blade profile. The new design here proposed successfully increases the energy efficiency (up to 44%) in comparison with the classical one. (author)

  10. PRODUCT EFFICIENCY IN THE SPANISH AUTOMOBILE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates product efficiency in the Spanish automobile market. We use non parametric frontier techniques in order to estimate product efficiency scores for each model. These scores reflect the minimum price for which each car could be sold, given the bundle of tangible features it offers in comparison to the best-buy models. Unlike previous research, we use discounted prices which have been adjusted by car dealerships to meet sale targets. Therefore, we interpret the efficiency scores as indicators of the value of the intangible features of the brand. The results show that Audi, Volvo, Volkswagen and Mercedes offer the greatest intangible value, since they are heavily overpriced in terms of price/product ratios. Conversely, Seat, Kia, Renault and Dacia are the brands that can be taken as referent in terms of price/product ratios.

  11. Towards methodological improvement in the Spanish studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatriz Amante García

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The European Higher Education Area (EHEA has triggered many changes in the new degrees in Spanish universities, mainly in terms of methodology and assessment. However, in order to make such changes a success it is essential to have coordination within the teaching staff as well as active methodologies in use, which enhance and encourage students’ participation in all the activities carried out in the classroom. Most of all, when dealing with formative and summative evaluation, in which students become the ones responsible for their own learning process (López-Pastor, 2009; Torre, 2008. In this second issue of JOTSE we have included several teaching innovation experiences related to the above mentioned methodological and assessment changes.

  12. The Spanish Civil War in Catalan narrative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Campillo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The first part of this article presents the literary output on the subject of the Spanish Civil War written during the war and immediately after it, between 1936 and 1939. What stand out from this time are brief, non-fictional narrative forms which were often meant for the press, such as chronicles from both the battlefront (where Pere Calders excels and the home front. Among the fictional genres, short stories prevailed during the war, while the novel, a genre which requires the slow assimilation of experience, found its maximum expression in the post-war period in two canonical works by Joan Sales and Mercè Rodoreda, which shall be analysed in the second part of this article.

  13. Detection of adulterated commercial Spanish beeswax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehi, J; Orantes Bermejo, F J

    2012-05-01

    The physical and chemical parameters (melting point and saponification number), and the fraction of hydrocarbons, monoesters, acids and alcohols have been determined in 90 samples of Spanish commercial beeswax from Apis mellifera L. The adulteration with paraffins of different melting point, cow tallow, stearic acid, and carnauba wax were determined by HTGC-FID/MS detection, and the research was focussed mainly on paraffins and microcrystallines waxes. In general, the added adulterant can be identified by the presence of non-naturally beeswax components, and by the differences of values of selected components between pure and adulterated beeswax. The detection limits were determined using pure and adulterated beeswax with different amounts of added waxes (5%, 10%, 20% and 30%). Percentages higher than 1-5% of each adulterant can be detected in the mixtures. Paraffin waxes were confirmed in 33 of the 90 samples analysed at concentrations between 5% and 30%.

  14. Targeting Oral and Cultural Proficiency for Medical Personnel: An Examination of Current Medical Spanish Textbooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, Karol

    2012-01-01

    Demand for medical Spanish courses has grown with the rising needs of Spanish-speaking patients in the United States, but while there is no shortage of beginning medical Spanish textbooks, very few target the intermediate level. This article examines eighteen medical Spanish texts published in the last twenty years with respect to seven factors:…

  15. Cuentos Faciles. Habia una vez.... (Simple Stories. There was a Time....) (Presenting Simple Stories in Spanish.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arroyo, Nancy; And Others

    For Spanish-speaking children, simple stories in Spanish, told in a natural language suitable for their age, are not only entertaining, but a means of developing vocabulary and concepts. Non-Spanish-speaking children, too, need exposure to more language than they can understand word for word. However, the simple stories for the Spanish speaker…

  16. Asymmetrical Mixing Patterns of Spanish and English in a New Immigrant Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel J.

    2009-01-01

    Analysis of Spanish and English speech in a new immigrant community of Latinos in Georgia, USA, shows that Spanish and English pattern differently. There is a higher frequency of Spanish sentences containing English words than English sentences containing Spanish words. But the reverse is true of grammatical influence without mixing words. There…

  17. La Lengua Espanol en los Estados Unidos (The Spanish Language in the United States).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnach-Calbo, Ernesto

    This report on the use of the Spanish language in the United States discusses the Spanish-speaking population, the language itself, and bilingual education in the United States. The background about the Spanish-speaking population includes the following topics: (1) "A Nations of Immigrants," (2) "The Population of the Spanish-Speaking Minority,"…

  18. 38 CFR 3.712 - Improved pension elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... elections; surviving spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. 3.712 Section 3.712 Pensions, Bonuses, and... spouses of Spanish-American War veterans. (a) General. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War... and attendance. A surviving spouse of a Spanish-American War veteran who is receiving or entitled...

  19. Tracing the Spanish Language/Determinando el Origen del Idioma Espanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Anthony G.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses the history of the Spanish language in America and notes the influence of Caribbean languages, Nahuatl, and English on Spanish. Describes the archaisms in lexicon, phonology, and grammar of the Spanish of New Mexico and Colorado. Discusses Spanish language maintenance in Mexico, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and the United States. (SB)

  20. Multinational Validation of the Spanish Bracken Basic Concept Scale for Cross-Cultural Assessments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bracken, Bruce A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated construct validity of the Spanish translation of the Bracken Basic Concept Scale (BBCS) in Latino children (n=293) including monolingual Spanish-speaking children from Puerto Rico and Venezuela and Spanish-dominant bilingual Latino children from Texas. Results provided support for construct validity of the Spanish version of the…

  1. Orthogonal Higher Order Structure of the WISC-IV Spanish Using Hierarchical Exploratory Factor Analytic Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Ryan J.; Canivez, Gary L.

    2016-01-01

    As recommended by Carroll, the present study examined the factor structure of the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Fourth Edition Spanish (WISC-IV Spanish) normative sample using higher order exploratory factor analytic techniques not included in the WISC-IV Spanish Technical Manual. Results indicated that the WISC-IV Spanish subtests were…

  2. How Important Is Teaching Phonemic Awareness to Children Learning to Read in Spanish?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Claude; Tolar, Tammy D.; Reese, Leslie; Francis, David J.; Bazán, Antonio Ray; Mejía-Arauz, Rebeca

    2014-01-01

    This comparative study examines relationships between phonemic awareness and Spanish reading skill acquisition among three groups of Spanish-speaking first and second graders: children in Mexico receiving reading instruction in Spanish and children in the United States receiving reading instruction in either Spanish or English. Children were…

  3. Spelling impairments in Spanish dyslexic adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivia eAfonso

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Spelling deficits have repeatedly been observed in children with dyslexia. However, the few studies addressing this issue in dyslexic adults have reported contradictory results. We investigated whether Spanish dyslexics show spelling deficits in adulthood and which components of the writing production process might be impaired in developmental dyslexia. In order to evaluate the involvement of the lexical and the sublexical routes of spelling as well as the graphemic buffer, lexical frequency, phonology-to-orthography consistency and word length were manipulated in two writing tasks: a direct copy transcoding task and a spelling-to-dictation task. Results revealed that adults with dyslexia produced longer written latencies, inter-letter intervals, writing durations and more errors than their peers without dyslexia. Moreover, the dyslexics were more affected by lexical frequency and word length than the controls, but both groups showed a similar effect of P-O consistency. Written latencies also revealed that while the dyslexics initiated the response later in the direct copy transcoding task than in the spelling-to-dictation task, the controls showed the opposite pattern. However, the dyslexics were slower than the controls in both tasks. Results were consistent with the hypothesis that spelling difficulties are present in adults with dyslexia, at least in a language with a transparent orthography such as Spanish. These difficulties seem to be associated with a deficit affecting both lexical processing and the ability to maintain information about the serial order of the letters in a word. However, the dyslexic group did not differ from the control group in the application of the P-O conversion procedures. The spelling impairment would be in addition to the reading deficit, leading to poorer performance in direct copy transcoding compared to spelling-to-dictation.

