WorldWideScience

Sample records for central region

  1. Company activities - central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayling, G.

    2007-06-15

    The first section of the article gives an overview of exploration and new developments in the field of gold, nickel, diamond and opal mining in central Queensland. The second part looks at coal, coal seam gas and petroleum exploration and development projects in the area. 1 fig.

  2. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  3. Regional sinkhole susceptibility maps: The Latium Region case (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Vigna, F.; Teoli, P.; Mazza, R.; Leoni, G.; Capelli, G.

    2012-04-01

    Several and frequent studies were internationally presented about landslide susceptibility, meanwhile in literature is missing a broad diffusion of studies regarding sinkhole susceptibility. That's why sinkhole recurrence depends on several geological conditions related to specific geological and hydrogeological context (sinkhole prone area) that vary case by case. Notwithstanding this regionalization problem of sinkhole recurrence, in the central Appenine sedimentary basins (Italy) a certain number of geological, geomorphologic and hydrogeological conditions (sinkhole predisposing issues) can be considered in common between the surveyed sinkholes. Eventually this could be compared with similar geological conditions and sinkhole occurrence in the rest of Italy or in other countries. In this case study is presented a probabilistic approach regarding the Latium Region deriving from the comparison between the regional sinkhole inventory realized during a precedent project and the dataset of the new Hydrogeological Map of Latium Region (scale 1:100.000). Indexed elements, chosen because associated to the majority of sinkhole phenomena, are: outcropping lithologies, water table depth, main faults (even if buried), hydrothermal springs, land use and the epicentres of recent earthquakes. These indexed elements were weighted and combined in a matrix which preliminary result is the sinkhole susceptibility map of Latium Region. When definitively validated, this approach could be suitable for local authorities to planning more targeted studies in major hazard areas.

  4. Transmission Reinforcements in the Central American Regional Power System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Vallem, Mallikarjuna R.; Samaan, Nader A.; Makarov, Yuri V.; Vyakaranam, Bharat; Nguyen, Tony B.; Munoz, Christian; Herrera, Ricardo; Midence, Diego; Shpitsberg, Anna

    2016-07-25

    The Central American regional interconnected power system (SER) connects the countries members of the Central American regional electricity market (MER): Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama. The SER was a result of a long term regional effort, and was initially conceived to transfer 300 MW between countries. However, the current transfer limits between countries range from 70 MW to 300 MW. Regional entities, like CRIE (Regional Commission of Electrical Interconnection), EOR (Central American Regional System Operator), and CDMER (Board of Directors of the Central American Market) are working on coordinating the national transmission expansion plans with regional transmission planning efforts. This paper presents experience in Central America region to recommend transmission reinforcements to achieve 300 MW transfer capacity between any pair of member countries of the Central American regional electricity market (MER). This paper also provides a methodology for technical analysis and for coordination among the regional and national entities. This methodology is unique for transmission systems of these characteristics.

  5. Air Quality in the Central Ontario Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gbor, P. K.; Meng, F.; Singh, R.; Galvez, O.; Sloan, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The Central Ontario Region (COR) is the most densely populated area in Canada. With a population of 7.3 million, it contains 23% of the total population of Canada. It extends from the extreme south west end of Ontario to the eastern end of the Greater Toronto Area (GTA) and includes the Niagara, Hamilton and Waterloo Regions,. The air quality of this region is frequently severely impaired in the summer months. In the larger metropolitan areas (Toronto and Hamilton) air pollution is a concern throughout the year. Local health authorities attribute about 1000 premature deaths per year in the GTA alone to air pollution. Average air pollution levels in Ontario have decreased significantly during the past 30 years, despite significant growth in both population and industry. The concentrations of SO2 and CO have decreased by over 80% and the concentration of NOX has decreased by about 50% over the past 26 years. Currently, the concentrations of NOX, CO, SO2 and VOCs in the COR are well below the Provincial and Federal air quality criteria. Ozone, PM2.5 and PM10, however, remain above the Provincial guidelines, so smog still remains a problem. The pollutants in the atmosphere of the COR are caused by both local emissions and long range transport. The COR contributes over 50% of the NOx, VOC and CO emissions in Ontario. Over 58% of NOX and CO emissions in the COR are due to mobile sources while about 50% of VOC and PM emissions are due to area sources. The proximity of the COR to the Canada-U.S. border makes it vulnerable to long range transport of pollutants stemming from the much larger population in the United States. The Canadian government, industries and non-governmental organizations are all taking steps to help reduce the level of pollution in Canada. The Canadian federal government also participates in extensive consultations and cooperative programs with the United States designed to reduce the mutually detrimental effects of cross-border pollution. These

  6. Regulatory Regionalism and Education: The European Union in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Peter

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the purchase which Jayasuriya's regulatory regionalism approach offers for an analysis of the European Union's engagement in Central Asia. The European Union has a clearly articulated strategy through which to pursue what it sees as its interests in Central Asia and the development of a range of EU-Central Asia education…

  7. Regional Strategic Appraisal of Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    originally consisted of five states that gained their independence from Spain in 1821 and formed a single country, called Central America Federation ...and in each case a civilian president has voluntarily yielded power to another elected civilian. Electoral processes have nearly acquired a “life of...Observatorio de Seguridad y Defensa en America Latina (OSAL), Instituto Universitario Ortega y Gasset. 38 Ibid. 26 BIBLIOGRAPHY Agosin, Manuel R., David

  8. Regional flood-frequency relations for west-central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seijo, M.A.; Giovannelli, R.F.; Turner, J.F.

    1979-01-01

    This report presents regional relations for estimating the magnitude and frequency of floods on streams in west-central Florida. Flood prediction equations derived cover 20, 5-, 25-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals. Annual floods for three geographic areas of west-central Florida were found to relate significantly to basin characteristics. Basin characteristics include drainage area, soils index, slope, and lake area. The average standard error of estimate for regional flood relations ranged from 38.4 to 52.1 percent with a mean of 43.5 percent. The average multiple correlation coefficient if 0.94. Regional relations apply to gaged and ungaged sites whose drainage areas are greater than 10 but less than 2,500 square miles. Tables of maximum known floods for 64 streamflow stations used in the analysis are included. Tables comparing station, weighted, and regional flood-peak discharges are also included. (Kosco-USGS)

  9. Possible existence of wormholes in the central regions of halos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahaman, Farook, E-mail: rahaman@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Mathematics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700032, West Bengal (India); Salucci, P., E-mail: salucci@sissa.it [SISSA, International School for Advanced Studies, Via Bonomea 265, 34136, Trieste (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Trieste, Via Valerio 2, 34127, Trieste (Italy); Kuhfittig, P.K.F., E-mail: kuhfitti@msoe.edu [Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee School of Engineering, Milwaukee, WI 53202-3109 (United States); Ray, Saibal, E-mail: saibal@iucaa.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Government College of Engineering and Ceramic Technology, Kolkata 700010, West Bengal (India); Rahaman, Mosiur, E-mail: mosiurju@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, Meghnad Saha Institute of Technology, Kolkata 700150 (India)

    2014-11-15

    An earlier study (Rahaman, et al., 2014 and Kuhfittig, 2014) has demonstrated the possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of the galactic halo, based on the Navarro–Frenk–White (NFW) density profile. This paper uses the Universal Rotation Curve (URC) dark matter model to obtain analogous results for the central parts of the halo. This result is an important compliment to the earlier result, thereby confirming the possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies. - Highlights: • Earlier we showed possible existence of wormholes in the outer regions of halo. • We obtain here analogous results for the central parts of the galactic halo. • Our result is an important compliment to the earlier result. • This confirms possible existence of wormholes in most of the spiral galaxies.

  10. Trade policy and regionalism in the Central African Republic

    OpenAIRE

    Walkenhorst, Peter

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the trade policy situation in the Central African Republic (CAR) and identifies a number of key issues and challenges for the country. The focus of the study is thereby on how trade taxes and quantitative restrictions affect the goods sector. The analysis falls into three parts. First, the state of domestic trade policy is described, with particular emphasis on the structure and economic effects of border policies. Then, CAR’s regional integration efforts are examined, ...

  11. Research on Optimal Development Pattern of Yunnan Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Diego Salmero; Suman Rana

    2012-01-01

    By the case study on the Urban Agglomeration Plan of Yunnan Central Economic Region (YCER), which is jointly made by Chinese and Swiss scholars, with the adoption of GIS and traditional urban planning methods, this paper uses multiple scenarios to analyze four development models of "Scattered Yunnan," "Regional Yunnan," "Metropolitan Yunnan" and "Network Yunnan." It also explores the relatively rational scenarios for the future development of YCER, i.e., up to 2030, the development model of YCER will be "Regional," and after 2030 it will be "Network." In this way, YCER will be developed stably and methodically, and finally achieve the unification of ecological safety, intensified energy and resources, as well as prosperous economy.

  12. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 7. The south central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, R.L.; Graves, L.F.; Sprankle, A.C.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1981-03-01

    This atlas of the south central region combines seven collections of wind resource data: one for the region, and one for each of the six states (Arkansas, Kansas, Louisiana, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas). At the state level, features of the climate, topography, and wind resource are discussed in greater detail than that provided in the regional discussion, and the data locations on which the assessment is based are mapped. Variations, over several time scales, in the wind resource at selected stations in each state are shown on graphs of monthly average and interannual wind speed and power, and hourly average wind speed for each season. Other graphs present speed, direction, and duration frequencies of the wind at these locations.

  13. Seismicity Surveying in Central and North Mexico Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto-Samaniego, A.; Gomez-Gonzalez, J. M.; Guzman-Speziale, M.; Zuniga, R.; Alaniz-Alvarez, S.; Barboza, R.; Davalos, O.

    2003-12-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. We carried out a seismic survey in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Central Altiplano. These regions are characterized by a very low deformation rates. Seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes, but no large historic earthquake has been instrumentally recorded. Only few direct observations such as intensity reconstructions and recent paleoseismic studies (e.g. the Acambay-Tixmadej earthquake of 1912) are available. Large earthquakes have occurred but their recurrence period is unknown; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. In order to understand the regional seismic behavior, we installed a temporal network. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of 16-bits triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several seismic sequences over a period of several months. One of them took place in Guanajuato within a graben structure in the TMVB and lasted for 2 weeks. Another sequence occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB in the Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks, several micro-earthquakes M Sierra Gorda, the event distribution is aligned along a small valley, but perpendicular to the main structural grain imposed by the Sierra Madre Oriental range. In no instances have surface ruptures been observed; those seismogenic structures could be blind ones. A challenge is to locate this structures which are may be too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region will yield further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field. Our results provide evidence that the region requires more intensive seismic surveying, and in some cases that some structures have been reactivated recently.

  14. Genetics/Genomics Research in the Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    Genetics-based research within the Biological Resources Discipline (BRD) Science Centers in the Central Region incorporates many aspects of the field of genetics. Research activities range from documenting patterns of genetic variation in order to investigate relationships among species, populations and individuals to investigating the structure, function and expression of genes and their response to environmental stressors. Research in the broad areas of genetics requires multidisciplinary expertise and specialized equipment and instrumentation. Brief summaries of the capabilities of the five BRD Centers are given below.

  15. Extragalactic sources towards the central region of the Galaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, Subhashis; Subrahmanyan, Ravi

    2005-01-01

    We have observed a sample of 64 small diameter sources towards the central -6 degree < l< 6 degree, -2 degree < b < 2 degree of the Galaxy with the aim of studying the Faraday rotation measure near the Galactic Centre (GC) region. All the sources were observed at 6 and 3.6 cm wavelengths using the ATCA and the VLA. Fifty nine of these sources are inferred to be extragalactic. The observations presented here constitute the first systematic study of the radio polarisation properties of the background sources towards this direction and increases the number of known extragalactic radio sources in this part of the sky by almost an order of magnitude. Based on the morphology, spectral indices and lack of polarised emission, we identify four Galactic HII regions in the sample.

  16. Shallow Crustal Thermal Structures of Central Taiwan Foothills Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shao-Kai Wu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Crustal thermal structures are closely related to metamorphism, rock rheology, exhumation processes, hydrocarbon maturation levels, frictional faulting and other processes. Drilling is the most direct way to access the temperature fields in the shallow crust. However, a regional drilling program for geological investigation is usually very expensive. Recently, a large-scale in-situ investigation program in the Western Foothills of Central Taiwan was carried out, providing a rare opportunity to conduct heat flow measurements in this region where there are debates as to whether previous measured heat flows are representative of the thermal state in this region. We successfully collected 28 geothermal gradients from these wells and converted them into heat flows. The new heat flow dataset is consistent with previous heat flows, which shows that the thermal structures of Central Taiwan are different from that of other subduction accretionary prisms. We then combine all the available heat flow information to analyze the frictional parameters of the Chelungpu fault zone that ruptured during the 1999, Chi-Chi, Taiwan, earthquake. The heat flow dataset gave consistent results compared with the frictional parameters derived from another independent study that used cores recovered from the Chelungpu fault zone at depth. This study also shows that it is suitable for using heat-flow data obtained from shallow subsurface to constrain thrusting faulting parameters, similar to what had been done for the strike-slip San Andreas Fault in California. Additional fieldworks are planned to study heat flows in other mountainous regions of Taiwan for more advanced geodynamic modeling efforts.

  17. Seismicity surveying in central and north mexico region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, J. M.; Guzmán, M.; Nieto, A.; Zúñiga, R.; Alaniz, S.; Barboza, R.

    2003-04-01

    The seismic nature of Central Mexico is poorly understood due to insufficient sampling. This region is characterized by a very low deformation rate. The seismic activity is variable and ranges from microseismicity to large earthquakes. Some large earthquakes have occurred with an unknown returning period; structural studies show this recurrence could range from hundreds to thousands of years. Some authors argue that there is not connection between ancient and recent activity. We carried out several seismic surveys in part of the TransMexican Volcanic Belt (TMVB) and the Altiplano Central. We installed a temporal network, in order to record spatial seismic distribution. This network consists of 3-5 short period instruments, consisting of triaxial digital velocity recorders (0.01-4.5 Hz). We registered several swarms; one took place in Guanajuato and lasted for 2 weeks. Another crisis occurred at the northern limit of the TMVB at Sierra Gorda. Over five weeks several micro-earthquakes M < 2 were felt with anomaously high intensity. Relocated seismicity shows very shallow (< 10km) activity. The regional crust conditions appear to be roughly uniform even though the seismicity varies significantly. In some cases like seismic swarms, several microearthquakes are aligned, and seem to be quasi-parallel to the direction of the fault strike, some other times they are perpendicular. However, surface ruptures associated to earthquakes are not observed to confirm this. Then, a challenge is to locate the seismogenic structures, basically because of the surface structures are too old to be still active. Increased seismotectonic knowledge of this region may give further insight into the details of the interaction between surface structures driven by the regional stress field.

  18. Centralization of a regional clinical microbiology service: The Calgary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, D L; Hall, P

    1999-11-01

    Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS) in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA) and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL). Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs) are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  19. Centralization of a Regional Clinical Microbiology Service: The Calgary Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deirdre L Church

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic laboratory services in Alberta have been dramatically restructured over the past five years. In 1994, Alberta Health embarked on an aggressive laboratory restructuring that cut back approximately 30% of the overall monies previously paid to the laboratory service sector in Calgary. A unique service delivery model consolidated all institutional and community-based diagnostic testing in a company called Calgary Laboratory Services (CLS in late 1996. CLS was formed by a public/private partnership between the Calgary Regional Health Care Authority (CRHA and MDS-Kasper Laboratories. By virtue of its customer service base and scope of testing, CLS provides comprehensive regional laboratory services to the entire populace. Regional microbiology services within CLS have been successfully consolidated over the past three years into a centralized high volume laboratory (HVL. Because the HVL is not located in a hospital, rapid response laboratories (RRLs are operated at each acute care site. Although the initial principle behind the proposed test menus for the RRLs was that only procedures requiring a clinical turnaround time of more than 2 h stay on-site, many other principles had to be used to develop and implement an efficient and clinically relevant RRL model for microbiology. From these guiding principles, a detailed assessment of the needs of each institution and extensive networking with user groups, the functions of the microbiology RRLs were established and a detailed implementation plan drawn up. The experience at CLS with regards to restructuring a regional microbiology service is described herein. A post-hoc analysis provides the pros and cons of directing and operating a regionalized microbiology service.

  20. The impact of landslides in the Umbria region, central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Guzzetti

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Umbria Region of Central Italy has a long history of mass movements. Landslides range from fast moving rock falls and debris flows, most abundant in mountain areas, to slow moving complex failures extending up to several hectares in the hilly part of the Region. Despite landslides occurring every year in Umbria, their impact remains largely unknown. We present an estimate of the impact of slope failures in the Umbria region based on the analysis of a catalogue of historical information on landslide events, a recent and detailed regional landslide inventory map, and three event inventories prepared after major landslide triggering events. Emphasis is given to the impact of landslides on the population, the transportation network, and the built-up areas. Analysis of the available historical information reveals that 1488 landslide events occurred at 1292 sites in Umbria between 1917 and 2001. In the same period 16 people died or were missing and 31 people were injured by slope movements. Roads and railways were damaged by slope failures at 661 sites, and 281 built-up areas suffered landslide damage. Three event inventories showing landslides triggered by high intensity rainfall events in the period 1937–1941, rapid snow melting in January 1997, and earthquakes in September–October 1997, indicate the type, abundance and distribution of damage to the population, the built-up areas and the transportation network caused by typical landslide-triggering events. Analysis of a geomorphological landslide inventory map reveals that in some of the municipalities in the region total landslide area exceeds 25%. Of the more than 45 700 landslide areas shown in the geomorphological inventory map, 4115 intersect a road or railway, and 6119 intersect a built-up area. In these areas slope failures can be expected during future landslide triggering events.

  1. 40 CFR 81.155 - Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.155 Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Maryland Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Maryland Intrastate...

  2. 40 CFR 81.138 - Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.138 Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Arkansas Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Arkansas Intrastate...

  3. 40 CFR 81.143 - Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.143 Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Virginia Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Virginia Intrastate...

  4. 40 CFR 81.142 - Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.142 Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Massachusetts Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Massachusetts Intrastate...

  5. 40 CFR 81.95 - Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Regions § 81.95 Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed by the boundaries of the... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Central Florida Intrastate Air...

  6. 40 CFR 81.96 - West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false West Central Florida Intrastate Air... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.96 West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The West Central Florida Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area...

  7. Placing Central European climate archives into a regional tephrochronological framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, C. S.; Blockley, S. P. E.; Lotter, A. F.; Filippi, M. L.; Pollard, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    A number of Lateglacial and Early Holocene lacustrine records from Central and Southern Europe have been shown to contain both visible and micro-tephra deposits, which can be correlated to volcanic eruptions from multiple volcanic sources. Detailed environmental proxy records, which outline local and regional responses to the abrupt climatic changes of the Last Glacial to Interglacial transition (LGIT), are thus constrained within a regional tephrochronological framework. Amongst other volcanic markers, the Laacher See Tephra, erupted from the Eifel region of Germany at 12,880 ±120 varve yrs BP (Brauer et al., 1999), and the Vedde Ash, erupted from Iceland between 12,225 and 11,832 cal. yrs BP (Blockley et al., 2007), are found within some of the same lake cores (e.g., Blockley et al., 2008). These key horizons, which bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas Interstadial, provide precise and absolutely dated tie points around which a detailed picture of the timing of local and regional environmental transitions can be constructed. The presence of the Vedde Ash in the Swiss lake sites allows a direct linkage to the Greenland Ice Core chronology (Mortensen et al., 2005) and highlights the potential for key tephra deposits to be found and correlated across wide geographical areas. This paper summarises the results of tephrochronological investigations into a suite of Central European records, which includes: Soppensee and Rotsee, in Central Switzerland; Rotmeer, in Southern Germany; and Lavarone, in Northern Italy. Chemical analysis of each tephra deposit has been carried out and the sources of the eruption events have been identified. Where appropriate, tephra ages have been transferred from high-precision annually-resolved chronologies and integrated with Bayesian-based radiocarbon age models for the sites. The environmental archives of the LGIT at each site are then compared on a common timescale, and further comparisons are made with other published European tephra

  8. Fire effects on wildlife in Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Craig A.; Ford, William; Lashley, Marcus A.; Moorman, Christopher; Stambaugh, Michael C.

    2016-01-01

    Fire is being prescribed and used increasingly to promote ecosystem restoration (e.g., oak woodlands and savannas) and to manage wildlife habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachian regions, USA. However, questions persist as to how fire affects hardwood forest communities and associated wildlife, and how fire should be used to achieve management goals. We provide an up-to-date review of fire effects on various wildlife species and their habitat in the Central Hardwoods and Appalachians. Documented direct effects (i.e., mortality) on wildlife are rare. Indirect effects (i.e., changes in habitat quality) are influenced greatly by light availability, fire frequency, and fire intensity. Unless fire intensity is great enough to kill a portion of the overstory, burning in closed-canopy forests has provided little benefit for most wildlife species in the region because it doesn’t result in enough sunlight penetration to elicit understory response. Canopy reduction through silvicultural treatment has enabled managers to use fire more effectively. Fire intensity must be kept low in hardwoods to limit damage to many species of overstory trees. However, wounding or killing trees with fire benefits many wildlife species by allowing increased sunlight to stimulate understory response, snag and subsequent cavity creation, and additions of large coarse woody debris. In general, a fire-return interval of 2 yr to 7 yr benefits a wide variety of wildlife species by providing a diverse structure in the understory; increasing browse, forage, and soft mast; and creating snags and cavities. Historically, dormant-season fire was most prevalent in these regions, and it still is when most prescribed fire is implemented in hardwood systems as burn-days are relatively few in the growing season of May through August because of shading from leaf cover and high fuel moisture. Late growing-season burning increases the window for burning, and better control on woody composition is

  9. Probing the Central Regions of Nearby Compact Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davidge, T J; McGregor, P J

    2008-01-01

    K-band spectroscopic observations recorded with NIFS+ALTAIR on Gemini North are used to probe the central arcsec of the compact elliptical galaxies NGC 4486B, NGC 5846A, and M32. The angular resolution of these data is ~0.1 arcsec FWHM. The central stellar contents of NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A are similar, in the sense that they occupy the same regions of the (Ca I, 12CO), (Na I, 12CO) and (13CO, 12CO) diagrams. The NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A observations depart from the sequence defined by solar neighborhood giants in the (Na I, 12CO) diagram, in a sense that is consistent with both galaxies having non-solar chemical mixtures. For comparison, the M32 data is consistent with a chemical enrichment history like that in the Galactic disk; M32 could not have formed from the stripping of a larger elliptical galaxy. The behaviour of the near-infrared line indices as a function of radius is also investigated. The radial gradients that are present in NGC 4486B and NGC 5846A at large radii break down or reverse within the ...

  10. Regional geothermal exploration in north central New Mexico. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Icerman, L. (ed.)

    1984-02-01

    A broad-based geothermal resource reconnaissance study covering Bernalillo, Los Alamos, Rio Arriba, San Miguel, Sandoval, Santa Fe, Taos, Torrance, and Valencia counties in north central New Mexico was conducted from June 15, 1981, through September 30, 1983. Specific activities included the compilation of actual temperature, bottom-hole temperature gradient, and geotemperature data; tabulation of water chemistry data; field collection of temperature-depth data from existing wells; and drilling of temperature gradient holes in the Ojo Caliente, San Ysidro, Rio Puerco, and Polvadera areas. The data collected were used to perform: (1) a regional analysis of the geothermal energy potential of north central New Mexico; (2) two site-specific studies of the potential relationship between groundwater constrictions and geothermal resources; (3) an evaluation of the geothermal energy potential at Santa Ana Pueblo; (4) a general analysis of the geothermal energy resources of the Rio Grande Rift, including specific data on the Valles Caldera; and (5) an evaluation of the use of geothermometers on New Mexico groundwaters. Separate abstracts were prepared for individual chapters.

  11. Large cutting tools in the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region, central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuman, Kathleen; Li, Chaorong; Li, Hao

    2014-11-01

    Handaxe-bearing sites in China are currently known to occur in a number of alluvial basins, the best known being Dingcun, Bose and Luonan. Bose in the south and Luonan in central China on the northern margin of the Qinling Mountains are most familiar to English-speaking researchers. Here we document the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) as another major area for large cutting tools (LCTs), located in central China on the southeastern edge of the Qinling Mountains. Large cutting tools are preserved in three terraces of the Han and Dan Rivers in Hubei and Henan Provinces, with dates from ca. 0.8 Ma (millions of years ago) (Terrace 4) to the first half of the Middle Pleistocene (Terrace 3), and possibly to the Late Pleistocene (Terrace 2). This paper reports on LCTs discovered in Terraces 3 and 2, with a majority from the older terrace (and one specimen from Terrace 4). Regional environments during the Middle Pleistocene were relatively warm, humid and stable. Despite the poor quality of raw materials (predominantly quartz phyllite and trachyte for the LCTs), good examples of both handaxes and cleavers are present, plus two types of picks. The LCT technology is compared and contrasted with other Asian industries and with the Acheulean. Overall the DRR LCTs show both technological and morphological similarities with Acheulean LCTs, with some differences that are mainly attributed to raw material properties, subsistence ecology, and 'cultural drift.' The DRR LCTs expand the range of morphological variability of the East Asian material and highlight the need for greater reliance on technological analysis and raw material evaluation for best comparison of Chinese assemblages with the Acheulean tradition.

  12. FILAMENTOUS FUNGI ON GRAPES IN CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľubomír Rybárik

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The concern about filamentous fungi in the vineyards has traditionally been linked to spoilage of grapes due to fungal growth. The aims of this study were to monitor the mycobiota in Central Slovak wine region. The Central Slovak wine region is divided into seven different subregions. In this work we had ten grape samples from seven various wine growing subregions and eight different villages. Five of these samples were from white grape berries and five were from red grape berries. The sample nr. 7 was without chemical protection (interspecific variety and three samples (nr. 8, 9, 10 were from bio-production. In the samples were determined exogenous contamination (direct platting method and endogenous contamination (surface-disinfected grapes. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method that each sample of 50 grape berries without visible damage was direct plated on to a DRBC agar medium. In exogenous contamination was detected 17 different genera Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Bipolaris, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Cunninghamella, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Sordaria, Trichoderma and group Mycelia sterilia in which we included all colony of filamentous fungi that after incubation did not create fruiting bodies necessary for identification to genera level. By the endogenous contamination was each sample of 50 grape berries was surface-disinfected with sodium hypochlorite solution (1% for 1 min, rinsed in sterile distilled water three times and plated onto a DRBC (Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol medium, Merck, Germany. The plates were incubated at 25±1 ºC for 7 days in the dark. By the endogenous plating method was identified 15 different genera from all ten samples Alternaria, Arthrinium, Aspergillus, Botrytis, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Geotrichum, Gelasinospora, Chaetomium, Mucor, Penicillium, Phoma, Rhizopus, Trichoderma and Mycelia sterilia.

  13. Shrub Encroachment and Regional Climate Change in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Y.; De Wekker, S.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    Shrub encroachment is a global ecological phenomenon that involves a decrease in grass cover and an increase in density and coverage of woody species in semi-desert area and is associated with a number of environmental change drivers. In Southwestern U.S., such a dramatic vegetation transition has been occurring since mid 19th century and has resulted in loss of ecosystem services. The change in vegetation cover affects the mass and energy exchange between the land surface and the atmosphere and can therefore impact local climate and contribute to regional climate change. In particular, nighttime warming has been observed in the shrub dominated landscapes near the encroaching front in winter months. This nighttime warming favors the successful establishment and survival of a certain shrub species, Larrea tridentata, because of its sensitivity to freezing induced mortality. As a result, further shrub encroachment may be facilitated by the nighttime warming, resulting in a positive vegetation-microclimate feedback. To assess the relative importance of the observed nighttime warming due to changes in vegetation cover compared to the background climate warming, we use historical climate records and output from regional climate models. Results show that the nighttime warming induced by shrub encroachment is equivalent to a change in regional climate warming over the last 40-70 years in central New Mexico. Moreover, we show results from atmospheric mesoscale model simulations with the goal to assess if the nighttime warming caused by differences in vegetation cover can be simulated. We need to ensure that the nighttime warming is simulated well, so that realistic regional climate simulations can be performed to predict the rate of shrub encroachment if facilitated only by the vegetation-microclimate feedback.

  14. Central San Juan caldera cluster: regional volcanic framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipman, Peter W.

    2000-01-01

    symmetrically resurgent Creede caldera, the volcanic framework for Lake Creede, has been exceptionally preserved because of rapid infilling by moat sediments of the Creede Formation, which were preferentially eroded during the past few million years. The ash-flow tuffs and caldera of the central San Juan region have been widely recognized as exceptional sites for study of explosive volcanic processes, and the results reported here provide new insights into processes of pyroclastic eruption and emplacement, geometric interrelations between caldera subsidence and resurgence, the petrologic diversity of sequential ash-flow eruptions, recurrent eruption of intermediate-composition lavas after each caldera-forming event, associated regional fault development, volume relations between ash-flow eruptions and associated calderas, the emplacement of subvolcanic batholiths, and involvement of mantle-derived mafic phases in magma-generation processes.

  15. Axisymmetrical Gas Inflow in the Central Region of NGC 7331

    CERN Document Server

    Battaner, E; Guijarro, A; Arribas, S; Florido, E

    2003-01-01

    New Integral Field Spectroscopy of the central region of NGC 7331 reveals strong H$\\alpha$ emission in the well-known CO and HI ring of NGC 7331. The [NII]/H$\\alpha$ ratio indicates that a large scale stellar formation process is taken place at the ring in agreement with previous hypothesis about the exhaustion of gas in the inner to the ring region. The dynamics of stars and gas are not coupled. There is a ring of peculiar velocities in the ionized gas velocity map. These peculiar velocities can be well interpreted by the presence of an axisymmetric inflow of 40 km/s at the inner boundary of the large-scale gaseous ring. We infer an inwards total flux of 1.6 M$_{\\odot}$yr$^{-1}$. This value is typical of the accretion rates in hypothetical {\\bf large} nuclear black holes. Despite the large differences in the scales of the nucleus and the gas ring of NGC 7331, we suggest that this inwards flux is feeding the nucleus.

  16. A regional dynamic vegetation-climate model for Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snell, R. S.; Cowling, S. A.; Smith, B.

    2009-12-01

    Global vegetation models simulate the distribution of vegetation as a function of climate. Dynamic global vegetation models (DGVMs) are also able to simulate the vegetation shifts in response to climate change, which makes them particularly useful for addressing questions about past and future climate scenarios. However, DGVMs have been criticized for using generic plant functional types (PFTs) and running the models at a coarse grid cell resolution. Regional dynamic vegetation models are able to simulate important landscape variation, since they use a finer resolution and specific PFTs for their region. Regional studies have typically focused on boreal or temperate ecosystems in North America and Europe. We will be presenting the results of applying a dynamic regional vegetation-climate model (LPJ-GUESS) for Central America. Initially, the model was run with the described global PFTs. However, several biomes were very poorly represented. Two PFTs were added: a Tropical Needleleaf Evergreen Tree to improve the simulation of the Mixed Pine-Oak biome, and a Desert Shrub to capture the Xeric Shrublands. The overall distribution of biomes was visually similar, however the Kappa statistic indicated a poor agreement with the potential biome map (overall Kappa = 0.301). The Kappa statistic did improve as we aggregated cell sizes and simplified the biomes (overall Kappa = 0.728). Compared to remote sensing data, the model showed a strong correlation with total LAI (r = 0.75). The poor Kappa statistic is likely due to a combination of factors. The way in which biomes are defined by the author can have a large influence on the level of agreement between simulated and potential vegetation. The Kappa statistic is also limited to comparing individual grid cells and thus, cannot detect overall patterns. Examining those areas which are poorly represented will help to identify future work and improve the representation of vegetation in these ecological models. In particular, the

  17. 40 CFR 81.104 - Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.104 Section 81.104 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.104 Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Central Pennsylvania Intrastate Air Quality Control Region consists of the territorial area encompassed...

  18. 40 CFR 81.47 - Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Quality Control Region. 81.47 Section 81.47 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Air Quality Control Regions § 81.47 Central Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region. The Metropolitan Oklahoma Intrastate Air Quality Control Region has been renamed the Central Oklahoma...

  19. Inference of biogeographical ancestry across central regions of Eurasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulbul, O; Filoglu, G; Zorlu, T; Altuncul, H; Freire-Aradas, A; Söchtig, J; Ruiz, Y; Klintschar, M; Triki-Fendri, S; Rebai, A; Phillips, C; Lareu, M V; Carracedo, Á; Schneider, P M

    2016-01-01

    The inference of biogeographical ancestry (BGA) can provide useful information for forensic investigators when there are no suspects to be compared with DNA collected at the crime scene or when no DNA database matches exist. Although public databases are increasing in size and population scope, there is a lack of information regarding genetic variation in Eurasian populations, especially in central regions such as the Middle East. Inhabitants of these regions show a high degree of genetic admixture, characterized by an allele frequency cline running from NW Europe to East Asia. Although a proper differentiation has been established between the cline extremes of western Europe and South Asia, populations geographically located in between, i.e, Middle East and Mediterranean populations, require more detailed study in order to characterize their genetic background as well as to further understand their demographic histories. To initiate these studies, three ancestry informative SNP (AI-SNP) multiplex panels: the SNPforID 34-plex, Eurasiaplex and a novel 33-plex assay were used to describe the ancestry patterns of a total of 24 populations ranging across the longitudinal axis from NW Europe to East Asia. Different ancestry inference approaches, including STRUCTURE, PCA, DAPC and Snipper Bayes analysis, were applied to determine relationships among populations. The structure results show differentiation between continental groups and a NW to SE allele frequency cline running across Eurasian populations. This study adds useful population data that could be used as reference genotypes for future ancestry investigations in forensic cases. The 33-plex assay also includes pigmentation predictive SNPs, but this study primarily focused on Eurasian population differentiation using 33-plex and its combination with the other two AI-SNP sets.

  20. Formation of Galactic Prominence in the Galactic Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Chih-Han; Matsumoto, Ryoji

    2017-02-01

    We carried out 2.5-dimensional resistive MHD simulations to study the formation mechanism of molecular loops observed by Fukui et al. in the Galactic central region. Since it is hard to form molecular loops by lifting up dense molecular gas, we study the formation mechanism of molecular gas in rising magnetic arcades. This model is based on the in situ formation model of solar prominences, in which prominences are formed by cooling instability in helical magnetic flux ropes formed by imposing converging and shearing motion at footpoints of the magnetic arch anchored to the solar surface. We extended this model to Galactic center scale (a few hundreds of parsecs). Numerical results indicate that magnetic reconnection taking place in the current sheet that formed inside the rising magnetic arcade creates dense blobs confined by the rising helical magnetic flux ropes. Thermal instability taking place in the flux ropes forms dense molecular filaments floating at high Galactic latitude. The mass of the filament increases with time and can exceed {10}5 {M}ȯ .

  1. Long regional magnetotelluric profile crossing geotectonic structures of central Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefaniuk, M.; Pokorski, J.; Wojdyla, M.

    2009-04-01

    Introduction The magnetotelluric survey was made along a regional profile, which runs across Poland from south-west to north-east during 2005-2006 years. The profile crosses major geological structures of Central Poland, including the Variscan Externides and Variscan foredeep, the Transeuropean Suture Zone and the marginal zone of East European Craton. The main objectives of the project include identification of sub-Zechstein sedimentary structures and evaluation of resistivity distribution within the deep crust, especially at the contact of East European Precambrian Craton and Central Europe Paleozoic structures. The length of the profile is about 700 km; 161 deep magnetotelluric sounding sites were made with a medium spacing of about 4 km. Data acquisition and processing The recording of the components of natural electromagnetic field was made with a broad range of frequencies, varying from 0.0003 Hz up to 575 Hz with use of MT-1 system of Electromagnetic Instruments Incorporation. This frequency band allowed obtaining the information about geology ranging from a few dozen meters to approximately 100 km, depending on the vertical distribution of the resistivity inside geological medium. To reduce the electromagnetic noise, magnetic and electric remote reference was applied. A remote reference site was located at a distance of over 100 km of field sites. Processing of the recorded data included the estimation of the components of impedance tensor (Zxx, Zxy, Zyx and Zyy ), with use of robust type procedures. The components of the impedance tensor allowed in a subsequent step for calculation of field curves for two orientations of the measurement system (XY - described further as the TM mode and YX - TE mode) and additional parameters of the medium like skew, strike, pole diagrams etc. Recording of the vertical component of electromagnetic field (Hz) allowed calculation of tipper parameter T. Magnetotelluric soundings interpretation Geophysical interpretation of MT

  2. Centrality and economic development in the Rijnland region: social and spatial concepts of centrality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nes, A.

    2007-01-01

    In urban research, spatial and social concepts of centrality are being distinguished. From a spatial point of view, metrical centrality implies that something is located in the middle of an area. However, metrical and topological centrality are not equivalent. In research where space syntax methods

  3. Central Wind Forecasting Programs in North America by Regional Transmission Organizations and Electric Utilities: Revised Edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, J.; Porter, K.

    2011-03-01

    The report and accompanying table addresses the implementation of central wind power forecasting by electric utilities and regional transmission organizations in North America. The first part of the table focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that have central wind power forecasting in place; the second part focuses on electric utilities and regional transmission organizations that plan to adopt central wind power forecasting in 2010. This is an update of the December 2009 report, NREL/SR-550-46763.

  4. Drug Trafficking as a Lethal Regional Threat in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    and Central America are only found in some magazines like TIME, and “Nueva Sociedad ” [New Society]. Another good source for analysis of current...relacion compleja” [Drugs and Insecurity in Latin America: a complex relation] published by the Colombian magazine Nueva Sociedad in July-August 2000...Organization of American States. 65 Table 1. Police Ratios in Central America Source: Author Interviews; Observatoriapara la violencia , Honduras; CIA

  5. Analysis on natural gas geo-politics in Central Asia-Russia region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Dan

    2010-09-15

    In the year of 2009, some events happened in Central Asia-Russia Region. The transit countries of Nabucco pipeline signed the agreement and the project received considerable progress. The China-Turkmenistan pipeline achieved the completion of ventilation. All these could be landmarks in Central Asia-Russia's geo-political situation. Diversification strategy of gas imports in Europe and diversification strategy of export in Central Asia have been effectively promoted, and the relationship between China and Central Asia becomes closer. Now, the new supply pattern of the region is coming into being and the nature gas geo-political situation in the region is undergoing profound changes.

  6. Modified Designs of the Spiral Inflector and Central Region for CRM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The Dee voltage required by the design of the central region for the CRM (Central Region Model) cyclotron is 50 kV, but during the operation of the RF system, we find that the practical Dee voltage calculated based on the

  7. Regional Integration Through Law: the Central American and Caribbean Cases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caserta, Salvatore

    2017-01-01

    . The two Court have also borrowed key jurisprudential principles from the CJEU with the goal of expanding the reach of Central American and Caribbean Community laws. Despite this, both Courts have thus far failed to foster supranationality in their respective systems. This is because the conditions...

  8. Central region design for a 10 MeV internal ion source cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Bin; LIU Kai-Feng; FENG Yi-Zhang; FAN Ming-Wu

    2009-01-01

    Internal ion sources are widely adopted in commercial cyclotrons used for short-life isotopes produc-tion. Without beam manipulation provided by the external beam injection line, the central region of this type of cyclotron is more sensitive and should be carefully designed. A design study and beam dynamics simulation for the central region of a 10 MeV compact cyclotron is presented. The OPERA3D/TOSCA code was used to calculate the electric field from a parameterized three dimensional (3D) central region model. With iterative structure optimizations of the central region, the beam centering and vertical focusing is well controlled, and the RF phase acceptance is around 25° A c++ code for beam simulation in the central region was developed and tested.

  9. Wind energy resource atlas. Volume 5: the East Central Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brode, R.; Stoner, R.; Elliott, D.L.; Barchet, W.R.; George, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    This atlas of the wind energy resource is composed of introductory and background information, a regional summary of the wind resource, and assessments of the wind resource in each state of the region. Background is presented on how the wind resource is assessed and on how the results of the assessment should be interpreted. A description of the wind resource on a regional scale is then given. The results of the wind energy assessments for each state are assembled into an overview and summary of the various features of the regional wind energy resource. Assessments for individual states are presented as separate chapters. The state wind energy resources are described in greater detail than is the regional wind energy resource, and features of selected stations are discussed. This preface outlines the use and interpretation of the information found in the state chapters. States include Delaware, Maryland, Kentucky, North Carolina, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia.

  10. Regional Cooperation in Central Asia & Shanghai Cooperation Organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Of all the post-Soviet states, the five Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan experienced at the dawn of independence the most acute crisis in regime-building, economic self-support and security assurance. The risk of marginalization derived from inborn weakness of geo-political seclusion coupled with widening gap with the world mainstream has caused widespread concern.

  11. The Central Regions of M31 in the 3-5 μm Wavelength Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidge, T. J.; Jensen, Joseph B.; Olsen, K. A. G.

    2006-08-01

    Images obtained with NIRI on the Gemini North telescope are used to investigate the photometric properties of the central regions of M31 in the 3-5 μm wavelength range. The light distribution in the central arcsecond differs from what is seen in the near-infrared in the sense that the difference in peak brightness between P1 and P2 is larger in M' than in K' no obvious signature of P3 is detected in M'. These results can be explained if there is a source of emission that contributes ~20% of the peak M' light of P1, has an effective temperature of no more than a few hundred K, and is located between P1 and P2. Based on the red K-M' color of this source, it is suggested that the emission originates in a circumstellar dust shell surrounding a single bright asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star. Tests of this hypothesis are described. A bright source that is ~8" from the center of the galaxy is also detected in M'. This object has red colors and an absolute brightness in M' that is similar to the most highly evolved AGB stars in the solar neighborhood; hence, it is likely to be a very evolved AGB star embedded in a circumstellar envelope. The K-band brightness of this star is close to the peak expected for AGB evolution, and an age of only a few hundred million years is estimated, which is comparable to that of the P3 star cluster. Finally, using high angular resolution near-infrared adaptive optics images as a guide, a sample of unblended AGB stars outside of the central few arcseconds is defined in L'. The (L', K-L') color-magnitude diagram of these sources shows a dominant AGB population with a peak L' brightness and a range of K-L' colors that are similar to those of the most luminous M giants in the Galactic bulge. Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation (NSF) on behalf of the Gemini partnership

  12. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: South Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-09-01

    snakebite. Effective antivenoms are available. Scorpions, centipedes and widow spiders ( Latrodectus spp.) are common in many parts of the region. A...and systemic effects from envenomization. The brown widow, L. geometricus, and the black widow, L. mactans , are widespread throughout the region...Widow spiders spin a crude web and usually will not bite unless provoked. Latrodectus spp. inject a potent neurotoxin when biting. The bite

  13. Research on Interactive Relationship between Agricultural Insurance and Rural Financial Development in Central and Western Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    By selecting the panel data from 2001 to 2008 in central and western regions,I adopt the methods of covariance analysis test,Hausman test,panel unit root test and co-integration test to conduct empirical research on the interactive relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The results show that there is a long-term balanced and interactive causal relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development in central and western regions.The agricultural insurance in western regions is the cause of rural financial development,while such relationship in central regions is not tenable.There is an interactive promotion relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in central regions,while the relationship between agricultural insurance and rural financial development efficiency in western regions is mutually inhibitive,but the rural financial efficiency in western regions promotes the development of agricultural insurance.Then corresponding suggestions are put forward in order to give full play to the role of mutual promotion between agricultural insurance and rural financial development as follows:reinforce the support degree for policy finance in central and western regions;increase the inputs of rural financial institutions in serving agriculture,countryside and farmers;expand the types and coverage of policy agricultural insurance.

  14. Geospatial database for regional environmental assessment of central Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Stanley E.; San Juan, Carma A.; Fey, David L.; Schmidt, Travis S.; Klein, Terry L.; DeWitt, Ed H.; Wanty, Richard B.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Mitchell, Katharine A.; Adams, Monique G.; Choate, LaDonna M.; Todorov, Todor I.; Rockwell, Barnaby W.; McEachron, Luke; Anthony, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    In conjunction with the future planning needs of the U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a detailed environmental assessment of the effects of historical mining on Forest Service lands in central Colorado. Stream sediment, macroinvertebrate, and various filtered and unfiltered water quality samples were collected during low-flow over a four-year period from 2004–2007. This report summarizes the sampling strategy, data collection, and analyses performed on these samples. The data are presented in Geographic Information System, Microsoft Excel, and comma-delimited formats. Reports on data interpretation are being prepared separately.

  15. A new plate motions model for the central Atlantic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tassi, L.; Schettino, A.

    2010-12-01

    Although the plate kinematics associated with the opening of the central Atlantic ocean after the break-up of Pangaea has been the subject of several studies since the late 1960s, there are still open problems and debated solutions to the tectonic evolution of this area. In particular, the initial fit of Pangaea, the spreading directions during the early stages of opening, the existence of ridge jumps, and the entity of deformation processes in northwest Africa are still subject to different interpretations by distinct research groups. We performed a reassessment of the central Atlantic plate kinematics since the early Jurassic through a re-examination of marine magnetic anomalies and fracture zone trends. A total of 432 ship tracks from the NGDC GEODAS database for the time interval from 1964 through 1994 in the area comprised between the Fifteen-Twenty FZ and the Azores triple junction were analyzed. The data quality was assessed through the examination of Kp indices, and 191 magnetic profiles were extracted having an azimuth that differed from the fracture zones trend by less than 30° and did not cross any fracture zone. Magnetic data collected during moderately disturbed days (Kp > 5) were also filtered away. The 191 ship track segments were projected onto flow lines that parallel existing fracture zones in order to avoid shape distortion of the magnetic anomalies. Finally, the magnetic data were high-pass filtered to remove trends. A new advanced software tool for the analysis and interpretation of the anomalies was developed in order to improve the reliability of magnetic anomaly identifications. The main result of this work is a new map of the magnetic lineations in the central Atlantic, which overcomes the flaws of previous maps. The structural pattern that results from this study evidences that: 1) a unique spreading direction existed during the early and middle Jurassic, and until the M25 - M21 time interval in the late Jurassic. Such a spreading

  16. Diagnostic Analysis on a Regional Rainstorm Weather in North-central Henan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The research aimed to analyze a regional rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province. [Method] Based on the conventional meteorological observation data and the rainfall data of Henan Meteorological Station, the diagnostic analysis of atmospheric thermodynamics and dynamics on a rainstorm weather process in north-central Henan Province on July 19, 2010 was carried out. The characteristics of physical quantity field and the evolution of weather situation in north-central Henan Provi...

  17. Survey of Echinococcosis and Hydatidosis in Kashan Region, Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Arbabi

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydatidosis is one of the major zoonotic diseases that cause considerable economic losses and public health problems worldwide. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of E. granulosus in domestic and wild carnivores and the infection rate of hydatid cyst in slaughtered animals and people in Kashan area, central Iran. A total of 142 carnivores including 70 stray dogs, 40 jackals, 22 red foxes, and 10 wolves were examined for the presence of E. granulosus, as well as, 170510 slaughtered sheep, 162665 goats and 13059 cattle for hydatid cyst infection. In addition, 500 inhabitants in rural areas were examined for antibodies to hydatid cyst. Results indicated that 43.7% of carnivores were infected with E. granulosus. Infection rate in slaughtered animals was 2.7%. Overall, the seroprevalence rate in human cases was 2.4%. Eighty-five patients including 47 females and 38 males were hospitalized. The mean annual incidence rate of hydatidosis in human was three cases per 100 000 populations. In general, the situation of the hydatidosis in the livestock and human and echinococcosis in the carnivores of the Kashan is similar to the other zones in Iran.

  18. Design of Spiral Inflector and Central Region for a Medical Cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    CYCIAE-14 is a medical cyclotron designed to accelerate H- ions and extract protons, and it adopts the external ion source and axial injection line. The spiral inflector and the central region are the important

  19. Implementation of a Regional Healthcare Information Organization in South Central Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-06

    initiative of GSAHC. The purpose of this paper is to provide a strategic plan to implement a R HIO for this region. The plan will utilize the thinking...the South Central Texas RHIO. The growing influence of F HiOs within the global Regional Healthcare Information Organization 26 healthcare industry...These approaches cannot be counted on for the establishment of the South Central Texas R HIO or for its subsequent sustainability. While seed money

  20. POTENTIAL AND LIMITS OF RENEWABLE ENERGY IN THE CENTRAL AND SOUTH-EAST EUROPE REGION

    OpenAIRE

    CIRLEA Filip; Iancu, Iulian

    2012-01-01

    Renewable energy sources (solar power, wind power, hydroenergy, biomass, biofuels) with energy efficiency contribute to increasing security of electricity supply, competitiveness and sustainable development. The countries of the Central and South-East Europe region must to develop a focus on alternative energy sources and on energy efficiency and energy saving. Developing the renewable energy sector in a sustainable manner in the Central and South-East Europe region would enhance security of ...

  1. REGIONAL EMISSIONS OF NITRIC OXIDE (NO) AND CARBON DIOXIDE (CO2) IN AGROECOSYSTEMS IN CENTRAL WEST REGION, BRAZIL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Central West Region in Brazil has been the focus of intense agricultural expansion since the 1970s and, nowadays, a large area of native cerrado has been converted to agricultural use. The expansion was accompanied by intensive use of fertilizer, irrigation and management pra...

  2. Risk analysis of first and last frost occurrences in central Alborz region, Iran

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, M.; Khalili, A.; Hajjam, S.; Kamali, G.A.; Stigter, C.J.

    2007-01-01

    Central Alborz is one of the important agricultural regions of Iran. Occurrence of the first frost in fall and the last frost in spring causes damage to the crops in this region every year. Information about the probable dates of frost occurrence helps farmers in preventing or reducing the damages c

  3. U.S. Higher Education Regional Accreditation Commission Standards and the Centrality of Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paton, Valerie O.; Fitzgerald, Hiram E.; Green, Birgit L.; Raymond, Megan; Borchardt, Melody P.

    2014-01-01

    This study addressed the research question "How do regional accrediting standards apply to the central role of community engagement in U.S. institutions of higher education?" Using descriptive and qualitative methods, two sources were analyzed: published standards of the 6 regional accrediting commissions in the United States and the…

  4. A Year of Transition: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development Annual Report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2009

    2009-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four centers in the United States that work to improve opportunities and quality of life in rural communities. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in its 12-state region, the NCRCRD engages Extension…

  5. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, depression, and Parkinson's disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important CNS functions have yet to be clarified. Here we review murine evidence about the effects of exercise on discrete brain regions involved in important CNS functions. Exercise effects on circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, stress responses in the brain stem and hypothalamic pituitary axis, and movement are examined. The databases Pubmed, Web of Science, and Embase were searched for articles investigating regional brain adaptations to exercise. Brain regions examined included the brain stem, hypothalamus, and basal ganglia. We found evidence of multiple regional adaptations to both forced and voluntary exercise. Exercise can induce molecular adaptations in neuronal function in many instances. Taken together, these findings suggest that the regional physiological adaptations that occur with exercise could constitute a promising field for elucidating molecular and cellular mechanisms of recovery in psychiatric and neurological health conditions.

  6. Co-integration Model of Logistics Infrastructure Investment and Regional Economic Growth in Central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kai; Gan, Xiao-qing; Gao, Kuo

    The speed of logistics infrastructures investment in Central China is still lower than other regions since the rise of the central region strategy was put forward. And the ration of freight turnover was also being down. The analysis with the relations among the central region of the logistics investment, logistics value-added and GDP, found that three variables exists co-integration relation. And found that the investment in logistics infrastructure was the Granger reason of the GDP, the investment in logistics infrastructure and logistics value-added was the Granger reason for each other. According to the analysis, some countermeasures be put forward as following: accelerate the speed of logistics investment, optimize logistics environment, promote the logistics capability, reduce logistics cost, and so on.

  7. Vertical focusing study in the central region of the CYCIAE-100 cyclotron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Hong-Juan; ZHANG Tian-Jue; GUAN Feng-Ping; ZHONG Jun-Qing

    2009-01-01

    The vertical focusing is one of the primary problems in the central region of cyclotrons.This focusing effect brought about by the magnetic field is inclined to be weak near the center of the machine due to the fact that the flutter is small,while the electric focusing forces incurred from the dee gaps become very strong.Since the electric focusing effect is dependent on the RF phase,we have proceeded to carry out analytical calculations and numerical simulation about the vertical focusing in the central region of CYCIAE100,including magnetic focusing,electric focusing and the defocusing effect from the space charge effect.All the results have been used for the design of the central region for CYCIAE-100 and a good vertical focusing has been obtained.

  8. PLATFORM ECONOMIC GROWTH QUALITY OF LIFE QUALITY OF THE POPULATION (ON THE EXAMPLE OF REGIONS OF THE CENTRAL CHERNOZEM REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Volkovа

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. In the real research economic prerequisites of ensuring growth of quality of life of the population of the Central Chernozem region are considered. In our opinion, economic base determines the potential of development of the concrete territorial subject of the Russian Federation and ensuring growth of quality of life. It is established that economic prerequisites are characterized by complexity and versatility of influence. Treat priority indicators of economic development of the region: VRP per capita, structure of economy, investment activity and economic efficiency. The majority of the presented economic indicators had positive dynamics in the studied region, but, at the same time it is established that the steadiest trend of economic development is characteristic for the Belgorod and Lipetsk areas. A difficult situation with economic ensuring growth of quality of life of the population in the Oryol and Tambov areas. Low level of the majority of indicators of economic efficiency of development in these regions is considered the disturbing fact: the labor productivity index, a share of high-tech and knowledge-intensive industries of economy, number of high-performance workplaces decreases. The carried-out analysis allowed to reveal not only a number of problems in areas of the Central Chernozem region, but also to define possibilities of ensuring growth of economic indicators for ensuring improvement of quality of life of the population. Treat their number: the available consumer potential of areas, high level of expenses of budgets of subjects of TsChR on welfare actions, in particular, actively grow expenses of regional budgets on realization of social policy. Also it should be noted growth of investments into fixed capital. In the region it is important to develop for improvement of an economic situation at the level of regional administration actions and the social programs aimed at ensuring quality of life of the population of TsChR.

  9. Contributions to the deployment of furniture in pole central region Tocantins

    OpenAIRE

    Jorge D’ Ambros; Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez; Humberto Angelo

    2012-01-01

    This study was developed in the central region of Tocantins, for the identification and analysis of positive factors, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the furniture supply chain in order to continue the formation of the regional furniture pole. To achieve this objective the methodology used was to listen to local actors and experts in the furniture segment. Seventy-five local actors among industry officials, academic institutions and university representatives were interv...

  10. High Resolution HC3N Observations toward the Central Region of Sagittarius B2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Hyun Soo; Ohishi, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Masaki

    1994-04-01

    We have observed the emission of HC3N J=4-3, 5-4, 10-9 and 12-11 transitions toward the Sgr B2 central region in an area of 150"*150" with resolution of 16"-48". The intensities and central velocities of line profiles show significant variations with positions. In contrast to the intensities of the low J-level transitions which gradually increase from the central source toward the outside region, the HC3N emission of the high J-level transition become stronger toward the central radio continuum source MD5. Systematic change in the radial velocity of each line profile occurs along north-south direction. There are a few peaks in most line profiles, and these indicate that there are multiple velocity components along the line of sight. Distributions of excitation temperature and column density which were estimated from the excitation calculations show the existence of a small(1*2pc), hot(Tex > 50K) core which contains two temperature peaks at about 15" east and north of MD5. The column density of HC3N is (1-3)*10E14 /cm2. Column density at distant position from MD5 is larger than that in the central region. We have deduced that this 'hot-core' has a mass of 10E5 Mo, which is about an order of magnitude larger than those obtained by previous studies.

  11. Decreased centrality of subcortical regions during the transition to adolescence: a functional connectivity study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, João Ricardo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Gadelha, Ary; Vieira, Gilson; Zugman, André; Picon, Felipe Almeida; Pan, Pedro Mario; Hoexter, Marcelo Queiroz; Anés, Mauricio; Moura, Luciana Monteiro; Del'Aquilla, Marco Antonio Gomes; Crossley, Nicolas; Amaro Junior, Edson; Mcguire, Philip; Lacerda, Acioly L T; Rohde, Luis Augusto; Miguel, Euripedes Constantino; Jackowski, Andrea Parolin; Bressan, Rodrigo Affonseca

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of brain maturation processes are a key step to understand the cognitive and emotional changes of adolescence. Although structural imaging findings have delineated clear brain developmental trajectories for typically developing individuals, less is known about the functional changes of this sensitive development period. Developmental changes, such as abstract thought, complex reasoning, and emotional and inhibitory control, have been associated with more prominent cortical control. The aim of this study is to assess brain networks connectivity changes in a large sample of 7- to 15-year-old subjects, testing the hypothesis that cortical regions will present an increasing relevance in commanding the global network. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were collected in a sample of 447 typically developing children from a Brazilian community sample who were submitted to a resting state acquisition protocol. The fMRI data were used to build a functional weighted graph from which eigenvector centrality (EVC) was extracted. For each brain region (a node of the graph), the age-dependent effect on EVC was statistically tested and the developmental trajectories were estimated using polynomial functions. Our findings show that angular gyrus become more central during this maturation period, while the caudate; cerebellar tonsils, pyramis, thalamus; fusiform, parahippocampal and inferior semilunar lobe become less central. In conclusion, we report a novel finding of an increasing centrality of the angular gyrus during the transition to adolescence, with a decreasing centrality of many subcortical and cerebellar regions.

  12. National hydroelectric power resources study. Preliminary inventory of hydropower resources. Volume 4. Lake Central region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-07-01

    The estimates of existing, incremental and the undeveloped hydropower potential for all states in the various regions of the country are presented. In the Lake Central region, the maximum physical potential for all sites exceeds 26,000 MW with an estimated average annual energy of more than 75,000 GWH. By comparison, these values represent about 5% of both the total potential capacity and hydroelectric energy estimated for the entire US. Of the total capacity estimated for the region, 2600 MW has been installed. The remainder (23,600 MW) is the maximum which could be developed by upgrading and expanding existing projects (15,800 MW), and by installing new hydroelectric power capacity at all potentially feasible, undeveloped sites (7800 MW). Small-scale facilities account for some 24% of the region's total installed capacity, but another 900 MW could be added to these and other small water-resource projects. In addition, 900 MW could be installed at potentially feasible, undeveloped small-scale sites. The small-scale resource varies considerably, with the states of Michigan and Wisconsin having the largest potential for incremental development at existing projects in the Lake Central region. This Lake Central region is composed of Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, Kentucky, Missouri, and Iowa.

  13. Inter-rater agreement of the PEWS tools used in Central Denmark Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Claus Sixtus; Aagaard, Hanne; Olesen, Hanne Vebert;

    2016-01-01

    Background Paediatric Early Warning Score (PEWS) tools can assist healthcare providers in the rapid detection and recognition of changes in patient condition. In the Central Denmark Region two different PEWS tool tested in large scale RCT study. However, data from PEWS instruments are only...

  14. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kulkarni, S.; Sobhani, N.; Miller-Schulze, J.P.; Shafer, M.M.; Schauer, J.J.; Solomon, P.A.; Saide, P.E.; Spak, S.N.; Cheng, Y.F.; Denier Van Der Gon, H.A.C.; Lu, Z.; Streets, D.G.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Lantz, J.; Artamonova, M.; Chen, B.; Imashev, S.; Sverdlik, L.; Deminter, J.T.; Adhikary, B.; D'Allura, A.; Wei, C.; Carmichael, G.R.

    2015-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector, and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM) chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather

  15. Miners, peasants and entrepreneurs : Regional development in the Central Highlands of Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, N.; Roberts, B.

    1984-01-01

    This volume traces the development of the central highlands, one of Peru's major mining regions. It draws on extensive fieldwork carried out in Peru between 1970 and 1982, spanning a reforming military government, reaction and a return to civilian politics under Belaunde. Through historical material

  16. NON-TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS IN CENTRAL ASIA REGIONAL PERSPECTIVE OF COMPARATIVE PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakant Trivedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The article explores the roots and current state of religious extremism in Central Asia, as well as investigates its connections with the global salafi movement. It evaluates attempts of the regional players and external stakeholders to address the existing threats, and provides recommendations for their advancement.

  17. Lawn Weeds and Their Control. North Central Regional Extension Publication No. 26.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdue Univ., Lafayette, IN. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This publication discusses lawn weed control for the twelve state north central region of the country. Written for use by homeowners, the publication focuses on weed identification and proper herbicide selection and application. Identification of weeds and safe and appropriate herbicide use are emphasized. Forty-six weed and turf plants are…

  18. SEM in Central Asia: A Look at Professional Needs in the Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekmareva, Larissa M.

    2013-01-01

    Private tuition-dependent universities in Central Asia compete for fee-paying students not only within the country and the region, but also internationally--in the CIS, East Asia, Europe, and the United States. In the universities where state financial support is limited or unavailable, steady student enrollment is the key to budget, development,…

  19. Source Sector and Region Contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Particulate matter (PM) mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA) are analyzed for the period April 2008-July 2009 using the STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the WRF model. Predicted AOD valu...

  20. North Central Region 4-H Volunteers: Documenting Their Contributions and Volunteer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nippolt, Pamela Larson; Pleskac, Sue; Schwartz, Vicki; Swanson, Doug

    2012-01-01

    Documenting volunteer contributions strengthens Extension partnerships with volunteers. A team of North Central Region 4-H volunteer specialists collaborated to conduct a study of 4-H volunteer contributions and impacts related to working with youth within the 4-H program. Over three thousand (3,332) 4-H volunteers from throughout the 12-state…

  1. Globalisation, Geopolitics and Energy Security in Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amineh, Parvizi Mehdi

    2003-07-01

    The demise of the Soviet Union and its subsequent break-up into 15 independent states gave rise to totally new political and strategic circumstances, which also extended into Central Eurasia and the Caspian Region. The eight newly independent states of this region have become one of the most important geopolitical areas in the post-Cold War era, due to a combination of its geographical position and significant oil and gas reserves. The region's resources are vital for advanced industrialised countries and figure prominently in Western geostrategic and economic interests in the twenty-first century. Intense competition, as well as co-operation, among various state and non-state actors for the control of these resources is emerging, also known as the New Great Game. The main actors involved in Central Eurasia and the Caspian region are identified as follows: inner circle actors (Russia, Iran, and Turkey), outer circle actors (China, India, Pakistan, and Afghanistan), external actors (the United States, the European Union and its particular member states), and non-state actors (ethno-religious groups, Transnational Corporations, crime groups, etc.). The author analyses the New Great Game by using a neo-geopolitical perspective. An important element towards control of the region's energy resources is the construction of transport routes. The question of where to construct pipelines engenders considerable conflicts between the interested players that could create obstacles to building the most economically viable and secure pipelines. Transportation of energy resources to the global market is also subject to conflicts between different forces within the Central Eurasian region, including ethno-religious conflicts. Problems such as lack of infrastructure and technology, and finding a solution for the Caspian legal regime dispute could pose further obstacles to prospective pipeline construction. The book analyses these and other important local and geopolitical

  2. Current Situation, Problems and Solutions of Oil Crops in the Central Anatolian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sevgi Çalışkan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Although there is no a significant increase in the cultivation areas of oil crops in last two decades, production amount of them shows 52.2% increase. Sunflower which has the first rank in terms of cultivation area and as well as production in cultivation of oilseed crops in our country, comes to fore as basic oil plant in Central Anatolia Region and it is followed by safflower in rank. Becoming widespread of safflower cultivation in fallow fields will make great profits to as well as farmers in the region and as well as country's economy in central Anatolia Region of Turkey which is 59% of total Turkey in term of fallow fields.

  3. 2D kinematic study of the central region of NGC 4501.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Repetto, P.; Faúndez-Abans, M.; Freitas-Lemes, P.; Rodrigues, I.; de Oliveira-Abans, M.

    2016-09-01

    GMOS-IFU observational data were used to study the detailed two dimensional gas kinematics and morphological structures within the ˜ 500 × 421 pc2 of the active Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 4501. We provide empirical evidences of possible outflowing material from the central zones of NGC 4501 to the observer. In addition, we performed a spectral synthesis and diagnostic diagram analysis to determine respectively the dominant stellar population in the inner disc of this galaxy and to unveil the actual nature of the central engine of NGC 4501. The principal finding of this work is that the central regions of NGC 4501 are dominated by non circular motions connected to probable outflows of matter from the nuclear regions of this galaxy. A predominant old stellar population inhabits the internal zones of NGC 4501 excluding the possibility of ongoing starburst activity in the central parsecs of this galaxy. The latter result is confirmed by the diagnostic diagram analysis that establishes a preponderant active galactic nucleus character for NGC 4501. These outcomes together provide a general description of the gas motion and the corresponding nuclear activity in the internal disc of NGC 4501 in an attempt to elucidate the possible relation among the central activity and the induced kinematic properties of this nearby galaxy.

  4. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V. [University of Oxford, School of Geography and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom); Bradley, Raymond S. [University of Massachusetts, Department of Geosciences, Amherst, MA (United States); Diaz, Henry F. [NOAA/ESRL/CIRES, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2011-08-15

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Nino events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region. (orig.)

