WorldWideScience

Sample records for central nervous system diseases

  1. Central nervous system diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that roentgenological examination plays an important role in diagnosis of central nervous system diseases in children. The methods of roentgenological examinations are divided into 3 groups: roentgenography without contrast media (conventional roentgenography), roentgenography with artificial contrasting of liquor space (ventriculopneumoencelography, myelography) and contrasting of brain and spinal blood vessels (angiography). Conventional contrastless roentgenography of skull and vertebral column occupies leadership in diagnosis of brain neoplasms and some vascular diseases

  2. [Parasitic diseases of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutzhard, E

    2010-02-01

    Central nervous system infections and infestations by protozoa and helminths constitute a problem of increasing importance throughout all of central European and northern/western countries. This is partially due to the globalisation of our society, tourists and business people being more frequently exposed to parasitic infection/infestation in tropical countries than in moderate climate countries. On top of that, migrants may import chronic infestations and infections with parasitic pathogens, eventually also--sometimes exclusively--involving the nervous system. Knowledge of epidemiology, initial clinical signs and symptoms, diagnostic procedures as well as specific chemotherapeutic therapies and adjunctive therapeutic strategies is of utmost important in all of these infections and infestations of the nervous systems, be it by protozoa or helminths. This review lists, mainly in the form of tables, all possible infections and infestations of the nervous systems by protozoa and by helminths. Besides differentiating parasitic diseases of the nervous system seen in migrants, tourists etc., it is very important to have in mind that disease-related (e.g. HIV) or iatrogenic immunosuppression has led to the increased occurrence of a wide variety of parasitic infections and infestations of the nervous system (e. g. babesiosis, Chagas disease, Strongyloides stercoralis infestation, toxoplasmosis, etc.). PMID:20111855

  3. The Olig family affects central nervous system development and disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Botao Tan; Jing Yu; Ying Yin; Gongwei Jia; Wei Jiang; Lehua Yu

    2014-01-01

    Neural cell differentiation and maturation is a critical step during central nervous system devel-opment. The oligodendrocyte transcription family (Olig family) is known to be an important factor in regulating neural cell differentiation. Because of this, the Olig family also affects acute and chronic central nervous system diseases, including brain injury, multiple sclerosis, and even gliomas. Improved understanding about the functions of the Olig family in central nervous system development and disease will greatly aid novel breakthroughs in central nervous system diseases. This review investigates the role of the Olig family in central nervous system develop-ment and related diseases.

  4. Gait Rehabilitation Device in Central Nervous System Disease: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuya Kubo

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system diseases cause the gait disorder. Early rehabilitation of a patient with central nervous system disease is shown to be benefit. However, early gait training is difficult because of muscular weakness and those elderly patients who lose of leg muscular power. In the patient's walking training, therapists assist the movement of patient's lower limbs and control the movement of patient's lower limbs. However the assistance for the movement of the lower limbs is a serious hard labor for therapists. Therefore, research into and development of various gait rehabilitation devices is currently underway to identify methods to alleviate the physical burden on therapists. In this paper, we introduced the about gait rehabilitation devices in central nervous system disease.

  5. Central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    The central nervous system is composed of the brain and spinal cord. Your brain and spinal cord serve as the main "processing center" for your entire nervous system. They control all the workings of your body.

  6. [VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS AND DISEASES OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM VESSELS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanova, A S; Lavrov, V F; Zverev, V V

    2015-01-01

    Systemized data on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestation, diagnostics and therapy of VZV-vasculopathy--a disease, occurring due to damage of arteries of the central nervous system by Varicella Zoster virus, are presented in the review. A special attention in the paper is given to the effect of vaccine prophylaxis of chicken pox and herpes zoster on the frequency of development and course of VZV-vasculopathy. PMID:26259280

  7. The central nervous system in childhood chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Debbie S; Duquette, Peter J; Icard, Phil F; Hooper, Stephen R

    2007-10-01

    Neurodevelopmental deficits in pediatric and adult survivors of childhood onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) have been documented for many years. This paper reviews the available literature on central nervous system involvement incurred in childhood CKD. The studies reviewed include recent work in neuroimaging, electrophysiology, and neuropsychology, along with commentary on school functioning and long-term outcomes. The paper concludes with suggestions for monitoring the neurodevelopmental status and pursuing appropriate early interventions for children with CKD. PMID:17072652

  8. Fulminant Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevan, Carolyn J; Cree, Bruce A

    2015-12-01

    Fulminant demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system include acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, the related acute hemorrhagic leukoencephalitis, multiple sclerosis variants, neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders, and idiopathic transverse myelitis. These syndromes are often managed with similar acute treatments including high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis; however, long-term management varies. Although the prognosis of fulminant demyelinating disease was historically poor, outcomes today may be improved due to earlier diagnosis, rapid implementation of anti-inflammatory therapies such as high-dose corticosteroids and plasmapheresis, and improved supportive care. PMID:26595866

  9. Central nervous system resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McIntosh, T K; Garde, E; Saatman, K E;

    1997-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the central nervous system induces delayed neuronal death, which may be mediated by acute and chronic neurochemical changes. Experimental identification of these injury mechanisms and elucidation of the neurochemical cascade following trauma may provide enhanced opportunities...

  10. Imaging in the infectious diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic signs of the major bacterial, viral, parasitic or mycotic infections of the central nervous system with CT and MRI are described. The problems arising from the presence of the HIV virus are emphasized and the attitude required according to the findings of imaging, is defined

  11. Cerebrospinal fluid interleukin-6 in central nervous system inflammatory diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Wullschleger

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Interleukin (IL-6 is recognised as an important cytokine involved in inflammatory diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. OBJECTIVE: To perform a large retrospective study designed to test cerebrospinal fluid (CSF IL-6 levels in the context of neurological diseases, and evaluate its usefulness as a biomarker to help discriminate multiple sclerosis (MS from other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We analyzed 374 CSF samples for IL-6 using a quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Groups tested were composed of demyelinating diseases of the CNS (DD, n = 117, including relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS, n = 65, primary progressive MS (PPMS, n = 11, clinically isolated syndrome (CIS, n = 11, optic neuritis (ON, n = 30; idiopathic transverse myelitis (ITM, n = 10; other inflammatory neurological diseases (OIND, n = 35; and non-inflammatory neurological diseases (NIND, n = 212. Differences between groups were analysed using Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U-test. RESULTS: CSF IL-6 levels exceeded the positivity cut-off of 10 pg/ml in 18 (51.4% of the 35 OIND samples, but in only three (3.9% of the 76 MS samples collected. CSF IL-6 was negative for all NIND samples tested (0/212. IL-6 cut-off of 10 pg/ml offers 96% sensitivity to exclude MS. CONCLUSION: CSF IL-6 may help to differentiate MS from its major differential diagnosis group, OIND.

  12. Cell replacement therapy for central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danju Tso; Randall D. McKinnon

    2015-01-01

    The brain and spinal cord can not replace neurons or supporting glia that are lost through trau-matic injury or disease. In pre-clinical studies, however, neural stem and progenitor cell transplants can promote functional recovery. Thus the central nervous system is repair competent but lacks endogenous stem cell resources. To make transplants clinically feasible, this ifeld needs a source of histocompatible, ethically acceptable and non-tumorgenic cells. One strategy to generate pa-tient-speciifc replacement cells is to reprogram autologous cells such as ifbroblasts into pluripotent stem cells which can then be differentiated into the required cell grafts. However, the utility of pluripotent cell derived grafts is limited since they can retain founder cells with intrinsic neoplastic potential. A recent extension of this technology directly reprograms ifbroblasts into the ifnal graft-able cells without an induced pluripotent stem cell intermediate, avoiding the pluripotent caveat. For both types of reprogramming the conversion efficiency is very low resulting in the need to amplify the cells in culture which can lead to chromosomal instability and neoplasia. Thus to make reprogramming biology clinically feasible, we must improve the efifciency. The ultimate source of replacement cells may reside in directly reprogramming accessible cells within the brain.

  13. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovira Canellas, A. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Magnetic Resonance Unit (I.D.I.), Department of Radiology, Barcelona (Spain); Rovira Gols, A. [Parc Tauli University Institute - UAB, UDIAT, Diagnostic Centre, Sabadell (Spain); Rio Izquierdo, J.; Tintore Subirana, M.; Montalban Gairin, X. [Vall d' Hebron University Hospital, Neuroimmunology Unit, Department of Neurology, Barcelona (Spain)

    2007-05-15

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  14. Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idiopathic inflammatory-demyelinating diseases (IIDDs) include a broad spectrum of central nervous system disorders that can usually be differentiated on the basis of clinical, imaging, laboratory and pathological findings. However, there can be a considerable overlap between at least some of these disorders, leading to misdiagnoses or diagnostic uncertainty. The relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS) are the most common IIDDs. Other MS phenotypes include those with a progressive course from onset (primary progressive and progressive relapsing) or with a benign course continuing for years after onset (benign MS). Uncommon forms of IIDDs can be classified clinically into: (1) fulminant or acute IIDDs, such as the Marburg variant of MS, Balo's concentric sclerosis, Schilder's disease, and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis; (2) monosymptomatic IIDDs, such as those involving the spinal cord (transverse myelitis), optic nerve (optic neuritis) or brainstem and cerebellum; and (3) IIDDs with a restricted topographical distribution, including Devic's neuromyelitis optica, recurrent optic neuritis and relapsing transverse myelitis. Other forms of IIDD, which are classified clinically and radiologically as pseudotumoral, can have different forms of presentation and clinical courses. Although some of these uncommon IIDDs are variants of MS, others probably correspond to different entities. MR imaging of the brain and spine is the imaging technique of choice for diagnosing these disorders, and together with the clinical and laboratory findings can accurately classify them. Precise classification of these disorders may have relevant prognostic and treatment implications, and might be helpful in distinguishing them from tumoral or infectious lesions, avoiding unnecessary aggressive diagnostic or therapeutic procedures. (orig.)

  15. Glial biomarkers in human central nervous system disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garden, Gwenn A; Campbell, Brian M

    2016-10-01

    There is a growing understanding that aberrant GLIA function is an underlying factor in psychiatric and neurological disorders. As drug discovery efforts begin to focus on glia-related targets, a key gap in knowledge includes the availability of validated biomarkers to help determine which patients suffer from dysfunction of glial cells or who may best respond by targeting glia-related drug mechanisms. Biomarkers are biological variables with a significant relationship to parameters of disease states and can be used as surrogate markers of disease pathology, progression, and/or responses to drug treatment. For example, imaging studies of the CNS enable localization and characterization of anatomical lesions without the need to isolate tissue for biopsy. Many biomarkers of disease pathology in the CNS involve assays of glial cell function and/or response to injury. Each major glia subtype (oligodendroglia, astroglia and microglia) are connected to a number of important and useful biomarkers. Here, we describe current and emerging glial based biomarker approaches for acute CNS injury and the major categories of chronic nervous system dysfunction including neurodegenerative, neuropsychiatric, neoplastic, and autoimmune disorders of the CNS. These descriptions are highlighted in the context of how biomarkers are employed to better understand the role of glia in human CNS disease and in the development of novel therapeutic treatments. GLIA 2016;64:1755-1771. PMID:27228454

  16. Novel central nervous system drug delivery systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stockwell, Jocelyn; Abdi, Nabiha; Lu, Xiaofan; Maheshwari, Oshin; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2014-05-01

    For decades, biomedical and pharmaceutical researchers have worked to devise new and more effective therapeutics to treat diseases affecting the central nervous system. The blood-brain barrier effectively protects the brain, but poses a profound challenge to drug delivery across this barrier. Many traditional drugs cannot cross the blood-brain barrier in appreciable concentrations, with less than 1% of most drugs reaching the central nervous system, leading to a lack of available treatments for many central nervous system diseases, such as stroke, neurodegenerative disorders, and brain tumors. Due to the ineffective nature of most treatments for central nervous system disorders, the development of novel drug delivery systems is an area of great interest and active research. Multiple novel strategies show promise for effective central nervous system drug delivery, giving potential for more effective and safer therapies in the future. This review outlines several novel drug delivery techniques, including intranasal drug delivery, nanoparticles, drug modifications, convection-enhanced infusion, and ultrasound-mediated drug delivery. It also assesses possible clinical applications, limitations, and examples of current clinical and preclinical research for each of these drug delivery approaches. Improved central nervous system drug delivery is extremely important and will allow for improved treatment of central nervous system diseases, causing improved therapies for those who are affected by central nervous system diseases.

  17. Central nervous system tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are relatively common in veterinary medicine, with most diagnoses occurring in the canine and feline species. Numerous tumor types from various cells or origins have been identified with the most common tumors being meningiomas and glial cell tumors. Radiation therapy is often used as an aid to control the clinical signs associated with these neoplasms. In general, these tumors have a very low metastatic potential, such that local control offers substantial benefit. Experience in veterinary radiation oncology would indicate that many patients benefit from radiation treatment. Current practice indicates the need for computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging studies. These highly beneficial studies are used for diagnosis, treatment planning, and to monitor treatment response. Improvements in treatment planning and radiation delivered to the tumor, while sparing the normal tissues, should improve local control and decrease potential radiation related problems to the CNS. When possible, multiple fractions of 3 Gy or less should be used. The tolerance dose to the normal tissue with this fractionation schedule is 50 to 55 Gy. The most common and serious complications of radiation for CNS tumors is delayed radiation myelopathy and necrosis. Medical management of the patient during radiation therapy requires careful attention to anesthetic protocols, and medications to reduce intracranial pressure that is often elevated in these patients. Canine brain tumors have served as an experimental model to test numerous new treatments. Increased availability of advanced imaging modalities has spawned increased detection of these neoplasms. Early detection of these tumors with appropriate aggressive therapy should prove beneficial to many patients

  18. Herpesvirus-Associated Central Nervous System Diseases after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Meiqing Wu; Fen Huang; Xinmiao Jiang; Zhiping Fan; Hongsheng Zhou; Can Liu; Qianli Jiang; Yu Zhang; Ke Zhao; Li Xuan; Xiao Zhai; Fuhua Zhang; Changxin Yin; Jing Sun; Ru Feng

    2013-01-01

    Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) recipients. Herpesv...

  19. Nanoparticles and blood-brain barrier: the key to central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez, Alazne; Suárez-Merino, Blanca; Goñi-de-Cerio, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Major central nervous system disorders represent a significant and worldwide public health problem. In fact, the therapeutic success of many pharmaceuticals developed to treat central nervous system diseases is still moderate, since the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limits the access of systemically administered compounds to the brain. Therefore, they require the application of a large total dose of a drug, and cause numerous toxic effects. The development of nanotechnological systems are useful tools to deliver therapeutics and/or diagnostic probes to the brain due to nanocarriers having the potential to improve the therapeutic effect of drugs and to reduce their side effects. This review provides a brief overview of the variety of carriers employed for central nervous system drug and diagnostic probes delivery. Further, this paper focuses on the novel nanocarriers developed to enhance brain delivery across the blood-brain barrier. Special attention is paid to liposomes, micelles, polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles, dendrimers and carbon nanotubes. The recent developments in nanocarrier implementation through size/charge optimization and surface modifications (PEGylation, targeting delivery, and coating with surfactants) have been discussed. And a detailed description of the nanoscaled pharmaceutical delivery devices employed for the treatment of central nervous system disorders have also been defined. The aim of the review is to evaluate the nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategies to treat different central nervous system disorders.

  20. Local Nitric Oxide Production in Viral and Autoimmune Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, D. Craig; Tsuyoshi Ohnishi, S.; Kean, Rhonda; Numagami, Yoshihiro; Dietzschold, Bernhard; Koprowski, Hilary

    1995-06-01

    Because of the short half-life of NO, previous studies implicating NO in central nervous system pathology during infection had to rely on the demonstration of elevated levels of NO synthase mRNA or enzyme expression or NO metabolites such as nitrate and nitrite in the infected brain. To more definitively investigate the potential causative role of NO in lesions of the central nervous system in animals infected with neurotropic viruses or suffering from experimental allergic encephalitis, we have determined directly the levels of NO present in the central nervous system of such animals. Using spin trapping of NO and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, we confirm here that copious amounts of NO (up to 30-fold more than control) are elaborated in the brains of rats infected with rabies virus or borna disease virus, as well as in the spinal cords of rats that had received myelin basic protein-specific T cells.

  1. Biological characteristics of brain natriuretic peptide and its association with central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yubao Huang; Changxiang Yan; Chunjiang Yu

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To explain the mechanisms of tuhe synthesis, secretion and regulation of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and analyze its role in central nervous system diseases.DATA SOURCES: An online search of Pubmed was undertaken to identify articles related to BNP published in English from January 1990 to February 2007 by using the Key words of "brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), central nervous system, subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), brain edema, epilepsy". Other articles were searched in China Hospital Knowledge Database (CHKD) by concrete name of journals and title of articles.STUDY SELECTION: The collected articles were primarily screened, those about BNP and its association with central nervous system diseases were selected, whereas the obviously irrelative ones excluded, and the full-texts of the other literatures were searched manually.DATA EXTRACTION: Totally 96 articles were collected, 40 of them were enrolled, and the other 56 were excluded due to repetitive studies or reviews.DATA SYNTHESIS: At present, there are penetrating studies on BNP in the preclinical medicine and clinical medicine of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular diseases, and the investigative outcomes have been gradually applied in clinical practice, and satisfactory results have been obtained. However, the application of BNP in diagnosing and treating central nervous system diseases is still at the experimental phase without -outstanding outcomes, thus the preclinical and clinical studies should be enhanced.CONCLUSION: As a kind of central medium or modulator, BNP plays a certain role in the occurrence,development and termination of central nervous system diseases, the BNP level in serum has certain changing law in AH,brainedema,epilepsy,etc., but the specific mechanisms are unclear.

  2. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asgari, N; Owens, T; Frøkiaer, J;

    2010-01-01

    Asgari N, Owens T, Frøkiaer J, Stenager E, Lillevang ST, Kyvik KO. Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) - an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS).
Acta Neurol Scand: DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-0404.2010.01416.x.
© 2010 John Wiley & Sons A/S. In the past 10 years, neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has...

  3. Epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in atypical autism: a case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    There is an increased but variable risk of epilepsy in autism spectrum disorders. The objective of this study is to compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 89 individuals diagnosed as children with atypical autism (AA...

  4. Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: From Central Nervous System to Periphery?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Mossello

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's Disease (AD is the most frequent form of dementia and represents one of the main causes of disability among older subjects. Up to now, the diagnosis of AD has been made according to clinical criteria. However, the use of such criteria does not allow an early diagnosis, as pathological alterations may be apparent many years before the clear-cut clinical picture. An early diagnosis is even more valuable to develop new treatments, potentially interfering with the pathogenetic process. During the last decade, several neuroimaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters have been introduced to allow an early and accurate detection of AD patients, and, recently, they have been included among research criteria for AD diagnosis. However, their use in clinical practice suffers from limitations both in accuracy and availability. The increasing amount of knowledge about peripheral biomarkers will possibly allow the future identification of reliable and easily available diagnostic tests.

  5. Disseminated Hemangioblastoma of the Central Nervous System without Von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Chung, Sun-Yoon; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Hemangioblastoma (HB) of the central nervous system may occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Disseminated HB means malignant spread of the original primary HB without local recurrence at surgically resected site. It has been rarely reported previously, and rarer especially without VHL gene mutation. We report a case of disseminated HB without VHL disease. A 59-year-old man underwent a surgery for total removal of a cerebellar HB. From five years after the...

  6. Neonatal herpes simplex virus type-1 central nervous system disease with acute retinal necrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Choong Yi; Aye, Aye Mya Min; Peyman, Mohammadreza; Nor, Norazlin Kamal; Visvaraja, Subrayan; Tajunisah, Iqbal; Ong, Lai Choo

    2014-04-01

    We report a case of neonatal herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 central nervous system disease with bilateral acute retinal necrosis (ARN). An infant was presented at 17 days of age with focal seizures. Cerebrospinal fluid polymerase chain reaction was positive for HSV-1 and brain magnetic resonance imaging showed cerebritis. While receiving intravenous acyclovir therapy, the infant developed ARN with vitreous fluid polymerase chain reaction positive for HSV-1 necessitating intravitreal foscarnet therapy. This is the first reported neonatal ARN secondary to HSV-1 and the first ARN case presenting without external ocular or cutaneous signs. Our report highlights that infants with neonatal HSV central nervous system disease should undergo a thorough ophthalmological evaluation to facilitate prompt diagnosis and immediate treatment of this rapidly progressive sight-threatening disease. PMID:24378951

  7. Acid-Sensing Ion Channels as Potential Pharmacological Targets in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radu, Beatrice Mihaela; Banciu, Adela; Banciu, Daniel Dumitru; Radu, Mihai

    2016-01-01

    Acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) are widely expressed in the body and represent good sensors for detecting protons. The pH drop in the nervous system is equivalent to ischemia and acidosis, and ASICs are very good detectors in discriminating slight changes in acidity. ASICs are important pharmacological targets being involved in a variety of pathophysiological processes affecting both the peripheral nervous system (e.g., peripheral pain, diabetic neuropathy) and the central nervous system (e.g., stroke, epilepsy, migraine, anxiety, fear, depression, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.). This review discusses the role played by ASICs in different pathologies and the pharmacological agents acting on ASICs that might represent promising drugs. As the majority of above-mentioned pathologies involve not only neuronal dysfunctions but also microvascular alterations, in the next future, ASICs may be also considered as potential pharmacological targets at the vasculature level. Perspectives and limitations in the use of ASICs antagonists and modulators as pharmaceutical agents are also discussed.

  8. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Morteza Sanei Taheri; Mohammad Ali Karimi; Hamidreza Haghighatkhah; Ramin Pourghorban; Mohammad Samadian; Hosein Delavar Kasmaei

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging ...

  9. Pulmonary, Gonadal, and Central Nervous System Status after Bone Marrow Transplantation for Sickle Cell Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Walters, Mark C.; Hardy, Karen; Edwards, Sandie; Adamkiewicz, Thomas; Barkovich, James; Bernaudin, Francoise; Buchanan, George R.; Bunin, Nancy; Dickerhoff, Roswitha; Giller, Roger; Haut, Paul R.; Horan, John; Hsu, Lewis L.; Kamani, Naynesh; Levine, John E.

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a prospective, multicenter investigation of human-leukocyte antigen (HLA) identical sibling bone marrow transplantation (BMT) in children with severe sickle cell disease (SCD) between 1991 and 2000. To determine if children were protected from complications of SCD after successful BMT, we extended our initial study of BMT for SCD to conduct assessments of the central nervous system (CNS) and of pulmonary function 2 or more years after transplantation. In addition, the impact on g...

  10. PRIMARY CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM LYMPHOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Anvari

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available ObjectivePrimary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL is an extremely rare condition in childhood. We report the first case of PCNSL in a child in Iran.Clinical presentationA nine-year-old boy was referred to Mofid Hospital with the history of headache of four months and seizure of 2 months duration. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a hyper-intense lesion in left fronto-parietal area with secondary satellite lesions. Biopsy of the brain mass was performed. Pathologic findings showed brain lymphoma and immunohistochemistry confirmed this diagnosis. The treatment started with intrathecal and systemic chemotherapy in combination with radiotherapy.Keywords:Lymphoma, Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL, Children

  11. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Izawa, M.; Oikawa, A.; Matoba, A.

    1987-05-01

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions.

  12. MRI of central nervous system anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MRI was very useful in the evaluation of congenital anomalies of central nervous system as well as other nervous system disease with three-dimensional spatial resolution. We had experienced MRI of central nervous system anomalies, demonstrated characterisitic findings in each anomaly. MRI is useful to observe the coronal, horizontal and sagittal images of the brain and spinal cord in order to discuss the etiological mechanisms of spinal dysraphysm and its associated anomalies. In case of spina bifida cystica MRI was available to decide operative indication for radical operation and tetherd cord developed from postoperative scar or accompanied intraspinal lesions. (author)

  13. Hypersensitivity Responses in the Central Nervous System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Asgari, Nasrin; Mørch, Marlene Thorsen;

    2015-01-01

    of pathology in neuromyelitis optica (NMO), a central nervous system (CNS) demyelinating disease where activated neutrophils infiltrate, unlike in MS. The most widely used model for MS, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, is an autoantigen-immunized disease that can be transferred to naive animals...

  14. Central Nervous System Tuberculosis: An Imaging-Focused Review of a Reemerging Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sanei Taheri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy.

  15. Central nervous system tuberculosis: an imaging-focused review of a reemerging disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanei Taheri, Morteza; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Haghighatkhah, Hamidreza; Pourghorban, Ramin; Samadian, Mohammad; Delavar Kasmaei, Hosein

    2015-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis is a potentially life threatening condition which is curable if the correct diagnosis is made in the early stages. Its clinical and radiologic manifestations may mimic other infectious and noninfectious neurological conditions. Hence, familiarity with the imaging presentations of various forms of CNS tuberculosis is essential in timely diagnosis, and thereby reducing the morbidity and mortality of this disease. In this review, we describe the imaging characteristics of the different forms of CNS tuberculosis, including meningitis, tuberculoma, miliary tuberculosis, abscess, cerebritis, and encephalopathy. PMID:25653877

  16. Neutron activation analysis of the central nervous system tissues in neurological diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1994-07-01

    As the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and the metals of their causes, Minamata disease due to Hg, itai-itai disease due to Cd, dialysis brain disease due to Al, hemochromatosis due to Fe, Wilson disease due to Cu and so on have been known. Also as the neural diseases, in which the possibility that metals take part in them is presumed, there are amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, Parkinsonism dementia and so on. In order to know the causes of the diseases due to excessive metals in living bodies and neurological diseases, the authors have measured Cu, Ca, Al, Mn, Zn and Fe in central nervous system tissues by activation analysis nondestructive method. The cases investigated were 4 cases of hepatocerebral diseases, 6 cases of ALS, 4 cases of Parkinson disease, 4 cases of Parkinsonism dementia, 4 cases of multiple sclerosis and 5 cases without CNS disease for the control. The method of measurement is described. The results for respective diseases are reported. Cu and Fe are in the relation of mirror images, and Cu formed Cu-superoxide dismutase (SOD) similarly to Zn and Mn as SOD carrier metals, and protects living bodies and CNS from oxidative stress. (K.I.).

  17. Central nervous system complications after liver transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong-Min; Jung, Keun-Hwa; Lee, Soon-Tae; Chu, Kon; Roh, Jae-Kyu

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the diversity of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation in terms of clinical manifestations and temporal course. Liver transplantation is a lifesaving option for end stage liver disease patients but post-transplantation neurologic complications can hamper recovery. Between 1 January 2001 and 31 December 2010, patients who had undergone liver transplantation at a single tertiary university hospital were included. We reviewed their medical records and brain imaging data and classified central nervous system complications into four categories including vascular, metabolic, infectious and neoplastic. The onset of central nervous system complications was grouped into five post-transplantation intervals including acute (within 1 month), early subacute (1-3 months), late subacute (3-12 months), chronic (1-3 years), and long-term (after 3 years). During follow-up, 65 of 791 patients (8.2%) experienced central nervous system complications, with 30 occurring within 1 month after transplantation. Vascular etiology was the most common (27 patients; 41.5%), followed by metabolic (23; 35.4%), infectious (nine patients; 13.8%), and neoplastic (six patients). Metabolic encephalopathy with altered consciousness was the most common etiology during the acute period, followed by vascular disorders. An initial focal neurologic deficit was detected in vascular and neoplastic complications, whereas metabolic and infectious etiologies presented with non-focal symptoms. Our study shows that the etiology of central nervous system complications after liver transplantation changes over time, and initial symptoms can help to predict etiology.

  18. Hydrogels for central nervous system therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Teresa; Tunesi, Marta; Giordano, Carmen; Gloria, Antonio; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    The central nervous system shows a limited regenerative capacity, and injuries or diseases, such as those in the spinal, brain and retina, are a great problem since current therapies seem to be unable to achieve good results in terms of significant functional recovery. Different promising therapies have been suggested, the aim being to restore at least some of the lost functions. The current review deals with the use of hydrogels in developing advanced devices for central nervous system therapeutic strategies. Several approaches, involving cell-based therapy, delivery of bioactive molecules and nanoparticle-based drug delivery, will be first reviewed. Finally, some examples of injectable hydrogels for the delivery of bioactive molecules in central nervous system will be reported, and the key features as well as the basic principles in designing multifunctional devices will be described.

  19. A case of Erdheim Chester disease with central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Erdheim Chester disease (ECD is a rare non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis, commonly involving the musculoskeletal system. Other tissue can also be involved, including the central nervous system with wide spectrum of clinical features, at times being nonspecific. This can cause diagnostic dilemmas with delay in diagnosis and initiation of therapy. Here we describe a 63-year-old man who had presented with ataxia and behavioral changes, bony pains, weight loss, and fatigue. His computed tomography (CT, 99Tc scintigraphy and histopathological features on bone biopsy were consistent with ECD. Thus, ECD should be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with bony pain and nonspecific features of multiorgan involvement.

  20. IgG-index predicts neurological morbidity in patients with infectious central nervous system diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deisenhammer Florian

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognosis assessment of patients with infectious and neoplastic disorders of the central nervous system (CNS may still pose a challenge. In this retrospective cross-sectional study the prognostic value of basic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF parameters in patients with bacterial meningitis, viral meningoencephalitis and leptomeningeal metastases were evaluated. Methods White blood cell count, CSF/serum glucose ratio, protein, CSF/serum albumin quotient and Immunoglobulin indices for IgG, IgA and IgM were analyzed in 90 patients with bacterial meningitis, 117 patients with viral meningoencephalitis and 36 patients with leptomeningeal metastases in a total of 480 CSF samples. Results In the initial spinal tap, the IgG-index was the only independent predictor for unfavorable outcome (GOS Conclusion The present study suggests that in infectious CNS diseases an elevated IgG-Index might be an additional marker for the early identification of patients at risk for neurological morbidity.

  1. Herpesvirus-associated central nervous system diseases after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meiqing Wu

    Full Text Available Herpesvirus infections of the central nervous system (CNS are associated with encephalitis/myelitis and lymphoproliferative diseases in immunocompromised individuals. As of now, data of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases in transplant recipients is limited. Hence, in this prospective study, we investigated the incidence of herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases and explored the diagnosis of these diseases in 281 allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT recipients. Herpesvirus-DNA and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF cells were sampled from 58 recipients with herpesvirus-associated diseases or with unexplainable CNS manifestations. Results showed that 23 patients were diagnosed as herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases, including 15 Epstein-Barr virus (EBV-associated diseases (4 encephalitis and 11 lymphoproliferative diseases, 5 herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis, 2 cytomegalovirus encephalitis/myelitis and 1 varicella zoster virus encephalitis. The median time of diseases onset was 65 (range 22-542 days post-transplantation. The 3-year cumulative incidence of herpesvirus-associated encephalitis/myelitis and post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD was 6.3% ± 1.9% and 4.1% ± 1.2%, respectively. Of the evaluable cases, CSF cells mainly consisted of CD19(+CD20(+ B cells (7/11 and had clonal rearrangement of immunoglobulin genes (3/11 in patients with CNS-PTLD. On the contrary, in patients with encephalitis/myelitis, CSF cells were comprised of different cell populations and none of the gene rearrangement was detected. Herpesvirus-associated CNS diseases are common in the early stages of allo-HSCT, wherein EBV is the most frequent causative virus. The immunophenotypic and clonal analysis of CSF cells might be helpful in the differential diagnosis between encephalitis and lymphoproliferative diseases.