  4. The Textual Significance of Spanish Polyglot Bibles

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    Spottorno, Mª Victoria

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the history of the Biblical text, the 16th century Spanish Polyglot Bibles are monumental productions that do not deserve to fall into oblivion. This article points out the historical and philological aspects that better reveal their significance in the world of the Renaissance and their unquestionable transcendence in Biblical philology. Cardinal Cisneros' tenacity and generosity first, and then Benito Arias Montano's knowledge made possible the edition of these two Spanish Polyglot Bibles, the Complutensian and the Royal. They constitute the point of departure of modern Biblical textual criticism, whose principles keep alive that initial spirit that leads to a wider acquaintance with the text.

    Dentro de la historia del texto bíblico, las Biblias Políglotas españolas del siglo XVI son obras monumentales que no merecen quedar en el olvido. En este artículo se ponen de relieve los aspectos históricos y filológicos que mejor transmiten su significación en el mundo renacentista y su trascendencia indudable para la filología bíblica. El tesón y la generosidad del Cardenal Cisneros primero y la sabiduría de Benito Arias Montano después hicieron posible que estas dos Biblias Políglotas españolas, Complutense y Regia, se llegaran a publicar. Constituyen el punto de partida de la moderna crítica textual bíblica, cuyos principios mantienen vivo aquel espíritu inicial que conduce a un mayor conocimiento del texto.

  5. ICT INEQUALITIES IN THE SPANISH URBAN SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Jose Armas QUINTA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the current Information Society cities enjoy a privileged position when it comes to transport and communication infrastructures. The post-industrial society has brought with it a notable change, changing from an economy based on the production of merchandise to another based on the production of services. The metropolitan areas act as key areas and markets for predominant sectors, such as finance and specialised services for business. In another way, big cities fulfil new roles in the global economy of the Information society, operating as command points in the world economy. They bring equipment together highly-qualified workers, they are big information and knowledge consumers and have been able to reinvent themselves, changing from industrial to cultural cities. They are, as well, ideal areas for big telecommunication companies and they are, for this reason, those who most benefit from information and communication technology. An important social area difference has then been introduced, with respect to other urban areas of lesser importance, or rather, with respect to rural areas that stay on the margin of the new technology revolution. In this context, it is right to ask what is happening in Spain. Why are ICT inequalities happening in Spain? Are there urban system differences before the arrival of the Information Society? Can it be said that Spanish urban areas are consolidated in the Information Society? In this article we try to outline the reality of the immersion the Information Society in the Spanish urban system, and, in the same way, bring to light a new idea of „Digital Divide‟, amongst those sectors of the population that make the most of all or a great part of the potential new technology offers and those that limit themselves to using the most basic functions, such as looking up information and using communication.

  6. Economic anglicisms: adaptation to the Spanish linguistic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma López Zurita

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available The enormous number of anglicisms used everyday in Spanish language generates lexical interference between both languages. This paper provides a semantic analysis of the changes in lexis this language contact brings about, through the different linguistic mechanisms of inter-language adaptation involved. When these anglicisms come from the current trend to include English words in Spanish discourse, we also add appropriate equivalents which could avoid the excess of redundant neologisms. A glossary of the most habitual terms derived from interference in English and Spanish in the economic field is included as a result of this study.

  7. Costs of EMU from a regional approach: the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez-Robles, Blanca; Villaverde, Jose

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we look at the impact of EMU on Spanish regional disparities in the framework of the Optimal Currency Areas theory and upon its distinction between benefits and costs of a monetary integration. In particular, here we want to deal with the main potential source of costs for the Spanish regions: the likelihood of asymmetric shocks in the economy. In this regard, we try to ascertain the degree of correlation among the business cycles of the Spanish regions, and also with respect to...

  8. Spanish stop-rhotic sequences in Spanish-Basque bilinguals and second language learners: An acoustic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissglass, Christine A.

    This dissertation investigates transfer and markedness in bilingual and L2 Spanish stop-rhotic sequences (e.g., the 'br' in brisa 'breeze'). It also examines the phonetics-phonology interface in Spanish. To this end, it explores the production of these sequences in two different experiments. Experiment 1 compares the production of these sequences by 6 Spanish monolinguals and 6 Spanish-Basque bilinguals. Experiment 2 does so for 25 L2 learners and 5 native Spanish speakers. Acoustic analysis of these sequences revealed that Spanish-Basque bilinguals produced trills 5% of the time whereas Spanish monolinguals did not have any trills. Additionally, fricative rhotics and coarticulation accounted for 35% of L2 realizations, but were not present in the native Spanish speaker dataset. These findings indicate a role for transfer in both bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, although it is more prevalent in the L2 learner dataset. This is in line with the Speech Learning Model (Flege, 1995), which posits a stronger role for transfer amongst late learners (i.e., L2 learners) than early learners (i.e., Spanish-Basque bilinguals). In order to examine the role of markedness in bilingual and L2 phonological acquisition, this dissertation investigates the role of sonority in bilingual and L2 Spanish syllable structure. To do so, it proposes a sonority hierarchy for rhotic variants based on their specifications for voicing, intensity and continuancy. According to this hierarchy, approximant rhotics are the most sonorous, followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Therefore, approximant rhotics were expected to be the most common realization followed by taps, trills and fricative rhotics. Although Spanish monolinguals adhered to this expectation, the other groups did not; taps were the most common realization for Spanish-Basque bilinguals, L2 learners, and native Spanish speakers and fricative rhotics were more common than trills for Spanish-Basque bilinguals and L2

  9. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  10. Intercomparison of spanish advanced lidars in the framework of EARLINET

    OpenAIRE

    Sicard, Michaël; Md. Reba, Mohd Nadzri; Rocadenbosch Burillo, Francisco; Gregorio López, Eduard; Kumar, Dhiraj; S. Tomás; Comerón Tejero, Adolfo; Molero, Francisco; M. Pujadas; Guerrero Rascado, Juan Luis; Alados, L.; Pedrós, R.; Martinez Lozano, José Antonio

    2007-01-01

    To extend and reinforce the action of the EARLINET- ASOS project, a nucleus of Spanish advanced lidars was created. Four systems were intercompared satisfactorily in terms of backscatter coefficients at two elastic wavelengths.

  11. Spanish Power Exchange Market Concepts and Operating Experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On January, 1st, 1998, the Spanish Electricity Market started operations. All generators, distributors, commercialization companies, and final consumers negotiate al power exchanges either through the spot market or using bilateral contracts. The Spanish Power Exchange Market Operator (Compania Operadora del Mercado Espanol de electricidad, OMEL) is responsible for the management of the market and for the economic settlement and billing of a transactions on the Power Exchange market, and the technical operational process handled by the System Operator. This paper describes in detail the Spanish market principles and the experience gathered through the design, installation and first two years of market operation. The paper presents also the Spanish market results from January 1998 up to December 1999 indicating each specific market results and aggregate statistics. (Author)

  12. Libros y mas libros: Recommended Children's Books in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated bibliography of recommended Spanish-language children's books. A total of 15 books are grouped in the following categories: (1) books for the very young; (2) fiction; (3) folklore; (4) literature; (5) poetry; and (6) history. (EV)

  13. Noteworthy Books in Spanish for Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1998-01-01

    Lists Spanish language books for children ranging from wordless picture books to adolescent love stories and translated popular novels. This year's list includes publishers from Latin America, in particular Mexico's Fondo de Cultura Economica. (MMU)

  14. Syntactic Constraints on the Expression of Possession in Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempchinsky, Paula

    1992-01-01

    In a discussion of possessives in Spanish, it is shown that three morphosyntactic constructs are systematically linked. The possessive dative construction, inalienable possession and nonrestrictive adjectives, and inalienable possession with subjects are examined. (25 references) (LB)

  15. Materiality Analysis for CSR Reporting in Spanish SMEs

    OpenAIRE

    Elena Escrig-Olmedo; Raul Leon-Soriano; Juana Maria Rivera-Lirio; Maria Angeles Fernandez-Izquierdo; Maria Jesus Muñoz-Torres,; Idoya Ferrero-Ferrero

    2013-01-01

    Most corporate social responsibility (CSR) standards have not been designed to be implemented in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Given that 99% of Spanish companies are SMEs, this study aims to propose a selection of basic CSR material issues that, because of their usefulness and significance, should be adapted to Spanish SMEs and their stakeholders. This study provides a CSR model for SMEs that includes the most important social, environmental, and corporate governance issues. Thi...