  5. Climate change in Central America and Mexico: regional climate model validation and climate change projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmalkar, Ambarish V.; Bradley, Raymond S.; Diaz, Henry F.

    2011-08-01

    Central America has high biodiversity, it harbors high-value ecosystems and it's important to provide regional climate change information to assist in adaptation and mitigation work in the region. Here we study climate change projections for Central America and Mexico using a regional climate model. The model evaluation shows its success in simulating spatial and temporal variability of temperature and precipitation and also in capturing regional climate features such as the bimodal annual cycle of precipitation and the Caribbean low-level jet. A variety of climate regimes within the model domain are also better identified in the regional model simulation due to improved resolution of topographic features. Although, the model suffers from large precipitation biases, it shows improvements over the coarse-resolution driving model in simulating precipitation amounts. The model shows a dry bias in the wet season and a wet bias in the dry season suggesting that it's unable to capture the full range of precipitation variability. Projected warming under the A2 scenario is higher in the wet season than that in the dry season with the Yucatan Peninsula experiencing highest warming. A large reduction in precipitation in the wet season is projected for the region, whereas parts of Central America that receive a considerable amount of moisture in the form of orographic precipitation show significant decreases in precipitation in the dry season. Projected climatic changes can have detrimental impacts on biodiversity as they are spatially similar, but far greater in magnitude, than those observed during the El Niño events in recent decades that adversely affected species in the region.

  6. Central New York Library Resources Council CLRC Regional Digitization Plan. Final Report for the Preparing Central New York History for the Future LSTA Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sywetz, Betsy

    The primary goal for digitization projects sponsored by the Central New York Library Resources Council (CLRC) is enhanced access for the people of the region to digital resources created from collections in Central New York's libraries, archives and museums. The CLRC Digitization Plan provides a framework for the support of digitization activities…

  7. A study of dirigibles for use in the Peruvian Selva Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, N. J.

    1983-01-01

    A study to evaluate dirigibles as transport vehicles in the mainly undeveloped and heavily forested Selva Central region of Peru is discussed. The basic requirements for dirigible service in the region are described, including those pertaining to cargoes and routes, airports, weather conditions, ground facilities, operations and maintenance base, hangars, ballast, and helium supply. Dirigible types, sizes, and economics were analyzed, and the analytical methods and results are reported. Total costs are determined and compared with those for other aircraft. It is concluded that dirigibles can be used as transport in the Selva Central and that conventional dirigibles in normal operation will require expansion of exisiting airfields. Conventional dirigibles are more economical as their size increases and are cost effective compared to selected aircraft.

  8. Radon Concentration in Groundwater in the Central Region of Gyeongju, Korea - 13130

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jung Min; Lee, A. Rim; Park, Chan Hee; Moon, Joo Hyun [Dongguk University, Seokjangdong, Gyeongju, Gyeongbuk, 780-714 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that is a well known cause of lung cancer through inhalation. Nevertheless, stomach cancer can also occur if radon-containing water is ingested. This study measured the radon concentration in groundwater for drinking or other domestic uses in the central region of Gyeongju, Korea. The groundwater samples were taken from 11 points chosen from the 11 administrative districts in the central region of Gyeongju by selecting a point per district considering the demographic distribution including the number of tourists who visit the ancient ruins and archaeological sites. The mean radon concentrations in the groundwater samples ranged from 14.38 to 9050.73 Bq.m{sup -3}, which were below the recommendations by the U.S. EPA and WHO. (authors)

  9. Body wave attenuation characteristics in the crust of Alborz region and North Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrokhi, M.; Hamzehloo, H.

    2016-11-01

    Attenuation of P and S waves has been investigated in Alborz and north central part of Iran using the data recorded by two permanent and one temporary networks during October 20, 2009, to December 22, 2010. The dataset consists of 14,000 waveforms from 380 local earthquakes (2 Iran, respectively. These relations for Q S for Alborz region and North Central Iran have estimated as (83 ± 8)f (0.99 ± 0.07) and (68 ± 5)f (0.96 ± 0.05), respectively. The observed low Q values could be the results of thermoelastic effects and/or existing fracture. The estimated frequency-dependent relationships are comparable with tectonically active regions.

  10. REGIONAL SECURITY AND COOPERATION ISSUES IN U.S. POLICY TOWARD POST-SOVIET CENTRAL ASIA

    OpenAIRE

    MAKHMUDOV, Aziz

    2012-01-01

    It stands to reason that at the early stage of independence the five republics in the Central Asian region-Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan-previously closely linked to the Soviet economic and political systems, faced a number of challenges, most of which were inherited from the Czarist-Soviet regimes. Coping with the challenges posed by the transition period required foreign support, and all the republics, except Turkmenistan, have been engaged in active coope...

  11. Radiation loads of the detectors for the central region of the LHCb experiment at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Talanov, V V

    2002-01-01

    The formation of the secondary-radiation field in the central region of the future LHCb experiment at LHC (CERN) was numerically simulated. The specific features of the field characteristics were revealed for different configurations of detectors in the experiment. The radiation loads governing the detector operation in a given radiation environment were evaluated. Methods for optimizing the design of the detectors and the accelerator vacuum chamber were proposed. (15 refs).

  12. The role of micro finance Institutions in poverty reduction in the central region of Ghana

    OpenAIRE

    Cudjoe, Bismark

    2014-01-01

    The overall objective of this study is to examine the contribution of micro-finance institutions to poverty reduction in the Kasoa district of the Central Region of Ghana. In an attempt to achieve the objective of the study, data and hypotheses were drawn from First Capital Plus Microfinance Limited which has been operating in the Kasoa Municipality since 2009. The practical part contains primary statistical data through survey research, which consists of a combination of structured questionn...

  13. Current Status of the Equine Sector in the Central Baltic Region (Finland, Latvia and Sweden)

    OpenAIRE

    Lunner Kolstrup, Christina; Pinzke, Stefan; Löfqvist, Lotta; Järvinen, Maija; Korpa, Viola; Paula, Līga; Kursitis, Andis

    2013-01-01

    This report covers basic descriptions and characteristics of the equine sector, including statistics on number of horses, horse farms, employment, current structure and recent dynamics in the horse sector in Finland, Latvia and Sweden and also the mobility (e.g. trade, import, export and tourism) within the Central Baltic Region. The information was gathered through literature reviews, round table discussions and interviews with equine organisations and stakeholders, and through visits to far...

  14. The synanthropic flora of the central part of the dnistrovskyi regional landscape park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Юлія Сергіївна Семенюк

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The structure of alien species and apophytes in the central part of Dnistrovskyi Regional Landscape Park are analyzed. There are 118 synanthropic species on the studied area. The synanthropic flora includes 39 species of alien plants and 79 species of apophytes. The values of synanthropization index, modernization index and index of fluctuation are identified. The level of studied flora’s transformation is high. All studied plants are divided into 23 recourses groups. The largest group is medicinal plants

  15. Mycolic Acids as Markers of Osseous Tuberculosis in the Neolithic Skeleton from Kujawy Region (Central Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borowska-Strugiń Beata

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The subject of analysis is the male skeleton from a double burial of the Globular Amphora Culture, derived from the Neolithic site at Brześć Kujawski in Kujawy region (central Poland. Within the spine of the individual advanced lesions are observed (destruction of the vertebral bodies, symptoms of the periostitis in the thoracic region which are characteristic of skeletal tuberculosis. To check whether the observed morphological changes resulted from infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb, the bone material was tested positively for the presence of mycolic acids, the specific components of the cell wall of pathogenic M.tb bacilli, by mass spectrometry.

  16. Functional Neuronavigation: Comparison of spatial congruence between fMRI and electrocortical stimulation in central region tumor surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Wachter, Dorothee

    2010-01-01

    Background: The surgical treatment of lesions in or around the central region confronts the neurosurgeon with a great challenge. Radical tumor resection leads to a better outcome but it also bears the risk of postoperative neurological deficit due to the functional importance of the central region. Throughout the last couple of years different techniques made it possible to identify the patient’s specific functional and anatomical topography. The central sulcus and the adjacent gyri...

  17. Design and Implementation of Digitisation Projects in the Central Slovenian Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja Frković

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available EXTENDED ABSTRACT: The Ljubljana City Library has been cooperating in the KAMRA project since its very beginning. KAMRA is a Slovenian cross regional portal joining central regional public libraries as defined in the Regulations on Central Regional Libraries. It was established in order to digitise local studies collections, to promote the collections and the cooperation among different local institutions. The paper outlines the problems related to the collection and selection of relevant library materials to be incorporated in the KAMRA portal. It deals with copyright regulations for web publications and outlines the importance of obtaining the copyright permission for the use of library materials which were digitised after they were exhibited in the physical form. The Ljubljana City Library often decides to digitise hard copies of important items of local studies collection exhibited in the Slovanska Library – a branch library of the Ljubljana City Library. For the needs of the KAMRA portal the Ljubljana City Library created the project My Street (Moja ulica joining public libraries in the central Slovenian region. They research the history, development, culture and life of people living in particular streets and areas and publish their stories on the KAMRA portal. The City Library of Ljubljana tries to cooperate with other regional cultural institutions, associations and individuals thus enabling access to local information sources which would otherwise be hard to access. The paper also deals with the mission and concepts of the Digital Library of Slovenia (dLib.si and the KAMRA portal as well as with the digitisation of local studies. At the end it points to the problem of lack of financial means for digitisation projects.

  18. MOLECULAR GAS AND STAR-FORMATION PROPERTIES IN THE CENTRAL AND BAR REGIONS OF NGC 6946

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hsi-An; Sorai, Kazuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University, Kita 10, Nishi 8, Kita-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0810 (Japan); Kuno, Nario [Division of Physics, Faculty of Pure and Applied Sciences, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8571 (Japan); Koda, Jin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794-3800 (United States); Hirota, Akihiko [Joint ALMA Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Kaneko, Hiroyuki, E-mail: hapan@astro1.sci.hokudai.ac.jp [Nobeyama Radio Observatory, NAOJ, Minamimaki, Minamisaku, Nagano 384-1305 (Japan)

    2015-12-10

    In this work, we investigate the molecular gas and star-formation properties in the barred spiral galaxy NGC 6946 using multiple molecular lines and star-formation tracers. A high-resolution image (100 pc) of {sup 13}CO (1–0) is created for the inner 2 kpc disk by the single-dish Nobeyama Radio Observatory 45 m telescope and interferometer Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy, including the central region (nuclear ring and bar) and the offset ridges of the primary bar. Single-dish HCN (1–0) observations were also made to constrain the amount of dense gas. The physical properties of molecular gas are inferred from (1) the large velocity gradient calculations using our observations and archival {sup 12}CO (1–0), {sup 12}CO(2–1) data, (2) the dense gas fraction suggested by the luminosity ratio of HCN to {sup 12}CO (1–0), and (3) the infrared color. The results show that the molecular gas in the central region is warmer and denser than that of the offset ridges. The dense gas fraction of the central region is similar to that of luminous infrared galaxies/ultraluminous infrared galaxies, whereas the offset ridges are close to the global average of normal galaxies. The coolest and least-dense region is found in a spiral-like structure, which was misunderstood to be part of the southern primary bar in previous low-resolution observations. The star-formation efficiency (SFE) changes by about five times in the inner disk. The variation of SFE agrees with the prediction in terms of star formation regulated by the galactic bar. We find a consistency between the star-forming region and the temperature inferred by the infrared color, suggesting that the distribution of subkiloparsec-scale temperature is driven by star formation.

  19. Science and Technology to Advance Regional Security in the Middle East and Central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tompson, A F B; Richardson, J H; Ragaini, R C; Knapp, R B; Rosenberg, N D; Smith, D K; Ball, D Y

    2002-10-09

    This paper is concerned with the promotion and advancement of regional security in the Middle East and Central Asia through the development of bilateral and multilateral cooperation on targeted scientific and technical projects. It is widely recognized that increasing tensions and instability in many parts of the world emphasize--or reemphasize--a need to seek and promote regional security in these areas. At the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), a national security research facility operated for the US Department of Energy, we are pursuing an effort to use science and technology as a ''low risk'' means of engagement in regions of strategic importance to the United States. In particular, we are developing collaborations and cooperative projects among (and between) national laboratory scientists in the US and our various counterparts in the countries of interest.

  20. Changes in the Regional Groundwater Aquifer and Potential Impacts on Surface Waters in Central Zealand, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul

    The regional, confined aquifer on the island of Zealand, in eastern Denmark, is the primary aquifer used for large-scale abstraction for the supplies of all larger cities, including Roskilde and the greater Copenhagen metropolitan area. Large-scale groundwater abstraction from this aquifer...... as previously they never did. This study analyzes the changes in the groundwater potential between 1936 and 2006 in two stream catchments in central Zealand (Elverdam and Langvad) to assess how groundwater abstraction has affected the regional aquifers potential for contribution to base-flow in the streams......, wetlands and lakes in the area. The results show that there was a significant impact on the regional groundwater aquifer in the Langvad river catchment, with groundwater as much as 17m lower in 1987 from 1936 (pre-abstraction). However, in the Elverdam river catchment, the levels remained virtually...

  1. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batzer, Darold, P.; Dietz-Brantley, Susan E.; Taylor, Barbera E.; DeBiase, Adrienne E.

    2005-02-12

    Batzer, Darold, P., Susan E. Dietz-Brantley, Barbera E. Taylor, and Adrienne E. DeBiase. 2005. Evaluating regional differences in macroinvertebrate communities from forested depressional wetlands across eastern and central North America. J. N. Am. Benthol. Soc. 24(2):403-414. Abstract. Forested depressional wetlands are an important seasonal wetland type across eastern and central North America. Macroinvertebrates are crucial ecosystem components of most forested depressional wetlands, but community compositions can vary widely across the region. We evaluated variation in macroinvertebrate faunas across eastern and central North America using 5 published taxa lists from forested depressional wetlands in Michigan, Ontario, Wisconsin, Florida, and Georgia. We supplemented those data with quantitative community descriptions generated from 17 forested depressional wetlands in South Carolina and 74 of these wetlands in Minnesota. Cluster analysis of presence/absence data from these 7 locations indicated that distinct macroinvertebrate communities existed in northern and southern areas. Taxa characteristic of northern forested depressionalwetlands included Sphaeriidae, Lumbriculidae, Lymnaeidae, Physidae, Limnephilidae, Chirocephalidae, and Hirudinea (Glossophoniidae and/or Erpodbellidae) and taxa characteristic of southern sites included Asellidae, Crangonyctidae, Noteridae, and Cambaridae. Quantitative sampling in South Carolina and Minnesota indicated that regionally characteristic taxa included some of the most abundant organisms, with Sphaeriidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in Minnesota wetlands and Asellidae being the 2nd most abundant macroinvertebrate in South Carolina wetlands. Mollusks, in general, were restricted to forested depressional wetlands of northern latitudes, a pattern that may reflect a lack of Ca needed for shell formation in acidic southern sites. Differences in community composition probably translate into region

  2. Early regional LGM (MIS 3) reflected in Central European Loess-Paleosol Sequences?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoeller, Ludwig; Fuchs, Markus

    2014-05-01

    The age of the "Brandenburg Phase", representing the regional LGM in Northern Germany and Poland, has been under debate. Evidence was found recently by OSL dating that it occurred during late MIS 3. In a new loess profile in the famous quarry of Nußloch south of Heidelberg (Germany) an exceptionally thick (6 m) loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) starts with a boreal brown soil regionally known as "Lohne soil", which terminates the Middle Pleniglacial LPS, according to classical stratigraphies. This paleosol is overlain by loess beds interbedding with weakly developed tundra-gley soils of typically Upper Pleniglacial habitus. Mean OSL ages from quartz fine and middle grains range between ca. 29 ka and ca. 35 ka in this part of the section which is much thicker than in previously studied corresponding parts of the loess stratigraphy at the Nußloch site. Our surprising dating results are, however, supported by recently dated loess beds in the Central European corridor between the ice margin of the Brandenburg Phase and the Northern Alpine LGM terminal moraines. Paleoenvironmental reconstructions point to cold but rather humid climatic conditions favouring rapid ice advance. We, thus, hypothesize that the rapid advance of Scandinavian ice into northern Central Europe which may have occurred ca. 10 ka prior to the global LGM, is reflected in some well-preserved Central European loess sections covering the last glacial cycle.

  3. Drought Vulnerability Mapping with Geomorphological Approach in Yogyakarta Special Region (DIY) and Central Java

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudaryatno

    2016-11-01

    This study aims to determine the level of vulnerability of the geomorphologic drought that occurred in Central Java and Yogyakarta Special Region. This study examines geomorphologic drought. Parameters used were slope, drainage, Available Water Capacity (AWC), permeability, landform, and land use. Landsat 8 and SRTM data were used for the extraction of physical parameters, such as slope, drainage, landform, and land use. The method used in this study is scoring and weighting. Query results were used for data classification by overlaying drought geomorphologic parameters. The expected outcome of this research is to map the geomorphologic drought vulnerability on Central Java and Yogyakarta Special Region. Drought vulnerability was divided into wet, normal and dry classes. Distribution of the dry class is frequent. Some of the dry classes are distributed on the steep till extremely steep slope region and on the structural and karsts landform. This was related to AWC value where region with high AWC contributed to the poor drainage of the soil, such as at Kulonprogo, Purworejo, Kebumen, Blora, Wonogiri, Purbalingga, Pekalongan, Jepara and Kudus regency. Normal classes are distributed on the sloping till steep slope, have moderate till well-drained soil and low AWC, such as at Gunung Kidul, Pati, Temanggung regency, and Magelang city. Wet classes are distributed on the flat or almost flat and sloping region. Most of the wet classes are distributed on volcanic hills and coastal area. Those regions are well-drained and the land uses are mostly for settlement and farming, such as at Sleman, Yogyakarta city, Klaten, Bantul, and Wonosobo regency.

  4. Inherited weaknesses control deformation in the flat slab region of Central Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, A.; Carrapa, B.; Larrovere, M.; Aciar, R. H.

    2015-12-01

    The Sierras Pampeanas region of west-central Argentina has long been considered a geologic type-area for flat-slab induced thick-skinned deformation. Frictional coupling between the horizontal subducting plate and South American lithosphere from ~12 Ma to the present provides an obvious causal mechanism for the basement block uplifts that characterize this region. New low temperature thermochronometry data show basement rocks from the central Sierras Pampeanas (~ longitude 66 ̊ W) including Sierras Cadena de Paiman, Velasco and Mazan retain a cooling history of Paleozoic - Mesozoic tectonics events. Results from this study indicate that less than 2 km of basement has been exhumed since at least the Mesozoic. These trends recorded by both apatite fission track (AFT) and apatite helium (AHe) thermochronometry suggest that recent Mio-Pliocene thick-skinned deformation associated with flat-slab subduction follow inherited zones of weakness from Paleozoic terrane sutures and shear zones and Mesozoic rifting. If a Cenozoic foreland basin exisited in this region, its thickness was minimal and was controlled by paleotopography. Pre-Cenozoic cooling ages in these ranges that now reach as high as 4 km imply significant exhumation of basement rocks before the advent of flat slab subduction in the mid-late Miocene. It also suggests that thick-skinned deformation associated with flat slab subduction may at least be facilitated by inherited crustal-scale weaknesses. At the most, pre-existing zones of weakness may be required in regions of thick-skinned deformation. Although flat-slab subduction plays an important role in the exhumation of the Sierras Pampeanas, it is likely not the sole mechanism responsible for thick-skinned deformation in this region. This insight sheds light on the interpretation of modern and ancient regions of thick-skinned deformation in Cordilleran systems.

  5. Spatially Resolved Spitzer-IRS Spectroscopy of the Central Region of M82

    CERN Document Server

    Beirão, P; Appleton, P N; Groves, B; Armus, L; Förster-Schreiber, N M; Smith, J D; Charmandaris, V; Houck, J R

    2007-01-01

    We present high spatial resolution (~ 35 parsec) 5-38 um spectra of the central region of M82, taken with the Spitzer Infrared Spectrograph. From these spectra we determined the fluxes and equivalent widths of key diagnostic features, such as the [NeII]12.8um, [NeIII]15.5um, and H_2 S(1)17.03um lines, and the broad mid-IR polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features in six representative regions and analysed the spatial distribution of these lines and their ratios across the central region. We find a good correlation of the dust extinction with the CO 1-0 emission. The PAH emission follows closely the ionization structure along the galactic disk. The observed variations of the diagnostic PAH ratios across M82 can be explained by extinction effects, within systematic uncertainties. The 16-18um PAH complex is very prominent, and its equivalent width is enhanced outwards from the galactic plane. We interpret this as a consequence of the variation of the UV radiation field. The EWs of the 11.3um PAH fe...

  6. The spinal cord ependymal region: a stem cell niche in the caudal central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugnot, Jean Philippe; Franzen, Rachelle

    2011-01-01

    In the brain, specific signalling pathways localized in highly organized regions called niches, allow the persistence of a pool of stem and progenitor cells that generate new neurons and glial cells in adulthood. Much less is known on the spinal cord central canal niche where a sustained adult neurogenesis is not observed. Here we review our current knowledge of this caudal niche in normal and pathological situations. Far from being a simple layer of homogenous cells, this region is composed of several cell types localized at specific locations, expressing characteristic markers and with different morphologies and functions. We further report on a screen of online gene-expression databases to better define this spinal cord niche. Several genes were found to be preferentially expressed within or around the central canal region (Bmp6, CXCR4, Gdf10, Fzd3, Mdk, Nrtn, Rbp1, Shh, Sox4, Wnt7a) some of which by specific cellular subtypes. In depth characterization of the spinal cord niche constitutes a framework to make the most out of this endogenous cell pool in spinal cord disorders.

  7. SALTRA: a regional program for workers' health and sustainable development in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Catharina; Aragón, Aurora; Elgstrand, Kaj; Flores, Reinaldo; Hogstedt, Christer; Partanen, Timo

    2011-01-01

    In 2003, the university-based Program on Work and Health in Central America, SALTRA, was launched to build national and regional capacities in occupational safety and health with the goal of preventing and reducing poverty in Central America. SALTRA has implemented 20 projects including action projects in priority sectors (e.g., construction, sugarcane, hospitals, migrant coffee workers); strengthening of surveillance (occupational health profiles, carcinogenic exposures, fatal injuries and pesticides); a participatory model for training and risk monitoring by workers; building occupational health capacity for professionals, employers, and workers, with collaborating networks between the countries; strengthening of universities in work, environment, and health; studies of serious occupational and environmental situations; communication channels; and continued efforts to raise political awareness. SALTRA has placed issues of workers' health on political, business, and academic agendas throughout the region and has laid the foundations for achieving substantial future improvements in health conditions of all workers in the region. External evaluators envisioned SALTRA as an innovative development model.

  8. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Thiago; Rodrigues, Mariana; Paz, Daniel; Costa, Marcos Devanir; Santos, Bruno; Braga, Vinicius; Paiva Neto, Manoel de; Centeno, Ricardo; Cavalheiro, Sergio; Chaddad-Neto, Feres

    2015-11-01

    The central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  9. Is the omega sign a reliable landmark for the neurosurgical team? An anatomical study about the central sulcus region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Rodrigues

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe central sulcus region is an eloquent area situated between the frontal and parietal lobes. During neurosurgical procedures, it is sometimes difficult to understand the cortical anatomy of this region.Objective Find alternative ways to anatomically navigate in this region during neurosurgical procedures.Method We analyzed eighty two human hemispheres using a surgical microscope and completed a review of the literature about central sulcus region.Results In 68/82 hemispheres, the central sulcus did not reach the posterior ramus of the lateral sulcus. A knob on the second curve of the precentral gyrus was reliably identified in only 64/82 hemispheres.Conclusion The morphometric data presented in this article can be useful as supplementary method to identify the central sulcus region landmarks.

  10. Chromosomal instability in Streptomyces avermitilis: major deletion in the central region and stable circularized chromosome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen Ying

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chromosome of Streptomyces has been shown to be unstable, frequently undergoing gross chromosomal rearrangements. However, the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon remain unclear, with previous studies focused on two chromosomal ends as targets for rearrangements. Here we investigated chromosomal instability of Streptomyces avermitilis, an important producer of avermectins, and characterized four gross chromosomal rearrangement events, including a major deletion in the central region. The present findings provide a valuable contribution to the mechanistic study of genetic instability in Streptomyces. Results Thirty randomly-selected "bald" mutants derived from the wild-type strain all contained gross chromosomal rearrangements of various types. One of the bald mutants, SA1-8, had the same linear chromosomal structure as the high avermectin-producing mutant 76-9. Chromosomes of both strains displayed at least three independent chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement to form new 88-kb terminal inverted repeats (TIRs, and two major deletions. One of the deletions eliminated the 36-kb central region of the chromosome, but surprisingly did not affect viability of the cells. The other deletion (74-kb was internal to the right chromosomal arm. The chromosome of another bald mutant, SA1-6, was circularized with deletions at both ends. No obvious homology was found in all fusion sequences. Generational stability analysis showed that the chromosomal structure of SA1-8 and SA1-6 was stable. Conclusions Various chromosomal rearrangements, including chromosomal arm replacement, interstitial deletions and chromosomal circularization, occurred in S. avermitilis by non-homologous recombination. The finding of an inner deletion involving in the central region of S. avermitilis chromosome suggests that the entire Streptomyces chromosome may be the target for rearrangements, which are not limited, as previously

  11. Mapping the Central Region of the PPN CRL 618 at Subarcsecond Resolution at 350 GHz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui; Sahai, Raghvendra; Sánchez Contreras, Carmen

    2013-06-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at ~0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC3N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC3N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH2CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within ~630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from ~3 km s-1 in the innermost part to ~16 km s-1 at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of ~1.15 × 10-3 M ⊙ yr-1. The dense core has a mass of ~0.47 M ⊙ and a dynamical age of ~400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of 12C/13C and 14N/15N are 9 ± 4 and 150 ± 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  12. Convective transport over the central United States and its role in regional CO and ozone budgets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anne M.; Pickering, Kenneth E.; Dickerson, Russell R.; Ellis, William G., Jr.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Scala, John R.; Tao, Wei-Kuo; Mcnamara, Donna P.; Simpson, Joanne

    1994-01-01

    We have constructed a regional budget for boundary layer carbon monoxide over the central United States (32.5 deg - 50 deg N, 90 deg - 105 deg W), emphasizing a detailed evaluation of deep convective vertical fluxes appropriate for the month of June. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer (upward) dominates other components of the CO budget, e.g., downward convective transport, loss of CO by oxidation, anthropogenic emissions, and CO produced from oxidation of methane, isoprene, and anthropogenic nonmethane hydrocarbons (NMHCs). Calculations of deep convective venting are based on the method pf Pickering et al.(1992a) which uses a satellite-derived deep convective cloud climatology along with transport statistics from convective cloud model simulations of observed prototype squall line events. This study uses analyses of convective episodes in 1985 and 1989 and CO measurements taken during several midwestern field campaigns. Deep convective venting of the boundary layer over this moderately polluted region provides a net (upward minus downward) flux of 18.1 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month to the free troposphere during early summer. Shallow cumulus and synoptic-scale weather systems together make a comparable contribution (total net flux 16.2 x 10(exp 8) kg CO/month). Boundary layer venting of CO with other O3 precursors leads to efficient free troposheric O3 formation. We estimate that deep convective transport of CO and other precursors over the central United States in early summer leads to a gross production of 0.66 - 1.1 Gmol O3/d in good agreement with estimates of O3 production from boundary layer venting in a continental-scale model (Jacob et al., 1993a, b). On this respect the central U.S. region acts as s `chimney' for the country, and presumably this O3 contributes to high background levels of O3 in the eastern United States and O3 export to the North Atlantic.

  13. The application of Kyoto Protocol in Italy: role and required synergies between central and regional administrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pilli R

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 of the Kyoto Protocol, Parties included in Annex I shall report the net changes in greenhouse gas emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation activities. To assess these activities, Italy has to define methods to estimate land use change occurring after 31 December 1989. On the other hand, Italy elected forest management as additional human-induced activity to attain the goals of reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. The paper considers the key-role that central and regional Administrations may have in order to solve some specific problems regarding data collection and management issues.

  14. Two-component colour dipole emission in the central region of onium-onium scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Peschanski, R

    1995-01-01

    The initial-state radiation of soft colour dipoles produced in the central region of onium-onium scattering via single QCD Pomeron exchange (BFKL) is calculated in the framework of Mueller's dipole approach. The resulting dipole production has a two-component structure. One is constant with energy while the other grows and possesses a power-law tail at appreciably large transverse distances from the collision axis. It may be related to the growth of the gluon distribution at small Bjorken-x.

  15. Decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials over Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moemken, Julia; Reyers, Mark; Buldmann, Benjamin; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2016-04-01

    Regional climate predictions on timescales from one year to one decade are gaining importance since this time frame falls within the planning horizon of politics, economy, and society. In this context, decadal predictions are of particular interest for the development of renewable energies such as wind energy. The present study examines the decadal predictability of regional scale wind speed and wind energy potentials in the framework of the MiKlip consortium ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen"; www.fona-miklip.de). This consortium aims to develop a model system based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) that can provide skilful decadal predictions on regional and global scales. Three generations of the decadal prediction system, which differ primarily in their ocean initialisation, are analysed here. Ensembles of uninitialised historical and yearly initialised hindcast experiments are used to assess different skill scores for 10m wind speeds and wind energy output (Eout) over Central Europe, with special focus given to Germany. With this aim, a statistical-dynamical downscaling (SDD) approach is used for the regionalisation of the global datasets. Its added value is evaluated by comparison of skill scores for MPI-ESM large-scale wind speeds and SDD simulated regional wind speeds. All three MPI-ESM ensemble generations show some forecast skill for annual mean wind speed and Eout over Central Europe on yearly and multi-yearly time scales. The forecast skill is mostly limited to the first years after initialisation. Differences between the three ensemble generations are generally small. The regionalisation preserves and sometimes increases the forecast skill of the global runs but results depend on lead time and ensemble generation. Moreover, regionalisation often improves the ensemble spread. Seasonal Eout skills are generally lower than for annual means. Skill scores are lowest during summer, and persist longest in autumn. A large-scale westerly

  16. Contributions to the deployment of furniture in pole central region Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D’ Ambros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in the central region of Tocantins, for the identification and analysis of positive factors, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the furniture supply chain in order to continue the formation of the regional furniture pole. To achieve this objective the methodology used was to listen to local actors and experts in the furniture segment. Seventy-five local actors among industry officials, academic institutions and university representatives were interviewed. They pointed out and analyzed the main points related to the economic, social, political and environmental contributions stemming from the creation of a pole in the region. The tool used was the SWOT Analysis associated with the Method of Judges, and then the variables were subjected to Principal Component Analysis - PCA. The SWOT Matrix proved to be adequate and effective to be used as diagnostic tool along with local actors. The examination of all the factors associated with local furniture production chain helped to understand the activity and indicate actions that affect this arrangement and that will bring economic, social and environmental benefits. According to the experts, the establishment of a furniture industry in the region will favor the employment and income creation, local and regional sustainable development, improvements in business management, raise the standard of quality and productivity of the local furniture industry and improve the quality of population standard of living.

  17. Working Together to Make a Difference in Rural America: North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2010 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    North Central Regional Center for Rural Development, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The North Central Regional Center for Rural Development (NCRCRD) is one of four regional centers in the United States that have worked to improve the quality of life in rural communities for nearly 40 years. With funding from the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture and the land-grant universities in our 12-state region, the NCRCRD…

  18. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism...

  19. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism through which...

  20. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...

  1. Becoming a bwana and burley tobacco in the Central Region of Malawi

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prowse, Martin

    2009-01-01

    Smallholders now grow most of Malawi’s main export crop – burley tobacco. Based on nineteen months’ fieldwork in the Central Region, this article offers a sociological interpretation of why some smallholder growers spend a proportion of burley income on conspicuous consumption in rural towns...... the contrasting fortunes of two non-farm rural enterprises, examining data on how tobacco production and ‘cooling off’ is viewed by wives, and comparing the crop preferences of husbands and wives. It concludes by suggesting that the concept of conspicuous consumption may provide an alternative prism through which...... and trading centres. This practice can be seen as a form of inculcated behaviour whereby smallholders reproduce elements of one model of success in this region: that of the Malawian tobacco bwana (boss/master). The article discusses implications from this form of potlatch behaviour by describing...

  2. [Biological properties of Trichinella spp. isolated from the Central Region of the Russian Federation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoevskaia, I M; Kurnosova, O P; Klinkov, A V

    2009-01-01

    The biological properties of Trichinella isolated from the muscles of a common fox inhabiting in the Central Region of the Russian Federation have been studied. The paper presents the results of passaging this isolate of Trichinella on laboratory rats and mice, shows morphometric variability in relation to the change of Trichinella habitat. Evidence is provided that the shape and size of Trichinella capsules depend on the strain of the parasite and the species of an animal host the muscles of which contain these tissue helminths. The morphological data, biological properties, and high negative temperature resistance of the Trichinella that are present in the muscles of a fox shot in the Ryazan Region allow the above isolate to be classified as Trichinella nativa.

  3. Study of the Seismic Cycle of large Earthquakes in central Peru: Lima Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norabuena, E. O.; Quiroz, W.; Dixon, T. H.

    2009-12-01

    Since historical times, the Peruvian subduction zone has been source of large and destructive earthquakes. The more damaging one occurred on May 30 1970 offshore Peru’s northern city of Chimbote with a death toll of 70,000 people and several hundred US million dollars in property damage. More recently, three contiguous plate interface segments in southern Peru completed their seismic cycle generating the 1996 Nazca (Mw 7.1), the 2001 Atico-Arequipa (Mw 8.4) and the 2007 Pisco (Mw 7.9) earthquakes. GPS measurements obtained between 1994-2001 by IGP-CIW an University of Miami-RSMAS on the central Andes of Peru and Bolivia were used to estimate their coseismic displacements and late stage of interseismic strain accumulation. However, we focus our interest in central Peru-Lima region, which with its about 9’000,000 inhabitants is located over a locked plate interface that has not broken with magnitude Mw 8 earthquakes since May 1940, September 1966 and October 1974. We use a network of 11 GPS monuments to estimate the interseismic velocity field, infer spatial variations of interplate coupling and its relation with the background seismicity of the region.

  4. The magnetic field structure of the central region in M31

    CERN Document Server

    Gießübel, René

    2014-01-01

    The Andromeda Galaxy (M31) is the nearest grand-design spiral galaxy. Thus far most studies in the radio regime concentrated on the 10 kpc ring. The central region of M31 has significantly different properties than the outer parts: The star formation rate is low, and inclination and position angle are largely different from the outer disk. The existing model of the magnetic field in the radial range 6<=r<=14 kpc is extended to the innermost part r<=0.5 kpc to ultimately achieve a picture of the entire magnetic field in M31. We combined observations taken with the VLA at 3.6 cm and 6.2 cm with data from the Effelsberg 100-m telescope to fill the missing spacings of the synthesis data. The resulting polarization maps were averaged in sectors to analyse the azimuthal behaviour of the polarized intensity (PI), rotation measure (RM), and apparent pitch angle (\\phi_obs). We developed a simplified 3-D model for the magnetic field in the central region to explain the azimuthal behaviour of the three observab...

  5. Industrial Countermeasures for Economic Development in the Central Region in Post-financial-crisis Era

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    From adjusting industrial structure,strengthening industrial guidance and promoting industrial cluster,this paper puts forward the industrial countermeasures for regional economic development in Central China in post-financial-crisis era as follows.In terms of industrial structure adjustment,we should optimize the structure of agricultural production,and form agricultural industrialization operation;propel upgrading of industrial structure,and promote the concentration of industry;improve the development of service industry,and meet the diversified needs of consumers.In terms of industrial guidance,we should give priority to the development of leading industries,and foster leading enterprises;develop hi-tech industry rapidly,and cultivate new industrialization technology base in the central region.In terms of industrial cluster,we should strengthen government guidance,and create good policy environment for the development of industrial cluster;foster core enterprises,and promote spontaneous establishment of trade association or chamber of commerce;establish hi-tech industrial cluster,and further improve the cooperative mechanism of "production,teaching and research".

  6. [Supporting system for regional medical liaison and role of a central hospital].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitano, Seigo

    2003-04-01

    The current status and future development of the supporting system for regional medical liaison and a role of the central hospital in the network were outlined. One of such supportive systems for regional medical network would be tele-medicine or tele-mentoring that include radiological and pathological diagnoses in distance, tele-surgery, and tele-education. Most of these systems are facilitated in the universities and affiliated hospitals and generally need high-cost communication equipment. Another approach is the information sharing system through the modern telecommunication network. Electronic patient record (EPR) systems are the key to achieving this and currently active in several areas. Since the recent progress in information technology (IT) is astonishing, community-based EPR systems are practical with the capability of clinical information exchange between different institutions and even with patients. The role of a central hospital in these systems must be capacious. Management and continuous operation of the system would be the most important affairs. For extending these supporting systems to the ones working in a broader area, the establishment of a "one ID for one patient" system is crucial. Strict security management of the data base and legal institution for distant medical practice still remain as the future tasks.

  7. Beam tracking simulation in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anggraita, Pramudita; Santosa, Budi; Taufik, Mulyani, Emy; Diah, Frida Iswinning

    2012-06-01

    This paper reports the trajectories simulation of proton beam in the central region of a 13 MeV PET cyclotron, operating with negative proton beam (for easier beam extraction using a stripper foil), 40 kV peak accelerating dee voltage at fourth harmonic frequency of 77.88 MHz, and average magnetic field of 1.275 T. The central region covers fields of 240mm × 240mm × 30mm size at 1mm resolution. The calculation was also done at finer 0.25mm resolution covering fields of 30mm × 30mm × 4mm size to see the effects of 0.55mm horizontal width of the ion source window and the halted trajectories of positive proton beam. The simulations show up to 7 turns of orbital trajectories, reaching about 1 MeV of beam energy. The distribution of accelerating electric fields and magnetic fields inside the cyclotron were calculated in 3 dimension using Opera3D code and Tosca modules for static magnetic and electric fields. The trajectory simulation was carried out using Scilab 5.3.3 code.

  8. A central region of Gli2 regulates its localization to the primary cilium and transcriptional activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Nicole; Reiter, Jeremy F

    2014-04-01

    Signaling through vertebrate Hedgehog (Hh) proteins depends on the primary cilium. In response to Hh signals, the transcriptional activator of the pathway, Gli2, accumulates at the ciliary tip, raising the possibility that ciliary localization is important for Gli2 activation. To test this hypothesis, we used the Floxin system to create knock-in Gli2 alleles in embryonic stem cells (ESCs) to allow methodical testing of which domains and residues are essential for the ciliary localization of Gli2. The Gli2 zinc fingers, transcriptional activation domain, repressor domain, phosphorylation cluster and a Sufu binding motif were each dispensable for ciliary localization. Mutating residues that are required for Gli2 sumoylation and nuclear trafficking also did not abrogate ciliary localization. By contrast, several other domains restricted Gli2 nuclear localization, and a central region, distinct from previously characterized domains, was required for ciliary localization. In addition to an inability to localize to cilia, Gli2 lacking this central domain was unable to activate target genes. Thus, our systematic analysis in ESCs reveals that distinct regions of Gli2 regulate its nuclear and ciliary localization. The identification of a domain essential for both ciliary localization and transcriptional activity suggests that ciliary localization of Gli2 is required for its activation.

  9. ICT Competency Level of Teacher Education Professionals in the Central Visayas Region, Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave E. Marcial

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT plays a vital role in teaching and learning. This paper presents the landscape of ICT competency of faculty in the teacher education institutions in the central region of the Philippines. Specifically, the study investigates the ICT competency level in institutions of higher learning offering teacher education programs in the four provinces in Central Visayas, Philippines. A total of 383 survey responses was analyzed in the study. Respondents are all faculty handling any professional and/or specialization courses in the teacher education. The ICT competency level is measured empirically in terms of work aspects described in the UNESCO’s ICT Competency Standards for Teachers. The instrument used in data gathering was a survey questionnaire.This study reveals that the ICT competency level of the respondents is in the knowledge deepening level. The result implies that the teacher educators are integrative, student-centered and collaborative using the necessary tools. It is concluded that there is a slight technology infusion into the teaching instruction among teacher educators in Region 7. There is a need to improve the level of competency among the teacher educators, particularly skills in using complex and pervasive ICT tools to achieve innovative teaching and learning.

  10. Influence of regional precipitation patterns on stable isotopes in ice cores from the central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Pang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Several ice cores have been recovered from the Dasuopu Glacier and the East Rongbuk (ER Glacier in the central Himalayas since the 1990s. Although the distance between the ER and the Dasuopu ice core drilling sites is only ∼125 km, the stable isotopic record (δ18O or δD of the ER core is interpreted as a precipitation proxy while the Dasuopu core as a temperature proxy. Thus, the climatological significance of the stable isotopic records of these Himalayan ice cores remains a subject of debate. Based on analysis of regional precipitation patterns over the region, we find that the different interpretations of the Dasuopu and Everest isotopic records may not be contradictive. The north–south and west–east seesaws of the Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM precipitation are primarily responsible for precipitation falling at the ER site, which results in a negative correlation between the ER δ18O or δD record and precipitation amount along the southern slope of the central Himalayas, corresponding to the "amount effect". In addition to the ISM precipitation, non-summer monsoonal precipitation associated with winter westerlies also significantly contributes to precipitation falling at the Dasuopu site, which may cause a positive correlation between the Dasuopu stable isotopic record and temperature, in response to the "temperature effect". Our results have important implications for interpreting the stable isotopic ice core records recovered from different climatological regimes of the Himalayas.

  11. Inorganic constituents of urban air pollution in the Lazio region (Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, C; Canepari, S; Cardarelli, E; Catrambone, M; Sargolini, T

    2008-01-01

    A field study was carried out at six locations in the Lazio region (Central Italy) aimed at characterising atmospheric particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5) from the point of view of the chemical composition and grain size distribution of the particles, the mixing properties of the atmosphere, the frequency and relevance of natural events. The combination of four different analytical techniques (ion chromatography, X-ray fluorescence and ICP for inorganic components, thermo-optical analysis for carbon compounds) yielded sound results in terms of characterisation of the air masses. During the first three months of the study (October-December 2004), many pollution events of natural (sea-salt or desert dust episodes) or anthropogenic nature were identified and characterised. More than 90% of the collected mass was identified by chemical analysis. The central role played by the mixing properties of the lower atmosphere when pollution events occurred was highlighted. The results show a major impact of primary anthropogenic pollutants on traffic stations and a homogeneous distribution of secondary pollutants over the regional area. An evaluation of the sources of PM and an identification of possible reliable tracers were obtained using a chemical fractionation procedure.

  12. Sixteen additional enhancers associated with the chicken Sox2 locus outside the central 50-kb region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Ryuji; Uchikawa, Masanori; Kondoh, Hisato

    2015-01-01

    The transcription factor Sox2 plays a central role in the regulation of neuro-sensory development, and many other developmental processes. To gain an in depth understanding of the Sox2 gene regulation, we previously investigated the Sox2-proximal 50-kb region of the chicken genome to determine enhancers based on functional assays using chicken embryo electroporation. We identified 11 enhancers with specificity for neuro-sensory tissues. In this study, we extended the analysis of Sox2 locus-associated enhancers to a 200-kb region and identified 16 additional enhancers with functions in neuro-sensory development. These enhancers roughly correspond to a fraction of the sequence blocks that are highly conserved between chicken and mammalian genomes. The neural enhancers were activated in sequence, thereby creating a complex pattern of functional overlaps in the developing central nervous system (CNS). The variations in the specificities of the sensory enhancers also reflected the intermediate steps of sensory tissue development. This study provides an example where a single transcription factor gene has numerous regulatory elements that allow it to fulfill many functional roles in different biological contexts.

  13. Wave like signatures in aerosol optical depth and associated radiative impacts over the central Himalayan region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, K. K.; Phanikumar, D. V.; Kumar, K.  Niranjan; Reddy, Kishore; Kotamarthi, V. R.; Newsom, Rob K.; Ouarda, Taha B. M. J.

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a case study on 16 October 2011 to show the first observational evidence of the influence of short period gravity waves in aerosol transport during daytime over the central Himalayan region. The Doppler lidar data has been utilized to address the daytime boundary layer evolution and related aerosol dynamics over the site. Mixing layer height is estimated by wavelet covariance transform method and found to be ~ 0.7 km, AGL. Aerosol optical depth observations during daytime revealed an asymmetry showing clear enhancement during afternoon hours as compared to forenoon. Interestingly, Fourier and wavelet analysis of vertical velocity and attenuated backscatter showed similar 50-90 min short period gravity wave signatures during afternoon hours. Moreover, our observations showed that gravity waves are dominant within the boundary layer implying that the daytime boundary layer dynamics is playing a vital role in transporting the aerosols from surface to the top of the boundary layer. Similar modulations are also evident in surface parameters like temperature, relative humidity and wind speed indicating these waves are associated with the dynamical aspects over Himalayan region. Finally, time evolution of range-23 height indicator snapshots during daytime showed strong upward velocities especially during afternoon hours implying that convective processes through short period gravity waves plays a significant role in transporting aerosols from the nearby valley region to boundary layer top over the site. These observations also establish the importance of wave induced daytime convective boundary layer dynamics in the lower Himalayan region.

  14. Kennicutt-Schmidt Law in the Central Region of NGC 4321 as Seen by ALMA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeez, Jazeel H; Hwang, C-Y; Abidin, Zamri Z; Ibrahim, Zainol A

    2016-06-01

    We present the Atacama Large Millimeter/Sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) cycle-0 science verification data of the CO(1-0) line emission in the central region of NGC 4321 (also known as M100) at the distance of 17.1 Mpc and VLA, L-band data of HI of the same galaxy. We have drawn the center area of M100 in the (12)CO(J = 1-0) line with the resolution of (3.87″ × 2.53″) as viewed by ALMA, along with HI and Spitzer 8 and 3.6 μm data. The relationship between the surface density of molecular gas mass ∑H2 and that of star formation rate ∑SFR has been investigated, in addition to the relationship between the surface density of the neutral atomic hydrogen mass and that of ∑SFR (Kennicutt-Schmidt law) in this galaxy with a high spatial resolution. The results indicate that a significant correlation exists between the SFR surface density and the molecular gas mass density in the ~2 kpc region. The power-law index has been determined for three regions: center, upper and lower arms. The value of this index in the center region is 1.13, which follows the traditional (K-S) law and indicates that the molecular gas is affected by star formation.

  15. Study on using high injection voltage and spiral inflector in the central region of VEC

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V S Pandit

    2002-12-01

    A feasibility study of using high injection voltage and spiral inflector in the present heavy ion central region of VEC is described. Conditions necessary for waist-to-waist transfer of the ion beam in the hole lens of main magnet have been obtained. The results of orbit studies of a variety of heavy ions indicate that a spiral inflector can be used in the central region.

  16. Solution and crystallographic structures of the central region of the phosphoprotein from human metapneumovirus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cedric Leyrat

    Full Text Available Human metapneumovirus (HMPV of the family Paramyxoviridae is a major cause of respiratory illness worldwide. Phosphoproteins (P from Paramyxoviridae are essential co-factors of the viral RNA polymerase that form tetramers and possess long intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs. We located the central region of HMPV P (P(ced which is involved in tetramerization using disorder analysis and modeled its 3D structure ab initio using Rosetta fold-and-dock. We characterized the solution-structure of P(ced using small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS and carried out direct fitting to the scattering data to filter out incorrect models. Molecular dynamics simulations (MDS and ensemble optimization were employed to select correct models and capture the dynamic character of P(ced. Our analysis revealed that oligomerization involves a compact central core located between residues 169-194 (P(core, that is surrounded by flexible regions with α-helical propensity. We crystallized this fragment and solved its structure at 3.1 Å resolution by molecular replacement, using the folded core from our SAXS-validated ab initio model. The RMSD between modeled and experimental tetramers is as low as 0.9 Å, demonstrating the accuracy of the approach. A comparison of the structure of HMPV P to existing mononegavirales P(ced structures suggests that P(ced evolved under weak selective pressure. Finally, we discuss the advantages of using SAXS in combination with ab initio modeling and MDS to solve the structure of small, homo-oligomeric protein complexes.

  17. Regionalization and classification of bioclimatic zones in the central-northeastern region of Mexico using principal component analysis (PCA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Martinez, L.F.; Carbajal, N.; Medina-Roldan, E. [Instituto Potosino de Investigacion Cientifica y Tecnologica, A. C., San Luis Potosi (Mexico)]. E-mail: lpineda@ipicyt.edu.mx

    2007-04-15

    Applying principal component analysis (PCA), we determined climate zones in a topographic gradient in the central-northeastern part of Mexico. We employed nearly 30 years of monthly temperature and precipitation data at 173 meteorological stations. The climate classification was carried out applying the Koeppen system modified for the conditions of Mexico. PCA indicates a regionalization in agreement with topographic characteristics and vegetation. We describe the different bioclimatic zones, associated with typical vegetation, for each climate using geographical information systems (GIS). [Spanish] Utilizando un analisis de componentes principales, determinamos zonas climaticas en un gradiente topografico en la zona centro-noreste de Mexico. Se emplearon datos de precipitacion y temperatura medias mensuales por un periodo de 30 anos de 173 estaciones meteorologicas. La clasificacion del clima fue llevada a cabo de acuerdo con el sistema de Koeppen modificado para las condiciones de Mexico. El analisis de componentes principales indico una regionalizacion que concuerda con caracteristicas de topografia y vegetacion. Se describen zonas bioclimaticas, asociadas a vegetacion tipica para cada clima, usando sistemas de informacion geografica (SIG).

  18. Seismotectonic pattern and the source region of volcanism in the central part of Sunda Arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Špičák, Aleš; Hanuš, Václav; Vaněk, Jiří

    2005-07-01

    The seismotectonic pattern in the central part of the Sunda Arc (Java, Nusa Tenggara) was studied in relation to the distribution of active calc-alkaline volcanoes, using global seismological data. Hypocentral determinations of the International Seismological Centre from the period 1964-1999, as relocated by Engdahl, and Harvard Centroid Moment Tensor Solutions from the period 1976-2003 were used. The following phenomena, which could assist the location of the source region of primary magma for island arc calc-alkaline volcanism, were observed: (1) An aseismic gap without any strong teleseismically recorded earthquakes was found in the Wadati-Benioff zone of the subducting slab along the whole investigated region of the Sunda Arc, forming a continuous strip of laterally variable depth and shape, at depths between 100 and 200 km. The absence of strong earthquakes (with mb>4.0) indicates a significant change in the mechanical properties of the subducting slab at intermediate depths. All active calc-alkaline volcanoes in the Sunda Arc are located above this gap. (2) The majority of earthquakes occurring in the lithospheric wedge of the Eurasian Plate above the subducted slab could be attributed to several deep-rooted seismically active fracture zones of regional extent. All delineated active fracture zones display a thrust tectonic regime as shown by the available fault plane solutions. (3) Clusters of earthquakes were found beneath active volcanoes of western Java, Bali and Nusa Tenggara in the lithospheric wedge above the slab and identified as seismically active columns. These clusters occur only beneath the volcanoes that are located at the outcrops of seismically active fracture zones. We interpret the earthquakes in these clusters beneath volcanoes as events induced by magma transport through the medium of the lithospheric wedge that has been subcritically pre-stressed by the process of plate convergence. (4) Beneath the volcanoes of central Java no seismically

  19. Molecular analysis of HBV genotypes and subgenotypes in the Central-East region of Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gharbi Jawhar

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Tunisia, country of intermediate endemicity for Hepatitis B virus (HBV infection, most molecular studies on the virus have been carried out in the North of the country and little is known about other regions. The aim of this study was to determine HBV genotype and subgenotypes in Central-East Tunisia. A total of 217 HBs antigen positive patients were enrolled and determination of genotype was investigated in 130 patients with detectable HBV DNA. HBV genotyping methods were: PCR-RFLP on the pre-S region, a PCR using type-specific primers in the S region (TSP-PCR and partial sequencing in the pre-S region. Results Three genotypes (D, B and A were detected by the PCR-RFLP method and two (D and A with the TSP-PCR method, the concordance between the two methods was 93%. Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 32 strains, retrieved the same genotype (D and A for samples with concordant results and genotype D for samples with discordant results. The sequences of discordant genotypes had a restriction site in the pre-S gene which led to erroneous result by the PCR-RFLP method. Thus, prevalence of genotype D and A was 96% and 4%, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis showed the predominance of two subgenotypes D1 (55% and D7 (41%. Only one strain clustered with D3 subgenotype (3%. Conclusions Predominance of subgenotype D7 appears to occur in northern regions of Africa with transition to subgenotype D1 in the East of the continent. HBV genetic variability may lead to wrong results in rapid genotyping methods and sequence analysis is needed to clarify atypical results.

  20. Hydrological and vegetation shifts in the Wallacean region of central Indonesia since the Last Glacial Maximum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicaksono, Satrio A.; Russell, James M.; Holbourn, Ann; Kuhnt, Wolfgang

    2017-02-01

    Precipitation is the most important variable of Indonesian climate, yet there are substantial uncertainties about past and future hydroclimate dynamics over the region. This study explores vegetation and rainfall and associated changes in atmospheric circulation during the past 26,000 years in Wallacea, a biogeographical area in central Indonesia, wedged between the Sunda and Sahul shelves and known for its exceptionally high rainforest biodiversity. We use terrestrial plant biomarkers from sediment cores retrieved from Mandar Bay, off west Sulawesi, to reconstruct changes in Wallacean vegetation and climate since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Enriched leaf wax carbon isotope (δ13Cwax) values recorded in Mandar Bay during the LGM, together with other regional vegetation records, document grassland expansion, implying a regionally dry, and possibly more seasonal, glacial climate. Depleted leaf wax deuterium isotope (δDwax) values in Mandar Bay during the LGM, and low reconstructed precipitation isotope compositions from nearby sites, reveal an intensified Austral-Asian summer monsoon circulation and a southward shift of the mean position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone, likely due to strong southern hemisphere summer insolation and the presence of large northern hemisphere ice sheets. Mandar Bay δ13Cwax was anti-correlated with δDwax during the LGM and the last deglaciation, but was positively correlated during most of the Holocene, indicating time-varying controls on the isotopic composition of rainfall in this region. The inundation event of the Sunda Shelf and in particular the opening of the Java Sea and Karimata Strait between 9.4 and 11.1 thousand years ago might have provided new moisture sources for regional convection and/or influenced moisture source trajectories, providing the trigger for shifts in atmospheric circulation and the controls on precipitation isotope compositions from the LGM to the Holocene.

  1. Monitoring variations of inland lakes in the arid region of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jie BAI; Xi CHEN; Liao YANG; Hui FANG

    2012-01-01

    Inland lakes are the major surface water resource in the arid regions of Central Asia.Therefore,the surface area changes in inland lakes have been a sensitive indicator of climate changes and human activities,and have often been the focus of ecological and environmental research.This study aimed to monitor the changes in surface area of nine major lakes over a 32-year period.The water body was extracted from MSS images from the mid-1970s,TM images from the early 1990s,ETM + images in the late 1990s,and TM images in 2007.The results indicated that the total surface area of these nine lakes had decreased over time to 50.38% of the area,from 91402.06 km2 in 1975 to 46049.23 km2 in 2007.As the surface area of lakes in the western part of Central Asia was larger than that in the eastern part,the shrinking trend of lake area was more significant in the west than in the east.There was a varied reduction of closed lakes in flat regions.The most substantial decrease was in the surface area of closed lakes in flat regions.Most significantly,the area of the Aral Sea was reduced by 75.7% from its original area in 1975.The area of alpine lakes remained relatively stable; the change in surface area was less than 0.7% during the period 1975-2007.The area change in opened lakes with outlets was notably different from the other two types.The area of Zaysan had increased sharply by 5.85%,and that of Bosten had decreased by 9.1%.Sasykkol had hardly any changes in this period.Due to global climate warming,vapor transfer to the south via westerly winds had been blocked,resulting in a decrease of much-needed precipitation in the western parts of Turkmenistan,Uzbekistan,and Kazakhstan between 1970 and 2000.The decrease in precipitation and the increase in water consumption for agricultural irrigation resulted in the decrease of river runoff.Consequently,the area of inland lakes in Central Asia shrank over the past 32 years.

  2. MAPPING THE CENTRAL REGION OF THE PPN CRL 618 AT SUBARCSECOND RESOLUTION AT 350 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Yang, Chun-Hui [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Sahai, Raghvendra [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, MS 183-900, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Sanchez Contreras, Carmen [Astrobiology Center (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, E-28691 Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-06-20

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at {approx}0.''3-0.''5 resolutions. Two components are seen in the 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in a 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base; and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC{sub 3}N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain millimeter-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC{sub 3}N and HCN and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in CH{sub 2}CHCN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within {approx}630 AU (0.''7) of the central star. A simple radiative transfer model is used to derive the kinematics, physical conditions, and the chemical abundances in the dense core. The dense core is expanding and accelerating, with the velocity increasing roughly linearly from {approx}3 km s{sup -1} in the innermost part to {approx}16 km s{sup -1} at 630 AU. The mass-loss rate in the dense core is extremely high with a value of {approx}1.15 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -3} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The dense core has a mass of {approx}0.47 M{sub Sun} and a dynamical age of {approx}400 yr. It could result from a recent enhanced heavy mass-loss episode that ends the asymptotic giant branch phase. The isotopic ratios of {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C and {sup 14}N/{sup 15}N are 9 {+-} 4 and 150 {+-} 50, respectively, both lower than the solar values.

  3. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ísis Assis Braga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5% cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4% cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  4. Detection of Ehrlichia canis in domestic cats in the central-western region of Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Ísis Assis; dos Santos, Luana Gabriela Ferreira; de Souza Ramos, Dirceu Guilherme; Melo, Andréia Lima Tomé; da Cruz Mestre, Gustavo Leandro; de Aguiar, Daniel Moura

    2014-01-01

    Ehrlichiosis is a worldwide distributed disease caused by different bacteria of the Ehrlichia genus that are transmitted by arthropod vectors. Its occurrence in dogs is considered endemic in several regions of Brazil. Regarding cats, however, few studies have been done and, consequently, there is not enough data available. In order to detect Ehrlichia spp. in cats from the central-western region of Brazil, blood and serum samples were collected from a regional population of 212 individuals originated from the cities of Cuiabá and Várzea Grande. These animals were tested by the Immunofluorescence Assay (IFA) and the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) designed to amplify a 409 bp fragment of the dsb gene. The results obtained show that 88 (41.5%) cats were seropositive by IFA and 20 (9.4%) cats were positive by PCR. The partial DNA sequence obtained from PCR products yielded twenty samples that were found to match perfectly the Ehrlichia canis sequences deposited on GenBank. The natural transmission of Ehrlichia in cats has not been fully established. Furthermore, tick infestation was not observed in the evaluated cats and was not observed any association between age, gender and positivity of cats in both tests. The present study reports the first serological and molecular detection of E. canis in domestic cats located in the endemic area previously mentioned.

  5. Hydrological extremes in hyperarid regions: A diagnostic characterization of intense precipitation over the Central Arabian Peninsula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kondapalli Niranjan; Entekhabi, Dara; Molini, Annalisa

    2015-03-01

    Aridity is typically associated with deep and dry daytime boundary layers, stable nighttime stratification, divergent flows, and limited large-scale moisture advection. All these factors are paramount in regulating the hydroclimatology of hyperarid regions, resulting in extremely intermittent—and often intense—local precipitation patterns. However, the link between synoptic-scale forcing and intense precipitation over arid regions has been scarcely investigated in the literature and still remains exceedingly unexplored. We present here a diagnostic study of intense precipitation in the Central Arabian Peninsula, based on the analysis of local extreme signatures embedded in synoptic patterns. Special emphasis is given to the genesis of winter extremes over the Peninsula, and to possible effects of synchronization between the atmospheric circulation over the Mediterranean and the Indian Ocean. Based on composites of the tropospheric circulation for a large ensemble of intense events, we show that moisture necessary to trigger winter extremes over the Peninsula starts to build up in average 8 days before heavy rainfall occurrence, mainly as a consequence of the interplay between the Mediterranean and the Monsoonal circulation. Moisture advection is in turn associated with an upper troposphere cyclonic circulation and pronounced potential vorticity intrusions. Overall, our results demonstrate how large-scale precursors can be effectively used to improve the predictability of rainfall extremes in hyperarid regions.

  6. Analysis of drought in the region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) by the Standardized Precipitation Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lena, B.; Vergni, L.; Antenucci, F.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents a comprehensive analysis of drought phenomena in the Region of Abruzzo (Central Italy) using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) computed at different time scales (3, 6, 12, 24 months). The study is based on monthly precipitation data collected from 1951 to 2009 at 69 climatic stations uniformly distributed over the region. According to the trend analysis, most stations are characterized by increments in both drought severity and variability, particularly at the longer time scales. A principal component analysis applied to SPI time series enabled to identify two main patterns: the first more correlated to the coastal areas, the second more correlated to the inland, mountainous areas. However, the spatial patterns become less defined as the time scale increases, making more uncertain the definition of homogenous areas to be used in drought management plans. In most cases, the identified drought patterns have similar negative overall tendencies, but different trend directions in some sub-periods. In particular, the first drought pattern is clearly characterized by a trend reversal (from decreasing to increasing) during the last decade. This temporal evolution, consistent with that observed by large-scale analyses in the corresponding (or near) grid points, was not detected for the second pattern, which is probably influenced by local topographic and/or orographic factors. The results confirm the complexity of drought phenomenon in a typical Mediterranean region and the necessity of high-resolution datasets to capture its temporal and spatial variability.

  7. Multiscale regression model to infer historical temperatures in a central Mediterranean sub-regional area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Diodato

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available To reconstruct sub-regional European climate over the past centuries, several efforts have been made using historical datasets. However, only scattered information at low spatial and temporal resolution have been produced to date for the Mediterranean area. This paper has exploited, for Southern and Central Italy (Mediterranean Sub-Regional Area, an unprecedented historical dataset as an attempt to model seasonal (winter and summer air temperatures in pre-instrumental time (back to 1500. Combining information derived from proxy documentary data and large-scale simulation, a statistical methodology in the form of multiscale-temperature regression (MTR-model was developed to adapt larger-scale estimations to the sub-regional temperature pattern. The modelled response lacks essentially of autocorrelations among the residuals (marginal or any significance in the Durbin-Watson statistic, and agrees well with the independent data from the validation sample (Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency coefficient >0.60. The advantage of the approach is not merely increased accuracy in estimation. Rather, it relies on the ability to extract (and exploit the right information to replicate coherent temperature series in historical times.

  8. Ozone Variations over Central Tien-Shan in Central Asia and Implications for Regional Emissions Reduction Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    The variability of total column ozone (TCO) and tropospheric column ozone (TrCO) was examined in Central Asia. Measurements were conducted at the Lidar Station Teplokluchenka in eastern Kyrgyzstan for one year, July 2008–July 2009. TCO was obtained using a handheld Microtops II ...

  9. Development Plan for Under- forest Economy of Henan Province Based on Central Plains Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong ZHAO; Yimin ZHAO

    2016-01-01

    Firstly,this paper analyzed current situations,major practice and existing problems of under-forest economy in Henan Province.Then,it made an in-depth discussion of guiding thought,principle and objectives,construction task and safeguarding measures of the underforest economic development plan. Besides,it analyzed benefits of the under-forest economic development plan. By 2017,the area of underforest economic land will reach 1. 60 million hm2,create output value of 155. 2 billion yuan( accounting for more than 20% of forest output value),provide 3. 27 million jobs,and will greatly increase ecological carrying capacity of construction and development of the Central Plains Economic Region( CPER).

  10. Socio-economic vulnerability to climate change in the central mountainous region of eastern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperón-Rodríguez, Manuel; Bonifacio-Bautista, Martín; Barradas, Víctor L

    2016-03-01

    Climate change effects are expected to be more severe for some segments of society than others. In Mexico, climate variability associated with climate change has important socio-economic and environmental impacts. From the central mountainous region of eastern Veracruz, Mexico, we analyzed data of total annual precipitation and mean annual temperature from 26 meteorological stations (1922-2008) and from General Circulation Models. We developed climate change scenarios based on the observed trends with projections to 2025, 2050, 2075, and 2100, finding considerable local climate changes with reductions in precipitation of over 700 mm and increases in temperature of ~9°C for the year 2100. Deforested areas located at windward were considered more vulnerable, representing potential risk for natural environments, local communities, and the main crops cultivated (sugarcane, coffee, and corn). Socio-economic vulnerability is exacerbated in areas where temperature increases and precipitation decreases.

  11. Quinoa for marginal environments: Towards future food and nutritional security in MENA and Central Asia regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redouane eChoukr-allah

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a means to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries.