  2. Central nervous system tuberculosis: MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The MRI findings of 18 proven cases of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis were reviewed; 10 patients were seropositive for HIV. All had medical, laboratory, or surgical proof of CNS tuberculosis. Eleven patients had meningitis, of whom two also had arachnoiditis. Five patients had focal intra-axial tuberculomas: four brain masses and one an intramedullary spinal lesion. Two patients had focal extra-axial tuberculomas: one in the pontine cistern, and one in the spine. In all 11 patients with meningitis MRI showed diffuse, thick, meningeal enhancement. All intraparenchymal tuberculomas showed low signal intensity on T2-weighted images and ring or nodular enhancement. The extra-axial tuberculomas had areas isointense or hypointense relative to normal brain and spinal cord on T2-weighted images. Although tuberculous meningitis cannot be differentiated from other meningitides on the basis of MR findings, intraparenchymal tuberculomas show characteristic T2 shortening, not found in most other space-occupying lesions. In the appropriate clinical setting, tuberculoma should be considered. (orig.)

  3. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Rhailana Fontes; Jéssica Ribeiro; Gupta, Daya S.; Dionis Machado; Fernando Lopes-Júnior; Francisco Magalhães; Victor Hugo Bastos; Kaline Rocha; Victor Marinho; Gildário Lima; Bruna Velasques; Pedro Ribeiro; Marco Orsini; Bruno Pessoa; Marco Antonio Araujo Leite

    2016-01-01

    The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms...

  4. MicroRNAs: Key Regulators in the Central Nervous System and Their Implication in Neurological Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan-Dan Cao

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are a class of small, well-conserved noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. They have been demonstrated to regulate a lot of biological pathways and cellular functions. Many miRNAs are dynamically regulated during central nervous system (CNS development and are spatially expressed in adult brain indicating their essential roles in neural development and function. In addition, accumulating evidence strongly suggests that dysfunction of miRNAs contributes to neurological diseases. These observations, together with their gene regulation property, implicated miRNAs to be the key regulators in the complex genetic network of the CNS. In this review, we first focus on the ways through which miRNAs exert the regulatory function and how miRNAs are regulated in the CNS. We then summarize recent findings that highlight the versatile roles of miRNAs in normal CNS physiology and their association with several types of neurological diseases. Subsequently we discuss the limitations of miRNAs research based on current studies as well as the potential therapeutic applications and challenges of miRNAs in neurological disorders. We endeavor to provide an updated description of the regulatory roles of miRNAs in normal CNS functions and pathogenesis of neurological diseases.

  5. Disseminated Hemangioblastoma of the Central Nervous System without Von Hippel-Lindau Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun-Yoon; Jeun, Sin-Soo; Park, Jae-Hyun

    2014-10-01

    Hemangioblastoma (HB) of the central nervous system may occur sporadically or in association with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease. Disseminated HB means malignant spread of the original primary HB without local recurrence at surgically resected site. It has been rarely reported previously, and rarer especially without VHL gene mutation. We report a case of disseminated HB without VHL disease. A 59-year-old man underwent a surgery for total removal of a cerebellar HB. From five years after the surgery, multiple dissemination of HB was identified intracranially and he subsequently underwent cyberknife radiosurgery. The lesions got smaller temporarily, but they soon grew larger. Nine years after the initial surgery for cerebellar HB, he showed severe back pain. His magnetic resonance image of spine revealed intradural extramedullary mass at T6-7 level. Complete surgical removal of the mass was performed and the pathological diagnosis was identical to the previous one. He had no evidence of VHL disease. And there was no recurrence of the tumor at the site of the original operation. The exact mechanism of dissemination is unknown, but the surgeon should be cautious of tumor cell spillage during surgery and prudently consider the decision to perform ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. In addition, continuous follow-up for recurrence or dissemination is necessary for patients even who underwent complete removal of cerebellar HB. PMID:25408933

  6. Hydatid Disease of the Central Nervous System: Imaging Characteristics and General Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "K. Abbassioun. A. Amirjamshidi. M. Sabouri Deylamie "

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Background; Hydatid disease primarily affects the liver and typically demonstrates characteristic imaging findings. Secondary involvement due to hematogenous dissemination may be seen in almost any locations, e.g., lung, kidney, spleen, bone and central nervous system (CNS. Objectives: To review the different aspects of hydatidosis of the CNS briefly and discuss the pathognomonic features and rare varieties of radiological findings useful in preoperative diagnosis of the disease in the human CNS. Material & Method; In a retrospective study, the records of almost 100 cases of CNS hydatidosis were analyzed. The available images were reviewed by independent observers, either a radiologist or a neurosurgeon, and reported separately. Results; In skull X-ray films, nonspecific changes denoted increased intracranial pressure, skull asymmetry and curvilinear calcification in rare instances. Computed tomography (CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI demonstrated the round or oval, well-defined cystic mass with an attenuation or signal intensity similar to that of cerebrospinal fluid, with no associated perifocal edema, and no contrast enhancement as the pathognomonic findings of brain hydatidosis. Similar findings were detected in hydatid cysts involving the orbit, spinal column and spinal cord with some variations. Such findings as mild perifocal edema, nonhomogenous contrast enhancement, non-uniform shapes, calcification and multiplicity or septations have been the atypical radiological findings. Conclusion; In endemic areas, familiarity with typical and atypical radiological manifestations of hydatid disease of the CNS, will be helpful in making prompt and correct preoperative diagnosis leading to a better surgical outcome.

  7. Tuberculoma of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLance, Arthur R; Safaee, Michael; Oh, Michael C; Clark, Aaron J; Kaur, Gurvinder; Sun, Matthew Z; Bollen, Andrew W; Phillips, Joanna J; Parsa, Andrew T

    2013-10-01

    Tuberculosis is among the oldest and most devastating infectious diseases worldwide. Nearly one third of the world's population has active or latent disease, resulting in 1.5 million deaths annually. Central nervous system involvement, while rare, is the most severe form of tuberculosis. Manifestations include tuberculoma and tuberculous meningitis, with the majority of cases occurring in children and immunocompromised patients. Despite advancements in imaging and laboratory diagnostics, tuberculomas of the central nervous system remain a diagnostic challenge due to their insidious nature and nonspecific findings. On imaging studies tuberculous meningitis is characterized by diffuse basal enhancement, but tuberculomas may be indistinguishable from neoplasms. Early diagnosis is imperative, since clinical outcomes are largely dependent on timely treatment. Stereotactic biopsy with histopathological analysis can provide a definitive diagnosis, but is only recommended when non-invasive methods are inconclusive. Standard medical treatment includes rifampicin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide, and streptomycin or ethambutol. In cases of drug resistance, revision of the treatment regimen with second-line agents is recommended over the addition of a single drug to the first-line regimen. Advances in genomics have identified virulent strains of tuberculosis and are improving our understanding of host susceptibility. Neurosurgical referral is advised for patients with elevated intracranial pressure, seizures, or brain or spinal cord compression. This review synthesizes pertinent findings in the literature surrounding central nervous system tuberculoma in an effort to highlight recent advances in pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment.

  8. Central nervous system manifestations of neonatal lupus: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C C; Lin, K-L; Chen, C-L; Wong, A May-Kuen; Huang, J-L

    2013-12-01

    Neonatal lupus is a rare and acquired autoimmune disease. Central nervous system abnormalities are potential manifestations in neonatal lupus. Through a systematic literature review, we analyzed the clinical features of previously reported neonatal lupus cases where central nervous system abnormalities had been identified. Most reported neonatal lupus patients with central nervous system involvement were neuroimaging-determined and asymptomatic. Only seven neonatal lupus cases were identified as having a symptomatic central nervous system abnormality which caused physical disability or required neurosurgery. A high percentage of these neurosymptomatic neonatal lupus patients had experienced a transient cutaneous skin rash and had no maternal history of autoimmune disease before pregnancy.

  9. Central Nervous System Disease in Hematological Malignancies: Historical Perspective and Practical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Thiel, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 5-year survival rates are approaching 90% in children and 50% in adults who are receiving contemporary risk-directed treatment protocols. Current efforts focus not only on further improving cure rate but also on patient quality of life. Hence, all protocols decrease or limit the use of cranial irradiation as central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, even in patients with high-risk presenting features, such as the presence of leukemia cells in the cerebr...

  10. IgG4-Related Disease Presenting as Recurrent Mastoiditis With Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April L. Barnado MD

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 43-year-old female who presented with right ear fullness and otorrhea. She was initially diagnosed with mastoiditis that was not responsive to multiple courses of antibiotics and steroids. She was then diagnosed with refractory inflammatory pseudotumor, and subsequent treatments included several mastoidectomies, further steroids, and radiation therapy. The patient went on to develop mastoiditis on the contralateral side as well as central nervous system involvement with headaches and right-sided facial paresthesias. Reexamination of the mastoid tissue revealed a significantly increased number of IgG4-positive cells, suggesting a diagnosis of IgG4-related disease. The patient improved clinically and radiographically with rituximab and was able to taper off azathioprine and prednisone. IgG4-related disease should be considered in patients with otologic symptoms and be on the differential diagnosis in patients with inflammatory pseudotumor. Staining for IgG and IgG4 is essential to ensure a prompt diagnosis and treatment.

  11. Clinical and Laboratory Findings That Differentiate Herpes Simplex Virus Central Nervous System Disease from Enteroviral Meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanaee, Layli; Taljaard, Monica; Karnauchow, Tim; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-01-01

    Background. It can be difficult for clinicians to distinguish between the relatively benign enteroviral (EnV) meningitis and potentially lethal herpes simplex virus (HSV) central nervous system (CNS) disease. Very limited evidence currently exists to guide them. Objective. This study sought to identify clinical features and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV CNS disease. Methods. Given that PCR testing often is not immediately available, this chart review study sought to identify clinical and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) findings associated with HSV meningitis over a 6-year period. In cases where PCR was not performed, HSV and EnV were assigned based on clinical criteria. Results. We enrolled 166 consecutive patients: 40 HSV and 126 EnV patients. HSV patients had a mean 40.4 versus 31.3 years for EnV, p = 0.005, seizures 21.1% versus 1.6% for EnV, p meningitis. HSV cases had lower CSF neutrophils, higher lymphocytes, and higher protein levels. PMID:27563314

  12. [Functional anatomy of the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainik, A; Feydy, A; Colombani, J M; Hélias, A; Menu, Y

    2003-03-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) has a particular regional functional anatomy. The morphological support of cognitive functions can now be depicted using functional imaging. Lesions of the central nervous system may be responsible of specific symptoms based on their location. Current neuroimaging techniques are able to show and locate precisely macroscopic lesions. Therefore, the knowledge of functional anatomy of the central nervous system is useful to link clinical disorders to symptomatic lesions. Using radio-clinical cases, we present the functional neuro-anatomy related to common cognitive impairments.

  13. Repetitive pertussis toxin promotes development of regulatory T cells and prevents central nervous system autoimmune disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin S Weber

    Full Text Available Bacterial and viral infections have long been implicated in pathogenesis and progression of multiple sclerosis (MS. Incidence and severity of its animal model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE can be enhanced by concomitant administration of pertussis toxin (PTx, the major virulence factor of Bordetella pertussis. Its adjuvant effect at the time of immunization with myelin antigen is attributed to an unspecific activation and facilitated migration of immune cells across the blood brain barrier into the central nervous system (CNS. In order to evaluate whether recurring exposure to bacterial antigen may have a differential effect on development of CNS autoimmunity, we repetitively administered PTx prior to immunization. Mice weekly injected with PTx were largely protected from subsequent EAE induction which was reflected by a decreased proliferation and pro-inflammatory differentiation of myelin-reactive T cells. Splenocytes isolated from EAE-resistant mice predominantly produced IL-10 upon re-stimulation with PTx, while non-specific immune responses were unchanged. Longitudinal analyses revealed that repetitive exposure of mice to PTx gradually elevated serum levels for TGF-β and IL-10 which was associated with an expansion of peripheral CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ regulatory T cells (Treg. Increased frequency of Treg persisted upon immunization and thereafter. Collectively, these data suggest a scenario in which repetitive PTx treatment protects mice from development of CNS autoimmune disease through upregulation of regulatory cytokines and expansion of CD4(+CD25(+FoxP3(+ Treg. Besides its therapeutic implication, this finding suggests that encounter of the immune system with microbial products may not only be part of CNS autoimmune disease pathogenesis but also of its regulation.

  14. Staging Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  15. Focal lesions in the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report reviews the animal and human studies currently in progress at LBL with heavy-ion beams to induce focal lesions in the central nervous system, and discusses the potential future prospects of fundamental and applied brain research with heavy-ion beams. Methods are being developed for producing discrete focal lesions in the central nervous system using the Bragg ionization peak to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating pathological disorders of the brain

  16. Central Nervous System Complications of Oncologic Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoeffner, Ellen G

    2016-08-01

    Traditional and newer agents used to treat cancer can cause significant toxicity to the central nervous system. MRI of the brain and spine is the imaging modality of choice for patients with cancer who develop neurologic symptoms. It is important to be aware of the agents that can cause neurotoxicity and their associated imaging findings so that patients are properly diagnosed and treated. In some instances conventional MRI may not be able to differentiate posttreatment effects from disease progression. In these instances advanced imaging techniques may be helpful, although further research is still needed. PMID:27444003

  17. The Central Nervous System of Box Jellyfish

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Anders Lydik; Ekström, Peter

    2008-01-01

    of behaviors in the box jellyfish such as obstacle avoidance and navigation. The need to process the visual information and turn it into the appropriate behavior puts strong demands on the nervous system of box jellyfish, which appears more elaborate than in other cnidarians. Here, the central part...... of this nervous system is described. Each rhopalium holds a separate part of the CNS with 1,000 nerve cells and a large amount of neuropil. The rhopalial nervous system has several subsystems defined by the anatomy, location, and immunocytochemistry of the cells. Most of the subsystems connect to one or more...... of the eye types, and it is likely that the rhopalial nervous system accounts for most of the visual processing. The major part of the CNS is made up of a ring nerve encircling the bell shaped body. The ring nerve holds around 10,000 cells and is directly connected to all four rhopalial nervous systems...

  18. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations in Systemic Autoimmune Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; COJOCARU, Manole; SILOSI, Isabela; VRABIE, Camelia Doina

    2014-01-01

    The peripheral nervous system refers to parts of the nervous system outside the brain and spinal cord. Systemic autoimmune diseases can affect both the central and peripheral nervous systems in a myriad of ways and through a heterogeneous number of mechanisms leading to many different clinical manifestations. As a result, neurological complications of these disorders can result in significant morbidity and mortality. The most common complication of peripheral nervous system (PNS) involvement ...

  19. A rare case of mixed connective tissue disease presenting with central nervous system glioma, vasculitis and polymyositis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rushabh Parikh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD was first recognized by Sharp and Colleagues in 1972 among a group of patients with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE, scleroderma and myositis, with the presence of distinctive antibodies against, what now is known to be U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP. We report an unusual case of a 23-year old female with MCTD characterized by the coexistence of signs, symptoms and immunological features of 3 defined autoimmune diseases SLE, systemic sclerosis (SSc, polymyositis (PM and an unusual presence of central nervous system (CNS Glioma. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(12.000: 3917-3920

  20. Central Nervous System Involvement by Multiple Myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, A.; Gozzetti, A.; Cerase, A.;

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement by multiple myeloma (MM) is a rare occurrence and is found in approximately 1% of MM patients at some time during the course of their disease. At the time of diagnosis, extramedullary MM is found in 7% of patients, and another 6% may develop....... Results: The median time from MM diagnosis to CNS MM diagnosis was 3 years. Upon diagnosis, 97% patients with CNS MM received frontline therapy, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. The most common symptoms at presentation were visual changes (36...... history of chemotherapy and unfavorable cytogenetic profile, survival of individuals free from these negative prognostic factors can be prolonged due to administration of systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. Prospective multi-institutional studies are warranted to improve the outcome of patients...

  1. Central nervous system involvement by multiple myeloma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurczyszyn, Artur; Grzasko, Norbert; Gozzetti, Alessandro;

    2016-01-01

    The multicenter retrospective study conducted in 38 centers from 20 countries including 172 adult patients with CNS MM aimed to describe the clinical and pathological characteristics and outcomes of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) involving the central nervous system (CNS). Univariate......, 97% patients received initial therapy for CNS disease, of which 76% received systemic therapy, 36% radiotherapy and 32% intrathecal therapy. After a median follow-up of 3.5 years, the median overall survival (OS) from the onset of CNS involvement for the entire group was 7 months. Untreated...... untreated patients and patients with favorable cytogenetic profile might be prolonged due to systemic treatment and/or radiotherapy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved....

  2. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment, general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza Izadi; Arman Ishaqi; Mohammad Ali Ishaqi; Nematollah Jonaidi Jafari; Fatemeh Rahamaty; Abdolali Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers. Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system, which may require in-patient care. Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis. An overview of the available evidence in the field is, therefore, urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research. In November 2013, data were collected from PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Knowledge (1980 to 2013) including books, reviews, and peer-reviewed literature. Works pertained to pre-travel care, interventions, vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved. Here we provide information on pre-travel care, vaccination, chronic nervous system disorders, and post-travel complications. Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps, and state-of-the-art research are made. Given an increasing number of international travellers, novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections. Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications, detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness. Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine, further research is required for vaccine development, state-of-the-art laboratory tests, and genetic engineering of vectors.

  3. An overview of travel-associated central nervous system infectious diseases:risk assessment,general considerations and future directions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Morteza; Izadi; Annan; Is’haqi; Mohammad; Ali; Is’haqi; Nematollah; Jonaidi; Jafari; Fatemeh; Rahamaty; Abdolali; Banki

    2014-01-01

    Nervous system infections are among the most important diseases in travellers.Healthy travellers might be exposed to infectious agents of central nervous system,which may require in-patient care.Progressive course is not uncommon in this family of disorders and requires swift diagnosis.An overview of the available evidence in the field is.therefore,Urgent to pave the way to increase the awareness of travel-medicine practitioners and highlights dark areas for future research.In November 2013,data were collected from PubMed,Scopus,and Web of knowledge(1980 to2013) including books,reviews,and peer-reviewed literature,Works pertained to pre-travel care,interventions,vaccinations related neurological infections were retrieved.Here we provide information on pre-travel care,vaccination,chronic nervous system disorders,and post-travel complications.Recommendations with regard to knowledge gaps,and state-of-the-art research are made.Given an increasing number of international travellers,novel dynamic ways are available for physicians to monitor spread of central nervous system infections.Newer research has made great progresses in developing newer medications,detecting the spread of infections and the public awareness.Despite an ongoing scientific discussion in the field of travel medicine,further research is required for vaccine development,state-of-the-art laboratory tests,and genetic engineering of vectors.

  4. Central nervous system lupus erythematosus in childhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokota, Shumpei; Kimura, Kazue; Yoshida, Naotaka; Mitsuda, Toshihiro; Ibe, Masa-aki; Shimizu, Hiroko (Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Clinical features of central nervous system (CNS) invlvement in childhood systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) was investigated. Neuropsychiatric manifestations including seizures, chorea, headache, overt psychosis, tremor, increase of muscle spastisity, and disturbed memory were found in 47% of 15 patients with SLE. There was a well correlatin between CNS abnormalities and SLE disease activity judged by serum complement levels and anti-nuclear antibody and anti-DNA antibody titers. The administration of Prednisolon was effective for the treatment of these CNS abnormalities and steroid psychosis was rare in the present study. EEG abnormalities involving diffuse slowing and slowing bursts were found in 73% of the patients. Cranial CT scan revealed basel ganglia calcifications in 2 patients, and marked brain atrophy in 3 patients. This study indicated that in the long term following of SLE children CNS abnormalities need to be serially checked by EEG and cranial CT scans as well as serological investigations. (author).

  5. Interferons in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Khorooshi, Reza M. H.; Wlodarczyk, Agnieszka;

    2014-01-01

    Interferons (IFNs) are implicated as an important component of the innate immune system influencing viral infections, inflammation, and immune surveillance. We review here the complex biological activity of IFNs in the central nervous system (CNS) and associated glial–immune interactions...

  6. NASA Models of Space Radiation Induced Cancer, Circulatory Disease, and Central Nervous System Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Chappell, Lori J.; Kim, Myung-Hee Y.

    2013-01-01

    The risks of late effects from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are potentially a limitation to long-term space travel. The late effects of highest concern have significant lethality including cancer, effects to the central nervous system (CNS), and circulatory diseases (CD). For cancer and CD the use of age and gender specific models with uncertainty assessments based on human epidemiology data for low LET radiation combined with relative biological effectiveness factors (RBEs) and dose- and dose-rate reduction effectiveness factors (DDREF) to extrapolate these results to space radiation exposures is considered the current "state-of-the-art". The revised NASA Space Risk Model (NSRM-2014) is based on recent radio-epidemiology data for cancer and CD, however a key feature of the NSRM-2014 is the formulation of particle fluence and track structure based radiation quality factors for solid cancer and leukemia risk estimates, which are distinct from the ICRP quality factors, and shown to lead to smaller uncertainties in risk estimates. Many persons exposed to radiation on earth as well as astronauts are life-time never-smokers, which is estimated to significantly modify radiation cancer and CD risk estimates. A key feature of the NASA radiation protection model is the classification of radiation workers by smoking history in setting dose limits. Possible qualitative differences between GCR and low LET radiation increase uncertainties and are not included in previous risk estimates. Two important qualitative differences are emerging from research studies. The first is the increased lethality of tumors observed in animal models compared to low LET radiation or background tumors. The second are Non- Targeted Effects (NTE), which include bystander effects and genomic instability, which has been observed in cell and animal models of cancer risks. NTE's could lead to significant changes in RBE and DDREF estimates for GCR particles, and the potential

  7. ELR chemokine signaling in host defense and disease in a viral model of central nervous system disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin P Hosking

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial infection of the neurotropic JHM strain of mouse hepatitis virus (JHMV into the central nervous system (CNS of susceptible strains of mice results in an acute encephalomyelitis, accompanied by viral replication in glial cells and robust infiltration of virus-specific T cells that contribute to host defense through cytokine secretion and cytolytic activity. Mice that survive the acute stage of disease develop an immune-mediated demyelinating diseases characterized by viral persistence in white matter tracts and a chronic neuroinflammatory response dominated by T cells and macrophages. Early following JHMV infection, there is a dynamic expression of chemokines and chemokine receptors that contribute to neuroinflammation by regulating innate and adaptive immune responses as well influencing glial biology. In response to JHMV infection, we have shown that signaling through the chemokine receptor CXCR2 contributes to host defense through recruitment of polymorphonuclear cells (PMNs to the CNS that enhance permeability of the blood-brain-barrier (BBB and facilitating entry of virus-specific T cells into the parenchyma. Further, CXCR2 promotes the protection of oligodendroglia from cytokine-induced apoptosis and restricts the severity of demyelination. This review covers aspects related to the role of CXCR2 in host defense and disease in response to JHMV infection.

  8. Emerging infections of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Jennifer; McArthur, Justin

    2013-12-01

    Emerging infections affecting the central nervous system often present as encephalitis and can cause substantial morbidity and mortality. Diagnosis requires not only careful history taking, but also the application of newly developed diagnostic tests. These diseases frequently occur in outbreaks stemming from viruses that have mutated from an animal host and gained the ability to infect humans. With globalization, this can translate to the rapid emergence of infectious clusters or the establishment of endemicity in previously naïve locations. Since these infections are often vector borne and effective treatments are almost uniformly lacking, prevention is at least as important as prompt diagnosis and institution of supportive care. In this review, we focus on some of the recent literature addressing emerging and resurging viral encephalitides in the United States and around the world-specifically, West Nile virus, dengue, polio, and cycloviruses. We also discuss new, or "emerging," techniques for the precise and rapid diagnosis of encephalitides. PMID:24136412

  9. Advances in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, Lauren B; Mohile, Nimish A

    2015-12-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare form of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that is limited to the CNS. Although novel imaging techniques aid in discriminating lymphoma from other brain tumors, definitive diagnosis requires brain biopsy, vitreoretinal biopsy, or cerebrospinal fluid analysis. Survival rates in clinical studies have improved over the past 20 years due to the addition of high-dose methotrexate-based chemotherapy regimens to whole-brain radiotherapy. Long-term survival, however, is complicated by clinically devastating delayed neurotoxicity. Newer regimens are attempting to reduce or eliminate radiotherapy from first-line treatment with chemotherapy dose intensification. Significant advances have also been made in the fields of pathobiology and treatment, with more targeted treatments on the horizon. The rarity of the disease makes conducting of prospective clinical trials challenging, requiring collaborative efforts between institutions. This review highlights recent advances in the biology, detection, and treatment of PCNSL in immunocompetent patients.

  10. Imaging of the fetal central nervous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pistorius, L.R.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction : Ultrasound and MR imaging of the fetal central nervous system (CNS) develop at an ever-increasing rate. Theoretically, the two modalities should be synergistic, but a literature review revealed the difficulties of determining the merit of either technique and revealed gaps in our know

  11. Azole-Resistant Central Nervous System Aspergillosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W.M. van der Linden; R.R. Jansen; D. Bresters; C.E. Visser; S.E. Geerlings; E.J. Kuijper; W.J.G. Melchers; P.E. Verweij

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  12. Azole-resistant central nervous system aspergillosis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, J.W.M. van der; Jansen, R.R.; Bresters, D.; Visser, C.E.; Geerlings, S.E.; Kuijper, E.J.; Melchers, W.J.G.; Verweij, P.E.

    2009-01-01

    Three patients with central nervous system aspergillosis due to azole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus (associated with a leucine substitution for histidine at codon 98 [L98H] and a 34-base pair repeat in tandem in the promoter region) are described. The patients were treated with combination therapy

  13. The therapeutic potential of sigma (σ) receptors for the treatment of central nervous system diseases: evaluation of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Samuel D; Kassiou, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Since their proposal in 1976, sigma (σ) receptors have been increasingly implicated in the pathophysiology of virtually all major central nervous system (CNS) disorders, including anxiety, depression, schizophrenia, and drug addiction. Due to their involvement in motor function and higher cognitive function,σ receptors have also been implicated in movement disorders (such as Parkinson's disease) and memory deficits (including Alzheimer's disease). In most cases the precise mechanism(s) linking σ receptors to CNS disease are unknown or yet to be fully elucidated. However, many σ ligands have shown promise in pharmacological studies and animal models of the aforementioned diseases, and some have entered clinical trials. This review will assess the validity of receptors as a target for various CNS diseases based on evidence from animal models of human diseases, preclinical studies in humans, and full clinical trials. PMID:22288410

  14. Antibodies in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Some Alzheimer Disease Patients Recognize Cholinergic Neurons in the Rat Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McRae-Degueurce, Amanda; Booj, Serney; Haglid, Kenneth; Rosengren, Lars; Karlsson, Jan Erik; Karlsson, Ingvar; Wallin, Anders; Svennerholm, Lars; Gottfries, Carl-Gerhard; Dahlstrom, Annica

    1987-12-01

    The etiology of Alzheimer disease is unclear. However, immunological aberrations have been suggested to be critical factors in the pathogenesis of this neurodegenerative disease. This study was carried out to investigate if cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from Alzheimer disease patients contains antibodies that recognize specific neuronal populations in the rat central nervous system. The results indicate that in a subgroup of patients this is indeed the case. The antibodies reported in this study have the following properties: (i) they recognize neuronal populations and components in the medial septum and spinal motor neurons in rats perfused with a mixture that fixes small neurotransmitter molecules; (ii) adsorption of the patient CSF with staphylococcal protein A-Sepharose and using a polyclonal antiserum against human IgG3 indicates that the immunocytochemical reaction in these brain regions is mainly due to the subclass IgG3; and (iii) the CSF immunocytochemical reaction is blocked by preincubation of the sections with a rabbit anti-acetylcholine antiserum. These results provide evidence that antibodies in the CSF of some, but not all, Alzheimer disease patients recognize acetylcholine-like epitopes in cholinergic neurons in the rat central nervous system.

  15. Central Nervous System Disease in Hematological Malignancies: Historical Perspective and Practical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pui, Ching-Hon; Thiel, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 5-year survival rates are approaching 90% in children and 50% in adults who are receiving contemporary risk-directed treatment protocols. Current efforts focus not only on further improving cure rate but also on patient quality of life. Hence, all protocols decrease or limit the use of cranial irradiation as central nervous system (CNS)-directed therapy, even in patients with high-risk presenting features, such as the presence of leukemia cells in the cerebrospinal fluid (even resulting from traumatic lumbar puncture), adverse genetic features, T-cell immunophenotype, and a large leukemia-cell burden. Current strategies for CNS-directed therapy involve effective systemic chemotherapy (eg, dexamethasone, high-dose methotrexate, intensive asparaginase, ifosfamide) and early intensification and optimization of intrathecal therapy. Options under investigation for the treatment of relapsed or refractory CNS leukemia in ALL patients include thiotepa and intrathecal liposomal cytarabine. CNS involvement in non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (NHL) is associated with young age, advanced stage, number of extranodal sites, elevated lactate dehydrogenase, and International Prognostic Index score. Refractory CNS lymphoma in patients with NHL carries a poor prognosis, with a median survival of 2 to 6 months; the most promising treatment, autologous stem cell transplant, can extend median survival from 10 to 26 months. CNS prophylaxis is required during the initial treatment of NHL subtypes that carry a high risk of CNS relapse, such as B-cell ALL, Burkitt’s lymphoma, and lymphoblastic lymphoma. The use of CNS prophylaxis in the treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is controversial because of the low risk of CNS relapse (~5%) in this population. In this article, we review current and past practice of intrathecal therapy in ALL and NHL and the risk-models that aim to identify predictors of CNS relapse in NHL. PMID:19660680

  16. Central nervous system toxicity of metallic nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng XL

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Xiaoli Feng,1 Aijie Chen,1 Yanli Zhang,1 Jianfeng Wang,2 Longquan Shao,1 Limin Wei2 1Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2School and Hospital of Stomatology, Wenzhou Medical University, Wenzhou, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Nanomaterials (NMs are increasingly used for the therapy, diagnosis, and monitoring of disease- or drug-induced mechanisms in the human biological system. In view of their small size, after certain modifications, NMs have the capacity to bypass or cross the blood–brain barrier. Nanotechnology is particularly advantageous in the field of neurology. Examples may include the utilization of nanoparticle (NP-based drug carriers to readily cross the blood–brain barrier to treat central nervous system (CNS diseases, nanoscaffolds for axonal regeneration, nanoelectromechanical systems in neurological operations, and NPs in molecular imaging and CNS imaging. However, NPs can also be potentially hazardous to the CNS in terms of nano­neurotoxicity via several possible mechanisms, such as oxidative stress, autophagy, and lysosome dysfunction, and the activation of certain signaling pathways. In this review, we discuss the dual effect of NMs on the CNS and the mechanisms involved. The limitations of the current research are also discussed. Keywords: nanomaterials, neurotoxicity, blood–brain barrier, autophagy, ROS

  17. Time perception mechanisms at central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rhailana Fontes

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The five senses have specific ways to receive environmental information and lead to central nervous system. The perception of time is the sum of stimuli associated with cognitive processes and environmental changes. Thus, the perception of time requires a complex neural mechanism and may be changed by emotional state, level of attention, memory and diseases. Despite this knowledge, the neural mechanisms of time perception are not yet fully understood. The objective is to relate the mechanisms involved the neurofunctional aspects, theories, executive functions and pathologies that contribute the understanding of temporal perception. Articles form 1980 to 2015 were searched by using the key themes: neuroanatomy, neurophysiology, theories, time cells, memory, schizophrenia, depression, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and Parkinson’s disease combined with the term perception of time. We evaluated 158 articles within the inclusion criteria for the purpose of the study. We conclude that research about the holdings of the frontal cortex, parietal, basal ganglia, cerebellum and hippocampus have provided advances in the understanding of the regions related to the perception of time. In neurological and psychiatric disorders, the understanding of time depends on the severity of the diseases and the type of tasks.