  16. Spanish Tourist Behaviour: A Specific Objective-base Segmantation

    OpenAIRE

    González, Pablo Rodríguez; Molina, Oscar

    2009-01-01

    This work uses data from the Spanish Tourism Demand Segments Survey (N=6900) conducted by the IESA-CSIC for Turismo Andaluz, SA. The objective of the paper is to develop a statistical segmentation or typology of Spanish tourists based on objective aspects of tourist behaviour measured in the survey including destinations visited, theme of the trip, lodging, transportation and travel group. Initial categorical data are reduced using multiple correspondence analysis and grouped through cluster ...

  17. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO)

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, R; Balaguer-Núñez, L; Jordi, C; Pancino, E; Allende-Prieto, C; Blanco-Cuaresma, S; Mártinez-Vázquez, C E; Murabito, S; del Pino, A; Aparicio, A; Gallart, C; Recio-Blanco, A

    2014-01-01

    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 open clusters older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disc using open clusters as tracers.

  18. Childcare cost and Spanish mother’s labour force participation

    OpenAIRE

    Cristina Borra

    2010-01-01

    In Spain, female labour force participation is among the lowest in Europe. This paper analyzes the extent to which female labour force participation is affected by the cost of formal childcare. Both decisions, labour force participation and formal childcare use, are jointly considered by means of a bi-variate probit model that accounts for the sample selection. Based on data from the Spanish Time Use Survey, the study indicates that Spanish mothers’ labour force participation is very elastic ...

  19. Characteristics of Spanish adolescents’ and youngsters’ civic activity: e- citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Antonio Fuentes Esparrell

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study we aim to illustrate and provide data on the access, use, equipment, habits and motivations of Spanish adolescents and young people towards ICT (computers, networks, internet, mobile phones.... We will focus mainly on social networks and mobile telephony as the main technologies currently in use. Thus, we can gain an insight into the main features of civic activity among Spanish adolescents and youngsters for proper e‐citizenship.

  20. False anglicisms in the Spanish language of fashion and beauty

    OpenAIRE

    Balteiro Fernández, Isabel; Campos Pardillos, Miguel Ángel

    2012-01-01

    Many works have already dealt with anglicisms in Spanish, especially in science and information technologies. However, despite the high and growing number of English terms incorporated daily by the language of fashion, it has received comparative less attention in lexicographic and terminological studies than that of other areas, such as science or business. For several reasons, which include prestige or peer pressure, Spanish has not only adopted English words with new meanings and usage, bu...

  1. The Prototypical Avengers in The Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen Isho, Paul

    2015-01-01

    During the height of the English Renaissance, the revenge tragedies The Spanish Tragedy and Hamlet were introduced to the English literary canon. In this essay, I will focus on the similarities that the protagonists, Hamlet and Hieronimo, share as prototypical avengers. Although Hamlet’s contribution to the genre should not be discredited, I will argue that the similar characterisation of Hieronimo in The Spanish Tragedy, portrays the same depth and entitlement to the acclaim as a prototypica...

  2. Spanish Government delegation in the ISR workshop clean room

    CERN Multimedia

    1982-01-01

    A Spanish Government delegation visited CERN before Spain rejoined CERN as a Member State(in 1983). Some delegates were particularly interested in advanced technologies. The picture shows them in the ISR workshop clean room looking at components of vacuum chambers for experiments. From left to right: a delegate, Director-General Herwig Schopper demonstrating the lightness of a titanium chamber, another delegate, the Spanish Minister of Industry and Energy Mr.Ignacio Bayon Marine and Romeo Perin. See also 8202369.

  3. An analysis of loan default determinants: the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Climent Serrano, Salvador; Pavía Miralles, José Manuel

    2014-01-01

    The Spanish financial system is experiencing a very turbulent economic period in which loan defaults has lived an unprecedented increasing period, going from being less than 1% in 2004 to levels of above 13% in 2013. The impact of this, along with other circumstances, has led to the greatest financial restructuring ever made to date in Spain, with important macroeconomic and microeconomic consequences. This paper studies the determinants of delinquency (loan default) in Spanish credit institu...

  4. The curious case of competition in Spanish speech production

    OpenAIRE

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.

    2006-01-01

    In previous studies in English examining the influence of phonological neighbourhood density in spoken word production, words with many similar sounding words, or a dense neighbourhood, were produced more quickly and accurately than words with few similar sounding words, or a sparse neighbourhood. The influence of phonological neighbourhood density on the process of spoken word production in Spanish was examined with a picture-naming task. The results showed that pictures with Spanish names f...

  5. Co-operative Bank System: The Spanish Case

    OpenAIRE

    Navarro, Amparo Melian

    2005-01-01

    In practically all European countries, co-operative credit societies have evolved towards a system which is comparable to other financial groups. This paper explores the recent evolution of Spanish credit co-operatives and especially rural savings banks. The creation of "Group Caja Rural" in 1989, has meant the greatest commitment to the integration of Spanish credit co-operatives in the face of the challenges of economic globalisation and the great changes in the national and international f...

  6. Local government debt: an application to the Spanish case

    OpenAIRE

    Cantarero, David; Pascual, Marta; Fernandez, Roberto; María A. García-Valiñas

    2004-01-01

    For the last years, Europe has been subject to fiscal austerity in order to satisfy the Maastrich criteria. In this way, Spanish municipalities have been affected by new regulations and local government structure has changed. This paper is focused on the main factors that explain local government debt. In particular, budgetary information of a group of Spanish municipalities is used (1990-2000). Econometric analysis of cross section and panel data are presented. Key words:Fiscal Federalism, L...

  7. Location determinants of migrant inflows: The Spanish case?

    OpenAIRE

    Luisa Alamá-Sabater; Maite Alguacil; Joan Serafí Bernat-Martí

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, Spain has been a destination for people coming from rich European countries. However, at the end of the last century, the pattern of these immigrant flows changed. The Spanish economic growth model, based on the construction industry, attracted large numbers of immigrants motivated by employment opportunities rather than by the climate conditions. In this article, we analyze the determinants that lead immigrants to move to a particular Spanish province, considering the economic...

  8. A Spanish Translation: Alison Lurie’s Tales

    OpenAIRE

    Gutiérrez Ashling, Lara

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present TFM study is twofold: on the one hand, to contribute a first Spanish translation of an English text, identifying general problems in the process, and on the other hand, to illustrate new paths of research in the field of English-Spanish Translation Studies through the selection and preliminary analysis of a particular linguistic issue singled out as significant in the current literature. A wide research previous to translation was required to carry out this project. ...

  9. The Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories Survey (OCCASO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrera, R.; Casamiquela, L.; Balaguer-Núñez, L.; Jordi, C.; Pancino, E.; Allende-Prieto, C.; Blanco-Cuaresma, S.; Martínez-Vázquez, C. E.; Murabito, S.; del Pino, A.; Aparicio, A.; Gallart, C.; Recio-Blanco, A.

    2016-10-01

    We present the motivation, design and current status of the Open Cluster Chemical Abundances from Spanish Observatories survey (OCCASO). Using the high resolution spectroscopic facilities available at Spanish observatories, OCCASO will derive chemical abundances in a sample of 20 to 25 OCs older than 0.5 Gyr. This sample will be used to study in detail the formation and evolution of the Galactic disk using OCs as tracers.

  10. Elemental compositions of Spanish and Spanish-colonial majolica ceramics and their use in the identification of provenience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, J.S.; Harbottle, G.; Sayre, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis, x-ray diffraction, and petrographic analysis were used to obtain evidence of the origin of pottery and ceramic sherds found in the New World and related to the Spanish empire. (GHT)

  11. A Further Examination of the Effects of Administering the Metropolitan Reading Tests in Spanish and English to Spanish-Speaking School Entrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Sylvia; And Others

    In a study designed to assess effects of administering the Metropolitan Reading Test (MRT) in Spanish versus English, 100 Puerto Rican kindergarten pupils were randomly split into two groups. The MRT was administered in English to one group and in a Spanish translation to the other group. The group who took the Spanish version significantly…

  12. Enticing Spanish-Speaking Adolescents: Recent Books in Spanish for Every Taste/Cautivar a los Adolescentes Hispanohablantes: Libros Recientes en Espanol Para Todos los Gustos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    1999-01-01

    Argues that books in Spanish can engage Spanish-speaking students in the reading process, and that fostering the love of reading is a necessary first step to reading proficiency in any language. Offers brief descriptions of 16 recently published books in Spanish, and describes a large database of recommended books for children and adolescents in…

  13. Effects of a Supplemental Spanish Oral Language Program on Sentence Length, Complexity, and Grammaticality in Spanish-Speaking Children Attending English-Only Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Castilla, Anny P.; Schwanenflugel, Paula J.; Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Hamilton, Claire E.; Arboleda, Alejandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a supplemental Spanish language instruction program for children who spoke Spanish as their native language and were attending English-only preschool programs. Specifically, the study evaluated the program's effects on the children's Spanish sentence length in words, subordination…

  14. The prosody of focus in the Spanish of Quechua-Spanish bilinguals: A case study on noun phrases

    OpenAIRE

    Van Rijswijk, R.; Muntendam, A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the prosody of focus in the Spanish of 16 Quechua-Spanish bilinguals near Cusco, Peru. Data come from a dialogue game that involved noun phrases consisting of a noun and an adjective. The questions in the game elicited broad focus, contrastive focus on the noun (non-final position) and contrastive focus on the adjective (final position). The phonetic analysis in Praat included peak alignment, peak height, local range and duration of the stressed syllable and word. The stud...