  12. Potentialities at central region Cuba to flowering use in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. genetic improvement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Víctor Caraballoso

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flowering of sugarcane (Saccharum spp. is necessary to the cultivation genetic improvement; it is executed after 2005 by the National Center of Hybridization located in Guayos, Sancti Spíritus province and require contiguous areas. Was objective this work classifying the environment of central region of Cuba in function of sugarcane flowering. 26 localities were evaluated to soil and climatic variables and use the “C86-12” variety to the flowering recognized in other study and evaluated the flowering intensity. The principal component was used to identification principal variables, the automatic classification analyses to clustering and discriminant analysis to corroborate them. The result show a high association flowering and altitude and the climatic variables associate them. The localities were clustering in three groups with 100 % of good classification. One locality was selecting by each group. The handle combine to localities increased the parental flowering and increased exploitation of genetic variability in the sugarcane.

  13. Quinoa for Marginal Environments: Toward Future Food and Nutritional Security in MENA and Central Asia Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choukr-Allah, Redouane; Rao, Nanduri K.; Hirich, Abdelaziz; Shahid, Mohammad; Alshankiti, Abdullah; Toderich, Kristina; Gill, Shagufta; Butt, Khalil Ur Rahman

    2016-01-01

    Quinoa is recognized as a crop of great value in terms of tolerance to abiotic stresses and there is growing interest to introduce it in marginal agricultural production systems worldwide. Also, quinoa is one of the most nutritious food crops currently known and the nutritive properties of the crop are seen as a mean to fight malnutrition globally. Various quinoa cultivars have been screened for tolerance to salinity, water-use efficiency and nutritional quality and the positive attributes found in them have created even wider global interest in its cultivation. This paper summarizes 15 years of studies on assessing the potential for introducing the crop in a few countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) and Central Asia regions and describes the key constraints for scaling-up the production under marginal growing conditions in the newly introduced countries. PMID:27066019

  14. On Willingness of Rural Land Circulation and Securitization in Central Regions of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianxin; LU; Yuwei; SU

    2014-01-01

    On the basis of questionnaire survey in 54 natural villages of 22 cities( counties) in 6 central region provinces,this paper analyzed the willingness of rural land circulation and securitization and influencing factors with the aid of Logistic model and Multinomial Logit model.The study indicates that factors influencing willingness of rural land circulation and securitization mainly include land contract method,land circulation information and approaches,rights and interests of farmers infringed or not,policies of benefiting farmers,and non-agricultural skills. Finally,it came up with following pertinent policy recommendations:( 1) reforming and improving land contract methods;( 2)strengthening disclosure of land circulation information;( 3) reforming and improving land circulation approaches;( 4) strengthening protection of farmers’ rights and interests in the process of land circulation;( 5) reinforcing and implementing policies benefiting farmers;( 6) cultivating and developing farmers’ non-agricultural skills.

  15. Evaluation of commercial grated cheese in the central region of Brazil for microbiological quality and safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lima, Thaís Cristina Dias; da Silva, Patrícia Helena Caldeira; de Souza, Stefânia Márcia; Nero, Luís Augusto; Ferreira, Márcia de Aguiar

    2011-07-01

    This study aims to further the scientific understanding of the microbial quality and safety of grated cheese. Samples of grated cheese product (n = 20) were obtained from markets in the central region of Brazil and submitted to microbiological analysis using conventional and alternative (Petrifilm™ and RIDA(®) plates) methodologies. Based only on the criteria from the Brazilian Health Ministry, all samples were considered adequate for consumption. However, most samples presented foreign substances and high levels of contamination by other hygiene indicator microorganisms, indicating failures in processing and possible risks to consumers. Despite the hygienic quality of the samples, the obtained results showed good correlation indexes and similarities between the conventional and the alternative methodologies, indicating their viability for the quality control of grated cheese.

  16. Environmental radioactivity in four national parks of the Abruzzo region (central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Barbizzi

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 1998, the Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e Molise ‘G. Caporale’ in Teramo is conducting radioecological surveys in the Abruzzo region (Central Italy, to acquire knowledge on the geochemical and biological mobility of radionuclides derived from the Chernobyl accident. To this end, samples of grasses, fungi, mosses and soils were collected in four national parks (Sirente-Velino, Abruzzo Lazio and Molise, the Gran Sasso and the park of Monti della Laga and Maiella. The results show that the Chernobyl fallout is still detectable in the samples collected in the four parks but the 137Cs concentrations are present in the semi-natural environments in quantities that do not create concerns from a radiological point of view.

  17. A study of air flow patterns affecting pollutant concentrations in the Central Region of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jazcilevich, Aron D.; García, Agustín. R.; Ruíz-Suárez, L. Gerardo

    Using a prognostic air quality model that includes actual emissions, air pollution regimes over the central region of Mexico are simulated. It is shown that due to the complex orography, vertical circular patterns develop over the metropolitan area of Mexico City. In this way reactive and non-reactive pollutants can travel near the surface, be transported vertically and land in an area opposite to its initial route due to convective downward currents. This changes the surface pollutant concentrations on the landing area. Also, it is shown that air pollution is transported near the surface from the metropolitan area of Mexico City through Chalco in the South-east corner of the Mexico Valley, to the Valley of Cuautla affecting this area.

  18. Characterization of Baker Fjord region through its heavy metal content on sediments (Central Chilean Patagonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón Ahumada

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of heavy metals content (Ba, Cd, Cu, Pb, Sr and Zn in sediments of the Baker Fjord and surrounding channels in the central region of the Chilean fjords (47°45'S, 48°15'S is analyzed. The aim of the study was characterized the patterns of abundance and distribution of these metals in surface sediments. The area corresponds to a poorly studied zone with low human activity. Distribution patterns would be influenced by rainfall conditions (local erosion, fluvial (continental sediments carried by rivers, glacier (glacier flour and estuarine circulation. Cluster analysis allows differentiation among the sampled sites and group with similar characteristics. Finally, the concentrations found were contrasted with average values of metamorphic rocks and show with some certainty that the values found for calendar for this area and the greatest concentrations are the result of natural enrichment.

  19. Demographic Factors Influencing Consumer Preferences of Seafood Consumption: Central Anatolia Region

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    Osman Orkan Özer

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in order to analyze seafood consumption level of consumers in Central Anatolia Region (Province Ankara and their consumption behavior. Proportional sampling method was used in determining sample size and sample size was determined as 167. Data were collected from randomly chosen individuals with face-to-face interviews. As a result of study, in order to determine possible effects of socio-economic properties of consumers on seafood consumption, CHAID analysis which is one of the decision tree analyses was used. According to the results of analysis; it can be said that dependent variables of income, education and age have effect on attitude and behavior of consumers while gender have no effect on consumption behaviors.

  20. Central regions of LIRGs: rings, hidden starbursts, Supernovae and star clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Vaisanen, Petri; Kankare, Erkki; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Randriamanakoto, Zara; Reunanen, Juha; Ryder, Stuart; Zijlstra, Albert

    2012-01-01

    We study star formation (SF) in very active environments, in luminous IR galaxies, which are often interacting. A variety of phenomena are detected, such as central starbursts, circumnuclear SF, obscured SNe tracing the history of recent SF, massive super star clusters, and sites of strong off-nuclear SF. All of these can be ultimately used to define the sequence of triggering and propagation of star-formation and interplay with nuclear activity in the lives of gas rich galaxy interactions and mergers. In this paper we present analysis of high-spatial resolution integral field spectroscopy of central regions of two interacting LIRGs. We detect a nuclear 3.3 um PAH ring around the core of NGC 1614 with thermal-IR IFU observations. The ring's characteristics and relation to the strong star-forming ring detected in recombination lines are presented, as well as a scenario of an outward expanding starburst likely initiated with a (minor) companion detected within a tidal feature. We then present NIR IFU observatio...

  1. Investment in higher order central processing regions is not constrained by brain size in social insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscedere, Mario L; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Moreau, Corrie S; Traniello, James F A

    2014-06-07

    The extent to which size constrains the evolution of brain organization and the genesis of complex behaviour is a central, unanswered question in evolutionary neuroscience. Advanced cognition has long been linked to the expansion of specific brain compartments, such as the neocortex in vertebrates and the mushroom bodies in insects. Scaling constraints that limit the size of these brain regions in small animals may therefore be particularly significant to behavioural evolution. Recent findings from studies of paper wasps suggest miniaturization constrains the size of central sensory processing brain centres (mushroom body calyces) in favour of peripheral, sensory input centres (antennal and optic lobes). We tested the generality of this hypothesis in diverse eusocial hymenopteran species (ants, bees and wasps) exhibiting striking variation in body size and thus brain size. Combining multiple neuroanatomical datasets from these three taxa, we found no universal size constraint on brain organization within or among species. In fact, small-bodied ants with miniscule brains had mushroom body calyces proportionally as large as or larger than those of wasps and bees with brains orders of magnitude larger. Our comparative analyses suggest that brain organization in ants is shaped more by natural selection imposed by visual demands than intrinsic design limitations.

  2. Mitochondrial Control Region Variability in Mytilus galloprovincialis Populations from the Central-Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis A. Giantsis

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The variable domain 1 (VD1 domain of the control region and a small segment of the rrnaL gene of the F mtDNA type were sequenced and analyzed in 174 specimens of Mytilus galloprovincialis. Samples were collected from eight locations in four Central-Eastern (CE Mediterranean countries (Italy, Croatia, Greece and Turkey. A new primer, specific for the F mtDNA type, was designed for the sequencing procedure. In total 40 different haplotypes were recorded, 24 of which were unique. Aside from the two populations situated in Thermaikos gulf (Northern Aegean, Greece, relatively high levels of haplotype and nucleotide diversity were estimated for both Central and Eastern Mediterranean populations. Eight out of the 40 haplotypes were shared by at least three populations while two of them were found in all populations. ΦST and cluster analysis revealed lack of structuring among CE Mediterranean populations with the exception of those located at the Sea of Marmara and Croatian coast which were highly differentiated. Apart from the species’ inherit dispersal ability, anthropogenic activities, such as the repeated translocations of mussel spat, seem to have played an important role in shaping the current genetic population structure of CE M. galloprovincialis mussels.

  3. Paleowetlands and regional climate change in the central Atacama Desert, northern Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quade, Jay; Rech, Jason A.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Latorre, Claudio; Quade, Barbra; Rylander, Kate Aasen; Fisher, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Widespread, organic-rich diatomaceous deposits are evidence for formerly wetter times along the margins of the central Atacama Desert, one of the driest places on Earth today. We mapped and dated these paleowetland deposits at three presently waterless locations near Salar de Punta Negra (24.5°S) on the western slope of the Andes. Elevated groundwater levels supported phreatic discharge into wetlands during two periods: 15,900 to ~ 13,800 and 12,700 to ~ 9700 cal yr BP. Dense concentrations of lithic artifacts testify to the presence of paleoindians around the wetlands late in the second wet phase (11,000?–9700 cal yr BP). Water tables dropped below the surface before 15,900 and since 8100 cal yr BP, and briefly between ~ 13,800 and 12,700 cal yr BP. This temporal pattern is repeated, with some slight differences, in rodent middens from the study area, in both paleowetland and rodent midden deposits north and south of the study area, and in lake level fluctuations on the adjacent Bolivian Altiplano. The regional synchroneity of these changes points to a strengthening of the South American Monsoon — which we term the "Central Andean Pluvial Event" — in two distinct intervals (15,900–13,800 and 12,700–9700 cal yr BP), probably induced by steepened SST gradients across the tropical Pacific (i.e., La Niña-like conditions).

  4. Limnological characteristics of 56 lakes in the Central Canadian Arctic Treeline Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John P. SMOL

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Measured environmental variables from 56 lakes across the Central Canadian Treeline Region exhibited clear limnological differences among subpolar ecozones, reflecting strong latitudinal changes in biome characteristics (e.g. vegetation, permafrost, climate. Principal Components Analysis (PCA clearly separated forested sites from tundra sites based on distinct differences in limnological characteristics. Increases in major ions and related variables (e.g. dissolved inorganic carbon, DIC were higher in boreal forest sites in comparison to arctic tundra sites. The higher values recorded in the boreal forest lakes may be indirectly related to differences in climatic factors in these zones, such as the degree of permafrost development, higher precipitation and runoff, duration of ice-cover on the lakes, and thicker and better soil development. Similar to trends observed in DIC, substantially higher values for dissolved organic carbon (DOC were measured in boreal forest lakes than in arctic tundra lakes. This was likely due to higher amounts of catchment-derived DOC entering the lakes from coniferous leaf litter sources. Relative to arctic tundra lakes, boreal forest lakes had higher nutrient concentrations, particularly total nitrogen (TN, likely due to warmer conditions, a longer growing season, and higher precipitation, which would enhance nutrient cycling and primary productivity. Results suggest that modern aquatic environments at opposite sides of the central Canadian arctic treeline (i.e. boreal forest and arctic tundra exhibit distinct differences in water chemistry and physical conditions. These limnological trends may provide important information on possible future changes with additional warming.

  5. PENICILLIUM STRAINS ISOLATED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN THE CENTRAL SLOVAK WINE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Felšöciová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A total of 10 wine producing grapes were collected from the Central Slovak region in 2011 and 2012, which involved 7 vineyards. Mycological analysis was carried out for the detection of fungi using standard media with focus on genera Penicillium. The exogenous mycobiota was determined by the method of direct placing of berry samples on agar plates and the endogenous mycobiota by the same method but the berry samples were first superficially sterilized. The resulting Penicillia were identified morphologically. The potentially toxigenic isolates were analysed for mycotoxin production by TLC method. In general representatives of Penicillium genus were isolated with higher frequency from the surface of the berries than from their interior. In regard to species Penicillium chrysogenum seems to be the most wide-spread in wine grape berries from the Central Slovak wine growing area because was detected more frequently than other species. In total, 546 fungal isolates belonging to 12 Penicillium species. Overall, two species were dominant: P. chrysogenum and P. expansum. Four potentially toxigenic species isolated from endogenous mycobiota were tested for their toxigenic ability. Out of 10 strains, all of them produced at least one mycotoxin. Of all 16 potentially toxigenic strains from exogenous mycobiota, 88% produced at least one mycotoxin. Therefore study concluded, that wine producing grapes seems to be risk products.

  6. Tracing the origin of the east-west population admixture in the Altai region (Central Asia.

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    Mercedes González-Ruiz

    Full Text Available A recent discovery of Iron Age burials (Pazyryk culture in the Altai Mountains of Mongolia may shed light on the mode and tempo of the generation of the current genetic east-west population admixture in Central Asia. Studies on ancient mitochondrial DNA of this region suggest that the Altai Mountains played the role of a geographical barrier between West and East Eurasian lineages until the beginning of the Iron Age. After the 7th century BC, coinciding with Scythian expansion across the Eurasian steppes, a gradual influx of East Eurasian sequences in Western steppes is detected. However, the underlying events behind the genetic admixture in Altai during the Iron Age are still unresolved: 1 whether it was a result of migratory events (eastward firstly, westward secondly, or 2 whether it was a result of a local demographic expansion in a 'contact zone' between European and East Asian people. In the present work, we analyzed the mitochondrial DNA lineages in human remains from Bronze and Iron Age burials of Mongolian Altai. Here we present support to the hypothesis that the gene pool of Iron Age inhabitants of Mongolian Altai was similar to that of western Iron Age Altaians (Russia and Kazakhstan. Thus, this people not only shared the same culture (Pazyryk, but also shared the same genetic east-west population admixture. In turn, Pazyryks appear to have a similar gene pool that current Altaians. Our results further show that Iron Age Altaians displayed mitochondrial lineages already present around Altai region before the Iron Age. This would provide support for a demographic expansion of local people of Altai instead of westward or eastward migratory events, as the demographic event behind the high population genetic admixture and diversity in Central Asia.

  7. Analysis of Droughts in the Central Region of South Africa and Their Association with SST Anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desalegn C. Edossa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to characterise meteorological droughts in the Central Region of South Africa using Standardised Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI and to examine if there is a relationship between drought and El Niño events. The SPEI was used to quantify the precipitation deficit over time and space across the catchment for the time-scales that are important for planning and management of water resources. Based on 12-month time-scale, the total number of drought events identified in the area using SPEI ranged between 13 and 20 during the period of analysis (1952–1999. Considering the effects of event magnitude and duration as severity parameters, the most severe drought event was identified during 1973 followed by 1995 based on 12-month time-scale. Moreover, it was also found that the number of moderate, severe, and extreme drought events identified by SPEI follows increasing trend with decade during the period of analysis. Results of Spearman’s rank correlation test revealed that the trends exhibited by mild (SPEI-3 and SPEI-6, moderate (SPEI-12, severe (SPEI-12, and extreme (SPEI-3 drought categories are statistically significant at 5% significance level. The study also revealed that drought events in the central region of South Africa are preceded by El Niño events in the tropical Pacific (Nino 3.4 with an average lag time of 8 months between the onsets of the two events. It was found that hydrological drought events in the study area lag behind meteorological drought events with an average lag time of 7.4 months. Findings of this study can be used to forecast drought events in the area for the proper planning and management of water resources.

  8. A regional inventory of rock glaciers and protalus ramparts in the central Italian Alps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scotti, Riccardo; Brardinoni, Francesco; Alberti, Stefano; Frattini, Paolo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2013-03-01

    We present a regional inventory of rock glaciers (n = 1514) and protalus ramparts (228) for the Lombardy region, central Italian Alps. To identify and classify the landforms we inspect three sequential air-orthophoto mosaics and a 2 m-DSM, and conduct confirmatory field work. The inventory forms an empirical basis to analyze: (i) the relative contribution of hillslope (i.e., talus slopes) and glacial (i.e., moraines) sediment stores to rock glacier sediment supply; (ii) linkages between the landforms inventoried and local topographic attributes; (iii) the spatial variability of periglacial activity in relation to a parsimonious set of environmental variables (i.e., elevation, precipitation, and lithology); and (iv) the effects of the Pleistocene-Holocene climatic transition on the distribution of intact and relict landforms. This analysis reveals that the elevation of rock glacier termini can vary over 200 m as a function of slope aspect. In turn, the distribution of rock glaciers among aspect categories is controlled by the structure of the valley network that promotes NW and SE exposures. Talus rock glaciers prevail numerically over the glacier-related typology, even though the latter population appears to have increased during the Holocene. Relict and intact rock glaciers have distinct spatial patterns in that the former display, on average, a 400-m elevation drop and a less clustered distribution towards northern aspects, suggesting that they have developed in more "permafrost-prone" climatic conditions. Analyzing the study region through a 27.5 km-grid has been instrumental for showing that the rock glacier specific area and terminus elevation are: (i) positively correlated with terrain elevation; and (ii) negatively correlated with mean annual precipitation. As a consequence, in relation to Holocene generalized atmospheric temperature rise, intact rock glaciers have progressively disappeared from the wetter and milder portions of the central Italian Alps

  9. Early urban and colonized regions of central and south Italy : A case study in comparative landscape archaeology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attema, P; Darvill, T; Gojda, M

    2001-01-01

    Systematic field surveys and topographical research undertaken to date in various Italian regions south of Rome shou, that responses to early urbanization in central and south Italy, and the interplay of early urbanization with Greek and Roman colonization, differed widely between regions. In this p

  10. Analysis of Externality of Rural Labor Force Flow in Central and Western Regions of China and Benefit Compensation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin; LI; Haijing; HU

    2013-01-01

    According to the theories of institutional economics and development economics,the positive and negative externality of rural labor force flowing from central and western regions and into eastern regions of China were analyzed,and then it was proposed that it is necessary to positive externality,rather than take"household register"measures to solve the problem simply.

  11. Extensional Seismogenic Stress and Tectonic Movement on the Central Region of the Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiren Xu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Various earthquake fault types, mechanism solutions and stress fields, as well as GPS and geothermal data are analyzed for the study of the crustal movements on the Tibetan plateau and their tectonic implications. The results show that a lot of the normal faulting type-event concentrated at altitudes greater than 4000 m on the central Tibetan plateau. The altitudes concentrating normal faulting type-events can be zoned two parts: the western part, the Lhasa block, and the eastern part, the Qiangtang-Changdu region. The azimuths of T-axes are in a general E-W direction in the Lhasa block and NW-SE or NNW-SSE in the Qiangtang-Changdu region at the altitudes of the Tibetan plateau. The tensional stresses in E-W direction and NW-SE direction predominate normal faulting earthquake occurrence in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The slipping displacements of the normal-faulting-type events have great components in near E-W direction and NW-SE direction in the Lhasa block and the Qiangtang-Changdu region, respectively. The extensions are probably an eastward or southeastward extensional motion, being mainly tectonic activity phenomena in the plateau altitudes. The extensional motions due to normal-fault earthquakes are important tectonic activity regimes on the high altitudes of the plateau. The easterly crustal extensions on the plateau are attributable to the gravitational collapse of the high plateau and eastward extrusion of hotter mantle materials beneath the eastern boundary of the plateau. Numbers of thrust-fault and strike-slip-fault earthquakes with strong compressive stress in a general NNE-SSW direction occur on the edges of the plateau.

  12. Effects of forest fires in southern and central of Zabaykal region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Buryak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fire frequency situation in Zabaykal region from 1964 to 2015 is evaluated and discussed in the paper. The main reasons of decadal increase of fire numbers and the area burned are revealed. The main reasons of high fire frequency and the increase of fire activity in the last decades are shown. The characteristics of the weather conditions in the years of high fire frequency are presented. Fire activity was found to increase not only because of the droughts in the last decades but also due to forest disturbances in Zabaykalsky Krai by illegal logging. Based on the data from 170 sample sites laid out with the use of satellite images, forest inventory data and results of ground sample transects, the impact of the wildfires of different type, form and severity on tree mortality in the light-coniferous forests was estimated, as well as the amount of tree regeneration in the forest areas disturbed by fires, logged sites (both burned and unburned, and sites burned repeatedly was evaluated. Wildfires in the Zabaykal region were found to be strong ecological factor influencing on the probability of existence of many forest ecosystems. In case of further climate warming and repeated fires, the part of the forests may transform to the non forest areas. The steppification of the burned sites in the southern forest-steppe regions and in the low parts of the southern slopes at the border with steppe landscapes as well as desertification in the central parts of the region and swamping of burned sites located in the wet soils are observed. Wind and water soil erosion happens at the large burned sites.

  13. PLANT COMMUNITIES WITH ARNICA MONTANA IN NATURAL HABITATS FROM THE CENTRAL REGION OF ROMANIAN EASTERN CARPATHIANS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin MARDARI

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Arnica montana is a species of European Union interest, whose harvest from the wild and exploitation should be made under certain management measures. In Romania it is a vulnerable species due to excessive collection. It is a species with European areal occuring in pastures, meadows, forest glades, shrubs communities of mountain to the subalpine regions and, isolated, up to the alpine belt. Most of the plant communities with Arnica montana are semi-natural, with a floristic composition in which there are numerous rare or threatened species also supporting the need of their conservation. Our study was focused on a numerical classification (hierarchical, using Flexible ß algorithm and Bray-Curtis dissimilarity based on 48 plots, of the plant communities with Arnica montana from the central region of Romanian Eastern Carpathians and on the investigation of the effect of some environmental variables (Ellenberg indicator values, altitude, heat load index on their floristic composition (100 m2 scale. Vegetation – environment relationship was assessed via detrended correspondence analysis and canonical correspondence analysis with Monte Carlo test. Six plant communities with Arnica montana were identified (communities of Festuca rubra with Agrostis capillaris, Festuca nigrescens, Vaccinium myrtillus, Nardus stricta, Vaccinium gaultherioides and Juniperus sibirica with a floristic composition mainly shaped by altitude, temperature and soil nitrogen content. Details related to location and sites characteristics, diagnostic species, floristic composition, presence of other rare or threatened species and Arnica montana abundance were presented for all these plant communities.

  14. Investigation of regional geokinematics of central Europe using permanent GPS observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogusz, J.; Figurski, M.; Kontny, B.; Jarosinski, M.; Klos, A.; Grzempowski, P.

    2012-12-01

    Since 2009 the Centre of Applied Geomatics of the Military University of Technology acts as one of the 18 Local Analysis Centers within EPN (EUREF Permanent Network). The duty of the LAC is to process a subnetwork of EPN stations and deliver weekly free network solutions to the Combination Centre as well as make research aimed at interpretation of obtained sites' coordinates. We have used satellite data from more than 300 permanent sites located in Europe, incorporated to EPN and supplemented by the sites operated within Polish GBAS (Ground-Based Augmentation System) called ASG-EUPOS for investigation of the regional geokinematic effects. These observations were processed by means of combining the normal equations using BERNESE 5.0 software. The velocities of permanent sites were determined from time series (geocentric coordinates) in two ways: using robust estimation using M-estimators and with CATREF software with no significant differences obtained. The several methods of interpolation of velocities into regular grid were tested. The research on regional kinematics was done by scientific description of continuous velocity model in comparison with different discontinuous models with geological structure taken into consideration. Finally the strain rates of Central Europe were elaborated using GRID_STRAIN software and compared to the previously determined empirical models.

  15. The spectral energy distribution of the central parsec-scaled region of AGN

    CERN Document Server

    Prieto, M A; Beckert, T; Tristram, K R W; Neumayer, N; Fernández, J A; Acosta, J; Beckert, Th.

    2007-01-01

    Genuine spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the central few parsec of the nearest and brightest active galaxies in the Southern Hemisphere are presented. They are compiled from very high spatial resolution observations in the radio (VLBA), the infrared (using adaptive optics and interferometry) and the optical (HST). The SEDs are characterized by two main emission bumps peaking in the X-rays and in the infrared respectively, as it is known from optically obscured galactic nuclei. Yet, the SED shape of the IR largely departs from the one derived from large aperture data. It reveals two new features: (1) a very sharp decay at wavelengths shortward of 2 $\\mu$m, plausibly a consequence of the heavy extinction towards the core region and (2) a flattening in the 10-20 $\\mu$m range as well as a downturn toward longer wavelengths. Accordingly, the true bolometric luminosity of these core regions turns out to be about an order of magnitude lower than previously estimated on the basis of IRAS/ISO data. These findin...

  16. eHealth for Remote Regions: Findings from Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajwani, Afroz; Qureshi, Kiran; Shaikh, Tehniat; Sayani, Saleem

    2015-01-01

    Isolated communities in remote regions of Afghanistan, Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan and Tajikistan lack access to high-quality, low-cost health care services, forcing them to travel to distant parts of the country, bearing an unnecessary financial burden. The eHealth Programme under Central Asia Health Systems Strengthening (CAHSS) Project, a joint initiative between the Aga Khan Foundation, Canada and the Government of Canada, was initiated in 2013 with the aim to utilize Information and Communication Technologies to link health care institutions and providers with rural communities to provide comprehensive and coordinated care, helping minimize the barriers of distance and time. Under the CAHSS Project, access to low-cost, quality health care is provided through a regional hub and spoke teleconsultation network of government and non-government health facilities. In addition, capacity building initiatives are offered to health professionals. By 2017, the network is expected to connect seven Tier 1 tertiary care facilities with 14 Tier 2 secondary care facilities for teleconsultation and eLearning. From April 2013 to September 2014, 6140 teleconsultations have been provided across the project sites. Additionally, 52 new eLearning sessions have been developed and 2020 staff members have benefitted from eLearning sessions. Ethics and patient rights are respected during project implementation.

  17. A survey and a molecular dynamics study on the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Jiapu

    2014-01-01

    Prion diseases are invariably fatal neurodegenerative diseases that affect humans and animals. Unlike most other amyloid forming neurodegenerative diseases, these can be highly infectious. Prion diseases occur in a variety of species. They include the fatal human neurodegenerative diseases Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), Fatal Familial Insomnia (FFI), Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), Kuru, the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or 'mad-cow' disease) in cattle, the chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer and elk, and scrapie in sheep and goats, etc. Transmission across the species barrier to humans, especially in the case of BSE in Europe, CWD in North America, and variant CJDs (vCJDs) in young people of UK, is a major public health concern. Fortunately, scientists reported that the (central) hydrophobic region of prion proteins (PrP) controls the formation of diseased prions. This article gives a detailed survey on PrP hydrophobic region and does molecular dynamics studies of human PrP(110-136...

  18. The regional impact of urban emissions on climate over central Europe: present and future emission perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huszár, Peter; Belda, Michal; Karlický, Jan; Pišoft, Petr; Halenka, Tomáš

    2016-10-01

    The regional climate model RegCM4.2 was coupled to the chemistry transport model CAMx, including two-way interactions, to evaluate the regional impact of urban emission from central European cities on climate for present-day (2001-2010) and future (2046-2055) periods, and for the future one only emission changes are considered. Short-lived non-CO2 emissions are considered and, for the future impact, only the emission changes are accounted for (the climate is kept "fixed"). The urban impact on climate is calculated with the annihilation approach in which two experiments are performed: one with all emissions included and one without urban emissions. The radiative impacts of non-CO2 primary and secondary formed pollutants are considered, namely ozone (O3), sulfates (PSO4), nitrates (PNO3), primary organic aerosol and primary elementary carbon (POA and PEC).The validation of the modelling system is limited to key climate parameters, near-surface temperature and precipitation. It shows that the model, in general, underestimates temperature and overestimates precipitation. We attribute this behaviour to an excess of cloudiness/water vapour present in the model atmosphere as a consequence of overpredicted evaporation from the surface.The impact on climate is characterised by statistically significant cooling of up to -0.02 and -0.04 K in winter (DJF) and summer (JJA), mainly over cities. We found that the main contributors to the cooling are the direct and indirect effects of the aerosols, while the ozone titration, calculated especially for DJF, plays rather a minor role. In accordance with the vertical extent of the urban-emission-induced aerosol perturbation, cooling dominates the first few model layers up to about 150 m in DJF and 1000 m in JJA. We found a clear diurnal cycle of the radiative impacts with maximum cooling just after noon (JJA) or later in afternoon (DJF). Furthermore, statistically significant decreases of surface radiation are modelled in accordance

  19. Principal factors of soil spatial heterogeneity and ecosystem services at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, Ivan; Valentini, Riccardo

    2013-04-01

    The essential spatial heterogeneity is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia which is not only one of the biggest «food baskets» in RF but very important regulator of ecosystem principal services at the European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of dominated here forest-steppe and steppe Chernozems and the other soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and more than 1000-year history of human impacts. The carried out long-term researches of representative natural, rural and urban landscapes in Kursk, Orel, Tambov and Voronezh oblasts give us the regional multi-factorial matrix of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) with different land-use practices and history, soil-geomorphologic features, environmental and microclimate conditions. The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of ESCP regulation and development, ecosystem principal services, land functional qualities and agroecological state have been done for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of regional and local GIS, soil spatial patterns mapping, traditional regression kriging, correlation tree models. The outcomes of statistical modeling show the essential amplification of erosion, dehumification and CO2 emission, acidification and alkalization, disaggregation and overcompaction processes due to violation of agroecologically sound land-use systems and traditional balances of organic matter, nutrients, Ca and Na in agrolandscapes. Due to long-term intensive and out-of-balance land-use practices the famous Russian Chernozems begin to lose not only their unique natural features of (around 1 m of humus horizon, 4-6% of Corg and favorable agrophysical features), but traditional soil cover patterns, ecosystem services and agroecological functions. Key-site monitoring

  20. Regional Air Quality in central México and emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerardo Ruiz-Suarez, Luis; Torres-Jardón, Ricardo; Agustín García-Reynoso, José; Santos García-Yee, José; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Alejandro Torres-Jaramillo, Jorge; Robles-Roldán, Miguel Angel; Gutierrez López, Wilfrido; García-Espinoza, Manuel; Castro-Romero, Telma

    2014-05-01

    Four air quality field campaigns, from 2009 to 2012, during March-April were carried out in several sites in urban, rural and semi-rural sites in Central México. One of the sites was in the Chalco Gap southeast of MCMA (2011), another in the state of Morelos (2011), other two in the state of Puebla (2009 and 2012). All these sites are South and East of the Mexico Basin. The main object of those campaigns was to document regional air quality, mainly in rural and periurban sites, including the photochemical age of regional polluted plumes as they were transported away from the main metropolitan areas within the region. In this paper, we focus on comparisons between observed CO/NOx, and CO/SO2 ratios with those from the National Emissions Inventory and form local inventories reported in state air quality management programs. Comparisons were made with data between 05:00 to 08:00 h to minimize effects photochemical activity and the fast evolution of MLH occurring between 08:00 and 09:00 due to high insolation. Comparisons among observed ratios show a fairly consistent ratio, whereas ratios from emissions inventory are widely variable and only in few sites compare reasonable well with observed ones, indicating the need for homologation of emissions inventories in the country. Also Ozone, CO, NOx and NOy observed time series are compared with WRF-Chem model results for the same campaign periods to evaluate its performance outside MCMA. In addition, observed surface wind speeds and early morning MLH obtained with a tethered balloon are also compared with modeled values to help understanding discrepancies in the trace gases comparisons.

  1. Gastrointestinal nematodes in rotationally grazing ewes in the mountainous region of central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo-Ramírez, P M C; Quiroz-Romero, H; Cruz-Mendoza, I; Ulloa-Arvizu, R; Ibarra-Velarde, F

    2013-03-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the frequency of egg shedding (percentage of egg-positive faecal samples) and faecal egg counts (FEC) over 13 months in two different breeds of ewes, both pregnant and non-pregnant, in a mountainous region of central Mexico. Additionally, the effect of ivermectin and albendazole treatments on FEC reduction was recorded. The study also aimed to relate temperature and rainfall to FEC. The gastrointestinal nematode (GIN) third-stage larvae genera recovered from both faeces and grassland pastures in a temperate region were also assessed. Faecal samples were collected from ewes at monthly intervals for 13 months to investigate the FEC population of GIN larvae, their concentration and genera in grass samples collected from grazed and rested pastures. Egg-shedding frequency ranged from 0 to 92% and FEC from 0 to 12,000 eggs per g faeces (epg), with counts in Suffolk higher than in Dorset ewes. The identified genera were Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia, Cooperia, Oesophagostomum, Bunostomum, Nematodirus and Strongyloides. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the most common genera. The number of L3 was higher in grazing lands than in those at rest. The highest FEC were recorded in the dry season due to peripartum, but the highest L3 counts were recorded in the rainy season. The coexistence of species of different geographical distributions at this site may be because there is a confluence of Nearctic and Neotropical geographic regions; thus, despite the temperate climate, tropical species can be found. Additionally, this study suggests that increasing temperatures could favour the presence of different tropical GIN species together with typical temperate-zone GIN species.

  2. Comprehensive evaluation of the changing drought characteristics in Bundelkhand region of Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, T.; Jaiswal, R. K.; Nayak, P. C.; Ghosh, N. C.

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of meteorological and hydrological drought characteristics including the dry spell analysis for planning of supplemental irrigation has been carried out for Bearma basin in Bundelkhand region of Central India. The Bundelkhand region has been under a spell of recurrent droughts. In the last decade, widespread droughts were felt during 2002-2003 and 2007-2008. The drought frequency varies between 1 in 3 years in Rehli and Deori and 1 in 5 years in Hatta. Rehli and Deori blocks falling in Sagar district have been identified to be drought prone. The meteorological drought characteristics evaluated by standardized precipitation index (SPI) indicated that drought severity has increased greatly with the drought intensity varying between -1.22 in Deori and -0.97 in Rehli. The streamflow drought characteristics have been evaluated using streamflow drought index (SDI), whereas the groundwater drought characteristics evaluated by groundwater drought index (GDI). The maximum groundwater drought intensity is observed in Rehli (-0.44). Two critical dry spells (CDS) of 14-18 days invariably occur during the principal rainy months of July and August, for which provision of life-saving supplementary irrigation is essential for the rain-fed agriculture. A drought management plan (DMP) has been developed, based on basin relevant drought indicators and drought triggers, designed and fined tuned to actual drought conditions in the basin. Based on the supply and demand scenario during droughts, an appropriate drought response plan linked to prevailing drought levels has been developed, to effectively manage the scarce water resources during persistent drought scenario. Results of the study are quite promising and the concept of DMP can be replicated to other basins in the region taking into account the basin relevant indicators as necessary.

  3. Source, variability, and transformation of nitrate in a regional karst aquifer: Edwards aquifer, central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musgrove, M; Opsahl, S P; Mahler, B J; Herrington, C; Sample, T L; Banta, J R

    2016-10-15

    Many karst regions are undergoing rapid population growth and expansion of urban land accompanied by increases in wastewater generation and changing patterns of nitrate (NO3(-)) loading to surface and groundwater. We investigate variability and sources of NO3(-) in a regional karst aquifer system, the Edwards aquifer of central Texas. Samples from streams recharging the aquifer, groundwater wells, and springs were collected during 2008-12 from the Barton Springs and San Antonio segments of the Edwards aquifer and analyzed for nitrogen (N) species concentrations and NO3(-) stable isotopes (δ(15)N and δ(18)O). These data were augmented by historical data collected from 1937 to 2007. NO3(-) concentrations and discharge data indicate that short-term variability (days to months) in groundwater NO3(-) concentrations in the Barton Springs segment is controlled by occurrence of individual storms and multi-annual wet-dry cycles, whereas the lack of short-term variability in groundwater in the San Antonio segment indicates the dominance of transport along regional flow paths. In both segments, longer-term increases (years to decades) in NO3(-) concentrations cannot be attributed to hydrologic conditions; rather, isotopic ratios and land-use change indicate that septic systems and land application of treated wastewater might be the source of increased loading of NO3(-). These results highlight the vulnerability of karst aquifers to NO3(-) contamination from urban wastewater. An analysis of N-species loading in recharge and discharge for the Barton Springs segment during 2008-10 indicates an overall mass balance in total N, but recharge contains higher concentrations of organic N and lower concentrations of NO3(-) than does discharge, consistent with nitrification of organic N within the aquifer and consumption of dissolved oxygen. This study demonstrates that subaqueous nitrification of organic N in the aquifer, as opposed to in soils, might be a previously unrecognized

  4. Molecular epidemiology of enterovirus 71 infection in the central region of Taiwan from 2002 to 2012.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Hao Wu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus 71 (EV71, a causative agent of hand, foot, and mouth disease can be classified into three genotypes and many subtypes. The objectives of this study were to conduct a molecular epidemiological study of EV71 in the central region of Taiwan from 2002-2012 and to test the hypothesis that whether the alternative appearance of different EV71 subtypes in Taiwan is due to transmission from neighboring countries or from re-emergence of pre-existing local strains. We selected 174 EV71 isolates and used reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction to amplify their VP1 region for DNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analyses were conducted using Neighbor-Joining, Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian methods. We found that the major subtypes of EV71 in Taiwan were B4 for 2002 epidemic, C4 for 2004-2005 epidemic, B5 for 2008-2009 epidemic, C4 for 2010 epidemic and B5 for 2011-2012 epidemic. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated that the 2002 and 2008 epidemics were associated with EV71 from Malaysia and Singapore; while both 2010 and 2011-2012 epidemics originated from different regions of mainland China including Shanghai, Henan, Xiamen and Gong-Dong. Furthermore, minor strains have been identified in each epidemic and some of them were correlated with the subsequent outbreaks. Therefore, the EV71 infection in Taiwan may originate from pre-existing minor strains or from other regions in Asia including mainland China. In addition, 101 EV71 isolates were selected for the detection of new recombinant strains using the nucleotide sequences spanning the VP1-2A-2B region. No new recombinant strain was found. Analysis of clinical manifestations showed that patients infected with C4 had significantly higher rates of pharyngeal vesicles or ulcers than patients infected with B5. This is the first study demonstrating that different EV 71 genotypes may have different clinical manifestations and the association of EV71 infections between Taiwan and mainland China.

  5. Flat vs. Normal subduction, Central Chile: insights from regional seismic tomography and rock type modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marot, Marianne; Monfret, Tony; Gerbault, Muriel; Nolet, Guust; Ranalli, Giorgio; Pardo, Mario

    2013-04-01

    The Central Chilean subduction zone (27-35°S) is host to a multitude of unexplained phenomena, all likely linked to one another. Here, the 35 Ma oceanic Nazca plate is subducting beneath South America with a well developed, highly seismic flat slab, very well correlated with the subducting Juan Fernandez seamount Ridge (JFR) track, and also with the absence of volcanism at the surface. The upper plate, currently under compression, is composed of a series of accreted terranes of various origins and ages. Although no general consensus on the formation of this flat slab has been yet achieved, there may have been influence of overthickened oceanic crust, delayed eclogitization and consequent fluid retain within the slab, and slab suction due to the high convergence rate with the thick Rio de Plata craton. Therefore, the main questions we address are: Does the slab dehydrate along the flat subducting segment? If so, how hydrated is the slab, at what depth does slab dehydration occur, where are the fluids transported to, and where are they stored? Is magmatism still active beneath the now inactive arc? Are accreted terranes and suture zones important attributes of this subduction zone? Do they possess their own mantle entities? To answer these questions, we analyzed recorded local seismicity and performed regional 3D seismic tomography for Vp and Vs. Combining seismic tomography with 2D instantaneous thermo-mechanical modeling for the regions of flat and normal subduction, we predict rock compositions for these two regions based on published mineral and rock elastic properties. Here, we present a comparison between the normal subduction zone to the south, reflecting typical and expected features, and the flat slab region to the north, exhibiting heterogeneities. Our results agree with other studies for a dry and cold continental mantle above the flat slab. We distinguish the Cuyania terrane with overthickened crust and/or abnormal mantle beneath it. We notice that the

  6. A Seasonal Perspective on Regional Air Quality in CentralCalifornia - Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harley, Robert A.; Brown, Nancy J.; Tonse, Shaheen R.; Jin, Ling

    2006-12-01

    Central California spans a wide variety of urban, agricultural, and natural terrain, including the San Francisco Bay area, the Central Valley, and the Sierra Nevada Mountains. Population within this region is growing rapidly, and there are persistent, serious air pollution problems including fine particulate matter (PM{sub 2.5}) and ozone. Summertime photochemical air pollution is the focus of the present study, which represents a first phase in the development and application of a modeling capability to assess formation and transport of ozone and its precursors within Central California over an entire summer season. This contrasts with past studies that have examined pollutant dynamics for a few selected high-ozone episodes each lasting 3-5 days. The Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) has been applied to predict air pollutant formation and transport in Central California for a 15-day period beginning on July 24, 2000. This period includes a 5-day intensive operating period (July 29 to August 2) from the Central California Ozone Study (CCOS). Day-specific meteorological conditions were modeled by research collaborators at NOAA using a mesoscale meteorological model (MM5). Pollutant emissions within the study domain were based on CARB emission inventory estimates, with additional efforts conducted as part of this research to capture relevant emissions variability including (1) temperature and sunlight-driven changes in biogenic VOC, (2) weekday/weekend and diurnal differences in light-duty (LD) and heavy-duty (HD) motor vehicle emissions, (3) effects of day-specific meteorological conditions on plume rise from point sources such as power plants. We also studied the effects of using cleaner pollutant inflow boundary conditions, lower than indicated during CCOS aircraft flights over the Pacific Ocean, but supported by other surface, ship-based, balloon and aircraft sampling studies along the west coast. Model predictions were compared with measured

  7. 吉林省中部地区中心地空间关系分析%Spatial Relationships Between Central Places in the Central Region of Jilin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王士君; 王永超; 冯章献

    2012-01-01

    As the most dynamic and potentially the core region,central Jilin plays a vital role in the distribution of productive forces for future economic development of Jilin province.It is important to organize the central urban agglomerations in a more rational way.This paper presents a futuristic view of the central urban agglomerations and control structures by using Central Place Theory as a work hypothesis and Fractal Theory as a quantification tool.Fractal theory is an excellent tool to study the mathematical rules of random aggregation and physical mechanism of urban spatial expansion in the systems of cities and townships.In this study,swing radius method is used to measure the fractal dimensions of the central places at four levels in the central region of Jilin province,with Changchun city as the first level city at the center.The fractal dimensions are calculated as follows: D=2.342 as the second level,1.842 as the third level,1.026(for Changling system) and 1.212(for Jiaohe system) as the fourth level.Analysis of the fractal dimensions suggests that the three levels of central places have different structural characteristics.The second level central places don’t have clear functions and are nearly nonexistent,because they are either shadowed and inhibited by Changchun city,or functionally substituted by the third level central places.By contrast,the third level central places show well-defined identities with clear boundaries.The fourth level central places are spatially scattered and their development is directly impacted by the natural environment.Based on the Vector data of settlements in the central region of Jilin,the original view of the places’hierarchy in the central region of Jilin is reconstituted by using the rules of space and composition,and a hexagonal network is completed through patching and abstracting.Based on the space compositions,the central region of Jilin appears to belong to K=3 system(the marketing principle in Christ ller

  8. Variations in Regional Mean Daily Precipitation Extremes and Related Circulation Anomalies over Central China During Boreal Summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯丹; 管兆勇

    2014-01-01

    The variations of regional mean daily precipitation extreme (RMDPE) events in central China and associated circulation anomalies during June, July, and August (JJA) of 1961-2010 are investigated by using daily in-situ precipitation observations and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data. The precipitation data were collected at 239 state-level stations distributed throughout the provinces of Henan, Hubei, and Hunan. During 1961-2010, the 99th percentile threshold for RMDPE is 23.585 mm day-1. The number of RMDPE events varies on both interannual and interdecadal timescales, and increases significantly after the mid 1980s. The RMDPE events happen most frequently between late June and mid July, and are generally associated with anomalous baroclinic tropospheric circulations. The supply of moisture to the southern part of central China comes in a stepping way from the outer-region of an abnormal anticyclone over the Bay of Bengal and the South China Sea. Fluxes of wave activity generated over the northeastern Tibetan Plateau converge over central China, which favors the genesis and maintenance of wave disturbances over the region. RMDPE events typically occur in tandem with a strong heating gradient formed by net heating in central China and the large-scale net cooling in the surrounding area. The occurrence of RMDPE events over central China is tied to anomalous local cyclonic circulations, topographic forcing over the northeast Tibetan Plateau, and anomalous gradients of diabatic heating between central China and the surrounding areas.

  9. Source sector and region contributions to BC and PM2.5 in Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kulkarni

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Particulate matter (PM mass concentrations, seasonal cycles, source sector and source region contributions in Central Asia (CA are analyzed for the period April 2008–July 2009 using the Sulfur Transport and dEposition Model (STEM chemical transport model and modeled meteorology from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF model. Predicted Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD values (annual mean value ∼0.2 in CA vary seasonally with lowest values in the winter. Surface PM2.5 concentrations (annual mean value ∼10 μg m−3 also exhibit a seasonal cycle, with peak values and largest variability in the spring/summer, and lowest values and variability in the winter (hourly values from 2–90 μg m−3. Surface concentrations of black carbon (BC (mean value ∼0.1 μg m−3 show peak values in the winter. The simulated values are compared to surface measurements of AOD, and PM2.5, PM10, BC, organic carbon (OC mass concentrations at two regional sites in the Kyrgyz Republic (Lidar Station Teplokluchenka (LST and Bishkek. The predicted values of AOD and PM mass concentrations and their seasonal cycles are fairly well captured. The carbonaceous aerosols are underpredicted in winter, and analysis suggests that the winter heating emissions are underestimated in the current inventory. Dust, from sources within and outside CA, is a significant component of the PM mass and drives the seasonal cycles of PM and AOD. On an annual basis, the power and industrial sectors are found to be the most important contributors to the anthropogenic portion of PM2.5. Residential combustion and transportation are shown to be the most important sectors for BC. Biomass burning within and outside the region also contributes to elevated PM and BC concentrations. The analysis of the transport pathways and the variations in particulate matter mass and composition in CA demonstrate that this region is strategically located to characterize regional and intercontinental transport of

  10. Quality and safety of beef produced in Central African Sub-region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bawe M. Nfor

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this research is to provide a general situation of cattle slaughtered in Cameroon, as a representative example for the Central African Sub-region. The quality and safety of beef from the abattoir of Yaoundé, the largest in Cameroon, were considered. From January 2009 to March 2012, the pre-slaughter conditions and characteristics of 1953 cattle carcasses were recorded, as well as the pH of m. longissimus thoracis 24 h after slaughter. From these carcasses, 60 were selected to represent the bulls slaughtered. The quality parameters and composition of m. longissimus thoracis were carried out. The origin of most of the cattle was the Guinea High Savannah (74.6%, and transhumance was the common production system (75.5%. Gudali (45.6%, White Fulani (33.3% and Red Mbororo (20.3% breeds were predominant. Carcass weight was affected by rearing system and cattle category, and it markedly varied during year. Considering meat quality, the fat content was low (1.2% and similar between breeds, moreover Gudali showed the toughest meat. Of the cows slaughtered, 27% were pregnant and the most common abnormal conditions encountered were ectoparasites, fatigue, lameness, fungal-like skin lesions, enlarged lymph nodes, respiratory distress, nodular lesions. More than 20% of the carcasses had some organs condemned, mainly for liver flukes (5.17%, and 1.0% of them were completely condemned due to tuberculosis, that also affected 3.28% of lungs. These data could aid authorities draw up programmes with the aim to strengthen cattle production, improve beef supply, control and prevent the observed diseases, and promote the regional trade.

  11. Regional subsidence history and 3D visualization with MATLAB of the Vienna Basin, central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, E.; Novotny, J.; Wagreich, M.

    2013-12-01

    This study reconstructed the subsidence history by the backstripping and 3D visualization techniques, to understand tectonic evolution of the Neogene Vienna Basin. The backstripping removes the compaction effect of sediment loading and quantifies the tectonic subsidence. The amount of decompaction was calculated by porosity-depth relationships evaluated from seismic velocity data acquired from two boreholes. About 100 wells have been investigated to quantify the subsidence history of the Vienna Basin. The wells have been sorted into 10 groups; N1-4 in the northern part, C1-4 in the central part and L1-2 in the northernmost and easternmost parts, based on their position within the same block bordered by major faults. To visualize 3D subsidence maps, the wells were arranged to a set of 3D points based on their map location (x, y) and depths (z1, z2, z3 ...). The division of the stratigraphic column and age range was arranged based on the Central Paratethys regional Stages. In this study, MATLAB, a numerical computing environment, was used to calculate the TPS interpolation function. The Thin-Plate Spline (TPS) can be employed to reconstruct a smooth surface from a set of 3D points. The basic physical model of the TPS is based on the bending behavior of a thin metal sheet that is constrained only by a sparse set of fixed points. In the Lower Miocene, 3D subsidence maps show strong evidence that the pre-Neogene basement of the Vienna Basin was subsiding along borders of the Alpine-Carpathian nappes. This subsidence event is represented by a piggy-back basin developed on top of the NW-ward moving thrust sheets. In the late Lower Miocene, Group C and N display a typical subsidence pattern for the pull-apart basin with a very high subsidence event (0.2 - 1.0 km/Ma). After the event, Group N shows remarkably decreasing subsidence, following the thin-skinned extension which was regarded as the extension model of the Vienna Basin in the literature. But the subsidence in

  12. Ubiquity of density slope oscillations in the central regions of galaxy and cluster-sized systems

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony M; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-01-01

    One usually thinks of a radial density profile as having a monotonically changing logarithmic slope, such as in NFW or Einasto profiles. However, in two different classes of commonly used systems, this is often not the case. These classes exhibit non-monotonic changes in their density profile slopes which we call oscillations for short. We analyze these two unrelated classes separately. Class 1 consists of systems that have density oscillations and that are defined through their distribution function $f(E)$, or differential energy distribution $N(E)$, such as isothermal spheres, King profiles, or DARKexp, a theoretically derived model for relaxed collisionless systems. Systems defined through $f(E)$ or $N(E)$ generally have density slope oscillations. Class 1 system oscillations can be found at small, intermediate, or large radii but we focus on a limited set of Class 1 systems that have oscillations in the central regions, usually at $\\log(r/r_{-2})\\lesssim -2$, where $r_{-2}$ is the largest radius where $d\\...

  13. Morphological Characterization of Cherry Rootstock Candidates Selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey

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    Aysen Koc

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of rootstocks particularly for sweet cherry cultivars is of great importance for successful and sustainable production. Choosing the right cherry rootstocks is just as important as choosing the right cultivar. In this study, 110 sweet cherry, 30 sour cherry, and 41 mahaleb types displaying rootstock potential for sweet cherry cultivars were selected from Central and East Black Sea Regions in Turkey. The morphologic characteristics of the studied genotypes were compared with the standard clonal rootstocks PHL-A, MaxMa 14, Montmorency, Weiroot 158, Gisela 5, Gisela 6, and SL 64. A total of 42 morphological UPOV characteristics were evaluated in the selected genotypes and clonal rootstocks. The obtained data were analyzed by using principal component analysis and it revealed that eigenvalues of the first 3 components were able to represent 36.43% of total variance. The most significant positive correlations of the plant vigor were determined with leaf blade length and petiole thickness. According to the diversity analysis of coefficients, the 05 C 002 and 08 C 039 genotypes were identified as being similar (6.66, while the 05 C 002 and 55 S 012 genotypes were determined as the most distant genotypes (325.84 in terms of morphology.

  14. Population Structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley Region of Central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grünwald, N J; Flier, W G; Sturbaum, A K; Garay-Serrano, E; van den Bosch, T B; Smart, C D; Matuszak, J M; Lozoya-Saldaña, H; Turkensteen, L J; Fry, W E

    2001-09-01

    ABSTRACT We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and (iii) modern cultivars in high-input agriculture (VALLEY). Isolates were sampled in 1988-89 (n= 179) and in 1997-98 (n= 389). In both sampling periods, the greatest genetic diversity was observed in RURAL and VALLEY habitats. Based on the Glucose-6-phosphate isomerase and Peptidase allozymes, the subpopulations from the three habitats were significantly differentiated in both sampling periods. In contrast to allozyme data for 1997-98, no differences were found among the three subpopulations for sensitivity to metalaxyl. Two groups of isolates identical for allozyme and mating type were further investigated by restriction fragment length polymorphism fingerprinting; 65% of one group and 85% of another group were demonstrated to be unique. The genetic diversity data and the chronology of disease occurrence during the season are consistent with the hypothesis that populations of P. infestans on wild Solanum populations are derived from populations on cultivated potatoes in the central highlands of Mexico near Toluca.

  15. Origin of Hydrogen Ionization in the 1 pc Galactic Central Region

    CERN Document Server

    Chernyshov, D O; Cheng, K S; Dogiel, V A; Tatischeff, V

    2014-01-01

    We study a possible connection between processes of gamma-ray emission and hydrogen ionization in a few pc of central region around Sgr A*. Previous investigations showed there is a discrepancy between interpretation of gamma-ray and ionization data if gamma-rays are generated by proton-proton collisions. Here we provided analysis of processes of ionization and emission basing on analytical and numerical calculations of kinetic equations which describe processes of particle propagation and their energy losses. The origin of gamma rays could be either due to collisions of relativistic protons with the dense gas of the surrounding circumnuclear disk (CND) or bremsstrahlung and inverse Compton scattering of relativistic electrons. The hydrogen ionization in this case is produced by a low energy component of the CR spectrum. We found that if ionization is produced by protons the expected ionization rate of hydrogen in the CND is of the same order as derived from IR observations. So we do not see any discrepancy b...

  16. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tula Region) Using Moss Biomonitoring Technique, NAA and AAS

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Steinnes, E

    2002-01-01

    For the first time the moss biomonitoring technique has been applied to air pollution monitoring in Central Russia (Tula Region). Moss samples were collected from 83 sites in accordance with the sampling strategy of European projects on biomonitoring of atmospheric deposition. Neutron activation analysis (NAA) at the IBR-2 reactor has made it possible to determine the concentration of 33 elements (Na, Mg, Al, Cl, K, Ca, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, As, Br, Rb, Sr, Mo, Sb, I, Cs, Ba, La, Ce, Sm, Tb, Yb, Hf, Ta, W, Th, U) over a large concentration range (from 10000 mg/kg for K to 0.001 mg/kg for Tb and Ta). In addition to NAA, flame AAS (atomic absorption spectrometry) was applied to determine the concentration of Cd, Cu and Pb. Factor analysis was applied to determine possible sources of elements detected in the investigated mosses. Eight factors were identified. The geographical distribution of factor scores is presented. The interpretation of the factor analysis findings points to natural as well as anthr...

  17. The detection of stellar velocity dispersion drops in the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spirals

    CERN Document Server

    Márquez, I; Durret, F; González-Delgado, R M; Moles, M; Maza, J; Pérez, E; Roth, M

    2003-01-01

    We analyze the kinematics of the central regions of five isolated Seyfert spiral galaxies from the DEGAS sample (four with new data presented in this paper, IC184, UGC3223, NGC2639, NGC6814, and NGC6951 from our previous data), by using long slit spectroscopy in the CaII triplet range (at ~ 8600 A) obtained with a 4m-class telescope. A drop of the velocity dispersions in the innermost 1-3 arcsec is observed in four of them, and hinted in the remaining galaxy (NGC6814). The available HST images for our sample together with another nine galaxies with reported velocity dispersion drops, are also used to investigate the presence of morphological inner structures at the scales of the kinematical drops. Evidence for disk-like shapes is found in 12 out of the 14 cases. The only exceptions are NGC6814 and NGC6951. Existing N-body simulations including stars, gas and star formation predict that such a drop is most probably due to a young stellar population born from dynamically cold gas accreted in a circumnuclear dis...

  18. Astrovirus infection in children living in the Central West region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Alessandro Tôgo Santos

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This study presents data regarding the circulation of astrovirus in Goiânia-GO and Brasília-DF. These viruses were detected in fecal samples from hospitalized children up to five years old with and without acute gastroenteritis. A total of 1244 fecal samples were collected in two periods, 1994 to 1996 (Brasília and 1998 to 2002 (Goiânia and Brasília, and were analyzed for viral RNA using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Positivity rates of 4.3 and 0.5% for astrovirus were observed in children with acute gastroenteritis and those without gastroenteritis, respectively. Among children with gastroenteritis no statistically significant difference was seen with regards to viral positivity rates in relation to gender and age. However, a higher incidence rate was observed for children from Brasília aged 36 months or more. Overall, astroviruses occurred predominantly from September to March in the two cities, suggesting a seasonal pattern for these viruses which coincides with the highest relative air humidity period. The results of this study highlight the importance of astrovirus as an etiologic agent of acute gastroenteritis in children of the Central West region of Brazil.

  19. The circulation of human astrovirus genotypes in the Central West Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Andreia Silva

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Out of 1,588 faecal samples of children taken from three locations of the Central West Region of Brazil, 57 were positive for astroviruses (HAstVs using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. They were genotyped by nested RT-PCR and/or genomic sequencing. HAstV-1 (42.8%, HAstV-2 (23.2%, HAstV-3 (3.6%, HAstV-4 (14.3% and HAstVs -5, -6, -7 and -8 (1.8% each were detected. In Goiânia and Campo Grande, HAstV-1 was the most frequently detected genotype while in Brasília (DF it was HAstV-2. Shifts in the circulation of astrovirus genotypes were observed in DF and Campo Grande. All samples collected by rectal swabs were viral negative. The astrovirus genotypes were detected in all age groups and there was no correlation between genotype and age group.

  20. High resolution ALMA observations of dense molecular medium in the central regions of active galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kohno, Kotaro; Taniguchi, Akio; Izumi, Takuma; Tosaki, Tomoka

    2016-01-01

    In the central regions of active galaxies, dense molecular medium are exposed to various types of radiation and energy injections, such as UV, X-ray, cosmic ray, and shock dissipation. With the rapid progress of chemical models and implementation of new-generation mm/submm interferometry, we are now able to use molecules as powerful diagnostics of the physical and chemical processes in galaxies. Here we give a brief overview on the recent ALMA results to demonstrate how molecules can reveal underlying physical and chemical processes in galaxies. First, new detections of Galactic molecular absorption systems with elevated HCO/H$^{13}$CO$^+$ column density ratios are reported, indicating that these molecular media are irradiated by intense UV fields. Second, we discuss the spatial distributions of various types of shock tracers including HNCO, CH$_3$OH and SiO in NGC 253 and NGC 1068. Lastly, we provide an overview of proposed diagnostic methods of nuclear energy sources using ALMA, with an emphasis on the syne...

  1. Pollen analysis of natural honeys from the central region of Shanxi, North China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Yan Song

    Full Text Available Based on qualitative and quantitative melissopalynological analyses, 19 Chinese honeys were classified by botanical origin to determine their floral sources. The honey samples were collected during 2010-2011 from the central region of Shanxi Province, North China. A diverse spectrum of 61 pollen types from 37 families was identified. Fourteen samples were classified as unifloral, whereas the remaining samples were multifloral. Bee-favoured families (occurring in more than 50% of the samples included Caprifoliaceae (found in 10 samples, Laminaceae (10, Brassicaceae (12, Rosaceae (12, Moraceae (13, Rhamnaceae (15, Asteraceae (17, and Fabaceae (19. In the unifloral honeys, the predominant pollen types were Ziziphus jujuba (in 5 samples, Robinia pseudoacacia (3, Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (2, Sophora japonica (1, Ailanthus altissima (1, Asteraceae type (1, and Fabaceae type (1. The absolute pollen count (i.e., the number of pollen grains per 10 g honey sample suggested that 13 samples belonged to Group I (<20,000 pollen grains, 4 to Group II (20,000-100,000, and 2 to Group III (100,000-500,000. The dominance of unifloral honeys without toxic pollen grains and the low value of the HDE/P ratio (i.e., honey dew elements/pollen grains from nectariferous plants indicated that the honey samples are of good quality and suitable for human consumption.

  2. Geometric analysis of phase bunching in the central region of cyclotron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa, E-mail: miyawaki.nobumasa@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Arakawa, Kazuo [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-Machi, Maebashi, Gunma 371-8511 (Japan); Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2013-07-01

    An optimum condition for realizing phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron was quantitatively clarified by a simplified geometric trajectory analysis of charged particles from the first to the second acceleration gap. The phase bunching performance was evaluated for a general case of a cyclotron. The phase difference of incident particles at the second acceleration gap depends on the combination of four parameters: the acceleration harmonic number h, the span angle θ{sub D} of the dee electrode, the span angle θ{sub F} from the first to the second acceleration gap, the ratio R{sub V} of the peak acceleration voltage between the cyclotron and ion source. Optimum values of θ{sub F} for phase bunching were limited by the relationship between h and θ{sub D}, which is 90°/h+θ{sub D}/2≤θ{sub F}≤180°/h+θ{sub D}/2, and sin θ{sub F}>0. The phase difference with respect to the reference particle at the second acceleration gap is minimized for voltage-ratios between two and four for an initial phase difference within 40 RF degrees. Although the slope of the first acceleration gap contributes to the RF phase at which the particles reach the second acceleration gap, phase bunching was not affected. An orbit simulation of the AVF cyclotron at the Japan Atomic Energy Agency verifies the evaluation based on geometric analysis.

  3. Petrogenesis of polygenic marbles, Baqi-Abad region, Yazd, central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayati, Farimah; Mackizadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2017-01-01

    Mineralogy, minerals paragenesis and evolution of polygenic marbles were investigated in the Baqi-Abad region (Yazd province). The area is located in the central Iran. Studied marbles are classified as calcitic marbles, brucite-bearing marbles and forsterite- serpentine bearing marbles. The following mineral assemblages have been determined: calcite + dolomite + forsterite + serpentine + talc + brucite + hydromagnesite. Based on calcite twin's geometry, marbles underwent the temperature formation between 200 and 300°C. Two mineral assemblages which have been defined in marbles are related to two stages of contact- metamorphism and metasomatism. In the first stage, de-carbonation reactions have been taken place in high fCO2 so anhydrous minerals are formed. The Second stage is characterized by invading H2O bearing fluids, leading to the formation of hydrous paragenesis. Brucite is probably formed by the de-silicification of serpentines at the first stage. On the other hand, due to the influence of hydrothermal fluids, olivines can be directly altered to brucite. It is obvious that hydromagnesite was formed at the expense of dolomite, brucite and serpentine. Its formation is associated with final carbonation reactions. As a whole, it can be concluded that based on the paragenetic relationships of minerals, there are four stages in mineral evolution system including carbonation, dehydration, de-carbonation and final dehydration processes.

  4. Larval trematode infections in Lymnaea glabra populations living in the Brenne Regional Natural Park, central France

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    Rondelaud Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lymnaea glabra is known to be a natural intermediate host of two flukes, Calicophoron daubneyi and Fasciola hepatica, in central France. But it can also sustain larval development of other digeneans. Adult snails were thus collected from 206 habitats in 2014 and 2015 to identify parasite species and determine the prevalence of each digenean infection in relation to the five types of snail habitats. Seven digenean species were noted in 321 infected snails (out of 17,647 L. glabra. Snails with F. hepatica or C. daubneyi were found in 14.5% and 12.6% of habitats, respectively. Percentages were lower for snails with Opisthoglyphe ranae (5.8%, Haplometra cylindracea (5.3% and were less than 5% for those infected with Echinostoma revolutum, Notocotylus sp. or Plagiorchis sp. Prevalence noted for each parasite species varied with the type of habitat. The number of species in L. glabra was lower than that found in G. truncatula from the same region (7 instead of 10. The distribution and prevalence of each digenean species were thus dependent on the type and location of each snail habitat.