  18. [Central nervous system tumors in pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podciechowski, Lech; Nowakowska, Dorota; Bielak, Adam; Nowosławska, Emilia; Szymański, Wojciech; Polis, Lech; Krasomski, Grzechorz; Fiks, Tomasz; Wilczyński, Jan

    2003-12-01

    Central nervous system tumour in pregnancy constitutes a serious complication. Considering frequent difficulties in diagnostics and therapy, the aim of the study was to present our experience in management with pregnant women with brain and spinal cord tumours. Between 1988-2000, in The Research Institute Polish Mother's Memorial Hospital in Lodzi, 4 pregnant women had been diagnosed with brain and spinal cord tumours. The incidence of tumours complicating pregnancy was 1/11460. Two patients diagnosed at 29 weeks' gestation, underwent craniotomy and tumour resection during pregnancy. Two other women with central nervous system tumours diagnosed at 39 weeks' gestation, were operated in the postpartum period. The analysis of the postoperative period, gestation and/or postpartum period in all women and well-being of their new-borns confirm undertaken medical decisions. PMID:15029742

  19. [Central nervous system malformations: neurosurgery correlates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-León, Juan C; Betancourt-Fursow, Yaline M; Jiménez-Betancourt, Cristina S

    2013-09-01

    Congenital malformations of the central nervous system are related to alterations in neural tube formation, including most of the neurosurgical management entities, dysraphism and craniosynostosis; alterations of neuronal proliferation; megalencefaly and microcephaly; abnormal neuronal migration, lissencephaly, pachygyria, schizencephaly, agenesis of the corpus callosum, heterotopia and cortical dysplasia, spinal malformations and spinal dysraphism. We expose the classification of different central nervous system malformations that can be corrected by surgery in the shortest possible time and involving genesis mechanisms of these injuries getting better studied from neurogenic and neuroembryological fields, this involves connecting innovative knowledge areas where alteration mechanisms in dorsal induction (neural tube) and ventral induction (telencephalization) with the current way of correction, as well as the anomalies of cell proliferation and differentiation of neuronal migration and finally the complex malformations affecting the posterior fossa and current possibilities of correcting them.

  20. The central nervous system phenotype of X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: a transient disorder of children and young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mateen, Majeed; Craig, Alexa Kanwit; Chance, Phillip F

    2014-03-01

    We describe 2 patients with X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, type 1 (CMTX1) disease and central nervous system manifestations and review 19 cases from the literature. Our first case had not been previously diagnosed with Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, and the second case, although known to have Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, was suspected of having CMTX1 after presentation with central nervous system manifestations. The most common central nervous system manifestations were transient and included dysarthria, ataxia, hemiparesis, and tetraparesis resembling periodic paralysis. Of the 21 patients, 19 presented at 21 years of age or younger, implicating CMTX1 with transient central nervous system manifestations as a disorder that predominantly affects children and adolescents. CMTX1 should be included in the differential diagnosis of patients who present with transient central nervous system phenomena, including stroke-like episodes, tetraparesis suggestive of periodic paralysis, dysarthria, ataxia, or combinations of these deficits. Reversible, bilateral, nonenhancing white matter lesions and restricted diffusion on magnetic resonance imaging are characteristic features of the central nervous system phenotype of CMTX1.

  1. Longitudinal analysis of hearing loss in a case of hemosiderosis of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weekamp, H.; Huygen, P.L.M.; Merx, J.L.; Kremer, H.P.H.; Cremers, C.W.R.J.; Longridge, N.S.

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe cochleovestibular aspects of superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system. BACKGROUND: Superficial hemosiderosis of the central nervous system is a rare disease in which cochleovestibular impairment, cerebellar ataxia, and myelopathy are the most frequent signs. Chr

  2. Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About NINDS Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet See a list of all NINDS ... 496-5717 "Vasculitis Syndromes of the Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Fact Sheet", NINDS, Publication date July 2011. NIH ...

  3. Circulating microRNAs: a novel class of potential biomarkers for diagnosing and prognosing central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xue-Feng; Wu, Ning; Wang, Lv; Li, Jin

    2013-07-01

    As a class of important endogenous small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level, microRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in many physiological and pathological processes. It is believed that miRNAs contribute to the development, differentiation, and synaptic plasticity of the neurons, and their dysregulation has been linked to a series of diseases. MiRNAs exist in the tissues and as circulating miRNAs in several body fluids, including plasma or serum, cerebrospinal fluid, urine, and saliva. There are significant differences between the circulating miRNA expression profiles of healthy individuals and those of patients. Consequently, circulating miRNAs are likely to become a novel class of noninvasive and sensitive biomarkers. Although little is known about the origin and functions of circulating miRNAs at present, their roles in the clinical diagnosis and prognosis of diseases make them attractive markers, particularly for tumors and cardiovascular diseases. Until now, however, there have been limited data regarding the roles of circulating miRNAs in central nervous system (CNS) diseases. This review focuses on the characteristics of circulating miRNAs and their values as potential biomarkers in CNS diseases, particularly in Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder. PMID:23633081

  4. Structural and functional features of central nervous system lymphatic vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louveau, Antoine; Smirnov, Igor; Keyes, Timothy J; Eccles, Jacob D; Rouhani, Sherin J; Peske, J David; Derecki, Noel C; Castle, David; Mandell, James W; Lee, Kevin S; Harris, Tajie H; Kipnis, Jonathan

    2015-07-16

    One of the characteristics of the central nervous system is the lack of a classical lymphatic drainage system. Although it is now accepted that the central nervous system undergoes constant immune surveillance that takes place within the meningeal compartment, the mechanisms governing the entrance and exit of immune cells from the central nervous system remain poorly understood. In searching for T-cell gateways into and out of the meninges, we discovered functional lymphatic vessels lining the dural sinuses. These structures express all of the molecular hallmarks of lymphatic endothelial cells, are able to carry both fluid and immune cells from the cerebrospinal fluid, and are connected to the deep cervical lymph nodes. The unique location of these vessels may have impeded their discovery to date, thereby contributing to the long-held concept of the absence of lymphatic vasculature in the central nervous system. The discovery of the central nervous system lymphatic system may call for a reassessment of basic assumptions in neuroimmunology and sheds new light on the aetiology of neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases associated with immune system dysfunction.

  5. Metastatic neoplasms of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metastatic neoplasms to the central nervous system are often encountered in the practice of surgical neuropathology. It is not uncommon for patients with systemic malignancies to present to medical attention because of symptoms from a brain metastasis and for the tissue samples procured from these lesions to represent the first tissue available to study a malignancy from an unknown primary. In general surgical pathology, the evaluation of a metastatic neoplasm of unknown primary is a very complicated process, requiring knowledge of numerous different tumor types, reagents, and staining patterns. The past few years, however, have seen a remarkable refinement in the immunohistochemical tools at our disposal that now empower neuropathologists to take an active role in defining the relatively limited subset of neoplasms that commonly metastasize to the central nervous system. This information can direct imaging studies to find the primary tumor in a patient with an unknown primary, clarify the likely primary site of origin in patients who have small tumors in multiple sites without an obvious primary lesion, or establish lesions as late metastases of remote malignancies. Furthermore, specific treatments can begin and additional invasive procedures may be prevented if the neuropathologic evaluation of metastatic neoplasms provides information beyond the traditional diagnosis of ''metastatic neoplasm.'' In this review, differential cytokeratins, adjuvant markers, and organ-specific antibodies are described and the immunohistochemical signatures of metastatic neoplasms that are commonly seen by neuropathologists are discussed

  6. Tissue-nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Regulates Purinergic Transmission in the Central Nervous System During Development and Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álvaro Sebastián-Serrano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Tissue-nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (TNAP is one of the four isozymes in humans and mice that have the capacity to hydrolyze phosphate groups from a wide spectrum of physiological substrates. Among these, TNAP degrades substrates implicated in neurotransmission. Transgenic mice lacking TNAP activity display the characteristic skeletal and dental phenotype of infantile hypophosphatasia, as well as spontaneous epileptic seizures and die around 10 days after birth. This physiopathology, linked to the expression pattern of TNAP in the central nervous system (CNS during embryonic stages, suggests an important role for TNAP in neuronal development and synaptic function, situating it as a good target to be explored for the treatment of neurological diseases. In this review, we will focus mainly on the role that TNAP plays as an ectonucleotidase in CNS regulating the levels of extracellular ATP and consequently purinergic signaling.

  7. Congenital tumors of the central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Severino, Mariasavina [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); Schwartz, Erin S. [The Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Thurnher, Majda M. [Medical University of Vienna, Department of Radiology, Vienna (Austria); Rydland, Jana [MR Center, St. Olav' s Hospital HF, Trondheim (Norway); Nikas, Ioannis [Agia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Imaging Department, Athens (Greece); Rossi, Andrea [G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy); G. Gaslini Children' s Hospital, Department of Pediatric Neuroradiology, Genoa (Italy)

    2010-06-15

    Congenital tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) are often arbitrarily divided into ''definitely congenital'' (present or producing symptoms at birth), ''probably congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first week of life), and ''possibly congenital'' (present or producing symptoms within the first 6 months of life). They represent less than 2% of all childhood brain tumors. The clinical features of newborns include an enlarged head circumference, associated hydrocephalus, and asymmetric skull growth. At birth, a large head or a tense fontanel is the presenting sign in up to 85% of patients. Neurological symptoms as initial symptoms are comparatively rare. The prenatal diagnosis of congenital CNS tumors, while based on ultrasonography, has significantly benefited from the introduction of prenatal magnetic resonance imaging studies. Teratomas constitute about one third to one half of these tumors and are the most common neonatal brain tumor. They are often immature because of primitive neural elements and, rarely, a component of mixed malignant germ cell tumors. Other tumors include astrocytomas, choroid plexus papilloma, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumors, and medulloblastomas. Less common histologies include craniopharyngiomas and ependymomas. There is a strong predilection for supratentorial locations, different from tumors of infants and children. Differential diagnoses include spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage that can occur in the presence of coagulation factor deficiency or underlying vascular malformations, and congenital brain malformations, especially giant heterotopia. The prognosis for patients with congenital tumors is generally poor, usually because of the massive size of the tumor. However, tumors can be resected successfully if they are small and favorably located. The most favorable outcomes are achieved with choroid plexus tumors

  8. Innate immune responses in central nervous system inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finsen, Bente; Owens, Trevor

    2011-01-01

    In autoimmune diseases of the central nervous system (CNS), innate glial cell responses play a key role in determining the outcome of leukocyte infiltration. Access of leukocytes is controlled via complex interactions with glial components of the blood-brain barrier that include angiotensin II...

  9. Sjogrens Syndrome Presenting with Central Nervous System Involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tülay Terzi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren’s syndrome is a slowly progressive autoimmune disease. Neurological involvement occurs in approximately 20-25% cases in Sjogren’s syndrome. 87% of the neurological involvement is peripheral nervous system, almost 13% in the form of central nervous system involvement. Affected central nervous system may show similar clinical and radiological findings as in multiple sclerosis (MS. In this paper, a 43-year-old patient is discussed who was referred with the complaint of dizziness, there was MS- like lesions in brain imaging studies and was diagnosed with Sjogren’s syndrome. MS- like clinical and radiologic tables can be seen, albeit rarely in Sjogren’s syndrome. In these cases, early diagnosis and early treatment for the sjögren has a great importance for the prognosis of the disease.

  10. The central nervous system of ascidian larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Clare

    2016-09-01

    Ascidians are marine invertebrate chordates. Their tadpole larvae contain a dorsal tubular nervous system, resulting from the rolling up of a neural plate. Along the anterior-posterior (A-P) axis, the central nervous system (CNS) is organized into a sensory vesicle, neck, trunk ganglion, and tail nerve cord and consists of approximately only 330 cells, of which around 100 are thought to be neurons. The organization of distinct neuronal cell types and neurotransmitter gene expression within the CNS has been described. The unique developmental mode of ascidians, with a small number of cells and a fixed cell division pattern, allows individual cells to be traced throughout development. This feature has led to the complete documentation of the cell lineages of certain cell types in the CNS. Thus, a step-by-step understanding of nervous system development from the initial stages of neural induction to the neurogenesis of individual neurons is a feasible goal. The genetic control of neural fate induction and early neural plate patterning are now well understood. The molecular mechanisms specifying the cholinergic neurons of the trunk ganglion as well as the pigment cells of the sensory organs are also well elucidated. In addition, studies have begun on the morphogenetic processes of neurulation. Remaining challenges include building an embryonic atlas integrating gene expression patterns, cell lineage, and neuronal cell types as well as developing the gene regulatory networks of cell fate specification and integrating them with the genetic control of morphogenesis. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:538-561. doi: 10.1002/wdev.239 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27328318

  11. Serum Anticholinergic Activity: A Possible Peripheral Marker of the Anticholinergic Burden in the Central Nervous System in Alzheimer’s Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Koji Hori; Kimiko Konishi; Masayuki Tani; Hiroi Tomioka; Ryo Akita; Yuka Kitajima; Mari Aoki; Sachiko Yokoyama; Kazunari Azuma; Daisuke Ikuse; Norihisa Akashi; Misa Hosoi; Koichi Jinbo; Mitsugu Hachisu

    2014-01-01

    We review the utility of serum anticholinergic activity (SAA) as a peripheral marker of anticholinergic activity (AA) in the central nervous system (CAA). We hypothesize that the compensatory mechanisms of the cholinergic system do not contribute to SAA if their system is intact and that if central cholinergic system deteriorates alone in conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease or Lewy body dementia, CAA and SAA are caused by way of hyperactivity of inflammatory system and SAA is a marker of t...

  12. Primary central nervous system lymphomas and related diseases: Pathological characteristics and discussion of the differential diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Yasuo; Muta, Hiroko; Ohshima, Koichi; Morioka, Motohiro; Tsukamoto, Yoshihiro; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Kakita, Akiyoshi

    2016-08-01

    Although primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS are designated as primary CNS lymphomas according to the WHO Classification of Tumours of Haematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissue in 2008, a variety of other lymphomas (Burkitt lymphomas, EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly) and related diseases (lymphomatoid granulomatosis) that are also found in the CNS have been spotlighted in recent years. The histopathology of primary CNS Burkitt lymphomas mimics that of primary diffuse large B-cell lymphomas of the CNS after steroid administration. Therefore, for correct diagnosis of the involved lymphoma, comprehensive fluorescent in situ hybridization analysis for c-MYC and BCL2 is recommended in all primary CNS lymphoma cases with aggressive clinical course, multifocal involvement of the CNS, and a high proliferation index. The pathological characteristics of primary CNS EBV-positive diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of the elderly have similarities with those of the latency phenotype III, EBV lymphoproliferative disorders that arise in the setting of immunodeficiency. These age-related lymphomas usually occur in elderly immunocompetent patients, and the incidence of this disease was estimated to range from 4.0% to 13.6% of all primary CNS lymphomas. Shorter overall survival has been reported for patients with this disease. Lymphomatoid granulomatosis (LYG) is a systemic, EBV-driven, angiocentric and angiodestructive lymphoproliferative disorder. Primary LYG that shows distinct clinicopathological features compared with systemic LYG was recently reported. Finally, this review focuses on the relationship between primary CNS lymphomas and demyelinating diseases, and the concomitant use of intraoperative cytology and frozen sections that are helpful in rapid intraoperative diagnosis. PMID:26607855

  13. Pediatric central nervous system vascular malformations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burch, Ezra A. [Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Boston, MA (United States); Orbach, Darren B. [Boston Children' s Hospital, Neurointerventional Radiology, Boston, MA (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Pediatric central nervous system (CNS) vascular anomalies include lesions found only in the pediatric population and also the full gamut of vascular lesions found in adults. Pediatric-specific lesions discussed here include infantile hemangioma, vein of Galen malformation and dural sinus malformation. Some CNS vascular lesions that occur in adults, such as arteriovenous malformation, have somewhat distinct manifestations in children, and those are also discussed. Additionally, children with CNS vascular malformations often have associated broader vascular conditions, e.g., PHACES (posterior fossa anomalies, hemangioma, arterial anomalies, cardiac anomalies, eye anomalies and sternal anomalies), hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia, and capillary malformation-arteriovenous malformation syndrome (related to the RASA1 mutation). The treatment of pediatric CNS vascular malformations has greatly benefited from advances in endovascular therapy, including technical advances in adult interventional neuroradiology. Dramatic advances in therapy are expected to stem from increased understanding of the genetics and vascular biology that underlie pediatric CNS vascular malformations. (orig.)

  14. Corticosteroids In Infections Of Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meena AK

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Infections of central nervous system are still a major problem. Despite the introduction of newer antimicrobial agents, mortality and long-term sequelace associated with these infections is unacceptably high. Based on the evidence that proinflammtory cytokines have a role in pathophysiology of bacterial and tuberculous meningitis, corticosteroids with a potent anti-inflammatory and immunomodulating effect have been tested and found to be of use in experimental and clinical studies, Review of the available literature suggests steroid administration just prior to antimicrobial therapy is effective in decreasing audiologic and neurologic sequelae in childern with H. influenzae nenigitis. Steroid use for bacterial meningitis in adults is found to be beneficial in case of S. pneumoniae. The value of adjunctive steroid therapy for other bacterial causes of meningitis remains unproven. Corticocorticoids are found to be of no benefit in viral meningitis, Role of steroids in HIV positive patients needs to be studied.

  15. Scaffolds for central nervous system tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jin; Wang, Xiu-Mei; Spector, Myron; Cui, Fu-Zhai

    2012-03-01

    Traumatic injuries to the brain and spinal cord of the central nervous system (CNS) lead to severe and permanent neurological deficits and to date there is no universally accepted treatment. Owing to the profound impact, extensive studies have been carried out aiming at reducing inflammatory responses and overcoming the inhibitory environment in the CNS after injury so as to enhance regeneration. Artificial scaffolds may provide a suitable environment for axonal regeneration and functional recovery, and are of particular importance in cases in which the injury has resulted in a cavitary defect. In this review we discuss development of scaffolds for CNS tissue engineering, focusing on mechanism of CNS injuries, various biomaterials that have been used in studies, and current strategies for designing and fabricating scaffolds.

  16. VIIP: Central Nervous System (CNS) Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera, Jerry; Mulugeta, Lealem; Nelson, Emily; Raykin, Julia; Feola, Andrew; Gleason, Rudy; Samuels, Brian; Ethier, C. Ross; Myers, Jerry

    2015-01-01

    Current long-duration missions to the International Space Station and future exploration-class missions beyond low-Earth orbit expose astronauts to increased risk of Visual Impairment and Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome. It has been hypothesized that the headward shift of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood in microgravity may cause significant elevation of intracranial pressure (ICP), which in turn may then induce VIIP syndrome through interaction with various biomechanical pathways. However, there is insufficient evidence to confirm this hypothesis. In this light, we are developing lumped-parameter models of fluid transport in the central nervous system (CNS) as a means to simulate the influence of microgravity on ICP. The CNS models will also be used in concert with the lumped parameter and finite element models of the eye described in the related IWS works submitted by Nelson et al., Feola et al. and Ethier et al.

  17. Diverse roles of neurotensin agonists in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona eBoules

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available NT is a tridecapeptide that is found in the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract. NT behaves as a neurotransmitter in the brain and as a hormone in the gut. Additionally, NT acts as a neuromodulator to several neurotransmitter systems including dopaminergic, sertonergic, GABAergic, glutamatergic and cholinergic systems. Due to its association with such a wide variety of neurotransmitters, NT has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several central nervous system (CNS disorders such as schizophrenia, drug abuse, Parkinson’s disease, pain, central control of blood pressure, eating disorders, as well as, cancer and inflammation. The present review will focus on the role that NT and its analogs play in schizophrenia, endocrine function, pain, psychostimulant abuse, and Parkinson’s disease.

  18. Plants and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlini, E A

    2003-06-01

    This review article draws the attention to the many species of plants possessing activity on the central nervous system (CNS). In fact, they cover the whole spectrum of central activity such as psychoanaleptic, psycholeptic and psychodysleptic effects, and several of these plants are currently used in therapeutics to treat human ailments. Among the psychoanaleptic (stimulant) plants, those utilized by human beings to reduce body weight [Ephedra spp. (Ma Huang), Paullinia spp. (guaraná), Catha edulis Forssk. (khat)] and plants used to improve general health conditions (plant adaptogens) were scrutinized. Many species of hallucinogenic (psychodysleptic) plants are used by humans throughout the world to achieve states of mind distortions; among those, a few have been used for therapeutic purposes, such as Cannabis sativa L., Tabernanthe iboga Baill. and the mixture of Psychotria viridis Ruiz and Pav. and Banisteriopsis caapi (Spruce ex Griseb.) C.V. Morton. Plants showing central psycholeptic activities, such as analgesic or anxiolytic actions (Passiflora incarnata L., Valeriana spp. and Piper methysticum G. Forst.), were also analysed.Finally, the use of crude or semipurified extracts of such plants instead of the active substances seemingly responsible for their therapeutic effect is discussed. PMID:12895668

  19. Diseases of the nervous system associated with calcium channelopathies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Todorov, Boyan Bogdanov

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to investigate how abnormal CaV2.1 channel function can cause disease, in particular motor coordination dysfunction. The chapters illustrate how various neuronal cell types in the periphery (peripheral nervous system) and the central nervous system

  20. Central nervous system infectious diseases mimicking multiple sclerosis: recognizing distinguishable features using MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Jose da Rocha

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The current diagnostic criteria for multiple sclerosis (MS confirm the relevant role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI, supporting the possibility of characterizing the dissemination in space (DIS and the dissemination in time (DIT in a single scan. To maintain the specificity of these criteria, it is necessary to determine whether T2/FLAIR visible lesions and the gadolinium enhancement can be attributed to diseases that mimic MS. Several diseases are included in the MS differential diagnosis list, including diseases with exacerbation, remitting periods and numerous treatable infectious diseases, which can mimic the MRI features of MS. We discuss the most relevant imaging features in several infectious diseases that resemble MS and examine the primary spatial distributions of lesions and the gadolinium enhancement patterns related to MS. Recognizing imaging "red flags" can be useful for the proper diagnostic evaluation of suspected cases of MS, facilitating the correct differential diagnosis by assessing the combined clinical, laboratory and MR imaging information.

  1. AAV-Mediated Gene Delivery in a Feline Model of Sandhoff Disease Corrects Lysosomal Storage in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannah E. Rockwell

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Sandhoff disease (SD is an autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit of β-N-acetylhexosaminidase (Hex, resulting in the inability to catabolize ganglioside GM2 within the lysosomes. SD presents with an accumulation of GM2 and its asialo derivative GA2, primarily in the central nervous system. Myelin-enriched glycolipids, cerebrosides and sulfatides, are also decreased in SD corresponding with dysmyelination. At present, no treatment exists for SD. Previous studies have shown the therapeutic benefit of adeno-associated virus (AAV vector-mediated gene therapy in the treatment of SD in murine and feline models. In this study, we treated presymptomatic SD cats with AAVrh8 vectors expressing feline Hex in the thalamus combined with intracerebroventricular (Thal/ICV injections. Treated animals showed clearly improved neurologic function and quality of life, manifested in part by prevention or attenuation of whole-body tremors characteristic of untreated animals. Hex activity was significantly elevated, whereas storage of GM2 and GA2 was significantly decreased in tissue samples taken from the cortex, cerebellum, thalamus, and cervical spinal cord. Treatment also increased levels of myelin-enriched cerebrosides and sulfatides in the cortex and thalamus. This study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of AAV for feline SD and suggests a similar potential for human SD patients.

  2. Central nervous system demyelinating diseases and recombinant hepatitis B vaccination: a critical systematic review of scientific production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Sernández, V; Figueiras, A

    2013-08-01

    The etiology of multiple sclerosis has not yet been fully described. A potential link between the recombinant hepatitis B vaccine and an increased risk of onset or exacerbation of multiple sclerosis emerged in the mid-1990s, leading to several spontaneous reports and studies investigating this association. We conducted a critical systematic review aimed at assessing whether hepatitis B vaccination increases the risk of onset or relapse of multiple sclerosis and other central nervous system demyelinating diseases. MEDLINE and EMBASE were used as data sources, and the search covered the period between 1981 and 2011. Twelve references met the inclusion criteria. No significant increased risk of onset or relapse of the diseases considered was associated with hepatitis B vaccination, except in one study. Most studies included in this review displayed methodological limitations and heterogeneity among them, which rendered it impossible to draw robust conclusions about the safety of hepatitis B vaccination in healthy subjects and patients with multiple sclerosis. Therefore, on the basis of current data there is no need to modify the vaccination recommendations; however, there is a need to improve the quality of observational studies with emphasis on certain considerations that are discussed in this review. PMID:23086181

  3. A longitudinal study of epilepsy and other central nervous system diseases in individuals with and without a history of infantile autism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mouridsen, Svend Erik; Rich, Bente; Isager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the prevalence and types of epilepsy and other central nervous system (CNS) diseases in a clinical sample of 118 individuals diagnosed as children with infantile autism (IA) with 336 matched controls from the general population. Methods: All participants were screened through...

  4. An Atlas of Infectious and Parasitic Diseases of the Central Nervous System. A Cooperative Study of SILAN (Sociedad Iberolatinoamericana de Neurorradiologia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Toledo, E; Santos Andrade, C; Da Costa Leite, C; Del Carpio-O'Donovan, R; Fayed, N; Morales, H; Peterson, R; Palacios, E; Previgliano, C H; Rocha, A J; Romero, J M; Rugilo, C; Staut, C C V; Tamer, I; Tavares Lucato, L; Nader, M

    2010-10-01

    Infectious diseases of the central nervous system vary in frequency in different locations in America and Europe. What is common in Brazil can be a sporadic presentation in Europe. Cooperative work gathering experiences from neuroradiologists working in various places can be achieved and will help to identify uncommon cases that can present in our daily practice.

  5. Aspectos neurológicos da doença de chagas: sistema nervoso central Neurological aspects of Chagas' disease: central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvio de Vergueiro Forjaz

    1967-09-01

    Full Text Available The lesions of the nervous system in the Trypanosomiasis Cruzi are quite frequent and are not only limited to the encephalo-spinal-axis. Actually, they are much more common in the peripheral representations of the autonomic nervous system, resulting in the so-called enteromegalies (mega-esophagus, megacolon, etc. so frequent in Brazil. However, only the clinical manifestations due to the encephalic and spinal lesions have been included in the neurological aspects of Chagas' disease (as formerly contended for by Carlos Chagas. In the acute phase of the central nervous system infestation, the Trypanosoma cruzi,as leishmanias, is found in cellular elements of the neuroglia (microglia, astroglia and may be isolated from the peripheral blood and cerebrospinal fluid (inoculation in sensitive animals. The corresponding clinical manifestations are the severe difuse meningo-encephalo-myelitis with a high degree of lethality and also signs of infection, hepatomegaly and splenomegaly. The infants from endemic areas are much more compromised. The clinical-pathologic as well as experimental confirmations on that acute phase of the disease are numerous and irrefutable. In the chronic phase of the disease, the neurological manifestations are not very clear. Early in 1909, Chagas, impressed with the great number of cases of infantile encephalopathy found in infested regions, imputed to the T. cruzithe etiology of such cases of encephalopathy and considered them as pertaining to a chronic phase of the disease. This has not been confirmed by other investigations, and even if the etiologic agent were the T. cruzithe clinical manifestations have no evolutive character and seem more sequelae than symptoms of a real chronic nervous phase. Even experimentally it has not been possible to demonstrate the presence of parasites in the nervous system of infested animals after clearing of the signs of the acute phase. In patients with chronic Chagas' disease with lesions in

  6. Antibody response against gastrointestinal antigens in demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banati, M; Csecsei, P; Koszegi, E;

    2013-01-01

    TG), intrinsic factor (IF), parietal cells (PC) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (ASCA) were screened in the sera of 45 patients with AQP4-seropositive neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and NMO spectrum diseases (NMO/NMO-SD), 17 patients with AQP4-seronegative NMO, 85 patients with clinically definite multiple sclerosis...

  7. Cachexia in chronic kidney disease: a link to defective central nervous system control of appetite

    OpenAIRE

    Mitch, William E.

    2005-01-01

    Anorexia is one of several abnormalities characterizing chronic kidney disease (CKD) that cause cachexia, the loss of muscle and adipose stores. It has been attributed to mechanisms ranging from accumulation of toxic “middle molecules” to psychological problems. In this issue of the JCI, Cheung and coworkers used elegant techniques to demonstrate that CKD-associated anorexia is caused by defective hypothalamic regulation of appetite. They attributed the defect to an alteration in the hypothal...

  8. The Glutamatergic Neurotransmission in the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Marmiroli, PL; Cavaletti, GA

    2012-01-01

    Glutamate is one of the major neurotrasmitters in mammalian brain and changes in its concentration have been associated with a number of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative, cerebrovascular diseases and epilepsy. Moreover, recently a possible role for glutamatergic system dysfunction has been suggested also in the peripheral nervous system. This chapter will revise the current knowledge in the distribution of glutamate and of its receptors and transporters in the central nervo...