  15. Internet Abuse Risk Factors among Spanish Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo, José L; Marín-Vila, María; Espada, José P; Orgilés, Mireia; Piqueras, José A

    2015-11-27

    Empirical evidence has revealed various factors that contribute to the development and maintenance of Internet abuse. The aim of this paper was to analyze, on a sample of Spanish adolescents, the relationship between Internet abuse and: (1) Personal and interpersonal risk factors, including social skills in both virtual and real-life contexts; (2) Drug use. A total of 814 high school students aged between 13 and 17 participated in this study, and were divided into two groups: Internet Abusers (IA = 173) and Non-Internet Abusers (NIA = 641). Questionnaires were used to analyze Internet and drug use/abuse, as well as social skills, in virtual and real contexts. Various interpersonal risk factors (family and group of friends) were also assessed. IA showed a more severe pattern of Internet and drug use, as well as poorer social skills in both contexts. Moreover, their groups of friends appeared more likely to become involved in risky situations related to Internet and drug abuse. Both IA and NIA showed more adaptive social skills in the virtual context than in the real one. There is a need for further research to build on these findings, with a view to designing specific preventive programs that promote responsible Internet use.

  16. CERN welcomes the Spanish Vice-President

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    On 29 September, CERN had the pleasure of welcoming the Vice-President of the Government of Spain, Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría, for a visit of the Laboratory.   From left to right: Lluis Miralles (Head of the General Infrastructure Services department), Soraya Sáenz de Santamaría (Vice-President of the Government of Spain) and José Miguel Jiménez (Head of the Technology department).   The Vice-President was accompanied by Carmen Vela, Spanish Secretary of State for Research, Development and Innovation, Bernardo de Sicart Escoda, Ambassador of Spain to Switzerland, and Ana Menéndez Pérez, Permanent Representative of Spain to the United Nations and International Organizations in Geneva. Their tour started at LHC Point 1, where CERN Director-General Rolf Heuer welcomed them and gave them an introduction to CERN's activities. Jos&ea...

  17. Diabetes mellitus in a domesticated Spanish mustang.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Philip J; Scotty, Nicole C; Wiedmeyer, Charles; Messer, Nat T; Kreeger, John M

    2005-02-15

    An 18-year-old Spanish Mustang mare was referred for evaluation of progressive weight loss and persistent hyperglycemia. Clinicopathologic abnormalities included marked hyperglycemia and glycosuria. Serum cortisol concentration was appropriately decreased following administration of dexamethasone, indicating that the horse did not have pituitary pars intermedia dysfunction. Serum insulin and plasma C-peptide concentrations were low, suggesting that hyperglycemia was a result of decreased secretion of insulin by pancreatic beta cells. In addition, glucose concentration did not return to the baseline concentration until 5 hours after i.v. administration of a glucose bolus, suggesting that insulin secretion, insulin effect, or both were reduced. However, i.v. administration of insulin caused only a slight decrease in the plasma glucose concentration, giving the impression that the action of insulin was impaired. Within 5 hours after administration of a combination of glyburide and metformin, which is used to treat diabetes mellitus in humans, the glucose concentration was within reference limits. The horse was euthanized, and a postmortem examination was done. Immunohistochemical staining of sections of the pancreas revealed attenuation of the pancreatic islet beta-cell population, with beta cells that remained generally limited to the periphery of the islets. These findings indicate that, albeit rare, pancreatic beta-cell failure may contribute to the development of diabetes mellitus in horses. PMID:15742701

  18. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Ramírez Heredia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., creampuff. We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003 and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015.

  19. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Roberto R; Cieślicka, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., "creampuff"). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015).

  20. Metaphoric Reference: An Eye Movement Analysis of Spanish-English and English-Spanish Bilingual Readers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia, Roberto R; Cieślicka, Anna B

    2016-01-01

    This study examines the processing of metaphoric reference by bilingual speakers. English dominant, Spanish dominant, and balanced bilinguals read passages in English biasing either a figurative (e.g., describing a weak and soft fighter that always lost and everyone hated) or a literal (e.g., describing a donut and bakery shop that made delicious pastries) meaning of a critical metaphoric referential description (e.g., "creampuff"). We recorded the eye movements (first fixation, gaze duration, go-past duration, and total reading time) for the critical region, which was a metaphoric referential description in each passage. The results revealed that literal vs. figurative meaning activation was modulated by language dominance, where Spanish dominant bilinguals were more likely to access the literal meaning, and English dominant and balanced bilinguals had access to both the literal and figurative meanings of the metaphoric referential description. Overall, there was a general tendency for the literal interpretation to be more active, as revealed by shorter reading times for the metaphoric reference used literally, in comparison to when it was used figuratively. Results are interpreted in terms of the Graded Salience Hypothesis (Giora, 2002, 2003) and the Literal Salience Model (Cieślicka, 2006, 2015). PMID:27065911

  1. Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Matillas, Miguel; Valadés, David; Hernández-Hernández, Elena; Olea-Serrano, Fátima; Sjöström, Michael; Delgado-Fernández, Manuel; Ortega, Francisco B

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players' characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3 ± 8.4 kg; stature 179.8 ± 7.1 cm; body fat 24.0 ± 3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3 ± 2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1 ± 0.7; 3.4 ± 0.9; 3.1 ± 0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position. PMID:23879184

  2. Individual and social predictors of screen-viewing among Spanish school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos Cillero, Itziar; Jago, Russell; Sebire, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Many children exceed suggested screen-viewing guidelines and this is likely to be a risk factor for obesity. Understanding the predictors of screen-viewing may be the first step in designing interventions that target these behaviours, but there is lack of information on predictors among Spanish children. This study examined associations between individual, friend and family based social variables and screen-viewing behaviours, and how these associations differ by age and gender in a sample of Spanish children. Participants were 247 primary school-aged and 256 secondary school-aged children and their parents. Children reported time spent in screen-viewing and information about individual and friend and family based social variables. Body mass index was assessed and children were classified using International Obesity Task Force cut-off points. Parents reported sociodemographic characteristics and family co-viewing practices. Lower self-efficacy for reducing screen-viewing (console playing p influence children's screen-viewing and operate differently during childhood. Increasing self-efficacy may be important for screen-viewing based behaviour changes. Friends and parents play a central role, therefore understanding the dynamics of friends and targeting family influences may be critical to the success of interventions to reduce screen-viewing.