  5. Measurement of radium isotope activities in reservoir and spring water in the Cameroon Central Region

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    Rose Lydie Marie

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To determine the activities of 226Ra and 228Ra in the reservoir and spring water samples respectively during the dry and the rainy seasons; and to calculate the annual intake Ii (Bq/y for each type of water samples. Methods: Using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl and HPGe detector systems, it was possible to determine the average specific activity of those radium’s isotopes in water samples which were collected in 2010, from Reservoirs and springs in Cameroon central region including Ngoaekelle, Minboman, Etoudi and Njoungolo. Results: The average specific activity values obtained for 226Ra and 228Ra in reservoir water samples were 8.76 ± 3.50 BqL-1 and 0.64 ± 0.28 BqL-1 during the dry season and, 8.24 ±3.48 BqL-1 and 0.58 ± 0.24 BqL-1 during the rainy season respectively. For spring water, the average values were 3.50 ± 0.63 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the dry season; 3.20 ± 0.60 BqL-1 and below 0.0002 BqL-1 (detection limit of 228Ra in water during the rainy season respectively. Assuming that the volume of drinking water for adult is 2.5 litres per day, the average annual intakes of 226Ra and 228Ra through ingestion in these water samples were 7702 Bq/y and 575 Bq/y for reservoir water; 2993 Bq/y and < 0.25 for spring water respectively. Conclusion: The results have indicated that the annual intake by the population of sampling region as a result of 226Ra in these drinking waters is 7.7 × 103Bq/y more than the maximum limit fixed by ICRP which is 7 × 103 Bq/y. There is a need for regular monitoring the radiological water quality aspect in this region.

  6. Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucchese Fernando

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In the years 2003–2005 research was carried out concerning ethno-medicine in the high Molise (central- southern Italy, a region that has been the object of very little investigation from the ethnobotanical point of view. Upper Molise is a continuation of the mountain profiles of the Abruzzi Appenines: a series of hills, steep slopes and deep fluvial valleys making communications difficult. Primordial traditions (e.g. harvest feasts are typical of the region. Methods Field data were collected through open interviews in the field. These were conducted on both an individual and group level, fresh plants gathered from surrounding areas being displayed. In other cases, individual interviews were conducted by accompanying the person involved to the places where they perform their activities (for example, in the woods with woodcutters, kitchen gardens and fields with housewives, pastures with shepherds, etc.. In total 54 individuals were interviewed. Results Data of 70 taxa belonging to 39 families were gathered. Among the species, 64 are used in human therapy, 5 as insect repellents, 11 in veterinary medicine, 1 to keep eggs and cheeses and 4 for magic purposes. The most important findings in ethno-medicine relate to the lichen Lobaria pulmonaria (L. Hoffm. (wounds and to some vascular plant species: Asplenium trichomanes L. and Ceterach officinarum Willd. (to regularize menstruation, Cyclamen hederifolium (chilblains, Centaurium erythraea Rafn. and Pulmonaria apennina Cristof. & Puppi (bruises, while in the ethno-veterinary field, we have Valeriana officinalis L. (wounds sustained by mules. Also worthy of note, given the isolation of the area, is the number of plants used to protect foodstuffs from parasites, among which Allium sativum L. and Capsicum frutescens L. Conclusion The research revealed a deep-rooted and widespread habit of husbanding the family's resources. Whilst isolation and snowfalls contributed to the widespread

  7. Broadband regional waveform modeling to investigate crustal structure and tectonics of the central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Jennifer Lyn

    We use broadband regional waveform modeling of earthquakes in the central Andes to determine seismic properties of the Altiplano crust. Properties of the shear-coupled P-wavetrain (SPL ) from intermediate-depth events provide particularly important information about the structure of the crust. We utilize broadband seismic data recorded at the BANJO and SEDA stations, and synthetic seismograms computed with a reflectivity technique to study the sensitivity of SPL to crustal and upper mantle parameters at regional distances. We find that the long-period SPL-wavetrain is most sensitive to crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios, average crustal velocity, and crustal thickness. A comprehensive grid search method developed to investigate these four parameters suggests that although trade-offs exist between model parameters, models of the Altiplano which provide the best fit between the data and synthetic seismograms are characterized by low Poisson's ratios, low average crustal velocity and thick crust. We apply our grid search technique and sensitivity analysis results to model the full waveforms from 6 intermediate-depth and 2 shallow-focus earthquakes recorded at regional distances by BANJO and SEDA stations. Results suggest that the Altiplano crust is much thicker (55--65 km) and slower (5.75--6.25 km/s) than global average values. Low crustal and mantle Poisson's ratios together with the lack of evidence for a high-velocity lower crust suggests a bulk felsic crustal composition, resulting in an overall weak crust. Our results favor a model of crustal thickening involving large-scale tectonic shortening of a predominantly felsic crust. To better understand the mechanics of earthquake rupture along the South American subduction zone, we have analyzed broadband teleseismic P-waves and utilize single- and multi-station inversion techniques to constrain source characteristics for the 12 November 1996 Peru subduction zone earthquake. Aftershock locations, intensity reports

  8. Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single Layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005–2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m. Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to −0.6 m s−1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s−1. Urban surfaces significantly reduce evaporation and thus the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing decrease over cities up to −2 mm day−1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher elevations as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity. Statistically significant impacts are modeled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of

  9. Regional climate model assessment of the urban land-surface forcing over central Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Huszar

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available For the purpose of qualifying and quantifying the climate impact of cities and urban surfaces in general on climate of central Europe, the surface parameterization in regional climate model RegCM4 has been extended with the Single-layer Urban Canopy Model (SLUCM. A set of experiments was performed over the period of 2005–2009 for central Europe, either without considering urban surfaces or with the SLUCM treatment. Results show a statistically significant impact of urbanized surfaces on temperature (up to 1.5 K increase in summer as well as on the boundary layer height (increases up to 50 m. Urbanization further influences surface wind with a winter decrease up to −0.6 m s−1, though both increases and decreases were detected in summer depending on the location relative to the cities and daytime (changes up to 0.3 m s−1. Urban surfaces significantly reduce the humidity over the surface. This impacts the simulated summer precipitation rate, showing a decrease over cities of up to −2 mm day−1. Significant temperature increases are simulated over higher altitudes as well, not only within the urban canopy layer. With the urban parameterization, the climate model better describes the diurnal temperature variation, reducing the cold afternoon and evening bias of RegCM4. Sensitivity experiments were carried out to quantify the response of the meteorological conditions to changes in the parameters specific to the urban environment, such as street width, building height, albedo of the roofs and anthropogenic heat release. The results proved to be rather robust and the choice of the key SLUCM parameters impacts them only slightly (mainly temperature, boundary layer height and wind velocity. Statistically significant impacts are modelled not only over large urbanized areas, but the influence of the cities is also evident over rural areas without major urban surfaces. It is shown that this is the result of the combined effect of the distant

  10. Regional fire monitoring and characterization using global NASA MODIS fire products in dry lands of Central Asia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatiana V.LOBODA; Louis GIGLIO; Luigi BOSCHETTI; Christopher O.JUSTICE

    2012-01-01

    Central Asian dry lands are grass-and desert shrub-dominated ecosystems stretching across Northern Eurasia.This region supports a population of more than 100 million which continues to grow at an average rate of 1.5% annually.Dry steppes are the primary grain and cattle growing zone within Central Asia.Degradation of this ecosystem through burning and overgrazing directly impacts economic growth and food supply in the region.Fire is a recurrent disturbance agent in dry lands contributing to soil erosion and air pollution.Here we provide an overview of inter-annual and seasonal fire dynamics in Central Asia obtained from remotely sensed data.We evaluate the accuracy of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) global fire products within Central Asian dry lands and use these products to characterize fire occurrence between 2001and 2009.The results show that on average ~15 million ha of land burns annually across Central Asia with the majority of the area bumed in August and September in grasslands.Fire is used as a comrnon crop residue management practice across the region.Nearly 89% of all burning occurs in Kazakhstan,where 5% and 3% of croplands and grasslands,respectively,are burned annually.

  11. Maps of Quaternary Deposits and Liquefaction Susceptibility in the Central San Francisco Bay Region, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witter, Robert C.; Knudsen, Keith L.; Sowers, Janet M.; Wentworth, Carl M.; Koehler, Richard D.; Randolph, Carolyn E.; Brooks, Suzanna K.; Gans, Kathleen D.

    2006-01-01

    This report presents a map and database of Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility for the urban core of the San Francisco Bay region. It supercedes the equivalent area of U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 00-444 (Knudsen and others, 2000), which covers the larger 9-county San Francisco Bay region. The report consists of (1) a spatial database, (2) two small-scale colored maps (Quaternary deposits and liquefaction susceptibility), (3) a text describing the Quaternary map and liquefaction interpretation (part 3), and (4) a text introducing the report and describing the database (part 1). All parts of the report are digital; part 1 describes the database and digital files and how to obtain them by downloading across the internet. The nine counties surrounding San Francisco Bay straddle the San Andreas fault system, which exposes the region to serious earthquake hazard (Working Group on California Earthquake Probabilities, 1999). Much of the land adjacent to the Bay and the major rivers and streams is underlain by unconsolidated deposits that are particularly vulnerable to earthquake shaking and liquefaction of water-saturated granular sediment. This new map provides a consistent detailed treatment of the central part of the 9-county region in which much of the mapping of Open-File Report 00-444 was either at smaller (less detailed) scale or represented only preliminary revision of earlier work. Like Open-File Report 00-444, the current mapping uses geomorphic expression, pedogenic soils, inferred depositional environments, and geologic age to define and distinguish the map units. Further scrutiny of the factors controlling liquefaction susceptibility has led to some changes relative to Open-File Report 00-444: particularly the reclassification of San Francisco Bay mud (Qhbm) to have only MODERATE susceptibility and the rating of artificial fills according to the Quaternary map units inferred to underlie them (other than dams - adf). The two colored

  12. Analysis of the State of Discipline in Kwanyarko Senior High School in the Central Region of Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sackey, Elizabeth; Amaniampong, Kwarteng; Abrokwa, Juliana Efua

    2016-01-01

    The general purpose of this paper was to find out the perceptions of students and teachers on the state of discipline in Senior High Schools (SHS) in Ghana using Kwanyarko SHS in the Central Region as a case study. Questionnaire was formulated to direct the research. The question focused on the perceptions, causes and remedies to discipline in the…

  13. Student Mobility in Rural and Nonrural Districts in Five Central Region States. Issues & Answers. REL 2010-No. 089

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beesley, Andrea; Moore, Laurie; Gopalani, Sarah

    2010-01-01

    This report describes the extent and distribution of student mobility in five Central Region states. The study, which calculated student mobility percentages in each state and compared percentages by locale (city, suburb, town, and rural locale, and degree of rurality) within each state, found no consistent patterns across locales. Research…

  14. A prospective study on Aeromonas in outpatients with diarrhea in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karoline de Campos Prediger

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Aeromonas spp. were identified in five (2,7% of 182 diarrheal stool cultures, A. caviae was predominant, resistant mainly to ampicillin and cephalotin. This is the first study showing the presence of Aeromonas spp. in diarrheal stools of outpatients in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil.

  15. Where American Indian Students Go to School: Enrollment in Seven Central Region States. REL 2016-113

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apthorp, Helen S.

    2016-01-01

    This report provides descriptive information about the location and native language use of schools in the REL Central Region with high enrollment of American Indian students, whether Bureau of Indian Education schools or non-Bureau of Indian Education high-density American Indian schools (schools with 25 percent or more American Indian student…

  16. Dynamics of Glueball and $q\\overline{q}$ production in the central region of p p collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Close, Francis Edwin; Schuler, G A

    2000-01-01

    We explain the phi and t dependences of mesons with JPC = 0pm +,1^++,2pm +$ produced in the central region of pp collisions. For the 0++ and 2++ sector this reveals a systematic behaviour in the data that appears to distinguish between qqbar and non-qqbar or glueball candidates.

  17. The snakes of the genus Atractus Wagler (Reptilia: Squamata: Colubridae) from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Martins, M.; Oliveira, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    Taxonomic and natural history data are presented on eight species of Atractus from the Manaus region, central Amazonia, Brazil, namely: A. alphonsehogei, A. latifrons, A, major, A. poeppigi, A. schach, A. snethlageae, A. torquatus, and A. trilineatus. Four of these species are recorded for the first

  18. Utility of regional Chinese seismograms for source and path studies in central Asia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J.; Taylor, S.R.; Harris, D.B.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-04-01

    Regional surface waves recorded at the Urumchi station located about 700 km north of the Tibetan Plateau in the Sinkiang Province are used to study East Kazakh explosions and wave propagation in central Asia. The data consist of broadband (flat to displacement between 0.1 and 10 Hz), photographic records from an SK Kirnos galvanometric system. Simultaneous inversion of Rayleigh wave phase and group velocities for the path from East Kazakh through the Dzhungarian Basin yields a crustal model dominated by the presence of very low velocities and a strong positive velocity gradient above 15 km depth. Velocities below 15 km depth are not significantly different from other continental structures underlain by Paleozoic or Precambrian basement. This model is consistent with geologic evidence indicating that most of the path is characterized by the presence of up to 10 km of sediments overlying a Paleozoic basement. Source studies were made on seven East Kazakh explosions detonated in the time period between June 1980 and April 1981. These studies involved estimation of seismic moments using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. The largest explosion studied occurred on 9/14/80 and had an m/sub b/ of 6.2 and a seismic moment of 2.7 x 10/sup 23/ dyn-cm. The observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves are richer in high frequencies than predicted by explosion source models with tectonic release. This could be caused by a path effect involving seismic wave focusing by the large sedimentary basin between East Kazakh and the Urumchi station, although source medium effects cannot be ruled out. 30 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  19. Seed Dispersal by Domestic Herbivores in Rangeland Ecosystems of the Central Zagros Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eghbali

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To assess seed dispersal by domestic herbivores (sheep and goat in Central Zagros region, 12 different rangeland sites, located 200 km west of Isfahan city, were studied. For each site, a pooled dung sample of 10 freshly pellet groups from domestic herbivores was collected in four different periods (mid June, July, August and September during grazing season (in total, 48 pooled dung samples. Dung samples were dried in a dark room by exposing to open air, and then from each a 150 gram sample was kept for two months in the refrigerator at 3ْc as cold treatment. Seed content of dung samples was assessed in a greenhouse germination experiment over a period of 8 months. In total, 2039 seedlings from 50 different plant species (16 families and 48 genera were germinated from dung samples. Seed content of dung samples was mostly composed of palatable herbaceous species with no dispersal mechanism or adaptation except for the production of many small-sized seeds. The highest and the least number of germinated seeds was observed in July and June samples, respectively. Also, the highest and the least number of seed species was recorded in September and June samples, respectively. However, only a significant difference in seed species composition was observed between dung samples of September and June. Given that most of the plant species recorded in the region’s vegetation were regenerate by seed, seed dispersal via domestic herbivore dungs may have significant role in natural regeneration of the vegetation, if other environmental and management conditions are met. The results of the present research can be especially applied to reclamation of the country’s rangeland ecosystems.

  20. Offspring production in three freshwater crab species (Brachyura: Pseudothelphusidae from the Amazon region and Central America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingo S. Wehrtmann

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater crabs are an important component of the fauna of limnic environments, and out of the two true freshwater crab families present in the Neotropics, Pseudothelphusidae is the most diverse. Considering the lack of information regarding reproductive features of neotropical freshwater crabs, we studied, for the first time, the fecundity and the presence of juveniles carried by females of two pseudothelphusids from the Amazon region - Kingsleya latifrons (Randall, 1840 and Kingsleya ytupora Magalhães, 1986 - and one from Central America - Potamocarcinus magnus (Rathbun, 1896. The two Kingsleya species produced relatively few (56-114 and large eggs (1.9-3.7 mm, typical for species with an abbreviated or direct development. Recently produced eggs were substantially larger in K. latifrons (mean 2.83 mm when compared to those of K. ytupora (mean 1.87 mm; however, at the end of the embryogenesis, mean egg diameter was similar in both species. Therefore, it is assumed that hatchlings in both species should have a similar size. A brief description of attached juveniles of K. ytupora is provided. The number of juveniles varied between 30 (K. ytupora and 179 (P. magnus; two size groups of juveniles were found, which indicates that the offspring cling to their mother for a prolonged period of time. There was no significant loss of eggs and juveniles; it is assumed that parental care diminishes the loss of their offspring. We compiled the available information of reproductive aspects from freshwater crabs: egg diameter was in the range of 2-3 mm, independent of female size and fecundity, and reported egg number varied between 9 and 417 eggs.

  1. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kolker

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg speciation – reactive gaseous Hg (RGM, elemental Hg (Hg°, and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5, were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1 a 1114 megawatt (MW coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2 a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3 a smaller (465 MW coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg° and Hg-PM2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m−3 measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site. The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1 the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2 the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3 RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  2. Variability of Aquatic Chemistry in Central Guizhou Karst Region,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白占国; 万国江

    1998-01-01

    It is necessary to understand the aquatic chemical characterstics of natural surface fresh water for water quality assessment.The chemical data from different kinds of water in the central Guizhou karst area showd that spring water from carbonate rock cracks(crack-water)is of neutrality or meta-alkalinity and [C] Ca II type.The amounts of all ions and the concentrations of HCO3- and Ca2+ were higher in the autumn than in the spring,The crack-water was influenced by the infiltration of surface water in the process of erosion and /or trans-portation with decreasing HCO3 and increasing pH,SO42-,Cl-,K+ and Na+ during running in a certain distance on the land surface .In particular,the chemical compositions of the waters at Tianxingqiao(upper-stream),Shuiliandong(mid-waterfall)and Luoshuitan(down-pool)near the Huangguoshu Waterfall were much different from those of the crack-water.The concentration of SO42-,Na+,Fe3+ and NO3- varied closely with seasons.The CaCO3 deposited violently with CO2 release in the spring ,In Lake Hongfeng the HCO3-/SO42- equivalent ratios were only 2.1-2.4 ,but Ca2+/Mg2+ up to 2.4-4.2.The Cl- concentration increased by a factor of 1 and Na+ by order of magnitude relative to the spring water.These indicated the increase in artificial pollutant discharge in the Lake Hongfeng watershed.In addition,Proewater in the soils covering carbonate rocks belongs to strongly mineralized water,The obvious differences in water quality were controlled by carbonate deposition,sulphate mineralization and nitrogen fixation as well as ammonification.It is indicated thaty the chemical compositions in the waters from the karst region were unstable and changeable.

  3. Giant magmatic water reservoir beneath Uturuncu volcano and Altiplano-Puna region (Central Andes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laumonier, Mickael; Gaillard, Fabrice; Muir, Duncan; Blundy, Jon; Unsworth, Martyn

    2016-04-01

    Volcanism at continental arcs is the surface manifestation of long-lived crustal magmatic processes whereby mantle-derived hydrous basalt magma differentiates to more silica-rich magmas by a combination of crystallization and crustal melting. What erupts is just a fraction of the total volume of magma produced by these processes; the unerupted, plutonic residues solidify and are inaccessible to direct study until millions of years of uplift and erosion bring them to the surface. In contrast, geophysical surveys, using electromagnetic and seismic waves, can provide real-time images of subduction zone magmatic systems. Several such studies have revealed that arc volcanoes are underlain by large partially molten regions at depths of >10 km, the largest known example being the Altiplano-Puna magma body (APMB) in central Andes. Interpreting such geophysical images in terms of amount, composition and distribution of partial melts is limited by our lack of knowledge of the physical properties of silicate melts at elevated pressures and temperatures. Here we present high-pressure, in situ experimental data showing that the electrical conductivity of andesitic melts is primarily controlled by their dissolved water contents. Linking our new measurements to petrological constraints from andesites erupted on the Altiplano, we show that the APMB is composed of 10-20% of an andesitic melt containing 8-10 wt% dissolved water. This implies that the APMB is a giant water anomaly in the global subduction system, with a total mass of dissolved magmatic water about half of the water contained within the Adriatic Sea. In addition to the controls on the physical properties of the melts, the abundance of dissolved water governs the structural levels of magma ponding, equivalent to the depth of water saturation, where degassing and crystallisation promote partial melting and weakening of the upper crust. Unexpectedly, very high concentrations of water in andesite magmas shall impede their

  4. Inflammatory bowel diseases and the general practitioner’s role in a region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sossai

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Paolo Sossai1,2, Fabio Filippetti3, Ali Ahmad Muselmani4, Giambattista Catalini41Department of Medicine, “Enrico Mattei” Hospital, Viale Europa, I-62024 Matelica, Italy; 2Center of Clinical Research, Department of Experimental Medicine, University of Camerino, Via M Scalzino, 3, I-62032 Camerino, Italy; 3Epidemiological Unit, Marche Region, Via Gentile da Fabriano, 3, I-60125 Ancona, Italy; 4Department of Surgery, General Hospital, Via Caselle, I-62032 Camerino, ItalyBackground: Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD are a serious burden for both patients and health care providers because of the young age at which they occur and their chronic course.Aim: The purpose of this study was to assess how general practitioners (GPs in the area of Camerino-Matelica, Marche (Central Italy manage their patients with IBD.Materials and methods: Before providing an educational course about IBD to GPs, we administered a simple questionnaire containing 10 multiple-choice questions, allowing for only one possible answer, to GPs in the target area. After the educational course we administered a satisfaction questionnaire and evaluated the hospitalization rates for IBD in the catchment area in the year following the course.Results: In our GP sample, 71.8% indicated that they needed better instruction regarding IBD to enable them to diagnose the conditions given the difficulties posed by nonspecific symptoms and the need to use invasive diagnostic methods such as colonoscopy. Early results after the educational course for GPs indicate a reduced rate of hospitalization for IBD but these data must be confirmed by future research.Conclusions: If specialists and GPs managed IBD patients more carefully, their patients would probably suffer from fewer relapses and would have a better quality of life, which would be likely to mean considerable cost savings for the public health care system and society in general.Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn’s disease

  5. Human papillomavirus in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas in the central region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Petito

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Molecular studies about carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx demonstrate the presence of human papilomavirus genome in these tumors, reinforcing the participation of human papilomavirus in oral carcinogenesis. Objectives This study aimed to determine the prevalence of human papilomavirus and genotype distribution of HPV16 and HPV18 in oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas, as well as their association with clinical characteristics of the tumors. Methods This is a retrospective study, with clinical data collected from 82 patients. Human papilomavirus detection was conducted on specimens of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas included in paraffin blocks. Patients were assisted in a cancer reference center, in the central region of Brazil, between 2005 and 2007. Polymerase chain reaction was used for the detection and genotyping of human papilomavirus. Results Among the patients evaluated, 78% were male. The average age of the group was about 58 years. Risk factors, such as smoking (78% and alcohol consumption (70.8% were recorded for the group. HPV DNA was detected in 21 cases (25.6%; 95% confidence interval 16.9–36.6 of which 33.3% were HPV16 and 14.3% were HPV18. The presence of lymph node metastases and registered deaths were less frequent in human papilomavirus positive tumors, suggesting a better prognosis for these cases; however, the differences between the groups were not statistically significant. Conclusion The results obtained in the present study, with respect to the presence of the high-risk HPV16 and HPV18 genotypes, highlight the importance of human papilomavirus vaccination in the control of oral cavity and oropharynx carcinomas.

  6. Geodiversity of the Umbria region (central Italy): a GIS-based quantitative index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melelli, Laura; Pica, Alessia; Del Monte, Maurizio

    2014-05-01

    The measure of natural range related to geological bedrock, landforms and geomorphological processes is the necessary starting point to geodiversity evaluation. Geodiversity plays a strategic role in landscape management. Whereas geotourism and geosites are identified as a driving power for the scientific and economic promotion of an area, the geodiversity knowledge is required for a complete and accurate research. For example, high values of this abiotic parameter identify and support the foundation of geoparks. According to this perspective, the geodiversity is the unifying factor for these areas of interest. While a subjective and qualitative approach may be adequate for geosites definition, identification and cultural promotion, the geodiversity concept needs a different evaluation method. A quantitative procedure allows achieving an objective and repeatable process exportable in different geographic units. Geographical Information Systems and spatial analysis techniques are the base to quantitative evaluation involving topographic, geological and geomorphological data. Therefore, the assessment of a numerical index derived from the overlay of spatial parameters can be conveniently computed in GIS environment. In this study, a geodiversity index is proposed where geological, geomorphological and landcover factors deriving mainly from maps and field survey; topographic ones are employed from DEM and remote sensed data. Each abiotic parameter is modelled in a grid format; focal functions do provide neighbourhood analysis and computing variety statistics. A particular extent is dedicated to topographic information and terrain roughness, that are strictly related to efficiency of geomorphological processes and generally corresponding to the abiotic components variability. The study area is located in central Italy and is characterized by a well known natural heritage. Thirty-seven geosites are detected in the Umbria region, where seven regional and one natural

  7. Water Quality and Evaluation of Pesticides in Lakes in the Ridge Citrus Region of Central Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choquette, Anne F.; Kroening, Sharon E.

    2009-01-01

    Water chemistry, including major inorganic constituents, nutrients, and pesticide compounds, was compared between seven lakes surrounded by citrus agriculture and an undeveloped lake on the Lake Wales Ridge (herein referred to as the Ridge) in central Florida. The region has been recognized for its vulnerability to the leaching of agricultural chemicals into the subsurface due to factors including soils, climate, and land use. About 40 percent of Florida's citrus cultivation occurs in 'ridge citrus' areas characterized by sandy well drained soils, with the remainder in 'flatwoods citrus' characterized by high water tables and poorly drained soils. The lakes on the Ridge are typically flow-through lakes that exchange water with adjacent and underlying aquifer systems. This study is the first to evaluate the occurrence of pesticides in lakes on the Ridge, and also represents one of the first monitoring efforts nationally to focus on regional-scale assessment of current-use pesticides in small- to moderate-sized lakes (5 to 393 acres). The samples were collected between December 2003 and September 2005. The lakes in citrus areas contained elevated concentrations of major inorganic constituents (including alkalinity, total dissolved solids, calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, chloride, and sulfate), total nitrogen, pH, and pesticides compared to the undeveloped lake. Nitrate (as N) and total nitrogen concentrations were typically elevated in the citrus lakes, with maximum values of 4.70 and 5.19 mg/L (milligrams per liter), respectively. Elevated concentrations of potassium, nitrate, and other inorganic constituents in the citrus lakes likely reflect inputs from the surficial ground-water system that originated predominantly from agricultural fertilizers, soil amendments, and inorganic pesticides. A total of 20 pesticide compounds were detected in the lakes, of which 12 compounds exceeded the standardized reporting level of 0.06 ug/L (microgram per liter). Those

  8. Convergence Analysis of Regional Economic Growth on Central Region in China%我国中部地区经济增长收敛性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张可; 栾贵勘; 刘超

    2009-01-01

    Using the population-weighting of the Theil index of regional economic analysis of the central σ-convergence,found that the central regions were obvious existence of σ-convergence in 1977-2007,and provincial economic disparities were the central σ-convergence of regional economic obstacles factors.At the same time,using the Barro and Sala-I-Martin classic model of the central β-convergence of the regional economy though the impact on economic growth add the dynamic variables--urbanization,industrialization and other conditions were as follows:the central region of the conditions,there was a significant β-convergence,one of industrialization and innovation ability to affect the central region were the conditions of β-convergence of the primary factors,excessive government intervention in the economy that have hindered the conduct of the conditions of β-convergence of the important factors.%运用以人口为权数的Theil指数分析我国中部地区经济σ-收敛发现:1997-2007年中部地区存在较明显的σ-收敛,且省际间的经济差异是中部地区经济σ-收敛的阻碍因素;同时运用Barro和Sala-i-Martin经典模型分析中部地区经济β-收敛,通过加入影响经济增长的动态变量--城市化、工业化等条件发现:中部地区存在显著的条件β-收敛,其中工业化和创新能力是影响中部地区条件β-收敛的首要因素,政府过度干预经济的行为是阻碍其条件β-收敛的重要因素.

  9. Tendencies of mortality by prostate cancer in the states of the Central-West Region of Brazil, 1980-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, João Francisco Santos; Mattos, Inês Echenique; Aydos, Ricardo Dutra

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at analyzing the pattern of prostate cancer mortality in the Central-West Region, in the period 1980 - 2011. The quadrennial and annual mortality rates, age-standardized by the world population, were calculated. Polynomial regression models were estimated to analyze trends of mortality in Brazilian regions and in the states of the Central-West Region. Throughout Brazil there was an increase in the magnitude of mortality rates during the study's period. In the Central-West Region, mortality rates from prostate cancer increased from 7.65/100,000 in the period 1980 - 1983, to 14.36/100,000 in the last four years, exceeding the national average. For Mato Grosso do Sul, an increased trend, although not constant, was observed for prostate mortality rates, while those rates showed stability for Mato Grosso and presented a constant trend of increment for Goiás along the studied period. There was a statistically significant negative correlation between mortality rates from prostate cancer and the proportional mortality from ill-defined causes of death in the three states, but no correlations were observed between these rates and the ratios of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) tests realized. Difficulties in the access to the health services network, better quality of death records with reduction of ill-defined causes and increased use of PSA may have contributed to the mortality pattern observed in the Central-West Region. Further studies are needed to investigate these relationships in order, to better understand the patterns of mortality from this cancer in the Central-West population.

  10. Central Asia: Regional Developments and Implications for U.S. Interests

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-19

    deployed some two dozen troops to Iraq who served under Polish command and carried out water- purification , demining, and medical activities. They...one-fifth of opium and heroin produced in Afghanistan are transited through Central Asia to markets in Russia and Central Europe. Most of these

  11. Regional Economic Development in the Soviet Union, Two Case Studies: The Baltic and Central Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    this false "jump" in the value of at, D70t is introduced into the model. The graph of Soviet inter- regional connectivity is different for 1965 and...calculation of ucwi, j follows along similar lines. First, the interiogional regional connectivity matrix CC is constructed in a manner analogous to the...or regions, if no city in the intervening region(s) above the threshold size lies on the connecting route. A rule used to determine trans- regional

  12. The growth of the central region by acquisition of counter-rotating gas in star-forming galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Tremonti, Christy A; Bershady, Matt; Merrifield, Michael; Emsellem, Eric; Jin, Yi-Fei; Huang, Song; Fu, Hai; Wake, David A; Bundy, Kevin; Stark, David; Lin, Lihwai; Argudo-Fernandez, Maria; Bergmann, Thaisa Storchi; Bizyaev, Dmitry; Brownstein, Joel; Bureau, Martin; Chisholm, John; Drory, Niv; Guo, Qi; Hao, Lei; Hu, Jian; Li, Cheng; Li, Ran; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Pan, Kai-Ke; Riffel, Rogemar A; Thomas, Daniel; Wang, Lan; Westfall, Kyle; Yan, Ren-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies grow through both internal and external processes. In about 10% of nearby red galaxies with little star formation, gas and stars are counter-rotating, demonstrating the importance of external gas acquisition in these galaxies. However, systematic studies of such phenomena in blue, star-forming galaxies are rare, leaving uncertain the role of external gas acquisition in driving evolution of blue galaxies. Based on new measurements with integral field spectroscopy of a large representative galaxy sample, we find an appreciable fraction of counter-rotators among blue galaxies (9 out of 489 galaxies). The central regions of blue counter-rotators show younger stellar populations and more intense, ongoing star formation than their outer parts, indicating ongoing growth of the central regions. The result offers observational evidence that the acquisition of external gas in blue galaxies is possible; the interaction with pre-existing gas funnels the gas into nuclear regions (< 1 kpc) to form new stars.

  13. Jet Production in the Central Rapidity Region in 1.8 TeV Proton and Antiproton Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, Yeong-Dong; /Chicago U.

    1989-06-01

    In this thesis we study the jet production cross section in the central rapidity region in {bar p}p collisions at a center of mass energy of 1.8 TeV. The pseudo-rapidity {eta} is defined as {eta} {triple_bond} -ln(tan({theta}/2)), where {theta} is the angle between the directions of the jet momentum and the proton beam. We will call the region -0.7 < {eta} < 0.7 the 'central rapidity' region by definition. The goal of this thesis is to determine two kinds of differential cross sections for jet production: an inclusive jet Et distribution d{sigma}/dEt, and the distribution in invariant mass d{sigma}/dM{sub JJ} of two jet systems. These spectra serve to check the strong interaction theory, and thus to look for new phenomena, at the highest available energy. The strong interaction theory will be discussed.

  14. Direct radiative effect modeled for regional aerosols in central Europe including the effect of relative humidity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iorga, G.; Hitzenberger, R.; Kasper-Giebl, A.; Puxbaum, Hans

    2007-01-01

    In view of both the climatic relevance of aerosols and the fact that aerosol burdens in central Europe are heavily impacted by anthropogenic sources, this study is focused on estimating the regional-scale direct radiative effect of aerosols in Austria. The aerosol data (over 80 samples in total) were collected during measurement campaigns at five sampling sites: the urban areas of Vienna, Linz, and Graz and on Mt. Rax (1644 m, regional background aerosol) and Mt. Sonnblick (3106 m, background aerosol). Aerosol mass size distributions were obtained with eight-stage (size range: 0.06-16 μm diameter) and six-stage (size range 0.1-10 μm) low-pressure cascade impactors. The size-segregated samples were analyzed for total carbon (TC), black carbon (BC), and inorganic ions. The aerosol at these five locations is compared in terms of size distributions, optical properties, and direct forcing. Mie calculations are performed for the dry aerosol at 60 wavelengths in the range 0.3-40 μm. Using mass growth factors determined earlier, the optical properties are also estimated for higher relative humidities (60%, 70%, 80%, and 90%). A box model was used to estimate direct radiative forcing (DRF). The presence of absorbing species (BC) was found to reduce the cooling effect of the aerosols. The water-soluble substances dominate radiative forcing at the urban sites, while on Rax and Sonnblick BC plays the most important role. This result can be explained by the effect of the surface albedo, which is much lower in the urban regions (0.16) than at the ice and snow-covered mountain sites. Shortwave (below 4 μm) and longwave surface albedo values for ice were 0.35 and 0.5, while for snow surface albedo, values of 0.8 (shortwave) and 0.5 (longwave) were used. In the case of dry aerosol, especially for urban sites, the unidentified material may contribute a large part to the forcing. Depending on the sampling site the estimated forcing gets more negative with increasing humidity

  15. Research on the Balanced Development of China’s Urbanization and Industrialization in Eastern,Central,Western and Northeastern Regions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to the relationship between urbanization development and industrialization development since the opening up and reform of China,the quantitative analysis of I/U and N/U is conducted.The results show that the overall level of China’s urbanization lags behind that of the industrialization,and this phenomenon of lag tends to dwindle.In 2003,the relationship between China’s urbanization and industrialization was most balanced,but after 2003,the phenomenon of urbanization lagging behind industrialization tends to distend gradually again;being that the development of urbanization is influenced by natural basis and policy,different regions have different cases.In the eastern and central region,the urbanization lags behind industrialization;in the northeastern region,the urbanization preponderate over industrialization;in the western region,the level of urbanization is not high,but it develops along with the industrialization in tandem.The regional difference of urbanization and industrialization requires that different should implement different policies.The eastern region still has great developmental space,and it should implement the strategy of urbanization as soon as possible;on the basis of expanding the current urban scale and improving quality,the central region should quicken the development of central cities;the western region should choose the path of concentrated-type urbanization;the three northeastern provinces should give priority to improving the quality of local industrialization vigorously and promoting the rapid upgrade of industrial structure,so as to propel the balanced development of urbanization and industrialization.

  16. Paleozoic-involving thrust array in the central Sierras Interiores (South Pyrenean Zone, Central Pyrenees): regional implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, L.; Cuevas, J.; Tubía, J. M.

    2012-04-01

    This work deals with the structural evolution of the Sierras Interiores between the Tena and Aragon valleys. The Sierras Interiores is a WNW-trending mountain range that bounds the South Pyrenean Zone to the north and that is characterized by a thrust-fold system with a strong lithological control that places preferably decollements in Triassic evaporites. In the studied area of the Sierras Interiores Cenomanian limestones cover discordantly the Paleozoic rocks of the Axial Zone because there is a stratigraphic lacuna developed from Triassic to Late Cretaceous times. A simple lithostratigraphy of the study area is made up of Late Cenomanian to Early Campanian limestones with grey colour and massive aspect in landscape (170 m, Lower calcareous section), Campanian to Maastrichtian brown coloured sandstones (400-600 m, Marboré sandstones) and, finally, Paleocene light-coloured massive limestones (130-230 m), that often generate the higher topographic levels of the Sierras Interiores due to their greater resistance to erosion. Above the sedimentary sequence of the Sierras Interiores, the Jaca Basin flysch succession crops out discordantly. Based on a detailed mapping of the studied area of the Sierras Interiores, together with well and structural data of the Jaca Basin (Lanaja, 1987; Rodríguez and Cuevas, 2008) we have constructed a 12 km long NS cross section, approximately parallel to the movement direction deduced for this region (Rodríguez et al., 2011). The main structure is a thrust array made up of at least four Paleozoic-involving thrusts (the deeper thrust system) of similar thickness in a probably piggyback sequence, some of which are blind thrusts that generate fold-propagation-folds in upper levels. The higher thrust of the thrust array crops out duplicating the lower calcareous section all over the Sierras Interiores. The emplacement of the deeper thrust system generated the tightness of previous structures: south directed piggyback duplexes (the upper

  17. The Competitiveness of Settlements with SPAS in Some Central European Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márta Bakucz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper covers two topics which are, broadly, inseparable. The first has as its main target the competitiveness of Spa Tourism in two Regions of Hungary - in settlements with different characteristics; the second, recognising the need for a new way to measure competitiveness in the sector, deals with the creation of a new competitiveness index. The benefits of virtually all forms of Tourism - economic or social – are well enough known to need no repetition. This is especially true of such fields as Spa or Health Tourism, in which there is a natural trend towards longer stays and higher expenditure by visitors. For a relatively poor country such as Hungary – weak in natural resources apart from agricultural land – the basic presence of a generous supply of easily accessible thermal or medicinal water below a huge proportion of its surface area (70% is a remarkable gift. Nevertheless, many factors are to be studied if a rational, sustainable development policy is to be elaborated by public and private interests. There are many spas – settlements with thermal or medicinal waters (or both - spread across Hungary, and their variety is extraordinary. There are huge differences in terms of size, visitor numbers, accommodation facilities, overnights, leisure or treatment facilities and location – that is, their closeness to favourable population areas (domestic or foreign. The critical decisions on investment and development need comprehensive data on all factors of all locations. The essential issue is competitiveness: in Central Europe, where spas have a great tradition and history (e.g., Germany, Austria and today’s Czech Republic, does or can Hungary offer a product which will sell? There are numerous factors and as many bases on which to judge. In 2013 a team from the Faculty of Business and Economics at Pécs University - supported by Hungary’s National Scientific Research Foundation (OTKA – embarked on a study of the

  18. Strengthening the Regional Integration in Central and Eastern Europe through Cohesion Policy Instruments and Cooperation among Stock Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JULIA STEFANOVA

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The research paper is focused on the analysis of two ways of strengthening the regional integration in the Central and Eastern Europe – through the Cohesion policy instruments and cooperation among stock exchanges. Substantial benefits from the regional integration through cohesion policy include economic and social prosperity, political understanding. It should be further intensified, as it contributes to reduce regional disparities, exchange knowledge and best practices, ensure economic development. On the other hand, the deepening intra-regional cooperation among CEE stock exchanges leads to quantitative and qualitative changes in the course of their consolidation. Some assumptions are reached regarding expected changes on the Bulgarian capital market in the course of intensifying its intra-regional integrational links to CEE capital markets in conformity with set strategic priorities.

  19. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kolker

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg speciation- reactive gaseous Hg (RGM, elemental Hg (Hg°, and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5, were determined from June to November, 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1 a 1114 megawatt (MW coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2 a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3 a smaller (465 MW coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. Median concentrations of Hg°, Hg-PM2.5, and RGM were 1.3–1.4 ng m−3, 2.6–5.0 pg m−3, and 0.6–0.8 pg m−3, respectively. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3 measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.4 ppbv; measured at 50 km site. The finding that RGM, Hg°, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1 the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2 the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3 RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg°. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  20. Biofuel production and climate mitigation potential from marginal lands in US North Central region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelfand, I.; Sahajpal, R.; Zhang, X.; Izaurralde, R. C.; Robertson, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    An ever-increasing demand for liquid fuels, amidst concerns of anthropogenic impacts on the environment and fossil fuels availability, has spurred a strong interest in the development of agriculturally-based renewable energy sources. However, increasing demand for food as well as direct and indirect effects on land use, have raised concerns about reliance on grain-based ethanol and shifted research towards the direction of cellulosic feedstocks. In order to understand the future possibility for using agricultural systems for bio-fuel production, we present here a full greenhouse gas (GHG) balance of six potential sources of cellulosic feedstocks production. From 1991 to 2008, we measured GHGs sinks and sources in cropped and nearby unmanaged ecosystems in SW Michigan. The measurements included soil fluxes of GHGs (N2O and CH4), soil organic carbon concentration change, agronomic practices data, and biomass yields. We analyzed two types of intensively managed annual cropping systems under corn-soybean-wheat rotation (conventional tillage and no till), two perennial systems (alfalfa and poplar plantation), and one successional system. The use of agricultural residues for biofuel feedstock from conventionally-tilled crops had the lowest climate stabilization potential (-9 ±13 gCO2e m-2 y-1). In contrast, biomass collected from a successional system fertilized with N at123 kg ha-1y-1 showed the highest climate stabilization potential (-749 ±30 gCO2e m-2 y-1). We used our results to parameterize the EPIC model, which, together with GIS analysis was used to scale up the biomass productivity of the best environmentally performing systems to the marginal lands of the 10-state U.S. North Central region. Assuming 80 km as the maximum distance for road haulage to the biorefinery from the field, we identified 32 potential biorefinery placements each capable of supplying sufficient feedstock to produce at least 133 × 106 L y-1. In total, ethanol production from marginal

  1. Naturally occurring clay nanoparticles in Latosols of Brazil central region: detection and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominika Dybowska, Agnieszka; Luciene Maltoni, Katia; Piella, Jordi; Najorka, Jens; Puntes, Victor; Valsami-Jones, Eugenia

    2015-04-01

    Stability and reactivity of minerals change as a particle size function, which makes mineral nanoparticles (defined here as nanoparticles contribute to many biogeochemical processes, however much remains to be learnt about these materials, their size dependent behavior and environmental significance. Advances in analytical, imaging and spectroscopic techniques made it now possible to study such particles; however we still have limited knowledge of their chemical, structural and morphological identity and reactivity, in particular in soils. The aim of this research was to characterize the naturally occurring nanoparticles in three soils from Brazil central region. The samples were collected in the A horizon, treated with H2O2 to remove organic material, dispersed in ultrasonic bath and wet sieved (53 µm) to remove the sand fraction. The clay fraction was collected by siphoning the supernatant, conditioned in 1000 ml cylinder, according to the Stock's law. This fraction was further processed by re-suspension in water, sonication and repeated centrifugation, to separate the fraction smaller than 100nm. This material, called here the soil "nanofraction", was analyzed using a range of techniques: 1) nanoparticle size/morphology and crystallinity with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM operateing in scanning (HAADF-STEM) and High Resolution (HRTEM) mode), 2) size distribution in water with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and surface charge estimated from electrophoretic mobility measurements 3) crystal phase and crystallite size with X-ray Diffraction (XRD) 4) Chemical composition by quantitative analysis of elements (e.g., Si, Fe, Al, Ti) and their spatial distribution with HRTEM/EDS elemental mappings. The nanofraction had an average hydrodynamic particle diameter ranging from 83 to 92nm with a low polydispersity index of 0.13-0.17 and was found highly stable in aqueous suspension (no change in average particle size up to several months of storage). Particle surface

  2. Regional distance shear-coupled PL propagation within the northern Altiplano, central Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swenson, Jennifer L.; Beck, Susan L.; Zandt, George

    1999-12-01

    Properties of the shear-coupled P wavetrain (SPL) from regional earthquakes provide important information about the structure of the crust and upper mantle. We investigate broad-band seismic data from intermediate-depth earthquakes and develop a grid search technique using synthetic seismograms to study the sensitivity of SPL and to model the crustal structure of the northern Altiplano, central Andes. Waveforms from an earthquake that occurred on 1994 December 12 within the Nazca slab beneath the Altiplano display a clear SPL wavetrain at the temporary stations deployed during the BANJO and SEDA experiments. We relocate this event and determine the moment tensor by inverting the complete long-period waveforms. With these source parameters fixed, we perform sensitivity analyses using a reflectivity technique to compute synthetic seismograms at a distance of 313 km (BANJO station 2, SALI). We find that, at this distance, the long-period SPL wavetrain is sensitive to the following model parameters, in order of decreasing sensitivity: crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness, focal depth, distance (location), crustal Qα and Qβ, and mantle velocity. We develop a grid search method to investigate the four parameters of the crust/upper mantle model to which the synthetic seismograms are most sensitive at SALI (crustal VP/VS, mantle VP/VS, average crustal velocity, crustal thickness). Trade-offs exist among all four of the model parameters, resulting in a range of acceptable crustal models that provide excellent fits between the data and synthetic seismograms in the passband of 15-100 s at a single station. However, by using data at a range of distances (150-450 km) we find that the model that provides the best overall fit between the data and synthetic seismograms, and thus best approximates the average characteristics of the crust and upper mantle structure of the northern Altiplano, is characterized by an average crustal velocity of 6

  3. Transpupillary thermotherapy for central serous chorioretinopathy at central macular region%TTT治疗中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈伟; 蔡琴华; 丁洁; 李龙标

    2008-01-01

    目的 观察经瞳孔温热疗法(traspupillary thermotherapy,TTT)治疗病变涉及黄斑中心区域的中心性浆液性脉络膜视网膜病变(central serous chorioretinopathy,CSC)疗效和预后.方法 对病变涉及黄斑中心区域的CSC患者18例18只眼进行TTT治疗,根据病灶大小选择光斑和能量.随访时复查视力、眼底,中心视野及FFA.结果 治疗后患者视力、视野均明显好转,治疗后2月94.44%患者视力提高,平均视力及平均光敏感度(MS)分别为1.07和27.38dB,较TTT前差异有显著性(t=8.43、10.01;P<0.01),FFA示所有病例渗漏均停止,但有2例复发.结论 TTT治疗CSC简单有效,尤其适合病变涉及黄斑中心区域的CSC,无明显并发症.%Objective To investigate the clinical results of transpupillary thermothcrapy for patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC)at central macular region.Methods 18 cases (18 eyes)of CSC at central macular region diagnosed by FFA were treated with a diode laser at 810 nm.Laser parameters were as follow:the diameters of beam spot varied from 800μ m to 2000μ m,the power from 100mW to 260mW,the duration 600s, beam spots from 1 to 2.The visual acuity,ophthalmoscopy,central visual field and FFA were followed up.Results The visual acuity and central visual field were improved after laser treatment.2 months after treatment the visual acuity increased in 17 eyes (94.44%).The average visual acuity and mean sensitivity of 18 eyes were 1.07 and 27.38 dB respectively.The difference was significant (t=8.43,10.01;P<0.01)com-pared with the average visual acuity and mean sensitivity before the treatment.FFA showed that fluorescein leakage stopped in all eyes.But there were 2 recurrent cases during the follow-up time.Conclusions Transpupiilary thermotherapy is one of the effective and secure therapies for CSC especially when the RPE le-sion referred to the central macular region.

  4. Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Alves Dias de Matos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg negative injecting drug users (IDUs in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149; six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19, followed by genotype A (2/19. These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazil's Central-West Region.

  5. Description of Larger Benthic Foraminifera Species from the Bartonian of Yakacık-Memlik Region (N Ankara, Central Turkey)

    OpenAIRE

    DEVECİLER, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A. callosa Hottinger, A. fragilis Hottinger, A. fusiformis Sowerby, A. kieli Sirel & Acar, A. nuttalli (Davies), A. stercusmuris Mayer-Eymar and nummulitid species Nummulites malatyensis Sirel are described and figured from the shallow-water marine limestone samples of Yakacık-Memlik region (N-Ankara, Central Turkey). Amongst all these species the presence of A. fragilis, A. fusiformis and N. malatyensis represents the Bartonian stage in the studied area. In addition, stratigraphic range of A...

  6. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    OpenAIRE

    Bjelić Igor S.; Todorović Dragana J.; Krneta-Nikolić Jelena D.; Lazarević Đorđe R.; Stanković Koviljka Đ.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ...

  7. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  8. Mueller-Navelet jets at 13 TeV LHC: dependence on dynamic constraints in the central rapidity region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Celiberto, F.G.; Papa, A. [Universita della Calabria, Dipartimento di Fisica, Cosenza (Italy); Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Cosenza (Italy); Ivanov, D.Yu. [Sobolev Institute of Mathematics, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Murdaca, B. [Gruppo collegato di Cosenza, Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Cosenza (Italy)

    2016-04-15

    We study the production of Mueller-Navelet jets at 13 TeV LHC, within collinear factorization and including the BFKL resummation of energy logarithms in the next-to-leading approximation. We calculate several azimuthal correlations for different values of the rapidity separation Y between the two jets and evaluate the effect of excluding those events where, for a given Y, one of the two jets is produced in the central region. (orig.)

  9. Physical characteristics of G331.5-0.1: The luminous central region of a Giant Molecular Cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Merello, Manuel; Garay, Guido; Nyman, Lars-Ake; Evans, Neal J; Walmsley, C Malcolm

    2013-01-01

    We report molecular line and dust continuum observations toward the high-mass star forming region G331.5-0.1, one of the most luminous regions of massive star-formation in the Milky Way, located at the tangent region of the Norma spiral arm, at a distance of 7.5 kpc. Molecular emission was mapped toward the G331.5-0.1 GMC in the CO (J=1-0) and C18O (J=1-0) lines with NANTEN, while its central region was mapped in CS (J=2-1 and J=5-4) with SEST, and in CS (J=7-6) and 13CO (J=3-2) with ASTE. Continuum emission mapped at 1.2 mm with SIMBA and at 0.87 mm with LABOCA reveal the presence of six compact and luminous dust clumps, making this source one of the most densely populated central regions of a GMC in the Galaxy. The dust clumps are associated with molecular gas and they have the following average properties: size of 1.6 pc, mass of 3.2x10^3 Msun, molecular hydrogen density of 3.7x10^4 cm^{-3}, dust temperature of 32 K, and integrated luminosity of 5.7x10^5 Lsun, consistent with values found toward other mass...

  10. Environmental Geochemistry of Fluorine in the Rock—Soil—Water System in the Karst Region of Central Guizhou Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱立军; 李景阳; 等

    2000-01-01

    Systematic determination of and adsorption experiment on fluorine in the carbonate rock-soil-water system in the karst region studied in Guzhou Province,in conjunction with the mineral surface and soil chemistry data,have revealed the geochemical characteristics of F and the mechanisms of its transport and entrichment in the rock-soil-water-system of the karst region central guizhou province,Deep-seated underground waters(-100m or lower)and soil layers in the karst region of central Guizhou are characterized by high-F anomalies whereas shallow-level underground and surface waters by low contents of F(mostly lower than 05mg/L).Fluorine in soil and water in the region studied comes largely from Triassic marine strata dominated by gypsum-bearing carbonate rocks.The special adsorption and desorption of F on the surface of geothite in soil layers are the important mechanisms of its transport and enrichment in the rock-soil-water system of the karst region studied.

  11. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  12. Mapping the Central Region of the PPN CRL 618 at Sub-arcsecond Resolution at 350 GHz

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Chin-Fei; Sahai, Raghvendra; Contreras, Carmen Sanchez

    2013-01-01

    CRL 618 is a well-studied pre-planetary nebula. We have mapped its central region in continuum and molecular lines with the Submillimeter Array at 350 GHz at ~ 0.3" to 0.5" resolutions. Two components are seen in 350 GHz continuum: (1) a compact emission at the center tracing the dense inner part of the H II region previously detected in 23 GHz continuum and it may trace a fast ionized wind at the base, and (2) an extended thermal dust emission surrounding the H II region, tracing the dense core previously detected in HC3N at the center of the circumstellar envelope. The dense core is dusty and may contain mm-sized dust grains. It may have a density enhancement in the equatorial plane. It is also detected in carbon chain molecules HC3N and HCN, and their isotopologues, with higher excitation lines tracing closer to the central star. It is also detected in C2H3CN toward the innermost part. Most of the emission detected here arises within ~ 630 AU (~0.7") from the central star. A simple radiative transfer model...

  13. An X-ray characterization of the central region of the SNR G332.5-5.6

    CERN Document Server

    Suárez, Alejandra E; Albacete-Colombo, Juan F; Paron, Sergio; García, Federico; Miceli, Marco

    2015-01-01

    We present an X-ray analysis of the central region of supernova remnant (SNR) G332.5-5.6 through an exhaustive analysis of XMM-Netwon observations with complementary infrared observations. We characterize and discuss the origin of the observed X-ray morphology, which presents a peculiar plane edge over the west side of the central region. The morphology and spectral properties of the X-ray supernova remnant were studied using a single full frame XMM-Newton observation in the 0.3 to 10.0 keV energy band. Archival infrared WISE observations at 8, 12 and 24 \\mu m were also used to investigate the properties of the source and its surroundings at different wavelengths. The results show that the extended X-ray emission is predominantly soft (0.3-1.2 keV) and peaks around 0.5 keV, which shows that it is an extremely soft SNR. X-ray emission correlates very well with central regions of bright radio emission. On the west side the radio/X-ray emission displays a plane-like feature with a terminal wall where strong infr...

  14. Changes in the area of inland lakes in arid regions of central Asia during the past 30 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jie; Chen, Xi; Li, Junli; Yang, Liao; Fang, Hui

    2011-07-01

    Inland lakes are major surface water resource in arid regions of Central Asia. The area changes in these lakes have been proved to be the results of regional climate changes and recent human activities. This study aimed at investigating the area variations of the nine major lakes in Central Asia over the last 30 years. Firstly, multi-temporal Landsat imagery in 1975, 1990, 1999, and 2007 were used to delineate lake extents automatically based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) threshold segmentation, then lake area variations were detailed in three decades and the mechanism of these changes was analyzed with meteorological data and hydrological data. The results indicated that the total surface areas of these nine lakes had decreased from 91,402.06 km(2) to 46,049.23 km(2) during 1975-2007, accounting for 49.62% of their original area of 1975. Tail-end lakes in flat areas had shrunk dramatically as they were induced by both climate changes and human impacts, while alpine lakes remained relatively stable due to the small precipitation variations. With different water usage of river outlets, the variations of open lakes were more flexible than those of other two types. According to comprehensive analyses, different types of inland lakes presented different trends of area changes under the background of global warming effects in Central Asia, which showed that the increased human activities had broken the balance of water cycles in this region.

  15. Resting-state coupling between core regions within the central-executive and salience networks contributes to working memory performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojing eFang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies investigated the distinct roles played by different cognitive regions and suggested that the patterns of connectivity of these regions are associated with working memory. However, the specific causal mechanism through which the neuronal circuits that involve these brain regions contribute to working memory is still unclear. Here, in a large sample of healthy young adults, we first identified the core working memory regions by linking working memory accuracy to resting-state functional connectivity with the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (a principal region in the central-executive network. Then a spectral dynamic causal modeling analysis was performed to quantify the effective connectivity between these regions. Finally, the effective connectivity was correlated with working memory accuracy to characterize the relationship between these connections and working memory performance. We found that the functional connections between the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the left orbital fronto-insular cortex were correlated with working memory accuracy. Furthermore, the effective connectivity from the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and from the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to the left orbital fronto-insular cortex could predict individual differences in working memory. Because the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and orbital fronto-insular cortex are core regions of the salience network, we inferred that the inter- and causal-connectivity between core regions within the central-executive and salience networks is functionally relevant for working memory performance. In summary, the current study identified the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex-related resting-state effective connectivity underlying working memory and suggests that individual differences in cognitive

  16. Geological evolution, regional perspectives and hydrocarbon potential of the northwest Phu Khanh Basin, offshore Central Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fyhn, Michael Bryld Wessel; Nielsen, Lars H.; Boldreel, Lars Ole;

    2009-01-01

    and subsidence rates increased after the Middle Miocene times due to eastward tilting of Central Vietnam and the adjacent offshore area. Potential direct hydrocarbon indicators (DHIs) in the Phu Khanh Basin include common amplitude anomalies, gas chimney-like features and seafloor gas seeps. In addition, oil...

  17. Future U.S. National Security Strategy with Respect to Honduras and the Central American Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    34 Current History, Vol. 85, No. 515, December 1986. 38. Gonzales , Edward et al. United States Policy for Central America, R-3150-RC. Santa Monica, CA...CO: Westview Press, 1983. 85. Robbins, Carla Anne. "New look in Latin America." U.S.News and World Report, 2 January 1989. 86. Roca, Sergio . "Cuba

  18. Determining the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes of PFI data in central region Peninsular Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Kamaruddin, Saadi Bin; Md Ghani, Nor Azura; Mohamed Ramli, Norazan

    2013-04-01

    The concept of Private Financial Initiative (PFI) has been implemented by many developed countries as an innovative way for the governments to improve future public service delivery and infrastructure procurement. However, the idea is just about to germinate in Malaysia and its success is still vague. The major phase that needs to be given main attention in this agenda is value for money whereby optimum efficiency and effectiveness of each expense is attained. Therefore, at the early stage of this study, estimating unitary charges or materials price indexes in each region in Malaysia was the key objective. This particular study aims to discover the best forecasting method to estimate unitary charges price indexes in construction industry by different regions in the central region of Peninsular Malaysia (Selangor, Federal Territory of Kuala Lumpur, Negeri Sembilan, and Melaka). The unitary charges indexes data used were from year 2002 to 2011 monthly data of different states in the central region Peninsular Malaysia, comprising price indexes of aggregate, sand, steel reinforcement, ready mix concrete, bricks and partition, roof material, floor and wall finishes, ceiling, plumbing materials, sanitary fittings, paint, glass, steel and metal sections, timber and plywood. At the end of the study, it was found that Backpropagation Neural Network with linear transfer function produced the most accurate and reliable results for estimating unitary charges price indexes in every states in central region Peninsular Malaysia based on the Root Mean Squared Errors, where the values for both estimation and evaluation sets were approximately zero and highly significant at p value for money of PFI as well as towards Malaysian economical growth.

  19. Neglected tropical diseases in Central America and Panama: review of their prevalence, populations at risk and impact on regional development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotez, Peter J; Woc-Colburn, Laila; Bottazzi, Maria Elena

    2014-08-01

    A review of the literature since 2009 reveals a staggering health and economic burden resulting from neglected tropical diseases in Panama and the six countries of Central America (referred to collectively here as 'Central America'). Particularly at risk are the 10.2million people in the region who live on less than $2 per day, mostly in Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua and El Salvador. Indigenous populations are especially vulnerable to neglected tropical diseases. Currently, more than 8million Central American children require mass drug treatments annually (or more frequently) for their intestinal helminth infections, while vector-borne diseases are widespread. Among the vector-borne parasitic infections, almost 40% of the population is at risk for malaria (mostly Plasmodium vivax infection), more than 800,000 people live with Chagas disease, and up to 39,000 people have cutaneous leishmaniasis. In contrast, an important recent success story is the elimination of onchocerciasis from Central America. Dengue is the leading arbovirus infection with 4-5million people affected annually and hantavirus is an important rodent-borne viral neglected tropical disease. The leading bacterial neglected tropical diseases include leptospirosis and trachoma, for which there are no disease burden estimates. Overall there is an extreme dearth of epidemiological data on neglected tropical diseases based on active surveillance as well as estimates of their economic impact. Limited information to date, however, suggests that neglected tropical diseases are a major hindrance to the region's economic development, in both the most impoverished Central American countries listed above, as well as for Panama and Costa Rica where a substantial (but largely hidden) minority of people live in extreme poverty.

  20. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the luminous infrared galaxy NGC 1614

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Pérez-Torres, Miguel Á.; Alberdi, Antxon; Hernández-García, Lorena [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía-CSIC, P.O. Box 3004, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Alonso-Herrero, Almudena [Instituto de Física de Cantabria, CSIC-Universidad de Cantabria, E-39005 Santander (Spain); Colina, Luis [Centro de Astrobiología (INTA-CSIC), Ctra. de Torrejón a Ajalvir, km 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid (Spain); Efstathiou, Andreas [School of Sciencies, European University Cyprus, Diogenes Street, Engomi, 1516 Nicosia (Cyprus); Miralles-Caballero, Daniel [Instituto de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); Väisänen, Petri [South African Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 9, Observatory 7935 Cape Town (South Africa); Packham, Christopher C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, San Antonio, TX 78249 (United States); Rajpaul, Vinesh [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Zijlstra, Albert A. [Jodrell Bank Centre for Astrophysics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-05-10

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ∼100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Paα, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC 1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 μm emission, as well as the Paα line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used a Hubble Space Telescope/NICMOS Paα map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power law for each individual region within the central kiloparsec of NGC 1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum source at the very center of the galaxy, suggesting that the central source is not powered by an active galactic nucleus (AGN), but rather by a compact (r ≲ 90 pc) starburst (SB). Chandra X-ray data also show that the central kiloparsec region is dominated by SB activity, without requiring the existence of an AGN. We also used publicly available infrared data to model-fit the spectral energy distribution of both the SB ring and a putative AGN in NGC 1614. In summary, we conclude that there is no need to invoke an AGN to explain the observed bolometric properties of the galaxy.

  1. The central region of M83: Massive star formation, kinematics, and the location and origin of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Knapen, J H; Ryder, S D; Falcon-Barroso, J; Fathi, K; Gutierrez, L

    2010-01-01

    We report new near-IR integral field spectroscopy of the central starburst region of the barred spiral galaxy M83 obtained with CIRPASS on Gemini-S, which we analyse in conjunction with GHaFaS Fabry-Perot data, an AAT IRIS2 Ks-band image, and near- and mid-IR imaging from the Hubble and Spitzer space telescopes. The bulk of the current star formation activity is hidden from optical view by dust extinction, but is seen in the near- and mid-IR to the north of the nucleus. This region is being fed by inflow of gas through the bar of M83, traced by the prominent dust lane entering into the circumnuclear region from the north. An analysis of stellar ages confirms that the youngest stars are indeed in the northwest. A gradual age gradient, with older stars further to the south, characterises the well-known star-forming arc in the central region of M83. Detailed analyses of the Pa beta ionised gas kinematics and near-IR imaging confirm that the kinematic centre coincides with the photometric centre of M83, and that ...

  2. Study on the Implementation of Quality Management System in Small Medium-sized Enterprises from the Central Region of Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liviu Pop

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With over 12% share of the national total, small and medium enterprises from the Central Region of Romania, play the role of one of the pistons of the economic engine and social development of this country, finding them in all fields. Even if the global crisis has affected the region, however lately there is an improvement in the situation, thanks to the support either from foreign investment or from the Romanian state. Therefore, these organizations are striving through proactive involvement and long-term vision, to detect effective ways of implementing existing systems based on processes, balanced investment in human skills, technical and technological competence. This paper investigates the operation of the quality management system and the research methodology consists in the investigation based on online interviews of a total of 191 organizations from Central Region of Romania, with certified quality management system according to ISO 9001. The research was conducted during six months, the companies accessing the online questionnaire, specially created by the author, data being retrieved and analyzed by one of the most powerful and popular software, SPSS 17.0. The paper highlights some important factors that influence the operation of quality systems implemented in the SMEs of this region in order to increase their competitiveness.

  3. ‘Reconstructing Centrality and Peripherality in the North Denmark Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Jens Kaae

    2013-01-01

    be labelled as peripheral, as this would imply peripherality independently of scalar perspective and across all defining aspects. Beyond definitional issues, this situation makes it appropriate to wonder, how a multiscalar and multimodal reading of place can contribute to a more nuanced understanding......Peripherality and centrality, as labels attached to places, have become fluent denominators. Their use is contingent upon the applied scalar perspective and the specific spatial features of place that are taken into consideration. If a multiscalar and multimodal perspective is applied, it has...... the implication that a locality can be considered simultaneously central and peripheral. In definitional terms, then, absolute delineations of centres and peripheries cannot be meaningfully carried out, unless the issue at stake is of a very specific and bounded nature. Rarely can a locality as a whole...

  4. The Relation between Stellar and Dynamical Surface Densities in the Central Regions of Disk Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Federico; McGaugh, Stacy S.; Schombert, James M.; Pawlowski, Marcel S.

    2016-08-01

    We use the Spitzer Photometry and Accurate Rotation Curves database to study the relation between the central surface density of stars {{{Σ }}}\\star (0) and dynamical mass {{{Σ }}}{{dyn}}(0) in 135 disk galaxies (S0 to dIrr). We find that {{{Σ }}}{{dyn}}(0) correlates tightly with {{{Σ }}}\\star (0) over 4 dex. This central density relation can be described by a double power law. High surface brightness galaxies are consistent with a 1:1 relation, suggesting that they are self-gravitating and baryon dominated in the inner parts. Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies systematically deviate from the 1:1 line, indicating that the dark matter contribution progressively increases but remains tightly coupled to the stellar one. The observed scatter is small (˜0.2 dex) and largely driven by observational uncertainties. The residuals show no correlations with other galaxy properties like stellar mass, size, or gas fraction.