  9. Evaluation of AAV-mediated Gene Therapy for Central Nervous System Disease in Canine Mucopolysaccharidosis VII.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurda, Brittney L; De Guilhem De Lataillade, Adrien; Bell, Peter; Zhu, Yanqing; Yu, Hongwei; Wang, Ping; Bagel, Jessica; Vite, Charles H; Sikora, Tracey; Hinderer, Christian; Calcedo, Roberto; Yox, Alexander D; Steet, Richard A; Ruane, Therese; O'Donnell, Patricia; Gao, Guangping; Wilson, James M; Casal, Margret; Ponder, Katherine P; Haskins, Mark E

    2016-02-01

    Mucopolysaccharidosis VII (MPS VII) is a lysosomal storage disease arising from mutations in β-d-glucuronidase (GUSB), which results in glycosaminoglycan (GAG) accumulation and a variety of clinical manifestations including neurological disease. Herein, MPS VII dogs were injected intravenously (i.v.) and/or intrathecally (i.t.) via the cisterna magna with AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors carrying the canine GUSB cDNA. Although i.v. injection alone at 3 days of age resulted in normal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) GUSB activity, brain tissue homogenates had only ~1 to 6% normal GUSB activity and continued to have elevated GAG storage. In contrast, i.t. injection at 3 weeks of age resulted in CSF GUSB activity 44-fold normal while brain tissue homogenates had >100% normal GUSB activity and reduced GAGs compared with untreated dogs. Markers for secondary storage and inflammation were eliminated in i.t.-treated dogs and reduced in i.v.-treated dogs compared with untreated dogs. Given that i.t.-treated dogs expressed higher levels of GUSB in the CNS tissues compared to those treated i.v., we conclude that i.t. injection of AAV9 or AAVrh10 vectors is more effective than i.v. injection alone in the large animal model of MPS VII. PMID:26447927

  10. [Central nervous system in IgG4-related disease: case report and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanegas-Garcia, A L; Calle-Lopez, Y; Zapata, C H; Alvarez-Espinal, D M; Saavedra-Gonzalez, Y A; Arango-Viana, J C

    2016-08-01

    Introduccion. La enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 es una entidad clinica multisistemica recientemente descrita y que se presenta con diferentes manifestaciones clinicas. Los organos que estan afectados con mayor frecuencia son el pancreas, la via biliar y las glandulas salivales, y es menos frecuente la afeccion del sistema nervioso central. Caso clinico. Mujer de 33 años con alteraciones cognitivas, alucinaciones, cefalea, sindrome convulsivo, sinusitis maxilar con afeccion osea y evidencia de paquimeningitis y panhipopituitarismo, con biopsia meningea que confirmo una enfermedad relacionada con IgG4, tras haberse descartado causas secundarias. Se inicio tratamiento con glucocorticoides y azatioprina, sin recaidas despues de 12 meses de seguimiento. Conclusiones. Se debe considerar el diagnostico de enfermedad relacionada con IgG4 en casos de paquimeningitis hipertrofica e hipofisitis, incluso sin que se acompañen de otras manifestaciones sistemicas, siempre que se hayan descartado otras causas mas frecuentes. El tratamiento de eleccion son los glucocorticoides, y puede ser necesario añadir otro inmunosupresor como ahorrador de esteroides y para evitar las recaidas. Se necesitan estudios prospectivos para evaluar las diferentes manifestaciones clinicas y paraclinicas y establecer los resultados del tratamiento a largo plazo.

  11. Pathological and Clinical Features and Management of Central Nervous System Hemangioblastomas in von Hippel-Lindau Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Kanno

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS hemangioblastoma is the most common manifestation of von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease. It is found in 70-80% of VHL patients. Hemangioblastoma is a rare form of benign vascular tumor of the CNS, accounting for 2.0% of CNS tumors. It can occur sporadically or as a familial syndrome. CNS hemangioblastomas are typically located in the posterior fossa and the spinal cord. VHL patients usually develop a CNS hemangioblastoma at an early age. Therefore, they require a special routine for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. The surgical management of symptomatic tumors depends on many factors such as symptom, location, multiplicity, and progression of the tumor. The management of asymptomatic tumors in VHL patients is controversial since CNS hemangioblastomas grow with intermittent quiescent and rapid-growth phases. Preoperative embolization of large solid hemangioblastomas prevents perioperative hemorrhage but is not necessary in every case. Radiotherapy should be reserved for inoperable tumors. Because of complexities of VHL, a better understanding of the pathological and clinical features of hemangioblastoma in VHL is essential for its proper management.

  12. Assistive technology in occupational therapy practice with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tácia Caroline de Lima Rodrigues

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to report the effects of the interventions, using the resource of assistive technology, carried out with a child with degenerative disease of the central nervous system at his home. This is a study case, which was conducted in seven meetings, addressing the child and his caregivers during a process of evaluation, preparation of assistive devices, family orientation, and evaluation of the family environment repercussion. The results showed that the child presents significant motor, cognitive, and psychosocial impairments, resulting in difficulties in performing activities of daily living, communication, and play. Adjustments were proposed to facilitate the child’s involvement and alleviate family difficulties on equipment and environments, such as wheelchair, bedroom, bathroom, orthosis, toys and communication. Finally, it was possible to note that the assistive technology resources were used according to the child’s needs and his own reality, and that the domiciliary visits contributed positively to the family’s life because they facilitated the child’s care, despite the limitations faced.

  13. Masked assessment of MRI findings: is it possible to differentiate neuro-Behcet`s disease from other central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coban, O.; Bahar, S.; Akman-Demir, G.; Tasci, B.; Serdaroglu, P. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Neurology; Yurdakul, S.; Yazici, H. [Univ. of Istanbul (Turkey). Dept. of Internal Medicine

    1999-04-01

    Two neuroradiologists reviewed MRI studies of 34 patients with neuro-Behcet`s disease (NBD), 22 with multiple sclerosis (MS) and 7 with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) with central nervous system involvement, masked to the clinical diagnosis, age and sex of the patients. Of the patients with NBD 12 were in an acute attack; the others had chronic disease. MRI was assessed using a set of criteria, looking at atrophy, the site of discrete parenchymal lesions, regions of predominant involvement and the extent of the lesion(s). The observers also made a guess at the clinical diagnosis. The brain stem and/or basal ganglia were the most predominantly involved sites in all patients with acute NBD; 75 % of these lesions were large and confluent, mainly extending from the brain stem to the diencephalon and basal ganglia. However, in chronic cases, the predominant involvement was in the brain stem and/or basal ganglia in only 36 %, and in cerebral hemisphere white matter in another 36 %; 27 % of these patients showed no parenchymal lesion. Hemisphere white-matter lesions were equally distributed between periventricular and other areas in NBD, while in MS more were periventricular, and in SLE more were nonperiventricular. Brain-stem atrophy was seen in 21 % of patients with NBD, with a specificity of 96.5 %. In the absence of cortical atrophy, its specificity was 100 %. The attempt at making a radiological diagnosis was successful in all cases of acute NBD and 95.5 % of patients with MS, but in only 40 % of patients with chronic NBD. Most of this latter groups MRI studies were interpreted as MS. An extensive lesion involving the brain stem and basal ganglia seemed to be diagnostic of acute NBD. However, hemisphere white-matter lesions could not be differentiated from those in MS. (orig.) With 3 figs., 6 tabs., 18 refs.

  14. Chronic Viral Infection and Primary Central Nervous System Malignancy

    OpenAIRE

    Saddawi-Konefka, Robert; Crawford, John R.

    2010-01-01

    Primary central nervous system (CNS) tumors cause significant morbidity and mortality in both adults and children. While some of the genetic and molecular mechanisms of neuro-oncogenesis are known, much less is known about possible epigenetic contributions to disease pathophysiology. Over the last several decades, chronic viral infections have been associated with a number of human malignancies. In primary CNS malignancies, two families of viruses, namely polyomavirus and herpesvirus, have be...

  15. Simultaneous central nervous system complications of C. neoformans infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Alejandra; Higera Calleja, Jesus; Mitre, Vicente Gijón; Ramos, Guillermo Garcia

    2009-01-01

    The most common neurological manifestation of Cryptococcus neoformans infection is meningitis. Other less common manifestations include parenchymal central nervous system (CNS) granulomatous disease, hydrocephalus and stroke. C. neoformans is often suspected in immunodepressed patients, but it can be easily overlooked in otherwise healthy patients. This paper provides a detailed clinical description of a patient without immunosupression who developed multiple simultaneous neurological manifestations after the infection with C. neoformans. PMID:21577360

  16. Statin therapy inhibits remyelination in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miron, Veronique E; Zehntner, Simone P; Kuhlmann, Tanja;

    2009-01-01

    Remyelination of lesions in the central nervous system contributes to neural repair following clinical relapses in multiple sclerosis. Remyelination is initiated by recruitment and differentiation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) into myelinating oligodendrocytes. Simvastatin, a blood...... that OPCs were maintained in an immature state (Olig2(strong)/Nkx2.2(weak)). NogoA+ oligodendrocyte numbers were decreased during all simvastatin treatment regimens. Our findings suggest that simvastatin inhibits central nervous system remyelination by blocking progenitor differentiation, indicating...... the need to monitor effects of systemic immunotherapies that can access the central nervous system on brain tissue-repair processes....

  17. Disseminated encephalomyelitis-like central nervous system neoplasm in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianhui; Bao, Xinhua; Fu, Na; Ye, Jintang; Li, Ting; Yuan, Yun; Zhang, Chunyu; Zhang, Yao; Zhang, Yuehua; Qin, Jiong; Wu, Xiru

    2014-08-01

    A malignant neoplasm in the central nervous system with diffuse white matter changes on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is rare in children. It could be misdiagnosed as acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. This report presents our experience based on 4 patients (3 male, 1 female; aged 7-13 years) whose MRI showed diffuse lesions in white matter and who were initially diagnosed with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. All of the patients received corticosteroid therapy. After brain biopsy, the patients were diagnosed with gliomatosis cerebri, primitive neuroectodermal tumor and central nervous system lymphoma. We also provide literature reviews and discuss the differentiation of central nervous system neoplasm from acute disseminated encephalomyelitis.

  18. Autonomic Nervous System Dysfunction in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zesiewicz, Theresa A.; Baker, Matthew J.; Wahba, Mervat; Hauser, Robert A.

    2003-03-01

    Autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction is common in Parkinson's disease (PD), affects 70% to 80% of patients, and causes significant morbidity and discomfort. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction symptoms in PD include sexual dysfunction, swallowing and gastrointestinal disorders, bowel and bladder abnormalities, sleep disturbances, and derangements of cardiovascular regulation, particularly, orthostatic hypotension. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction in PD may be caused by an underlying degenerative process that affects the autonomic ganglia, brainstem nuclei, and hypothalamic nuclei. Anti-parkinsonian medications can cause or worsen symptoms of ANS dysfunction. The care of a PD patient with ANS dysfunction relies on its recognition and directed treatment, including coordinated care between the neurologist and appropriate subspecialist. Pharmacotherapy may be useful to treat orthostasis, gastrointestinal, urinary, and sexual dysfunction.

  19. MRT of the central nervous system. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, Michael [Universitaetsklinikum Essen (Germany). Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie und Neuroradiologie; Jansen, Olav (ed.) [Universitaetsklinikum Schleswig-Holstein, Kiel (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Neuroradiologie

    2014-11-01

    The book on MRT of the central nervous system includes the following chapters: anatomy, vascular diseases, brain tumors, craniocerebral injuries, infectious diseases, multiple sclerosis and related diseases, metabolic diseases, degenerative diseases, malformations and developmental disorders, hydrocephalus and intracranial hypertension, spinal marrow, degenerative caused spinal and foraminal stenosis, traumata, tumors and tumor-like neoplasm, vascular diseases, inflammations, infections and related diseases, diseases of the peripheral nervous system.

  20. Central nervous system adaptation to exercise training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Lois Anne

    Exercise training causes physiological changes in skeletal muscle that results in enhanced performance in humans and animals. Despite numerous studies on exercise effects on skeletal muscle, relatively little is known about adaptive changes in the central nervous system. This study investigated whether spinal pathways that mediate locomotor activity undergo functional adaptation after 28 days of exercise training. Ventral horn spinal cord expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a trophic factor at the neuromuscular junction, choline acetyltransferase (Chat), the synthetic enzyme for acetylcholine, vesicular acetylcholine transporter (Vacht), a transporter of ACh into synaptic vesicles and calcineurin (CaN), a protein phosphatase that phosphorylates ion channels and exocytosis machinery were measured to determine if changes in expression occurred in response to physical activity. Expression of these proteins was determined by western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Comparisons between sedentary controls and animals that underwent either endurance training or resistance training were made. Control rats received no exercise other than normal cage activity. Endurance-trained rats were exercised 6 days/wk at 31m/min on a treadmill (8% incline) for 100 minutes. Resistance-trained rats supported their weight plus an additional load (70--80% body weight) on a 60° incline (3 x 3 min, 5 days/wk). CGRP expression was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). CGRP expression in the spinal dorsal and ventral horn of exercise-trained animals was not significantly different than controls. Chat expression measured by Western blot and IHC was not significantly different between runners and controls but expression in resistance-trained animals assayed by IHC was significantly less than controls and runners. Vacht and CaN immunoreactivity in motor neurons of endurance-trained rats was significantly elevated relative to control and resistance-trained animals. Ventral

  1. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.P.E. Vincent (Arnoud)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is

  2. [Microglial cells and development of the embryonic central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legendre, Pascal; Le Corronc, Hervé

    2014-02-01

    Microglia cells are the macrophages of the central nervous system with a crucial function in the homeostasis of the adult brain. However, recent studies showed that microglial cells may also have important functions during early embryonic central nervous system development. In this review we summarize recent works on the extra embryonic origin of microglia, their progenitor niche, the pattern of their invasion of the embryonic central nervous system and on interactions between embryonic microglia and their local environment during invasion. We describe microglial functions during development of embryonic neuronal networks, including their roles in neurogenesis, in angiogenesis and developmental cell death. These recent discoveries open a new field of research on the functions of neural-microglial interactions during the development of the embryonic central nervous system.

  3. Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumors Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the tumor responds to treatment. Newly Diagnosed CNS Teratomas Treatment of newly diagnosed mature and immature central nervous system (CNS) teratomas may include the following: Surgery to remove as ...

  4. Treatment Option Overview (Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  5. General Information about Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  6. [Various aspects of IL-1 biological activity. II. IL-1 beta in diseases and the Central Nervous System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Marek

    2009-01-01

    Precise understanding of the mechanisms of reciprocal relations between the nervous and the immune systems, has been the subject of numerous studies for the recent two decades. These mechanisms are significant, particularly at the stage of early response to bacterial, parasite, or viral infections. They are also essential from the medical point of view, as they may help in the development of the new methods of treatment of infectious diseases, and also may provide better methods to neutralize possible side effects of the therapy. As it is commonly understood, both forms of IL-1 (alpha and beta), play an important role as a signaling molecules in these mechanisms. Regardless of the route of administration, they cause to the activation of the brain neurotransmitters, and the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal-axis (HPA). The HPA response induced by activity of the immune system is a normal, physiological phenomenon with essential meaning. It gives the negative feedback where glucocorticoids, released from the adrenal cortex, inhibit activity of the immune system, and by this reduce the probability of the over-stimulation of this system and its self-aggression. Therefore, precise recognition of the mechanism which is the indicator of influence of cytokines on the brain and also leads to initiate that response has a significant scientific and practical meaning. Also, the two mechanisms are probably the most important, and under appropriate conditions could complement each other. These are enzymatic and neural ways by which immune system influences the brain. The former predicts, that Il-1 influences the tissue, stimulating them to the synthesis, via the cyclooxygenases (COX) activation, and release molecules such as prostaglandines (especially PGE2), which have the ability to penetrate the brain barrier. The latter assumes that IL-1, directly or indirectly, can influence the peripheral nerves (the most important is probably the vagus nerve), which afferent sensory endings

  7. 血红素氧合酶-1与中枢神经系统疾病%Heme oxygenase-1 and central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丹

    2012-01-01

    血红素氧合酶-1(heme oxygenase-1,HO-1)是血红素降解的起始酶和限速酶,可被氧化应激、化学物质和药物等诱导激活,通过抗氧化、抗炎和抗凋亡机制发挥细胞保护作用.多种中枢神经系统(central nervous system,CNS)疾病均可引起HO-1表达变化,该酶的异常涉及到多种CNS疾病.文中就HO-1的生物学特性和在不同神经系统疾病中的表达、作用作简要综述.%Heme oxygenase-1 ( HO-1 ), as a rate-limiting enzyme of heme, can be activated by oxidative stress, chemical materials and drugs, and protects cells by its anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation and anti-apoptosis roles. Its abnormal expression is always related to many central nervous system diseases. This article summarizes the biological specificities and its expressions and effects in different central nervous system diseases.

  8. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    OpenAIRE

    Ravish Parekh; Alexis Haftka; Ashleigh Porter

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS) tuberculosis (TB). We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as we...

  9. Radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this work is to present the principles of radiation therapy of tumours of the central nervous system, according to the experience of the Institute of Oncology in Krakow. The text was designed primarily for the radiotherapists involved in the treatment of tumours of the central nervous system, and may be used as an auxiliary textbook for those preparing for the examination in radiotherapy. (author)

  10. Role of metallothionein-III following central nervous system damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carrasco, Javier; Penkowa, Milena; Giralt, Mercedes;

    2003-01-01

    We evaluated the physiological relevance of metallothionein-III (MT-III) in the central nervous system following damage caused by a focal cryolesion onto the cortex by studying Mt3-null mice. In normal mice, dramatic astrogliosis and microgliosis and T-cell infiltration were observed in the area...... the inflammatory response elicited in the central nervous system by a cryoinjury, nor does it serve an important antioxidant role, but it may influence neuronal regeneration during the recovery process....

  11. Primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a young dog

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Na-Hyun; Ciesielski, Thomas; Kim, Jung H; Yhee, Ji-Young; Im, Keum-Soon; Nam, Hae-Mi; Kim, Il-Hwan; Kim, Jong-Hyuk; Sur, Jung-Hyang

    2012-01-01

    This report describes a primary central nervous system B-cell lymphoma in a 3-year-old intact female Maltese dog. Canine primary central nervous system lymphomas constitute about 4% of all intracranial primary neoplasms, but comprehensive histopathologic classifications have rarely been carried out. This is the first report of this disease in a young adult dog.

  12. Substance P and Antagonists of the Neurokinin-1 Receptor in Neuroinflammation Associated with Infectious and Neurodegenerative Diseases of the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Alejandra N.; Philipp, Mario T.

    2016-01-01

    This review addresses the role that substance P (SP) and its preferred receptor neurokinin-1 (NK1R) play in neuroinflammation associated with select bacterial, viral, parasitic, and neurodegenerative diseases of the central nervous system. The SP/NK1R complex is a key player in the interaction between the immune and nervous systems. A common effect of this interaction is inflammation. For this reason and because of the predominance in the human brain of the NK1R, its antagonists are attractive potential therapeutic agents. Preventing the deleterious effects of SP through the use of NK1R antagonists has been shown to be a promising therapeutic strategy, as these antagonists are selective, potent, and safe. Here we evaluate their utility in the treatment of different neuroinfectious and neuroinflammatory diseases, as a novel approach to clinical management of CNS inflammation.

  13. Peripheral Nervous System Manifestations of Infectious Diseases

    OpenAIRE

    Brizzi, Kate T.; Lyons, Jennifer L.

    2014-01-01

    Infectious causes of peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease are underrecognized but potentially treatable. Heightened awareness educed by advanced understanding of the presentations and management of these infections can aid diagnosis and facilitate treatment. In this review, we discuss the clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of common bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections that affect the PNS. We additionally detail PNS side effects of some frequently used antimicrobial ag...

  14. Occupational therapy for patients with chronic diseases: CVA, rheumatoid arthritis and progressive diseases of the central nervous system.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Driessen, M.J.; Dekker, J.; Lankhorst, G.; Zee, J. van der

    1997-01-01

    A substantial proportion of the patients treated by occupational therapists have a chronic disease. The aim of this study was to describe the outlines of occupational therapy treatment for three specific groups of chronic diseases: progressive neurological diseases, cerebrovascular accident and rh

  15. HIV-Associated Central Nervous System Disease in Patients Admitted at the Douala General Hospital between 2004 and 2009: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Namme Luma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Studies on HIV-associated central nervous system (CNS diseases in Cameroon are rare. The aim of this study was to describe the clinical presentation, identify aetiological factors, and determine predictors of mortality in HIV patients with CNS disease. Methods. From January 1, 2004 and December 31, 2009, we did at the Douala General Hospital a clinical case note review of 672 admitted adult (age ≥ 18 years HIV-1 patients, and 44.6% (300/672 of whom were diagnosed and treated for HIV-associated CNS disease. Results. The mean age of the study population was years, and median CD4 count was 49 cells/mm3 (interquartile range (QR: 17–90. The most common clinical presentations were headache (83%, focal signs (40.6%, and fever (37.7%. Toxoplasma encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis were the leading aetiologies of HIV-associated CNS disease in 32.3% and 25% of patients, respectively. Overall mortality was 49%. Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL and bacterial meningitis had the highest case fatality rates of 100% followed by tuberculous meningitis (79.8%. Low CD4 count was an independent predictor of fatality (AOR: 3.2, 95%CI: 2.0–5.2. Conclusions. HIV-associated CNS disease is common in Douala. CNS symptoms in HIV patients need urgent investigation because of their association with diseases of high case fatality.

  16. Histologic examination of the rat central nervous system after intrathecal administration of human beta-endorphin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hée, P.; Klinken, Leif; Ballegaard, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity......Neuropathology, analgesics - intrathecal, central nervous system, histology, human beta-endorphin, toxicity...

  17. [Spontaneous recovery of function in central nervous system lesions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anghinah, A

    1975-12-01

    A rewiev of the mechanisms responsible for the spontaneous recuperation of function in patients with lesions of the central nervous sistem is made. The spontaneous reorganization theories of the nervous structures and the vicarious function are also referred to. In the last two decades experimental contributions have been accentuated, specially the one conducted by the group of researchers directed by Windle and Guth, who had shown the possibility of regeneration in the central nervous system, as well Lawrende and Kuypers, Brodal, Goldberger and others, which defended the vircarious function as the probable mechanisms of recuperation. PMID:1191098

  18. Involvement of central nervous system in the schistosomiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Cristina de Abreu Ferrari

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available The involvement of the central nervous system (CNS by schistosomes may or may not determine clinical manifestations. When symptomatic, neuroschistosomiasis (NS is one of the most severe presentations of schistosomal infection. Considering the symptomatic form, cerebral involvement is almost always due to Schistosoma japonicum and the spinal cord disease, caused by S. mansoni or S. haematobium. Available evidence suggests that NS depends basically on the presence of parasite eggs in the nervous tissue and on the host immune response. The patients with cerebral NS usually have the clinical manifestations of increased intracranial pressure associated with focal neurological signs; and those with schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR present rapidly progressing symptoms of myelitis involving the lower cord, usually in association with the involvement of the cauda esquina roots. The diagnosis of cerebral NS is established by biopsy of the nervous tissue and SMR is usually diagnosed according to a clinical criterion. Antischistosomal drugs, corticosteroids and surgery are the resourses available for treating NS. The outcome is variable and is better in cerebral disease.

  19. Breast cancer metastasis to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weil, Robert J; Palmieri, Diane C; Bronder, Julie L; Stark, Andreas M; Steeg, Patricia S

    2005-10-01

    Clinically symptomatic metastases to the central nervous system (CNS) occur in approximately 10 to 15% of patients with metastatic beast cancer. CNS metastases are traditionally viewed as a late complication of systemic disease, for which few effective treatment options exist. Recently, patients with Her-2-positive breast tumors who were treated with trastuzumab have been reported to develop CNS metastases at higher rates, often while responding favorably to treatment. The blood:brain barrier and the unique brain microenvironment are hypothesized to promote distinct molecular features in CNS metastases that may require tailored therapeutic approaches. New research approaches using cell lines that reliably and preferentially metastasize in vivo to the brain have been reported. Using such model systems, as well as in vitro analogs of blood-brain barrier penetration and tissue-based studies, new molecular leads into this disease are unfolding. PMID:16192626

  20. Aquaporin-4 Immuneglobulin G testing in 36 consecutive Jamaican patients with inflammatory central nervous system demyelinating disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherri Sandy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological studies of neuromyelitis optica (NMO in Jamaica are lacking. Here we reviewed the clinical records of 700 patients undergoing neurological evaluation at the Kingston Public Hospital, the largest tertiary institution in Jamaica over a 4 month period. We investigated the diagnostic utility of Aquaporin-4 ImmuneglobulinG (AQP4-IgG testing in 36 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of an inflammatory demyelinating disorder (IDD of the central nervous system (CNS. Patients were classified into 3 categories: i NMO, n=10; ii multiple sclerosis (MS, n=14 and iii unclassified IDD (n=12. All sera were tested for AQP-IgG status by cell binding assay (Euroimmun. No MS cases were positive. Ninety per cent of NMO cases were positive. Four of 12 patients with unclassified IDD tested positive for AQP4-IgG. AQP4-IgG seropositivity was associated with a lower socioeconomic status, higher EDSS (P=0.04 and lower pulmonary function than the seronegative cases (P=0.007. Aquaporin-4 autoimmunity may account for a significant proportion of Jamaican CNS IDDs.

  1. Engineering Biomaterial Properties for Central Nervous System Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivet, Christopher John

    Biomaterials offer unique properties that are intrinsic to the chemistry of the material itself or occur as a result of the fabrication process; iron oxide nanoparticles are superparamagnetic, which enables controlled heating in the presence of an alternating magnetic field, and a hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material provides minimally invasive placement of a fibrous, artificial extracellular matrix for tissue regeneration. Utilization of these unique properties towards central nervous system disease and dysfunction requires a thorough definition of the properties in concert with full biological assessment. This enables development of material-specific features to elicit unique cellular responses. Iron oxide nanoparticles are first investigated for material-dependent, cortical neuron cytotoxicity in vitro and subsequently evaluated for alternating magnetic field stimulation induced hyperthermia, emulating the clinical application for enhanced chemotherapy efficacy in glioblastoma treatment. A hydrogel and electrospun fiber hybrid material is first applied to a rat brain to evaluate biomaterial interface astrocyte accumulation as a function of hybrid material composition. The hybrid material is then utilized towards increasing functional engraftment of dopaminergic progenitor neural stem cells in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease. Taken together, these two scenarios display the role of material property characterization in development of biomaterial strategies for central nervous system repair and regeneration.

  2. Are astrocytes executive cells within the central nervous system?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sica, Roberto E; Caccuri, Roberto; Quarracino, Cecilia; Capani, Francisco

    2016-08-01

    Experimental evidence suggests that astrocytes play a crucial role in the physiology of the central nervous system (CNS) by modulating synaptic activity and plasticity. Based on what is currently known we postulate that astrocytes are fundamental, along with neurons, for the information processing that takes place within the CNS. On the other hand, experimental findings and human observations signal that some of the primary degenerative diseases of the CNS, like frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's dementia, Huntington's dementia, primary cerebellar ataxias and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, all of which affect the human species exclusively, may be due to astroglial dysfunction. This hypothesis is supported by observations that demonstrated that the killing of neurons by non-neural cells plays a major role in the pathogenesis of those diseases, at both their onset and their progression. Furthermore, recent findings suggest that astrocytes might be involved in the pathogenesis of some psychiatric disorders as well. PMID:27556379

  3. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Joao E.; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the ...

  4. Axon Regeneration in the Peripheral and Central Nervous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Huebner, Eric A.; Strittmatter, Stephen M

    2009-01-01

    Axon regeneration in the mature mammalian central nervous system (CNS) is extremely limited after injury. Consequently, functional deficits persist after spinal cord injury (SCI), traumatic brain injury, stroke, and related conditions that involve axonal disconnection. This situation differs from that in the mammalian peripheral nervous system (PNS), where long- distance axon regeneration and substantial functional recovery can occur in the adult. Both extracellular molecules and the intrinsi...