  3. Short Research Note: The Beginning Spanish Lexicon--A Web-Based Interface to Calculate Phonological Similarity among Spanish Words in Adults Learning Spanish as a Foreign Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitevitch, Michael S.; Stamer, Melissa K.; Kieweg, Douglas

    2012-01-01

    A number of resources provide psycholinguistic researchers with information about the words that the typical child or adult knows in a variety of languages. What is currently not available is a resource that provides information about the words that a typical adult learning a foreign language knows. We created such a resource for Spanish: The…

  4. Los efectos geoecológicos del cambio global en el Pirineo Central español: una revisión a distintas escalas espaciales y temporales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García-Ruiz, José M.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We review the effects of climate variability and land use / land cover changes in the Central Spanish Pyrenees at different spatial and temporal scales. Paleoclimatic studies based upon multi-proxy analyses of lacustrine, glacial and speleothematic deposits, among others, have demonstrated the occurrence of intense climatic fluctuations not only during the Late Upper Pleistocene associated to deglaciation, but also during the Holocene, affecting plant cover distribution, runoff generation, flood frequency, and the spatial organization of human activities, particularly during the 8.2 event, the Bronze Age, the Medieval Climatic Anomaly and the Little Ice Age. The study of the impact of human activity on landscape dynamics during the last 150 years has revealed dramatic changes in plant cover structure and distribution, in both the montane and the sub-alpine belts and, consequently, changes in runoff generation, soil erosion intensity, and sediment sources, whatever the spatial scale used. In general, the maximum human pressure on the territory was reached during the middle of the 19th century, with the cultivation of most of the south-facing slopes up to approximately 1650 m a.s.l., and the frequent use of fire to control shrub colonization, resulting in intense soil erosion and degradation processes, as well as the development of braided rivers with a high torrentiality. Farmland abandonment since the beginning of the 20th century (and, particularly, since the 1960s and the declining livestock pressure have favoured plant recolonization, with the expansion of shrubs and forests in the old cultivated and grazing areas, the human-induced reforestation of large hillslopes, and the treeline upward in the subalpine belt, in this latter case with the contribution of climate warming. The most outstanding consequences of such an evolution have been: (i the sustained decline of discharge in the Pyrenean rivers since the 1970s because of increasing actual

  5. Direct Spanish Investments in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Arahuetes García

    1995-11-01

    Full Text Available In the period 1981-1992, the international flow of direct investments witnessed significant changes which affected their magnitude, geographical orientation, sectorial distribution, forms of investment and sources of financing. This happened in such a way that traditional distribution among industrialized and developing countries was modified as was the capacity for attraction of the different areas in development. In this sense, the main contrast could be seen in the growing importance of East and South East Asia and the decline of Latin American countries which traditionally have been the largest receivers of direct investments within the group of developing countries. The expansive phase of direct investments begun in 1986 threatened to exclude Latin American countries but the establishment of a new framework for the treatment of the problem of external debt -the Brady Plan-, the change in the context of theinternational economy in 1990 and the stability and economic growth of the countries of the region favoured, without a doubt, the recovery of the capacity for attraction for new flows of direct investments regarding Latin American countries.In this way, Latin America registered once again a growing participation in the international flow of direct investments. The evolution of direct Spanish investment in Latin America followed a path similar to that of wider international flows and, after the intense absorption of the first years of the Eighties, the rest of the decade registered a discreet attraction for investors which only began to change course from 1989 onwards with the reestablishment of the new phase of the economic cycle in the countries of the region.

  6. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejandro, Vaquera; Santiago, Santos; Gerardo, Villa José; Carlos, Morante Juan; Vicente, García-Tormo

    2015-06-27

    The study of elite basketball players' anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA) and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18) had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams). There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg), height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm), skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men's elite leagues. PMID:26240653

  7. Anthropometric Characteristics of Spanish Professional Basketball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaquera Alejandro

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The study of elite basketball players’ anthropometric characteristics alongside those of body composition contributes significantly to their profiling as professional athletes and plays an important role in the selection process, as these characteristics can have a significant impact on performance. In the current study, 110 professional basketball players from a series of Spanish professional Leagues (ACB, LEB and EBA and youth level National Teams (U20 and U18 had their anthropometric profiles measured and compared to determine differences between them. Furthermore, all 110 players were divided into three different categories according to their playing position: guards, forwards and centres. The results obtained show no significant differences between players in different competitions in weight, height and the sum of skinfolds. Nonetheless, there were several differences related to body fat content (13.03% in ACB players and 10.52% in the lower categories and National Teams. There were also several differences found between the different playing positions amongst all playing levels in body mass (79.56 ± 2.41, 91.04 ± 1.51 and 104.56 ± 1.73 kg, height (182.28 ± 0.96, 195.65 ± 1.00 and 204.08 ± 0.67 cm, skinfold distribution and perimeters. However, there were no significant differences in body fat content between the different playing positions. The conclusions obtained from this study provide a better understanding to basketball specialists regarding the selection process of players at the elite level, especially on the transition from youth elite programs to men’s elite leagues.

  8. Reflections on Educational Policies for Spanish Gypsies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salinas, Jesus

    2007-01-01

    In Spain, the existence of a central government and the governments of 17 autonomous communities, each with its own authority and control over educational matters, results in variation and inequality in educational policies toward Gypsies. The conservative or progressive tendencies of political parties in office and their influence on education as…

  9. Selective linking from social platforms to university websites: a case study of the Spanish academic system

    CERN Document Server

    Orduna-Malea, Enrique

    2013-01-01

    Mention indicators have frequently been used in Webometric studies because they provide a powerful tool for determining the degree of visibility and impact of web resources. Among mention indicators, hypertextual links were a central part of many studies until Yahoo discontinued the linkdomain command in 2011. Selective links constitute a variant of external links where both the source and target of the link can be selected. This paper intends to study the influence of social platforms (measured through the number of selective external links) on academic environments, in order to ascertain both the percentage that they constitute and whether some of them can be used as substitutes of total external links. For this purpose, 141 URLs belonging to 76 Spanish universities were compiled in 2010 (before Yahoo! stopped their link services), and the number of links from 13 selected social platforms to these universities were calculated. Results confirm a good correlation between total external links and links that co...

  10. DTN and international cooperation of the Spanish Nuclear Sector in nuclear technology development processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Spanish electrical utilities with interests in the Nuclear Sector-IBERDROLA, ENDESA,FUERZAS ELECTRICAS DE CATALU=A5A (FECSA), UNION ELECTRICA FENOSA S.A., COMPA=A5IA SEVILLANA DE ELECTRICIDAD S.A., AND HIDROELECTRICA DEL CANTABRICO S.A.-created on September 26, 1994 the ''Agrupacion Electrica para el Desarrollo Tecnologico Nuclear, A.I.E. (DTN)'' (Electrical Society for Nuclear technology Development A.I.E.) for the purpose of promoting and managing Nuclear Nechnology Development, and integrating and coordinating the efforts of the Nuclear Electrical Sector with industrial companies and other related institutions in spain and abroad. This mission is primarily accomplished by establinhing a common strategy for the Nuclear Electrical Sector in the different areas of responsibility of DTN, centralizing actions by implementing a clear and coherent policy, and ensuring the presence of the entire Electrical Sector in all those fora deemed to be strategic to the Nuclear Sector

  11. The spanish language alongside other cultures, other colors, other languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josefina Quintero Corzo

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To teach and learn Spanish language as a foreign language involves understanding the concepto of interculturality, which asks for an investigative look to appraise social, geographical, political, cultural, pedagogical and linguistic differences among countries that, even though they speak different languages, wish to communicate each other. This paper makes part of a research project intitled “Pedagogical university narrative”. In it, a trainee who is about to get her degree as a Bachelor in Modern Languages from Universidad de Caldas (Colombia and her advisor, as principal investigator, show how in New Delhi Spanish language acquisition is permeated by cultural factors that, if not adequately addressed, become barriers hindering the integration of language to contents, feelings and expectations related to the everyday context Spanish students live in —different from their mother language— in a foreign speaking country

  12. Seminar on present and future Spanish Legislation on nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Proceedings of the Seminar contain the papers presented and the conclusions of each Session. The topics cover Spanish nuclear legislation including the licensing of nuclear power plants and control, analysed in the context of legislation in other fields and the new requirements since Spain joined the European Communities. Other papers deal with the origin and evolution of Spanish nuclear law, the competent international organizations and the nuclear third party liability regime set in place by the international conventions in that field. Also discussed are the national regulations on radioactive waste management and the competent authorities. Finally, a revision of the Spanish Nuclear Energy Act is considered necessary in the light of developments since its inception

  13. Spanish Minister of Science and Technology visits ATLAS

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    H.E. Mr Josep Piqué i Camps, Minister for Science and Technology, Spain, came to CERN in November. He is seen here visiting the ATLAS assembly hall. Photo 01: The Minister (left) is greeted by Peter Jenni, spokesperson for the ATLAS collaboration. In the centre is Matteo Cavalli-Sforza, Spanish scientist at CERN. Photo 02: The Minister (left) in discussion with Peter Jenni. Photo 03: Peter Jenni shows the visitors one of eight vacuum vessels being built by Spanish company Felguera Construcciones Mecanicas SA for the superconducting coils of the air-core ATLAS barrel toroid magnet system: (left to right) Matteo Cavalli-Sforza of CERN; the Minister; M. Aguilar-Benitez, Spanish delegate to CERN Council; G. Léon; and Peter Jenni.