  5. The Relation between Stellar and Dynamical Surface Densities in the Central Regions of Disk Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lelli, Federico; Schombert, James M; Pawlowski, Marcel S

    2016-01-01

    We use the SPARC (Spitzer Photometry & Accurate Rotation Curves) database to study the relation between the central surface density of stars Sstar and dynamical mass Sdyn in 135 disk galaxies (S0 to dIrr). We find that Sdyn correlates tightly with Sstar over 4 dex. This central density relation can be described by a double power law. High surface brightness galaxies are consistent with a 1:1 relation, suggesting that they are self-gravitating and baryon dominated in the inner parts. Low surface brightness galaxies systematically deviate from the 1:1 line, indicating that the dark matter contribution progressively increases but remains tightly coupled to the stellar one. The observed scatter is small (~0.2 dex) and largely driven by observational uncertainties. The residuals show no correlations with other galaxy properties like stellar mass, size, or gas fraction.

  6. Improving Regional Security in Central America: Military Engagement Options for Nicaragua

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-12-01

    peaceful resolution. This group was made up of foreign ministers from Mexico , Venezuela, Colombia, and Panama and was named after Contadora Island, the...from: Martine, George and Guzman, Jose Miguel, UNFPA Country Support Team, Mexico Source: OPS/OMS (1994); CEPAL (1999); OPS-Nicaragua (http...State. Isacson, Adam 1998. Seguridad Cooperativa en Centroamérica. (Cooperative Security in Central America) Diálogo Centro-americano No. 35

  7. Alternatives for Mobilizing Soviet Central Asian Labor: Outmigration and Regional Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    settle in Central Asian cities will be at a competive disadvantage with inmigrant Europeans because of their underdeveloped technical skills, lower...reclassification for 16 percent, and net inmigration for 32 percent. All but 10 percent of this inmigration to Uzbek urban areas originated outside of...Uzbekistan, however. In Tadzhikistan and Kirgizia, net inmigration from outside the republics actually exceeded rural-urban movement within the republics

  8. Advective heat transport associated with regional Earth degassing in central Apennine (Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiodini, G.; Cardellini, C.; Caliro, S.; Chiarabba, C.; Frondini, F.

    2013-07-01

    In this work we show that the main springs of the central Apennine transport a total amount of heat of ˜2.2×109 J s-1. Most of this heat (57%) is the result of geothermal warming while the remaining 43% is due to gravitational potential energy dissipation. This result indicates that a large area of the central Apennines is very hot with heat flux values >300 mW m-2. These values are higher than those measured in the magmatic and famously geothermal provinces of Tuscany and Latium and about 1/3 of the total heat discharged at Yellowstone. This finding is surprising because the central Apennines have been thought to be a relatively cold area. Translated by CO2 rich fluids, this heat anomaly suggests the existence of a thermal source such as a large magmatic intrusion at depth. Recent tomographic images of the area support the presence of such an intrusion visible as a broad negative velocity anomaly in seismic waves. Our results indicate that the thermal regime of tectonically active areas of the Earth, where meteoric waters infiltrate and deeply circulate, should be revised on the basis of mass and energy balances of the groundwater systems.

  9. Isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Murillo, Ricardo; Esquivel-Hernández, Germain; Sáenz-Rosales, Oscar; Piedra-Marín, Gilberto; Fonseca-Sánchez, Alicia; Madrigal-Solís, Helga; Ulloa-Chaverri, Franz; Rojas-Jiménez, Luis D; Vargas-Víquez, José A

    2017-03-01

    The linkage between precipitation and recharge is still poorly understood in the Central America region. This study focuses on stable isotopic composition in precipitation and groundwater in the northern mountainous region of the Central Valley of Costa Rica. During the dry season, rainfall samples corresponded to enriched events with high deuterium excess. By mid-May, the Intertropical Convergence Zone poses over Costa Rica resulting in a depletion of (18)O/(16)O and (2)H/H ratios. A parsimonious four-variable regression model (r(2 )= 0.52) was able to predict daily δ(18)O in precipitation. Air mass back trajectories indicated a combination of Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean sources, which is clearly depicted in groundwater isoscape. Aquifers relying on Pacific-originated recharge exhibited a more depleted pattern, whereas recharge areas relying on Caribbean parental moisture showed an enrichment trend. These results can be used to enhance modelling efforts in Central America where scarcity of long-term data limits water resources management plans.

  10. The Regional Centralization of Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring and Its Impact on Neonatal Acidemia and the Cesarean Birth Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaori Michikata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The improvement of the accuracy of fetal heart rate (FHR pattern interpretation to improve perinatal outcomes remains an elusive challenge. We examined the impact of an FHR centralization system on the incidence of neonatal acidemia and cesarean births. Methods. We performed a regional, population-based, before-and-after study of 9,139 deliveries over a 3-year period. The chi-squared test was used for the statistical analysis. Results. The before-and-after study showed no difference in the rates of acidemia, cesarean births, or perinatal death in the whole population. A subgroup analysis using the 4 hospitals in which an FHR centralization system was continuously connected (compliant group and 3 hospitals in which the FHR centralization system was connected on demand (noncompliant group showed that the incidence acidemia was significantly decreased (from 0.47% to 0.11% without a corresponding increase in the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns in the compliant group. Although there was no difference in the incidence of nonreassuring FHR patterns in the noncompliant group, the total cesarean birth rate was significantly higher than that in the compliant group. Conclusion. The continuous FHR centralization system, in which specialists help to interpret results and decide clinical actions, was beneficial in reducing the incidence of neonatal acidemia (pH < 7.1 without increasing the cesarean birth rate due to nonreassuring FHR patterns.

  11. DETECTION OF PAENIBACILLUS LARVAE SPORES IN HONEY SAMPLES FROM BEEKEEPERS OF THE CENTRAL REGION OF ALGERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjlane Noureddine

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The American foulbrood in one of the most serious diseases that may affect brood of larvae and pupae stages, which cause economic losses and biological hazards in a large beekeeping sector in several countries across the world in general and Algeria in particular. The causative agent of this disease is a bacterium called Paenibacillus larvae that target bees Apis mellifera the latter are often present in honey.The aim of this project is studying the spread of this disease in the northern region of Algeria through the analysis of honey obtained from these areas. Microbiological, microscopic and biochemical methods were used in this study. The results obtained have shown that the prevalence rate varies from region to region, several factors may explain this variation in the prevalence of the disease. The average infection rate for all regions is 32%. To prevent the spread of this disease in Algeria must be taken is mandatory and means of prevention into account.

  12. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central Himalayas and the adjoining region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madan Mohan Rout; Josodhir Das; Kamal; Ranjit Das

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from different sources. In the present study, an improved magnitude conversion technique has been used to convert different magnitude scales to moment magnitude scale. The study area and its adjoining region have been divided into 22 seismogenic zones based upon the geology, tectonics, and seismicity including source mechanism relevant to the region. Region specific attenuation equations have been used for seismic hazard assessment. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion is estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level. For the 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.06 to 0.36 g and 0.11 to 0.65 g, respectively considering varying -value. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) and western parts of Nepal.

  13. Escenario de Sismo y Tsunami en el Borde Occidental del la Region Central del Peru.

    OpenAIRE

    Tavera, Hernando

    2014-01-01

    En el presente informe se analiza la información publicada sobre la ocurrencia de grandes sismos en el Perú, con el propósito de consolidar el posible escenario sísmico y de tsunami que pueda presentarse en el borde occidental de la región central del Perú y que afectaría a la ciudad de Lima Metropolitana y a la provincia Constitucional del Callao. Se considera como fuentes primarias los trabajos de investigación realizados por Tavera y Bernal (2005) “Distribución espacial de á...

  14. Regional gravity and magnetic studies over the continental margin of the Central West Coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    SubbaRaju, L.V.; KameshRaju, K.A.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Rao, D.G.

    Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa 403 004, India Abstract Gravity studies over the continental margin of the central west coast of India show a sediment thickness of 2-3 km on the shelf associated with deeper hoest and graben structures, of 6 km... sequence ranges from Palaeocene to Recent. Stratigraphy as obtained from the explor atory wells BH-I, DCS-IA, HI2-1, and R6-110cated in the Bombay offshore basin is shown in Figure 2. Figure 3 depicts the seismogeological section of the Bombay offshore...

  15. Derechos emergentes en regiones emergentes: el derecho al agua potable y al saneamiento en Asia Central

    OpenAIRE

    Saura Estapà, Jaume

    2011-01-01

    El derecho humano al agua potable y al saneamiento viene afirmándose de manera cada vez más rotunda en el plano internacional. Supone la capacidad de cada ser humano de acceder a agua limpia y segura de manera asequible, y la obligación correlativa de los Estados de garantizar y proteger este derecho. Los Estados de Asia Central disponen de agua suficiente para garantizar este derecho a todos sus ciudadanos, pero la mala gestión y el despilfarro hace que algunas zonas, sobre todo rurales, ten...

  16. Assessment of Human Organism's Intake of Trace Elements from Staple Foodstuffs in Central Region of Russia

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, A V; Okina, O I; Frontasyeva, M A; Gundorina, S F

    2004-01-01

    The trace element content of raw materials and foodstuffs produced from them, typical for basket of goods of residents of Central Russia, was examined. An excess of permissible levels of some trace elements was observed. This phenomenon is explained in terms of different factors such as pollution of the environment, industrial technologies, biological peculiarities of raw materials of animal and vegetable origin. An assessment of human organism's trace element intake of different food allowances is given. This study was undertaken in the framework of IAEA CRP (Contract No. 11927/R2).

  17. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  18. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  19. System of the ophthalmologic help premature children with retinopathy of prematurity in the Central region of Russia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tereshchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Functional results analysis of ophthalmologic help system for premature infants, which includes the full cycle of early revelation, treatment and regular medical check-up activities for patients with ROP in Central region of Russia.Methods: Fields for ROP screening were performed in premature infants medical care units by clinic specialists. Infants with re- vealed ROP were directed to Kaluga Branch of IRtC «Eye Microsurgery» for detailed diagnostic examination and subsequent treatment and monitoring.Results: In 2003-2011 454 fields in Kaluga, tula, Bryansk, and Orel regions were made. 8861 infants were examined. ROP was found in 1834 infants (20.7%. 823 different interventions for infants with active ROP were performed: 737 retinal lasercoagulations, 3-ports vitrectomy — 72, lensvitrectomy — 14. the total efficacy of the treatment was 92.9%.Conclusion: the ophthalmologic help system for premature infants in Central region of Russia combines all directions from de-tailed diagnostic to hich-technology treatment. It allows to reproduce one all over the Russian Federation territory.

  20. The Great 2006 and 2007 Kuril Earthquakes, Forearc Segmentation and Seismic Activity of the Central Kuril Islands Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranov, B. V.; Ivashchenko, A. I.; Dozorova, K. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present a structural study of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, where the great megathrust tsunamigenic earthquake ( M w 8.3) occurred on November 15, 2006. Based on new bathymetry and seismic profiles obtained during two research cruises of R/V Akademik Lavrentiev in 2005 and 2006, ten crustal segments with along-arc length ranging from 30 to 100 km, separated by NS- and NW-trending transcurrent faults were identified within the forearc region. The transcurrent faults may serve as barriers impeding stress transfer between the neighboring segments, so that stress accumulated within separate forearc segments is usually released by earthquakes of moderate-to-strong magnitudes. However, the great November 15, 2006 earthquake ruptured seven of the crustal segments probably following a 226-year gap since the last great earthquake in 1780. The geographic extent of earthquake rupture zones, aftershock areas and earthquake clusters correlate well with forearc crustal segments identified using the geophysical data. Based on segmented structure of the Central Kuril Islands forearc region, we consider and discuss three scenarios of a great earthquake occurrence within this area. Although the margin is segmented, we suggest that a rupture could occupy the entire seismic gap with a total length of about 500 km. In such a case, the earthquake magnitude M w might exceed 8.5, and such an event might generate tsunami waves significantly exceeding in height to those produced by the great 2006-2007 Kuril earthquakes.

  1. A Dynamical N-body Model for the Central Region of $\\omega$ Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Jalali, B; Kissler-Patig, M; Gebhardt, K; Noyola, E; Lützgendorf, N; de Zeeuw, P T

    2011-01-01

    Supermassive black holes (SMBHs) are fundamental keys to understand the formation and evolution of their host galaxies. However, the formation and growth of SMBHs are not yet well understood. One of the proposed formation scenarios is the growth of SMBHs from seed intermediate-mass black holes (IMBHs, 10^2 to 10^5 M_{\\odot}) formed in star clusters. In this context, and also with respect to the low mass end of the M-sigma relation for galaxies, globular clusters are in a mass range that make them ideal systems to look for IMBHs. Among Galactic star clusters, the massive cluster $\\omega$ Centauri is a special target due to its central high velocity dispersion and also its multiple stellar populations. We study the central structure and dynamics of the star cluster $\\omega$ Centauri to examine whether an IMBH is necessary to explain the observed velocity dispersion and surface brightness profiles. We perform direct N-body simulations to follow the dynamical evolution of $\\omega$ Centauri. The simulations are co...

  2. Determining the type of orbits in the central regions of barred galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Zotos, Euaggelos E

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple dynamical model which consists of a harmonic oscillator and a spherical component, in order to investigate the regular or chaotic character of orbits in a barred galaxy with a central spherically symmetric nucleus. Our aim is to explore how the basic parameters of the galactic system influence the nature of orbits, by computing in each case the percentage of chaotic orbits, as well as the percentages of different types of regular orbits. We also give emphasis to the types of regular orbits that support either the formation of nuclear rings or the barred structure of the galaxy. We provide evidence that the traditional x1 orbital family does not always dominate in barred galaxy models since we found several other types of resonant orbits which can also support the barred structure. We also found that sparse enough nuclei, fast rotating bars and high energy models can support the galactic bars. On the other hand, weak bars, dense central nuclei, slowly rotating bars and low energy models favor t...

  3. The Profile and Work of Officials in Central and Regional Administration Compared: The Case of the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veselý Arnošt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the profiles and work tasks of officials in central and regional administration in the Czech Republic. It analyzes data from surveys among the officials of eleven ministries in 2013 (N = 1351 and fourteen regional offices in 2012 (N = 783. First, the profile of ministerial officials (MOs is compared with that of regional-level officials (ROs. In accordance with our hypotheses, on average it is found that MOs are, when compared to ROs, older, more educated and have spent more time in civil service. Th ere is also a higher proportion of men in ministries than in regional offices. On the other hand, ministerial work seems to be affected by higher levels of fluctuation than jobs in the regional offices. Second, we compare work tasks of MOs and ROs. As expected, MOs are more involved in analytical tasks and research than ROs. In contrast, ROs are more likely to implement policies or programs, direct and monitor programs or lower-level bodies, provide advice for political bodies of the region, negotiate with elected politicians, communicate with citizens and provide methodological guidance, train or lecture. Contrary to our theoretical expectations, we found a strong positive correlation between analytical and brokering tasks (communication and negotiation. We thus reject the hypothesis that analytical tasks are at odds with negotiating and communication. Instead, it is concluded that most officials are multitaskers, and it is especially so in regional offices. It is hypothesized that this might be caused by the fact that regional offices are smaller and have a lower capacity to specialize

  4. Climate change impacts on water availability: developing regional scenarios for agriculture of the Former Soviet Union countries of Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirilenko, A.; Dronin, N.

    2010-12-01

    Water is the major factor, limiting agriculture of the five Former Soviet Union (FSU) of Central Asia. Elevated topography prevents moist and warm air from the Atlantic and Indian Oceans from entering the region.With exception of Kazakhstan, agriculture is generally restricted to oases and irrigated lands along the major rivers and canals. Availability of water for irrigation is the major factor constraining agriculture in the region, and conflicts over water are not infrequent. The current water crisis in the region is largely due to human activity; however the region is also strongly impacted by the climate. In multiple locations, planned and autonomous adaptations to climate change have already resulted in changes in agriculture, such as a dramatic increase in irrigation, or shift in crops towards the ones better suited for warmer and dryer climate; however, it is hard to differentiate between the effects of overall management improvement and the avoidance of climate-related losses. Climate change will contribute to water problems, escalating irrigation demand during the drought period, and increasing water loss with evaporation. The future of the countries of the Aral Sea basin then depends on both the regional scenario of water management policy and a global scenario of climate change, and is integrated with global socioeconomic scenarios. We formulate a set of regional policy scenarios (“Business as Usual”, “Falling Behind” and “Closing the Gap”) and demonstrate how each of them corresponds to IPCC SRES scenarios, the latter used as an input to the General Circulation Models (GCMs). Then we discuss the relative effectiveness of the introduced scenarios for mitigating water problems in the region, taking into account the adaptation through changing water demand for agriculture. Finally, we introduce the results of multimodel analysis of GCM climate projections, especially in relation to the change in precipitation and frequency of droughts, and

  5. Population structure of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca Valley region of Central Mexico

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grünwald, N.J.; Flier, W.G.; Sturbaum, A.K.; Garay-Serrano, E.; Bosch, van den G.B.M.; Smart, C.D.; Matuszak, J.M.; Turkensteen, L.J.; Fry, W.E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that the population of Phytophthora infestans in the Toluca valley region is genetically differentiated according to habitat. Isolates were sampled in three habitats from (i) wild Solanum spp. (WILD), (ii) land-race varieties in low-input production systems (RURAL), and (iii

  6. Determination of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea from strawberry in the Central Coast Region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted in 2013 to investigate the occurrence of fungicide resistance in Botrytis cinerea populations in California’s northern strawberry growing region; specifically in Watsonville and Salinas. In mid-May, 59 samples consisting of a single diseased fruit or plant part with gray mold s...

  7. Towards the development of a regional electricity market in Central Africa: Issues and Challenges; Vers la realisation d'un marche regional de l'electricite en Afrique Centrale: Enjeux et defies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veilleux, Rheaume; Mbadinga, David; Kitoko Senghi, Laurent

    2010-09-15

    This article gives a short description of the African continent. It then describes the 5 energy pools covering 54 countries: COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. More specifically, the article looks at the main strategies and methods to be put in place in order to implement the electricity market, in particular the regional market of Central Africa. The current interconnecting projects and studies between different African countries, made by RSW international in collaboration with different partners, are presented, and in a more comprehensive way, the one related to the Interconnexion of the electrical networks of the member countries of the ECCAS. [French] Cet article presente une courte description du continent africain. Par la suite, on decrit les 5 pools energetiques couvrant les 54 pays : COMELEC, SAPP, WAPP, PEAC, EAPP. Plus specifiquement, on aborde les principales strategies et moyens a mettre en place pour implanter et developper le marche de l'electricite, plus particulierement le marche regional de l'Afrique centrale. Les projets ou etudes d'interconnexion en cours entre differents pays de l'Afrique, realises par RSW International de concert avec differents partenaires, sont presentes et, de facon plus exhaustive, celle relative au projet de l'Interconnexion des Reseaux Electriques des Pays Membres de la CEEAC.

  8. Climate change and the future of natural disturbances in the central hardwood region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, Virginia H [ORNL; Hughes, M. Joseph [University of Tennessee (UT); Hayes, Daniel J [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The spatial patterns and ecological processes of the southeastern upland hardwood forests have evolved to reflect past climatic conditions and natural disturbance regimes. Changes in climate can lead to disturbances that exceed their natural range of variation, and the impacts of these changes will depend on the vulnerability or resiliency of these ecosystems. Global Circulation Models generally project annual increases in temperature across the southeastern United States over the coming decades, but changes in precipitation are less consistent. Even more unclear is how climate change might affect future trends in the severity and frequency of natural disturbances, such as severe storms, fires, droughts, floods, and insect outbreaks. Here, we use a time-series satellite data record to map the spatial pattern and severity of broad classes of natural disturbances the southeast region. The data derived from this map allow analysis of regional-scale trends in natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the region over the last three decades. Throughout the region, between 5% and 25% of forest land is affected by some sort of disturbance each year since 1985. The time series reveals periodic droughts that themselves are widespread and of low severity but are associated with more localized, high-severity disturbances such as fire and insect outbreaks. The map also reveals extensive anthropogenic disturbance across the region in the form of forest conversion related to resource extraction and urban and residential development. We discuss how changes in climate and disturbance regimes might affect southeastern forests in the future via altering the exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity of these ecosystems. Changes in climate are highly likely to expose southeastern forests to more frequent and severe disturbances, but ultimately how vulnerable or resilient southeastern forests are to these changes will depend on their sensitivity and capacity to adapt to these novel

  9. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  10. Sensitization study of dogs with atopic dermatitis in the central region of Rio Grande do Sul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.T. Pereira

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Canine atopic dermatitis (CAD is a common dermatosis, defined as a genetic-related disease which predisposes to skin inflammation and pruritus, associated to a IgE-specific response in most of cases. Clinical diagnosis may be later complemented by skin allergy and/or serological tests. The aim of these tests is to identify possible allergens in order to enable the clinicians to select candidate antigens for allergen specific immunotherapy. In the present study 58 CAD positive animals were tested. All were submitted to the intradermal test (IDT and screened for the presence of antibodies against different antigens using ELISA. The obtained results show a high prevalence of sensitization among the tested dogs to house dust mites and to pollen ofC. dactylon. With this work it was possible to identify the main allergens involved in immunological response of dogs with CAD living in central area of Rio Grande do Sul.

  11. Research on Urban Agricultural Scientific Development Path of the Construction of Central Economic Region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dehui; WU

    2014-01-01

    The significance of developing characteristic agriculture in Central Economic Zone was elaborated from four aspects of three modernizations coordinated development,guaranteeing city supply of agricultural products,creating more jobs for farmers,making agriculture more significant. The existing problems in urban agriculture development were analyzed,such as understanding deviation,extensive development,market confusion,short industrial chain,low degree of specialization,harsh environment. Several corresponding countermeasures were put forward,including giving full play to the role of government’s macro-control; perfecting compensation mechanism of urban agriculture,developing characteristic agriculture,promoting deep processing of agricultural products; advancing scientific innovation,improving production efficiency;operating sustainable ecological agricultural development road; relying on traffic advantage,promoting industrialization operation and urban agricultural logistics development.

  12. Air Pollution Studies in Central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl Regions) Using the Moss Biomonitoring Technique and Neutron Activation Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Ermakova, E V; Pavlov, S S; Povtoreiko, E A; Steinnes, E; Cheremisina, Ye N

    2003-01-01

    Data of 34 elements, including heavy metals, halogens, rare-earth elements, U, and Th in 140 moss samples, collected in central Russia (Tver and Yaroslavl regions and the northern part of Moscow Region) in 2000-2002, are presented. Factor analysis with VARIMAX rotation was applied to identify possible sources of the elements determined in the mosses. The seven resulting factors represent crust, vegetation and anthropogenic components in the moss. Some of the factors were interpreted as being associated with ferrous smelters (Fe, Zn, Sb, Ta); combination of non-ferrous smelters and other industries (Mn, Co, Mo, Cr, Ni, W); an oil-refining plant, and oil combustion at the thermal power plant (V, Ni). The geographical distribution patterns of the factor scores are also presented. The dependency equations of elemental content in mosses versus distance from the source are derived.

  13. Rock Art of the Howz-Māhy Region in Central Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Karimi Mobarakabadi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Howz-Māhy is a region located in the center of Iran, where a considerable number of petroglyphs can be found in two sites, at Ghārā-Tepe I and II. Ghārā-Tepe I is the largest site and includes a variety of depictions, especially geometric markings. In addition, various depictions can be found throughout the region situated on isolated cliffs and stones on the edge of an ancient pool. The most common image is of ibexes. There are also several other kinds of representations that show animals, humans, geometric markings, and so on, which can be found on panels. Despite difficulties for dating the petroglyphs of Iran, microerosion analysis should be applicable for dating the engravings of Howz-Māhy, especially in Ghārā-Tepe I.

  14. Regional stratigraphy and subsurface geology of Cenozoic deposits, Gulf Coastal Plain, south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosman, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    The Gulf Coast Regional Aquifer-System Analysis includes all major aquifer systems in Cenozoic deposits in the Gulf Coastal Plain in the States of Arkansas, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri, Tennessee, Texas, and small areas in Alabama and Florida (western panhandle area), an area of about 290,000 square miles. The Gulf Coast geosyncline and the Mississippi embayment were the major depocenters for the Tertiary and Quaternary deposits that form the framework for the aquifer systems.

  15. Regionalization of local geomorphometric derivations for geological mapping in the sedimentary domain of central Amazônia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valeriano, Márcio de Morisson; Rossetti, Dilce de Fátima

    2017-03-01

    This paper reports procedures to prepare locally derived geomorphometric data for geological mapping at regional scale in central Amazônia. The size of the study area, approximately 1.5 million km2, and the prevailing flat topography of the targeted environment were the constraints motivating the aims, at spatial and numerical synthesis of the detailed geomorphometric information derived from SRTM DEM. The developed approach consisted in assigning single (average) values to terrain patches, to represent the regional distribution of pixel-based geomorphometric information (slope, profile curvature and relative relief). In analogy to the nature of sedimentary packs, patches were established as contiguous elevation strata, constructed through a procedure combining segmentation, filterings and range compressions. For slope only, pre-processing of locally derived data with median filtering effectively avoided the typical flattening of the regionalized results due to input distribution characteristics. Profile curvature was transformed into absolute values and thus a different meaning from the original (pixel) variable was considered in the interpretation, also avoiding the compensation of original values (positive and negative) tending to zero value when averaged through a regionally flat extension. Examinations near major river valleys showed patched elevation to depict alluvial terraces. In the interfluves and floodplains, contrasting patterns in the averaged variables among patches of similar elevations allowed the recognition of important relief features. In addition to the reduction of the distribution ranges, the correlation between regionalized geomorphometric variables was higher than observed in the originally local data, due to the thematic synthesis following regionalization. Depth of dissection, claimed to be related to the relative age of sedimentary units, was the main factor to explain the overall variations of the geomorphometric results. The developed

  16. SOCIAL, ECONOMIC AND ACCOUNTING SUMMARY OF THE GREEK AGRICULTURAL SECTOR 1950-2010: CENTRAL GREECE REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michail Th. PAPAILIAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Usually, the analysis of the economic and social development of a country or a region can be achieved either by using macroeconomic theories, or through a microeconomic approach (Sakellaropoulos, 1993. The innovation of this paper lies in the use of accounting techniques for capturing the relevant developments and in the fact that there are no similar studies in the Greek bibliography, except some fragmentary approaches of the 1950’s (Euelpides, 1953. Specifically, the objective of this article is the presentation of the social and economic development in a major region in Greece with the use of accounting statements. For this purpose the balance sheets and the income statements of the specific region were estimated per decade throughout the postwar period and the social-economic facts are tried to associate with the figures.The article is structured in three parts. The first refers to the methodology of the research. In the second, balance sheets and profit/loss accounts are presented in detail with the use of financial statement analysis methods and are attempted to correlate with the social-economic incidents. In the third the findings are evaluated.

  17. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other

  18. There's no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central pacific are regionally derived and independent events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timmers, Molly A; Bird, Christopher E; Skillings, Derek J; Smouse, Peter E; Toonen, Robert J

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population) are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions). Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km). Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms.

  19. There's no place like home: crown-of-thorns outbreaks in the central pacific are regionally derived and independent events.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly A Timmers

    Full Text Available One of the most significant biological disturbances on a tropical coral reef is a population outbreak of the fecund, corallivorous crown-of-thorns sea star, Acanthaster planci. Although the factors that trigger an initial outbreak may vary, successive outbreaks within and across regions are assumed to spread via the planktonic larvae released from a primary outbreak. This secondary outbreak hypothesis is predominantly based on the high dispersal potential of A. planci and the assertion that outbreak populations (a rogue subset of the larger population are genetically more similar to each other than they are to low-density non-outbreak populations. Here we use molecular techniques to evaluate the spatial scale at which A. planci outbreaks can propagate via larval dispersal in the central Pacific Ocean by inferring the location and severity of gene flow restrictions from the analysis of mtDNA control region sequence (656 specimens, 17 non-outbreak and six outbreak locations, six archipelagos, and three regions. Substantial regional, archipelagic, and subarchipelagic-scale genetic structuring of A. planci populations indicate that larvae rarely realize their dispersal potential and outbreaks in the central Pacific do not spread across the expanses of open ocean. On a finer scale, genetic partitioning was detected within two of three islands with multiple sampling sites. The finest spatial structure was detected at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, between the lagoon and forereef habitats (<10 km. Despite using a genetic marker capable of revealing subtle partitioning, we found no evidence that outbreaks were a rogue genetic subset of a greater population. Overall, outbreaks that occur at similar times across population partitions are genetically independent and likely due to nutrient inputs and similar climatic and ecological conditions that conspire to fuel plankton blooms.

  20. Agroecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in Chernozems at the Central Chernozemic Region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, Sergey; Vasenev, Ivan

    2015-04-01

    The ecological evaluation of the principal microelements content in soil cover of the agroecosystems is the important issue of the regional agroecological monitoring which results are actively used for landscape-adaptive land-use design with rational, environmental friendly fertilizing systems. The virgin forest-steppe plots without anthropogenous impacts are usually used as background data of microelements content in dominated zonal Chernozems. The average background content of zinc, copper, cobalt and manganese mobile forms (extracted with рН 4,8 buffer) in 10-20 cm layer of virgin Leached Chernozem at the federal reserve «Belogorye» (monitoring site «Jamskaya Steppe») are accordingly 0.75, 0.19, 0.14 and 12.8 mg/kg. According to RF actual evaluation scale for arable soils the background microelements content in the investigated virgin Chernozems have been corresponded to low level for mobile forms of zinc, copper and cobalt, and to middle level - for manganese ones that essentially limits their natural fertility. The results of carried out in the Belgorod Region in 2010-2014 agroecological monitoring have shown, that most of the arable soils are characterized by low content of the mobile forms of manganese (60 %) zinc (99,2 % of total area), cobalt (94,1 %) and copper (100 %) too that became a serious problem for intensive farming active development in the region. During active agroecological monitoring period since 1990-1994 to 2010-2014 the average regional contents of the principal microelements mobile forms have been essentially decreased: from 1,44 to 0,53 mg/kg in case of zinc, from 17,5 to 9,2 mg/kg in case of manganese - due to low level of micronutrient fertilizers and manure application. It determined the current priority in the agrochemical service development in the region with new DSS-supported agrotechnologies design and essentially increased level of profitable application of traditional and non-traditional organic and mineral

  1. A Comparative Study of the Perceptions of End Users in the Eastern, Western, Central, Southern and Northern Regions of Saudi Arabia About Email Spam and Dealing with it

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alkahtani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of a survey of email users in different regions of Saudi Arabia about email SPAM. The survey investigated the nature of email SPAM, how email users in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern dealt with it, and the efforts made to combat it. It also investigated the effectiveness of existing Anti-SPAM filters in detecting Arabic and English email SPAM. 1,500 participants located in the eastern, western, central, southern and northern regions of Saudi Arabia were surveyed and completed surveys were collected from 1,020 of the participants. The results showed that there were different definitions for email SPAM based on different users’ opinions in Saudi Arabia. The results showed that the participants in the central and western regions were more aware of SPAM than the participants in other regions. The results revealed that the volume of email SPAM was different from region to another and the volume of SPAM received by the participants in the northern and central regions was larger than that received in other regions. The results indicated that the majority of email SPAM received by the participants in different regions was written in English. The results showed that the most common type of email SPAM received in Arabic was emails related to forums and in English was phishing and fraud, and business advertisements. The results also showed that a few participants in all regions responded to SPAM and the average of the participants who responded to SPAM was larger in the southern region than other regions. The results showed that most of the participants were not aware of Anti-SPAM programs and the participants in the central region were more aware of Anti-SPAM programs than the participants in other regions. The results showed that the participants in all regions estimated that the existing Anti-SPAM programs were more effective in detecting English SPAM than Arabic SPAM. The results showed that most

  2. Complement selectively elicits glutamate release from nerve endings in different regions of mammal central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merega, Elisa; Di Prisco, Silvia; Lanfranco, Massimiliano; Severi, Paolo; Pittaluga, Anna

    2014-05-01

    Our study was aimed at investigating whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could, in addition to its well-documented post-synaptic activity, also pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in central nervous system (CNS). Complement (dilution 1 : 10 to 1 : 10000) elicited the release of preloaded [(3) H]-d-aspartate ([(3) H]d-ASP) and endogenous glutamate from mouse cortical synaptosomes in a dilution-dependent manner. It also evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse hippocampal, cerebellar, and spinal cord synaptosomes, as well as from rat and human cortical nerve endings, but left unaltered the release of GABA, [(3) H]noradrenaline or [(3) H]acetylcholine. Lowering external Na(+) (from 140 to 40 mM) or Ca(2+) (from 1.2 to 0.1 mM) ions prevented the 1 : 300 complement-evoked [(3) H]d-ASP release from mouse cortical synaptosomes. Complement-induced releasing effect was unaltered in synaptosomes entrapped with the Ca(2+) ions chelator 1,2-bis-(2-aminophenoxy) ethane-N,N,N',N', tetra-acetic acid or with pertussis toxin. Nifedipine,/ω-conotoxin GVIA/ω-conotoxin MVIIC mixture as well as the vesicular ATPase blocker bafilomycin A1 were also inefficacious. The excitatory amino acid transporter blocker DL-threo-ß-benzyloxyaspartic acid, on the contrary, reduced the complement-evoked releasing effect in a concentration-dependent manner. We concluded that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings, where it was accounted for by carrier-mediated release. Our observations afford new insights into the molecular events accounting for immune and CNS crosstalk. We investigated whether complement, a complex of soluble and membrane-associated serum proteins, could pre-synaptically affect the release of classic neurotransmitters in the central nervous system (CNS). Our data provide evidence that complement-induced releasing activity is restricted to glutamatergic nerve endings

  3. Determination of potential hazelnut plantation areas based GIS model case study: Samsun city of central Black Sea region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Esra Sarıoğlu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is one of the few countries in the world with a favourable climate for hazelnut production. In addition, it has the leading position in world hazelnut production and export, supplying about 70% of world’s production. However, hazelnut production exceeds the demand and new some regulations have been enacted to create new land use policies in Turkey. By putting into practice regulations restricting hazelnut plantation areas, a more efficient and productive hazelnut harvest policy could be created. Samsun city is one of the most important hazelnut production centres in Central Black Sea region. The main objective of this study is to determine potential hazelnut areas in Samsun city located Central Black Sea Region according to current regulations using geographic information system technique regarding to support hazelnut policy developers and organizations. According to the criteria dictated by government regulations, potential hazelnut area in Samsun province was determined and 86973 ha of the total area is suitable hazelnut area which is about 9.3% of whole province.

  4. Relict nebkhas (pimple mounds) record prolonged late Holocene drought in the forested region of south-central United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seifert, Christopher L.; Cox, Randel Tom; Forman, Steven L.; Foti, Tom L.; Wasklewicz, Thad A.; McColgan, Andrew T.

    2009-05-01

    The origin and significance of pimple mounds (low, elliptical to circular dune-like features found across much of the south-central United States) have been debated for nearly two centuries. We cored pimple mounds at four sites spanning the Ozark Plateau, Arkansas River Valley, and Gulf of Mexico Coastal Plain and found that these mounds have a regionally consistent textural asymmetry such that there is a significant excess of coarse-grained sediment within their northwest flanks. We interpret this asymmetry as evidence of an eolian depositional origin of these mounds and conclude they are relict nebkhas (coppice dunes) deposited during protracted middle to late Holocene droughts. These four mounds yield optically stimulated luminescence ages between 2400 and 700 yr that correlate with well-documented periods of eolian activity and droughts on the southern Great Plains, including the Medieval Climate Anomaly. We conclude vegetation loss during extended droughts led to local eolian deflation and pimple mound deposition. These mounds reflect landscape response to multi-decadal droughts for the south-central U.S. The spatial extent of pimple mounds across this region further underscores the severity and duration of late Holocene droughts, which were significantly greater than historic droughts.

  5. A multi-wavelength view of the central kiloparsec region in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1614

    CERN Document Server

    Herrero-Illana, Rubén; Alonso-Herrero, Almudena; Alberdi, Antxon; Colina, Luis; Efstathiou, Andreas; Hernández-García, Lorena; Miralles-Caballero, Daniel; Väisänen, Petri; Packham, Christopher C; Rajpaul, Vinesh; Zijlstra, Albert A

    2014-01-01

    The Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC1614 hosts a prominent circumnuclear ring of star formation. However, the nature of the dominant emitting mechanism in its central ~100 pc is still under debate. We present sub-arcsecond angular resolution radio, mid-infrared, Pa-alpha, optical, and X-ray observations of NGC1614, aimed at studying in detail both the circumnuclear ring and the nuclear region. The 8.4 GHz continuum emission traced by the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Gemini/T-ReCS 8.7 micron emission, as well as the Pa-alpha line emission, show remarkable morphological similarities within the star-forming ring, suggesting that the underlying emission mechanisms are tightly related. We used an HST/NICMOS Pa-alpha map of similar resolution to our radio maps to disentangle the thermal free-free and non-thermal synchrotron radio emission, from which we obtained the intrinsic synchrotron power-law for each individual region within the central kpc of NGC1614. The radio ring surrounds a relatively faint, steep-spectrum...

  6. The Impact of Implementation of Total quality Management on Plants' Productivity: Evidence from Poultry Processing Plants- Saudi Arabia- Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ELHAJ ABDELMOULA.ELSIDDIG MUSA,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Productivity index as an important business determinant factor for profitability and business performance has been studied in this research versus TQM varibles. The study highlighted out the impacts ofimplementation of TQM on productivity in poultry processing plants in Saudi Arabia – Central Region. The significance of this research represented in exploring the impact of TQM practices on Poultry Processing Plants' productivity. Seven determinants of TQM practices and their impacts were measured against productivity. The determinants included top management commitment, customer focus, rewards & training, continual improvement, cooperation & teamwork, prevention focus and measurement system. Data was collected by using Questionnaire tool. The Questionnaire is of closed ended questions. It consists of three parts, the first part is demographic information about the study sample, the second part about implementation of the total quality management and the third part is to measure productivity. A sample of three poultry processing plants that effectively implemented total quality management were purposively chosen out of eight plants in Saudi Arabia Central Region. The study respondents are purposively chosen which consists quality team, production supervisors, Total quality management and production managers. 73 respondents out 75 participated in the survey. The finding indicated that the TQM practices have positive impact on poultry processing plants' productivity.

  7. Assessment of human exposure to environmental heavy metals in soils and bryophytes of the central region of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Amélia Paula; Patinha, Carla; Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Sousa, António; Figueira, Rui; Sérgio, Cecilia; Novais, Vera

    2010-04-01

    This study intends to identify the spatial patterns of variation for some metals and metalloids, in soils and mosses, in the central region of Portugal. The purposes were: (i) to identify relationships amongst five elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, Cr and As) in three different media (topsoil, bottom soil and bryophytes) and with some site-specific characteristics, using Multiple Correspondence Analysis; (ii) to define spatial patterns of variation for the associations identified by Multiple Correspondence Analysis using Variography and Ordinary Kriging; and (iii) to assess atmospheric deposition as a source of heavy metals to the topsoil by crossing results with the biomonitors. The results indicated relatively low metal concentrations in soils and mosses. Some metal associations and dissociations were identified. The spatial patterns of variation of bottom and topsoil are distinct. There is some evidence that different site-specific characteristics control the spatial distribution of different elements. The areas within the central region of Portugal with a higher vulnerability to metal contamination were identified.

  8. Assessing Drought Impacts on Water Storage using GRACE Satellites and Regional Groundwater Modeling in the Central Valley of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, B. R.; Zhang, Z.; Save, H.; Faunt, C. C.; Dettinger, M. D.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concerns about drought impacts on water resources in California underscores the need to better understand effects of drought on water storage and coping strategies. Here we use a new GRACE mascons solution with high spatial resolution (1 degree) developed at the Univ. of Texas Center for Space Research (CSR) and output from the most recent regional groundwater model developed by the U.S. Geological Survey to evaluate changes in water storage in response to recent droughts. We also extend the analysis of drought impacts on water storage back to the 1980s using modeling and monitoring data. The drought has been intensifying since 2012 with almost 50% of the state and 100% of the Central Valley under exceptional drought in 2015. Total water storage from GRACE data declined sharply during the current drought, similar to the rate of depletion during the previous drought in 2007 - 2009. However, only 45% average recovery between the two droughts results in a much greater cumulative impact of both droughts. The CSR GRACE Mascons data offer unprecedented spatial resolution with no leakage to the oceans and no requirement for signal restoration. Snow and reservoir storage declines contribute to the total water storage depletion estimated by GRACE with the residuals attributed to groundwater storage. Rates of groundwater storage depletion are consistent with the results of regional groundwater modeling in the Central Valley. Traditional approaches to coping with these climate extremes has focused on surface water reservoir storage; however, increasing conjunctive use of surface water and groundwater and storing excess water from wet periods in depleted aquifers is increasing in the Central Valley.

  9. Extinction Risk of Pseudotsuga Menziesii Populations in the Central Region of Mexico: An AHP Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier López-Upton

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Within the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP framework, a hierarchical model was created considering anthropogenic, genetic and ecological criteria and sub-criteria that directly affect Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb. risk of extinction in central Mexico. The sub-criteria values were standardized, weighted, and ordered by importance in a pairwise comparison matrix; the model was mathematically integrated to quantify the degree of extinction risk for each of the 29 populations present in the study area. The results indicate diverse levels of risk for the populations, ranging from very low to very high. Estanzuela, Presa Jaramillo, Peñas Cargadas and Plan del Baile populations have very low risk, with values less than 0.25. On the other hand, Vicente Guerrero, Morán, Minatitlán, La Garita and Tonalapa populations have very high risk (>0.35 because they are heavily influenced by anthropogenic (close to roads and towns, ecological (presence of exotic species and little or no natural regeneration and genetic (presence of mature to overmature trees and geographic isolation factors. In situ conservation activities, prioritizing their implementation in populations at most risk is highly recommended; in addition, germplasm collection for use of assisted gene flow and migration approaches, including artificial reforestation, should be considered in these locations.

  10. Thorium concentrations in the lunar surface. V - Deconvolution of the central highlands region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, A. E.; Etchegaray-Ramirez, M. I.; Haines, E. L.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of thorium in the lunar central highlands measured from orbit by the Apollo 16 gamma-ray spectrometer is subjected to a deconvolution analysis to yield improved spatial resolution and contrast. Use of two overlapping data fields for complete coverage also provides a demonstration of the technique's ability to model concentrations several degrees beyond the data track. Deconvolution reveals an association between Th concentration and the Kant Plateau, Descartes Mountain and Cayley plains surface formations. The Kant Plateau and Descartes Mountains model with Th less than 1 part per million, which is typical of farside highlands but is infrequently seen over any other nearside highland portions of the Apollo 15 and 16 ground tracks. It is noted that, if the Cayley plains are the result of basin-forming impact ejecta, the distribution of Th concentration with longitude supports an origin from the Imbrium basin rather than the Nectaris or Orientale basins. Nectaris basin materials are found to have a Th concentration similar to that of the Descartes Mountains, evidence that the latter may have been emplaced as Nectaris basin impact deposits.

  11. Pertussis in the central-west region of Brazil: one decade study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelita Fernandes Druzian

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In many parts of the world, numerous outbreaks of pertussis have been described despite high vaccination coverage. In this article we report the epidemiological characteristics of pertussis in Brazil using a Surveillance Worksheet. Secondary data of pertussis case investigations reported from January 1999 to December 2008 recorded in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases (SINAN and the Central Laboratory for Public Health (LACEN-MS were utilized. The total of 561 suspected cases were reported and 238 (42.4% of these were confirmed, mainly in children under six months (61.8% and with incomplete immunization (56.3%. Two outbreaks were detected. Mortality rate ranged from 2.56% to 11.11%. The occurrence of outbreaks and the poor performance of cultures for confirming diagnosis are problems which need to be addressed. High vaccination coverage is certainly a good strategy to reduce the number of cases and to reduce the impact of the disease in children younger than six months.

  12. [Regional differences of inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in South Central China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan-yao; Wu, Jin-shui; Zhou, Jiao-gen; Xiao, He-ai; Zhou, Ping

    2015-09-01

    This article analyzed the inputs of organic matter and chemical fertilizer in the cropland of South Central China, i.e., Hunan, Hubei, Guangdong and Guangxi, and then calculated the budgets of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K), based on the data from field investigations and peasant household surveys in the four provinces. The results showed that total amounts of organic matter inputs in the four provinces was ranked as follow: 8993 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 6390 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 5012 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 4630 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong, and average NPK inputs in the four provinces were ranked as follow: 777.5 kg · hm(-2) in Guangxi, 501.6 kg · hm(-2) in Hunan, 486.4 kg · hm(-2) in Hubei, 340.4 kg · hm(-2) in Guangdong. The N and P input surpluses were greatest in Guangxi (67.2% and 99.0% as for N and P, respectively) , followed by Hunan (33.2% and 50.8%), Hubei (11.8% and 11.0%), and Guangdong (7.8% and 30.0%). However, K input was deficient in Hunan, Hubei, and Guangdong (6.6%, 18.7% and 12.4%), but surplus in Guangxi (19.5%).

  13. Bio-optical characterization in an ultra-oligotrophic region: the North central Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Kheireddine, Malika

    2015-04-01

    Until recently, satellite-derived ocean color observations have been the only means of evaluating optical variability of the Red Sea. During a cruise in autumn 2014, we investigated the variability of Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) in the North Central Red Sea (NCRS) with a particular focus on the particulate backscattering coefficient, bbp, and colored dissolved organic matter, CDOM, absorption. To our knowledge, these are some of the measurements of these properties in the Red Sea. The IOPs are derived from the concentration and physical properties of suspended particles in the ocean. They provide a simple description of the influence of these particles on the light within the water column. Bio-optical relationships found for ultra-oligotrophic waters of the six stations sampled significantly depart from the mean standard relationships provided for the global ocean, showing the peculiar character of the Red Sea. These optical anomalies relate to the specific biological and environmental conditions occurring in the Red Sea ecosystem. Specifically, the surface specific phytoplankton absorption coefficients are lower than the values predicted from the global relationships due to a high proportion of relatively large sized phytoplankton. Conversely, bbp values are much higher than the mean standard values for a given chlorophyll-a concentration, Chl a. This presumably results from the influence of highly refractive submicrometer particles of Saharan origin in the surface layer of the water column.

  14. Annual variation of (7)Be soil inventory in a semiarid region of central Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohaiza, F; Velasco, H; Juri Ayub, J; Rizzotto, M; Di Gregorio, D E; Huck, H; Valladares, D L

    2014-04-01

    Reliable information on environmental radionuclides atmospheric entrance, and their distribution along the soil profile, is a necessary condition for using these soil and sediment tracers to investigate key environmental processes. To address this need, (7)Be content in rainwater and the wet deposition in a semiarid region at San Luis Province, Argentina, were studied. Following these researches, in the same region, we have assessed the (7)Be content along a soil profile, during 2.5 years from September 2009 to January 2012. As expected, the specific activity values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). During the investigated period (2009 - beginning 2012) and for all sampled points, the maximum value of the (7)Be specific activity (Bq kg(-1)) was measured at the surface level. A typical decreasing exponential function of (7)Be areal activity (Bq m(-2)) with soil mass depth (kg m(-2)) was found and the key distribution parameters were determined for each month. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m(-2) in August, and the maximum was 438 Bq m(-2) in February. The relaxation mass depth ranges from 2.9 kg m(-2) in March to 1.3 kg m(-2) in August. (7)Be wet deposition can explain in a very significant proportion the (7)Be inventory in soil. During the period of winds in the region (September and October), the (7)Be content in soil was greater than the expected contribution from wet deposition, situation that is compatible with a higher relative contribution of dry deposition at this period of the year.

  15. Geochemistry of surficial sediments along the central southwest coast of India - Seasonal changes in regional distribution

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Balachandran, K.K.; Joseph, T.; Nair, M; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Das, V.K.; Sheeba, P

    .N. Sankaranarayanan, V. Kesavadas and P. Sheeba Kational Institute of Oceanography Regional Centre P.O. Box. 1616 Cochin-682 014. India ABSTRAcr _ BALACHANDRAN. KK.; JOSEPH, T.; NAIR. M.; SAl\\'KARA.,\\,ARAYANAIIo", V.N.: KESAVADAS, V., and SHEER.';, P., 2003...-earth element;; in the fluvial fraction « 4 IJ-m) that also date back to one~ct of sampling during 1981. Inadequacies in all the above stud ies have been their proper addressing of the influence 'If Seasonal Analysis of Sediment Geochemistry 665 Legend: PALL...

  16. Energy Conservation and Development Plan. Southern Tier Central Region, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-07-01

    A summary is presented of the work of 40 volunteers working with regional planners to imagine, assess, and prescribe for the development of local energy resources (wind, solar, biomass, and water) and for conservation of all forms of energy. The plan contains a brief summary of the process the citizens followed in formulating the plan, the plans themselves, and appendices which contain more detailed comments by citizens on the possible consequences of the development of each resource. The areas (Chemung, Steuben, and Schuyler counties) experienced severe natural gas curtailments during the winter of 1976-1977. The formulation of an emergency energy conservation plan is also presented.

  17. Identification of members in the central and outer regions of galaxy clusters

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, Ana Laura

    2012-01-01

    The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M200>=1E14 Msun/h extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a LambdaCDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogues containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 Mpc/h on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r200, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, fc=0.95 (+- 0.03) within 3r200. The contamination increases from f...

  18. The dynamics of supraglacial water storage in the Everest region, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, C. Scott; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2016-07-01

    The dynamics of supraglacial pond development in the Everest region are not well constrained at a glacier scale, despite their known importance for meltwater storage, promoting ablation, and transmitting thermal energy englacially during drainage events. Here, we use fine-resolution (~ 0.5-2 m) satellite imagery to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of 9340 supraglacial ponds across nine glaciers in the Everest region, ~ 2000-2015. Six of our nine study glaciers displayed a net increase in ponded area over their observation periods. However, large inter- and intra-annual changes in ponded area were observed of up to 17% (Khumbu Glacier), and 52% (Ama Dablam) respectively. Additionally, two of the fastest expanding lakes (Spillway and Rongbuk) partially drained over our study period. The Khumbu Glacier is developing a chain of connected ponds in the lower ablation area, which is indicative of a trajectory towards large lake development. We show that use of medium-resolution imagery (e.g. 30 m Landsat) is likely to lead to large classification omissions of supraglacial ponds, on the order of 15-88% of ponded area, and 77-99% of the total number of ponds. Fine-resolution imagery is therefore required if the full spectrum of ponds that exist on the surface of debris-covered glaciers are to be analysed.

  19. Characteristics of Mesospheric Gravity Waves Observed in the Central Region of Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Messias Almeida, Lazaro; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Valentin Bageston, José; Pillat, Valdir G.; Lima, Washington L. C.

    Gravity waves observations were carried out at Palmas (10.16o S, 48.26o W) Brazil, between September 2007 and December 2008, using an all-sky airglow imager to measure the OH emis-sion. The gravity waves were divided in two groups following they morphology as band and ripples type waves. The main characteristics of the band type waves are: horizontal wavelength between 10-35 km; observed period raging from 5 to 25 minutes; observed phase speed between 5-60 m/s. Preferential propagation directions of the bands are northward and southward, show-ing a clear anisotropy. For the ripples the main wave parameters are: horizontal wavelength ranging between 5 and 15 km; observed period mainly distributed between 5 and 15 minutes and horizontal phase velocity from 5 to 30 m/s. The ripples showed the same anisotropy as in the preferential propagation direction as the band type waves. The gravity wave characteristics observed at Palmas were compared with other observations carried out in Brazil, showing simi-lar features. In order to explain the seasonal variation of the wave propagation direction, maps of Outgoing Longwave Radiation (ORL) were used to locate regions with intense deep con-vection (OLR < 220 W.m-2 ) in the lower atmosphere. During summer and autumn the wave sources regions are well correlated with deep convection areas located at west and northwest of Palmas.

  20. Detection of Phytoplasma on Indian Fig (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill in Mexico Central Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gaspar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The Indian fig (a species of prickly pear cactus, has been known as Nopal, comprises an approximate area of 100,000 ha, in plantations used for human consumption. “Pyramids” Indian fig area located in the northeastern State of Mexico has been an important Indian-fig area in the country, with 15810 ha, where a phytoplasma has been consistently present in symptomatic plant. Approach: An unknown symptomatology in the Indian fig (prickly pear cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica Mill was analyzed through grafting and a nested-PCR reaction and graft on healthy plants grown in a greenhouse. Results: The symptoms found, deforming, buds proliferation, thickening and heart-shaping in cladodes, with arrested plant growth and deep yellowing of cladodes, were all attributed to the presence of a phytoplasma given the amplification of a 1200 pb fragment of the 16S rRNA gene using primers R16 F2/R2 and R16F2n/R2 and 80% of phytoplasma transmission efficiency of successful grafts. Conclusion: Although the symptoms observed did not completely match those described for this organism in the region, a 1200 pb fragment was amplified and PCR products restriction analysis leading us to assume that the phytoplasma corresponds to subgroup 16Srll, previously reported for other crops in others world regions.

  1. Evaluation of phase bunching in the central region of a cyclotron by a radial probe with a plastic scintillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyawaki, Nobumasa, E-mail: miyawaki.nobumasa@jaea.go.jp [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Fukuda, Mitsuhiro [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, 10-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kurashima, Satoshi; Kashiwagi, Hirotsugu; Okumura, Susumu [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan); Arakawa, Kazuo [Gunma University Heavy Ion Medical Center, Gunma University, 3-39-22 Showa-Machi, Maebashi, Gunma, 371-8511 (Japan); Kamiya, Tomihiro [Takasaki Advanced Radiation Research Institute, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370-1292 (Japan)

    2014-12-11

    A new technique for evaluating the phase bunching performance in the central region of a cyclotron was developed. A newly-developed radial probe with a 6-mm-wide, 5-mm-height plastic scintillator was applied to analysis of the correlation between the internal beam phase distribution and the initial beam phase, defined by adjusting the relative RF phase of the beam buncher. The phase distribution measurement system, comprising the radial probe equipped with a plastic scintillator and the signal-processing modules, had a sufficiently good time resolution of 45 ps full-width at half-maximum for the phase bunching evaluation. The correlations between the buncher phase and the measured phase distribution for the acceleration harmonic number h=1 and 2 were consistent with the calculation result of the geometric trajectory analysis. For h=1 case of a 107 MeV {sup 4}He{sup 2+} beam, the internal beam phase region spread over 71 RF degrees full-width at quarter-maximum (FWQM) for the acceptable buncher phase region of 48 RF degrees, and no evidence of the phase bunching effect was observed. For h=2 case of a 260 MeV {sup 20}Ne{sup 7+} beam, the internal beam phase region for the acceptable buncher phase region of 59 RF degrees was compressed into 21 RF degrees FWQM. The phase bunching effect was sharply evident for h=2, and contributed to increase of the acceptable beam phase region and the beam intensity per phase width.

  2. Origin of X-Ray and Gamma-Ray Emission from the Galactic Central Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chernyshov, D. O.; Cheng, K.-S.; Dogiel, V. A.; Ko, C. M.

    2017-02-01

    We study a possible connection between different non-thermal emissions from the inner few parsecs of the Galaxy. We analyze the origin of the gamma-ray source 2FGL J1745.6‑2858 (or 3FGL J1745.6‑2859c) in the Galactic Center (GC) and the diffuse hard X-ray component recently found by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, as well as the radio emission and processes of hydrogen ionization from this area. We assume that a source in the GC injected energetic particles with power-law spectrum into the surrounding medium in the past or continues to inject until now. The energetic particles may be protons, electrons, or a combination of both. These particles diffuse to the surrounding medium and interact with gas, magnetic field, and background photons to produce non-thermal emissions. We study the spectral and spatial features of the hard X-ray emission and gamma-ray emission by the particles from the central source. Our goal is to examine whether the hard X-ray and gamma-ray emissions have a common origin. Our estimations show that, in the case of pure hadronic models, the expected flux of hard X-ray emission is too low. Despite the fact that protons can produce a non-zero contribution in gamma-ray emission, it is unlikely that they and their secondary electrons can make a significant contribution in hard X-ray flux. In the case of pure leptonic models, it is possible to reproduce both X-ray and gamma-ray emissions for both transient and continuous supply models. However, in the case of the continuous supply model, the ionization rate of molecular hydrogen may significantly exceed the observed value.

  3. Highways and outposts: economic development and health threats in the central Brazilian Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damacena Giseli N

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Economic development is often evoked as a driving force that has the capacity to improve the social and health conditions of remote areas. However, development projects produce uneven impacts on local communities, according to their different positions within society. This study examines the spatial distribution of three major health threats in the Brazilian Amazon region that may undergo changes through highway construction. Homicide mortality, AIDS incidence and malaria prevalence rates were calculated for 70 municipalities located within the areas of influence of the Cuiabá-Santarém highway (BR-163, i.e. in the western part of the state of Pará state and the northern part of Mato Grosso. Results The municipalities were characterized using social and economic indicators such as gross domestic product (GDP, urban and indigenous populations, and recent migration. The municipalities' connections to the region's main transportation routes (BR-163 and Trans-Amazonian highways, along with the Amazon and Tapajós rivers were identified by tagging the municipalities that have boundaries crossing these routes, using GIS overlay operations. Multiple regression was used to identify the major driving forces and constraints relating to the distribution of health threats. The main explanatory variables for higher malaria prevalence were: proximity to the Trans-Amazonian highway, high proportion of indigenous population and low proportion of migrants. High homicide rates were associated with high proportions of migrants, while connection to the Amazon River played a protective role. AIDS incidence was higher in municipalities with recent increases in GDP and high proportions of urban population. Conclusions Highways induce social and environmental changes and play different roles in spreading and maintaining diseases and health threats. The most remote areas are still protected against violence but are vulnerable to malaria. Rapid

  4. Floristic composition and vegetation analysis in Hail region north of central Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Ghanim, Wafaa M; Hassan, Loutfy M; Galal, Tarek M; Badr, Abdelfattah

    2010-04-01

    In this study, 19 sites representing different habitats in Hail region were regularly visited for two years, in each site 2-5 stands were selected for investigating floristic composition and vegetation types in the area. A total of 124 species representing 34 families were recorded. The family Asteraceae is represented by the highest number of species (21 species) followed by the Poaceae (17 species) and the Brassicaceae (10 species) whereas, 15 families including Acanthaceae, Convolvulaceae, Moraceae, Nyctaginaceae and Primulaceae, are represented by a single species each. Chronological analysis of the vegetation in the area revealed the domination of Saharo-Sindian elements in the wild vegetations and of weedy species in the cultivated plots. Therophytes and chamaephytes are the dominating life forms of the vegetation spectra; therophytes represent 49.20% and chamaephytes represent 29.00% of the total species in the study area. Application of TWINISPAN and DECORANA classification and ordination techniques to the data produced seven vegetation groups. Ruderal habitats comprised two small groups A and F dominated by Phragmites australis and Imperata cylindrical (A), Euphorbia peplus and Sisymbrium irio (F), respectively. Two vegetation groups (B and G) have been recognized in the mountains and slopes dominated by Launaea mucronata, Trigonella stellata (B) and Ficus palmate and Fagonia bruguieri (G). Other two groups (C and E) inhabit the desert and mountainous wadies; these are represented by Gymnocarpos decandrus and Ochradenus baccatus (C) and Senecio glaucus subsp. coronopifolius and Rumex equisetiforme (E). On the other hand, one group (D) inhabits the cultivated plots and is represented by Plantago albicans and Rumex vesicarius, the last group also includes species restricted to the sand dune habitat of the Al-Nafud desert north of Hail city and represented by Calligonum polygonoides and Halyxolon salicornicum. The vegetation analysis indicated the invasion of

  5. VSOP-2 : a space VLBI mission to image central engines and jet launching regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kameno, Seiji; Tsuboi, Masato; Murata, Yasuhiro; Doi, Akihiro; Asaki, Yoshiharu; Mochizuki, Nanako; Hagiwara, Yoshi-Aki; Kino, Motoki; Nagai, Hiroshi; Asada, Keiichi; Inoue, Makoto; Sudou, Hiroshi; Sawada-Satoh, Satoko

    VSOP-2 is a space VLBI program using the spacecraft ASTRO-G to be launched in 2015 by the Japan Aerospace eXploration Agency. The array consisting of a 9-m antenna in orbit and ground radio telescopes offers angular resolutions of 40, 80, and 210 microarcsec at 43, 22, and 8 GHz, respectively. The resolution allows us to image accretion disks and jet launching regions in nearby active galactic nuclei such as M 87. Dual polarization receivers enable full Stokes images at all frequency to illustrate magnetic fields in jets. Phase referencing is capable for astrometry by 60-sec-cycle switching maneuvers. Higher sensitivity than the VSOP (HALCA) is achieved by cooled receivers at 22 and 43 GHz, 1-Gbps wideband downlink, and longer coherent integration. We will introduce the mission overview, observational specifications, and key sciences of the VSOP-2. We call for community's scientific contributions to the mission.

  6. Perinatal outcomes among immigrant mothers over two periods in a region of central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Lallo Domenico

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The number of immigrants has increased in Italy in the last twenty years (7.2% of the Italian population, as have infants of foreign-born parents, but scanty evidence on perinatal outcomes is available. The aim of this study was to investigate whether infants of foreign-born mothers living in Italy have different odds of adverse perinatal outcomes compared to those of native-born mothers, and if such measures changed over two periods. Methods The source of this area-based study was the regional hospital discharge database that records perinatal information on all births in the Lazio region. We analysed 296,739 singleton births born between 1996-1998 and 2006-2008. The exposure variable was the mother's region of birth. We considered five outcomes of perinatal health. We estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs to evaluate the association between mother's region of birth and perinatal outcomes. Results Perinatal outcomes were worse among infants of immigrant compared to Italian mothers, especially for sub-Saharan and west Africans, with the following crude ORs (in 1996-1998 and 2006-2008 respectively: 1.80 (95%CI:1.44-2.28 and 1.95 (95%CI:1.72-2.21 for very preterm births, and 1.32 (95%CI:1.16-1.50 and 1.32 (95%CI:1.25-1.39 for preterm births; 1.18 (95%CI:0.99-1.40 and 1.17 (95%CI:1.03-1.34 for a low Apgar score; 1.22 (95%CI:1.15-1.31 and 1.24 (95%CI:1.17-1.32 for the presence of respiratory diseases; 1.47 (95%CI:1.30-1.66 and 1.45 (95%CI:1.34-1.57 for the need for special or intensive neonatal care/in-hospital deaths; and 1.03 (95%CI:0.93-1.15 and 1.07 (95%CI:1.00-1.15 for congenital malformations. Overall, time did not affect the odds of outcomes differently between immigrant and Italian mothers and most outcomes improved over time among all infants. None of the risk factors considered confounded the associations. Conclusion Our findings suggest that migrant status is a risk factor for

  7. Assessment of simulated rainfall and temperature from the regional climate model REMO and future changes over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Tchawoua, Clément; Haensler, Andreas

    2016-07-01

    This work investigates spatial and temporal changes in rainfall and temperature over Central Africa, using historical and representative concentration pathways (RCP2.6, RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) of the regional climate model REMO forced by two general climate models: the Europe-wide Consortium Earth System Model (EC-Earth) and the Max Planck Institute-Earth System Model (MPI-ESM). We found that in the present period (1980-2005), the spatial distribution of rainfall is simulated with an annual spatial pattern correlation coefficient (PCC) of 0.76 for REMO driven by EC-Earth and 0.74 for REMO driven by MPI-ESM respectively when compared to CRU data. In terms of temperature, the annual PCC is 0.93 for the two REMO outputs. According to the climatology of Central Africa, we subdivided the study area into five sub-regions, we also noticed that the annual and seasonal PCC depend on the considered sub-region. For the future period (2070-2095), temperature is projected to increase following all the three scenarios. The rainfall amount is projected to decrease by up to 5 mm/day towards the end of the twenty first century under RCP8.5 scenario, and by 1-2 mm/day under RCP4.5 and RCP2.6 scenarios over Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Congo, north-western Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and the Lake Victoria. Significant decrease is predicted to occur mostly in the northern part of the domain under RCP8.5 scenario. However, future rainfall over High Lands of Cameroon, Adamawa Plateau, north-eastern DRC and Atlantic Ocean is projected to increase.