  5. Clinical, electrophysiological, and biochemical markers of peripheral and central nervous system disease in canine globoid cell leukodystrophy (Krabbe's disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Allison M; Bagel, Jessica H; Jiang, Xuntian; Swain, Gary P; Prociuk, Maria L; Fitzgerald, Caitlin A; O'Donnell, Patricia A; Braund, Kyle G; Ory, Daniel S; Vite, Charles H

    2016-11-01

    Globoid cell leukodystrophy (GLD), or Krabbe's disease, is a debilitating and always fatal pediatric neurodegenerative disease caused by a mutation in the gene encoding the hydrolytic enzyme galactosylceramidase (GALC). In the absence of GALC, progressive loss of myelin and accumulation of a neurotoxic substrate lead to incapacitating loss of motor and cognitive function and death, typically by 2 years of age. Currently, there is no cure. Recent convincing evidence of the therapeutic potential of combining gene and cell therapies in the murine model of GLD has accelerated the requirement for validated markers of disease to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Here we demonstrate clinically relevant and quantifiable measures of central (CNS) and peripheral (PNS) nervous system disease progression in the naturally occurring canine model of GLD. As measured by brainstem auditory-evoked response testing, GLD dogs demonstrated a significant increase in I-V interpeak latency and hearing threshold at all time points. Motor nerve conduction velocities (NCVs) in GLD dogs were significantly lower than normal by 12-16 weeks of age, and sensory NCV was significantly lower than normal by 8-12 weeks of age, serving as a sensitive indicator of peripheral nerve dysfunction. Post-mortem histological evaluations confirmed neuroimaging and electrodiagnostic assessments and detailed loss of myelin and accumulation of storage product in the CNS and the PNS. Additionally, cerebrospinal fluid psychosine concentrations were significantly elevated in GLD dogs, demonstrating potential as a biochemical marker of disease. These data demonstrate that CNS and PNS disease progression can be quantified over time in the canine model of GLD with tools identical to those used to assess human patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27638585

  6. Association Between the Single Nucleotide Polymorphism and the Level of Aquaporin-4 Protein Expression in Han and Minority Chinese with Inflammatory Demyelinating Diseases of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Lan; Dai, Qingqing; Xu, Zhu; He, Dian; Wang, Hao; Wang, Qingsong; Zhang, Yifan; Zhu, Yingwu; Li, Yuan; Cai, Gang; Slavica, Krantic; Allan, Kermode

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether or not aquaporin-4 (AQP4) gene mutations are related to the pathogenesis of inflammatory demyelinating diseases in the central nervous system. Polymorphisms of AQP4 exons 1-5 were determined by sequencing DNA from 67 patients with central nervous system inflammatory demyelinating diseases, including neuromyelitis optica (NMO), multiple sclerosis, recurrent or simultaneous bilateral optic neuritis, and longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis. A plasmid with the identified new missense mutation was constructed, and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK293A) were transfected with either the pEGFP-N1-AQP4-M23 vector (bearing the identified mutated cDNA sequence) or with the plasmid bearing the wild-type AQP4 gene sequence. AQP4 protein expression was analyzed in both experimental groups using Western Blot analysis following protein extraction from transfected cells. A synonymous mutation (rs1839318) was detected on exon 3, and an additional synonymous mutation was detected on the exon 2-2 (rs72557968). Most importantly, a new missense mutation was detected on exon 2-1. According to Western blot analysis, the mutated cDNA sequence yielded increased AQP4 protein expression in comparison with the wild-type cDNA sequence (P < 0.05). AQP4 gene mutations are uncommon, occurring in only 3 out of 67 patients. Although it is possible that the mutations contributed to an increased risk of inflammatory central nervous system disease in these individuals, it is unlikely that mutations are a significant contributor to most patients with NMO spectrum disorders in China. PMID:25895050

  7. Electrical stimuli in the central nervous system microenvironment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Deanna M; Koppes, Abigail N; Hardy, John G; Schmidt, Christine E

    2014-07-11

    Electrical stimulation to manipulate the central nervous system (CNS) has been applied as early as the 1750s to produce visual sensations of light. Deep brain stimulation (DBS), cochlear implants, visual prosthetics, and functional electrical stimulation (FES) are being applied in the clinic to treat a wide array of neurological diseases, disorders, and injuries. This review describes the history of electrical stimulation of the CNS microenvironment; recent advances in electrical stimulation of the CNS, including DBS to treat essential tremor, Parkinson's disease, and depression; FES for the treatment of spinal cord injuries; and alternative electrical devices to restore vision and hearing via neuroprosthetics (retinal and cochlear implants). It also discusses the role of electrical cues during development and following injury and, importantly, manipulation of these endogenous cues to support regeneration of neural tissue. PMID:25014787

  8. Tuberculous Panophthalmitis with Lymphadenitis and Central Nervous System Tuberculoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirawat Srichatrapimuk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is a serious infectious disease that spreads globally. The ocular manifestations of TB are uncommon and diverse. TB panophthalmitis has been rarely reported. Here, we described a 38-year-old Thai man presenting with panophthalmitis of the right eye. Further investigation showed that he had concurrent TB lymphadenitis and central nervous system (CNS tuberculoma, as well as HIV infection, with a CD4 cell count of 153 cells/mm3. Despite the initial response to antituberculous agents, the disease had subsequently progressed and enucleation was required. The pathological examination revealed acute suppurative granulomatous panophthalmitis with retinal detachment. Further staining demonstrated acid-fast bacilli in the tissue. Colonies of Mycobacterium tuberculosis were obtained from tissue culture. He was treated with antiretroviral agents for HIV infection and 12 months of antituberculous agents. Clinicians should be aware of the possibility of TB in the differential diagnosis of endophthalmitis and panophthalmitis, especially in regions where TB is endemic.

  9. Therapeutic approaches of magnetic nanoparticles for the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Sahoo, Sanjeeb Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) represent one of the fastest growing areas of concern requiring urgent medical attention. Treatment of CNS ailments is hindered owing to different physiological barriers including the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which limits the accessibility of potential drugs. With the assistance of a nanotechnology-based drug delivery strategy, the problems could be overcome. Recently, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) have proven immensely useful as drug carriers for site-specific delivery and as contrast agents owing to their magnetic susceptibility and biocompatibility. By utilizing MNPs, diagnosis and treatment of CNS diseases have progressed by overcoming the hurdles of the BBB. In this review, the therapeutic aspect and the future prospects related to the theranostic approach of MNPs are discussed.

  10. Focal lesions in the central nervous system: stereotaxic radioneurosurgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of heavy-ion beams for fundamental and applied brain research has unusual potential. Methods are being developed in our laboratory for producing focal lesions in the central nervous system (e.g., the hypothalamus, thalamus, pituitary gland) to investigate nerve pathways and neuroendocrine responses, and for treating certain pathological disorders of the brain with stereotaxic Bragg peak heavy-ion radiosurgery. Studies in animals are demonstrating the value of this neuroscience tool for investigating mammalian brain response to induction of discrete focal lesions in the hypothalamus or in the cerebral cortex. These studies are also elucidating the neuroendocrinological response follwing ablation of various portions of the midbrain, without requiring complex neurosurgical preparations. Clinical studies are demonstrating the feasibility of stereotaxic neurological radiosurgery for treating certain inoperable vascular disorders of the brain [e.g., arteriovenous malformations (AVM), internal carotid artery-cavernous sinus fistulas and other cerebrovascular disorders] in patients who are already demonstrating progressive neurological deficit. Further applications of focal lesion production with the Bragg ionization peak can be extended to include localized radiation to centers of the brain and spinal cord for treatment of such disorders as Parkinson's disease, pituitary microadenomas, acoustic neuromas, and the control of pain. The eventual application of radioactive beams will provide accurate localization of the stopping points of the beam, thereby making it feasible to stop the beam accurately at a defined depth within the central nervous system

  11. Systemic juvenile xanthogranuloma with multiple central nervous system lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Meshkini

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Juvenile xanthogranulomatosis (JXG is an uncommon histiocytic disorder that is usually benign and limited to the skin. The systemic form of JXG is rare and may be associated with severe morbidity and mortality especially in central nervous system (CNS involvement. Here, we describe a six-year-old boy with disseminated skin lesions and neurological signs and symptoms. Diagnostic work up revealed multiple brain lesions. A skin biopsy and a stereotactic brain biopsy considered suggestive of systemic JXG. Treatment with prednisolone, vinblastine and methotrexate was successful with regression of skin and CNS lesions. The patient has been in remission for almost three years.

  12. Multifaceted interactions between adaptive immunity and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipnis, Jonathan

    2016-08-19

    Neuroimmunologists seek to understand the interactions between the central nervous system (CNS) and the immune system, both under homeostatic conditions and in diseases. Unanswered questions include those relating to the diversity and specificity of the meningeal T cell repertoire; the routes taken by immune cells that patrol the meninges under healthy conditions and invade the parenchyma during pathology; the opposing effects (beneficial or detrimental) of these cells on CNS function; the role of immune cells after CNS injury; and the evolutionary link between the two systems, resulting in their tight interaction and interdependence. This Review summarizes the current standing of and challenging questions related to interactions between adaptive immunity and the CNS and considers the possible directions in which these aspects of neuroimmunology will be heading over the next decade. PMID:27540163

  13. Detection of borna disease virus p24 RNA from human brain tissue in patients with central nervous system tumors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao; XIE Peng; XU Ping; PENG Dan; ZHU Dan; ZENG Zhi-lei

    2008-01-01

    Objective:It intended to examine whether there is BDV infection in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China and investigate the correlation between BDV infection and tumom of central nervous system.Methods:Nested reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction(nRT-PCR)and fluorescence quantitative polymerase chain reaction(FQ-PCR)was used to detect the BDV p24 fragments in 60 samples of human tumor tissues of central nervous system and 14 normal brain tissues.Results:The study indicated the positive rate of the BDV p24 fragment in human tumor tissues of the central nervous system (6.67%)was higher than that in normal brain tissues(0),but no statistical significance(P>0.05).Concluswn:It suggests that the BDV infection is present in the human tumor tissues of central nervous system in China.while the sample size wa.sn't large enough and we could not certify the possible correlation between BDV infection and cenfral nervous system tumors.

  14. The role of zinc in the pathogenesis and treatment of central nervous system (CNS) diseases. Implications of zinc homeostasis for proper CNS function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyszka-Czochara, Małgorzata; Grzywacz, Agata; Gdula-Argasińska, Joanna; Librowski, Tadeusz; Wiliński, Bogdan; Opoka, Włodzimierz

    2014-01-01

    Zinc, the essential trace element, is known to play multiple biological functions in human organism. This metal is a component of many structural as well as regulatory and catalytic proteins. The precise regulation of zinc homeostasis is essential for central nervous system and for the whole organism. Zinc plays a significant role in the brain development and in the proper brain function at every stage of life. This article is a review of knowledge about the role of zinc in central nervous system (CNS) function. The influence of this biometal on etiopathogenesis, prevention and treatment of selected brain diseases and disorders was discussed. Zinc imbalance can result not only from insufficient dietary intake, but also from impaired activity of zinc transport proteins and zinc dependent regulation of metabolic pathways. It is known that some neurodegenerative processes are connected with zinc dyshomeostasis and it may influence the state of Alzheimer's disease, depression and ageing-connected loss of cognitive function. The exact role of zinc and zinc-binding proteins in CNS pathogenesis processes is being under intensive investigation. The appropriate zinc supplementation in brain diseases may help in the prevention as well as in the proper treatment of several brain dysfunctions.

  15. Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Cecilia Rajda; Zsófia Majláth; Dániel Pukoli; László Vécsei

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has additionally been implicated as having a regulatory function in the immune system. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway have been described in ...

  16. Signaling mechanisms regulating myelination in the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jared T.Ahrendsen; Wendy Macklin

    2013-01-01

    The precise and coordinated production of myelin is essential for proper development and function of the nervous system.Diseases that disrupt myelin,including multiple sclerosis,cause significant functional disability.Current treatment aims to reduce the inflammatory component of the disease,thereby preventing damage resulting from demyelination.However,therapies are not yet available to improve natural repair processes after damage has already occurred.A thorough understanding of the signaling mechanisms that regulate myelin generation will improve our ability to enhance repair.In this review,we summarize the positive and negative regulators of myelination,focusing primarily on central nervous system myelination.Axon-derived signals,extracellular signals from both diffusible factors and the extracellular matrix,and intracellular signaling pathways within myelinating oligodendrocytes are discussed.Much is known about the positive regulators that drive myelination,while less is known about the negative regulators that shift active myelination to myelin maintenance at the appropriate time.Therefore,we also provide new data on potential negative regulators of CNS myelination.

  17. Diagnosis of Fetal Central Nervous System Anomalies by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Tuncay Ozgunen

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available During the last 30 years, one of the most important instruments in diagnosis is ultrasonograph. It has an indispensible place in obstetrics. Its it possible to evaluate normal fetal anatomy, to follow-up fetal growth and to diagnose fetal congenital anomalies by ultrasonography. Central nervous system anomalies is the one of the most commonly seen and the best time for screening is between 18- and 22-week of pregnancy. In this paper, it is presented the sonographic features of some outstanding Central Nervous System anomalies. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(2.000: 77-89

  18. Radiation therapy for primary central nervous system lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Shibamoto

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Up until the late 1970s, radiation therapy played an important role in the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL but more recently its role has changed due to the increased use of systemic chemotherapy. In this article, the current status of radiotherapy for PCNSL and optimal forms of radiotherapy, including the treatment volume and radiation dose, are discussed. Data from nationwide Japanese surveys of PCNSL patients treated with radiation therapy suggest that the prognosis of PCNSL patients improved during the 1990s, in part due to the use of high-dose methotrexate-containing chemotherapy. The prognosis of patients treated with radiation alone also improved. Radiotherapy still seems to play an important role in the attempt to cure this disease.

  19. 21 CFR 882.5550 - Central nervous system fluid shunt and components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Central nervous system fluid shunt and components... Central nervous system fluid shunt and components. (a) Identification. A central nervous system fluid... central nervous system to an internal delivery site or an external receptacle for the purpose of......

  20. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  1. Central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aagaard, Lise

    2014-01-01

    The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This revie......, methylxanthines (caffeine and theophylline), drugs that suppress appetite (phentermine, rimonabant, and sibutramine) and drugs used in Alzheimer's disease (donepezil and rivastigmine).......The Side Effects of Drugs Annuals form a series of volumes in which the adverse effects of drugs and adverse reactions to them are surveyed. The series supplements the contents of Meyler's Side Effects of Drugs: the International Encyclopedia of Adverse Drug Reactions and Interactions. This review...... of the January 2012 to June 2013 publications on central nervous system stimulants and drugs that suppress appetite covers amphetamines (including metamfetamine, paramethoxyamfetamine and paramethoxymetamfetamine), fenfluramine and benfluorex, atomoxetine, methylphenidate, modafinil and armodafinil...

  2. Cell fate control in the developing central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guérout, Nicolas; Li, Xiaofei; Barnabé-Heider, Fanie, E-mail: Fanie.Barnabe-Heider@ki.se

    2014-02-01

    The principal neural cell types forming the mature central nervous system (CNS) are now understood to be diverse. This cellular subtype diversity originates to a large extent from the specification of the earlier proliferating progenitor populations during development. Here, we review the processes governing the differentiation of a common neuroepithelial cell progenitor pool into mature neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, ependymal cells and adult stem cells. We focus on studies performed in mice and involving two distinct CNS structures: the spinal cord and the cerebral cortex. Understanding the origin, specification and developmental regulators of neural cells will ultimately impact comprehension and treatments of neurological disorders and diseases. - Highlights: • Similar mechanisms regulate cell fate in different CNS cell types and structures. • Cell fate regulators operate in a spatial–temporal manner. • Different neural cell types rely on the generation of a diversity of progenitor cells. • Cell fate decision is dictated by the integration of intrinsic and extrinsic signals.

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging in central nervous system tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuberculosis (TB) in any form is a devastating disease, which in its most severe form involves the central nervous system (CNS), with a high mortality and morbidity. Early diagnosis of CNS TB is necessary for appropriate treatment to reduce this morbidity and mortality. Routine diagnostic techniques involve culture and immunological tests of the tissue and biofluids, which are time-consuming and may delay definitive management. Noninvasive imaging modalities such as computed tomography (CT) scan and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are routinely used in the diagnosis of neurotuberculosis, with MRI offering greater inherent sensitivity and specificity than CT scan. In addition to conventional MRI imaging, magnetization transfer imaging, diffusion imaging, and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy techniques are also being evaluated for better tissue characterization in CNS TB. The current article reviews the role of various MRI techniques in the diagnosis and management of CNS TB

  4. Primary angiitis of the central nervous system: a case report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Xiao-lin; LIU Ai-fen; MA Lin; YAN Chuan-zhu; ZHAO Yu-ying; SHAN Pei-yan

    2011-01-01

    Primary angiitis of the central nervous system is a rare and difficult entity.Here we represented the clinical and pathological features of a patient with little response to steroid before definite diagnosis.The 50-year-old male had a fluctuating disease course for more than 3 years.He presented visual disorders,seizure,cognitive impairment,hypersomnia,unsteady gait,dysphasia,dysphagia,and incontinence.Magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple,supratentorial and infratentorial abnormal signals,while cerebrospinal fluid and cerebral angiography were normal.Magnetic resonance spectrum showed a decrease of N-acetyl-aspartate.Brain biopsy revealed nongranulomatous lymphatic vasculitis with reactive gliosis,cicatrization,demyelination and focal hemorrhages.

  5. Fungal central nervous system infections: prevalence and diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourbeti, Irene S; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2014-02-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare but they pose a significant challenge. Their prevalence spans a wide array of hosts including immunosuppressed and immunocompetent individuals, patients undergoing neurosurgical procedures and those carrying implantable CNS devices. Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus spp. remain the most common pathogens. Magnetic resonance imaging can help localize the lesions, but diagnosis is challenging since invasive procedures may be needed for the retrieval of tissue, especially in cases of fungal abscesses. Antigen and antibody tests are available and approved for use in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). PCR-based techniques are promising but they are not validated for use in the CSF. This review provides an overview on the differential diagnosis of the fungal CNS disease based on the host and the clinical syndrome and suggests the optimal use of diagnostic techniques. It also summarizes the emergence of Cryptococcus gatti and an unanticipated outbreak caused by Exserohilum rostratum.

  6. Glycosaminoglycans and Glycomimetics in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dáire Rowlands

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available With recent advances in the construction of synthetic glycans, selective targeting of the extracellular matrix (ECM as a potential treatment for a wide range of diseases has become increasingly popular. The use of compounds that mimic the structure or bioactive function of carbohydrate structures has been termed glycomimetics. These compounds are mostly synthetic glycans or glycan-binding constructs which manipulate cellular interactions. Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs are major components of the ECM and exist as a diverse array of differentially sulphated disaccharide units. In the central nervous system (CNS, they are expressed by both neurons and glia and are crucial for brain development and brain homeostasis. The inherent diversity of GAGs make them an essential biological tool for regulating a complex range of cellular processes such as plasticity, cell interactions and inflammation. They are also involved in the pathologies of various neurological disorders, such as glial scar formation and psychiatric illnesses. It is this diversity of functions and potential for selective interventions which makes GAGs a tempting target. In this review, we shall describe the molecular make-up of GAGs and their incorporation into the ECM of the CNS. We shall highlight the different glycomimetic strategies that are currently being used in the nervous system. Finally, we shall discuss some possible targets in neurological disorders that may be addressed using glycomimetics.

  7. Stroke in central nervous system infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carod-Artal Francisco

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stroke subtypes and etiology may differ between developing and developed countries. Infections are a relatively common cause of stroke in tropical regions. Objective: To review the main infectious diseases associated with stroke. Discussion: Prevalence of stroke in HIV patients is around 1%. Pathogenic mechanisms include HIV vasculopathy, vasculitis, cardioembolism, acquired hypercoagulability, and the effect of opportunistic infections. Treatment with protease inhibitors has been associated with premature atherosclerotic vascular disease. Emerging viral infections that are associated with stroke include viral hemorrhagic fevers, Japanese encephalitis, dengue, and West Nile virus. Vasculitis involving perforating vessels of the brain is a cerebrovascular complication of tuberculous meningitis. Small, medium, and large arteries of the anterior circulation can be involved. A progressive intracranial arteriopathy after Leptospira interrogans infection has been described, which involves the large intracranial arteries. Cerebrovascular complications of mycosis are associated with large vessel vasculitis, direct vessel damage by invasion or embolization, and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to mycotic aneurysm rupture. Pathological findings of cerebral malaria include diffuse cerebral edema, perivascular ring hemorrhages, white matter necrosis, parenchyma petechial hemorrhages, occlusion of brain vessels, and sequestration of infected erythrocytes in cortical and perforating arteries. Stroke can occur in subarachnoid neurocysticercosis and the lesions in such cases consist mostly of deep lacunar infarctions resulting from endarteritis of small penetrating arteries. Cardiac arrhythmias, congestive heart failure, apical aneurysm, and mural thrombus are the conditions that predispose patients with American trypanosomiasis to cardioembolism. Gnathostoma spinigerum infestation is a cause of hemorrhagic stroke in Asia. Conclusion: Infectious and

  8. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system : overview of neuroradiological findings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernaerts, A; Vanhoenacker, FM; Parizel, PM; van Altena, R; Laridon, A; De Roeck, J; Coeman, [No Value; De Schepper, AM; Goethem, J.W.M.

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In

  9. Neuronal chemokines : Versatile messengers in central nervous system cell interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; de Jong, E. K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K. P. H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemoki

  10. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  11. The Role of Central Nervous System Plasticity in Tinnitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, James C.

    2007-01-01

    Tinnitus is a vexing disorder of hearing characterized by sound sensations originating in the head without any external stimulation. The specific etiology of these sensations is uncertain but frequently associated with hearing loss. The "neurophysiogical" model of tinnitus has enhanced appreciation of central nervous system (CNS) contributions.…

  12. Clinical features of multiple myeloma invasion of the central nervous system in Chinese patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QU Xiao-yan; FU Wei-jun; XI Hao; ZHOU Fan; WEI Wei; HOU Jian

    2010-01-01

    Background Although neurologic manifestations often complicate the course of patients with multiple myeloma, direct central nervous system invasion is rare. This study explored the neurologic symptoms, signs, clinical features, therapy and prognosis of Chinese patients with central nervous system myeloma invasion.Methods The diagnosis, therapy and prognosis were analyzed retrospectively in 11 Chinese multiple myeloma patients with central nervous system infiltration from a total of 625 patients who have been treated at Changzheng Hospital (Shanghai, China) between January 1993 and May 2009. Survival curve was constructed with the use of Kaplan-Meier estimates.Results There were 11 patients with central nervous system involvement from 625 multiple myeloma patients. The occurrence rate was 1.8%. Ten of the 11 patients had other extramedullary diseases. Symptoms included cerebral symptoms, cranial nerve palsies, and spinal cord or spinal nerve roots symptoms.Cerebrospinal fluid was abnormal in 7 patients, usually exhibiting pleocytosis and elevated protein content, plus positive cytologic findings. Specific magnetic resonance imaging findings suggestive of central nervous system invasion were found in 9 patients. After a median follow-up of 19 months, 3 patients were alive. The median overall survival for all patients was 23 months, while the median overall survival for patients after central nervous system invasion was merely 6 months.Conclusions It is exceedingly rare for there to be central nervous system infiltration in multiple myeloma patients. When it occurs, the prognosis is extremely poor despite the use of aggressive local and systemic treatment including stem cell transplantation.

  13. Computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier permeability: A comparative analysis of central nervous system drugs versus secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishton, Gilbert M; LaBonte, Kristen; Williams, Antony J; Kassam, Karim; Kolovanov, Eduard

    2006-05-01

    This review summarizes progress made in the development of fully computational approaches to the prediction of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of small molecules, with a focus on rapid computational methods suitable for the analysis of large compound sets and virtual screening. A comparative analysis using the recently developed Advanced Chemistry Development (ACD/Labs) Inc BBB permeability algorithm for the calculation of logBB values for known Alzheimer's disease medicines, selected central nervous system drugs and new secretase inhibitors for Alzheimer's disease, is presented. The trends in logBB values and the associated physiochemical properties of these agents as they relate to the potential for BBB permeability are also discussed. PMID:16729726

  14. Microparticles: A New Perspective in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie M. Schindler

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles (MPs are a heterogeneous population of small cell-derived vesicles, ranging in size from 0.1 to 1 μm. They contain a variety of bioactive molecules, including proteins, biolipids, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred between cells without direct cell-to-cell contact. Consequently, MPs represent a novel form of intercellular communication, which could play a role in both physiological and pathological processes. Growing evidence indicates that circulating MPs contribute to the development of cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune and cardiovascular diseases. Most cell types of the central nervous system (CNS have also been shown to release MPs, which could be important for neurodevelopment, CNS maintenance, and pathologies. In disease, levels of certain MPs appear elevated; therefore, they may serve as biomarkers allowing for the development of new diagnostic tools for detecting the early stages of CNS pathologies. Quantification and characterization of MPs could also provide useful information for making decisions on treatment options and for monitoring success of therapies, particularly for such difficult-to-treat diseases as cerebral malaria, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer’s disease. Overall, studies on MPs in the CNS represent a novel area of research, which promises to expand the knowledge on the mechanisms governing some of the physiological and pathophysiological processes of the CNS.

  15. Cholesterol: Its Regulation and Role in Central Nervous System Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Orth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cholesterol is a major constituent of the human brain, and the brain is the most cholesterol-rich organ. Numerous lipoprotein receptors and apolipoproteins are expressed in the brain. Cholesterol is tightly regulated between the major brain cells and is essential for normal brain development. The metabolism of brain cholesterol differs markedly from that of other tissues. Brain cholesterol is primarily derived by de novo synthesis and the blood brain barrier prevents the uptake of lipoprotein cholesterol from the circulation. Defects in cholesterol metabolism lead to structural and functional central nervous system diseases such as Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome, Niemann-Pick type C disease, and Alzheimer’s disease. These diseases affect different metabolic pathways (cholesterol biosynthesis, lipid transport and lipoprotein assembly, apolipoproteins, lipoprotein receptors, and signaling molecules. We review the metabolic pathways of cholesterol in the CNS and its cell-specific and microdomain-specific interaction with other pathways such as the amyloid precursor protein and discuss potential treatment strategies as well as the effects of the widespread use of LDL cholesterol-lowering drugs on brain functions.

  16. Cytokines and Myelination in the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schmitz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Myelin abnormalities that reflect damage to developing and mature brains are often found in neurological diseases with evidence of inflammatory infiltration and microglial activation. Many cytokines are virtually undetectable in the uninflamed central nervous system (CNS, so that their rapid induction and sustained elevation in immune and glial cells contributes to dysregulation of the inflammatory response and neural cell homeostasis. This results in aberrant neural cell development, cytotoxicity, and loss of the primary myelin-producing cells of the CNS, the oligodendrocytes. This article provides an overview of cytokine and chemokine activity in the CNS with relevance to clinical conditions of neonatal and adult demyelinating disease, brain trauma, and mental disorders with observed white matter defects. Experimental models that mimic human disease have been developed in order to study pathogenic and therapeutic mechanisms, but have shown mixed success in clinical application. However, genetically altered animals, and models of CNS inflammation and demyelination, have offered great insight into the complexities of neuroimmune interactions that impact oligodendrocyte function. The intracellular signaling pathways of selected cytokines have also been highlighted to illustrate current knowledge of receptor-mediated events. By learning to interpret the actions of cytokines and by improving methods to target appropriate predictors of disease risk selectively, a more comprehensive understanding of altered immunoregulation will aid in the development of advanced treatment options for patients with inflammatory white matter disorders.

  17. Intranasal treatment of central nervous system dysfunction in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Colin D; Frey, William H; Craft, Suzanne; Danielyan, Lusine; Hallschmid, Manfred; Schiöth, Helgi B; Benedict, Christian

    2013-10-01

    One of the most challenging problems facing modern medicine is how to deliver a given drug to a specific target at the exclusion of other regions. For example, a variety of compounds have beneficial effects within the central nervous system (CNS), but unwanted side effects in the periphery. For such compounds, traditional oral or intravenous drug delivery fails to provide benefit without cost. However, intranasal delivery is emerging as a noninvasive option for delivering drugs to the CNS with minimal peripheral exposure. Additionally, this method facilitates the delivery of large and/or charged therapeutics, which fail to effectively cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, for a variety of growth factors, hormones, neuropeptides and therapeutics including insulin, oxytocin, orexin, and even stem cells, intranasal delivery is emerging as an efficient method of administration, and represents a promising therapeutic strategy for the treatment of diseases with CNS involvement, such as obesity, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, depression, anxiety, autism spectrum disorders, seizures, drug addiction, eating disorders, and stroke. PMID:23135822

  18. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H

    2014-05-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut microbiome has played a crucial role in the bidirectional gut-brain axis that integrates the gut and central nervous system (CNS) activities, and thus the concept of microbiome-gut-brain axis is emerging. Studies are revealing how diverse forms of neuro-immune and neuro-psychiatric disorders are correlated with or modulated by variations of microbiome, microbiota-derived products and exogenous antibiotics and probiotics. The microbiome poises the peripheral immune homeostasis and predisposes host susceptibility to CNS autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Neural, endocrine and metabolic mechanisms are also critical mediators of the microbiome-CNS signaling, which are more involved in neuro-psychiatric disorders such as autism, depression, anxiety, stress. Research on the role of microbiome in CNS disorders deepens our academic knowledge about host-microbiome commensalism in central regulation and in practicality, holds conceivable promise for developing novel prognostic and therapeutic avenues for CNS disorders.

  19. [Malignant lymphoma in the central nervous system: overview].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namekawa, Michito

    2014-08-01

    Malignant lymphoma can affect the central nervous system (CNS) in three different ways: as a consequence (relapse or invasion) of systemic lymphoma, as a primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) without systemic involvement, and through intravascular lymphomatosis (IVL). It is essential to distinguish PCNSL from the others, since the therapeutic strategy for treating this disease differs. FDG-PET/CT fusion imagery is a powerful tool for detecting systemic lesions. If a marked elevation of lactate dehydrogenase and the soluble IL-2 receptor suggests IVL, a random skin biopsy can permit a differential diagnosis. It is not certain why PCNSL occurs solely in the CNS, where there is no lymphatic system. The special environment, so-called "sanctuary site", where is free from attack of the immune system and penetration of chemotherapeutic agents by blood-brain barrier is deeply related to malignant transformation. The prognoses for patients with CNS invasion of systemic lymphoma and those with PCNSL remain bleak in the post-rituximab era. Over half of the patients who received high-dose methotrexate will subsequently relapse. Therefore, novel therapeutic strategies are earnestly sought. PMID:25082313

  20. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso; Ana Claudia Lyon; Stanley de Almeida Araújo; Juliana Márcia Ribeiro Veloso; Enio Roberto Pietra Pedroso; Antônio Lucio Teixeira

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC) and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseas...

  1. Systemic Central Nervous System (CNS)-targeted Delivery of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) Reduces Neurodegeneration and Increases Neural Precursor Cell Proliferation in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Brian; Potkar, Rewati; Metcalf, Jeff; Thrin, Ivy; Adame, Anthony; Rockenstein, Edward; Masliah, Eliezer

    2016-01-22

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is one of the most abundant protein transmitters in the central nervous system with roles in a variety of biological functions including: food intake, cardiovascular regulation, cognition, seizure activity, circadian rhythms, and neurogenesis. Reduced NPY and NPY receptor expression is associated with numerous neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer disease (AD). To determine whether replacement of NPY could ameliorate some of the neurodegenerative and behavioral pathology associated with AD, we generated a lentiviral vector expressing NPY fused to a brain transport peptide (apoB) for widespread CNS delivery in an APP-transgenic (tg) mouse model of AD. The recombinant NPY-apoB effectively reversed neurodegenerative pathology and behavioral deficits although it had no effect on accumulation of Aβ. The subgranular zone of the hippocampus showed a significant increase in proliferation of neural precursor cells without further differentiation into neurons. The neuroprotective and neurogenic effects of NPY-apoB appeared to involve signaling via ERK and Akt through the NPY R1 and NPY R2 receptors. Thus, widespread CNS-targeted delivery of NPY appears to be effective at reversing the neuronal and glial pathology associated with Aβ accumulation while also increasing NPC proliferation. Overall, increased delivery of NPY to the CNS for AD might be an effective therapy especially if combined with an anti-Aβ therapeutic.

  2. Exploring the potential benefits of vaccinia virus complement control protein in controlling complement activation in pathogenesis of the central nervous system diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotwal, Girish J; Fernando, Nilisha; Zhou, Jianhua; Valter, Krisztina

    2014-10-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for the development of diseases related to the central nervous system (CNS), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD). In both cases, linkage studies and genome-wide association studies found strong links with complement regulatory genes and disease risk. In AD, both CLU and CR1 genes were implicated in the late-onset form of the disease. In AMD, polymorphisms in CFH, CFB and C2 were similarly implicated. The cost of caring for patients with AD or AMD is approaching billions of dollars, and with the baby boomers reaching their 60's, this amount is likely to increase further. Intervention using complement inhibitors for individuals in their early 50s who are at a higher risk of disease development, (testing positive for genetic risk factors), could slow the progression of AD or AMD and possibly prevent the severity of late stage symptoms. Although we have used the vaccinia virus complement control protein (VCP) to elucidate the role of complement in CNS diseases, it has merely been an investigational tool but not the only possible potential therapeutic agent.