  14. The presence of English and Spanish dyslexia in the Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rello, Luz; Baeza-Yates, Ricardo

    2012-09-01

    In this study we present a lower bound of the prevalence of dyslexia in the Web for English and Spanish. On the basis of analysis of corpora written by dyslexic people, we propose a classification of the different kinds of dyslexic errors. A representative data set of dyslexic words is used to calculate this lower bound in web pages containing English and Spanish dyslexic errors. We also present an analysis of dyslexic errors in major Internet domains, social media sites, and throughout English- and Spanish-speaking countries. To show the independence of our estimations from the presence of other kinds of errors, we compare them with the overall lexical quality of the Web and with the error rate of noncorrected corpora. The presence of dyslexic errors in the Web motivates work in web accessibility for dyslexic users.

  15. Unravelling the language of the law in Spanish courts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor M. González Ruiz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available When deciding on a case, Spanish judges must construe relevant legislation with the help of a body of ambiguous and often mutually inconsistent rules. Apart from general principles (e.g. those collected in the Constitution, the most significant guideline available for interpreting statutes, subsection 3(1 of the Spanish Civil Code, stipulates that rules shall be interpreted according to “the proper meaning of words”. The vagueness of this provision, based on the idea that language conforms to reality in a univocal manner, goes hand in hand with the principle of judicial independence, under which Spanish judges are free to make any decisions they think suitable. This paper describes the principles of statutory interpretation in Spain and emphasizes how the application of these rules, together with the concept of judicial independence, sometimes makes statutory interpretation and court decisions a rather unpredictable process.

  16. Is there chaos in the Spanish labour market?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: We consider Spanish unemployment time series. We apply a number of nonlinearity tests and chaoticity measures. We establish the presence of nonlinearity and chaos, which disappears when the data are shuffled. Abstract: One could argue that there is a resurgence of the non-linear modelling in economics. Some instruments have been developed to measure the complexity or instability of the analysed systems. At the present work some of these developed techniques are applied to verify the non-linearity present in the time series of Spanish unemployment, as well as to quantify the degree of complexity of the system that has generated the series. Using these techniques we find evidence of chaos in Spanish unemployment time series.

  17. Good patriots. The nation according to the Spanish conservative party

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    embedded a culture of dialogue and the conflicts became more accentuated at the end of their first term (Tusell, 2000: 239). The Spanish president, José María Aznar, interpreted the results as a big electoral support for his project and started a new orientation in some areas such as the relation...... national parties, PP and Partido Socialista (PSOE, social democrats) agreed to fight against terrorism and the nationalist environment together. In that context, Aznar undertook the definition of the nation maintaining this division and tried to find a way of formulating Spanish nationalism and getting...... some accept by the citizens. In this paper I will examine the discursive formation constituted by PP to redefine the Spanish nationalism using the idea of constitutional patriotism, which emanates from the academic debate, in competition with the social democrat party, that aspires also to apply...

  18. Informe sobre el proyecto contrastivo hispano-hungaro (Report on the Spanish-Hungarian Contrastive Project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulei-Szanto, Andres

    1974-01-01

    A description of a contrastive linguistics project in Hungary aiming to augment linguistic theories in the Spanish language and propound theories for scientific and artistic translation. (Text is in Spanish.) (CK)

  19. The Challenges and Rewards of Teaching Spanish in a Community College Prison Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Erick Nava; Ragsdale, Lee

    2015-01-01

    Two authors describe how teaching Spanish in an Illinois prison led them to rewrite the examples used in a Spanish textbook and engage incarcerated students in novel ways in order to make up for the lack of conventional classroom resources.

  20. Los Ninos y el Mundo: Children's Books in Spanish from around the World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2001-01-01

    Offers brief descriptions of 32 children's books (or book series) in Spanish that introduce children to numerous countries around the world. Notes a web site address listing high-quality books in Spanish for children and adolescents. (SR)

  1. Two Words of Chinese Origin in Present-Day Peruvian Spanish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, James F.

    1977-01-01

    The origin, etymology and phonology of two words of Chinese origin found in Peruvian Spanish are outlined. The words, "chifa" and "chaufa," derive from Cantonese words for "rice" and have been adapted into Spanish. (CHK)

  2. Spanish validation of the HIV dementia scale in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojna, V; Skolasky, R L; McArthur, J C; Maldonado, E; Hechavarria, R; Mayo, R; Selnes, O; Ginebra, T; de la Torre, T; Garcia, H; Kraiselburd, E; Melendez-Guerrero, L M; Zorrilla, C D; Nath, A

    2007-12-01

    HIV infection is increasing in minority groups, particularly in African American and Hispanic women. Although the incidence of HIV dementia has decreased since the advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment, prevalence of neurocognitive complications has increased as patients are now living longer. This study's purpose was to determine the psychometric properties of the Spanish-language HIV Dementia Scale (HDS) in a group of HIV-infected women. We recruited 96 women: 60 HIV-seropositive and 36 HIV-seronegative. Modification of the HDS into a Spanish-language version consisted of translating the instructions, substituting four words in Spanish (gato, media, azul, piña), increasing 1 second in the psychomotor speed because the Spanish alphabet has more letters than the English alphabet, and not offering clues for memory recall. Cognitive impairment (CI) was defined according to the modified American Academy of Neurology HIV-dementia criteria including an asymptomatic CI group. Statistical analysis consisted of analysis of variance to determine group differences and receiver operator characteristics (ROC) to determine the optimal cutoff point for the screening of CI. HDS-Spanish total score and subscores for psychomotor speed and memory recall showed significant differences between HIV-seronegative and women with HIV-dementia (p < 0.001) and between HIV-seropositive women with normal cognition and those with HIV-dementia (p < 0.001). The optimal cutoff point of 13 or less had performance characteristics of 87% sensitivity and 46% specificity for HIV-associated CI (50.0% positive predictive value, 85.0% negative predictive value). The HDS-Spanish translation offers a useful screening tool with value for the identification of Hispanic women at risk of developing HIV-associated symptomatic neurocognitive disturbances. PMID:18154490

  3. User Study of a Spanish-language ClinicalTrials.gov Prototype System

    OpenAIRE

    Rosemblat, Graciela; Tse, Tony

    2006-01-01

    We conducted a user study of monolingual and bilingual Spanish-speaking consumers (n=36) to evaluate a Spanish-language ClinicalTrials.gov prototype. The prototype leverages an existing English-only consumer health resource by combining (1) Spanish-English cross-language information retrieval (CLIR) and (2) English-Spanish document display techniques. We collected user feedback on expectations, usability, and satisfaction. Preliminary results suggest improved online information access by Span...

  4. The conception and role of interdisciplinarity in the Spanish education system

    OpenAIRE

    Segovia, Isidoro; Lupiáñez, José Luis; Molina, Marta; González, Francisco; Miñán, Antonio; Real, Irene

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the role that interdisciplinarity plays in the Spanish education system. With this aim, we first describe the main conception of the term interdisciplinarity in texts written in Spanish, including other terms that have similar meaning. Then we review the role of interdisciplinarity in the Spanish curriculum at different levels of education, focusing fundamentally on compulsory education. This serves as the basis from which later to analyze Spanish research...

  5. 7 CFR 51.2732 - U.S. No. 2 Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 2 Spanish. 51.2732 Section 51.2732... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2732 U.S. No. 2 Spanish. “U.S. No. 2 Spanish” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which may be split or...

  6. 7 CFR 51.2730 - U.S. No. 1 Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false U.S. No. 1 Spanish. 51.2730 Section 51.2730... STANDARDS) United States Standards for Grades of Shelled Spanish Type Peanuts Grades § 51.2730 U.S. No. 1 Spanish. “U.S. No. 1 Spanish” consists of shelled Spanish type peanut kernels which are whole and...

  7. Materiality Analysis for CSR Reporting in Spanish SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Escrig-Olmedo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most corporate social responsibility (CSR standards have not been designedto be implemented in small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs. Giventhat 99% of Spanish companies are SMEs, this study aims to propose aselection of basic CSR material issues that, because of their usefulness andsignificance, should be adapted to Spanish SMEs and their stakeholders.This study provides a CSR model for SMEs that includes the most importantsocial, environmental, and corporate governance issues. This model, whichis based on expert knowledge, is useful for integrating sustainability in themanagement of SMEs and enhancing the management of stakeholders.