  8. Neogene-Quaternary magmatic activity and its geodynamic implications in the Central Mediterranean region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Serri

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available The petrogenesis and time/space distribution of the magmatism associated with the formation of the Northern and Southern Tyrrhenian basins, together with the directions and ages of lithospheric extension and/or spreading north and south of the 410N discontinuity, show that the two arc/back-arc systems have undergone a different structural evolution at least since the middle Miocene (Langhian. The geochemical components involved in the genesis of the heterogeneities of the mantle sources of this magmatism require two separate, compositionally different slabs: 1 an old oceanic (Ionian lithosphere still seismically active below the Calabrian arc and the Southern Tyrrhenian region; 2 an almost seismically inactive continental (Adriatic lithosphere which carried large amounts of upper crustal materials within the upper mantle under the NW Roman Province/Tuscan/Northern Tyrrhenian region. The proposed geodynamic models require: 1 for the Northern Tyrrhenian/Northern Apenninic arc/back-arc system, the delamination and foundering of the Adriatic continental lithosphere as a consequence of the continental collision between the Corsica block and the Adriatic continental margin. This delamination process, which is still ongoing, probably started in the early-middle Miocene, but earlier than 15-14 Ma, as indicated by the age and petrogenesis of the first documented magmatic episode (the Sisco lamproite of the Northern Apennine orogenesis; 2 for the Southern Tyrrhenian/Southern Apenninic-Calabrian arc/back-arc system, the roll-back subduction and back-arc extension driven by gravitational sinking of the Ionian oceanic subducted lithosphere. This process started after the end of the arc volcanism of Sardinia (about 13 Ma but earlier than the first recorded episode of major rifting (about 9 Ma in the Southern Tyrrhenian back-arc basin.

  9. UPPER JURASSIC OUTCROPS ALONG THE CALDAS DA RAINHA DIAPIR, WEST CENTRAL PORTUGAL: A REGIONAL GEOHERITAGE OVERVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE DINIS

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Mesozoic Portuguese geological heritage is very rich and varied, a legacy of the position in the western margin of Iberia and its relationship with the evolution of the North Atlantic, with an interesting tectonic history since the Late Triassic. Regarding the Upper Jurassic several connections can be established between the tectonics and the stratigraphic record in the area surrounding the Caldas da Rainha structure: the basement and salt pillow control on deposition; the beginning of a diapiric and magmatic cycle associated to the on-set of sea-floor and the exhumation of both Jurassic deposits and the core of their controlling diapirs. The nature of the outcrops and richness in sedimentary environments, related with the different phases of rifting, is a remarkable case for extensional basin studies. Geological sites can be of regional, national or international importance due to scientific, educational, economical, social or historical reasons. The present proposal can be considered as a model for the establishment of tourist/educational routes with a strong component in communication on Earth Sciences, integrating social and historical aspects at a regional level. The recognition of those sites as geoheritage may contribute to a more sustainable management, in particular because it allows the achievement of a critical dimension for the investment in human resources and marketing. In Portugal, recent legal evolution might be considered promising. Nevertheless, since implementation of the concept of protected site depends on the approval of detailed management programs, there are frequent delays, misinterpretations and disrespect of legislation. The strategy to be adopted must integrate conservation, scientific studies and science communication in projects with economic and social interest.

  10. Availability of water resources in the rio Bermudez micro-basin. Central Region of Costa Rica; Disponibilidad del recurso hidrico en la microcuenca del rio Bermudez. Region Central de Costa Rica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernando Echevarria, L.; Orozco Montoya, R.

    2015-07-01

    The Rio Bermudez micro-basin makes up part of the principal hydrological resource area in the Central Region of Costa Rica. For this reason a study was done to determine the availability of hydrological resources in said micro-basin to identify areas with potential water availability problems. A monthly water balance was calculated using land use, geomorphology and climate parameters. From these water balance studies, the amount of available water was calculated and classified into four categories, however, in this micro-basin, only three categories were identified: high, medium and moderate water availability. No areas were identified with low water availability, indicating availability is sufficient; however, there is increasing demand on water resources because over half of the micro-basin area is classified as having moderate water availability. (Author)

  11. Definition of a Sinkhole hazard methodology in the Pontina Plain (Latium Region, Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teoli, Pamela; Mazza, Roberto; Capelli, Giuseppe

    2010-05-01

    The work presented here is the continuation of " Sinkhole Project of Latium Region" (2002), carried out by Researchers of the Laboratory of Applied Geology and Hydrogeology of the Department of Geological Sciences of the University "Roma Tre", Rome (Italy), through which were found, in different plain of the whole Region, Sinkhole prone areas, using a methodology based on the superimposition of thematic layers corresponding to geological and anthropogenic breaking factors. In the last years several specific investigations have been conducted by Researchers of the Laboratory in the Pontina Plain, that is located in the south west of the Latium Region, concerning the geological-stratigraphic setting, the sketch of flow in the aquifers located in the Pontine depression, the chemiphysical groundwater characheteristics, the density of wells, the amount of well pumping and piezometric changes. This required the implementation of several piezometric and chemiphysical surveys, the collection and validation of a large number of stratigraphic and geophysical data. All data in the archive have been computerized and the maps vectorized. This makes it possible today to address the analysis with Geographical Information Systems and to start numerical flow simulations, regarding both the heavily drained deep confined aquifer, and the areas subject to the presence of an important water exchange between the recharge area in the Lepini Mountains (carbonatic ridge) and terrigenous aquifers of the plain. Among the main causes that trigger the catastrophic collapses there are, in fact, all the phenomena that cause the mass density reduction through erosion, leaching, dissolution. All these agents are associated with water circulation: flow, velocity, CO2 saturation rate, carbonates saturation rate. The spread in the Pontina plain of deep and high pumping wells, wrongly built without the correct way of progress, and without the realization of cemented portions properly located, can lead

  12. NITRATE POLLUTION IN SHALLOW GROUNDWATER OF A HARD ROCK REGION IN SOUTH CENTRAL INDIA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindha, K.; Rajesh, R.; Murugan, R.; Elango, L.

    2009-12-01

    Groundwater forms a major source of drinking water in most parts of the world. Due to the lack of piped drinking water supply, the population in rural areas depend on the groundwater resources for domestic purposes. Hence, the quality of groundwater in such regions needs to be monitored regularly. Presence of high concentration of nitrate in groundwater used for drinking is a major problem in many countries as it causes health related problems. Most often infants are affected by the intake of high nitrate in drinking water and food. The present study was carried out with the objective of assessing the nitrate concentration in groundwater and determining the causes for nitrate in groundwater in parts of Nalgonda district in India which is located at a distance of about 135 km towards ESE direction from Hyderabad. Nitrate concentration in groundwater of this area was analysed by collecting groundwater samples from forty six representative wells. Samples were collected once in two months from March 2008 to March 2009. A total of 244 groundwater samples were collected during the study. Soil samples were collected from fifteen locations during May 2009 and the denitrifying bacteria were isolated from the soil using spread plate method. The nitrate concentration in groundwater samples were analysed in the laboratory using Metrohm 861 advanced compact ion chromatograph using appropriate standards. The highest concentration of nitrate recorded during the sampling period was 879.65mg/l and the lowest concentration was below detection limit. The maximum permissible limit of nitrate for drinking water as per Bureau of Indian Standards is 45mg/l. About 13% of the groundwater samples collected from this study area possessed nitrate concentration beyond this limit. The nitrate concentration was high in the southeastern part of the study area. This implies that the nitrate concentration in groundwater tends to increase along the flow direction. Application of fertilizers is one

  13. IDENTIFICATION OF MEMBERS IN THE CENTRAL AND OUTER REGIONS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, Ana Laura [Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica (INAF), Osservatorio Astronomico di Torino, Strada Osservatorio 20, I-10025 Pino Torinese, Torino (Italy); Diaferio, Antonaldo, E-mail: serra@ph.unito.it [Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino (Italy)

    2013-05-10

    The caustic technique measures the mass of galaxy clusters in both their virial and infall regions and, as a byproduct, yields the list of cluster galaxy members. Here we use 100 galaxy clusters with mass M{sub 200} {>=} 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} extracted from a cosmological N-body simulation of a {Lambda}CDM universe to test the ability of the caustic technique to identify the cluster galaxy members. We identify the true three-dimensional members as the gravitationally bound galaxies. The caustic technique uses the caustic location in the redshift diagram to separate the cluster members from the interlopers. We apply the technique to mock catalogs containing 1000 galaxies in the field of view of 12 h {sup -1} Mpc on a side at the cluster location. On average, this sample size roughly corresponds to 180 real galaxy members within 3r{sub 200}, similar to recent redshift surveys of cluster regions. The caustic technique yields a completeness, the fraction of identified true members, f{sub c} = 0.95 {+-} 0.03, within 3r{sub 200}. The contamination, the fraction of interlopers in the observed catalog of members, increases from f{sub i}=0.020{sup +0.046}{sub -0.015} at r{sub 200} to f{sub i}=0.08{sup +0.11}{sub -0.05} at 3r{sub 200}. No other technique for the identification of the members of a galaxy cluster provides such large completeness and small contamination at these large radii. The caustic technique assumes spherical symmetry and the asphericity of the cluster is responsible for most of the spread of the completeness and the contamination. By applying the technique to an approximately spherical system obtained by stacking the individual clusters, the spreads decrease by at least a factor of two. We finally estimate the cluster mass within 3r{sub 200} after removing the interlopers: for individual clusters, the mass estimated with the virial theorem is unbiased and within 30% of the actual mass; this spread decreases to less than 10% for the spherically

  14. Criteria for Selecting and Adjusting Ground-Motion Models for Specific Target Regions: Application to Central Europe and Rock Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, Fabrice; Scherbaum, Frank; Bommer, Julian J.; Bungum, Hilmar

    2006-04-01

    A vital component of any seismic hazard analysis is a model for predicting the expected distribution of ground motions at a site due to possible earthquake scenarios. The limited nature of the datasets from which such models are derived gives rise to epistemic uncertainty in both the median estimates and the associated aleatory variability of these predictive equations. In order to capture this epistemic uncertainty in a seismic hazard analysis, more than one ground-motion prediction equation must be used, and the tool that is currently employed to combine multiple models is the logic tree. Candidate ground-motion models for a logic tree should be selected in order to obtain the smallest possible suite of equations that can capture the expected range of possible ground motions in the target region. This is achieved by starting from a comprehensive list of available equations and then applying criteria for rejecting those considered inappropriate in terms of quality, derivation or applicability. Once the final list of candidate models is established, adjustments must be applied to achieve parameter compatibility. Additional adjustments can also be applied to remove the effect of systematic differences between host and target regions. These procedures are applied to select and adjust ground-motion models for the analysis of seismic hazard at rock sites in West Central Europe. This region is chosen for illustrative purposes particularly because it highlights the issue of using ground-motion models derived from small magnitude earthquakes in the analysis of hazard due to much larger events. Some of the pitfalls of extrapolating ground-motion models from small to large magnitude earthquakes in low seismicity regions are discussed for the selected target region.

  15. Strongly-sheared wind-forced currents in the nearshore regions of the central Southern California Bight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noble, Marlene A.; Rosenberger, Kurt; Robertson, George L.

    2015-01-01

    Contrary to many previous reports, winds do drive currents along the shelf in the central portion of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Winds off Huntington Beach CA are the dominant forcing for currents over the nearshore region of the shelf (water depths less than 20 m). Winds control about 50–70% of the energy in nearshore alongshelf surface currents. The wind-driven current amplitudes are also anomalously high. For a relatively weak 1 dyne/cm2 wind stress, the alongshelf surface current amplitudes in this region can reach 80 cm/s or more. Mid-depth current amplitudes for the same wind stress are around 30–40 cm/s. These wind-driven surface current amplitudes are much larger than previously measured over other nearshore shelf regions, perhaps because this program is one of the few that measured currents within a meter of the surface. The near-bed cross-shelf currents over the nearshore region of the Huntington Beach shelf have an Ekman response to winds in that they upwell (downwell) for down (up) coast winds. This response disappears further offshore. Hence, there is upwelling in the SCB, but it does not occur across the entire shelf. Subthermocline water in the nearshore region that may contain nutrients and plankton move onshore when winds are southeastward, but subthermocline water over the shelf break is not transported to the beach. The currents over the outer shelf are not predominately controlled by winds, consistent with previous reports. Instead, they are mainly driven by cross-shelf pressure gradients that are independent of local wind stress.

  16. Changes in Intense Rainfall Events over the Central United States in AOGCM-Driven Regional Climate Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, A. R.; Arritt, R. W.; Groisman, P. Y.

    2014-12-01

    We have evaluated trends in extreme precipitation frequency for the central United States (Groisman et al. 2012) using atmosphere-ocean global climate model (AOGCM) driven regional climate simulations. Nested regional climate model simulations were conducted using RegCM4.4 over the CORDEX-North America domain with 50 km grid spacing. Initial and lateral boundary conditions are taken from the HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M AOGCMs (for RCP8.5 emissions scenario) to simulate present and future climate (1951-2098). For each run, RegCM4 uses three different convection schemes: Emanuel scheme, Grell scheme, and Mixed scheme which uses the Emanuel scheme over water and Grell over land.Current findings show the regional climate simulations are of the same magnitude of average frequency for heavy ( 25.4-76.2 mm/day), and extreme (154.9+ mm/day) precipitation events while very heavy events (76.2+ mm/day) were less frequent by an order of magnitude. For current and recent past climate (1951-2005), frequency of precipitation events is similar in both HadGEM2-ES and GFDL-ESM2M AOGCM-driven regional climate simulations with most variation due to the convection scheme being used. Initial results seem to exhibit similar trends in the increase of frequency for each precipitation event as is seen in observations. In accordance with Groisman et al. (2012), preliminary findings also show months during the cold season had more frequent heavy events in comparison to very heavy and extreme events while months during the warm season had more frequent very heavy and extreme events in comparison to heavy events. Further analysis will better determine the correlation and accuracy of these regional climate simulations.

  17. Impact of water management interventions on hydrology and ecosystem services in Garhkundar-Dabar watershed of Bundelkhand region, Central India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ramesh; Garg, Kaushal K.; Wani, Suhas P.; Tewari, R. K.; Dhyani, S. K.

    2014-02-01

    Bundelkhand region of Central India is a hot spot of water scarcity, land degradation, poverty and poor socio-economic status. Impacts of integrated watershed development (IWD) interventions on water balance and different ecosystem services are analyzed in one of the selected watershed of 850 ha in Bundelkhand region. Improved soil, water and crop management interventions in Garhkundar-Dabar (GKD) watershed of Bundelkhand region in India enhanced ET to 64% as compared to 58% in untreated (control) watershed receiving 815 mm annual average rainfall. Reduced storm flow (21% vs. 34%) along with increased base flow (4.5% vs. 1.2%) and groundwater recharge (11% vs. 7%) of total rainfall received were recorded in treated watershed as compared to untreated control watershed. Economic Water productivity and total income increased from 2.5 to 5.0 INR m-3 and 11,500 to 27,500 INR ha-1 yr-1 after implementing integrated watershed development interventions in GKD watershed, respectively. Moreover IWD interventions helped in reducing soil loss more than 50% compared to control watershed. The results demonstrated that integrated watershed management practices addressed issues of poverty in GKD watershed. Benefit to cost ratio of project interventions was found three and pay back period within four years suggest economic feasibility to scale-up IWD interventions in Bundelkhend region. Scaling-up of integrated watershed management in drought prone rainfed areas with enabling policy and institutional support is expected to promote equity and livelihood along with strengthening various ecosystem services, however, region-specific analysis is needed to assess trade-offs for downstream areas along with onsite impact.

  18. X-rays from HH 80, HH 81, and the Central Region

    CERN Document Server

    Pravdo, S H; Maeda, Y; Pravdo, Steven H.; Tsuboi, Yohko; Maeda, Yoshitomo

    2004-01-01

    We report detections of X-rays from HH 80 and HH 81 with the ACIS instrument on the Chandra X-ray Observatory. These are among the most luminous HH sources in the optical and they are now the most luminous known in X-rays. These X-rays arise from the strong shocks that occur when the southern extension of this bipolar outflow slams into the ambient material. There is a one-to-one correspondence between regions of high X-ray emission and high H? emission. The X-ray luminosities of HH 80 and HH 81 are 4.5 and 4.3 x 1031 erg s-1, respectively, assuming the measured low-energy absorption is not in the sources. The measured temperature of the HH plasma is not as large as that expected from the maximum velocities seen in the extended tails of the optical emission lines. Rather it is consistent with the ~106 K temperature of the ?narrow? core of the optical lines. There is no observed emission from HH 80 North, the northern extension of the bipolar flow, based upon a measurement of lower sensitivity. We imaged the c...

  19. Disease Mutations in the Ryanodine Receptor Central Region: Crystal Structures of a Phosphorylation Hot Spot Domain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuchi, Zhiguang; Lau, Kelvin; Van Petegem, Filip (UBC)

    2015-02-09

    Ryanodine Receptors (RyRs) are huge Ca{sup 2+} release channels in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane and form targets for phosphorylation and disease mutations. We present crystal structures of a domain in three RyR isoforms, containing the Ser2843 (RyR1) and Ser2808/Ser2814 (RyR2) phosphorylation sites. The RyR1 domain is the target for 11 disease mutations. Several of these are clustered near the phosphorylation sites, suggesting that phosphorylation and disease mutations may affect the same interface. The L2867G mutation causes a drastic thermal destabilization and aggregation at room temperature. Crystal structures for other disease mutants show that they affect surface properties and intradomain salt bridges. In vitro phosphorylation experiments show that up to five residues in one long loop of RyR2 can be phosphorylated by PKA or CaMKII. Docking into cryo-electron microscopy maps suggests a putative location in the clamp region, implying that mutations and phosphorylation may affect the allosteric motions within this area.

  20. Modeling water balance distribution in a natural semiarid region of central Mexico using a SVAT model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastachi-Loza, C. A.; Braud, I.; Gonzalez-Sosa, E.; Centro de Investigaciones Del Agua de Querétaro

    2010-12-01

    Around the world water is becoming insufficient, especially in the semiarid regions where there is a high inter-annual variability in the amount and distribution of the rainfall. Studies on this kind of environments would allow us to understand the mechanisms that determine the spatial and temporal distribution of the water balance components. The study was carried out from October 2005 to October 2008 in two semiarid sites located in the south of the Mexican Plateau: El Carmen in Guanajuato State and Cadereyta in Queretaro State. The work aim was to provide a better understanding of the hydrological processes that occur in semiarid ecosystems, quantifying and modeling the water balance in order to define the distribution of the water and energy balance components in El Carmen and Cadereyta. For this purpose, the SiSPAT (Simple Soil Plant Atmosphere Transfer) model was used based on a parameterization of the soil, plants and atmosphere components. It was found that, using SiSPAT, the water balance components were particularly sensitive to parameters associated with the soil and the leaf area index. The model results showed that during the studied period, the annual evapotranspiration in Cadereyta was less than PG (-10 and -5%) and above PG for El Carmen (10 y 30%). Runoff and percolation at 5m were null. Finally in both sites there was a simulated loss of water stored in the soil.

  1. Genotyping Mycobacterium bovis from cattle in the Central Pampas of Argentina: temporal and regional trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernesto Shimizu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Mycobacterium bovis is the causative agent of bovine tuberculosis (TB, a disease that affects approximately 5% of Argentinean cattle. Among the molecular methods for genotyping, the most convenient are spoligotyping and variable number of tandem repeats (VNTR. A total of 378 samples from bovines with visible lesions consistent with TB were collected at slaughterhouses in three provinces, yielding 265 M. bovis spoligotyped isolates, which were distributed into 35 spoligotypes. In addition, 197 isolates were also typed by the VNTR method and 54 combined VNTR types were detected. There were 24 clusters and 27 orphan types. When both typing methods were combined, 98 spoligotypes and VNTR types were observed with 27 clusters and 71 orphan types. By performing a meta-analysis with previous spoligotyping results, we identified regional and temporal trends in the population structure of M. bovis. For SB0140, the most predominant spoligotype in Argentina, the prevalence percentage remained high during different periods, varying from 25.5-57.8% (1994-2011. By contrast, the second and third most prevalent spoligotypes exhibited important fluctuations. This study shows that there has been an expansion in ancestral lineages as demonstrated by spoligotyping. However, exact tandem repeat typing suggests dynamic changes in the clonal population of this microorganism.

  2. Morphological variation in the ear region of pleistocene elephantimorpha (Mammalia, Proboscidea) from central Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekdale, Eric G

    2011-04-01

    A large sample of isolated elephantimorph petrosal bones was recovered from Pleistocene deposits in Friesenhahn Cave, Bexar County, Texas. Morphology of the middle and inner ear of the elephantimorphs is described and variation within the sample is identified. Observed variations occur in the stapedial ratio, morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii, and connection of the crista interfenestralis to the tympanohyal on the posterior portion of the petrosal to form a foramen for passage of the stapedius muscle. The morphology of the aquaeductus Fallopii supports an ontogenetic explanation for some variation, and a sequence of ossification surrounding the aquaeductus Fallopii, from the anterior end of the canal to the posterior, is hypothesized. The stapedial ratio varies to a high degree across the sample, and such variation should be considered when the ratio is used in phylogenetic analyses. Within the inner ear, the absence of the secondary lamina suggests evolution of low-frequency hearing in extinct proboscideans, which is known for extant elephants. The morphology of the petrosals from Friesenhahn Cave is compared to published descriptions of the ear regions of other extinct proboscideans, and the distribution and evolution of morphologic characters are discussed. J. Morphol., 2011. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Central nervous system tumours profile at a referral center in the Brazilian Amazon region, 1997–2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semblano, Aluízio Augusto Pereira; Moreira, Matheus Acácio; de Lemos, Manuela Nascimento; de Mello, Vanessa Jóia; Hamoy, Moisés; Nazareth Junior, Mario Hermes; Paschoal Junior, Fernando Mendes; Adami, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Tumours of the Central Nervous System (CNS) are an important cause of mortality from cancer. Epidemiological data on neoplams affecting the CNS are scarce in Brazil, especially in the Amazon region. The study aims at describing the histopathological profile of CNS tumours cases at a high-complexity referral cancer center. This study has described a 17-year-series profile of CNS tumours, registered at a high-complexity referral cancer center in Pará state, from January 1997 until July 2014 in the Brazilian Amazon Region. Data was gathered from histopathology reports kept in the hospital’s cancer registry and 949 cases of CNS tumours were analyzed. The most common histopathology were neuroepithelial tumours (approx. 40%) and meningioma was the most frequent especific tumor histologic subtype (22.2%). Neuroepithelial tumours were more frequent in patients with ages ranging from less than a year to 19 years, whereas metastatic tumours were prevalent in patients over 40 years of age. It was not found temporal trends during the studied period. The knowledge of these tumours profile is valuable for the understanding of cancer epidemiology in the region, since its prevalence is currently underreported and more awareness on the disease is needed. PMID:28369089

  4. Study of East Kazakh explosions and propagation in Central Asia using regional Chinese seismograms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patton, H.J.; Mills, J.M. Jr.

    1984-03-01

    Seismograms recorded at the Urumchi Station in northwestern China from eleven Asian events including seven presumed East Kazakh nuclear explosions were analyzed. Group velocity dispersion curves of Rayleigh waves were measured at short periods on paths through basin and fold belt terrains. At 10 sec period, the velocities on paths over sedimentary basins are 25% slower than velocities on paths over fold belts. We interpret those differences in velocities to be due to the great thicknesses of sedimentary deposits in basin terrains. Epicentral locations were estimated using differential travel times between P/sub n/ and L/sub g/ and particle motions of Rayleigh waves measured on a single three-component record. For a 1000 km path, the location errors (one standad deviation) are about +-125 km in azimuth and +-30 km in distance. In addition, systematic errors due to structural effects on surface-wave paths and on velocities of regional phases are shown to seriously bias location estimates of several events. We applied a differential phase method to Rayleigh waves from the East Kazakh explosions and found that signals of all events are in-phase with signals from the reference event on 10/12/80. Thus, there is no evidence for phase reversals or shifts at the Urumchi station in the frequency band where signal to noise ratio is good and where assumptions of the method are valid. Seismic moments of explosions were estimated using models of explosion sources with associated tectonic release. Observed amplitude spectra of Rayleigh waves were richer in high frequencies than predicted by the model. This could be a source effect related to source medium excitation (i.e., Green's functions) or a path effect caused by energy focussing and/or amplifications. We discuss the potential bias in the estimates of moment due to assumptions/limitations. 24 references, 16 figures, 6 tables.

  5. Characterization of Salmonella from Commercial Egg-Laying Hen Farms in a Central Region of Colombia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Roy; Fandiño, Clemencia; Donado, Pilar; Guzmán, Libia; Verjan, Noel

    2015-03-01

    Salmonellosis affects humans more frequently than any other foodborne disease, and it causes severe economic losses in the poultry industry. A cross-sectional study was carried out to estimate the prevalence of Salmonella spp. in laying hen farms in the Tolima region of Colombia. Fifteen egg-laying hen farms were sampled, and a total of 589 samples were cultured to isolate Salmonella spp. A total of 14 isolates of Salmonella spp. were recovered from five farms, resulting in a prevalence of 33.33% (95%, confidence interval = 14%-53%) at the farm level. Salmonella spp. were recovered from eggshells (57.15%, n = 8), feed (28.57%, n = 4), and environmental samples (14.29%, n = 2). Farm practices, such as the milling of feed (odds ratio [OR] = 24) and the storage of eggs in the henhouses (OR = 11.25), in addition to the feed type (OR = 7.64) and the use of bamboo for construction of the facility (OR = 5.24), were identified as risk factors for Salmonella spp. The 14 isolates were identified as Salmonella Enteritidis (n = 6) and Salmonella Shannon (n = 8), and both serovars were resistant to a number of antibiotics. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis presented three different XbaI macrorestriction patterns. The Salmonella Enteritidis isolates all presented a single pattern, whereas the Salmonella Shannon isolates were grouped into two distinct patterns. The results indicate that Salmonella spp. could be recovered from various sources at laying hen farms, and eggshell contamination is a particular concern.

  6. Ice cliff dynamics in the Everest region of the Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott Watson, C.; Quincey, Duncan J.; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Smith, Mark W.

    2017-02-01

    The importance of ice cliffs for glacier-scale ablation on debris-covered glaciers is now widely recognised. However, a paucity of data exists to describe the spatio-temporal distribution of ice cliffs. In this study we analysed the position and geometry of 8229 ice cliffs and 5582 supraglacial ponds on 14 glaciers in the Everest region between 2000 and 2015. We observed notable ice cliff and pond spatial coincidence. On average across our study glaciers, 77% of supraglacial pond area was associated with an adjacent ice cliff, and 49% of ice cliffs featured an adjacent supraglacial pond. The spatial density of ice cliffs was not directly related to glacier velocity, but did peak within zones of active ice. Furthermore, we found that ice cliff density was glacier-specific, temporally variable, and was positively correlated with surface lowering and decreasing debris thickness for individual glaciers. Ice cliffs predominantly had a north-facing (commonly north-westerly) aspect, which was independent of glacier flow direction, thereby signifying a strong solar radiation control on cliff evolution. Independent field observations indicated that cliff morphology was related to aspect, local debris thickness, and presence of a supraglacial pond, and highlighted the importance of surface runnel formation, which acts as a preferential pathway for meltwater and debris fluxes. Overall, by coupling remote sensing and in-situ observations it has been possible to capture local and glacier-scale ice cliff dynamics across 14 glaciers, which is necessary if explicit parameterisation of ice cliffs in dynamic glacier models is to be achieved.

  7. Investigation of upper crust anisotropy in Ghaen-Birjand region, east-central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheitanchi, Mohammad-Reza; Zarifii, Zoya

    2004-09-01

    A number of aftershocks of the May 10th 1997, Zirkuh (Ghaen-Birjand) destructive earthquake have been used to investigate the anisotropy in the upper crust by observing shear wave splitting. Particle motion diagram and aspect ratio methods were used as two different approaches to obtain splitting parameters. Clear shear wave splitting was observed on the records of the selected aftershocks, indicating that the media in the region was highly anisotropic. By using particle motion method, the direction of fast shear wave was found 22°N±19°E, while the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves was obtained to be (65±16) ms. By aspect ratio method, the direction of fast shear wave was determined to be 35°N±18°E and the delay time between fast and slow shear waves was found to be (49±10) ms. For a simple horizontal layer with a thickness about 5 km and uniformly distributed anisotropy, a stress aligned cracks model was used and the result was interpreted in terms of vertical aligned cracks in the direction of N22°E, having a density about 0.01. It is assumed that cracks are fluid-filled since they are located in the upper crust. Finally, by using Hudson cracks model for three crack densities 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, the velocity curves of shear wave were plotted as a function of angle between the symmetrical axis of cracks and the azimuth of source to receiver. It was concluded that when shear wave was polarized parallel to the crack surface, the velocity was uniform, but the velocity curve varied clearly if shear wave was polarized perpendicular to the crack surface.

  8. Investigation of upper crust anisotropy in Ghaen-Birjand region, east-central Iran

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad-Reza Gheitanchi; Zoya Zarifii

    2004-01-01

    A number of aftershocks of the May 10th 1997, Zirkuh (Ghaen-Birjand) destructive earthquake have been used to investigate the anisotropy in the upper crust by observing shear wave splitting. Particle motion diagram and aspect ratio methods were used as two different approaches to obtain splitting parameters. Clear shear wave splitting was observed on the records of the selected aftershocks, indicating that the media in the region was highly anisotropic. By using particle motion method, the direction of fast shear wave was found 22°N±19°E, while the delay time between the fast and slow shear waves was obtained to be (65±16) ms. By aspect ratio method, the direction of fast shear wave was determined to be 35°N±18°E and the delay time between fast and slow shear waves was found to be (49±10) ms. For a simple horizontal layer with a thickness about 5 km and uniformly distributed anisotropy, a stress aligned cracks model was used and the result was interpreted in terms of vertical aligned cracks in the direction of N22°E, having a density about 0.01. It is assumed that cracks are fluid-filled since they are located in the upper crust. Finally, by using Hudson cracks model for three crack densities 0.005, 0.01, 0.03, the velocity curves of shear wave were plotted as a function of angle between the symmetrical axis of cracks and the azimuth of source to receiver. It was concluded that when shear wave was polarized parallel to the crack surface, the velocity was uniform, but the velocity curve varied clearly if shear wave was polarized perpendicular to the crack surface.

  9. Climatic influence on slope dynamics and shoreline variations: examples from Marche region (Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Aringoli

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to establish relationships between shoreline historical variations (close to the river mouths and slope dynamics on mountain and hilly areas: these are considered as fundamental physiographic units of the Adriatic central Italy. The study deals about the deltaic system of the Chienti river, which is representative of the deltaic systems of the main Marchean rivers. Goal is to recognize possible geomorphological indicators of climatic variations during late Holocene. Debris flows on the Sibillini Mts were analysed and interpreted. Their activation can be associated with: late Pleistocene-early Holocene deglaciation, with regard to the oldest phenomena; agricultural, forestry and grazing activities during the Late Middle Ages, even though evidence of climatic conditioning is also present. Moreover, some important landslide phenomena on the high hilly areas were examined: historical data demonstrated an intense post-Middle Age activity (XVth-XVIIIth centuries related to the strong rainfall increase as a consequence of climatic worsening.Dans cette note, sont interprétées quelques formes mineures du paysage physique, utilisables en tant qu'indicateurs géomorphologiques des variations climatiques de l'Holocène supérieur. La création et l'évolution de ces formes sont liées à la circulation superficielle et souterraine d'importantes quantités d'eau. Les processus analysés se réfèrent aux zones représentatives de l'organisation géomorphologique des trois unités physiographiques fondamentales de l'Italie centrale adriatique : les régions montagneuses, la bande péri-adriatique des hautes collines et la plaine côtière.La première zone appartient au massif des Monts Sibyllins, dans l'Apennin central d'Ombrie-Marches. Les sommets dépassent fréquemment 2000 mètres d'altitude et atteignent 2476 mètres au Mont Vettore. Le substrat géologique est formé par la célèbre "succession d'Ombrie-Marches" (Trias sup

  10. On the added value of the regional climate model REMO in the assessment of climate change signal over Central Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotso-Nguemo, Thierry C.; Vondou, Derbetini A.; Pokam, Wilfried M.; Djomou, Zéphirin Yepdo; Diallo, Ismaïla; Haensler, Andreas; Tchotchou, Lucie A. Djiotang; Kamsu-Tamo, Pierre H.; Gaye, Amadou T.; Tchawoua, Clément

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the regional climate model REMO is used to investigate the added value of downscaling low resolutions global climate models (GCMs) and the climate change projections over Central Africa. REMO was forced by two GCMs (EC-Earth and MPI-ESM), for the period from 1950 to 2100 under the Representative Concentration Pathway 8.5 scenario. The performance of the REMO simulations for current climate is compared first with REMO simulation driven by ERA-Interim reanalysis, then by the corresponding GCMs in order to determine whether REMO outputs are able to effectively lead to added value at local scale. We found that REMO is generally able to better represent some aspects of the rainfall inter-annual variability, the daily rainfall intensity distribution as well as the intra-seasonal variability of the Central African monsoon, though few biases are still evident. It is also found that the boundary conditions strongly influences the spatial distribution of seasonal 2-m temperature and rainfall. From the analysis of the climate change signal from the present period 1976-2005 to the future 2066-2095, we found that all models project a warming at the end of the twenty-first century although the details of the climate change differ between REMO and the driving GCMs, specifically in REMO where we observe a general decrease in rainfall. This rainfall decrease is associated with delayed onset and anticipated recession of the Central African monsoon and a shortening of the rainy season. Small-scales variability of the climate change signal for 2-m temperature are usually smaller than that of the large-scales climate change part. For rainfall however, small-scales induce change of about 70% compared to the present climate statistics.

  11. Genetic differentiation in blue shark, Prionace glauca, from the central Pacific Ocean, as inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome b region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwen; Dai, Xiaojie; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Tian, Siquan; He, Shan; Wu, Feng

    2016-02-19

    Six hundred and ninety-seven base pairs of cytochrome b gene of mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed for 78 blue shark Prionace glauca individuals from three sampled locations in the central Pacific Ocean (CPO). In total, three polymorphic sites were detected which defined four haplotypes. The haplotype diversity (h) ranged from 0.517 to 0.768, and nucleotide diversity (π) was between 0.0007 and 0.0011. Analysis of molecular variance indicated a non-significant differentiation among subpopulations. Furthermore, pairwise FST score analysis revealed a non-significant differentiation among three sampled regions. Generally, low genetic differences were found between different geographic locations in the CPO. This study suggests a single panmictic population of P. glauca in the CPO.

  12. Natural radioactivity level in materials used for medieval vaulting in the territory of the central Balkan region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelić Igor S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the results of an investigation undertaken to determine the level of natural radioactivity in the traditional building materials used for medieval indoor vaulted constructions in the territory of the central Balkan region. Indoor radiation exposure varies appreciably if it comes from the earth building materials, hence the presence of natural radioisotopes of 226Ra, 232Th, and 40K in masonry vaulted constructions was analyzed using gamma ray spectrometry. In addition, the internal health hazard index, the absorbed dose rates and the effective annual doses were calculated. The results were then compared both with the reported data from the previous studies concerning the territory of the Balkan Peninsula, as well as with the worldwide values for the materials of historic buildings. The results obtained from the materials examined in this paper all showed the radioactivity levels below the maximum permitted values. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 171007 i br. 43009

  13. Richness of ferns and lycophytes in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Rodrigo Lehn

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the floristic survey of ferns and lycophytes occurring in a gallery forest in the central region of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. In the study area, 29 species and 2 varieties were recorded. Dryopteridaceae and Pteridaceae were the richest families (8 and 5 species, respectively and Elaphoglossum and Blechnum were the richest genera (3 species each one. Preferably, the listed species occur within the forest (68%, they occupy the terrestrial substrate (77.4%, and they are hemicryptophyte (77.4% and rosulate (64.5%. We observed four species still not mentioned for Mato Grosso do Sul, which are Blechnum lanceola L., Elaphoglossum pachydermum (Fée T. Moore, Lindsaea lancea (L. Bedd var lancea, and Mickelia nicotianifolia (Sw. R. C. Moran et al., which has its southern limit of distribution in Brazil, in the study area.

  14. Adoption of Online Purchasing Methods in Communities and its Socio-Economic Implications in Regional Central Queensland, Australia

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    W. J. Taylor

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the general trends of online purchasing in Central Queensland (CQ communities during 1999-2002 and identifies the socio-economic factors affecting online purchasing activities. The Online Purchasing Indicator, defined as a combination of percentages of online purchasers and of regular purchasers (>one item/month within a group, is applied to compare these activities between these two groups. The study identifies that four factors, namely ‘personal attributes’, ‘knowledge’, ‘trust’ and ‘need’ may play important roles in online purchasing decisions. The research found that regional economic bleeding associated with low local adoption failing to provide justification for local business to adopt electronic purchasing support has not yet reached significant levels.

  15. [The primary role of central region of HC-pro of potato Y potyvirus in synergism of plant viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, R F; Li, W M; Wang, H Y; Guo, M; Peng, X X

    2001-05-01

    Five deleted mutants of HC-Pro gene of Chinese isolate of potato Y potyvirus (PVY-C) were obtained by PCR mutation, and their plant expression vectors were constructed. They were transformed into tobacco K326 (Nicotina tabacum cv. K326) mediated by Agrobacterium. PCR and Southern blot analysis revealed that PVY-C HC-Pro gene and its deleted mutants were integrated into tobacco genome, and Western blot analysis showed that they were all expressed in transgenic tobacco plants. Furthermore, infection test demonstrated that the central region of PVY-C HC-Pro can mediate synergism of PVY-C/cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV) and PVY-C/potato X potexvirus (PVX), identifying that it is functional domain in synergism.

  16. Attainment of MDGs through tourism in the Central African sub-region: Implications for local economic development in Cameroon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert N. Kimbu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role and contribution of tourism to local economic development and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals one and seven dealing with extreme poverty alleviation and environmental sustainability in the biodiversity endowed Central African sub-region. The concepts of sustainable tourism development and local economic development (in sub-Saharan Africa are examined. Through field observations and semi-structured interviews with 21 tourism industry stakeholders in Cameroon, an analysis of tourism’s role and future in LED and in the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals 1 & 7 is undertaken. The core challenges presently inhibiting tourism’s development thereby limiting its contribution to local economic development and the attainment of these goals in Cameroon are identified and a framework within which tourism’s contribution can be increased is proposed.

  17. Drought Occurrence in Central European Mountainous Region (Tatra National Park, Slovakia within the Period 1961–2010

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    Jaroslav Vido

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Drought has recently become a significant topic in the Central European region. It has been observed that the drought phenomenon has severe impacts on the agriculture, hydrology, social, and economic sectors of lowland areas. This study focuses on how drought, defined as a precipitation shortage, occurs in higher altitudes of the Tatra National Park (Tatra Mts., Slovakia, which is a significant biological reserve of the Central European fauna and flora. The main goals of this research include identifying drought variability and its characteristics over the Tatra National Park in the West Carpathians (Slovakia, especially to characterizing drought variability and its spatial pattern across the Tatra National Park from 1961 to 2010 using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI and standard Geographic Information System (GIS methods. The results showed that frequency of drought occurrence has cyclic pattern with approximately 30-year period. The spatial analyses showed that precipitation shadow of the mountains influences the risk of drought occurrence. The drought-prone areas over the mountains are also identified.

  18. Characteristics and Diurnal Cycle of GPM Rainfall Estimates over the Central Amazon Region

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    Rômulo Oliveira

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies that investigate and evaluate the quality, limitations and uncertainties of satellite rainfall estimates are fundamental to assure the correct and successful use of these products in applications, such as climate studies, hydrological modeling and natural hazard monitoring. Over regions of the globe that lack in situ observations, such studies are only possible through intensive field measurement campaigns, which provide a range of high quality ground measurements, e.g., CHUVA (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GlobAl Precipitation Measurement and GoAmazon (Observations and Modeling of the Green Ocean Amazon over the Brazilian Amazon during 2014/2015. This study aims to assess the characteristics of Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM satellite-based precipitation estimates in representing the diurnal cycle over the Brazilian Amazon. The Integrated Multi-satellitE Retrievals for Global Precipitation Measurement (IMERG and the Goddard Profiling Algorithm—Version 2014 (GPROF2014 algorithms are evaluated against ground-based radar observations. Specifically, the S-band weather radar from the Amazon Protection National System (SIPAM, is first validated against the X-band CHUVA radar and then used as a reference to evaluate GPM precipitation. Results showed satisfactory agreement between S-band SIPAM radar and both IMERG and GPROF2014 algorithms. However, during the wet season, IMERG, which uses the GPROF2014 rainfall retrieval from the GPM Microwave Imager (GMI sensor, significantly overestimates the frequency of heavy rainfall volumes around 00:00–04:00 UTC and 15:00–18:00 UTC. This overestimation is particularly evident over the Negro, Solimões and Amazon rivers due to the poorly-calibrated algorithm over water surfaces. On the other hand, during the dry season, the IMERG product underestimates mean precipitation in comparison to the S-band SIPAM

  19. Characteristics of water erosion and conservation practice in arid regions of Central Asia: Xinjiang Province, China as an example

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    Wentai Zhang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Located in the inland arid area of Central Asia and northwest China, Xinjiang has recently received heightened concerns over soil water erosion, which is highly related with the sustainable utilization of barren soil and limited water resources. Data from the national soil erosion survey of China (1985–2011 and Xinjiang statistical yearbook (2000–2010 was used to analyze the trend, intensity, and serious soil water erosion regions. Results showed that the water erosion area in Xinjiang was 87.6×103 km2 in 2011, mainly distributed in the Ili river valley and the northern and southern Tian Mountain. Soil erosion gradient was generally slight and the average erosion modulus was 2184 t/(km2 a. During the last 26 years, the water erosion area in Xinjiang decreased by 23.2%, whereas the intensity was still increasing. The driving factors from large to small impact included: population boom and human activities>vegetation degradation>rainfall and climate change>topography and soil erodibility>tectonics movement. Soil water erosion resulted in eco-environmental and socioeconomic losses, such as destroying farmland and grassland, triggering floods, sedimentation of reservoirs, damaging transportation and irrigation facilities, and aggravating poverty. A landscape ecological design approach is suggested for integrated control of soil erosion. Currently, an average of 2.07×103 km2 of formerly eroded area is conserved each year. This study highlighted the importance and longevity of soil and water conservation efforts in Xinjiang, and offered some suggestions on ecological restoration and combating desertification in arid regions of Central Asia.

  20. Prevalence and risk factors for Leptospira spp. in cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state

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    Vanessa Y Hashimoto

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of anti-Leptospira spp. antibodies and the risk factors for Leptospira spp. infection in breeding cattle herds in the south central region of Paraná state. It was based on the statistic delineation/serological samples and information regarding the selected farms employed in the study of bovine brucellosis for Paraná state in the context of National Program for Control and Eradication of Brucellosis and Tuberculosis. A total of 1.880 females aged >24 months from 274 non vaccinated herds were studied. Serum samples were tested for antibodies against Leptospira spp. using microscopic agglutination test (MAT with 22 Leptospira serovars. The epidemiological questionnaire was applied on all the selected farms and aimed to obtain epidemiological data. Hundred eighty one of 274 herds were positive for Leptospira spp./presenting prevalence of positive herds of 66.06% (IC95%=60.12-71,65%. Presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.120; IC=1.418-6.867/animal purchase (OR=2.010; IC=1.154-3.500/rent of pastures (OR=2.925; IC=1.060-8.068 and presence of maternity paddock (OR=1.981; IC=1,068-3,676 were identified as risk factors for leptospirosis due to any serovar in the multivariate logistic regression. Risk factors for leptospirosis due to serovar Hardjo were presence of >43 cattle (OR=3.622; IC=1.512-8,677/animal purchase (OR=3.143; IC=1.557-6.342/rent of pastures (OR=4.070; IC=1.370-12.087 and presence of horses (OR=2.981; IC=1.321-6.726. These results indicate that Leptospira spp. infection is widespread in the south central region of Paraná state and that factors related to the herd characteristic and management are associated with the infection.

  1. Reduction of Risk in Exploration and Prospect Generation through a Multidisciplinary Basin-Analysis Program in the South-Central Mid-Continent Region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, S.; Barker, C.; Fite, J.; George, S.; Guo, Genliang; Johnson, W.; Jordan, J., Szpakiewicz, M.; Person, M.; Reeves, T.K.; Safley, E.; Swenson, J.B.; Volk, L.; and Erickson, R.

    1999-04-02

    This report will discuss a series of regional studies that were undertaken within the South-Central Mid-Continent region of the U.S. Coverage is also provided about a series of innovative techniques that were used for this assessment.

  2. On the correlation of atmospheric aerosol components of mass size distributions in the larger region of a central European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berner, A.; Galambos, Z.; Ctyroky, P.; Frühauf, P.; Hitzenberger, R.; Gomišček, B.; Hauck, H.; Preining, O.; Puxbaum, H.

    Mass size distributions of atmospheric aerosols have been sampled in the region of Vienna, a typical city in central Europe, at an urban and a rural site. The aerosol was collected simultaneously by cascade impactors. Two experiments which had a duration of 4 weeks each, were performed in August 1999 and in January/February 2000. Daily sampling periods were from 8:00 to 20:00, and from 20:00 to 8:00. An evaluation of the mass size distributions is represented in this paper. Emphasis is on the relationships of different aerosol components in a local and a regional context. The main results are as follows. The main components of the atmospheric aerosol are a fine aerosol, the accumulation aerosol, and a coarse aerosol. Specific coarse modes with modal diameters of 4.7 μm average and geometric standard deviations of about 3 occur at the urban and at the rural site, some times surprisingly strong. The fine and the coarse modes are very likely related to motor-car traffic. Usually the PM 2.5 and PM 10 aerosols are regionally strongly correlated. Occasionally, this correlation is effectively disturbed by local and/or regional emissions. Time series of correlation coefficients reveal an episodic character of the atmospheric aerosol. Periods of strong inter-site correlations of PM 2.5 and PM 10 indicate the dominance and the co-variation of the accumulation aerosols or the dominance and the co-variation of the coarse modes.

  3. Magnitude and extent of land subsidence in central Mexico revealed by regional InSAR ALOS time-series survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaussard, E.; Wdowinski, S.; Amelung, F.; Cabral-Cano, E.

    2013-05-01

    Massive groundwater extraction is very common in Mexico and is well known to result in land subsidence. However, most surveys dedicated to land subsidence focus on one single city, mainly Mexico City, and thus fail to provide a comprehensive picture of the problem. Here we use a space-based radar remote sensing technique, known as Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) to detect land subsidence in the entire central Mexico area. We used data from the Japanese satellite ALOS, processed over 600 SAR images acquired between 2007-2011 and produced over 3000 interferograms to cover and area of 200,000 km2 in central Mexico. We identify land subsidence in twenty-one areas, including seventeen cities, namely from east to west, Puebla, Mexico city, Toluca de Lerdo, Queretaro, San Luis de la Paz, south of San Luis de la Paz, Celaya, south of Villa de Reyes, San Luis Potosi, west of Villa de Arista, Morelia, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon, Aguascalientes, north of Aguascalientes, Zamora de Hidalgo, Guadalajara, Ahuacatlan, and Tepic. Subsidence rates of 30 cm/yr are observed in Mexico City, while in the other locations typical rates of 5-10 cm/yr are noticed. Regional surveys of this type are necessary for the development of hazard mitigation plans and efficient use of ground-based monitoring. We additionally correlate subsidence with land use, surface geology, and faults distribution and suggest that groundwater extraction for agricultural, urban, and industrial uses are the main causes of land subsidence. We also reveal that the limits of the subsiding areas often correlate with existing faults, motion on these faults being driven by water extraction rather than by tectonic activity. In all the subsiding locations we observe high ground velocity gradients emphasizing the significant risks associated with land subsidence in central Mexico. Averaged 2007-2011 ground velocity map from ALOS InSAR time-series in central Mexico, revealing land subsidence in 21

  4. Wide-angle seismic survey in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujie, G.; Kodaira, S.; Iwamaru, H.; Shirai, T.; Dannowski, A.; Thorwart, M.; Grevemeyer, I.; Morgan, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    Dehydration process within the subducting oceanic plate and expelled water from there affect various subduction-zone processes, including arc volcanism and generation of earthquakes. This implies that the degree of hydration within the incoming oceanic plate just prior to subduction might be a key control factor on the regional variations in subduction zone processes like interplate earthquakes and arc volcanism. Recent advances in seismic structure studies in the trench-outer rise region of the Japan Trench have revealed that seismic velocities within the incoming oceanic plate become lower owing to the plate bending-related faulting, suggesting the hydration of the oceanic plate. If the degree of the oceanic plate hydration is one of key factors controlling the regional variations of the interplate earthquakes, the degree of the oceanic plate hydration just prior to subduction is expected to show the along-trench variation because the interplate seismicity in the forearc region of the Japan Trench show along-trench variations. However, we cannot discuss the along-trench variation of the incoming plate structure because seismic structure studies have been confined only to the northern Japan Trench so far.In 2014 and 2015, JAMSTEC and GEOMAR conducted wide-angle seismic surveys in the trench-outer rise region of the central Japan Trench to reveal the detailed seismic structure of the incoming oceanic plate. The western extension of our survey line corresponds to the epicenter of the 2011 M9 Tohoku earthquakes. We deployed 88 Ocean Bottom Seismometers (OBSs) at intervals of 6 km and shot a tuned air-gun array of R/V Kairei at 200 m spacing. In this presentation, we will show the overview of our seismic survey and present seismic structure models obtained by the data of mainly 2014 seismic survey together with the several OBS data from 2015 survey. The preliminary results show P-wave velocity (Vp) within the oceanic crust and mantle decreases toward the trench axis

  5. Comparison of Source Time Functions Retrieved from Various Regional Waves and Coda Using Moderate Earthquakes in East and Central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, J.; Torpey, M. E.

    2015-12-01

    Source time functions may vary with various P and S wave types. Regional Lg waves have been used to estimate radiated energy and apparent stress. In nuclear explosion seismology, the practice of discriminating Earthquake and explosions using regional wave spectra and spectral ratios relies on a fundamental assumption that Earthquakes and explosions excite various regional waves in a systematically-different manner. We have been carrying out a systematic study to retrieve source time functions (STFs) from seismic sources using the empirical Green's function (EGF) approach. In phase 1 of the study, we focus on retrieving STFs from moderate earthquakes in east and central Asia using regional Lg, Pg, Lg coda, and Sn and Pn waves to see whether or not the shape of the STFs varies with the wave type. We explored various methods to reduce the noise in the deconvolved STFs which tend to be higher for the relatively weaker Pg, Sn, Pn and coda waves. For example, an array-stacking method is used to enhance source pulses and reduce the level of side-lobes. Preliminary results suggest that Lg and Lg coda STFs may be similar, as generally believed. Pg STF is less similar to Lg STF. For example, when a stacked Lg STF is clearly asymmetric with a sharp-rise time, the stack Pg STF seems to be fairly symmetric. In general, our confidence on this kind of dissimilarity is still limited by the non-diminishing deconvolution noise in the retrieved Pg STFs, and by the small number of events studied. We are trying to further reduce the deconvolution noise for each regional wave, and find and analyze more moderate events. We will present newly-retrieved STFs from each of the various regional waves and coda, and compare the pulse widths and shapes of the STFs from different waves. We will also present estimates of source-radiated energy and apparent stresses using the estimated Lg STFs without using various simplified source models and Q corrections.

  6. Spatiotemporal analysis of droughts using self-calibrating Palmer's Drought Severity Index in the central region of South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edossa, Desalegn C.; Woyessa, Yali E.; Welderufael, Worku A.

    2016-11-01

    The loss of life and property from drought events has forced society to focus on the development of reliable early warning systems which may enable farmers and other stakeholders to correctly and timely adapt to the expected impacts of climatic hazard. However, a scientific approach to a reliable early warning system for a region requires, among others, characterisation of drought events in the region in terms of duration, magnitude, intensity and frequency using standard drought indices. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify and characterise drought events in the Modder River basin, central region of South Africa, using a self-calibrated Palmer's Drought Severity Index (sc-PDSI). Attempts were also made to establish a relationship between meteorological and hydrological drought events in the region. During the period of analysis, the total number of drought episodes identified in the study area ranged between eight and sixteen. It was found that the most severe drought episodes occurred during the period 1992-1995 followed by the period 1982-1987. Results of analysis of seasonal drought events in one of the quaternary catchments (C52A) revealed that peak drought events during the three summer months (November, December and January) occurred in the area in 1993. However, in terms of event magnitude and intensity, the worst drought events were recorded during the period December 1982-July 1987, followed by the event that ensued during December 1989-September 1995. Results of analysis of decadal variation of drought events showed that the number of extreme and moderate drought events recorded in the catchment showed statistically significant increasing trends during the five decades at 5 % significance level. Moreover, spectral analysis of sc-PDSI time series in the region identified periodicities in the time series ranging from 6 years (C52E) to 16 years (C52K). In terms of the spatial extent of extreme drought events, the maximum areal coverage (91

  7. Health disparities among the western, central and eastern rural regions of China after a decade of health promotion and disease prevention programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi-Fan; Tian, Xiang-Yang; Cheng, Yu-Lan; Feng, Zhan-Chun; Wang, Liang; Southerland, Jodi

    2015-08-01

    Health disparities between the western, central and eastern regions of rural China, and the impact of national health improvement policies and programming were assessed. A total of 400 counties were randomly sampled. ANOVA and Logistic regression modeling were employed to estimate differences in health outcomes and determinants. Significant differences were found between the western, central and eastern rural regions in community infrastructure and health outcomes. From 2000 to 2010, health indicators in rural China were improved significantly, and the infant mortality rate (IMR), maternal mortality rate (MMR) and under 5 mortality rate (U5MR) had fallen by 62.79%, 71.74% and 61.92%, respectively. Central rural China had the greatest decrease in IMR (65.05%); whereas, western rural China had the greatest reduction in MMR (72.99%) but smallest reduction in U5MR (57.36%). Despite these improvements, Logistic regression analysis showed regional differences in key health outcome indicators (odds ratios): IMR (central: 2.13; western: 5.31), U5MR (central: 2.25; western: 5.69), MMR (central: 1.94; western: 3.31), and prevalence of infectious diseases (central: 1.62; western: 3.58). The community infrastructure and health outcomes of the western and central rural regions of China have been improved markedly during the first decade of the 21st century. However, health disparities still exist across the three regions. National efforts to increase per capita income, community empowerment and mobilization, community infrastructure, capacity of rural health facilities, and health literacy would be effective policy options to attain health equity.

  8. Increased wetness confounds Landsat-derived NDVI trends in the central Alaska North Slope region, 1985-2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynolds, Martha K.; Walker, Donald A.

    2016-08-01

    Satellite data from the circumpolar Arctic have shown increases in vegetation indices correlated to warming air temperatures (e.g. Bhatt et al 2013 Remote Sensing 5 4229-54). However, more information is needed at finer scales to relate the satellite trends to vegetation changes on the ground. We examined changes using Landsat TM and ETM+ data between 1985 and 2011 in the central Alaska North Slope region, where the vegetation and landscapes are relatively well-known and mapped. We calculated trends in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and tasseled-cap transformation indices, and related them to high-resolution aerial photographs, ground studies, and vegetation maps. Significant, mostly negative, changes in NDVI occurred in 7.3% of the area, with greater change in aquatic and barren types. Large reflectance changes due to erosion, deposition and lake drainage were evident. Oil industry-related changes such as construction of artificial islands, roads, and gravel pads were also easily identified. Regional trends showed decreases in NDVI for most vegetation types, but increases in tasseled-cap greenness (56% of study area, greatest for vegetation types with high shrub cover) and tasseled-cap wetness (11% of area), consistent with documented degradation of polygon ice wedges, indicating that increasing cover of water may be masking increases in vegetation when summarized using the water-sensitive NDVI.

  9. Mutation Status and Immunoglobulin Gene Rearrangements in Patients from Northwest and Central Region of Spain with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. González-Gascón y Marín

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency and mutation status of the immunoglobulin heavy variable chain (IGHV in a cohort of 224 patients from northwest and central region of Spain diagnosed with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL, and to correlate it with cytogenetic abnormalities, overall survival (OS and time to first treatment (TTFT. 125 patients had mutated IGHV, while 99 had unmutated IGHV. The most frequently used IGHV family was IGHV3, followed by IGHV1 and IGHV4. The regions IGHV3-30, IGHV1-69, IGHV3-23, and IGHV4-34 were the most commonly used. Only 3.1% of the patients belonged to the subfamily IGHV3-21 and we failed to demonstrate a worse clinical outcome in this subgroup. The IGHV4 family appeared more frequently with mutated pattern, similar to IGHV3-23 and IGHV3-74. By contrast, IGHV1-69 was expressed at a higher frequency in unmutated CLL patients. All the cases from IGHV3-11 and almost all from IGHV5-51 subfamily belonged to the group of unmutated CLL.

  10. Analysis of 15 autosomal STR loci from Mar del Plata and Bahia Blanca (Central Region of Argentina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parolin, María Laura; Carreras-Torres, Robert; Sambuco, Lorena Andrea; Jaureguiberry, Stella Maris; Iudica, Celia Estela

    2014-05-01

    Allele frequencies for the 15 short tandem repeats (STRs) loci included in the AmpFlSTR® Identifiler kit were estimated in a sample of unrelated individuals from Mar del Plata (MDQ; N = 180) and Bahia Blanca (BB; N = 85) (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Biological samples were obtained from voluntary donors and forensic cases. Both populations were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium after Bonferroni correction, except for locus vWA in MDQ and D2S1338 in BB. FGA was the most informative locus, and the least discriminating locus was TPOX in both samples. The combined power of discrimination (PDc) and the combined probability of exclusion (PEc) were similar in MDQ and BB samples (0.999999998 < PDc < 0.999999999 and 0.999999979 < PEc < 0.999999989). The multidimentional scaling plot from Rst genetic distance matrix and the interethnic admixture estimation supported a higher European contribution in populations of the central region compared with populations from other regions of Argentina with higher Amerindian composition. These results enlarge the Argentine databases of autosomal STR loci, revealed as an excellent tool for human identification tests and population genetic analysis.

  11. Pharmaco-epidemiological description of the population of the Marche Region (central Italy treated with the antipsychotic drug olanzapine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiorenzo Mignini

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. In Italy, even though olanzapine has been discouraged for treatment of behaviour disorders in older patients affected by dementia, some physicians chose to prescribe for them. In response to this situation, the Italian Drug Agency (Agenzia Italiana del Farmaco, AIFA promulgated a cautionary note. MATERIALS AND METHODS. This study examined epidemiological indices for olanzapine prescriptions between 2004 and 2007 in the Marche Region of central Italy and in its provinces, to assess physician compliance with the AIFA note, and to determine whether there were differences in drug prescription between populations of the same territory, or differences based on gender or age group. RESULTS. Our analyses revealed high olanzapine use among young men and mature women, suggesting that these groups are most prone to psychotic symptoms. Analysis revealed that olanzapine prescription in elderly patients was reduced in some provinces, in line with the AIFA note. CONCLUSIONS. Prudent use of olanzapine prescription, in compliance with the AIFA note, was noted throughout the Region. Furthermore, this work offers details that may be useful in future studies of adverse drug reactions.

  12. Crustal structure of the Bighorn Mountains region: Precambrian influence on Laramide shortening and uplift in north-central Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthington, Lindsay L.; Miller, Kate C.; Erslev, Eric A.; Anderson, Megan L.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Sheehan, Anne F.; Yeck, William L.; Harder, Steven H.; Siddoway, Christine S.

    2016-01-01

    The crustal structure of north-central Wyoming records a history of complex lithospheric evolution from Precambrian accretion to Cretaceous-Paleogene Laramide shortening. We present two active source P wave velocity model profiles collected as part of the Bighorn Arch Seismic Experiment in 2010. Analyses of these velocity models and single-fold reflection data, together with potential field modeling of regional gravity and magnetic signals, constrain crustal structure and thickness of the Bighorn region. We image a west dipping reflection boundary and model a sharp magnetic contact east of the Bighorn Arch that together may delineate a previously undetected Precambrian suture zone. Localized patches of a high-velocity, high-density lower crustal layer (the "7.× layer") occur across the study area but are largely absent beneath the Bighorn Arch culmination. Moho topography is relatively smooth with no large-scale offsets, with depths ranging from ~50 to 37 km, and is largely decoupled from Laramide basement topography. These observations suggest that (1) the edge of the Archean Wyoming craton lies just east of the Bighorn Mountains, approximately 300 km west of previous interpretations, and (2) Laramide deformation localized in an area with thin or absent 7.× layer, due to its relatively weak lower crust, leading to detachment faulting. Our findings show that Precambrian tectonics in northern Wyoming may be more complicated than previously determined and subsequent Laramide deformation may have been critically dependent on laterally heterogeneous crustal structure that can be linked to Precambrian origins.

  13. Occurrence of Salmonella in swine in the Latium Region (central Italy) from 1980 to 1989: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Guardo, G; Fontanelli, G; Panfili, G; Condoleo, R; De Grossi, L; Brozzi, A M; Bozzano, A I

    1992-04-01

    An extensive survey was carried out on 849 biological samples (dead animals, organs and viscera, faeces, and rectal swabs) from pigs in the Latium Region (Central Italy) throughout the years 1980-1989. In total, 46 of the samples (5.4%) were found to be bacteriologically positive for salmonellae. Among dead animals, typical gross lesions were observed in 6 clinically infected animals. As far as serotypes are concerned, 11 different ones were isolated, with a predominance of Salmonella typhimurium (26.1%), S. anatum (21.7%), S. bovis-morbificans (15.2%), and S. heidelberg (10.8%). According to Kauffmann-White's classification scheme, 39.1% of the isolated strains belonged to serogroup B, 13% to serogroup C1, 17.4% tot serogroup C2, 6.5% to serogroup D, and 23.9% to serogroup E1. In conclusion, the authors speculate that the relatively low Salmonella isolation frequency (5.4%) reported in this study was not dependent upon the cultural procedures used, since different enrichment and plating methods were used, but rather upon the great number of rural-type herds which were investigated over the decade compared to industrial-type herds. Other factors such as stress conditions, which are particularly pronounced in industrial-type herds, and overall climatic situations, which tend to be characterised by warm, dry and long summers in the Latium Region, are also considered in this respect.

  14. Fourier Decomposition of RR Lyrae light curves and the SX Phe population in the central region of NGC 3201

    CERN Document Server

    Ferro, A Arellano; Calderón, J H; Kains, N

    2014-01-01

    CCD time-series observations of the central region of the globular cluster NGC~3201 were obtained with the aim of performing the Fourier decomposition of the light curves of the RR~Lyrae stars present in that field. This procedure gave the mean values, for the metallicity, of [Fe/H]$_{ZW}=-1.483 \\pm 0.006$ (statistical) $\\pm 0.090$ (systematical), and for the distance, $5.000 \\pm 0.001$~kpc (statistical) $\\pm 0.220$ (systematical). The values found from two RRc stars are consistent with those derived previously. The differential reddening of the cluster was investigated and individual reddenings for the RR Lyrae stars were estimated from their $V-I$ curves. We found an average value of $E(B-V)= 0.23 \\pm 0.02$. An investigation of the light curves of stars in the {\\it blue stragglers} region led to the discovery of three new SX~Phe stars. The period-luminosity relation of the SX~Phe stars was used for an independent determination of the distance to the cluster and of the individual reddenings. We found a dista...

  15. The Central Valencian region in the context of the Neolithisation of the North-Western Mediterranean facade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García Atiénzar, Gabriel

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The process of neolithisation of the Mediterranean facade of the Iberian Peninsula has traditionally been associated with the cardial paradigm of the french-iberian region. However, better knowledge of the material record from the north-western Mediterranean arc, the revision of various archaeological sites of the central Valencian region and observation of the patterns of occupation and exploitation of territory in the western Mediterranean allow us to propose a process of Neolithic introduction that is more complex than previously thought and be linked with the world of the Mediterranean impressed pottery.

    El proceso de neolitización de la fachada mediterránea peninsular se ha asociado tradicionalmente al paradigma cardial del ámbito franco-ibérico. No obstante, el mejor conocimiento del registro material del arco noroccidental mediterráneo, la revisión de diversos conjuntos arqueológicos de las comarcas centromeridionales valencianas y la observación de los patrones de ocupación y explotación del territorio en el Mediterráneo occidental permiten proponer un proceso de implantación neolítica más complejo del considerado hasta ahora que se puede enlazar con el mundo de la ceramica impressa mediterránea.

  16. ESTIMATED DATE OF COMPLETION OF THE PLANNED MOTORWAY SEGMENTS IN THE CENTRAL, NORTH-WESTERN AND WESTERN REGIONS OF ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CSUTAK ISTVAN

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Romania’s highways are standing ahead of considerably high investments. In the last few decades thetransport infrastructure has been pushed into the background due to lack of financial support. The 21st Centuryhas brought important breakthroughs in the building of highways. In the report on global risks in 2013published by WEF (World Economic Forum the "The prolonged neglect of infrastructure" is being consideredsuch a risk. Our study focuses on the construction works that have been carried out in the Central, North-Western and Western regions of Romania. The highways of the above mentioned regions will be analysed basedon three main points of focus: highways that have already been built, highways currently under construction andhighways that are planned to be built. The aim is to present and compare the 3 regions’ highway infrastructure,determination of an approximate end date for the highways that are currently under construction. It has beenconcluded, that until 2013 the construction work on segments funded by the EU progressed much faster, than theones funded by the government. The results of the study refer to how soon could the construction works reach anend on segments currently in progress.