  3. A rare case of mixed connective tissue disease presenting with central nervous system glioma, vasculitis and polymyositis

    OpenAIRE

    Rushabh Parikh; Pushkar Ingale; Dhaval Dave; Manish Pendse; Smita Patil; Archana Bhate

    2015-01-01

    Mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) was first recognized by Sharp and Colleagues in 1972 among a group of patients with overlapping clinical features of systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), scleroderma and myositis, with the presence of distinctive antibodies against, what now is known to be U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP). We report an unusual case of a 23-year old female with MCTD characterized by the coexistence of signs, symptoms and immunological features of 3 defined autoimmune diseases SL...

  4. Modulatory Effects of Gut Microbiota on the Central Nervous System: How Gut Could Play a Role in Neuropsychiatric Health and Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarandi, Shadi S; Peterson, Daniel A; Treisman, Glen J; Moran, Timothy H; Pasricha, Pankaj J

    2016-04-30

    Gut microbiome is an integral part of the Gut-Brain axis. It is becoming increasingly recognized that the presence of a healthy and diverse gut microbiota is important to normal cognitive and emotional processing. It was known that altered emotional state and chronic stress can change the composition of gut microbiome, but it is becoming more evident that interaction between gut microbiome and central nervous system is bidirectional. Alteration in the composition of the gut microbiome can potentially lead to increased intestinal permeability and impair the function of the intestinal barrier. Subsequently, neuro-active compounds and metabolites can gain access to the areas within the central nervous system that regulate cognition and emotional responses. Deregulated inflammatory response, promoted by harmful microbiota, can activate the vagal system and impact neuropsychological functions. Some bacteria can produce peptides or short chain fatty acids that can affect gene expression and inflammation within the central nervous system. In this review, we summarize the evidence supporting the role of gut microbiota in modulating neuropsychological functions of the central nervous system and exploring the potential underlying mechanisms.

  5. The renin-angiotensin system and the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganong, W F

    1977-04-01

    One of several factors affecting the secretion of renin by the kidneys is the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic input is excitatory and is mediated by beta-adrenergic receptors, which are probably located on the membranes of the juxtaglomerular cells. Stimulation of sympathetic areas in the medulla, midbrain and hypothalamus raises blood pressure and increases renin secretion, whereas stimulation of other parts of the hypothalamus decreases blood pressure and renin output. The centrally active alpha-adrenergic agonist clonidine decreases renin secretion, lowers blood pressure, inhibits ACTH and vasopressin secretion, and increases growth hormone secretion in dogs. The effects on ACTH and growth hormone are abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine into the third ventricle, whereas the effect on blood pressure is abolished by administration of phenoxybenzamine in the fourth ventricle without any effect on the ACTH and growth hormone responses. Fourth ventricular phenoxybenzamine decreases but does not abolish the inhibitory effect of clonidine on renin secretion. Circulating angiotensin II acts on the brain via the area postrema to raise blood pressure and via the subfornical organ to increase water intake. Its effect on vasopressin secretion is debated. The brain contains a renin-like enzyme, converting enzyme, renin substrate, and angiotensin. There is debate about the nature and physiological significance of the angiotensin II-generating enzyme in the brain, and about the nature of the angiotensin I and angiotensin II that have been reported to be present in the central nervous system. However, injection of angiotensin II into the cerebral ventricles produces drinking, increased secretion of vasopressin and ACTH, and increased blood pressure. The same responses are produced by intraventricular renin. Angiotensin II also facilitates sympathetic discharge in the periphery, and the possibility that it exerts a similar action on the adrenergic neurons

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging characteristics in four dogs with central nervous system neosporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parzefall, Birgit; Driver, Colin J; Benigni, Livia; Davies, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Neosporosis is a polysystemic disease that can affect dogs of any age and can cause inflammation of the central nervous system. Antemortem diagnosis can be challenging, as clinical and conventional laboratory test findings are often nonspecific. A previous report described cerebellar lesions in brain MRI studies of seven dogs and proposed that these may be characteristic for central nervous system Neosporosis. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe MRI characteristics in another group of dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and compare them with the previous report. The hospital's database was searched for dogs with confirmed central nervous system neosporosis and four observers recorded findings from each dog's MRI studies. A total of four dogs met inclusion criteria. Neurologic examination was indicative of a forebrain and cerebellar lesion in dog 2 and multifocal central nervous system disease in dogs 1, 3, and 4. Magnetic resonance imaging showed mild bilateral and symmetrical cerebellar atrophy in three of four dogs (dogs 2, 3, 4), intramedullary spinal cord changes in two dogs (dogs 3, 4) and a mesencephalic and metencephalic lesion in one dog (dog 2). Multifocal brain lesions were recognized in two dogs (dogs 1, 4) and were present in the thalamus, lentiform nucleus, centrum semiovale, internal capsule, brainstem and cortical gray matter of the frontal, parietal or temporal lobe. Findings indicated that central nervous system neosporosis may be characterized by multifocal MRI lesions as well as cerebellar involvement in dogs.

  7. Citrullination of central nervous system proteins during the development of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raijmakers, R.; Vogelzangs, J.H.P.; Croxford, J.L.; Wesseling, P.; Venrooij, W.J.W. van; Pruijn, G.J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Immunization of mammals with central nervous system (CNS)-derived proteins or peptides induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a disease resembling the human autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS). Both diseases are accompanied by destruction of a part of the of the myelin sheat

  8. Connexin32 expression in central and peripheral nervous systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deschenes, S.M.; Scherer, S.S.; Fischbeck, K.H. [Univ. of Pennslylvania, PA (United States)

    1994-09-01

    Mutations have been identified in the gap junction gene, connexin32 (Cx32), in patients affected with the X-linked form of the demyelinating neuropathy, Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMTX). Gap junctions composed of Cx32 are present and developmentally regulated in a wide variety of tissues. In peripheral nerve, our immunohistochemical analysis localized Cx32 to the noncompacted myelin of the paranodal regions and the Schmidt-Lantermann incisures, where previous studies describe gap junctions. In contrast to the location of Cx32 in peripheral nerve and the usual restriction of clinical manifestations to the peripheral nervous system (PNS) (abstract by Paulson describes an exception), preliminary studies show that Cx32 is present in the compacted myelin of the central nervous system (CNS), as demonstrated by radial staining through the myelin sheath of oligodendrocytes in rat spinal cord. Analysis of Cx32 expression in various regions of rat CNS during development shows that the amount of Cx32 mRNA and protein increases as myelination increases, a pattern observed for other myelin genes. Studies in the PNS provide additional evidence that Cx32 and myelin genes are coordinately regulated at the transcriptional level; Cx32 and peripheral myelin gene PMP-22 mRNAs are expressed in parallel following transient or permanent nerve injury. Differences in post-translational regulation of Cx32 in the CNS and PNS may be indicated by the presence of a faster migrating form of Cs32 in cerebrum versus peripheral nerve. Studies are currently underway to determine the unique role of Cx32 in peripheral nerve.

  9. Adenosine A(1) Receptors in the Central Nervous System : Their Functions in Health and Disease, and Possible Elucidation by PET Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paul, S.; Elsinga, P. H.; Ishiwata, K.; Dierckx, R. A. J. O.; van Waarde, A.

    2011-01-01

    Adenosine is a neuromodulator with several functions in the central nervous system (CNS), such as inhibition of neuronal activity in many signaling pathways. Most of the sedating, anxiolytic, seizure-inhibiting and protective actions of adenosine are mediated by adenosine A(1) receptors (A(1)R) on t

  10. Managing Atypical and Typical herpetic central nervous system infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cag, Yasemin; Erdem, Hakan; Leib, Stephen;

    2016-01-01

    There have been many studies pertaining to the management of herpetic meningoencephalitis (HME), but the majority of them have focused on virologically unconfirmed cases or included only small sample sizes. We have conducted a multicentre study aimed at providing management strategies for HME. Ov...... HSV-PCR, EEG and MRI data should be collected for all patients with a central nervous system infection considering the subtle nature of HME....

  11. Central nervous system infection caused by Morganella morganii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Jehad; Saad, Mustafa; Samnani, Imran; Lee, Prescott; Moorman, Jonathan

    2006-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Morganella morganii is very rare. We describe a 38-year-old female patient with frontal brain abscess caused by M morganii who was unsuccessfully treated. We also review all reported cases of Morganella CNS infections with an emphasis on treatment modalities and outcomes. Aggressive surgical management and appropriate antimicrobial therapy can lead to cure, but the mortality rate for these infections remains high.

  12. Neuronal Chemokines: Versatile Messengers In Central Nervous System Cell Interaction

    OpenAIRE

    de Haas, A. H.; van Weering, H. R. J.; Jong, E.K.; Boddeke, H. W. G. M.; Biber, K.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Whereas chemokines are well known for their ability to induce cell migration, only recently it became evident that chemokines also control a variety of other cell functions and are versatile messengers in the interaction between a diversity of cell types. In the central nervous system (CNS), chemokines are generally found under both physiological and pathological conditions. Whereas many reports describe chemokine expression in astrocytes and microglia and their role in the migration of leuko...

  13. "Suicide" Gen Therapy for Malignant Central Nervous System Tumors

    OpenAIRE

    Vincent, Arnoud

    1998-01-01

    textabstractDespite development in surgical techniques, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, most malignancies of the central nervous system are still devastating tumors with a poor prognosis. For example, median survival of patients with malignant gliomas (astrocytoma, oligodendroglioma or mixed rype) is roughly 12 months and only 5 % of the patients survive more than 5 years after diagnosis. Fifty % of astrocytomas are ryped as glioblastoma multiforme, the most malignant form of glioma. Glioblast...

  14. Echography of congenital malformations of the central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A descriptive and prospective study was conducted in 173 pregnant women attended at the Provincial Department of Clinical Genetics of Santiago de Cuba, from January, 2000 to December, 2004, to identify congenital malformations of the central nervous system detected by means of echography. The most frequent malformation was the hydrocephaly, followed by the fusion defects of the spine, associated with the hydrocephaly and the absence of cranial cavity. There was a prevalence of altered alpha fetoprotein and of elevated amniotic fluid

  15. Neurotrophic effects of neudesin in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Kimura, Ikuo; Nakayama, Yoshiaki; Zhao, Ying; Konishi, Morichika; Itoh, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    Neudesin (neuron-derived neurotrophic factor; NENF) was identified as a neurotrophic factor that is involved in neuronal differentiation and survival. It is abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, and its neurotrophic activity is exerted via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways. Neudesin is also an anorexigenic factor that suppresses food intake in the hypothalamus. It is a member of the membrane-associated progesterone rece...

  16. Central nervous system manifestations of HIV infection in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George, Reena; Andronikou, Savvas; Plessis, Jaco du; Plessis, Anne-Marie du; Maydell, Arthur [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Radiology, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Toorn, Ronald van [University of Stellenbosch, Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, Tygerberg Academic Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa)

    2009-06-15

    Vertically transmitted HIV infection is a major problem in the developing world due to the poor availability of antiretroviral agents to pregnant women. HIV is a neurotrophic virus and causes devastating neurological insults to the immature brain. The effects of the virus are further compounded by the opportunistic infections and neoplasms that occur as a result of the associated immune suppression. This review focuses on the imaging features of HIV infection and its complications in the central nervous system. (orig.)

  17. Spontaneous electrical activity recorded from the aphid central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Dan-Thanh T.; Blacker, Melissa J.; Goodchild, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Whilst many classes of insecticides target the insect central nervous system (CNS), their effects in the CNS of pest aphids have not been demonstrated. In this report, we describe an electrophysiological method for recording spontaneous neuronal activity from the giant willow aphid (Tuberolachnus salignus). Using extracellular recording electrodes and two analysis methods (threshold and template search), spontaneous spike activity was shown to exhibit sensitivity to the neuroexcitatory insect...

  18. Radiation induced effects in the developing central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The embryo and the human foetus are particularly sensitive to ionizing radiation and this sensitivity presents various qualitative and quantitative functional changes during intra-uterine development. Apart from radiation induced carcinogenesis, the most serious consequence of prenatal exposure in human beings is severe mental retardation. The principal data on radiation effects on human beings in the development of the central nervous system come form epidemiological studies carried out in individuals exposed in utero during the atomic explosion at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These observations demonstrate the existence of a time of maximum radiosensitivity between the weeks 8 and 15 of the gestational period, a period in which the proliferation and neuronal migration takes place. Determination of the characteristics of dose-response relationship and the possible existence of a threshold dose of radiation effects on the development of the central nervous system is relevant to radiation protection against low dose radiation and the establishment of dose limits for occupational exposure and the public. Studies were conducted on the generation of nitrous-oxide and its relation with the production of active species of oxygen in brains of exposed rats in utero exposed to doses of up to 1 Gy during their maximum radiosensitivity. The possible role of the mechanism of radiation induced damage in the development of the central nervous system is discussed

  19. Role of T cell – glial cell interactions in creating and amplifying Central Nervous System inflammation and Multiple Sclerosis disease symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric S. Huseby

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple Sclerosis (MS is an inflammatory disease of the Central Nervous System (CNS that causes the demyelination of nerve cells and destroys oligodendrocytes, neurons and axons. Historically, MS has been thought of as a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease of CNS white matter. However, recent studies have identified gray matter lesions in MS patients, suggesting that CNS antigens other than myelin proteins may be involved during the MS disease process. We have recently found that T cells targeting astrocyte-specific antigens can drive unique aspects of inflammatory CNS autoimmunity, including the targeting of gray matter and white matter of the brain and inducing heterogeneous clinical disease courses. In addition to being a target of T cells, astrocytes play a critical role in propagating the inflammatory response within the CNS through cytokine induced NF-ΚB signaling. Here, we will discuss the pathophysiology of CNS inflammation mediated by T cell – glial cell interactions and its contributions to CNS autoimmunity.

  20. Refining the Ciona intestinalis model of central nervous system regeneration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl Dahlberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New, practical models of central nervous system regeneration are required and should provide molecular tools and resources. We focus here on the tunicate Ciona intestinalis, which has the capacity to regenerate nerves and a complete adult central nervous system, a capacity unusual in the chordate phylum. We investigated the timing and sequence of events during nervous system regeneration in this organism. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We developed techniques for reproducible ablations and for imaging live cellular events in tissue explants. Based on live observations of more than 100 regenerating animals, we subdivided the regeneration process into four stages. Regeneration was functional, as shown by the sequential recovery of reflexes that established new criteria for defining regeneration rates. We used transgenic animals and labeled nucleotide analogs to describe in detail the early cellular events at the tip of the regenerating nerves and the first appearance of the new adult ganglion anlage. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The rate of regeneration was found to be negatively correlated with adult size. New neural structures were derived from the anterior and posterior nerve endings. A blastemal structure was implicated in the formation of new neural cells. This work demonstrates that Ciona intestinalis is as a useful system for studies on regeneration of the brain, brain-associated organs and nerves.

  1. The pleiotropic effects of erythropoietin in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buemi, M; Cavallaro, E; Floccari, F; Sturiale, A; Aloisi, C; Trimarchi, M; Corica, F; Frisina, N

    2003-03-01

    Erythropoietin (Epo) is a hydrophobic sialoglycoproteic hormone produced by the kidney and responsible for the proliferation, maturation, and differentiation of the precursors of the erythroid cell line. Human recombinant erythropoietin (rHuEpo) is used to treat different types of anemia, not only in uremic patients but also in newborns with anemia of prematurity, in patients with cancer-related anemia or myeloproliferative disease, thalassemias, bone marrow transplants, or those with chronic infectious diseases. The pleiotropic functions of Epo are well known. It has been shown that this hormone can modulate the inflammatory and immune response, has direct hemodynamic and vasoactive effects, could be considered a proangiogenic factor because of its interaction with vascular endothelial growth factor, and its ability to stimulate mitosis and motility of endothelial cells. The multifunctional role of Epo has further been confirmed by the discovery in the central nervous system of a specific Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR) system. Both Epo and EpoR are expressed by astrocytes and neurons and Epo is present in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Therefore, novel functions of Epo, tissue-specific regulation, and the mechanisms of action have been investigated. In this review we have tried to summarize the current data on the role of Epo on brain function. We discuss the different sites of cerebral expression and mechanisms of regulation of Epo and its receptor and its role in the development and maturation of the brain. Second, we discuss the neurotrophic and neuroprotective function of Epo in different conditions of neuronal damage, such as hypoxia, cerebral ischemia, and subarachnoid hemorrhage, and the consequent possibility that rHuEpo therapy could soon be used in clinical practice to limit neuronal damage induced by these diseases. PMID:12638727

  2. Effects of physical exercise on central nervous system functions: a review of brain region specific adaptations

    OpenAIRE

    Morgan, Julie A; Corrigan, Frances; Baune, Bernhard T

    2015-01-01

    Pathologies of central nervous system (CNS) functions are involved in prevalent conditions such as Alzheimer’s disease, depression, and Parkinson’s disease. Notable pathologies include dysfunctions of circadian rhythm, central metabolism, cardiovascular function, central stress responses, and movement mediated by the basal ganglia. Although evidence suggests exercise may benefit these conditions, the neurobiological mechanisms of exercise in specific brain regions involved in these important ...

  3. Prevalence and characteristics of central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strati, Paolo; Uhm, Joon H; Kaufmann, Timothy J; Nabhan, Chadi; Parikh, Sameer A; Hanson, Curtis A; Chaffee, Kari G; Call, Timothy G; Shanafelt, Tait D

    2016-04-01

    Abroad array of conditions can lead to neurological symptoms in chronic lymphocytic leukemia patients and distinguishing between clinically significant involvement of the central nervous system by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and symptoms due to other etiologies can be challenging. Between January 1999 and November 2014, 172 (4%) of the 4174 patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia followed at our center had a magnetic resonance imaging of the central nervous system and/or a lumbar puncture to evaluate neurological symptoms. After comprehensive evaluation, the etiology of neurological symptoms was: central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia in 18 patients (10% evaluated by imaging and/or lumbar puncture, 0.4% overall cohort); central nervous system Richter Syndrome in 15 (9% evaluated, 0.3% overall); infection in 40 (23% evaluated, 1% overall); autoimmune/inflammatory conditions in 28 (16% evaluated, 0.7% overall); other cancer in 8 (5% evaluated, 0.2% overall); and another etiology in 63 (37% evaluated, 1.5% overall). Although the sensitivity of cerebrospinal fluid analysis to detect central nervous system disease was 89%, the specificity was only 42% due to the frequent presence of leukemic cells in the cerebrospinal fluid in other conditions. No parameter on cerebrospinal fluid analysis (e.g. total nucleated cells, total lymphocyte count, chronic lymphocytic leukemia cell percentage) were able to offer a reliable discrimination between patients whose neurological symptoms were due to clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia and another etiology. Median overall survival among patients with clinically significant central nervous system chronic lymphocytic leukemia and Richter syndrome was 12 and 11 months, respectively. In conclusion, clinically significant central nervous system involvement by chronic lymphocytic leukemia is a rare condition, and neurological symptoms in patients with chronic lymphocytic

  4. Functional roles of neuropeptides in the insect central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nässel, D. R.

    With the completion of the Drosophila genome sequencing project we can begin to appreciate the extent of the complexity in the components involved in signal transfer and modulation in the nervous system of an animal with reasonably complex behavior. Of all the different classes of signaling substances utilized by the nervous system, the neuropeptides are the most diverse structurally and functionally. Thus peptidergic mechanisms of action in the central nervous system need to be analyzed in the context of the neuronal circuits in which they act and generalized traits cannot be established. By taking advantage of Drosophila molecular genetics and the presence of identifiable neurons, it has been possible to interfere with peptidergic signaling in small populations of central neurons and monitor the consequences on behavior. These studies and experiments on other insects with large identifiable neurons, permitting cellular analysis of signaling mechanisms, have outlined important principles for temporal and spatial action of neuropeptides in outputs of the circadian clock and in orchestrating molting behavior. Considering the large number of neuropeptides available in each insect species and their diverse distribution patterns, it is to be expected that different neuropeptides play roles in most aspects of insect physiology and behavior.

  5. Successful treatment with cladribine of Erdheim-Chester disease with orbital and central nervous system involvement developing after treatment of langerhans cell histiocytosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perić Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Erdheim-Chester disease (ECD is a rare, systemic form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the juvenile xantho-granuloma family with characteristic bilateral symmetrical long bone osteosclerosis, associated with xanthogranulomatous extras-keletal organ involvement. In ECD, central nervous system (CNS and orbital lesions are frequent, and more than half of ECD patients carry the V600E mutation of the proto-oncogene BRAF. The synchronous or metachronous development of ECD and Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH in the same patients is rare, and the possible connection between them is still obscure. Cladribine is a purine substrate analogue that is toxic to lymphocytes and monocytes with good hematoencephalic penetration. Case report. We presented a 23-year-old man successfully treated with cladribine due to BRAF V600E-mutation-negative ECD with bilateral orbital and CNS involvement. ECD developed metachronously, 6 years after chemotherapy for multisystem LCH with complete disease remission and remaining central diabetes insipidus. During ECD treatment, the patient received 5 single-agent chemotherapy courses of cladribine (5 mg/m2 for 5 consecutive days every 4 weeks, with a reduction in dose to 4 mg/m2 in a fifth course, delayed due to severe neutropenia and thoracic dermatomal herpes zoster infection following the fourth course. Radiologic signs of systemic and CNS disease started to resolve 3 months after the end of chemotherapy, and CNS lesions completely resolved within 2 years after the treatment. After 12-year follow-up, there was no recurrence or appearance of new systemic or CNS xanthogranu-lomatous lesions or second malignancies. Conclusion. In accordance with our findings and recommendations provided by other authors, cladribine can be considered an effective alternative treatment for ECD, especially with CNS involvement and BRAF V600E-mutation-negative status, when interferon-α as the first-line therapy fails.

  6. Immune response induction in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owens, Trevor; Babcock, Alicia

    2002-01-01

    The primary function of the immune response is protection of the host against infection with pathogens, including viruses. Since viruses can infect any tissue of the body, including the central nervous system (CNS), it is logical that cells of the immune system should equally have access to all...... tissues. Nevertheless, the brain and spinal cord are noted for their lack of immune presence. Relative to other organ systems, the CNS appears immunologically privileged. Furthermore, when immune responses do occur in the CNS, they are frequently associated with deleterious effects such as inflammatory...

  7. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis. PMID:27056851

  8. [Dementia in Patients with Central Nervous System Mycosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, Akihiko; Ishihara, Masaki; Konno, Michiko

    2016-04-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) mycosis is a potentially life-threatening but treatable neurological emergency. CNS mycoses progress slowly and are sometimes difficult to distinguish from dementia. Though most patients with CNS mycosis have an underlying disease, such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, cancer, diabetes mellitus, and/or use of immunosuppressants, cryptococcosis can occur in non-immunosuppressed persons. One of the major difficulties in accurate diagnosis is to detect the pathogen in patients' cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cultures. Thus, the clinical diagnosis is often made by combining circumstantial evidence, including mononuclear cell-dominant pleocytosis with low glucose and protein elevation in the CSF, as well as positive results from an antigen-based assay and a (1-3)-beta-D-glucan assay using plasma and/or CSF. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostics, which are not performed as routine examinations and are mostly performed as part of academic research in Japan, are sensitive tools for the early diagnosis of CNS mycosis. Mognetic resonance imaging (MRI) is useful to assess the complications of fungal meningitis, such as abscess, infarction, and hydrocephalus. Clinicians should realize the advantages and disadvantages of these diagnostic tools. Early and accurate diagnosis, including identification of the particular fungal species, enables optimal antifungal treatment that produces good outcomes in patients with CNS mycosis.

  9. Paracoccidioidomycosis case series with and without central nervous system involvement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Sousa Pietra Pedroso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM is the most important systemic mycosis in South America. Central nervous system involvement is potentially fatal and can occur in 12.5% of cases. This paper aims to contribute to the literature describing eight cases of neuroparacoccidioidomycosis (NPMC and compare their characteristics with patients without neurological involvement, to identify unique characteristics of NPCM. METHODS: A cohort of 213 PCM cases was evaluated at the Infectious Diseases Clinic of the University Hospital, Federal University of Minas Gerais, Brazil, from October 1976 to August 2008. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory, therapeutic and follow-up data were registered. RESULTS: Eight patients presented NPCM. The observed NPCM prevalence was 3.8%. One patient presented the subacute form of PCM and the other seven presented the chronic form of the disease. The parenchymatous form of NPCM occurred in all patients. 60% of the patients who proceeded from the north/ northeast region of Minas Gerais State developed NPCM. The neurological involvement of a mother and her son was observed. NPCM patients exhibited demographical and clinical profiles similar to what is described in the literature. When NPCM cases were compared to PCM patients, there were differences in relation to origin and positive PCM family history. CONCLUSIONS: The results corroborate the clinical view that the neurological findings are extremely important in the evaluation of PCM patients. Despite the limitations of this study, the differences in relation to patient's origins and family history point to the need of further studies to determine the susceptibility factors involved in the neurological compromise.

  10. Lysophospholipids and their receptors in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Woong; Chun, Jerold

    2013-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) and sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P), two of the best-studied lysophospholipids, are known to influence diverse biological events, including organismal development as well as function and pathogenesis within multiple organ systems. These functional roles are due to a family of at least 11 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), named LPA(1-6) and S1P(1-5), which are widely distributed throughout the body and that activate multiple effector pathways initiated by a range of heterotrimeric G proteins including G(i/o), G(12/13), G(q) and G(s), with actual activation dependent on receptor subtypes. In the central nervous system (CNS), a major locus for these signaling pathways, LPA and S1P have been shown to influence myriad responses in neurons and glial cell types through their cognate receptors. These receptor-mediated activities can contribute to disease pathogenesis and have therapeutic relevance to human CNS disorders as demonstrated for multiple sclerosis (MS) and possibly others that include congenital hydrocephalus, ischemic stroke, neurotrauma, neuropsychiatric disorders, developmental disorders, seizures, hearing loss, and Sandhoff disease, based upon the experimental literature. In particular, FTY720 (fingolimod, Gilenya, Novartis Pharma, AG) that becomes an analog of S1P upon phosphorylation, was approved by the FDA in 2010 as a first oral treatment for MS, validating this class of receptors as medicinal targets. This review will provide an overview and update on the biological functions of LPA and S1P signaling in the CNS, with a focus on results from studies using genetic null mutants for LPA and S1P receptors. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Advances in Lysophospholipid Research. PMID:22884303

  11. Gemella morbillorum: an underestimated aetiology of central nervous system infection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedetti, Paolo; Rassu, Mario; Branscombe, Michele; Sefton, Armine; Pellizzer, Giampietro

    2009-12-01

    A case is reported of cerebellar abscess and diffuse cerebritis due to Gemella morbillorum. The clinical course was 'biphasic', developing with an acute meningeal infection followed shortly afterwards by suppuration in the cerebellar and cerebral parenchyma; this pattern seemed to suggest a latent survival of the aetiological agent, probably within the central nervous system (CNS), despite systemic antibiotic therapy. Based upon a review of cases so far described, infections of the CNS caused by G. morbillorum appear to be an emerging reality. PMID:19713361

  12. Central nervous system frontiers for the use of erythropoietin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Niels Vidiendal

    2003-01-01

    Recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO; epoetin alfa) is well established as safe and effective for the treatment of anemia. In addition to the erythropoietic effects of endogenous erythropoietin (EPO), recent evidence suggests that it may elicit a neuroprotective effect in the central nervous...... system (CNS). Preclinical studies have demonstrated the presence of EPO receptors in the brain that are up-regulated under hypoxic or ischemic conditions. Intracerebral and systemic administration of epoetin alfa have been demonstrated to elicit marked neuroprotective effects in multiple preclinical...

  13. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stebbings, J.H.; Semkiw, W.

    1988-01-01

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs.

  14. Central nervous system tumors and related intracranial pathologies in radium dial workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the female radiation workers in the radium dial industry there is no overall excess of brain or central nervous system tumors. A significant excess did appear, however, in one of three major cohorts; the excess was not due to an excess of gliomas and cannot be ascribed with certainty to radium or external radiation. A significant proportional excess of tumors outside the brain was observed, and is consistent with irradiation of nervous system tissue from adjacent bone. Early deaths from brain abscess or mastoiditis, which are coded as diseases of the nervous system and sense organs, were observed. 12 refs., 11 tabs

  15. Neutron activation analysis in the central nervous system tissues of neurological diseases and rats maintained on minerally unbalanced diets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, Masayuki; Ota, Kiichiro [Wakayama Medical Coll. (Japan); Sasajima, Kazuhisa

    1995-02-01

    Epidemiological surveys on Guam have suggested that low calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg) and high Al and Mn in river, soil and drinking water may be implicated in the pathogenesis of PD. Experimentally, low Ca-Mg diets with or without added Al have been found to accelerate Al deposition in the CNS of rats and monkeys. Although excessive deposition of Mn produces neurotoxic action similar to Al in CNS tissues, the mechanism of Mn deposition coupled with Al loading in the presence of low Ca-Mg intake is not yet known. In this animal study, the deposition and metal-metal interaction of both Al and Mn in the CNS, visceral organs and bones of rats fed unbalanced mineral diets were analyzed. Male Wistar rats, weighing 200 g, were maintained for 90 days on the following diets: (A) standard diet, (B) low Ca diet, (C) low Ca-Mg diet, (D) low Ca-Mg diet with high Al. Al and Mn content were determined in the frontal cortex, spinal cord, kidney, muscle, abdominal aorta, femur and lumbar spine using neutron activation analysis (NAA). Intake of low Ca and Mg with added Al in rats led to the high concentrations of Mn and Al in bones and in the frontal cortex. It is likely that unbalanced mineral diets and metal-metal interactions may lead to the unequal distribution of Al and Mn in bones and ultimately in the CNS inducing CNS degeneration. On the other hand, concentrations of copper (Cu), calcium (Ca) and aluminum (Al) for 26 subanatomical regions of the CNS were measured by neutron activation analysis (NAA) in two cases of Wilson`s disease, two of portal systemic encephalopathy, six pathologically verified cases of ALS, four of Parkinson`s disease and five neurologically normal controls. Also zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe) concentrations were measured by NAA for frontal and occipital lobes of parkinsonism-dementia. (author).

  16. Autoimmune disease and the nervous system. Biochemical, molecular, and clinical update.

    OpenAIRE

    Merrill, J E; Graves, M C; Mulder, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    Autoimmunity in the central and peripheral nervous system can manifest as the result of cellular or humoral immune responses to autoantigens. There is evidence that multiple sclerosis is a cell-mediated autoimmune disease of the central nervous system in which both myelin and the cell that produces the myelin are destroyed. Diseases such as acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (also called Guillain-Barré syndrome) and myasthenia gravis are considered antibody-mediated diseases of t...