  8. Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions

    OpenAIRE

    Pilar Rios; Javier Cristobo

    2014-01-01

    The information about the sponges in this dataset is derived from the samples collected during five Spanish Antarctic expeditions: Bentart 94, Bentart 95, Gebrap 96, Ciemar 99/00 and Bentart 2003. Samples were collected in the Antarctic Peninsula and Bellingshausen Sea at depths ranging from 4 to 2044 m using va­rious sampling gears.The Antarctic Porifera database from the Spanish benthic expeditions is unique as it provides in­formation for an under-explored region of the Southern Oc...

  9. Domestic Violations in Spanish Cinema: Reframing Gendered Violence Onscreen

    OpenAIRE

    Saenz, Noelia

    2009-01-01

    This presentation is part of a dissertation chapter that explores how representations of gendered violence in contemporary Spanish cinema are indicative of a larger shift towards viewing gendered violence as a human rights issue. In recent years, mainstream Spanish films, such as Te doy mis ojos (dir. Icíar Bollaín, 2003), Sólo mía (dir. Javier Balaquer, 2001), and Piedras (dir. Ramón Salazar, 2002), focus on the issue of domestic violence, referred to in Spain as terrorismo familiar, familia...

  10. Life values structure in a Spanish sample of adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Tejerina-Arreal

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available We examined the structure of personal life values as a representation of underlying motivation, in a Spanish sample of children and adolescents 12 - 16 years old. In general, results showed that youth put higher priority on intrinsic life goals (meaningful relationships, being physically healthy, self-acceptance than extrinsic life goals (image, money, power. Gender differences were found in specific life goals. When comparing our results with another longitudinal American study using the same instrument and methodology, we found similar results, although Spanish youth value priorities goals related to support rather than striving as in American adolescents. Cultural and age trend in life priorities are discussed.

  11. Psychometric properties of Spanish-language adult dental fear measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heaton Lisa J

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It would be useful to have psychometrically-sound measures of dental fear for Hispanics, who comprise the largest ethnic minority in the United States. We report on the psychometric properties of Spanish-language versions of two common adult measures of dental fear (Modified Dental Anxiety Scale, MDAS; Dental Fear Survey, DFS, as well as a measure of fear of dental injections (Needle Survey, NS. Methods Spanish versions of the measures were administered to 213 adults attending Hispanic cultural festivals, 31 students (who took the questionnaire twice, for test-retest reliability, and 100 patients at a dental clinic. We also administered the questionnaire to 136 English-speaking adults at the Hispanic festivals and 58 English-speaking students at the same college where we recruited the Spanish-speaking students, to compare the performance of the English and Spanish measures in the same populations. Results The internal reliabilities of the Spanish MDAS ranged from 0.80 to 0.85. Values for the DFS ranged from 0.92 to 0.96, and values for the NS ranged from 0.92 to 0.94. The test-retest reliabilities (intra-class correlations for the three measures were 0.69, 0.86, and 0.94 for the MDAS, DFS, and NS, respectively. The three measures showed moderate correlations with one another in all three samples, providing evidence for construct validity. Patients with higher scores on the measures were rated as being more anxious during dental procedures. Similar internal reliabilities and correlations were found in the English-version analyses. The test-retest values were also similar in the English students for the DFS and NS; however, the English test-retest value for the MDAS was better than that found in the Spanish students. Conclusion We found evidence for the internal reliability, construct validity, and criterion validity for the Spanish versions of the three measures, and evidence for the test-retest reliability of the Spanish

  12. MEDEA: A DSGE Model for the Spanish Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Burriel, Pablo; Fernández-Villaverde, Jesús; Rubio-Ramírez, Juan F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we provide a brief introduction to a new macroeconometric model of the Spanish economy named MEDEA (Modelo de Equilibrio Dinámico de la Economía EspañolA). MEDEA is a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (DSGE) model that aims to describe the main features of the Spanish economy for policy analysis, counterfactual exercises, and forecasting. MEDEA is built in the tradition of New Keynesian models with real and nominal rigidities, but it also incorporates aspects such as a sma...

  13. Semantic Neology in the Domain of Videogames in Spanish.

    OpenAIRE

    Inmaculada Álvarez de Mon Rego; Carola Álvarez-Bolado Sánchez

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the meaning of five neologisms in the domain of videogames in Spanish: título, aventura, personaje, plataforma, and rol. Our study focuses on a special type of neologism since the Spanish terms we deal with here are not strictly new words; they are what have been called sense neologisms or neosemanticisms, that is, old words taking a new sense in a different domain. These words were identified as new concepts after a process of analysis based on conte...

  14. No Parties, No Banners: The Spanish Experiment with Direct Democracy

    OpenAIRE

    Bauiocchi, Gianpaolo; Ganuza Fernández, Ernesto

    2012-01-01

    On October 15 last year, 200,000 people marched in Madrid. They were part of a Spanish movement that has come to be known as 15-M—after May 15, the date of its first action—or the indignados. The movement has broad support from the Spanish public, both right and left, with 73 percent approving in recent polls. Participants and organizers consistently report that “regular people” and “first time” protestors, “not just movement activists,” are deeply involved in the assemblies. As Irache, a pub...

  15. Environmental management systems implemented in the Spanish nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The companies that own the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants, aware of social concern and in the context of a growing demanding environmental legislation, have a permanent commitment to the electricity production based on the principles of a maximum respect for the environment, safety, quality, professionalism and continuous improvement. In order to minimize the environmental impact of their plants they have implemented and Environmental Management System based on the ISO 14001 Standard. They minimize the environmental impact by identifying the significant environmental aspects and defining the corresponding objectives. This article describes the referred environmental management systems and their environmental objectives, as applied and defined by the Spanish Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  16. An approach for discovering keywords from Spanish tweets using Wikipedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel AYALA

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Most approaches to keywords discovery when analyzing microblogging messages (among them those from Twitter are based on statistical and lexical information about the words that compose the text. The lack of context in the short messages can be problematic due to the low co-occurrence of words. In this paper, we present a new approach for keywords discovering from Spanish tweets based on the addition of context information using Wikipedia as a knowledge base. We present four different ways to use Wikipedia and two ways to rank the new keywords. We have tested these strategies using more than 60000 Spanish tweets, measuring performance and analyzing particularities of each strategy.

  17. The Spanish flu as a worst case scenario?

    OpenAIRE

    John F. Moxnes; Christophersen, Olav Albert

    2011-01-01

    For preparation of pandemic plans for the H5N1 bird flu virus, it has been common practice among health authorities in several countries to use crude death figures from the Spanish flu pandemic as a worst case scenario. This has been done without taking into consideration either what is known about the molecular biology of malignant influenza viruses or the detailed statistical information that is available about the Spanish flu pandemic, as regards the variation of death risk as a function o...

  18. Gender discrimination in promotion : the case of Spanish labor market

    OpenAIRE

    Albert López-Ibor, Rocío; Escot Mangas, Lorenzo; Fernández Cornejo, José Andrés; Saiz Briones, Javier

    2004-01-01

    This paper tests the hypothesis that a glass ceiling phenomenon exists in the Spanish labor market -that as women rise in the professional hierarchy, they face increasing obstacles for promotion. Taking data from the Spanish Survey on Quality of Life at Work (ECVT) for 2001, a number of indicators were selected for promotion: “number of promotions”, “supervision levels”, “number of people supervised” and “net wage”. The relative gaps were calculated for each of the intervals (categories) for ...

  19. Online and Smartphone Consumer Behaviour of Spanish Millennials

    OpenAIRE

    Perez Montesa, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Conducts a deep research of the online and smartphone consumer behaviour with a focus on the Spanish Millennials. The main goal of the thesis is to identify a different online and smartphone pattern among Millennials in Spain, compared to the general population. At the same time, obtaining valuable and insightful information about the Spanish Millennials consumer behaviour and trends is another goal of the thesis. This thesis aims to provide key findings on the topic, adding valuable knowledg...