  17. Impact of climate Change on Groundwater Recharge in the Tiber River Basin (Central Italy) Using Regional Climate model Outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muluneh, F. B.; Setegn, S. G.; Melesse, A. M.; Fiori, A.

    2011-12-01

    Quantification of the various components of hydrological processes in a watershed remains a challenging topic as the hydrological system is altered by many internal and external drivers. Changes in climate variables can affect the quantity and quality of various components of hydrological cycle. Among others, the local effects of climate change on groundwater resources were not fully studied in different part of the world as compared to the surface water. Moreover, understanding the potential impact of climate change on groundwater is more complex than surface water. The main objective of this study is to analyze the potential impact of climate change on Groundwater recharge in the Tiber River Basin using outputs from Regional Climate model. In this study, a physically-based watershed model called Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) was used to estimate recharge characteristics and its response to climate change in Tiber River Basin (central Italy). The SWAT model was successfully calibrated and validated using observed weather and flow data for the period of 1963-1970 and 1971-1978 respectively. During calibration, the model was highly sensitivity to groundwater flow parameters. Dynamically downscaled rainfall and temperature datasets from ten Regional Climate Models (RCM) archived in 'Prediction of Regional scenarios and Uncertainties for Defining EuropeaN Climate change risks and Effects (PRUDENCE)' were used to force the model to assess the climate change impact on the study area. A quantile-mapping statistical correction procedure was applied to the RCM dataset to correct the inherent systematic biases. The climate change analysis indicated that by the end of 2080s the rainfall was found to decrease nearly up to 40% in dry period and there was an increase in temperature that could reach as high as 3 to 5 oC. By the end of 2080s the ground water recharge shows a decreasing trend as a response to changes in rainfall. However as the timing of both precipitation and

  18. Evaluating the potential for catastrophic fault-rupture-related hazards affecting a key hydroelectric and irrigation region in central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, D.; Korjenkov, A.; Tibaldi, A.; Usmanova, M.

    2009-04-01

    The Toktogul hydroelectric and irrigation scheme is the largest in central Asia, with a reservoir containing almost 20 km3 of water behind a 230 m-high dam. Annually, the scheme generates 1200 MW of electricity that is distributed over Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Kazakhstan and Russia. The scheme is vital for the economic, social and agricultural stability and development of the emerging central Asian republics it serves and, since it is no longer administered centrally as it was in Soviet times, is increasingly the focus of cross-border tensions involving competing needs for irrigation water and power supplies. Our work aims to identify and evaluate potential geo-environmental threats to this region for the benefit of stakeholders; with recommendations for measures to mitigate a range of threat scenarios, presented in a user-friendly GIS format. Most notably these scenarios involve the potential for very large magnitude earthquakes, with associated widespread slope instability, occurring on the little known Talas - Fergana fault. This structure, some 700 km long, bisects the Toktogul region within the actively (~20 mm a-1) contracting Tien Shan mountain range and exhibits geological characteristics similar to large strike-slip faults such as the San Andreas. Historical records are limited in this inaccessible mountainous region that, until Soviet times, was occupied by mainly nomadic peoples, but do not indicate recent fault rupture. This highlights the role of geological investigations in assembling a record of past catastrophic events to serve as a guide for what may be expected in the future, as well as the inherent difficulties in attempting geological forecasts to a precision that is useful on human timescales. Such forecasts in this region must also include the presence of some 23 uranium mining waste dumps within the mountain valleys, a legacy from Soviet times, as well as arsenic-rich waste dumps remaining from an earlier era of gold mining. Many

  19. Functional interpretation of representative soil spatial-temporal variability at the Central region of European territory of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I.

    2012-04-01

    The essential spatial and temporal variability is mutual feature for most natural and man-changed soils at the Central region of European territory of Russia. The original spatial heterogeneity of forest and forest-steppe soils has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions due to environmental changes and human impacts. For demand-driven land-use planning and decision making the quantitative analysis, modeling and functional-ecological interpretation of representative soil cover patterns spatial variability is an important and challenging task that receives increasing attention from scientific society, private companies, governmental and environmental bodies. On basis of long-term different-scale soil mapping, key plot investigation, land quality and land-use evaluation, soil forming and degradation processes modeling, functional-ecological typology of the zonal set of elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) has been done in representative natural and man transformed ecosystems of the forest, forest-steppe and steppe zones at the Central region of European territory of Russia (ETR). The validation and ranging of the limiting factors of functional quality and ecological state have been made for dominating and most dynamical components of ESCP regional-typological forms - with application of local GIS, traditional regression kriging and correlation tree models. Development, zonal-regional differentiation and verification of the basic set of criteria and algorithms for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature forests mutual for them the windthrow impacts and lateral processes make SFPs more active and complex both in

  20. Gender Role Attitudes among Higher Education Students in a Borderland Central-Eastern European Region called ‘Partium’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajnalka Fényes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we examine the attitudes towards gender roles among higher education students in a borderland Central-Eastern European region. We used the database of ‘The Impact of Tertiary Education on Regional Development’ project (N=602, 2010. We intend to determine what kind of attitudes towards gender roles the students identify themselves with, what affects these attitudes (gender, faculty type, social background of students, locality type, religiosity, and finally what kind of educational policy implications could be relevant concerning our findings. We have used cluster analysis and a logistic regression model, and formulated several hypotheses that were controlled by these methods. Our results show that there are a large number of students who belong to the more traditional attitude cluster in this region, but women more frequently identify themselves with modern gender roles than men do. The faculty-type effect has only been partly detected. We have found that with ‘male-dominated’ majors, both women and men identify themselves with more traditional attitudes and that with ‘female-dominated’ majors all students have more modern attitudes. The effect of social background is contradictory. Those whose parents had larger numbers of books had increased modern attitudes, but the factor ‘regular financial problems in the family’ also increased it. Our next result is that students who live in villages are not more traditional than others, because they live in cities during their studies. Our final result is that churchly religious students think more traditionally regarding gender roles than others do, but those who are religious in their own way do not.

  1. New finding of micro-diamonds in eclogites from Dabie-Sulu region in central-eastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Micro-diamonds were only found ten years ago in eclogite associated with marble at Xindian in the Dabie Mountains. This paper reports our new finding of micro-diamonds not only in eclogites at Maobei in the Sulu region and at Xindian and Laoyoufang in the south part of the Dabie Mountains (South Dabie), but also in eclogites at Baizhangya and Huangweihe in the northern part of the Dabie Mountains (North Dabie) that has usually been considered not to experience ultrahigh pressure metamorphism. Except the micro-diamond at Huangweihe that was found from the artificial heavy sands of zircons used for isotopic dating, the micro-diamonds from other localities were identified in thin sections of the eclogites. Besides a few interstitial grains, most of the micro-diamond grains in thin sections occur as inclusion in garnet. Three crystals of micro- diamond at Maobei in the Sulu region are sized in 120, 60 and 30 (m, respectively. Crystal forms look like octahedron and the composite of octahedron and hexahedron. The largest micro-diamond crystal comes from Xindian, which is measured to be 180 (m in diameter with distinct zonal structure and inclusions. The zonal structure occurs as an inclined octahedron inside rounded by an incomplete hexagonal girdle. A smaller micro-diamond inclusion occurs inside the central octahedron, and a larger graphite inclusion is within the outer zone. The Laoyoufang micro-diamond is partially retrograded to graphite. Micro-diamond from the Baizhangya eclogite in the ultramafic rock belt of North Dabie is an aggregate of 70 (m×90 (m in size. All the micro-diamonds are confirmed by the Raman spectrum analysis. The occurrence of the micro-diamonds from the eclogites in the ultramafic rock belt of North Dabie demonstrates that this region was also subjected to ultrahigh pressure metamorphism as well as the South Dabie did.

  2. Future of water resources in the Aral Sea Region, Central Asia - Reality-checked climate model projections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asokan, Shilpa M.; Destouni, Georgia

    2014-05-01

    The future of water resources in a region invariably depends on its historic as well as present water use management policy. In order to understand the past hydro-climatic conditions and changes, one needs to analyze observation data and their implications for climate and hydrology, such as Temperature, Precipitation, Runoff and Evapotranspiration in the region. In addition to the changes in climate, human re-distribution of water through land- and water­use changes is found to significantly alter the water transfer from land to atmosphere through an increase or decrease in evapotranspiration. The Aral region in Central Asia, comprising the Aral Sea Drainage Basin and the Aral Sea, is an example case where the human induced changes in water-use have led to one of the worst environmental disasters of our time, the desiccation of the Aral Sea. Identification of the historical hydro-climatic changes that have happened in this region and their drivers is required before one can project future changes to water and its availability in the landscape. Knowledge of the future of water resources in the Aral region is needed for planning to meet increasing water and food demands of the growing population in conjunction with ecosystem sustainability. In order to project future scenarios of water on land, the Global Climate Model (GCM) ensemble of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, Phase 5 (CMIP5) was analyzed for their performance against hydrologically important, basin-scale observational climate and hydrological datasets. We found that the ensemble mean of 22 GCMs over-estimated the observed temperature by about 1°C for the historic period of 1961-1990. For the future extreme climate scenario RCP8.5 the increase in temperature was projected to be about 5°C by 2070-2099, the accuracy of which is questionable from identified biases of GCMs and their ensemble results compared with observations for the period 1961-1990. In particular, the water balance components

  3. Central Region Green Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This Green Infrastructure data is comprised of 3 similar ecological corridor data layers ? Metro Conservation Corridors, green infrastructure analysis in counties...

  4. Regional implications of new chronostratigraphic and paleogeographic data from the Early Permian Darwin Basin, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Calvin H.; Stone, Paul; Magginetti, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    The Darwin Basin developed in response to episodic subsidence of the western margin of the Cordilleran continental shelf from Late Pennsylvanian (Gzhelian) to Early Permian (late Artinskian) time. Subsidence of the basin was initiated in response to continental truncation farther to the west and was later augmented by thrust emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This deep-water basin was filled by voluminous fine-grained siliciclastic turbidites and coarse-grained limestone-gravity-flow deposits. Most of this sediment was derived from the Bird Spring carbonate shelf and cratonal platform to the northeast or east, but some came from an offshore tectonic ridge (Conglomerate Mesa Uplift) to the west that formed at the toe of the Last Chance allochthon. At one point in the late Artinskian the influx of extrabasinal sediment was temporarily cut off, resulting in deposition of a unique black limestone that allows precise correlation throughout the basin. Deep-water sedimentation in the Darwin Basin ended by Kungurian time when complex shallow-water to continental sedimentary facies spread across the region. Major expansion of the Darwin Basin occurred soon after the middle Sakmarian emplacement of the Last Chance allochthon. This tectonic event was approximately coeval with deformation in northeastern Nevada that formed the deep-water Dry Mountain Trough. We herein interpret the two basins to have been structurally continuous. Deposition of the unique black limestone is interpreted to mark a eustatic sea level rise that also can be recognized in Lower Permian sections in east-central Nevada and central Arizona.

  5. Changes in Central European Soil Moisture Availability and Atmospheric Circulation Patterns between 1875 and 2005 - Regional Climate Change in Progress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trnka, M.; Kysely, J.; Dubrovsky, M.; Mozny, M.; Hostynek, J.; Svoboda, M.; Hayes, M. J.; Zalud, Z.

    2007-12-01

    Relationships between the soil moisture availability and the atmospheric circulation in Central Europe were analyzed for the period 1881-2005. The analysis was based on the Hess-Brezowsky catalogue of circulation types (CTs), and a series of weekly self-calibrated Palmer Z-index (scZ-index) and Palmer Drought Severity Index (scPDSI) values at seven stations where high-quality daily data has recently become available. The results show that the large-scale droughts during spring months (MAM) were associated with east (E), south (S), and south- east (SE) circulation types, whereas during summer (JJA) and the whole vegetation season, i.e., April-September (VEG), the Central Europe high pressure systems (HM) and east (E) circulation types were conducive to drought. Statistically significant drying trends were noted at a majority of the stations, especially during MAM and JJA, over the whole period for which the scPDSI and scZ-index series were available (1875-2005). Although almost no statistically significant tendencies were found prior to 1940, a significant tendency towards more intense drought was present at all sites after this year. The largest drying trend was noted during the VEG and AMJ seasons. The overall drying trend might be associated with shifts in the frequency of CTs, especially during AMJ. Although the aggregate frequency of occurrence of drought-conducive CTs (i.e. E, S and HM) remained stable at approximately 30% up to the 1940s, a steady increase to the present 55% frequency is observed afterwards. Higher frequencies of S and HM types drove the observed increase of drought-conducive CTs at the expense of N types that are associated with wet conditions. The long-term shifts in the frequency of circulation types conducive to drought explain more than 50% of the long-term variations of both scZ-index and PDSI values over the territory of the Czech Republic, and they are likely to affect whole central European region as well. Acknowledgement: This study

  6. U-Pb age in zircon of intrusive granite at Acopiara complex, Crystal region, domain Central Ceara, Brazil; Idade U-PB em zircao de granito intrusivo no Complexo Acopiara, Regiao de Cristais, Dominio Ceara Central

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neri, T.F.O.; Hamelak, G.M.S.; Azevedo, L.R.; Mattos, I.C.; Verissimo, C.U.V.; Nogueira Neto, J.A., E-mail: neri@ufc.br [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza (Brazil). Departamento de Geologia; Lima, M.N. [Universidade Federal de Goias (UFGO), Goiania, GO (Brazil). Curso de Geologia

    2015-07-01

    Granitic body mineralogically composed by two micas, located at Crystal region, Ceara Central domain and intruded into lithotypes from Acopiara complex, provided an age of ∼526 Ma, indicating important period of magma generation of granitic composition associated with crustal anatexia, during Paleozoic.

  7. Single-earthquake Location Using 3-D Vp and Vs Model - Applications in the Central USA and Taiwan Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, J.; Chen, H.; Kim, K.; Pujol, J.; Chiu, S.; Withers, M.

    2003-12-01

    Traditional local earthquake location using a horizontally layered homogeneous velocity model is always limited in its resolution and reliability due to the existence of frequently overlooked 3- dimensional complexity of the real earth. Simultaneous earthquake relocation during a traditional 3-D seismic tomography has only applied to a limited set of selected earthquakes that more than 50% of earthquakes in a catalog are basically ignored. A new earthquake location program has been developed to locate every local earthquake using the best available 3-D Vp and Vs model for a region. Many modern seismic networks have provided excellent spatial coverage of seismic stations to record high-resolution earthquake data to allow the determination of high-resolution 3-D Vp and Vs velocity model for the region. Once Vp and Vs information for all 3-D grid points are available, travel time from each grid point to all seismic stations can be calculated using any available 3-D ray tracing techniques and be stored in computer files for later usage. Travel times from a trial hypocenter to the recording stations can be interpolated simply from those of the adjacent 8 grid points available in computer files without the very time consuming 3-D ray tracing. Iterations continue until the hypocenter adjustments are less than the given criteria and the travel time residual, or the difference between the observed and the calculated travel times, is a minimum. Therefore, any earthquake, no matter how small or how big it is, will be efficiently and reliably located using the 3-D velocity model. This new location program has been applied to the New Madrid seismic zone of the central USA and in various seismic zones in Taiwan region. Preliminary results in these two regions indicate that earthquake hypocenters can be reliably relocated in spite of the very significant lateral structural variations. This location program can also be applied in routine earthquake location for any seismic network

  8. EMS-physicians' self reported airway management training and expertise; a descriptive study from the Central Region of Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rognås Leif K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prehospital advanced airway management, including prehospital endotracheal intubation is challenging and recent papers have addressed the need for proper training, skill maintenance and quality control for emergency medical service personnel. The aim of this study was to provide data regarding airway management-training and expertise from the regional physician-staffed emergency medical service (EMS. Methods The EMS in this part of The Central Region of Denmark is a two tiered system. The second tier comprises physician staffed Mobile Emergency Care Units. The medical directors of the programs supplied system data. A questionnaire addressing airway management experience, training and knowledge was sent to the EMS-physicians. Results There are no specific guidelines, standard operating procedures or standardised program for obtaining and maintaining skills regarding prehospital advanced airway management in the schemes covered by this study. 53/67 physicians responded; 98,1% were specialists in anesthesiology, with an average of 17,6 years of experience in anesthesiology, and 7,2 years experience as EMS-physicians. 84,9% reported having attended life support course(s, 64,2% an advanced airway management course. 24,5% fulfilled the curriculum suggested for Danish EMS physicians. 47,2% had encountered a difficult or impossible PHETI, most commonly in a patient in cardiac arrest or a trauma patient. Only 20,8% of the physicians were completely familiar with what back-up devices were available for airway management. Conclusions In this, the first Danish study of prehospital advanced airway management, we found a high degree of experience, education and training among the EMS-physicians, but their equipment awareness was limited. Check-outs, guidelines, standard operating procedures and other quality control measures may be needed.

  9. Technical Education and Vocational Training in Central Africa. Feasibility Survey of the Regional Development of Rapid Vocational Training: Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, and Gabon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organization for Rehabilitation through Training, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This final report is the result of a survey requested by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and undertaken by the Organization for Rehabilitation through Training (ORT) of four countries (Cameroon, Chad, Central African Republic, and Gabon) and a conference on vocational training sponsored by the Economic and Customs…

  10. Molecular characterisation of Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs in the South Central region of the State of São Paulo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Zucatto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the proximity of sheep farmers to animals that are possibly diseased or releasing fecal oocysts into the environment and the marked pathogenicity in lambs, the aim of this study was to determine the occurrence and to molecularly characterize the infection by Cryptosporidium spp. in lambs in the South Central region of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 193 fecal samples were collected from sheep of several breeds, males and females, aged up to one year. Polymerase chain reaction (nested-PCR was used to amplify DNA fragments from the subunit 18S rRNA gene and indicated 15% positivity; sequencing of amplified fragments was possible for 19 samples. Analysis of the obtained sequences showed that the identified species were Cryptosporidium xiaoi for 15 samples, constituting thus the first molecular characterization study of this Cryptosporidium species in Brazil. Cryptosporidium ubiquitum was identified for three samples and Cryptosporidium meleagridis for one sample; the latter two are considered zoonotic species.

  11. An Assessment of the Nutritional Status of under Five Children in Four Districts in the Central Region of Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayensu Eunice

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The study determined the nutritional status of under five children in Komenda Edina EguafoAbirem (KEEA districts in Central region, Ghana. Weight and height measurements for 120 children selected from 4 clusters were taken and survey data collected by structured questionnaire from mothers of the selected children. Prevalence of underweight/severely underweight stunting/severely stunted and wasting/severely wasted was 13.3%, 34.2% and 10.8% respectively. Results also indicated that stunting, wasting and underweight were more prevalent in girls than in boys and in children aged >2 - 5 years than those <2 years. Wasting only occurred in a small percentage of the boys and girls, and children <2 years.Survey revealed that there is a significant association between nutritional status of children and mothers’ age, education, nutrition knowledge and feeding practices. Wald statistics and confidence intervals after adjusting for mother’s age, education, occupation, father’s occupation and feeding practices showed mothers nutrition knowledge, feeding practices and mothers’ education as predictors of children nutrition status.Curbing teenage pregnancy, encouraging girls to pursue education, developing and implementing a comprehensive nutrition education programme for mothers with emphasis on providing quality nutritious and adequate food to children is highly recommended.

  12. Carbon Emission from Forest Fires on Scots Pine Logging Sites in the Angara Region of Central Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.; McRae, D. J.; Kukavskaya, E. A.; Bogorodskaya, A. V.; Kovaleva, N. M.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfire and large-scale forest harvesting are the two major disturbances in the Russian boreal forests. Non-recovered logged sites total about a million hectares in Siberia. Logged sites are characterized by higher fire hazard than forest sites due to the presence of generally untreated logging slash (i.e., available fuel) which dries out much more rapidly compared to understory fuels. Moreover, most logging sites can be easily accessed by local population; this increases the risk for fire ignition. Fire impacts on the overstory trees, subcanopy woody layer, and ground vegetation biomass were estimated on 14 logged and unlogged comparison sites in the Lower Angara Region in 2009-2010 as part of the NASA-funded NEESPI project, The Influence of Changing Forestry Practices on the Effects of Wildfire and on Interactions Between Fire and Changing Climate in Central Siberia. Based on calculated fuel consumption, we estimated carbon emission from fires on both logged and unlogged burned sites. Carbon emission from fires on logged sites appeared to be twice that on unlogged sites. Soil respiration decreased on both site types after fires. This reduction may partially offset fire-produced carbon emissions. Carbon emissions from fire and post-fire ecosystem damage on logged sites are expected to increase under changing climate conditions and as a result of anticipated increases in future forest harvesting in Siberia.

  13. The Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo diet in the Trøndelag region (Central Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obuch Ján

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Between 2008 and 2015 we collected pellets of the Eurasian eagle-owl (Bubo bubo in the Trøndelag region of central Norway and identified the food remains in these samples. We collected material at 45 sites with samples from a total of 76 nests. Some of the samples were from older and already abandoned nests, but at several sites we also found and collected fresh B. bubo pellets. In total 40,766 items of prey were identified from the osteological material. The most dominant food components were mammals (Mammalia, 25 species, 63.5%. The species representation of birds was very diverse (Aves, more than 150 species, 19.4%. Of amphibians (Amphibia, 1 6.8%, the well-represented species were Rana temporaria. Fish (Pisces, 0.3% were represented rarely, while invertebrates were represented only sporadically (Invertebrata, 0.05%. A special composition was found in the diet spectra of the mammals and birds in the mountainous areas at altitudes between 220-780 m above sea level. The highest proportion of frogs was found in areas in the proximity of the mainland shore. On the northern islands located near the coast a significant proportion of the B. bubo diet consisted of rodents (Rodentia. On the more isolated southern islands of Frøya, Hitra and Storfosna the main prey was sea birds, and of the mammals there were also hedgehogs and rats.

  14. Hydrogeology of the cave Vetrovna jama in karst aquifer north from Planinsko polje (Notranjska region, central Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franci Gabrovšek

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available For one year we have been measuring level and temperature of underground water in Vetrovna jama, to find outthe origin of underground water and hydraulic characteristics of the cave and karst aquifer north east of Planinsko polje (karst of Notranjska region, central Slovenia. Similar parameters as in Vetrovna jama were measured also at the Unica River and at the Cerknica Lake. Cave is located only 2.7 km north from the polje and is fed by the Unica River, according to measurements. But in contrast with our expectations, we did not directly detect undergroundwater flow, which drains from the Cerknica Lake. Hydrographs measured in Vetrovna jama were compared with those measured in some other caves within the aquifer. Hydrographs from Vetrovna jama are only partly comparablewith hydrographs obtained in other monitored caves, as comparison shows no statistical significant correlation.Final conclusion would be that drainage of water between “eastern” and “western” part of karst aquifer islimited. More over, out flow from Vetrovna jama strongly depends on local hydrogeological restriction, such as supposedrockfall under Laška kukava collapse doline.

  15. [Intoxication due to pesticides in the central northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil - 2002 to 2011].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neves, Pedro Dias Mangolini; Bellini, Marcella

    2013-11-01

    This research is based on epidemiological records of toxicological occurrences in individual records of investigation into pesticide poisoning at the Maringá Intoxication Control Center at the Regional University Hospital of Maringá. The intoxications in patients poisoned from 2002 to 2011, in towns that comprise the Central Northern Paraná Geographic Mesoregion where Maringá is located, were taken into consideration in this study. As a result, it was established that approximately 67.12% of those poisoned were males, the age groups most affected are 20-29 years old and 30-39 years old. Suicide attempts appear as the main motivation for hospitalization (possibly disguising the chronic intoxication), and mainly insecticides and herbicides are involved in the poisonings, with 62.60% and 26%, respectively. Lastly, the urgent need for public health policies in to reduce this statistic immediately is self-evident, as these poisonings are the ones recorded, as those resulting from food poisoning are not being computed.

  16. Exploring the crowded central region of 10 Galactic globular clusters using EMCCDs. Variable star searches and new discoveries

    CERN Document Server

    Jaimes, R Figuera; Skottfelt, J; Kains, N; Jørgensen, U G; Horne, K; Dominik, M; Alsubai, K A; Bozza, V; Novati, S Calchi; Ciceri, S; D'Ago, G; Galianni, P; Gu, S -H; Harpsøe, K B W; Haugbølle, T; Hinse, T C; Hundertmark, M; Juncher, D; Korhonen, H; Liebig, C; Mancini, L; Popovas, A; Rabus, M; Rahvar, S; Scarpetta, G; Schmidt, R W; Snodgrass, C; Southworth, J; Starkey, D; Street, R A; Surdej, J; Wang, X -B; Wertz, O

    2015-01-01

    Obtain time-series photometry of the very crowded central regions of Galactic globular clusters with better angular resolution than previously achieved with conventional CCDs on ground-based telescopes to complete, or improve, the census of the variable star population in those stellar systems. Images were taken using the Danish 1.54-m Telescope at the ESO observatory at La Silla in Chile. The telescope was equipped with an electron-multiplying CCD and the short-exposure-time images obtained (10 images per second) were stacked using the shift-and-add technique to produce the normal-exposure-time images (minutes). Photometry was performed via difference image analysis. Automatic detection of variable stars in the field was attempted. The light curves of 12541 stars in the cores of 10 globular clusters were statistically analysed in order to automatically extract the variable stars. We obtained light curves for 31 previously known variable stars (3 L, 2 SR, 20 RR Lyrae, 1 SX Phe, 3 cataclysmic variables, 1 EW a...

  17. The substellar mass function in the central region of the open cluster Praesepe from deep LBT observations

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Wei; Goldman, Bertrand; Henning, Thomas; Caballero, Jose A; Bailer-Jones, Coryn A L

    2011-01-01

    Studies of the mass function (MF) of open clusters of different ages allow us to probe the efficiency with which brown dwarfs evaporate from clusters to populate the field. Surveys of older clusters (age >100 Myr) are not affected so severely by several problems encountered in young clusters, such as intra-cluster extinction and large uncertainties in brown dwarf models. We present the results of a deep photometric survey to study the MF of the central region of the old open cluster Praesepe (age~590$^{+150}_{-120}$ Myr, distance ~190$^{+6.0}_{-5.8}$ pc), down to the substellar regime. We performed an optical ($riz$ and $Y$-band) photometric survey of Praesepe using the Large Binocular Telescope Camera covering an area of ~0.59 deg$^2$ in the cluster centre from $i$~19.0 mag (~100 M_Jup) down to a 5$\\sigma$ detection limit at $i$~25.6mag (~40 M_Jup). The survey is approximately 95% complete at $i=23.8$ mag and $z=22.0$ mag (~55 M_Jup). We identify 59 cluster member candidates, of which 37 are substellar, by c...

  18. Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Hepatitis C Virus Infection among General Population in Central Region of Yemen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacche, Rajesh N.; Al-Mohani, Sadiq K.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) represents a major worldwide public health problem. Though several studies from Yemen have provided an estimate of the prevalence of this viral infection, there exist only few studies which reflect the status in the general population. Aim. The present study was designed to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis C infection among general population in central region of Yemen. Methods. The study population comprised 2,379 apparently healthy subjects who were screened for hepatitis C antibodies (HCV Abs) status using ELISA quantitative technique. Seroprevalence rate of seropositive subjects was calculated and stratified by age, sex, educational level, and monthly income. Results. The study showed that out of 2,379 subjects, 31 (1.3%) were HCV Abs positive. Higher prevalence of HCV Abs was found among females, 24 (1.01%), than males, 7 (0.29%). The age specific prevalence rose from 00 (0.00%) in subjects aged ≤14 years to a maximum of 9 (0.38%) in subjects aged ≥55 years. The prevalence of HCV Abs was more prevalent in illiterate subjects and increased with decreasing monthly income. Conclusion. It was found that variables including age and educational level were significantly associated with HCV Ab positivity and not associated with gender and monthly income. PMID:23320156

  19. Teaching Methods and Tools Used In Food Safety Extension Education Programs in the North Central Region of the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert A. Martin

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the ways to ensure food safety is to educate thepublic. Of the organizations providing food safety educationin the United States (U.S., the Cooperative Extension System(CES is one of the most reliable. The effectiveness CESprograms depends not only on what is being taught but also onhow it is taught. Both a needs-based curriculum and how thatcurriculum is delivered are equally important. This descriptivecross-sectional study using a disproportional stratified randomsample identified the teaching methods and tools being used byfood safety extension educators of the CES of North CentralRegion (NCR. A Likert-type scale administered to extensioneducators revealed that they were adopting a balanced use ofteaching methods and tools, and using learner-centered teachingmethods in their programs. However, distance education, casestudies and podcasts, which are commonly used in educationprograms, were not being used extensively. We recommend thatfood safety extension educators of NCR should increase the useof these two teaching methods and tool while continuing to usethe current ones. This study has implications for improving foodsafety education delivery to clients in the NCR and for designinginservice education for food safety extension educators

  20. Serological survey of viral hepatitis A, B, and C at Thai Central Region and Bangkok: a population base study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanasuwan, Winai; Sonji, Areeua; Tiengrim, Surapee; Techasathit, Wichai; Suwanagool, Surapol

    2004-06-01

    Hepatitis A, B, and C are important viral hepatitis infections in the Thai population. Hepatitis B vaccination was included in the Thai Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) 10 years ago. In addition, the seroprevalence of hepatitis A has significantly changed in the last two decades. This study was done to evaluate current risk groups for hepatitis A and B infections and identify the magnitude of hepatitis C infection in the general population of Bangkok and six provinces in the Central Region of Thailand, during the period October 2000 to January 2002. This study revealed that the prevalence of anti-HAV in people younger than 25 years was low but very high in people older than 25 years. The prevalence of anti-HAV was 1.95% in Bangkok and 12.7% in other provinces in people younger than 25 years (pBangkok and 88.2% in other provinces among people older than 25 years. Therefore, people who are older than 25 years should have a blood test for anti-HAV before getting a hepatitis A vaccination. Approximately 80% of people who are not covered by hepatitis B vaccination from EPI are at risk of hepatitis B infection and its complications. This group of people should receive hepatitis B vaccination. For hepatitis C, the prevalence is lower than 2% across age groups and areas. Therefore, current good primary prevention via blood donor screening and health education must be maintained.

  1. Airborne Geophysical Surveys in the North-Central Region of Goias (Brazil): Implications for Radiometric Characterization of Subtropical Soils

    CERN Document Server

    Guimarães, S N P; Justo, J S

    2011-01-01

    In this work we present progress obtained in analysis airborne geophysical survey data for the north-central region of the state of Goias (Brazil). The results obtained indicate that most of the subtropical soil types are characterized by Uranium contents of greater than one parts per million (ppm). Only ultisol and oxisol soils are found to have Uranium contents lower than one ppm. Thorium and Potassium abundances also display trends similar to those of Uranium. The K/U ratios fall in the expected range of values for common soils while the Th/U ratios are higher than normal. This latter observation may indicate a characteristic feature of subtropical soils. Alternatively it may be considered as indicative of disequilibrium conditions in radioactive series and consequent underestimation of Uranium in soil layers of the study area. In this context we point out the possibility of using results of radiometric surveys as a convenient complementary tool in identifying geochemical zoning of soils in subtropical env...

  2. Antimicrobial activity of some medicinal plants from the cerrado of the central-western region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Maria Póvoa Violante

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Ethanol extracts from six selected species from the Cerrado of the Central-Western region of Brazil, which are used in traditional medicine for the treatment of infectious diseases and other medical conditions, namely Erythroxylum suberosum St. Hil. (Erythroxylaceae, Hyptis crenata Pohl. ex Benth. (Lamiaceae, Roupala brasiliensis Klotz. (Proteaceae, Simarouba versicolor St. Hil. (Simaroubaceae, Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (Sterculiaceae and Protium heptaphyllum (Aubl. March. (Burseraceae, as well as fractions resulting from partition of these crude extracts, were screened in vitro for their antifungal and antibacterial properties. The antimicrobial activities were assessed by the broth microdilution assay against six control fungal strains, Candida albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis and Cryptococcus neoformans, and five control Gram-positive and negative bacterial strains, Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Toxicity of the extracts and fractions against Artemia salina was also evaluated in this work. All plants investigated showed antimicrobial properties against at least one microorganism and two species were also significantly toxic to brine shrimp larvae. The results tend to support the traditional use of these plants for the treatment of respiratory and gastrointestinal disorders and/or skin diseases, opening the possibility of finding new antimicrobial agents from these natural sources.Among the species investigated, Hyptis crenata, Erythroxylum suberosum and Roupala brasiliensis were considered the most promising candidates for developing of future bioactivity-guided phytochemical investigations.

  3. ECONOMIC & DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERICTICS, SOCIAL CAPITAL AND DEMAND FOR LIFE INSURANCE: EVIDENCE FROM CENTRAL REGION OF SRI LANKA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisira Kumara NARADDA GAMAGE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents findings of the determinants of demand for life insurance in the central region of Sri Lanka.  It is a novel study in the sense that it incorporated social capital as a determinant of demand for life insurance. Primary data has been collected through random sampling and the logistic model was used to examine the determinants of the demand for life insurance. Results confirmed that gender, income, trust and social capital has significant effect on demand for life insurance in the study area. Income and trust came out positive contributors of life insurance demand. However, it is worthy to note that although income has a positive effect on life insurance demand but its odds ratio makes it less important factor to influence demand for life insurance. Gender has deteriorated effect on demand for life insurance indicating that male household head less likely to purchase life insurance. Similarly, social capital also has a negative impact on demand for life insurance. Other determinants like age, religious status, working status, and education, has not significant effect on life insurance demand. Policies are recommended on research findings.

  4. Mitochondrial DNA sequence variation in Drosophilid species (Diptera: Drosophilidae) along altitudinal gradient from Central Himalayan region of India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MANISHA SARSWAT; SAURABH DEWAN; RAJENDRA SINGH FARTYAL

    2016-06-01

    Central Himalayan region of India encompasses varied ecological habitats ranging from near tropics to the mid-elevation forests dominated by cool-temperate taxa. In past, we have reported several new records and novel species from Uttarakhand state of India. Here, we assessed genetic variations in three mitochondrial genes, namely, 16S rRNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome c oxidase subunit II (COI and COII) in 26 drosophilid species collected along altitudinal transect from 550 to 2700 m above mean sea level. In the present study, overall 543 sequences were generated, 82 for 16S rRNA, 238 forCOI, 223 for COII with 21, 47 and 45 mitochondrial haplotypes for 16S rRNA, COI and COII genes,respectively. Almost all species were represented by 2–3 unique mitochondrial haplotypes, depicting a significant impact of environmental heterogeneity along altitudinal gradient on genetic diversity. Also for the first time, molecular data of some rare species like Drosophila mukteshwarensis , Liodrosophila nitida, Lordiphosa parantillaria , Lordiphosa ayarpathaensis ,Scaptomyza himalayana,Scaptomyza tistai , Zaprionus grandis and Stegana minuta are provided to public domains through this study.

  5. Evaluation of NEXRDA Stage III precipitation data over Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge: a semiarid region in Central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, H.; Zhou, X.; Hendrickx, J.; Guan, H.

    2006-05-01

    This study examines NEXRAD Stage III product (hourly, cell size 4 km by 4 km) for its ability in estimating precipitation over Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge: a semiarid region in Central New Mexico. A GIS-based NEXRAD data processing and visualization method is also presented. A comparison between Stage III and a network of gauge precipitation estimates during 1995 to 2001 indicates that Stage III (1) overestimates the hourly conditional mean precipitation (CM) by 33 percent in monsoon season and 55 percent in non-monsoon season; (2) overestimates the hourly CM for concurrent radar-gauge pairs (non-zero value) by 13 percent in monsoon season and 6 percent in non-monsoon season; (3) overestimates the seasonal precipitation accumulation by 11 to 88 percent in monsoon season and underestimates by 18 to 89 percent in non- monsoon season; and (4) either overestimates annual precipitation accumulation up to 28.2 percent or underestimates it up to 11.9 percent. More caution is suggested in using Stage III data for nonmonsoonal (stratiform) rainfall events (prior to the truncation fixed algorithm deployed in 2002), as the truncation error can be a significant drawback. While overestimates may suppress the truncation caused underestimates in the monsoon seasons.

  6. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in sewage sludge and effluents of sewage plants from a central region of Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamm, S. [eurofins/GfA, Muenster (Germany)

    2004-09-15

    Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) belong to the group of bromine-containing flame retardants. They are added to materials such as plastics, resins and textiles in percent concentrations to make them flameproof. While in former times also Penta and OctaBDE formulations were used, today mainly the technical DecaBDE is applied throughout Europe. Meanwhile PBDEs have been found in partly increasing concentrations in a number of aquatic environmental compartments such as river and marine sediments, river water, fishes and mussels. Here, mostly the same PBDE components which are present in the technical mixtures are found in the environment. PBDE emissions can punctually take place during the manufacture or processing of the flame retardants and during the disposal and recycling of flame-retarded materials. This, as a rule, should lead to local contamination but cannot explain the meanwhile wide spread of these flame retardants in the aquatic environment. Therefore, we have to have a closer look at possible further sources. Thus, the sewage sludges and suspended matter from the effluents of 8 municipal sewage treatment plants from a central region of Germany were examined for their PBDE content. The analyses included the quantitation of Tri to DecaBDE under congener-specific determination of components which are typically present in technical PBDE products. This paper reports on the applied method of analysis and presents the PBDE data for the sewage sludges and the respective sewage plant effluents.

  7. THE EFFECT OF BUSINESS FIRMS’ INTERNATIONAL ACTIVITIES ON THE FIRM PERFORMANCE: A CENTRAL BLACK SEA REGION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erkut ALTINDAG

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of business firms carrying on business in Central Black Sea Region of Turkey on the performance of these firms. Especially how it affected SMEs (Small and Medium Sized Enterprises was analyzed. When particularly considering the effects of business that have SME quality on economy of Turkey, such kind of researches are noticed to have a basis in recent years. The research depended upon the data obtained from enterprises through original qualified questionnaire. The questionnaire question forms were scaled benefiting from the studies in the literature based upon international activities and business performance measurement. For all variables, the scales in the literature were taken and included into research questionnaire. The questionnaires were performed to SMEs and large-scale enterprises. In the research factor analysis, correlation and regression analysis were included as analysis methods. According to the obtained results, it was determined that international activities had a positive effect on the performance of enterprises. The results were interpreted, and various suggestions were offered to academicians, and administrators.

  8. Analysis of the stability for yield in maize (Zea mays hybrids in the central Ecuadorian Coastal Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Vera Aviles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the stability of commercial and experimental maize hybrids in the Central Ecuadorian Coastal Region. During a period from december 2010 to april 2011 uniform trials of yield in four locations with contrasting environments were evaluated. The genetic material was constituted by five experimental hybrids and three commercial. The experimental design used was completely randomized blocks design with four replications; the experimental plots were two rows with a length of 5.0 m separated to 0.90 meters. The combined analysis of variance proposed by Eberhart and Russel was statistical significance as well as for genotype and for interaction. The average yield showed that between experimental hybrids two, (SM45 x SSD08SV39 and (SM45 x SV15SV39, were highlighted with averages higher than 7.0 t ha-1 whilst AG-003 was the highlighted commercial hybrid with a yield of 7.48 t ha-1. The best yields and environmental indexes were registered in the locations of Quevedo and Vinces, the lowest environmental indexes were for Balzar and Ventanas. In relation to the tendency of response of the outstanding genotypes in the four evaluation environments, it was particularly observed that genotypes are desirable by virtue of the outstanding results in both favorable and unfavorable environments.

  9. Comparative study of irrigation water use and groundwater recharge under various irrigation schemes in an agricultural region, central Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Kai; Jang, Cheng-Shin; Tsai, Cheng-Bin

    2016-04-01

    The risk of rice production has increased notably due to climate change in Taiwan. To respond to growing agricultural water shortage without affecting normal food production in the future, the application of water-saving irrigation will be a substantial resolution. However, the adoption of water-saving irrigation may result in the reducing of groundwater recharge because continuous flooding in the paddy fields could be regarded as an important source for groundwater recharge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the irrigation water-saving benefit and groundwater recharge deficit when adopting the System of Rice Intensification, known as SRI methodology, in the Choushui River alluvial fan (the largest groundwater pumping and the most important rice-cropping region in central Taiwan). The three-dimensional finite element groundwater model, FEMWATER, was applied to simulate the infiltration process and groundwater recharge under SRI methodology and traditional irrigation schemes including continuous irrigation, and rotational irrigation in two rice-crop periods with hydro-climatic data of 2013. The irrigation water use was then calculated by water balance. The results showed that groundwater recharge amount of SRI methodology was slightly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, reduced 3.6% and 1.6% in the first crop period, and reduced 3.2% and 1.6% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. However, the SRI methodology achieved notably water-saving benefit compared to the disadvantage of reducing the groundwater recharge amount. The field irrigation requirement amount of SRI methodology was significantly lower than those of traditional irrigation schemes, saving 37% and 20% of irrigation water in the first crop period, and saving 53% and 35% in the second crop period, compared with continuous irrigation and rotational irrigation, respectively. Therefore, the amount of groundwater pumping for

  10. Impact Of Landslides Along Road Network And Direct Cost Estimation: A Case Study In Marche Region, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salvati, P.; Donnini, M.; Guzzetti, F.; Ardizzone, F.; Cardinali, M.; Bucci, F.; Fiorucci, F.; Alvioli, M.; Santangelo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In November and December 2013, the Marche region (Central Italy) was hit by three severe, but not rare, meteorological events. The maximum value of the three days cumulative rainfall (499 mm) was recorded at the rain gauge of Pintura di Bolognola. The intense rainfall caused floods along the rivers and triggered numerous landslides, mostly located in the hilly and mountainous terrain of the region. The territory is crossed by a large number of roads connecting small rural settlements. After the events, the Regional Civil Protection Office requested to the Research Institute for the geo-hydrological Protection (IRPI-CNR) a technical support to evaluate the hazard condition for different sites affected by landslides. For an area of approximately 200 km2, in the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione, field surveys were carried out to identify the rainfall-induced landslides and to produce an event inventory map. More than 1,500 slope failures were mapped including earth flows, slide-earth flows, slides, rock-falls and complex slides. Field surveys were focused also to estimate qualitatively damages along the roads. Roads were classified in two classes: the main roads under the State responsibility and the secondary roads under the Municipality responsibility. The different types of damage were classified in three classes: i) aesthetic (minor), where the road functionality was not compromised; ii) functional (medium), where the functionality was compromised and iii) structural (severe) where roads are severely or completely damaged. Immediately after the event, the technicians of the Municipalities of Acquasanta Terme and Roccafluvione spent major efforts to partially restore the functionality of the secondary roads in order to guarantee the primary human needs. In the following ten days, they compiled a list of interventions, associated with the relative direct costs, aimed to the total restoration of the roads functionality. In collaboration with the

  11. Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, S. K.

    2009-04-01

    Statistical tools for managing the Ambikapur aquifer in central India for sustainable hydrological development of the region Despite India's tremendous progress on all fronts after independence in 1947, the fact remains that it is one of the poorest nation in the world in terms of per capita income and energy consumption which is considered to be the gauge of the economic situation of any country. In case of India, it is nearly one tenth of the developed nations. If economic condition of its people is to be raised, then country has to boost its agriculture production which is largely monsoon dependent and to exploit its conventional and unconventional energy sources at a very rapid growth rate. Although, worldwide, 70% of the water that is withdrawn for human use is used for agriculture, 22% for industry and 8% is used for domestic services. But in India which is a low income country, 82% is used for agriculture, 10% for industry and 8% for domestic services. Therefore, India needs new sources of water to reduce the risk of dependency on the monsoon for the Sustainable Development of the country. It is in this connection that the Ambikapur Basin in the Central India has been studied for sustainable water withdrawal. At present, the crops in the Ambikapur region are totally monsoon dependent. However, with the initiatives of the State Government, 25 boreholes in an area of about 25 square kilometers have been drilled up to a depth of 500m and completed in the Gondwana sandstone. The water quality and the discharge rates have been established to sustain the crops of the area which is the only livelihood of the local people , in case the monsoon fails. The hydraulic properties of the aquifer like Transmissivity (T) and the Coefficient of Storage (S) were determined following the graphic method of Jacob and Theis. The rate of discharge (Q) of the pumped well was estimated at 4.05 x 10 to the power 3 cubic meters per second and the values of other parameters like T at

  12. A key continental archive for the last 2 Ma of climatic history of the central Mediterranean region: A pilot drilling in the Fucino Basin, central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giaccio, B.; Regattieri, E.; Zanchetta, G.; Wagner, B.; Galli, P.; Mannella, G.; Niespolo, E.; Peronace, E.; Renne, P. R.; Nomade, S.; Cavinato, G. P.; Messina, P.; Sposato, A.; Boschi, C.; Florindo, F.; Marra, F.; Sadori, L.

    2015-12-01

    An 82 m long sedimentary succession was retrieved from the Fucino Basin, the largest intermountain tectonic depression of the central Apennines. The basin hosts a succession of fine-grained lacustrine sediments (ca. 900 m-thick) possibly continuously spanning the last 2 Ma. A preliminary tephrostratigraphy study allows us to ascribe the drilled 82 m long record to the last 180 ka. Multi-proxy geochemical analyses (XRF scanning, total organic/inorganic carbon, nitrogen and sulfur, oxygen isotopes) reveal noticeable variations, which are interpreted as paleohydrological and paleoenvironmental expressions related to classical glacial-interglacial cycles from the marine isotope stage (MIS) 6 to present day. In light of the preliminary results, the Fucino sedimentary succession is likely to provide a long, continuous, sensitive, and independently dated paleoclimatic archive of the central Mediterranean area.

  13. Atmospheric circulation in regional climate models over Central Europe: links to surface air temperature and the influence of driving data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plavcova, Eva [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic); Kysely, Jan [Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Technical University, Department of Applied Mathematics, Liberec (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    The study examines simulation of atmospheric circulation, represented by circulation indices (flow direction, strength and vorticity), and links between circulation and daily surface air temperatures in regional climate models (RCMs) over Central Europe. We explore control simulations of five high-resolution RCMs from the ENSEMBLES project driven by re-analysis (ERA-40) and the same global climate model (ECHAM5 GCM) plus of one RCM (RCA) driven by different GCMs. The aims are to (1) identify errors in RCM-simulated distributions of circulation indices in individual seasons, (2) identify errors in simulated temperatures under particular circulation indices, and (3) compare performance of individual RCMs with respect to the driving data. Although most of the RCMs qualitatively reflect observed distributions of the airflow indices, each produces distributions significantly different from the observations. General biases include overestimation of the frequency of strong flow days and of strong cyclonic vorticity. Some circulation biases obviously propagate from the driving data. ECHAM5 and all simulations driven by ECHAM5 underestimate frequency of easterly flow, mainly in summer. Except for HIRHAM, however, all RCMs driven by ECHAM5 improve on the driving GCM in simulating atmospheric circulation. The influence on circulation characteristics in the nested RCM differs between GCMs, as demonstrated in a set of RCA simulations with different driving data. The driving data control on circulation in RCA is particularly weak for the BCM GCM, in which case RCA substantially modifies (but does not improve) the circulation from the driving data in both winter and summer. Those RCMs with the most distorted atmospheric circulation are HIRHAM driven by ECHAM5 and RCA driven by BCM. Relatively strong relationships between circulation indices and surface air temperatures were found in the observed data for Central Europe. The links differ by season and are usually stronger for

  14. Reconstructing production technology and distribution, using thin section petrography: A pilot study of Roman pottery production in the Pontine region, Central Italy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, B.; Tol, G.; de Haas, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores aspects of production and distribution of local Roman pottery from the Pontine region, Central Italy, based on ceramics recovered in surveys carried out within the ‘Minor Centres’ project. The aim of this project was to investigate the role of minor centres in local economies of

  15. First survey for Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina infection in cattle from Central and Southern regions of Portugal using serological and DNA detection methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incidence of bovine babesiosis in Portugal is currently unknown. In this study, a first survey of Babesia bovis and B. bigemina infection in cattle was carried out using blood samples from 406 clinically healthy individuals from different districts from Central and Southern regions of Portugal and a...

  16. Molecular epidemiology over an 11-year period (2000 to 2010) of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli causing bacteremia in a centralized Canadian region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Peirano (G.); A.K. van der Bij (Akke); S. Gregson (Simon); J.D.D. Pitout (J. D D)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractA study was designed to assess the importance of sequence types among extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Escherichia coli isolates causing bacteremia over an 11-year period (2000 to 2010) in a centralized Canadian region. A total of 197 patients with incident infections were

  17. Petrological and geochemical characteristics of Paleoproterozoic ultramafic lamprophyres and carbonatites from the Chitrangi region, Mahakoshal supracrustal belt, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajesh K Srivastava

    2013-06-01

    A number of ENE–WSW trending Paleoproterozoic dykes and plugs of mafic, ultramafic, alkaline and carbonatite rocks intrude Mahakoshal supracrustal belt (MSB), which is a part of the Central Indian Tectonic Zone (CITZ). Best exposures of these intrusions are found in the eastern parts of the MSB, particularly in and around Chitrangi area. Many of these intrusions have greenschist facies mineral composition and show sharp contact with supracrustal rocks. However, igneous textures, such as porphyritic/glomeroporphyritic, are still preserved in the form of partly pseudomorphed olivines, phlogopites and pyroxenes. Striking feature observed in some ultramafic samples is the presence of melanite garnet and rounded or elliptical carbonate ocelli. The petrographic characteristics suggest occurrence of carbonate-rich ultramafic lamprophyres; close to aillikite composition. Coarse-grained carbonatites show hypidiomorphic texture and mostly composed of calcite with appreciable amount of silicate minerals like clinopyroxene, phlogopite and olivine (often pseudomorphed by calcite, amphibole and chlorite). It is difficult to establish any direct genetic relationship between carbonatite and ultramafic lamprophyre samples on the basis of their chemistry; they were likely derived from distinct parental melts. High Mg#(up to ∼78), and high Ni and Cr contents (up to ∼1700 and ∼1100, respectively) and low HREE concentration in few ultramafic lamprophyre samples apparently suggest their derivation from a near-primary mantle-derived melts originated at great depths. Geochemistry and presence of carbonate ocellae in ultramafic lamprophyre samples suggest genesis of these silicate rocks and associated carbonatites through liquid immiscibility, however possibility of their derivation through vein-plus-wall-rock melting model cannot be ignored. A multi-stage veined mantle melting model is suitable in the latter case. It is suggested that early stages of rifting in the Mahakoshal

  18. Biases in the diurnal temperature range in Central Europe in an ensemble of regional climate models and their possible causes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kysely, Jan [Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Plavcova, Eva [Institute of Atmospheric Physics AS CR, Prague 4 (Czech Republic); Charles University, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Prague (Czech Republic)

    2012-09-15

    The study examines how regional climate models (RCMs) reproduce the diurnal temperature range (DTR) in their control simulations over Central Europe. We evaluate 30-year runs driven by perfect boundary conditions (the ERA40 reanalysis, 1961-1990) and a global climate model (ECHAM5) of an ensemble of RCMs with 25-km resolution from the ENSEMBLES project. The RCMs' performance is compared against the dataset gridded from a high-density stations network. We find that all RCMs underestimate DTR in all seasons, notwithstanding whether driven by ERA40 or ECHAM5. Underestimation is largest in summer and smallest in winter in most RCMs. The relationship of the models' errors to indices of atmospheric circulation and cloud cover is discussed to reveal possible causes of the biases. In all seasons and all simulations driven by ERA40 and ECHAM5, underestimation of DTR is larger under anticyclonic circulation and becomes smaller or negligible for cyclonic circulation. In summer and transition seasons, underestimation tends to be largest for the southeast to south flow associated with warm advection, while in winter it does not depend on flow direction. We show that the biases in DTR, which seem common to all examined RCMs, are also related to cloud cover simulation. However, there is no general tendency to overestimate total cloud amount under anticyclonic conditions in the RCMs, which suggests the large negative bias in DTR for anticyclonic circulation cannot be explained by a bias in cloudiness. Errors in simulating heat and moisture fluxes between land surface and atmosphere probably contribute to the biases in DTR as well. (orig.)

  19. Late Paleogene topography of the Central Rocky Mountains and western Great Plains region using hydrogen isotope ratios in volcanic glass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossetto, G.; Fricke, H. C.; Cassel, E. J.; Evanoff, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Central Rocky Mountains (CRM), located in southern Wyoming, Colorado, and northern New Mexico, are characterized by the highest elevation basins (up to 2500 m) and mountains (over 4000 m) in the North American Cordillera. The timing and drivers for surface uplift of the CRM have not been conclusively determined. The goal of this study is to constrain the timing of surface uplift of the CRM by comparing hydrogen isotope ratios of hydration waters (δDglass) in late Paleogene volcanic glasses preserved in felsic tuffs deposited in CRM basins to δDglass values from glasses of similar age (34.9 to 32.2 Ma) preserved in tuffs from the surrounding Great Plains. The tuffs deposited in the Great Plains, to the north and east of the CRM, are currently at elevations of 1100-1600 m. Volcanic glass hydrates shortly after deposition, preserving the δD of ancient meteoric water on geologic timescales, and can thus be used as a proxy for ancient precipitation δD values. Volcanic glasses from the CRM have δDglass values that are an average of ~31‰ higher than δDglass values from the Great Plains, while modern day precipitation δD values in the CRM are ~25‰ lower than δD values in the Great Plains. These results suggest that the uplift of the CRM relative to the surrounding Great Plains occurred after ~32 Ma. This requires a mechanism such as mantle upwelling or differential crustal hydration, not solely Laramide tectonism, to uplift the CRM to current elevations. Elevation, however, may not have been the only control on the spatial distribution of precipitation δD values across the western US. Similar to the modern, mixing of Pacific and Gulf coast air masses likely occurred during the latest Paleogene, driving regional variability in δD values of precipitation.

  20. Colour gradients in cluster ellipticals at z ˜ 1.4: the hidden content of the galaxy central regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciocca, F.; Saracco, P.; Gargiulo, A.; De Propris, R.

    2017-01-01

    We present F775W-F850LP (rest-frame UV-U) and F850LP-F160W (rest-frame U-R) colour gradients for a sample of 17 elliptical galaxies morphologically selected in the cluster XMMU J2235.3-2557 at z=1.39. We detected significant negative (redder inwards) U-R colour gradients in ˜70% of the galaxies and flat gradients for the remaining ones. On the other hand, the UV-U gradients are significant positive (bluer inwards) for ˜80% of the galaxies and flat for the remaining ones. Using stellar population synthesis models, we found that the behaviour of the two colour gradients cannot be simultaneously explained by a radial variation of age, metallicity and/or dust. The observed U-R gradients are consistent with a metallicity gradient (mean value ∇Z = -0.4) in agreement with the one observed in the local elliptical galaxies. The positive UV-U gradients cannot be explained with age or metallicity variations and imply an excess of UV emission toward the galaxies' central regions. This excess calls into question mechanisms able to efficiently produce UV emission. The data require either steady weak star formation (≲ 1 M⊙ yr-1) or a He-rich population in the cores of these galaxies in order to simultaneously reproduce both the colour gradients. On the contrary, the presence of a QSO cannot account for the observed UV excess on its own. We discuss these hypotheses on the basis of current observations and available models.

  1. Clinical characteristics of patients with atrial fibrillation at a tertiary care hospital in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salih A Bin Salih

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To report on the clinical presentation, etiology, and laboratory features of acute and chronic atrial fibrillation (AF in a tertiary hospital in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively studied records of 720 patients with AF seen in outpatients and inpatients departments at King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, during the period of 1 January 2002 to 31 August 2008. Results: Documented acute and chronic AF was present in 157 (21.8% and 563 (78.1% patients, respectively. Palpitations, dizziness and syncope were the most frequent symptoms in acute AF, while dyspnea and palpitations were the most common symptoms in the chronic type. Acute respiratory problems and acute myocardial infarction were significantly more common in acute AF, while congestive heart failure and acute respiratory problems (chest infection, bronchial asthma, and pulmonary embolism were significantly more common in chronic AF. The most common causes of both types of AF were diabetes mellitus (DM in 68.8%, hypertension (HTN in 59.3%, chronic lung diseases (bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and interstitial lung disease in 31.8%, valvular heart disease in 23.6%, and ischemic heart disease (IHD in 23.1%. In 9 (1.3% patients, no cause was detected. The echocardiographic findings of left ventricular hypertrophy, valve lesions, and depressed left ventricular function were significantly more common in chronic AF (P<0.01. Conclusions : Nowadays, DM, HTN, and IHD are becoming the most common predisposing factors for AF in the central region of Saudi Arabia and require prevention and control

  2. Landcover Change, Land Surface Temperature, Surface Albedo and Topography in the Plateau Region of North-Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakirudeen Odunuga

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the change in some environmental parameters in the Plateau region of North-Central Nigeria (Barakinladi, Jos, and Kafachan environs using the nexus of landcover change, land surface temperature, surface albedo, and topography. The study employed both remote sensing and statistical techniques for the period between 1986 and 2014 to analyze the dynamics between and within these environmental variables. In Barakinladi, the built up landcover change is highest (increasing from 39.53% to 47.59% between 1986 and 2014; LST ranges from 19.09 °C to 38.59 °C in 1986 and from 22.68 °C and 41.68 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.014 and 0.154 in 1986 and 0.017 and 0.248 in 2014. In Jos, the built-up landcover occupied 34.26% in 1986 and 36.67% in 2014; LST values range between 20.83 °C and 41.33 °C in 1986 and between 21.61 °C and 42.64 °C in 2014; and the albedo ranges between 0.003 and 0.211 in 1986 and 0.15 and 0.237 in 2014. In Kafachan area, the built up landcover occupied 32.95% in 1986 and 39.01% in 2014. Urbanization and agricultural activities, including animal grazing, were responsible for the gradual loss in vegetation and increasing average LST and albedo. The results also revealed that changing landcover and topography have a relationship with surface albedo and land surface temperature, thereby impacting significantly on ecosystem services delivered by the natural system.

  3. Water quality assessment of carbonate aquifers in southern Latium region, Central Italy: a case study for irrigation and drinking purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sappa, Giuseppe; Ergul, Sibel; Ferranti, Flavia

    2014-06-01

    In southern Latium region, Central Italy, groundwater and spring water resources in the carbonate aquifers are the major contributors of drinking and irrigation water supply. The aim of this study was to review hydrochemical processes that control the groundwater chemistry and to determine the suitability of springs and groundwater for irrigation and drinking purposes on the basis of the water quality indices. Physical (pH, electrical conductivity, total dissolved solids) and hydrochemical characteristics (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, HCO3 -, Cl-, and SO4 -) of springs and groundwater were determined. To assess the water quality, chemical parameters like sodium adsorption ratio (SAR), total hardness, Mg-hazard (MH), sodium percentage (Na %), salinity hazard, permeability index, and Kelly's ratio were calculated based on the analytical results. A Durov diagram plot revealed that the groundwater has been evolved from Ca to HCO3 recharge water, followed by mixing and reverse ion exchange processes, due to the respective dominance of Na-Cl and Ca-Cl water types. According to Gibbs's diagram plots, chemical weathering of rock forming minerals is the major driving force controlling water chemistry in this area. Groundwater and spring samples were grouped into six categories according to irrigation water quality assessment diagram of US Salinity Laboratory classification and most of the water samples distributed in category C2-S1 and C3-S1 highlighting medium to high salinity hazard and low sodium content class. The results of hydrochemical analyses and the calculated water quality parameters suggest that most of the water samples are suitable for irrigation and drinking purposes, except for the samples influenced by seawater and enhanced water-rock interaction. High values of salinity, Na %, SAR, and MH at certain sites, restrict the suitability for agricultural uses.

  4. Natural contamination with arsenic and other trace elements in groundwater of the Central-West region of Chaco, Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanes, Patricia S; Buchhamer, Edgar E; Giménez, María C

    2011-01-01

    This study covered the central agricultural region of the Chaco province, which lacks a permanent river networks. However, during the rainy period there is localized groundwater recharge. About 84 groundwater samples were taken during the period April-December 2007. These groundwater samples were collected from two different depths: 62 samples from shallow wells (4 to 20 m) and 24 samples from deep wells (20 to 100 m). Chemical variables were determined: pH, specific conductance, total dissolved solid, hardness, alkalinity, HCO(3)-, CO(3)(2-), SO(4)(2-), Cl-, NO(3)-, NO(2) -, NH(4)+, F-, As((tot)), Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Fe, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn. The chemical composition of groundwater in the study area is dominantly sodium bicarbonate and sodium chloride bicarbonate, comprising more than 60% (52/86) of shallow and deep groundwater samples. Of the 86 analyzed groundwater samples, 88% exceeded the WHO (World Health Organization) and CAA (Código Alimentario Argentino) standards (10 μg/L) for As (arsenic) and 9% exceeded the WHO standard (1.5 mg/L) for F(-).Groundwater highly contaminated with As (max. 1,073 μg/L) and F- (max. 4.2 mg/L) was found in shallow aquifer. The contaminated groundwater is characterized by high pH (max. 8.9), alkalinity (max. HCO(3)- 1,932 mg/L), SO(4)(2-) (max. 11,862 mg/L), Na(+) (max. 3,158 mg/L), Cl(-) (max. 10,493 mg/L) and electric conductivity greater than 33.3 μS/cm. Other associated elements (Ni, Pb, Cu and Zn) are present in low concentrations, except for Fe that in 32% of samples exceeded the guideline value of 0.3 mg/L suggested by the CAA.

  5. Enhanced radon emission in natural CO{sub 2} flows in Campo de Calatrava Region (Central Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elio, Javier de; Ortega, Marcelo; Caballero, Juan; Mazadiego, Luis F. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), Calle de Rios Rosas 21, 28003 Madrid (Spain); Grandia, Fidel; Gasparini, Andrea; Sainz, Alvaro [Amphos21 Consulting S.L., Pss. de Garcia i Faria, 08019 Barcelona (Spain)

    2014-07-01

    Concentration of radon gas in natural soils is commonly low (in the order of several hundreds of Bq.m-3) due to the fast decay (half-life= 3.8 days in the case of {sup 222}Rn) that prevents accumulation in pores. Exceptionally high Rn soil concentration, in contrast, is found around point sources of deep CO{sub 2} fluxes. These fluxes allow the transport of trace gases (including Rn) to long distances in the geosphere leading to a potential hazard as Rn accumulation in buildings. CO{sub 2} degassing is common in active and ancient volcanic fields and occurs as free gas fluxes or dissolved in groundwater. In this work, the occurrence of Rn-bearing, CO{sub 2} fluxes from the Campo de Calatrava region in Central Spain have been studied in order to determine their (1) magnitude, (2) migration paths and (3) potential impact on the environment. The Campo de Calatrava region hosts a Miocene-Quaternary Calatrava Volcanic Province and comprises a series of scattered vents and outcrops of mafic lava flows and pyroclastic deposits of alkaline composition in a domain around 4000 km{sup 2}. It contains the largest number of natural CO{sub 2} emissions in the Iberian Peninsula. A detailed mapping of these emissions reveals that both CO{sub 2} and trace gases occur as spots of few square metres always linked to major faults, with CO{sub 2} fluxes higher than 10,000 g.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}. Soil Rn concentration ranges from few hundreds of Bq.m{sup -3} to 500,000 Bq.m{sup -3}. Measurements performed with a SARAD RTM2100 show that {sup 222}Rn account for most of the detected Rn around CO{sub 2} fluxes, whereas {sup 220}Rn is more abundant in the soil with no deep CO{sub 2} emission. In areas where CO{sub 2} fluxes are small (less than 40 g.m{sup -2}.d{sup -1}), biological activity can mask them. However, Rn isotope signature helps distinguishing the deep, mantle-derived CO{sub 2} from surface soil respiration. The environmental impact of these fluxes is basically related to soil

  6. [Impact of rice agriculture on nitrogen and phosphorus exports in streams in hilly red soil earth region of central subtropics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Li-Fang; Wang, Yi; Wu, Jin-Shui; Li, Yong; Li, Yu-Yuan; Meng, Cen; Li, Hang; Zhang, Man-Yi

    2014-01-01

    crop management in hilly red soil earth region of central subtropics, the higher area proportion of rice agriculture has the potential to degrade stream aquatic environment.

  7. Quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics in changing land-use and landscape conditions at the Central region of Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasenev, I. I.; Valentini, R.