  17. Space radiation risks to the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Alp, Murat; Sulzman, Frank M.; Wang, Minli

    2014-07-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) risks which include during space missions and lifetime risks due to space radiation exposure are of concern for long-term exploration missions to Mars or other destinations. Possible CNS risks during a mission are altered cognitive function, including detriments in short-term memory, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, which may affect performance and human health. The late CNS risks are possible neurological disorders such as premature aging, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementia. Radiation safety requirements are intended to prevent all clinically significant acute risks. However the definition of clinically significant CNS risks and their dependences on dose, dose-rate and radiation quality is poorly understood at this time. For late CNS effects such as increased risk of AD, the occurrence of the disease is fatal with mean time from diagnosis of early stage AD to death about 8 years. Therefore if AD risk or other late CNS risks from space radiation occur at mission relevant doses, they would naturally be included in the overall acceptable risk of exposure induced death (REID) probability for space missions. Important progress has been made in understanding CNS risks due to space radiation exposure, however in general the doses used in experimental studies have been much higher than the annual galactic cosmic ray (GCR) dose (∼0.1 Gy/y at solar maximum and ∼0.2 Gy/y at solar minimum with less than 50% from HZE particles). In this report we summarize recent space radiobiology studies of CNS effects from particle accelerators simulating space radiation using experimental models, and make a critical assessment of their relevance relative to doses and dose-rates to be incurred on a Mars mission. Prospects for understanding dose, dose-rate and radiation quality dependencies of CNS effects and extrapolation to human risk assessments are described.

  18. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernaerts, A.; Vanhoenacker, F.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Department of Radiology, AZ St-Maarten, Campus Duffel, Rooienberg 25, 2750 Duffel (Belgium); Parizel, P.M.; Goethem, J.W.M. van; De Roeck, J.; De Schepper, A.M. [Department of Radiology, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Altena, R. van [Tuberculosecentrum Beatrixoord, Dilgtweg 5, 9751 ND Haren (Netherlands); Laridon, A. [Department of Pediatrics, University of Antwerp, Wilrijkstraat 10, 2650 Edegem (Belgium); Coeman, V. [Department of Radiology, AZ St-Jan, Ruddershove 10, 8000 Brugge (Belgium)

    2003-08-01

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  19. Tuberculosis of the central nervous system: overview of neuroradiological findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents the range of manifestations of tuberculosis (TB) of the craniospinal axis. Central nervous system (CNS) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis occurs either in a diffuse form as basal exudative leptomeningitis or in a localized form as tuberculoma, abscess, or cerebritis. In addition to an extensive review of computed tomography and magnetic resonance features, the pathogenesis and the relevant clinical setting are discussed. Modern imaging is a cornerstone in the early diagnosis of CNS tuberculosis and may prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Contrast-enhanced MR imaging is generally considered as the modality of choice in the detection and assessment of CNS tuberculosis. (orig.)

  20. Hypopituitarism as unusual sequelae to central nervous system tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Mageshkumar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neurological tuberculosis can very rarely involve the hypophysis cerebri. We report a case of an eighteen year old female who presented with five months duration of generalised apathy, secondary amenorrhea and weight gain. She was on irregular treatment for tuberculosis of the central nervous system for the last five months. Neuroimaging revealed sellar and suprasellar tuberculomas and communicating hydrocephalus requiring emergency decompression. Endocrinological investigation showed hypopituitarism manifesting as pituitary hypothyroidism, hypocortisolism, hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, and hyperprolactinemia. Restarting anti-tuberculosis treatment, hormone replacement therapy, and a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery led to remarkable improvement in the general condition of the patient.

  1. Masquerade Syndrome of Multicentre Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Guerriero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. In Italy we say that the most unlucky things can happen to physicians when they get sick, despite the attention of colleagues. To confirm this rumor, we report the sad story of a surgeon with bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma unresponsive to traditional therapies. Methods/Design. Case report. Results. After one year of steroidal and immunosuppressive therapy, a vitrectomy, and a trabeculectomy for unresponsive bilateral vitreitis and glaucoma, MRI showed a multicentre primary central nervous system lymphoma, which was the underlying cause of the masquerade syndrome. Conclusions. All ophthalmologists and clinicians must be aware of masquerade syndromes, in order to avoid delays in diagnosis.

  2. INSULIN AND INSULIN RESISTANCE: NEW MOLECULE MARKERS AND TARGET MOLECULE FOR THE DIAGNOSIS AND THERAPY OF DISEASES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Salmina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The review summarizes current data on the role of insulin in the regulation of t glucose metabolism in the central nervous system at physiologic and pathologic conditions. For many years, the brain has been considered as an insulin-independent organ which utilizes glucose without insulin activity. However, it is become clear now that insulin not only regulates glucose transport and metabolism, but also has modulatory efftects in impact on excitability, proliferation and differentiation of brain progenitor cells, synaptic plasticity and memory formation, secretion of neurotransmitters, apoptosis. We have critically reviewed literature information and our own data on the role of insulin and insulin resistance in neuron-glia metabolic coupling, regulation of NAD+ metabolism and action of NAdependent enzymes, neurogenesis, brain development in (pathophysiological conditions. The paper clarifies interrelations between alterations in glucose homeostasis, development of insulin resistance and development of neurodegeneration (Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease, autism, stroke, and depression. We discuss the application of novel molecular markers of insulin resistance (adipokines, α-hydroxybutyrate, BDNF, insulin-regulated aminopeptidase, provasopressin and molecular targets for diagnostics and treatment of brain disorders associated with insulin resistance.

  3. Epidemiology and phospholipase activity of oral Candida spp. among patients with central nervous system diseases before and after dental cleaning procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélia Silva Ribeiro

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Patients suffering of diseases that affect central nervous system may be considered more susceptible to the infectious diseases of mouth. Sixty-nine patients suffering of cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation were submitted to saliva examination for the presence of Candida spp. before and after a procedure of dental cleaning. The isolates were submitted to assay for verifying phospholipase production. 55.10% of the patients provided isolation of Candida spp. The frequency of isolation obtained before dental procedure was: C. albicans (83.33%, C. krusei (8.33% and C. kefyr, C. parapsilosis and C. glabrata (2.78% each. The frequency after the procedure was: C. albicans (68.57%, C. parapsilosis (11.43%, C. krusei and C. kefyr (8.57% each and Candida glabrata (2.86%. We verified significantly difference (p < 0.01 between populations obtained at the two examinations. Phospholipase production was verified only among C. albicans strains and the proportion of producers was higher when testing isolates obtained after dental cleaning procedure. Studies focused on Candida spp. isolation are useful for better comprehension of the role of these yeasts on the oral flora from patients with cerebral palsy, Down's syndrome and metal retardation.

  4. Clinical application of MRI to fetal central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the value of MRI on fetal central nervous system. Methods: Twenty-four women with complicated pregnancies, aged from 22 to 32 years (average 27 years) and with gestation from 23-39 weeks (average 30 weeks) were studied with a 1.5T superconductive MR unit within 24 hours after ultrasound studies. T2-weighted MR imaging was performed using HASTE and T1-weighted MR imaging was using FLASH. Comparison of the diagnosis of MRI and ultrasound were done with autopsy or postnatal follow-up MRI. Results: Of the 24 cases, 24 fetus were found. The fetal brain, gyrus, sulcus, corpus callosum, thalamus, cerebellum, brain stem, and spinal cord were shown more clearly on MR T2-weighted images. T1-weighted images were not as good as T2-weighted images. Twenty-seven lesions were visualized by ultrasound and thirty-one by MRI in these twenty-four fetuses. By MRI study, two cases were conformed their ultrasound diagnosis, ten cases were completed their ultrasound diagnosis, and twelve cases were made the same diagnosis as ultrasound. Conclusion: MR has advantages in displaying fetal central nervous system anatomy over ultrasound, the quality of MR images is not affected by maternal somatotype, volume of amniotic fluid, fetal skull and the pelvic skeleton of pregnant women. Based on ultrasound, MR imaging is a valuable complement to sonography in difficult cases, it can conforming, completing, even more correcting the diagnosis made by ultrasound. (authors)

  5. Prolactin gene expression in primary central nervous system tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mendes Graziella Alebrant

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prolactin (PRL is a hormone synthesized in both the pituitary gland and extrapituitary sites. It has been associated with the occurrence of neoplasms and, more recently, with central nervous system (CNS neoplasms. The aim of this study was to evaluate prolactin expression in primary central nervous system tumors through quantitative real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry (IH. Results Patient mean age was 49.1 years (SD 15.43, and females accounted for 70% of the sample. The most frequent subtype of histological tumor was meningioma (61.5%, followed by glioblastoma (22.9%. Twenty cases (28.6% showed prolactin expression by immunohistochemistry, most of them females (18 cases, 90%. Quantitative real-time PCR did not show any prolactin expression. Conclusions Despite the presence of prolactin expression by IH, the lack of its expression by quantitative real-time PCR indicates that its presence in primary tumors in CNS is not a reflex of local production.

  6. A Rare Case of Central Nervous System Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravish Parekh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial abscess is an extremely rare form of central nervous system (CNS tuberculosis (TB. We describe a case of central nervous system tuberculous abscess in absence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV infection. A 82-year-old Middle Eastern male from Yemen was initially brought to the emergency room due to altered mental status and acute renal failure. Cross-sectional imaging revealed multiple ring enhancing lesions located in the left cerebellum and in bilateral frontal lobe as well as in the inferior parietal lobe on the left. The patient was placed on an empiric antibiotic regimen. Preliminary testing for infectious causes was negative. Chest radiography and CT of chest showed no positive findings. He was not on any immunosuppressive medications and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV enzyme immunoassay (EIA test was negative. A subsequent MRI one month later showed profound worsening of the lesions with increasing vasogenic edema and newly found mass effect impinging on the fourth ventricle. Brain biopsy showed focal exudative cerebellitis and inflamed granulation tissue consistent with formation of abscesses. The diagnosis of CNS TB was finally confirmed by positive acid-fast bacilli (AFB cultures. The patient was started on standard tuberculosis therapy but expired due to renal failure and cardiac arrest.

  7. Genetic perspectives on the ascidian central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Locascio

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In 2002, date of publication of the Ciona intestinalis genome, ascidians entered the post-genomic era. This tool had a fundamental role and has become the starting point for a series of new functional and genomic studies. Recently, great efforts have been done to characterize the genetic cascades of genes having a key role in early embryonic development and to draw the regulatory networks in which they are involved. In this review, we focused our attention on the last advances obtained in the attempt to clarify the complex molecular events governing ascidian central nervous system development with a special interest for anterior neural and sensory structures. We discussed the more recent theories on its early induction and late regionalization. In particular, we used some conserved genes fully or partially characterized as examples to compare ascidian and vertebrate central nervous system (CNS.By integrating the various results obtained with microarray, morpholino loss of function and promoter analyses, we showed that many progresses have been done to unravel the gene networks controlling early CNS induction and formation. Unfortunately, fewer advances have been done in the identification of the regulatory cascades controlling late CNS regionalization and sensory organs differentiation. Some results are discussed to point out the importance of fully characterizing also these specific regulatory cascades.

  8. Radiobiology of Radiosurgery for the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Santacroce

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Leksell radiosurgery is defined as “the delivery of a single, high dose of irradiation to a small and critically located intracranial volume through the intact skull.” Before its birth in the early 60s and its introduction in clinical therapeutic protocols in late the 80s dose application in radiation therapy of the brain for benign and malignant lesions was based on the administration of cumulative dose into a variable number of fractions. The rationale of dose fractionation is to lessen the risk of injury of normal tissue surrounding the target volume. Radiobiological studies of cell culture lines of malignant tumors and clinical experience with patients treated with conventional fractionated radiotherapy helped establishing this radiobiological principle. Radiosurgery provides a single high dose of radiation which translates into a specific toxic radiobiological response. Radiobiological investigations to study the effect of high dose focused radiation on the central nervous system began in late the 50s. It is well known currently that radiobiological principles applied for dose fractionation are not reproducible when single high dose of ionizing radiation is delivered. A review of the literature about radiobiology of radiosurgery for the central nervous system is presented.

  9. Neural stem cells and neuro/gliogenesis in the central nervous system: understanding the structural and functional plasticity of the developing, mature, and diseased brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Seki, Tatsunori; Imayoshi, Itaru; Tamamaki, Nobuaki; Hayashi, Yoshitaka; Tatebayashi, Yoshitaka; Hitoshi, Seiji

    2016-05-01

    Neurons and glia in the central nervous system (CNS) originate from neural stem cells (NSCs). Knowledge of the mechanisms of neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is fundamental to our understanding of how complex brain architecture and function develop. NSCs are present not only in the developing brain but also in the mature brain in adults. Adult neurogenesis likely provides remarkable plasticity to the mature brain. In addition, recent progress in basic research in mental disorders suggests an etiological link with impaired neuro/gliogenesis in particular brain regions. Here, we review the recent progress and discuss future directions in stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology by introducing several topics presented at a joint meeting of the Japanese Association of Anatomists and the Physiological Society of Japan in 2015. Collectively, these topics indicated that neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs is a common event occurring in many brain regions at various ages in animals. Given that significant structural and functional changes in cells and neural networks are accompanied by neuro/gliogenesis from NSCs and the integration of newly generated cells into the network, stem cell and neuro/gliogenesis biology provides a good platform from which to develop an integrated understanding of the structural and functional plasticity that underlies the development of the CNS, its remodeling in adulthood, and the recovery from diseases that affect it. PMID:26578509

  10. Wnt Signaling Pathway in Central Nervous System Diseases%Wnt信号通路和中枢神经系统疾病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马义辉(综述); 周杰; 荔志云(审校)

    2014-01-01

    Wnt信号通路作为多细胞真核生物中的重要信号通路,不仅参与神经干细胞的增殖、分化、轴突形成等过程,还调控突触发生、突触囊泡循环等生理过程。最近的研究还证实,Wnt信号通路在血管再生、血管重塑和血脑屏障的形成等生理过程中也发挥着重要作用。近年来的研究证实, Wnt信号通路在脑卒中、阿尔兹海默症和帕金森病等中枢神经系统疾病中发挥着重要的作用。因此,探讨Wnt信号通路与神经系统疾病的病理生理机制和治疗的关系有重要意义。%As an important pathway in multicellular eukaryotes,Wnt signaling pathway not only involves in the proliferation,differentiation and neurite formation process of neural stem cells,but also regulates synap-togenesis,synaptic vesicle recycling,and other physiological processes. Recent studies also confirm that,Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in angiogenesis,vascular remodeling and formation of blood-brain barrier and other important physiological processes. Recent studies have demonstrated that Wnt signaling pathway plays an important role in stroke,Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease and other central nerv-ous system diseases. So discussing the relationship of the Wnt signaling pathway with the neurological disor-ders’ pathogenesis and treatment has an important significance.

  11. An adult case of chronic myelogenous leukemia with myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watanabe,Akiharu

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available A 31-year-old female with chronic myelogenous leukemia, who developed myeloblastic involvement of the central nervous system during acute myeloblastic transformation of the disease, was treated with methotrexate intrathecally. The therapy produced prompt clinical response and complete reversal of abnormal cerebrospinal fluid findings. However, the patient expired 10 months following the acute blastic crisis.

  12. Metallothionein expression in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penkowa, M; Espejo, C; Ortega-Aznar, A;

    2003-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a major chronic demyelinating and inflammatory disease of the central nervous system (CNS) in which oxidative stress likely plays a pathogenic role in the development of myelin and neuronal damage. Metallothioneins (MTs) are antioxidant proteins induced in the CNS...

  13. Connexin: a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong-yan Xie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings regarding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer′s disease, Parkinson′s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  14. Connexin:a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-yan Xie; Yu Cui; Fang Deng; Jia-chun Feng

    2015-01-01

    Connexin subunits are proteins that form gap junction channels, and play an important role in communication between adjacent cells. This review article discusses the function of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions under physiological conditions, and summarizes the findings re-garding the role of connexins/hemichannels/gap junctions in the physiological and pathological mechanisms underlying central nervous system diseases such as brain ischemia, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, epilepsy, brain and spinal cord tumor, migraine, neuroautoimmune disease, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, Peli-zaeus-Merzbacher-like disease, spastic paraplegia and maxillofacial dysplasia. Connexins are considered to be a potential novel target for protecting the central nervous system.

  15. GABA-ergic neurons in the leach central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GABA is a candidate for an inhibitory neurotransmitter in the leech central nervous system because of the well-documented inhibitory action of GABA in other invertebrates. To demonstrate that GABA meets the criteria used to identify a substance as a neurotransmitter, the author examined GABA metabolism and synaptic interactions of inhibitory motor neurons in two leech species, Hirudo medicinalis and Haementeria ghilianii. Segmental ganglia of the leech ventral nerve cord and identified inhibitors have the capacity to synthesize GABA when incubated in the presence of the precursor glutamate. Application of GABA to cell bodies of excitatory motor neurons or muscle fibers innervated by the inhibitors hyperpolarizes the membrane potential of the target cell and activates a chloride ion conductance channel, similar to the inhibitory membrane response following intracellular stimulation of the inhibitor. Bicuculline methiodide (5 x 10-5M), GABA receptor antagonist, blocks reversibly the response to applied GABA and the inhibitory synaptic inputs onto the postsynaptic neurons or muscle fibers without interfering with their excitatory inputs. Furthermore, the inhibitors are included among approximately 25 neurons per segmental ganglion that take up GABA by a high affinity uptake system, as revealed by 3H-GABA-autoradiography. The development of the capacities to synthesize and to take up GABA were examined in leech embryos. The embryos are able to synthesize GABA at early stages of the development of the nervous system, before any neurons have extended neutrites

  16. Applications of Nanotechnology to the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumling, James P., II

    Nanotechnology and nanomaterials, in general, have become prominent areas of academic research. The ability to engineer at the nano scale is critical to the advancement of the physical and medical sciences. In the realm of physical sciences, the applications are clear: smaller circuitry, more powerful computers, higher resolution intruments. However, the potential impact in the fields of biology and medicine are perhaps even grander. The implementation of novel nanodevices is of paramount importance to the advancement of drug delivery, molecular detection, and cellular manipulation. The work presented in this thesis focuses on the development of nanotechnology for applications in neuroscience. The nervous system provides unique challenges and opportunities for nanoscale research. This thesis discusses some background in nanotechnological applications to the central nervous system and details: (1) The development of a novel calcium nanosenser for use in neurons and astrocytes. We implemented the calcium responsive component of Dr. Roger Tsien's Cameleon sensor, a calmodulin-M13 fusion, in the first quantum dot-based calcium sensor. (2) The exploration of cell-penetrating peptides as a delivery mechanism for nanoparticles to cells of the nervous system. We investigated the application of polyarginine sequences to rat primary cortical astrocytes in order to assess their efficacy in a terminally differentiated neural cell line. (3) The development of a cheap, biocompatible alternative to quantum dots for nanosensor and imaging applications. We utilized a positively charged co-matrix to promote the encapsulation of free sulforhodamine B in silica nanoparticles, a departure from conventional reactive dye coupling to silica matrices. While other methods have been invoked to trap dye not directly coupled to silica, they rely on positively charged dyes that typically have a low quantum yield and are not extensively tested biologically, or they implement reactive dyes bound

  17. Methanol intoxication: pathological changes of central nervous system (17 cases).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karayel, Ferah; Turan, Arzu A; Sav, Aydin; Pakis, Isil; Akyildiz, Elif U; Ersoy, Gokhan

    2010-03-01

    The nervous system has increased susceptibility for methanol intoxication. The aim of this study is to investigate various central nervous system lesions of methanol intoxication in 17 cases autopsied in the mortuary department of the Council of Forensic Medicine in Istanbul, Turkey. The reasons of methanol intoxication in the cases was likely the unwitting ingestion of methanol while drinking illegal alcohol. Survival times ranged from several hours to days. In 8 cases (47%), cerebral edema and in 9 cases (53%) at occipital, temporal and parietal cortex, basal ganglia and pons, petechial bleeding was observed. In addition to these findings, hemorrhagic necrosis were observed in thalamus, putamen, and globus pallidus in 5 cases (29.4%) and, in cerebral cortex in another 3 cases (17.6%). In 3 of the cases (17.6%) in which cerebral edema was found, herniation findings accompanied to the situation and in 2 cases (11.7%), pons bleeding was observed. Around the basal ganglia, in 2 of the cases with hemorrhagic necrosis, the situation ended with a ventricular compression. In 7 cases (41%), the associated findings of chronic ischemic changes in cortical neurons, lacunae formation, degeneration of granular cell layer of the cerebellum, and reactive gliosis were considered as the results of chronic alcoholism.

  18. NG2细胞与中枢神经系统疾病%Roles of NG2 glial cells in diseases of the central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许建平; 赵杰; 李韶

    2011-01-01

    NG2 cells are a novel distinct class of central nervous system(CNS)glial cells,characterized by the expression of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan NG2.They have been detected in a variety of human CNS diseases.As morphological,physiological and biomolecular studies of NG2 cells have been conducted,their roles have been gradually revealed.Research on cellular and molecular mechanisms in the pathophysiological state was built on the preliminary findings of their physiological functions; and in turn,this helps to clarify their physiological roles and leads to the identification of novel therapeutic targets.This review summarizes recent findings regarding the potential roles of NG2 cells in traumatic brain injury,multiple sclerosis,glioma,epilepsy,Alzheimer's disease and electroconvulsive therapy for depression.%NG2细胞是新发现的一类广泛存在于成熟和发育期中枢神经系统的胶质细胞群体.这些细胞表面表达NG2硫酸软骨素蛋白多糖,因而常被称作NG2细胞.随着NG2细胞形态学研究的深入,NG2胶质细胞的功能也越来越受到关注.NG2细胞在人类多种中枢神经系统疾病中扮演重要角色.本文结合最新的研究报道,就其在一些常见的中枢神经系统疾病中的作用进行概括综述.

  19. Molecular disruptions of the panglial syncytium block potassium siphoning and axonal saltatory conduction: pertinence to neuromyelitis optica and other demyelinating diseases of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rash, J E

    2010-07-28

    The panglial syncytium maintains ionic conditions required for normal neuronal electrical activity in the central nervous system (CNS). Vital among these homeostatic functions is "potassium siphoning," a process originally proposed to explain astrocytic sequestration and long-distance disposal of K(+) released from unmyelinated axons during each action potential. Fundamentally different, more efficient processes are required in myelinated axons, where axonal K(+) efflux occurs exclusively beneath and enclosed within the myelin sheath, precluding direct sequestration of K(+) by nearby astrocytes. Molecular mechanisms for entry of excess K(+) and obligatorily-associated osmotic water from axons into innermost myelin are not well characterized, whereas at the output end, axonally-derived K(+) and associated osmotic water are known to be expelled by Kir4.1 and aquaporin-4 channels concentrated in astrocyte endfeet that surround capillaries and that form the glia limitans. Between myelin (input end) and astrocyte endfeet (output end) is a vast network of astrocyte "intermediaries" that are strongly inter-linked, including with myelin, by abundant gap junctions that disperse excess K(+) and water throughout the panglial syncytium, thereby greatly reducing K(+)-induced osmotic swelling of myelin. Here, I review original reports that established the concept of potassium siphoning in unmyelinated CNS axons, summarize recent revolutions in our understanding of K(+) efflux during axonal saltatory conduction, then describe additional components required by myelinated axons for a newly-described process of voltage-augmented "dynamic" potassium siphoning. If any of several molecular components of the panglial syncytium are compromised, K(+) siphoning is blocked, myelin is destroyed, and axonal saltatory conduction ceases. Thus, a common thread linking several CNS demyelinating diseases is the disruption of potassium siphoning/water transport within the panglial syncytium

  20. Stereotactic Radiation Therapy can Safely and Durably Control Sites of Extra-Central Nervous System Oligoprogressive Disease in Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase-Positive Lung Cancer Patients Receiving Crizotinib

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the durability and toxicity of radiotherapeutic local ablative therapy (LAT) applied to extra-central nervous system (eCNS) disease progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Methods and Materials: Anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib and manifesting ≤4 discrete sites of eCNS progression were classified as having oligoprogressive disease (OPD). If subsequent progression met OPD criteria, additional courses of LAT were considered. Crizotinib was continued until eCNS progression was beyond OPD criteria or otherwise not suitable for further LAT. Results: Of 38 patients, 33 progressed while taking crizotinib. Of these, 14 had eCNS progression meeting OPD criteria suitable for radiotherapeutic LAT. Patients with eCNS OPD received 1-3 courses of LAT with radiation therapy. The 6- and 12-month actuarial local lesion control rates with radiation therapy were 100% and 86%, respectively. The 12-month local lesion control rate with single-fraction equivalent dose >25 Gy versus ≤25 Gy was 100% versus 60% (P=.01). No acute or late grade >2 radiation therapy-related toxicities were observed. Median overall time taking crizotinib among those treated with LAT versus those who progressed but were not suitable for LAT was 28 versus 10.1 months, respectively. Patients continuing to take crizotinib for >12 months versus ≤12 months had a 2-year overall survival rate of 72% versus 12%, respectively (P<.0001). Conclusions: Local ablative therapy safely and durably eradicated sites of individual lesion progression in anaplastic lymphoma kinase-positive NSCLC patients receiving crizotinib. A dose–response relationship for local lesion control was observed. The suppression of OPD by LAT in patients taking crizotinib allowed an extended duration of exposure to crizotinib, which was associated with longer overall survival

  1. Studies on central nervous system serotonin receptors in mood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, A; Goodwin, G M

    1991-01-01

    The evidence from studies of central nervous system serotonin (5-HT) receptors is reviewed and the role of these in the pathogenesis of mood disorders is discussed. Clinical evidence indicates that 5-HT function is abnormal in mood disorders. 5-HT precursors and selective inhibitors of 5-HT uptake are effective antidepressives and inhibition of 5-HT synthesis can block the action of antidepressives. Studies of 5-HT in experimental animals after chronic administration of antidepressive treatments suggest that intact 5-HT neurons are necessary for the action of these treatments. Multiple 5-HT receptor subtypes have recently been identified and the effects of chronic antidepressive treatment on some receptor subtypes function in experimental animals have been established. The increasing availability of powerful new in vivo imaging techniques like single photon emission tomography (SPET), and positron emission tomography (PET) may make possible a more direct examination of 5-HT receptor function in patients suffering from mood disorders. PMID:2029163

  2. Primary central nervous system lymphoma a report of nine cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmaiah, K C; Lokanath, D; Ramesh, C; Babu, K G; Rao, C R; Swamy, K

    1996-06-01

    Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma (PCNSL) is a rare neoplasm of B cell origin and constitute less than 1% of Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Histology is mainly of high grade and intermediate type. Although NHL is known to be highly sensitive to both irradiation and cytotoxic drugs, being a curable malignancy, the therapeutic results remain disappointing. Clinical observations on nine cases of PCNSL seen in one of the major cancer centres in India is presented in this paper. Radiotherapy combined with Chemotherapy although yielded encouraging initial response in these patients, the long term response was unsatisfactory with median survival for these patients being only 19 months. This warrants an alternative therapeutic approach to improve the dismal prognosis of PCNSL. PMID:8979473

  3. Neuroinvasion and Inflammation in Viral Central Nervous System Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroten, Horst

    2016-01-01

    Neurotropic viruses can cause devastating central nervous system (CNS) infections, especially in young children and the elderly. The blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier (BCSFB) have been described as relevant sites of entry for specific viruses as well as for leukocytes, which are recruited during the proinflammatory response in the course of CNS infection. In this review, we illustrate examples of established brain barrier models, in which the specific reaction patterns of different viral families can be analyzed. Furthermore, we highlight the pathogen specific array of cytokines and chemokines involved in immunological responses in viral CNS infections. We discuss in detail the link between specific cytokines and chemokines and leukocyte migration profiles. The thorough understanding of the complex and interrelated inflammatory mechanisms as well as identifying universal mediators promoting CNS inflammation is essential for the development of new diagnostic and treatment strategies. PMID:27313404

  4. Modulation of Tumor Tolerance in Primary Central Nervous System Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore S. Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system tumors take advantage of the unique immunology of the CNS and develop exquisitely complex stromal networks that promote growth despite the presence of antigen-presenting cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. It is precisely this immunological paradox that is essential to the survival of the tumor. We review the evidence for functional CNS immune privilege and the impact it has on tumor tolerance. In this paper, we place an emphasis on the role of tumor-infiltrating myeloid cells in maintaining stromal and vascular quiescence, and we underscore the importance of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity as a myeloid-driven tumor tolerance mechanism. Much remains to be discovered regarding the tolerogenic mechanisms by which CNS tumors avoid immune clearance. Thus, it is an open question whether tumor tolerance in the brain is fundamentally different from that of peripheral sites of tumorigenesis or whether it simply stands as a particularly strong example of such tolerance.

  5. MRT of the central nervous system; MRT des Zentralnervensystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsting, M.; Jansen, O. (eds.)

    2006-07-01

    The book presents the state of the art of MRT imaging of the central nervous system. Detailed information is presented in order to provide sufficient knowledge for the medical diagnostician to discuss any case encountered at eye level with the clinical physician. The book is an indispensable reference manual and a quick orientation already during examination in difficult cases. It contains images made with the most recent technology and with excellent representation of details. Even rare findings are described in detail. The imaging principle is illustrated by more than 1000 pictures and graphical representations as well as more than 100 complementary tables. Findings are classified by regions, i.e. 'brain' and 'spinal cord', including anatomical descriptions. (orig.)

  6. Optimized optical clearing method for imaging central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tingting; Qi, Yisong; Gong, Hui; Luo, Qingming; Zhu, Dan

    2015-03-01

    The development of various optical clearing methods provides a great potential for imaging entire central nervous system by combining with multiple-labelling and microscopic imaging techniques. These methods had made certain clearing contributions with respective weaknesses, including tissue deformation, fluorescence quenching, execution complexity and antibody penetration limitation that makes immunostaining of tissue blocks difficult. The passive clarity technique (PACT) bypasses those problems and clears the samples with simple implementation, excellent transparency with fine fluorescence retention, but the passive tissue clearing method needs too long time. In this study, we not only accelerate the clearing speed of brain blocks but also preserve GFP fluorescence well by screening an optimal clearing temperature. The selection of proper temperature will make PACT more applicable, which evidently broaden the application range of this method.