  20. Psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the UPPS-P impulsive behavior scale: reliability, validity and association with trait and cognitive impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdejo-García, Antonio; Lozano, Oscar; Moya, Maribel; Alcázar, Miguel Angel; Pérez-García, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Impulsivity is a multifaceted construct central to several forms of psychopathology. Recently, Lynam, Smith, Whiteside, and Cyders (2006) developed the UPPS-P scale, a multidimensional inventory that assesses 5 personality pathways contributing to impulsive behavior: negative urgency, lack of perseverance, lack of premeditation, sensation seeking, and positive urgency. In this study, we aimed (a) to analyze the psychometric properties of a Spanish version of the UPPS-P scale and (b) to explore the relationship between the different dimensions of the UPPS-P scale and conceptually related constructs including trait measures derived from different models of impulsive personality (the Gray's [1987] and Plutchik's [1984] models) and a state measure of cognitive impulsivity, the Delay-Discounting Test (Kirby, Petry, & Bickel, 1999). We administered the UPPS-P scale along with the Sensitivity to Punishment and Sensitivity to Reward Questionnaire (Torrubia, Avila, Molto, & Caseras, 2001), the Plutchik Impulsivity Scale (Plutchik & Van Praag, 1989), and the Delay-Discounting Test to a sample of 150 undergraduate students. Results showed that the Spanish adaptation of the UPPS-P scale have appropriate psychometric properties. Different dimensions of the UPPS-P were differentially associated with predicted conceptually related constructs. We conclude that the Spanish adaptation of the UPPS-P scale is a useful instrument for fine-grained assessment of impulsivity in Spanish-speaking adult population. PMID:20013458

  1. "Historias de la Artamila," Ana Maria Matute. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and discover…

  2. Use of Language Learning Strategies by Spanish Adults for Business English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judge, Jeffrey Wallace

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this phenomenological study was to explore the language learning strategies (LLSs) of Spanish adults in a business context. The research questions examined the specific LLSs used by Spanish adults in business communication tasks. In addition, this study addressed the cultural influences on LLSs from the Spanish educational system along…

  3. The Variable Grammar of the Spanish Subjunctive in Second-Generation Bilinguals in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhamer, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    This morphosyntactic dissertation study compares the use of MOOD (indicative & subjunctive) in first- and second-generation Spanish speakers in New York City. The data for this study are from a transcription of naturalistic Spanish conversations with New Yorkers of different generations, representing the six primary Spanish-speaking groups in…

  4. Second Language Acquisition of Spanish /e/ and /ei/ by Native English Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Miriam; Simonet, Miquel

    2015-01-01

    The present article reports on the findings of a cross-sectional acoustic study of the production of the Spanish /e/-/ei/ contrast, as in "pena-peina" and "reno-reino," by native-English intermediate and advanced learners of Spanish. The acoustic parameter that distinguishes Spanish /e/ from /ei/ is formant change--/e/ is a…

  5. "Veinte poemas de amor y Canto general," Pablo Neruda. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and discover…

  6. 21 CFR 801.16 - Medical devices; Spanish-language version of certain required statements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medical devices; Spanish-language version of....16 Medical devices; Spanish-language version of certain required statements. If devices restricted to prescription use only are labeled solely in Spanish for distribution in the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico...

  7. 48 CFR 252.228-7006 - Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compliance with Spanish... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.228-7006 Compliance with Spanish laws and insurance. As prescribed at 228.370(e), use the following clause: Compliance with Spanish Laws and Insurance (DEC 1998)...

  8. Descubriendo la Lectura: An Application of Reading Recovery in Spanish. [Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escamilla, Kathy

    A study investigated the utility of a set of Spanish-language instructional materials, "Decsubriendo la Lectura," in compensatory or remedial literacy education for Spanish-speaking elementary students. The reading recovery approach, used with English-speaking first-graders, was adapted for Spanish. Program development included identification of…

  9. Spanish as a Second Language when L1 Is Quechua: Endangered Languages and the SLA Researcher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalt, Susan E.

    2012-01-01

    Spanish is one of the most widely spoken languages in the world. Quechua is the largest indigenous language family to constitute the first language (L1) of second language (L2) Spanish speakers. Despite sheer number of speakers and typologically interesting contrasts, Quechua-Spanish second language acquisition is a nearly untapped research area,…

  10. U.S.-MEXICO BORDER PROGRAM ARIZONA BORDER STUDY--QUESTIONNAIRES (ENGLISH AND SPANISH FORMAT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The questionnaires used for the Arizona Border Study were prepared in English and Spanish formats. The Spanish format of the questionnaires was translated, back-translated, and tested on a group of local Spanish speakers with a goal of providing a translation in colloquial Spanis...

  11. Spanish Oral Language Guide: Kindergarten Level. Espanol como Segundo Idioma. Teacher's Guide: Level I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corbell, Gloria; And Others

    This teacher's guide to Spanish language at the kindergarten level includes a recommended subject presentation sequence for the Spanish curriculum, a sample schedule, a grouping of students using three stations, and a classroom layout. The grouping would be effective when at least one-third of the children are Spanish-speaking or bilingual. The…

  12. Viva Nuestra Amistad IV: Spanish Activity Packet (Long Live our Friendship).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Hubert

    This Spanish activity packet was designed to be used with the map study portion of each of twelve units in a second year course in Spanish. Each unit deals with a different Spanish-speaking country or place, such as Puerto Rico, Colombia, Venezuela, or Peru. Included here are worksheets, games, map outlines, crossword puzzles, skits, and cultural…

  13. "Don Quijote de la Mancha," Miguel de Cervantes Saavedra. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, in 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and…

  14. "El coronel no tiene quien le escriba," Gabriel Garcia Marquez. Performance Guides to Spanish Texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gies, David Thatcher, Comp.

    This performance guide is the result of work conducted at the University of Virginia's National Endowment for the Humanities Summer Institute, 1989, on "Spanish Literature in Performance," in which 25 secondary school Spanish teachers studied Spanish texts from the perspective of classroom performance to deepen knowledge of the texts and discover…

  15. Espanol avanzado para estudiantes de literatura (Advanced Spanish for Literature Students)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steel, Brian

    1974-01-01

    Spanish foreign language teaching should aim at the following: 1) adequate reading-comprehension ability; 2) fluency in spoken and written Spanish; and 3) ability to recognize linguistic characteristics in literature, which would serve as a basis for further graduate stylistic research. (Text is in Spanish.) (Author/DS)

  16. Construct Validity Evidence for Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition, Spanish Form Scores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Arlene; Clinton, Amanda; Schaefer, Barbara A.

    2015-01-01

    Convergent and discriminant validity evidence was examined for scores on the Spanish Record Form of the Bracken School Readiness Assessment, Third Edition (BSRA-3). Participants included a sample of 68 Hispanic, Spanish-speaking children ages 4 to 5 years enrolled in preschool programs in Puerto Rico. Scores obtained from the BSRA-3 Spanish Record…

  17. Democracy Beats the "Disaster" Complex: Spanish Interpretations of the Colonial Crisis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilton, Sylvia L.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the historical writing of Spanish historians on the Spanish American War. While this conflict marked the emergence of the United States as a world power, it is considered by many Spanish scholars as a turning point in the decline of the colonial empire. Includes extensive end notes. (MJP)

  18. Libros de Ciencias en Espanol (A Selection of Recent Science Trade Books in Spanish)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schon, Isabel

    2005-01-01

    Teachers who have Spanish-speaking students in their science class, will likely be interested in learning about the recent releases of Spanish trade books for children. From appealing paperback series about colors, opposites, shapes, and numbers to smooth Spanish renditions of Isaac Asimov's engaging overview of the universe, these books are just…

  19. Development of a Language Impairment Screener for Spanish Speaking Children--SSLIC: Phase 1--Task Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo, M. Adelaida; Gorin, Joanna S.; Gray, Shelley; Morgan, Gareth P.; Barona, Nicole

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study is to develop a Spanish language screening measure that (a) is valid and reliable for the purpose of identifying Spanish-speaking (SS) children at risk for Language Impairment (LI), (b) is valid and reliable across different Spanish dialects, different socioeconomic groups, and different ethnicities, (c) uses a…

  20. Emerging Literacy in Spanish among Hispanic Heritage Language University Students in the USA: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairclough, Marta; Belpoliti, Flavia

    2016-01-01

    This pilot study identifies some lexical aspects of the emerging writing skills in Spanish among receptive English/Spanish bilingual students with little or no exposure to formal study of the home language upon entering a Spanish Heritage Language Program at a large public university in the Southwestern United States. The 200+ essays analyzed in…