    2012-12-01

    Terrestrial ecosystems are a major player in the global and regional carbon cycles acting as carbon stocks and carbon sources. Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest carbon stock in the most of terrestrial ecosystems.Soil CO2 emission is a predominant terrestrial carbon outflow, including autotrophic respiration of plant roots and heterotrophic microbial respiration. The capacity for carbon sequestration is widely accepted as a principal soil ecological function. Soil respiration is assumed as an important carbon source, included in the studies, assessing carbon budget in changing land-use and landscape conditions. The Central region of the European territory of Russia is especially interested for this kind of researches due to essential original spatial heterogeneity of its forest and forest-steppe soils and landscapes that has been further complicated by a specific land-use history and different-direction soil successions as a results of past century environmental changes and human impacts. SOM stocks and especially CO2 emission demonstrates a very high spatial and temporal variability here, which is mutual feature for most regional natural and man-changed ecosystems and may have a strong influence on land-use and farming change strategy and climate change. However quite a few studies focus on this problem here with application of modern field tools and quantitative functional assessment of SOM dynamics variability at the level of changing elementary soil cover patterns (ESCP) that includes in the key issues of our project. Development the zonal-regional set of criteria for logically formalized distinguishing of the most "stable" & "hot" areas in soil cover patterns make it possible for quantitative assessment of dominating in them elementary landscape, soil-forming and degradation processes. The received data essentially expand known ranges of the soil forming processes (SFP) rate «in situ». In case of mature southern taiga ecosystems mutual for them the

  8. Renewable energy resource and technology assessment: Southern Tier Central Region, New York, New York. Renewable Energy Resource Inventory; renewable energy technology handbook; technology assessment workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    The Renewable Energy Resource Inventory contains regional maps that record the location of renewable energy resources such as insolation, wind, biomass, and hydropower in the Southern Tier Central Region of New York State. It contains an outline of a process by which communities can prepare local renewable energy resource inventories using maps and overlays. The process starts with the mapping of the resources at a regional scale and telescopes to an analysis of resources at a site-specific scale. The resource inventory presents a site analysis of Sullivan Street Industrial Park, Elmira, New York.

  9. Central Asia in a Changing World: From a Peripheral Region to an Area of Policy Generation and Application. Actors, Policy and Security

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Sainz Gsell

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with Central Asia, beginning with an analysis of the characteristics of international insertion of the area as a whole and of the former Soviet republics that comprise it. In a general way, it aims to analyse the evolution of Central Asia from a peripheral region to an area that generates behaviours and receives the application of policies on the part ofinternational actors. In the first part of the study, it mentions a series of particularities of the republics that have determined the relationships in the region(the Central Asian order and those between the region and the outside world; it indicates geo-historical and economic-strategic aspects. In the second part, it examines the foreign policy of the republics in the post-Cold War era from the singularities of domestic policy. And, in the third part, it analyses, according to the aforementioned peculiarities, the policies that the area and each State has generated in international actors, both regional ones and global ones, and which have transformed the region from a peripheral one to a geopolitically emerging one.

  10. Stratigraphic architecture of the Neoproterozoic glacial rocks in the "Xiang-Qian-Gui" region of the central Yangtze Block, South China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Qirui; CHU Xuelei; Heinrich BAHLBURG; FENG Lianjun; Nicole DOBRZINSKI; ZHANG Tonggang

    2003-01-01

    The Yangtze Block in South China is one of the important regions where Neoproterozoic glacial rocks are well developed and studied. However, the classification and correlation of the Neoproterozoic glacial sequences in the central Yangtze Block still remain controversial among Chinese geologists. The original Sinian sections around the Yangtze Gorges Region became an official standard for classification and correlation since the 1950s. Subsequent regional geologic studies, however, resulted in different classification and correlation, because of its incompleteness. We select one of the complete sections in the bordering areas of Xiang (Hunan), Qian (Guizhou) and Gui (Guangxi), as a standard of classification and correlation. The temporal and spatial distribution, i.e. the stratigraphic architecture, of the glacial rocks in the central Yangtze Block is suggested. Our results indicate that the glacial sequence on the Yangtze Block was deposited during the Nantuo Ice-age, the Datangpo Interglacial-age and Jiangkou Ice-age, in descending order.

  11. Distribution and diversity of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy / Distribuzione e diversità dei chirotteri troglofili della regione laziale (Italia centrale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Crucitti

    1987-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract An attempt was made to evaluate the diversity and distribution of cave bats of Latium (Central Italy. Data about twelve species were examined and their frequency have been determined. Only Rhinolophus ferrumequinum and R. hipposideros are really frequent: the other species are more or less localized. The average number of species (2,63 has a great importance for future contro1 of cave bat populations. Similarity between cave bat coenosis was examined, together with the altitude distribution of five species. The relation between altitudinal range, number of caves and average number of species was also studied: between 801 and 1000 m.s.l., the last parameter increases considerably and a hypothesis is presented to explain the phenomenon. This troglophilous bat fauna is probably very rich in species in comparison with other Italian bat communities. Riassunto Viene svolta un'analisi delle cenosi di Chirotteri troglofili dell'Italia Centrale. Vengono esaminati i dati relativi a 12 specie; di ciascuna è stata determinata la frequenza. Rhinolophus ferrumequinum e R. hipposideros risultano le specie più frequenti. I1 numero medio di specie (2,63 assume un importante significato ai fini del controllo delle chirotterofaune troglofile. L'affinità tra le chirotterofaune è stata esaminata, analogamente alla distribuzione altitudinale di cinque specie. Range altitudinale, numero delle cavità e numero medio di specie sono comparati: fra 801 e 1000 m, si osserva un aumento dell'ultimo parametro e vengono formulate ipotesi per spiegare il fenomeno. La ricchezza di specie del Lazio viene evidenziata dal confronto con altre chirotterofaune troglofile regionali italiane.

  12. Sedimentary geochemistry depicts 2700 years of regional climate and land use change in the Rieti Basin, Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, C.; Noble, P. J.; Mensing, S. A.; Tunno, I.; Sagnotti, L.; Florindo, F.; Cifnani, G.; Zimmerman, S. R. H.; Piovesan, G.

    2014-12-01

    A 14.4 m thick sedimentary sequence was recovered in multiple cores from Lago Lungo in the Rieti Basin, an intrapenninic extensional basin ~80 km north of Rome, Italy. This sequence provides a high-resolution record of environmental change related to climatic influence and anthropogenic landscape alteration. Pollen analyses, corroborated with historical records of land-use change, define the major shifts in forest composition and their historical context. An age model of the sequence was built using ties to regional cultigen datums and archaeomagnetic reference curves. Here we focus on sedimentologic and geochemical data (scanning XRF) from the Roman Period through the Little Ice Age (LIA). The base of the sequence (ca. 680 BCE- 1 CE) is marked by a steady increase in fine-grained detrital elements Ti, Rb, and K, and corresponding decrease in Ca, representing a transition from the unaltered system after the Romans constructed a channel that the basin. The Medieval Period (MP; 900-1350 CE) is lithologically distinct, composed of varicolored bands of alternating silt, clay, and calcareous concretions. Low counts of Ca, high detrital elements and frequent abrupt peaks in levels of the redox elements Fe and Mn indicate episodic clastic influx. Pollen data indicate that the greatest degree of deforestation and erosion occurred during the MP, supported by mean sedimentation rates of ca. 1cm/year, over twice the rate of the underlying interval. The Medieval climate was warmer and more stable, population increased, and elevations >1000 m were exploited for agriculture. The influence of the Velino River on the lake appears to increase during the MP through channel migration, increased flooding, or increased overland flow. The next transition (1350 CE) marks the start of the LIA and is coincident with the Black Plague. Historical records document a large earthquake in 1349 that severely struck Central Italy, with possible effects on the lake's depositional and hydrochemical

  13. Clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman M. Aljebreen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Despite the remarkable increase in the incidence of Crohn′s disease among Saudis in recent years, data about Crohn′s disease in Saudi Arabia are scarce. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical epidemiology and phenotypic characteristics of Crohn′s disease in the central region of Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A data registry, Inflammatory Bowel Disease Information System (IBDIS, was used to register Crohn′s disease patients who presented to the gastroenterology clinics in four tertiary care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia between September 2009 and February 2013. Patients′ characteristics, disease location, behavior, age at diagnosis according to the Montreal classification, course of the disease, and extraintestinal manifestation were recorded. Results: Among 497 patients with Crohn′s disease, 59% were males with a mean age at diagnosis of 25 years [95% Confidence Interval (CI: 24-26, range 5-75 years]. The mean duration from the time of complaint to the day of the diagnosis was 11 months, and the mean duration of the disease from diagnosis to the day of entry to the registry was 40 months. Seventy-seven percent of our patients were aged 17-40 years at diagnosis, 16.8% were ≤16 years of age, and 6.6% were >40 years of age. According to the Montreal classification of disease location, 48.8% of patients had ileocolonic involvement, 43.5% had limited disease to the terminal ileum or cecum, 7.7% had isolated colonic involvement, and 16% had an upper gastrointestinal involvement. Forty-two percent of our patients had a non-stricturing, non-penetrating behavior, while 32.8% had stricturing disease and 25.4% had penetrating disease. Conclusion: Crohn′s disease is frequently encountered in Saudi Arabia. The majority of patients are young people with a predilection for males, while its behavior resembled that of western societies in terms of age of onset, location, and behavior.

  14. Uncertainty in drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index: the case study of the Abruzzo region (central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergni, L.; Di Lena, B.; Todisco, F.; Mannocchi, F.

    2015-12-01

    As shown by several authors, drought monitoring by the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) presents some uncertainties, mainly dependent on the choice of the probability distribution used to describe the cumulative precipitation and on the characteristics (e.g., length and variability) of the dataset. In this paper, the uncertainty related to SPI estimates has been quantified and analyzed with regards to the case study of the Abruzzo region (Central Italy), by using monthly precipitation recorded at 75 stations during the period 1951-2009. First, a set of distributions suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation at the 3-, 6-, and 12-month time scales was identified by using L-moments ratio diagrams. The goodness-of-fit was evaluated by applying the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test, and the Normality test on the derived SPI series. Then the confidence intervals of SPI have been calculated by applying a bootstrap procedure. The size of the confidence intervals has been considered as a measure of uncertainty, and its dependence on several factors such as the distribution type, the time scale, the record length, and the season has been examined. Results show that the distributions Pearson type III (PE3), Weibull (WEI), Generalized Normal (GNO), Generalized Extreme Value (GEV), and Gamma (GA2) are all suitable to describe the cumulative precipitation, with a slightly better performance of the PE3 and GNO distributions. As expected, the uncertainty increases as the record length and time scale decrease. The leading source of uncertainty is the record length while the effects due to seasonality and time scale are negligible. Two-parameter distributions make it possible to obtain confidence intervals of SPI (particularly for extreme values) narrower than those obtained by three-parameter distributions. Nevertheless, due to a poorer goodness of fit, two-parameter distributions can provide less reliable estimates of the precipitation probability. In any event, independently

  15. Insights on organic aerosol aging and the influence of coal combustion at a regional receptor site of central eastern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. W. Hu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the aging and processing of organic aerosols (OA, an intensive field campaign (Campaign of Air Pollution at Typical Coastal Areas IN Eastern China, CAPTAIN was conducted March–April at a receptor site (a Changdao island in central eastern China. Multiple fast aerosol and gas measurement instruments were used during the campaign, including a high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS that was applied to measure mass concentrations and non-refractory chemical components of submicron particles (PM1nr. The average mass concentration of PM1(PM1nr+black carbon was 47 ± 36 μg m−3 during the campaign and showed distinct variation, depending on back trajectories and their overlap with source regions. Organic aerosol (OA is the largest component of PM1 (30%, followed by nitrate (28%, sulfate (19%, ammonium (15%, black carbon (6%, and chloride (3%. Four OA components were resolved by positive matrix factorization (PMF of the high-resolution spectra, including low-volatility oxygenated organic aerosol (LV-OOA, semi-volatile oxygenated OA (SV-OOA, hydrocarbon-like OA (HOA and a coal combustion OA (CCOA. The mass spectrum of CCOA had high abundance of fragments from polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs (m/z 128, 152, 178, etc.. The average atomic ratio of oxygen to carbon in OA (O / C at Changdao was 0.59, which is comparable to other field studies reported at locations downwind of large pollution sources, indicating the oxidized nature of most OA during the campaign. The evolution of OA elemental composition in the van Krevelen diagram (H / C vs. O / C showed a slope of −0.63; however, the OA influenced by coal combustion exhibits a completely different evolution that appears dominated by physical mixing. The aging of organic aerosols vs. photochemical age was investigated. It was shown that OA / ΔCO, as well as LV-OOA / ΔCO and SV-OOA / ΔCO, positively correlated with photochemical age. LV

  16. The Vocalism Quantity of Pre-Stressed Syllables in the Subdialect of the Central Region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofija Babickienė

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with phonetic peculiarity of the quantity of pre-stressed syllables in the subdialect of the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga dictinguishing this subdialect from the neighbouring one of Telšiai region. The reseach was done with the help of both self-observing and experimental methods using the following programmes: Cool Edit Pro, PRAAT4.0.31 sound analysis programme created by Paul Boersma and David Weenink, the scientists of the university of Amsterdam. The statistical analysis was performed by the help of programme STUDENT (programming language TURBO-PASCAL, v. 7.0 created by Prof. Dr Habil of Vilnius university Aleksas Girdenis. The Analysis showed that the lengthening of long vowels and diphthongs of the first component is typical to the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga.While analysing the average of their duration, it was determined that the general vowel lengthening average in mixed diftongs, in fact, does not differ from the average length of the average of long vowels, such as i˙ , u˙, i. e the ratio of average duration is 1: 1,07. Unstressed syllables when preceeded by either short or semi-long stressed syllables in the subdialect of the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga are shorter when preceeded by long syllables. The presumption could be drawn that in the subdialect of the Central region of Northern Žemaitian Kretinga the lenght of pre-stressed syllables is the result of the communication between Žemaitians and Curonians. This reseach stimulates the interest to go deeper into those problems, which might specify the vocalism changes of that period.

  17. Atmospheric deposition and soil vertical distribution of {sup 7}Be in a semiarid region of central Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lohaiza, Flavia A.; Velasco, Hugo; Ayub, Jimena Juri; Rizzotto, Marcos; Valladares, Diego L. [Grupo de Estudios Ambientales, Instituto de Matematica Aplicada San Luis, Universidad Nacional de San Luis - CONICET, Ejercito de los Andes 950, D5700HHW San Luis (Argentina)

    2014-07-01

    Beryllium-7 is a potentially powerful tracer of soil erosion but poor information on {sup 7}Be atmospheric deposition and associated soil inventories in a semiarid region of Central Argentina exists. We estimated the {sup 7}Be atmospheric wet deposition and {sup 7}Be inventory in undisturbed soils north of the City of San Luis (S 33 deg. 9'; W 66 deg. 16') and explored its seasonal variation. Rain and soil samples were collected during 2006-2008 and 2009-2012, respectively. The atmospheric wet deposition was estimated considering both the mean activity concentration in rainwater and the precipitation regime of the region. Using the assessed monthly wet deposition of {sup 7}Be, the expected {sup 7}Be areal activity in soil was estimated applying a simple model. These estimated values were confronted with the experimental measurements in soil. The {sup 7}Be rainwater activity concentration ranged from 0.7 to 3.2 Bq l{sup -1}, with a mean of 1.7 Bq l{sup -1} (sd = 0.53 Bq l{sup -1}). A good linear relationship between {sup 7}Be wet deposition and rain magnitude was obtained (R=0.92, p<0.0001). The wet deposition on soil ranged from 1.1 to 120 Bq m{sup -2} with a mean value of 32.7 Bq m-2 (sd = 29.9 Bq m-2). The annual depositional flux was estimated at 1140 ± 120 Bq m{sup -2} y{sup -1}. The {sup 7}Be mass activity (Bq kg{sup -1}) values in soil samples in the wet period (November-April) were higher than in the dry period (May-October). A typical decreasing exponential function of {sup 7}Be areal activity (Bq m{sup -2}) with soil mass depth (kg m{sup -2}) was found and the distribution parameters for each month were determined. The minimum value of areal activity was 51 Bq m{sup -2} in August, reaching the maximum of 438 Bq m{sup -2} in February. The relaxation mass depth ranged from 2.9 kg m{sup -2} in March to 1.3 kg m{sup -2} in August. The confrontation of experimental measurements in soil with the estimated values using the model showed a good agreement

  18. Finite element modelling of elastic intraplate stresses due to heterogeneities in crustal density and mechanical properties for the Jabalpur earthquake region, central India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Manglik; S Thiagarajan; A V Mikhailova; Yu Rebetsky

    2008-04-01

    Deep lower crustal intraplate earthquakes are infrequent and the mechanism of their occurrence is not well understood. The Narmada–Son-lineament region in central India has experienced two such events, the 1938 Satpura earthquake and the 1997 Jabalpur earthquake, having a focal depth of more than 35 km. We have estimated elastic stresses due to the crustal density and mechanical properties heterogeneities along the Hirapur–Mandla profile passing through the Jabalpur earthquake region to analyse conditions suitable for the concentration of shear stresses in the hypocentral region of this earthquake. Elastic stresses have been computed by a finite element method for a range of material parameters. The results indicate that the shear stresses generated by the density heterogeneities alone are not able to locally enhance the stress concentration in the hypocentral region. The role of mechanical properties of various crustal layers is important in achieving this localization of stresses. Among a range of material parameters analysed, the model with a mechanically strong lower crust overlying a relatively weak sub-Moho layer is able to enhance the stress concentration in the hypocentral region, implying a weaker mantle in comparison to the lower crust for this region of central India.

  19. Holocene climate changes in the central Asia mountain region inferred from a peat sequence from the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang, northwestern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Meyers, Philip A.; Liu, Xingtu; Wang, Guoping; Ma, Xuehui; Li, Xiaoyu; Yuan, Yuxiang; Wen, Bolong

    2016-11-01

    A continuous peat sequence collected in the Altai Mountains, Xinjiang Province, northwestern China, provides a new opportunity to reconstruct the Holocene climate history in the arid central mountain region of Asia. Based on AMS 14C dating, high resolution records of the humification degree and n-alkane distributions reveal that the region experienced a relatively warm and dry early Holocene (10.0-8.0 ka) and a cold and wet early mid-Holocene (8.0-6.3 ka), followed by a warm and dry mid-Holocene (6.3-5.5 ka). A shift to cold and wet conditions occurred between 5.5 and 4.0 ka, and then the climate entered into a warmer period from 4.0 to 2.5 ka. In the late Holocene (2.5-1.0 ka), the region experienced a colder and wetter climate. A gradual shift to warm and dry conditions occurred during the last 1.0 ky in this region. The regional climate patterns have been generally dominated by alternations of warm-dry and cold-wet episodes during the Holocene that were quite different from the warm-wet and cool-dry episodes in the Asian summer monsoon region. Regional comparisons indicate that the climate changes in arid central Asia have been mainly influenced by the North Atlantic Ocean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) via the westerlies. However, owing to the mountainous character of the study areas, glacial meltwater, and other local factors, the climate changes in the Altai Mountains region have not always been concordant with variations of North Atlantic Ocean SSTs. We postulate that the history of moisture balance between regional precipitation, glacier and snow meltwater, and evaporation has been modulated by air temperatures that were mainly influenced by changes in the summer insolation of the Northern Hemisphere.

  20. INCOME OF WORKERS IN THE AGRICULTURAL SECTOR IN BRAZIL AND IN THE CENTRAL-WEST REGION: AN ANALYSIS BASED ON THE THEORY OF SEGMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Santos

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate the difference in earnings of workers in the production of some agricultural commodities and workers in other crops in Brazil and in the Central-West region. It is mainly used the labor market segmentation theory, and references on the human capital theory and the agricultural labor market. Data from the National Sample Survey of Households (PNAD-IBGE of 2009 is used to present descriptive statistics on income and socioeconomic characteristics of workers, and to estimate a mincerian earnings equation, by the method of robust least squares. Soy, corn, sugar cane, and meat whore chosen to represent de agricultural commodities group. The results show that even controlling for the effect of human capital, there is differential in earnings for workers in commodity production in Brazil and in the Central-West region, indicating that the agricultural labor market is segmented.

  1. Interfacial Tension-Driven Differentiation-(ITDD) may result in a low-density central region inside kilometer-sized bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Francisco J.

    2016-03-01

    Interfacial Tension-Driven Differentiation, (ITDD), and its possible significance with regards to the interior structures of kilometer-sized bodies is discussed. Using a simple physical and geometrical model, an analytical expression for the conditions in which ITDD can occur is derived. It is shown that ITDD coupled with internal convection can lead to a counterintuitive result: that central regions may be less dense than outer regions in km-sized, initially melted bodies. ITDD offers an alternative explanation to the formation of microporosity inside of small bodies, (e.g. Churyumov-Gerasimenko-like objects), as well as macroporosity, which is suggested to occur in the interior of Mars' larger satellite Phobos, without recourse to rubble-pile models. Depending on the development of the velocity boundary layer at the solidification front, ITDD allows not just the possibility of central porosity, but also more complex scenarios, such as the formation of internal porosity rings.

  2. Mapping lake level changes using ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry data: a case study in arid regions of central Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, JunLi; Fang, Hui; Yang, Liao

    2011-12-01

    Lakes in arid regions of Central Asia act as essential components of regional water cycles, providing sparse but valuable water resource for the fragile ecological environments and human lives. Lakes in Central Asia are sensitive to climate change and human activities, and great changes have been found since 1960s. Mapping and monitoring these inland lakes would improve our understanding of mechanism of lake dynamics and climatic impacts. ICESat/GLAS satellite laser altimetry provides an efficient tool of continuously measuring lake levels in these poorly surveyed remote areas. An automated mapping scheme of lake level changes is developed based on GLAS altimetry products, and the spatial and temporal characteristics of 9 typical lakes in Central Asia are analyzed to validate the level accuracies. The results show that ICESat/GLAS has a good performance of lake level monitoring, whose patterns of level changes are the same as those of field observation, and the max differences between GLAS and field data is 3cm. Based on the results, it is obvious that alpine lakes are increasing greatly in lake levels during 2003-2009 due to climate change, while open lakes with dams and plain endorheic lakes decrease dramatically in water levels due to human activities, which reveals the overexploitation of water resource in Central Asia.

  3. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S.; Gewik, Mohamed M.; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

  4. First records of Ambiphrya and Vorticella spp. (Protozoa, Ciliophora) in cultured Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) in the central region of Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Baki, Abdel-Azeem S; Gewik, Mohamed M; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2014-12-01

    The present study was carried out as part of an ongoing general survey seeking to uncover protozoan parasites infecting cultured tilapia in the central region of Saudi Arabia. In the sample of 400 specimens of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) 30 were infested with Ambiphrya ameiuri simultaneously with Vorticella sp. Morphometric criteria were used to describe and identify these species and this study presents the first records of these species among cultured fish in Saudi Arabia.

  5. Summary of planned investments in the central and regional grids for the period 2012-2021; Sammenfatning av planlagte investeringer i sentral- og regionalnettet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnussen, Inger Helene; Killingland, Magnus; Spilde, Dag

    2013-02-01

    The report aims to provide a picture of the extent of planned investments in the Norwegian central and regional network in the years ahead. It is an update of a similar report from 2009. Compared with national development report, 2009, with total investment plans for 2008-2017, the report shows a relatively large increase in planned investment. In the regional network it is planned investments up to NOK 18 billion. For the main grid project it is needed to invest between NOK 50-70 billion.(Author)

  6. Fluid escape structures in the Graham Bank region (Sicily Channel, Central Mediterranean) revealing volcanic and neotectonic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spatola, Daniele; Pennino, Valentina; Basilone, Luca; Interbartolo, Francesco; Micallef, Aaron; Sulli, Attilio; Basilone, Walter

    2016-04-01

    In the Sicily Channel, (Central Mediterranean), two geodynamic processes overlap each other, the Maghrebides-Apennines accretionary prism and the Sicily Channel rift. Moreover, the northwestern sector (Banks sector) is characterised by an irregular seafloor morphology linked to the recent volcanic and tectonic activity.In order to discriminate the role exerted by both the processes in the morphostructural setting of the area we used a dataset of both high and very high resolution single-channel and multi-channel profiles, acquired in the frame of the RITMARE project respectively with CHIRP and sparker, and airgun sources, and high resolution (5 m cell) morpho-bathymetric data. The data allowed us to identify and characterise two areas where different geological features (sedimentary and volcanic) are prevailing. They present fluid escaping evidence, which often appears to be active and generating different types of morphologies (both positive and negative). In the western sector we recognised pockmarks at water depths of 195 to 317 m, with diameters from 25 to 580 m, depths from 1.3 to 15 m, and slope up to 23°. They show sub-circular shape in plan-view and reflectors with upward concavity in cross section, and are oriented along a NW-SE trend.The CHIRP and multichannel profiles highlight fluids that affect the Plio-Quaternary succession, especially in areas where the top surface of the Messinian succession is shallower. Conversely, wipe-out acoustic facies were recognised in proximity of: i) extensional faults of Mesozoic age with NW-SE trend; ii) dip/strike slip faults of Cenozoic age with NW-SE, N-S and about NNE-SSW trends, and iii) extensional neo-tectonic faults with NW-SE and NNW-SSE trends. We cannot exclude that they could feed the shallower reservoir producing a mixing between the two. In the eastern sector we recognised a cluster of volcanoes composed of seven cone-shaped structures (SCV1-7), pertaining to a wide area known as Graham Bank. A detailed

  7. Impact of Sustainable Agriculture on Secondary School Agricultural Education Teachers and Programs in the North Central Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbaje, Kehinde Aderemi Ajaiyeoba; Martin, Robert A.; Williams, David L.

    2001-01-01

    Responses from 298 of 600 secondary agriculture teachers in north central United States revealed limited impact of sustainable agriculture. Most teachers had neutral perceptions; a moderate number taught it, but not from a systems perspective. However, related agronomy topics were taught, providing a possible foundation for future inclusion of…

  8. Pholcid spiders from the Lower Guinean region of Central Africa: an overview, with descriptions of seven new species (Araneae, Pholcidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard A. Huber

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper summarizes current knowledge about Central African pholcids. Central Africa is here defined as the area between 10°N and 7°S and between 6°E and 18°E, including mainly the Lower Guinean subregion of the Guineo-Congolian center of endemism. This includes all of Gabon, Equatorial Guinea, São Tomé and Príncipe, most of Cameroon and Congo Republic, and parts of the neighboring countries. An annotated list of the 14 genera and 79 species recorded from this area is given, together with distribution maps and an identification key to genera. Seven species are newly described: Anansus kamwai sp. nov., Leptopholcus gabonicus sp. nov., Ninetis faro sp. nov., Pholcus punu sp. nov., P. rawiriae sp. nov., Spermophora abibae sp. nov., and S. awalai sp. nov. Additional new records are given for 16 previously described species, including 17 new country records. Distribution and diversity patterns are compared with data on West and East Africa. While West Africa contains a similar set of genera it is significantly less diverse than Central Africa. East Africa is taxonomically more distinct. It has similar levels of diversity as Central Africa, but appears to be less undersampled.

  9. Capability Approach for well-being Evaluation in Regional Development Planning : Case Study in Magelang Regency. Central java, Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pramono, Retno Widodo Dwi

    2016-01-01

    The thesis uses Amartya Sen’s Capability Approach (1993, 2000) to devise a set of criteria to evaluate the well-being and quality of life of economic groups in a case study of Magelang, a small rural area in Central Java, Indonesia. In applying this method, the researcher examines how the spatial ch

  10. Estimating regional pore pressure distribution using 3D seismic velocities in the Dutch Central North Sea Graben

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winthaegen, P.L.A.; Verweij, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    The application of the empirical Eaton method to calibrated sonic well information and 3D seismic interval velocity data in the southeastern part of the Central North Sea Graben, using the Japsen (Glob. Planet. Change 24 (2000) 189) normal velocitydepth trend, resulted in the identification of an un

  11. Projected changes in temperature and precipitation climatology of Central Asia CORDEX Region 8 by using RegCM4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Turp, M. Tufan; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2017-01-01

    This work investigated projected future changes in seasonal mean air temperature (°C) and precipitation (mm/day) climatology for the three periods of 2011-2040, 2041-2070, and 2071-2100, with respect to the control period of 1971-2000 for the Central Asia domain via regional climate model simulations. In order to investigate the projected changes in near future climate conditions, the Regional Climate Model, RegCM4.3.5 of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was driven by two different CMIP5 global climate models. The HadGEM2-ES global climate model of the Met Office Hadley Centre and the MPI-ESM-MR global climate model of the Max Planck Institute for Meteorology were downscaled to 50 km for the Coordinated Regional Climate Downscaling Experiment (CORDEX) Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of the Central Asia by using two different global climate model outputs. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model projects relatively high warming in the warm season with a decrease in precipitation in almost all parts of the domain. A warming trend is notable, especially for the northern part of the domain during the cold season. The results of our study show that surface air temperatures in the region will increase between 3 °C and about 7 °C on average, according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2071-2100 with respect to past period of 1971-2000. Therefore, the projected warming and decrease in precipitation might adversely affect the ecological and socio-economic systems of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment.

  12. The Immigration of People from Slovenian Regions to the Parishes in the Central Region and the Kupa Valley Based on the Notes from Ecclesiastical Status Animarum Books from the Mid-19th to Mid-20th Century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Riman

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Different migration processes caused the present heterogeneous composition of the population of the Gorski kotar region. The Central Region and the Kupa Valley were not an exception, and the immigration of people from various parts of the Habsburg Monarchy have been recorded throughout history. The reasons for immigration and for its intensity can be seen in the notes written down in the church books named Status Animarum (cro. Stanje duša, slo. Družinske knjige in which the motives for immigration or emigration of individuals as well as of whole families have been noted. On the basis of these data we can draw generalized conclusions for the precise geographical area, and the precise political and historical period. The paper analyzes data on immigration in the Kupa Valley, with a focus on population migration from today’s Slovene regions from the mid-19th to mid-20th century. The data obtained from the Status Animarum books written in the parishes of the Central Region and the Kupa Valley, show the immigration of people, which proves migration from Slovenian regions to the Croatian ones, but also vice versa. The conclusions of the paper are illustrated and backed with data from the elementary schools registers in the settlements Brod Moravice, Brod na Kupi, Crni Lug, Delnice, Divjake, Fužine, Lokve, Skrad, Razloge and Vrbovsko.

  13. Regional climate of the subtropical central Andes using high-resolution CMIP5 models—part I: past performance (1980-2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazulie, Natalia; Rusticucci, Matilde; Raga, Graciela B.

    2017-02-01

    This study assesses the performance of 15 high resolution global climate models (GCMs) over the complex orographic region of the subtropical central Andes from available simulations of the Fifth Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5). The simulated past climate (1980-2005) was compared against the Climate Research Unit (CRU) dataset and the ERA-Interim reanalysis, considered as reference datasets, to evaluate regional and seasonal surface temperature and precipitation, as well as sea level pressure and circulation. A good agreement was found between the simulations and the reference datasets for winter precipitation and for temperature over both seasons. Whilst all models correctly reproduce the annual cycle of precipitation, some of them overestimate winter totals. ERA-Interim does not adequately represent summer precipitation over the region, and some of the models analyzed also show the same deficiency. All models correctly reproduce the northward migration of the South Pacific subtropical high during winter, although some of them underestimate the maximum central pressure. During summer, most models fail to show the low level north-south flow parallel to the eastern foothills of the Andes, a feature known as the Low Level Jet. Further analysis of the results of the simulations led to the selection of a sub-set of five CMIP5 GCMs to construct a reduced ensemble. This reduced ensemble is a better representation than the multi-model mean of the 15 GCMs of the past climate at this region and would be recommended for future studies.

  14. THE SPATIAL PATTERN OF URBANIZATION AND SMALL CITIES DEVELOPMENT IN CENTRAL JAVA: A CASE STUDY OF SEMARANG-YOGYAKARTA-SURAKARTA REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawoto Sih Setyono

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The special form of urbanization in Indonesia has led to a variety of themes on the urban development studies in Indonesia. Since 1990s, there has been an emphasis on the development of mega-urban regions, particularly those surrounding Jakarta as the biggest and the prime city in Indonesia. This research is aimed at elaborating the previous knowledge on the urbanization pattern in Indonesia, and Java in particular. More specifically, this study examines urban development trend in Central Java. The analysis of urbanization in this study can be classified into two categories, i.e. analysis of the urbanization level and analysis of the urbanization growth. These two analyses are combined by applying some GIS methods in order to understand the pattern of urbanization in the region. It is found that the urbanization process in Central Java has transformed the predominantly rural regions in the 1980s into the urban ones. The rapid growth of urban population forms some observable pattern that may be different to the national pattern. There are common spatial patterns, such as the importance of the coastal region and the essential role of the larger urban centers in the urbanization. In this regards, the emergence of the smaller centers has also contributed to the process, especially in bridging a more balanced development between major urban centers and their respective rural hinterland.

  15. Cloning and sequencing of the central region of the flagellin gene from the Gram-positive bacterium Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, F; Bédouet, L; Batina, P; Robreau, G

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to sequence the central part of the coding region of the Clostridium tyrobutyricum fiagellin gene to improve the immunoenzymatic counting of cells after milk filtration. The coding region was amplified by PCR, and the amplified products were cloned. A DNA sequence analysis of positive clones gave us 1,131 nucleotides with a partial calculated flagellin molecular mass of 40,143 Da. The flagellar filament protein sequence exhibited high levels of homology to sequences of flagellin protein from other bacteria in both N- and C-terminal parts, but little homology in the central domain. A PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis of amplified C. tyrobutyricum flagellin gene products confirmed the variability of the central domain. The flagellin mRNA was determined to be 1.1 kb in size, which suggests a monocistronic mRNA. Furthermore, the deduced protein flagellin contains eleven potential N-glycosylation sites and one sequence rich in serine, which could be modified by O-glycosylation.

  16. Floristic, edaphic and structural characteristics of flooded and unflooded forests in the lower Rio Purús region of central Amazonia, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haugaasen Torbjørn

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite a natural history interest in the early 1900s, relatively little ecological research has been carried out in the Rio Purús basin of central Amazonia, Brazil. Here we describe a new study area in the region of Lago Uauaçú with an emphasis on the climate, forest structure and composition, and soil characteristics between adjacent unflooded (terra firme and seasonally inundated forests; situated within both the white-water (várzea and black-water (igapó drainage systems that dominate the landscape. The climate was found to be typical of that of the central Amazon. Várzea forest soils had high concentrations of nutrients, while terra firme and igapó soils were comparatively nutrient-poor. Terra firme forests were the most floristically diverse forest type, whereas várzea was intermediate, and igapó the most species-poor. The Lecythidaceae was the most important family in terra firme while the Euphorbiaceae was the most important in both várzea and igapó. There were significant differences between forest types in terms of number of saplings, canopy cover and understorey density. In contrasting our results with other published information, we conclude that the Lago Uauaçú region consists of a typical central Amazonian forest macro-mosaic, but is a unique area with high conservation value due to the intimate juxtaposition of terra firme, várzea and igapó forests.

  17. Study on Regional Difference of Tourism Economy in Six Provinces in Central China%中部六省旅游经济差异研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁龙; 周正一

    2012-01-01

    In this article,through the six provinces in central China tourism data from 2001to 2010,to analysis the central tourism development situation.The conclude that the central tourism development to benefit more than bandits,the rise of the central region strategy promote the middle six province tourism's development,but each province level of development is different,Present absolute difference is wedening and relatively difference is slow decline;six province of domestic tourism development momentum is very good,and international tourism market needs to be strengthened.%通过2001-2010年中部六省旅游数据分析中部旅游业的发展状况,认为中部旅游业在中部崛起战略中获益匪多。中部崛起战略的提出促进了中部六省旅游业的发展,但各个省的发展程度有所不同,呈现出绝对差异在拉大,相对差异缓慢下降的趋势;中部六省国内旅游发展势头良好,而国际旅游市场需求有待加强。

  18. Role of highly central residues of P-loop and it's flanking region in preserving the archetypal conformation of Walker A motif of diverse P-loop NTPases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, Ekta; Atri, Neelam; Mishra, Rajeev

    2013-01-01

    P-loop NTPases represent a large and highly diverse protein family that is involved in variety of cellular functions. Walker A motif forms a typical arched conformation, necessary to accommodate the phosphate moiety of the nucleoside tri (or di-) phosphate in Ploop NTPases. The feature that maintains the ancient architecture of P-loop is unidentified and uncharacterized. Here, using a well established global network parameter, closeness centrality, we identify that Walker A and its flanking regions (N- and C-terminal) have high density of globally connected residue positions. We find that closeness centrality of these residue positions are conserved across common structural core of diverse domains of P-loop NTPase fold. Our results suggest the potential role of globally connected residues in maintaining the local conformation of P-loop.

  19. Effects of land-use changes on evapotranspiration of tropical rain forest margin area in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia): Modelling study with a regional SVAT model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olchev, A.; Ibrom, Andreas; Priess, J.

    2008-01-01

    The impact of deforestation and land-use changes on evapotranspiration of mountainous tropical rain forest area in the northern part of the Lore-Lindu National Park (LLNP) in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia) was quantified using a regional process-based SVAT model "SVAT-Regio". Description of evapotr......The impact of deforestation and land-use changes on evapotranspiration of mountainous tropical rain forest area in the northern part of the Lore-Lindu National Park (LLNP) in Central Sulawesi (Indonesia) was quantified using a regional process-based SVAT model "SVAT-Regio". Description...... of evapotranspiration of a non-uniform land surface in local and regional scales in SVAT-Regio is based on equations of energy and water balances of individual plants, plant canopy and soil layers for each of many grid cells into which the entire study area is divided. The model uses a multi-layered representation...... of vegetation cover and soil structure that allows to describe the partitioning of energy and H2O-fluxes among different canopy layers and soil, and to quantify more precisely the total ecosystem fluxes. Selective integration of grid cell fluxes on space and time allows estimating the energy and water fluxes...

  20. Structure and regional significance of the Late Permian(?) Sierra Nevada - Death Valley thrust system, east-central California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, C.H.; Stone, P.

    2005-01-01

    An imbricate system of north-trending, east-directed thrust faults of late Early Permian to middle Early Triassic (most likely Late Permian) age forms a belt in east-central California extending from the Mount Morrison roof pendant in the eastern Sierra Nevada to Death Valley. Six major thrust faults typically with a spacing of 15-20 km, original dips probably of 25-35??, and stratigraphic throws of 2-5 km compose this structural belt, which we call the Sierra Nevada-Death Valley thrust system. These thrusts presumably merge into a de??collement at depth, perhaps at the contact with crystalline basement, the position of which is unknown. We interpret the deformation that produced these thrusts to have been related to the initiation of convergent plate motion along a southeast-trending continental margin segment probably formed by Pennsylvanian transform truncation. This deformation apparently represents a period of tectonic transition to full-scale convergence and arc magmatism along the continental margin beginning in the Late Triassic in central California. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional Geochemical Results from the Reanalysis of NURE Stream Sediment Samples - Eagle 3? Quadrangle, East-Central Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crock, J.G.; Briggs, P.H.; Gough, L.P.; Wanty, R.B.; Brown, Z.A.

    2007-01-01

    This report presents reconnaissance geochemical data for a cooperative study in the Fortymile Mining District, east-central Alaska, initiated in 1997. This study has been funded by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Mineral Resources Program. Cooperative funds were provided from various State of Alaska sources through the Alaska Department of Natural Resources. Results presented here represent the initial reconnaissance phase for this multidisciplinary cooperative study. In this phase, 239 sediment samples from the Eagle 3? Quadrangle of east-central Alaska, which had been collected and analyzed for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Uranium Resource Evaluation program (NURE) of the 1970's (Hoffman and Buttleman, 1996; Smith, 1997), are reanalyzed by newer analytical methods that are more sensitive, accurate, and precise (Arbogast, 1996; Taggart, 2002). The main objectives for the reanalysis of these samples were to establish lower limits of determination for some elements and to confirm the NURE data as a reliable predictive reconnaissance tool for future studies in Alaska's Eagle 3? Quadrangle. This study has wide implications for using the archived NURE samples and data throughout Alaska for future studies.

  2. The Mechanics of Russian Foreign Policy in the Caucasus and Central Asia -- Regional Hegemony or Neo-Imperialism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-01

    listen to government-controlled or Russian media, making their view of regional politics somewhat “Moscow-centric.”195 In the 2005 Reporters without Borders Press...Integration in the Caspian Basin,” SAIS Review 19, no.1 (1999). and Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index for 2005 and Robert Kaiser, “U.S...Books, 2003). Reporters Without Borders Press Freedom Index for 2005 131 RFE/RL article “Breakaway Regions Seek Closer Ties with Russia.” 14

  3. Contribution to the knowledge of the Lepidoptera Fauna of the lower Sangro valley in the Abruzzo region of Central Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Zahm

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We report the results of recording Lepidoptera in the lower Sangro valley during a period of 22 years. The investigations were devoted to Macroheterocera and were carried out in the two regional nature reserves Oasi di Serranella and Lecceta di Torino di Sangro. The listing also includes some Microlepidoptera as non-target species, as well as occasionally observed butterflies. The 401 recorded species are presented in a table indicating both the locality of the records and the observed flight times and periods of activity. Fifteen species are published for the Abruzzo region for the first time; 2 species are new for the Italian peninsula.

  4. The effects of threonine phosphorylation on the stability and dynamics of the central molecular switch region of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenrick A Vassall

    Full Text Available The classic isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP are essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system of higher vertebrates. The protein is involved in all facets of the development, compaction, and stabilization of the multilamellar myelin sheath, and also interacts with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. The predominant 18.5-kDa isoform of MBP is an intrinsically-disordered protein that is a candidate auto-antigen in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. A highly-conserved central segment within classic MBP consists of a proline-rich region (murine 18.5-kDa sequence -T92-P93-R94-T95-P96-P97-P98-S99- containing a putative SH3-ligand, adjacent to a region that forms an amphipathic α-helix (P82-I90 upon interaction with membranes, or under membrane-mimetic conditions. The T92 and T95 residues within the proline-rich region can be post-translationally modified through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein (MAP kinases. Here, we have investigated the structure of the α-helical and proline-rich regions in dilute aqueous buffer, and have evaluated the effects of phosphorylation at T92 and T95 on the stability and dynamics of the α-helical region, by utilizing four 36-residue peptides (S72-S107 with differing phosphorylation status. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that both the α-helical as well as the proline-rich regions are disordered in aqueous buffer, whereas they are both structured in a lipid environment (cf., Ahmed et al., Biochemistry 51, 7475-9487, 2012. Thermodynamic analysis of trifluoroethanol-titration curves monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that phosphorylation, especially at residue T92, impedes formation of the amphipathic α-helix. This conclusion is supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which further illustrate that phosphorylation reduces the folding reversibility of the α-helix upon temperature perturbation and affect the

  5. The effects of threonine phosphorylation on the stability and dynamics of the central molecular switch region of 18.5-kDa myelin basic protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassall, Kenrick A; Bessonov, Kyrylo; De Avila, Miguel; Polverini, Eugenia; Harauz, George

    2013-01-01

    The classic isoforms of myelin basic protein (MBP) are essential for the formation and maintenance of myelin in the central nervous system of higher vertebrates. The protein is involved in all facets of the development, compaction, and stabilization of the multilamellar myelin sheath, and also interacts with cytoskeletal and signaling proteins. The predominant 18.5-kDa isoform of MBP is an intrinsically-disordered protein that is a candidate auto-antigen in the human demyelinating disease multiple sclerosis. A highly-conserved central segment within classic MBP consists of a proline-rich region (murine 18.5-kDa sequence -T92-P93-R94-T95-P96-P97-P98-S99-) containing a putative SH3-ligand, adjacent to a region that forms an amphipathic α-helix (P82-I90) upon interaction with membranes, or under membrane-mimetic conditions. The T92 and T95 residues within the proline-rich region can be post-translationally modified through phosphorylation by mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases. Here, we have investigated the structure of the α-helical and proline-rich regions in dilute aqueous buffer, and have evaluated the effects of phosphorylation at T92 and T95 on the stability and dynamics of the α-helical region, by utilizing four 36-residue peptides (S72-S107) with differing phosphorylation status. Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy reveals that both the α-helical as well as the proline-rich regions are disordered in aqueous buffer, whereas they are both structured in a lipid environment (cf., Ahmed et al., Biochemistry 51, 7475-9487, 2012). Thermodynamic analysis of trifluoroethanol-titration curves monitored by circular dichroism spectroscopy reveals that phosphorylation, especially at residue T92, impedes formation of the amphipathic α-helix. This conclusion is supported by molecular dynamics simulations, which further illustrate that phosphorylation reduces the folding reversibility of the α-helix upon temperature perturbation and affect the global structure

  6. Propuesta de evaluación del desempeño, basado en competencias para el Instituto Nacional de Aprendizaje, unidad regional Pacífico Central

    OpenAIRE

    Chacón-Naranjo, Dixiana

    2011-01-01

    Tesis de maestría -- Universidad de Costa Rica. Posgrado en Administración y Dirección de Empresas. Maestría Profesional en Administración y Dirección de Empresas, 2011 El objetivo general es evaluar el proceso de gestión y evaluación del desempeño en el Instituto Nacional de Aprendizaje, Unidad Regional Pacífico Central, para plantear una propuesta de soluciones a los problemas que se identifiquen. El tipo de investigación es descriptiva, con uso de la metodología analítico-sint...

  7. ENTREPRENEURIAL CONSULTING AND DEVELOPMENT FOR YOUTH WITHIN RURAL AREAS - A CASE STUDY FOR DEVELOPING NORTH EAST, CENTRAL AND SOUTH EAST REGIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin BURCEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We propose to show the connection between consulting and entrepreneurial approach, emphasizing the normality of including assistance within the entrepreneurs’ activity. The theoretical component deals with the elements that define the consulting activity in business and the specific approach to initiate and develop business by young rural entrepreneurs. The applicative component is represented by the presentation of the specific consulting needs for business initiating and development in the rural areas within developing regions of North East, Central and South East. The undertaken sociological research is representative for the study group and was held within the SOP HRD strategic project “Rural Manager”.

  8. The role of central, regional and local administrations in the application of the Kyoto protocol in the forestry sector in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pompei E

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available According to art. 3.3 and 3.4 of the Kyoto Protocol and subsequent UNFCCC COP's and national decisions, Italy shall report the net changes in GHG emissions by sources and removals by sinks resulting from afforestation, reforestation and deforestation (art. 3.3 and forest management (art. 3.4 activities. To assess art. 3.3 activities, Italy will define methods to estimate land use changes occurring after 31 December 1989. The paper considers the key-role that central administration shall have, as well as the role of regional and local administrations in order to solve some specific topics regarding data collection and management issues.

  9. Central representation of muscle pain and mechanical hyperesthesia in the orofacial region: a positron emission tomography study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kupers, Rron; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehlin

    2004-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies of the human brain have revealed a network of brain regions involved in the processing of nociceptive information. However, little is known of the cerebral processing of pain originating from muscles. The aim of this study was to investigate the cerebral activation...

  10. Prevalence of Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae in sheep from the São Paulo Central region, Brazil Prevalência de Oestrus ovis (Diptera: Oestridae em ovinos da região Central de São Paulo, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Fernanda da Silva

    Full Text Available The heads of 139 slaughtered sheep were examined with the aim of determining Oestrus ovis prevalence and infestation intensity in the central region of the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Heads from slaughtered sheep were examined and the first (L1, second (L2 and third (L3 O. ovis larval instars were recovered from the nasal and sinus cavities. O. ovis larvae were detected in 13.7% of the sheep analyzed. The monthly mean intensity of infestation ranged from 1 to 10.2 larvae per infested head, with general mean intensity of 4.5 larvae/infested head. Of the total of 85 larvae, 21.2% were L1, 37.6% L2 and 41.2% L3. In conclusion, all different O. ovis larvae instars were recovered from slaughtered animals, which demonstrates the existence of favorable climatic conditions for the fly activity and larval development of O. ovis in sheep raised in the Central region of the State of São Paulo.Com o objetivo de determinar a prevalência e intensidade de infestação por larvas de Oestrus ovis na região Central do Estado de São Paulo, 139 cabeças de ovinos obtidas de um abatedouro foram examinadas. As larvas O. ovis foram recuperadas da cavidade nasal e seios frontais, identificadas de acordo com o estádio larval e quantificadas. As larvas de O. ovis foram detectadas em 13,7% das cabeças examinadas e a intensidade média mensal de infestação variou entre 1 a 10,2 larvas/cabeça infestada, com média geral de 4,5 larvas/cabeça infestada. Do total de 85 larvas recuperadas, 21,2% eram larvas de primeiro estádio (L1, 37,6% de segundo (L2 e 41,2% de terceiro (L3. Em conclusão, todos os diferentes instares larvais de O. ovis foram recuperados de animais abatidos, o que demonstra a existência de condições climáticas favoráveis para a atividade da mosca bem como o desenvolvimento larval em ovinos criados na região Central do Estado de São Paulo.

  11. Simulated Future Changes in Air Temperature and Precipitation Climatology in the Central Asia Cordex Region 8 BY Using RegCM 4.3.5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Tugba; Türkeş, Murat; Kurnaz, M. Levent

    2014-05-01

    In this study, projected future changes for the period of 2071-2100 in mean surface air temperature and precipitation climatology and variability over the large Central Asia region with respect to present climate (1971 to 2000) were simulated based on the RCP 4.5 and RCP 8.5 emission scenarios. Regional Climate Model (RegCM4.3) of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) was used for projections of future and present climate conditions. Hadley Global Environment Model 2 (HadGEM2) of the Met Office Hadley Centre was downscaled for the Cordex Region 8. We investigated the seasonal time-scale performance of RegCM4.3.5 in reproducing observed climatology over the domain of Central Asia by usingtwo different emission scenario datasets for three future periods. The regional model is capable of reproducing the observed climate with few exceptions, which are due to the meteorological and physical geographical complexities of the domain. For the future climatology of the domain, the regional model predicts relatively high warming in the warm season and northern part of the domain at cold season with a decrease in precipitation amounts almost all part of the domain. The results of our study showed that surface air temperatures in the region will increase from 3° C up to more than 7° C on average according to the emission scenarios for the period of 2070-2100 with respect to past period of 1970-2000. In the future, a decrease in the amount of precipitation is also predicted for the region. The projected warming and decrease in precipitation for the domain may strongly affect the ecological and socio-economic systems including agriculture, natural biomes, hydrology and water resources of this region, which is already a mostly arid and semi-arid environment. This work has been supported by Bogazici University BAP under project number 7362. One of the authors (MLK) was partially supported by Mercator-IPC Fellowship Program.

  12. The central region of spiral galaxies as seen by Herschel. M81, M99 and M100

    CERN Document Server

    Sauvage, M; Bendo, G J; Boselli, A; Pohlen, M; Wilson, C D; Auld, R; Baes, M; Barlow, M J; Bock, J J; Bradford, M; Buat, V; Castro-Rodriguez, N; Chanial, P; Charlot, S; Ciesla, L; Clements, D L; Cooray, A; Cormier, D; Cortese, L; Davies, J I; Dwek, E; Eales, S A; Elbaz, D; Galametz, M; Galliano, F; Gear, W K; Glenn, J; Gomez, H L; Griffin, M; Hony, S; Isaak, K G; Levenson, L R; Lu, N; Madden, S C; O'Halloran, B; Okumura, K; Oliver, S; Page, M J; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Parkin, T J; Perez-Fournon, I; Rangwala, N; Rigby, E E; Roussel, H; Rykala, A; Schulz, B; Schirm, M R P; Smith, M W L; Spinoglio, L; Stevens, J A; Srinivasan, S; Symeonidis, M; Trichas, M; Vaccari, M; Vigroux, L; Wozniak, H; Wright, G S; Zeilinger, W W

    2010-01-01

    With appropriate spatial resolution, images of spiral galaxies in thermal infrared (~10 micron and beyond) often reveal a bright central component, distinct from the stellar bulge, superimposed on a disk with prominent spiral arms. ISO and Spitzer studies have shown that much of the scatter in the mid-infrared colors of spiral galaxies is related to changes in the relative importance of these two components, rather than to other modifications, such as the morphological type or star formation rate, that affect the properties of the galaxy as a whole. With the Herschel imaging capability from 70 to 500 micron, we revisit this two-component approach at longer wavelengths, to see if it still provides a working description of the brightness distribution of galaxies, and to determine its implications on the interpretation of global far-infrared properties of galaxies.

  13. The mapping of ionospheric TEC for central Russian and European regions on the base of GPS and GLONASS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagimuratov, Irk; Cherniak, Iurii; Zakharenkova, Irina; Ephishov, Ivan; Krankowski, Andrzej; Radievsky, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    The total electron content (TEC) is a key parameter not only for space radio communication but also for addressing the fundamental problems of the ionosphere physics and near Earth space. Currently, the main sources of information on the TEC in the global scale are GNSS signals measurements. The spatial-temporal behavior of the ionosphere can be most effectively analyzed using TEC maps. To date, global IGS global ionospheric maps with a resolution of 2.5 degree in latitude and 5 in longitude and a time resolution of 2 h are most widely used. To study the detailed structure of the ionospheric gradients and rapid process as well as for precise positioning task it is necessary to use more precise regional TEC maps. The Regional TEC maps are currently constructed by different research groups for different regions: USA, Europe, Japan etc. The West Department of IZMIRAN research group is a one in Russia who works on the task of regional ionosphere mapping since 2000. It was developed the methodology for obtaining information on the spatial TEC distribution, TEC maps of the ionosphere on the basis of the algorithm for multi-station processing of GNSS observations. Using a set of algorithms and programs, regional TEC maps with a spatial resolution of 1° and a time resolution up to 15 min can be produced. Here is developed the approach to establish the regular online internet service for regional ionosphere mapping of the Western Russia and Eastern Europe. Nowadays the development of GLONASS navigation system is completely finished and it consists of a constellation of more than 24 satellites. It is good perspective for investigations of the ionosphere structure and dynamics on the base of the simultaneous observations of GPS and GLONASS systems. The GLONASS satellites have the inclination about 64 degrees as against GPS satellites with 56. So the GLONASS provides opportunity to study the high latitude ionosphere. The different scale electron density irregularities

  14. Safety analysis for operating the Annular Core Research Reactor with Cintichem-type targets installed in the central region of the core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PARMA JR.,EDWARD J.

    2000-01-01

    Production of the molybdenum-99 isotope at the Annular Core Research Reactor requires highly enriched, uranium oxide loaded targets to be irradiated for several days in the high neutron-flux region of the core. This report presents the safety analysis for the irradiation of up to seven Cintichem-type targets in the central region of the core and compares the results to the Annular Core Research Reactor Safety Analysis Report. A 19 target grid configuration is presented that allows one to seven targets to be irradiated, with the remainder of the grid locations filled with aluminum ''void'' targets. Analyses of reactor, neutronic, thermal hydraulics, and heat transfer calculations are presented. Steady-state operation and accident scenarios are analyzed with the conclusion that the reactor can be operated safely with seven targets in the grid, and no additional risk to the public.

  15. Simultaneous Inversion of Hypocentral Parameters and Structure Velocity of the Central Region of Madagascar as a Premise for the Mitigation of Seismic Hazard in Antananarivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rambolamanana, G.; Suhadolc, P.; Panza, G. F.

    1997-08-01

    A layered velocity is obtained using arrival-time data of P and S waves from local earthquakes for the Central Region of Madagascar. A damped least-squares method is applied in the inversion of the data. The data used are 770 P-wave arrival times for 154 events which have epicenters in the region inside the Malagasy network operated by the Institut et Observatoire de Géophysique d'Antananarivo (IOGA). These data are jointly used in the inversion for the earthquake hypocenters and P- and S-wave velocity models. S waves are not used in the first step of the inversion, since their use leads to large location errors. If the error on the phase reading for the P wave is about 0.1s, for the S wave it is considerably bigger. The reference average model used here is a variant of the model given by Rakotondrainibe (1977).

  16. Attribution of satellite observed vegetation trends in a hyper-arid region of the Heihe River Basin, Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Wang

    2014-02-01

    4.5% in 2012. The largest contribution to the overall greening was due to changes in green vegetation cover of the extensive desert areas with a smaller contribution due to changes in the area of irrigated land. Comprehensive analysis with different precipitation data sources found that the greening of the desert was associated with increases in regional precipitation. We found that the area of land irrigated each year was mostly dependent on the runoff gauged one year earlier. Taken together, water availability both from precipitation in the desert and runoff inflow for the irrigation agricultural lands can explain at least 52% of the total variance in regional vegetation cover from 2000 to 2010.

  17. Research on centralized network protection of regional power grid%区域电网集中式网络保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋小会; 郭志忠; 倪传坤; 李宝伟

    2013-01-01

      从区域电网整体考虑给出了区域电网集中式网络保护主保护和后备保护的定义,提出了分层的差动保护方法。针对区域电网拓扑结构的特点提出了以双层链表结构进行电网拓扑结构的表达方法,并结合具体实例分析了拓扑结构的识别方法。还对电网集中式保护的故障处理流程进行了研究,提出了按照电流判启动后先电压选线调度再计算差动跳闸的原则。根据提出的区域电网集中式保护方案进行了实现,并用RTDS建立了包括4个220 kV变电站在内的区域电网仿真系统。动模试验结果表明,使用区域电网集中式差动保护除传统主保护功能外,其后备差动保护比传统远后备保护具有选择性好,灵敏度高,动作速度快的特点。%From the consideration of the regional power grid as a whole, this paper defines the main protection and backup protection of the centralized network of regional power grid protection, and proposes the hierarchical differential protection method. Double-linked list structure is used to express the grid topology according to characteristics of the regional grid topology, and the identification of topology is analyzed with specific examples. This paper also studies fault handling process of the grid centralized protection and proposes the principle of scheduling voltage line selection firstly and then calculating differential tripping after the start of the current-contracting. A regional power grid simulation system including four 220 kV substations is established using RTDS. Dynamic simulation test results show that except for possessing the traditional main protection functions, the reserve differential protection of centralized differential protection of the regional power grid has the features of good selectivity, high sensitivity, and fast action compared with traditional remote backup protection.

  18. An evaluation of dynamical downscaling of Central Plains summer precipitation using a WRF-based regional climate model at a convection-permitting 4 km resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuguang; Xue, Ming; Brotzge, Jerald; McPherson, Renee A.; Hu, Xiao-Ming; Yang, Xiu-Qun

    2016-12-01

    A significant challenge with dynamical downscaling of climate simulations is the ability to accurately represent convection and precipitation. The use of convection-permitting resolutions avoids cumulus parameterization, which is known to be a large source of uncertainty. A regional climate model (RCM) based on the Weather Research and Forecasting model is configured with a 4 km grid spacing and applied to the U.S. Great Plains, a region characterized by many forms of weather and climate extremes. The 4 km RCM is evaluated by running it in a hindcast mode over the central U.S. region for a 10 year period, forced at the boundary by the 32 km North America Regional Reanalysis. The model is also run at a 25 km grid spacing, but with cumulus parameterization turned on for comparison. The 4 km run more successfully reproduces certain observed features of the Great Plains May-through-August precipitation. In particular, the magnitude of extreme precipitation and the diurnal cycle of precipitation over the Great Plains are better simulated. The 4 km run more realistically simulates the low-level jet and related atmospheric circulations that transport and redistribute moisture from Gulf of Mexico. The convection-permitting RCM may therefore produce better dynamical downscaling of future climate when nested within global model climate projections, especially for extreme precipitation magnitudes. The 4 km and 25 km simulations do share similar precipitation biases, including low biases over the central Great Plains and high biases over the Rockies. These biases appear linked to circulation biases in the simulations, but determining of the exact causes will require extensive, separate studies.

  19. Integración regional en América Central, 1990-1997: los límites del gradualismo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio SANAHUJA

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Entre 1990 y 1997 América Central ha definido un nuevo marco institucional y normativo y una nueva estrategia económica para el proceso de integración regional. En el plano institucional, la flexibilidad y el gradualismo han sido los dos principios rectores. En el plano económico se ha intentado hacer compatible la profundización del mercado regional con la apertura al exterior. Siete años después, sin embargo, esta estrategia ha mostrado sus límites políticos, económicos y sociales. La continuidad del proceso y el éxito de la Unión Centroamericana propuesta en 1997 exige una reorientación del modelo y compromisos integracionistas más profundos. El artículo describe el proceso de integración en el periodo citado, evalúa sus resultados en el plano político y económico, y trata de identificar los desafíos y opciones futuras de la Unión Centroamericana, prestando atención a la reforma institucional propuesta en julio de 1997.ABSTRACT: Since 1990 to 1997 Central America has defined a new set of norms and institutional frameworks, as well as a new economic strategy for the regional integration process. In the institutional field, flexibility and gradualism have been the leading principles. Economics has been directed by the search of compatibility between the deepening the regional market and the opening u

  20. Central domain of DivIB caps the C-terminal regions of the FtsL/DivIC coiled-coil rod.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masson, Soizic; Kern, Thomas; Le Gouëllec, Audrey; Giustini, Cécile; Simorre, Jean-Pierre; Callow, Philip; Vernet, Thierry; Gabel, Frank; Zapun, André

    2009-10-02

    DivIB(FtsQ), FtsL, and DivIC(FtsB) are enigmatic membrane proteins that are central to the process of bacterial cell division. DivIB(FtsQ) is dispensable in specific conditions in some species, and appears to be absent in other bacterial species. The presence of FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) appears to be conserved despite very low sequence conservation. The three proteins form a complex at the division site, FtsL and DivIC(FtsB) being associated through their extracellular coiled-coil region. We report here structural investigations by NMR, small-angle neutron and x-ray scattering, and interaction studies by surface plasmon resonance, of the complex of DivIB, FtsL, and DivIC from Streptococcus pneumoniae, using soluble truncated forms of the proteins. We found that one side of the "bean"-shaped central beta-domain of DivIB interacts with the C-terminal regions of the dimer of FtsL and DivIC. This finding is corroborated by sequence comparisons across bacterial genomes. Indeed, DivIB is absent from species with shorter FtsL and DivIC proteins that have an extracellular domain consisting only of the coiled-coil segment without C-terminal conserved regions (Campylobacterales). We propose that the main role of the interaction of DivIB with FtsL and DivIC is to help the formation, or to stabilize, the coiled-coil of the latter proteins. The coiled-coil of FtsL and DivIC, itself or with transmembrane regions, could be free to interact with other partners.

  1. From national to regional plans – the Integrated Drought Management Programme of the Global Water Partnership for Central and Eastern Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Bokal

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past few decades it has become evident that the countries of Central and Eastern Europe (CEE are affected by droughts which are becoming more and more lasting and severe. The region׳s vulnerability to this natural hazard alerted the public, governments, and operational agencies to the many socio-economic problems accompanying water shortage and to the need for drought mitigation measures. In addition, climate change amplifies the frequency and severity of droughts in the region. In this context, the CEE region of the Global Water Partnership (GWP recently launched the regional Integrated Drought Management Programme (IDMP as part of the global joint World Meteorological Organization (WMO/GWP IDMP. The purpose of this paper is to present the work plan of the GWP CEE IDM Programme which is being implemented in the years 2013–2015. The planning process for this Programme carried out in 2012 included national and regional reviews of existing drought risks, policies and strategies. The programme inception phase was summarized in October 2012 by a regional workshop organized jointly by GWP and WMO, with the participation of representatives of the United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification (UNCCD Secretariat, the Drought Management Centre for Southeastern Europe (DMCSEE, the EU Joint Research Centre, the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE and the European Drought Centre. The Programme was launched in February 2013 and involves more than 40 organizations from 9 CEE countries. The basic four elements of the Programme include policy advice, demonstration projects, capacity building knowledge management and regional cooperation (from national to regional plans. The major output, building upon national initiatives, shall be a coordinated regional framework for drought monitoring, early warning, prediction and management, accompanied by a set of guidelines and tools for the development of regional, national and local

  2. Prevalence of underweight, overweight, general and central obesity among 8-15-years old Bulgarian children and adolescents (Smolyan region, 2012-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mladenova, Silviya; Andreenko, Emiliya

    2015-06-01

    Objetivo: el objetivo de este trabajo es investigar la distribucion de peso insuficiente, demasiado pesado, la obesidad general y central en 8 ninos bulgaros de 15 anos y adolescentes, a traves del uso de los indices antropometricos BMI y WHtR. Materiales y métodos: el objeto de este estudio son 878 ninos y adolescentes (437 ninos y 441 ninas) de la region de Smolyan, Bulgaria, con edades de 8 a 15 anos. El estudio es transversal y se llevo a cabo en el periodo 2012- 2014. Se miden la altura, el peso y la circunferencia de la cintura, asi como el indice de masa corporal. El sobrepeso y la obesidad se definen de acuerdo con los puntos de corte de BMI, recomendado por la IOTF y desarrollado por Cole et al. (2000:2007). La obesidad central fue definida de acuerdo con los valores discriminatorios de 0,500 de WHtR. Los datos obtenidos fueron analizados por los paquetes de software estadistico STATISTICA 10.0 y SPSS 16. Resultados: el sobrepeso se produce entre el 18,8% de los chicos y el 17,0% de las ninas, y la obesidad entre el 7,6% de los varones y el 3,7% de las chicas. Presentan bajo peso el 8,0% de los chicos y el 10,4% de las chicas. La obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500) se produce en promedio, en el 12,75% de todos los ninos investigados, independientemente de su estado nutricional (16,2% de los varones y el 9,3% de las chicas). Presentan obesidad central (RCEst ≥ 0.500), en promedio, el 2,7% de todos los ninos y ninas con peso normal (n = 96) y un promedio 46,82% de todos los participantes con sobrepeso y con obesidad (n =