  7. Central nervous system syndromes in solid organ transplant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Alissa J; Fishman, Jay A

    2014-10-01

    Solid organ transplant recipients have a high incidence of central nervous system (CNS) complications, including both focal and diffuse neurologic deficits. In the immunocompromised host, the initial clinical evaluation must focus on both life-threatening CNS infections and vascular or anatomic lesions. The clinical signs and symptoms of CNS processes are modified by the immunosuppression required to prevent graft rejection. In this population, these etiologies often coexist with drug toxicities and metabolic abnormalities that complicate the development of a specific approach to clinical management. This review assesses the multiple risk factors for CNS processes in solid organ transplant recipients and establishes a timeline to assist in the evaluation and management of these complex patients.

  8. Adult neural stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dengke K Ma; Michael A Bonaguidi; Guo-li Ming; Hongjun Song

    2009-01-01

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) are present not only during the embryonic development but also in the adult brain of all mammalian species, including humans. Stem cell niche architecture in vivo enables adult NSCs to continuously generate functional neurons in specific brain regions throughout life. The adult neurogenesis process is subject to dynamic regulation by various physiological, pathological and pharmacological stimuli. Multipotent adult NSCs also appear to be intrinsically plastic, amenable to genetic programing during normal differentiation, and to epigenetic reprograming during de-differentiation into pluripotency. Increasing evidence suggests that adult NSCs significantly contribute to specialized neural functions under physiological and pathological conditions. Fully understanding the biology of adult NSCs will provide crucial insights into both the etiology and potential therapeutic interventions of major brain disorders. Here, we review recent progress on adult NSCs of the mammalian central nervous system, in-cluding topics on their identity, niche, function, plasticity, and emerging roles in cancer and regenerative medicine.

  9. Materials directed to implants for repairing Central Nervous System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canillas, M.; Moreno-Burriel, B.; Chinarro, E.

    2014-07-01

    Central Nervous System (CNS) can be damaged by a wide range of injuries and disorders which entail permanent disability in some cases. Moreover, CNS repairing process presents some complications. The natural repair mechanism, which consists on the glial scar formation, is triggered by the inflammatory process. Molecules delivered during these processes, inflammation and glial scar formation as well as oxygen and glucose deficiencies due to the injury, create an inhibitory environment for axon regeneration and remyelination which is known as secondary injury. Biomaterials are taking up an even more important role in repairing CNS. Physicochemical properties of some ceramic materials have inspired different applications to repair CNS as substrates, electrodes or molecule vehicles. Based on their biocompatibility, capability to neutralize reactive species involved in the inflammatory processes and their versatile processing to obtain scaffolds with different shapes and sizes, ceramics are a succulent offer in nervous tissue engineering. Furthermore, their possibilities have been increased with polymeric-ceramics composites development, which have given rise to new interesting horizon. (Author)

  10. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  11. Radiologic findings of cysticercosis involving central nervous system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ki Hwan; Chang, Kee Hyun; Kang, Ik Won; Han, Man Chung; Choi, Kil Soo; Sim, Bo Sung [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1979-12-15

    The diagnosis of cysticercosis of central nervous system should be considered in patients with seizures, symptoms of increased I.C.P. or focal neurologic sign, with a history of having lived in an endemic area, particularly in Korea. Since these cysts usually continue to grew and medical treatment is very limited it is important to identify them and consider the feasibility of removing them surgically. 20 cases of surgically proven cysticercosis of the central nervous system were radiologically analyzed, experienced at Seoul National University Hospital. Radiologic studies include plain radiography of the skull, angiography, and CT scanning which is especially effective in diagnosis of diffuse parenchymal cysticercosis.The results are as follows: 1. Male to female ratio is 11 : 9 and mean age of the patients is 36 years. The cardinal symptoms and sign are seizures (50%), symptoms of increased I.C.P. (45%). mental change (20%) and focal neurologic sign (20%). 2. The distribution od cysts are cerebral parenchymal (40%), 4th ventricle (30%), 3rd ventricle (10%), leptomeningeal (30%), and intraspinal form (15%). 3. Simple skull film shows sign of increased I.C.P. (25%) but no case of calcification. In carotid angiography hydrocephalus is detected in all 13 cases. Displacement of adjacent vessels is seen n 2 cases of parenchymal form. Ventriculography shows dilated ventricles with free floating avoid filling defect in intraventricular form and 4th ventricle obstruction in leptomeningeal form. 4. Of spinal cysticercosis 2 cases are leptomeningeal and 1 case intramedullary form. 2 case are found in cervical portion and 1 case in cauda equina region. Myelography reveals filling defect not distinguishable from other tumorous condition.

  12. Expression of the very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r), an apolipoprotein-E receptor, in the central nervous system and in Alzheimer`s disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christie, R.H.; Chung, Haeyong; Rebeck, G.W.; Hyman, B.T. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    The very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDL-r) is a cell-surface molecule specialized for the internalization of multiple diverse ligands, including apolipoprotein E (apoE)-containing lipoprotein particles, via clathrin-coated pits. Its structure is similar to the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDL-r), although the two have substantially different systemic distributions and regulatory pathways. The present work examines the distribution of VLDL-r in the central nervous system (CNS) and in relation to senile plaques in Alzheimer disease (AD). VLDL-r is present on resting and activated microglia, particularly those associated with senile plaques (SPs). VLDL-r immunoreactivity is also found in cortical neurons. Two exons of VLDL-r mRNA are differentially spliced in the mature receptor mRNA. One set of splice forms gives rise to receptors containing (or lacking) an extracellular O-linked glycosylation domain near the transmembrane portion of the molecule. The other set of splice forms appears to be brain-specific, and is responsible for the presence or absence of one of the cysteine-rich repeat regions in the binding region of the molecule. Ratios of the receptor variants generated from these splice forms do not differ substantially across different cortical areas or in AD. We hypothesize that VLDL-r might contribute to metabolism of apoE and apoE/A{beta} complexes in the brain. Further characterization of apoE receptors in Alzheimer brain may help lay the groundwork for understanding the role of apoE in the CNS and in the pathophysiology of AD. 43 refs., 5 figs.

  13. pH responsive granulocyte colony-stimulating factor variants with implications for treating Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinzelman, Pete; Schoborg, Jennifer A; Jewett, Michael C

    2015-10-01

    Systemic injection of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) has yielded encouraging results in treating Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other central nervous system (CNS) disorders. Making G-CSF a viable AD therapeutic will, however, require increasing G-CSF's ability to stimulate neurons within the brain. This objective could be realized by increasing transcytosis of G-CSF across the blood brain barrier (BBB). An established correlation between G-CSF receptor (G-CSFR) binding pH responsiveness and increased recycling of G-CSF to the cell exterior after endocytosis motivated development of G-CSF variants with highly pH responsive G-CSFR binding affinities. These variants will be used in future validation of our hypothesis that increased BBB transcytosis can enhance G-CSF therapeutic efficacy. Flow cytometric screening of a yeast-displayed library in which G-CSF/G-CSFR interface residues were mutated to histidine yielded a G-CSF triple His mutant (L109H/D110H/Q120H) with highly pH responsive binding affinity. This variant's KD, measured by surface plasmon resonance (SPR), increases ∼20-fold as pH decreases from 7.4 to below histidine's pKa of ∼6.0; an increase 2-fold greater than for previously reported G-CSF His mutants. Cell-free protein synthesis (CFPS) enabled expression and purification of soluble, bioactive G-CSF triple His variant protein, an outcome inaccessible via Escherichia coli inclusion body refolding. This purification and bioactivity validation will enable future identification of correlations between pH responsiveness and transcytosis in BBB cell culture model and animal experiments. Furthermore, the library screening and CFPS methods employed here could be applied to developing other pH responsive hematopoietic or neurotrophic factors for treating CNS disorders. PMID:25877663

  14. Cardiovascular and autonomic modulation by the central nervous system after aerobic exercise training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Martins-Pinge

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The autonomic nervous system plays a key role in maintaining homeostasis under normal and pathological conditions. The sympathetic tone, particularly for the cardiovascular system, is generated by sympathetic discharges originating in specific areas of the brainstem. Aerobic exercise training promotes several cardiovascular adjustments that are influenced by the central areas involved in the output of the autonomic nervous system. In this review, we emphasize the studies that investigate aerobic exercise training protocols to identify the cardiovascular adaptations that may be the result of central nervous system plasticity due to chronic exercise. The focus of our study is on some groups of neurons involved in sympathetic regulation. They include the nucleus tractus solitarii, caudal ventrolateral medulla and the rostral ventrolateral medulla that maintain and regulate the cardiac and vascular autonomic tonus. We also discuss studies that demonstrate the involvement of supramedullary areas in exercise training modulation, with emphasis on the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus, an important area of integration for autonomic and neuroendocrine responses. The results of these studies suggest that the beneficial effects of physical activity may be due, at least in part, to reductions in sympathetic nervous system activity. Conversely, with the recent association of physical inactivity with chronic disease, these data may also suggest that increases in sympathetic nervous system activity contribute to the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases associated with a sedentary lifestyle.

  15. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone and anti-thyroglobulin antibody are independently associated with lesions in spinal cord in central nervous system demyelinating diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youming Long

    Full Text Available Transverse myelitis (TM is associated with neuromyelitis optica (NMO and multiple sclerosis (MS. Early recognition of useful parameters may be helpful to distinguish their difference. This retrospective study analyzed thyroid parameters from 243 serum samples (relapse = 128; remission = 115 of 178 patients with demyelinating diseases (NMO, n = 25; TM, n = 48; MS, n = 105. The relationship between thyroid and clinical parameters was analyzed. Patients with NMO and TM had a higher frequency of abnormal thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH, anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TG-Ab, and antithyroid peroxidase antibody (TPO-Ab than MS patients (p<0.05. The level of TSH and TG-Ab returned to normal levels after administration of high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone (p<0.05. In 96 patients (NMO, n = 19; TM, n = 25; MS, n = 52 without treatment, serum levels of TSH, TG-Ab and TPO-Ab were significantly different between patients with and without myelitis (p<0.01. Patients positive for aquaporin-4 (AQP4 antibodies showed higher abnormalities of TSH (p = 0.001, TG-Ab (p = 0.004 and TPO-Ab (p<0.0001 levels than AQP4 antibodies negative patients. Logistic regression analyses revealed independent relationships between TSH (odds ratio [OR]  = 33.994; p<0.0001, TG-Ab (OR = 7.703; p = 0.017 and myelitis occurrence in 96 patients at the active stage. In 52 MS patients experiencing their first attack, MS patients with myelitis were associated with TSH abnormalities (OR = 42.778; p<0.0001. This study showed increased abnormalities of thyroid parameters in patients with NMO and TM than in MS patients. MS patients with myelitis also had greater TSH abnormality than in MS patients without myelitis. Abnormal TSH and TG-Ab were independently associated with myelitis occurrence in central nervous system demyelinating disorders.

  16. Multiple myeloma invasion of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Slobodan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Multiple myeloma (MM is characterized by the presence of neoplastic proliferating plasma cells. The tumor is generally restricted to the bone marrow. The most common complications include renal insufficiency, hypercalcemia, anemia and reccurent infections. The spectrum of MM neurological complications is diverse, however, involvement of MM in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and leptomeningeal infiltration are rare considered. In about 1% of the cases, the disease affects the central nervous system (CNS and presents itself in the form of localized intraparenchymal lesions, solitary cerebral plasmocytoma or CNS myelomatosis (LMM. Case report. We presented the clinical course of a 55-year-old man with MM and LMM proven by malignant plasma cells in the CSF, hospitalized with the pain in the thoracic spine. His medical history was uneventful. There had been no evidence of mental or neurological impairment prior to the seizures. Physical examination showed no abnormalities. After a complete staging, the diagnosis of MM type biclonal gammopathia IgG lambda and free lambda light chains in the stage III was confirmed. The treatment started with systemic chemotherapy (with vincristine, doxorubicin plus high-dose dexamethasone - VAD protocol, radiotherapy and bisphosphonate. The patient developed weakness, nausea, febrility, dispnea, bilateral bronchopneumonia, acute renal insufficiency, confusions, headaches and soon thereafter sensomotor aphasias and right hemiparesis. The patient was treated with the adequate therapy including one hemodyalisis. His neurological status was deteriorated, so Multislice Computed Tomography (MSCT of the head was performed and the findings were normal. Analysis of CSF showed pleocytosis, 26 elements/ mL and increased concentrations of proteins. Cytological analysis revealed an increased number of plasma cells (29%. Electrophoretic analysis of proteins disclosed the existance of monoclonal components in the serum

  17. Central nervous system remyelination in culture — A tool for multiple sclerosis research

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Jarjour, Andrew A.; Boyd, Amanda; Williams, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system which only affects humans. This makes it difficult to study at a molecular level, and to develop and test potential therapies that may change the course of the disease. The development of therapies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis is a key research aim, to both aid restoration of electrical impulse conduction in nerves and provide neuroprotection, reducing disability in patients. Testing a remyelination ...

  18. Two uncommon manifestations of leptospirosis:Sweet’s syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter George

    2011-01-01

    To leptospirosis is the commonest spirocheatal infection in the tropical and temperate countries of Indian sub-continent and Africa and the most common zoonosis worldwide. The protean manifestation of this infectious disease is a challenge for practising clinicians across the world. In poor developing countries, at most clinical suspicion it is essential in the diagnosis of this disease. In this report, we are able to document two uncommon manifestations of leptospirosis, namely Sweet’s syndrome and central nervous system vasculitis.

  19. Constitutive expression of a costimulatory ligand on antigen-presenting cells in the nervous system drives demyelinating disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zehntner, Simone P; Brisebois, Marcel; Tran, Elise;

    2003-01-01

    that transgenic mice constitutively expressing the costimulatory ligand B7.2/CD86 on microglia in the central nervous system (CNS) and on related cells in the proximal peripheral nervous tissue spontaneously develop autoimmune demyelinating disease. Disease-affected nervous tissue in transgenic mice showed...

  20. Secondary infiltration of the central nervous system in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Maira Bueno da Silveira da Rocha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of infiltration of the central nervous system after the initial treatment of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in patients treated at Santa Casa de Misericórdia de São Paulo. METHODS: A total of 133 patients treated for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma from January 2001 to April 2008 were retrospectively analyzed in respect to the incidence and risk factors of secondary central nervous system involvement of lymphoma. Intrathecal prophylaxis was not a standard procedure for patients considered to be at risk. This analysis includes patients whether they received rituximab as first-line treatment or not. RESULTS: Nine of 133 (6.7% patients developed central nervous system disease after a mean observation time of 29 months. The median time to relapse or progression was 7.9 months after diagnosis and all but one patient died despite the treatment administered. Twenty-six (19.5% patients of this cohort received rituximab as first-line treatment and nine (7.1% received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis. Of the nine patients that relapsed, seven (77.7% had parenchymal central nervous system involvement; seven (77.7% had stage III or IV disease; one (11.1% had bone marrow involvement; two (22.2% had received intrathecal chemoprophylaxis; and 3 (33.3% had taken rituximab. In a multivariate analysis, the risk factors for this infiltration were being male, previous use of intrathecal chemotherapy and patients that were refractory to initial treatment. CONCLUSION: Central nervous system infiltration in this cohort is similar to that of previous reports in the literature. As this was a small cohort with a rare event, only three risk factors were important for this infiltration

  1. Evolution of bilaterian central nervous systems: a single origin?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z; Carvalho, João E; Escriva, Hector; Laudet, Vincent; Schubert, Michael; Shimeld, Sebastian M; Yu, Jr-Kai

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether the ancestral bilaterian had a central nervous system (CNS) or a diffuse ectodermal nervous system has been hotly debated. Considerable evidence supports the theory that a CNS evolved just once. However, an alternative view proposes that the chordate CNS evolved from the ectodermal nerve net of a hemichordate-like ancestral deuterostome, implying independent evolution of the CNS in chordates and protostomes. To specify morphological divisions along the anterior/posterior axis, this ancestor used gene networks homologous to those patterning three organizing centers in the vertebrate brain: the anterior neural ridge, the zona limitans intrathalamica and the isthmic organizer, and subsequent evolution of the vertebrate brain involved elaboration of these ancestral signaling centers; however, all or part of these signaling centers were lost from the CNS of invertebrate chordates. The present review analyzes the evidence for and against these theories. The bulk of the evidence indicates that a CNS evolved just once - in the ancestral bilaterian. Importantly, in both protostomes and deuterostomes, the CNS represents a portion of a generally neurogenic ectoderm that is internalized and receives and integrates inputs from sensory cells in the remainder of the ectoderm. The expression patterns of genes involved in medio/lateral (dorso/ventral) patterning of the CNS are similar in protostomes and chordates; however, these genes are not similarly expressed in the ectoderm outside the CNS. Thus, their expression is a better criterion for CNS homologs than the expression of anterior/posterior patterning genes, many of which (for example, Hox genes) are similarly expressed both in the CNS and in the remainder of the ectoderm in many bilaterians. The evidence leaves hemichordates in an ambiguous position - either CNS centralization was lost to some extent at the base of the hemichordates, or even earlier, at the base of the hemichordates

  2. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  3. Diffusion imaging in pediatric central nervous system infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teixeira, J. [Dept. de Imagiologia, Hospital Geral De Santo Antonio, Porto (Portugal); Zimmerman, R.A.; Haselgrove, J.C.; Bilaniuk, L.T.; Hunter, J.V. [Dept. of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2001-12-01

    Our purpose was to investigate the role of diffusion imaging (DI) in central nervous system (CNS) infections in pediatric patients. It was anticipated that DI would be more sensitive than conventional MRI in the detection of the infarctive complications of infection, and possibly, in the detection of the infectious process as well. Seventeen pediatric patients, eight having meningitis'' five with herpes encephalitis, three with brain abscess or cerebritis and one with sepsis, were evaluated at 1.5-T with DI. All herpes patients had positive DI at the site of herpetic involvement, and two had the addition of watershed infarctions. DI demonstrated more lesions in three of the four cases of herpetic encephalitis. Half the meningitis cases had watershed infarction where DI was better and half had vasculitic infarctions in which DI was equal to or better than conventional MRI. Diffusion imaging was more sensitive than conventional MRI alone in detection of changes due to infections and ischemic lesions, but did not differentiate between them by DI or apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), although anatomic distribution of lesions proved useful. (orig.)

  4. Frequency of central nervous system tumors in delta region, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled R Zalata

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and Aim of Work: Central nervous system (CNS tumors represent a major public health problem, and their epidemiological data in Egypt have been rather incomplete except for some regional reports. There are no available frequency-based data on CNS tumors in our locality. The objective of this study was to estimate the frequency of CNS tumors in east delta region, Egypt. Materials and Methods: The data were collected during the 8-year period from January 1999 to December 2007 from Pathology Department, Mansoura University, and other referred pathology labs. Examination of HandE stained sections from retrieved paraffin blocks were done in all cases for histopathologic categorization of C.N.S. tumors. Immunohistochemical studies were applied to confirm final histopathologic diagnosis in problematic cases. Results: Intracranial tumors represented 86.7% of cases in comparison to only 13.3% for spinal tumors. Gliomas were the CNS tumors of the highest frequency (35.2%, followed by meningioma (25.6%, pituitary adenoma (11.6% and nerve sheath tumors (6.6%. 10.25% of tumors were of children <15 years. Conclusion: This study provides the largest series of the relative frequency of CNS tumors in Delta region in Egypt till now and may help to give insight into the epidemiology of CNS tumors in our locality.

  5. Eosinophilic vasculitis in an isolated central nervous system distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerville, R Brian; Noble, James M; Vonsattel, Jean Paul; Delapaz, Robert; Wright, Clinton B

    2009-01-01

    Eosinophilic vasculitis has been described as part of the Churg–Strauss syndrome, but affects the central nervous system (CNS) in <10% of cases. A 39-year-old woman with a history of migraine without aura presented to an institution in an acute confusional state with concurrent headache and left-sided weakness. Laboratory evaluation showed an increased cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) protein level, but otherwise unremarkable serologies. Magnetic resonance imaging showed bifrontal polar gyral-enhancing brain lesions. Her symptoms resolved over two weeks without residual deficits. Eighteen months later the patient presented with similar symptoms and neuroradiological findings showed involvement of territories different from those in her first episode. Brain biopsy showed transmural, predominantly eosinophilic, inflammatory infiltrates and fibrinoid necrosis without granulomas. She improved when treated with corticosteroids. To our knowledge, this is the first case of non-granulomatous eosinophilic vasculitis isolated to the CNS. No aetiology for this patient’s primary CNS eosinophilic vasculitis has yet been identified. PMID:21686608

  6. Fractal Structure and Entropy Production within the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J. E. Seely

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Our goal is to explore the relationship between two traditionally unrelated concepts, fractal structure and entropy production, evaluating both within the central nervous system (CNS. Fractals are temporal or spatial structures with self-similarity across scales of measurement; whereas entropy production represents the necessary exportation of entropy to our environment that comes with metabolism and life. Fractals may be measured by their fractal dimension; and human entropy production may be estimated by oxygen and glucose metabolism. In this paper, we observe fractal structures ubiquitously present in the CNS, and explore a hypothetical and unexplored link between fractal structure and entropy production, as measured by oxygen and glucose metabolism. Rapid increase in both fractal structures and metabolism occur with childhood and adolescent growth, followed by slow decrease during aging. Concomitant increases and decreases in fractal structure and metabolism occur with cancer vs. Alzheimer’s and multiple sclerosis, respectively. In addition to fractals being related to entropy production, we hypothesize that the emergence of fractal structures spontaneously occurs because a fractal is more efficient at dissipating energy gradients, thus maximizing entropy production. Experimental evaluation and further understanding of limitations and necessary conditions are indicated to address broad scientific and clinical implications of this work.

  7. Corticosteroid-related central nervous system side effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam Ciriaco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Corticosteroids have been used since the 50s as anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive drugs for the treatment of several pathologies such as asthma, allergy, rheumatoid arthritis, and dermatological disorders. Corticosteroids have three principal mechanisms of action: 1 inhibit the synthesis of inflammatory proteins blocking NF-kB, 2 induce the expression of anti-inflammatory proteins by IkB and MAPK phosphatase I, and 3 inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase-2. The efficacy of glucocorticoids in alleviating inflammatory disorders results from the pleiotropic effects of the glucocorticoid receptors on multiple signaling pathways. However, they have adverse effects: Growth retardation in children, immunosuppression, hypertension, hyperglycemia, inhibition of wound repair, osteoporosis, metabolic disturbances, glaucoma, and cataracts. Less is known about psychiatric or side effects on central nervous system, as catatonia, decreased concentration, agitation, insomnia, and abnormal behaviors, which are also often underestimated in clinical practice. The aim of this review is to highlight the correlation between the administration of corticosteroids and CNS adverse effects, giving a useful guide for prescribers including a more careful assessment of risk factors and encourage the use of safer doses of this class of drugs.

  8. Fetal central nervous system anomalies: fast MRI vs ultrasonography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To evaluate the ability of fast MRI to detect fetal central nervous system (CNS) anomalies and to compare its performance with that of prenatal ultrasonography (US). Methods Forty-eight pregnant women were detected by conventional prenatal US and MRI. Twenty-two fetuses with CNS anomalies were conformed by autopsy and follow-up. The MR and US appearances of fetal CNS structure were compared to each other and to that of autopsy. Results: A total of 26 CNS anomalies were identified by autopsy (n=17) and follow-up (n=9) including anencephaly (n=6), rachischisis (n=2), encephalocele (n=3), congenital hydrocephalus (n=7), alobar holoprosencephaly (n=1), porencephalia (n=3), arachnoid cyst (n=2) and choroids plexus cyst (n=2). US diagnosed 24 CNS anomalies, the correct diagnostic rate was 92.3%, the false-positive rate was 3.8%, the missed-diagnostic rate was 3.8%. MRI diagnosed 23 CNS anomalies, the correct-diagnostic rate was 88.5%, the false-positive rate was 3.8% ,the missed-diagnostic rate was 7.7%. There was no difference between US and MRI (P>0.05), but MRI have larger FOV, higher tissues resolution, and can demonstrate gray-white matter in detail. Conclusions: MR imaging has a similar sensitivity to that of US in the detection of fetal CNS anomalies. (authors)

  9. Comprehensive Craniospinal Radiation for Controlling Central Nervous System Leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Gary V.; Shihadeh, Ferial [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kantarjian, Hagop [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Allen, Pamela [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Rondon, Gabriela; Kebriaei, Partow [Department of Stem Cell Transplantation, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); O' Brien, Susan [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Kedir, Aziza; Said, Mustefa; Grant, Jonathan D. [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thomas, Deborah A. [Department of Leukemia, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Gidley, Paul W. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Arzu, Isidora; Pinnix, Chelsea; Reed, Valerie [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Dabaja, Bouthaina S., E-mail: bdabaja@mdanderson.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Purpose: To determine the benefit of radiation therapy (RT) in resolution of neurologic symptoms and deficits and whether the type of RT fields influences central nervous system (CNS) control in adults with CNS leukemia. Methods and Materials: A total of 163 adults from 1996 to 2012 were retrospectively analyzed. Potential associations between use of radiation and outcome were investigated by univariate and multivariate analysis. Results: The median survival time was 3.8 months after RT. Common presenting symptoms were headache in 79 patients (49%), cranial nerve VII deficit in 46 (28%), and cranial nerve II deficit in 44 (27%). RT was delivered to the base of skull in 48 patients (29%), to the whole brain (WB) in 67 (41%), and to the craniospinal axis (CS) in 48 (29%). Among 149 patients with a total of 233 deficits, resolution was observed in 34 deficits (15%), improvement in 126 deficits (54%), stability in 34 deficits (15%), and progression in 39 deficits (17%). The 12-month CNS progression-free survival was 77% among those receiving CS/WB and 51% among those receiving base of skull RT (P=.02). On multivariate analysis, patients who did not undergo stem cell transplantation after RT and base of skull RT were associated with worse CNS progression-free survival. Conclusions: Improvement or resolution of symptoms occurred in two thirds of deficits after RT. Comprehensive radiation to the WB or CS seems to offer a better outcome, especially in isolated CNS involvement.

  10. Drug/radiation interactions and central nervous system injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system (CNS) injury caused by combined treatment with cranial radiation therapy (CRT) and chemotherapy is a complicated and difficult problem. Interactions between the two modalities at the cellular level, the effect of treatment sequencing, and chemotherapy and RT dosages are all poorly understood. While this is generally true and applicable to toxicities expressed in multiple organs and tissue types, it is particularly true for the brain. There are many clinical descriptions and situations that strongly implicate an enhanced neurotoxic potential for combined treatment compared to either therapy alone; there is a paucity of definitive experimental evidence, however, and few animal models that can be used to elucidate the nature and pathophysiology of this clinical association. This paper addresses the neurotoxic potential of a specific chemotherapeutic drug when combined with CRT; outlines whose drugs known to cause CNS injury when combined with CRT. Although many of the clinical situations are complicated because multiple cytotoxic agents have been used, usually only one is thought to contribute to the CNS injury. The authors discuss each drug separately

  11. Imaging features of central nervous system fungal infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain Krishan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS are rare in the general population and are invariably secondary to primary focus elsewhere, usually in the lung or intestine. Except for people with longstanding diabetes, they are most frequently encountered in immunocompromised patients such as those with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or after organ transplantation. Due to the lack of inflammatory response, neuroradiological findings are often nonspecific and are frequently mistaken for tuberculous meningitis, pyogenic abscess or brain tumor. Intracranial fungal infections are being identified more frequently due to the increased incidence of AIDS patients, better radiological investigations, more sensitive microbiological techniques and better critical care of moribund patients. Although almost any fungus may cause encephalitis, cryptococcal meningoencephalitis is most frequently seen, followed by aspergillosis and candidiasis. The biology, epidemiology and imaging features of the common fungal infections of the CNS will be reviewed. The radiographic appearance alone is often not specific, but the combination of the appropriate clinical setting along with computed tomography or magnetic resonance may help to suggest the correct diagnosis.

  12. Nanotechnologies for the study of the central nervous system.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ajetunmobi, A

    2014-12-01

    The impact of central nervous system (CNS) disorders on the human population is significant, contributing almost €800 billion in annual European healthcare costs. These disorders not only have a disabling social impact but also a crippling economic drain on resources. Developing novel therapeutic strategies for these disorders requires a better understanding of events that underlie mechanisms of neural circuit physiology. Studying the relationship between genetic expression, synapse development and circuit physiology in CNS function is a challenging task, involving simultaneous analysis of multiple parameters and the convergence of several disciplines and technological approaches. However, current gold-standard techniques used to study the CNS have limitations that pose unique challenges to furthering our understanding of functional CNS development. The recent advancement in nanotechnologies for biomedical applications has seen the emergence of nanoscience as a key enabling technology for delivering a translational bridge between basic and clinical research. In particular, the development of neuroimaging and electrophysiology tools to identify the aetiology and progression of CNS disorders have led to new insights in our understanding of CNS physiology and the development of novel diagnostic modalities for therapeutic intervention. This review focuses on the latest applications of these nanotechnologies for investigating CNS function and the improved diagnosis of CNS disorders.

  13. Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Central Nervous System: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jang Hoon; Yang, Kook Hee; Yoon, Pyeong Ho; Kie, Jeong Hae

    2015-10-01

    Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a rare neoplasm of mesenchymal origin, especially in the central nervous system (CNS). Reported herein is a case of SFT of CNS in a 63-year-old female patient who had confused mentality, without other neurological deficit. The brain MRI showed an ovoid mass in the right frontal lobe. The tumor was surgically removed grossly and totally, and the pathologic diagnosis was SFT. At 55 months after the surgery, the tumor recurred at the primary site and at an adjacent area. A second operation was thus done, and the tumor was again surgically removed grossly and totally. The pathologic diagnosis was the same as the previous, but the Ki-67 index was elevated. Ten months later, two small recurring tumors in the right frontal skull base were found in the follow-up MRI. It was decided that radiation therapy be done, and MRI was done again 3 months later. In the follow-up MRI, the size of the recurring mass was found to have decreased, and the patient did not manifest any significant symptom. Follow-up will again be done 18 months after the second surgery. PMID:26605270

  14. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for hydrocephalus caused by central nervous system metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Kong, Doo Sik; Seol, Ho Joon; Nam, Do-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Il

    2011-09-01

    The development of better diagnostic tools and therapeutic modalities has increased the incidence of central nervous system (CNS) metastasis in malignant tumor patients. Hydrocephalus can result from CNS metastasis and frustrate cancer treatment. The authors sought to investigate the outcomes and the roles of ventriculoperitoneal shunts (VPS) in patients with CNS metastasis. The medical records of 50 consecutive patients who underwent VPS for hydrocephalus related to CNS metastasis were analyzed retrospectively. Data included features of primary malignancies, CNS involvement, clinical course and surgical outcome. Median patient age was 55.0 years (range 25-77), and 30 female and 20 male patients were included in the study. At the time of VPS, 10 patients had parenchymal metastases only and 40 patients had leptomeningeal seeding (LMS). Symptom improvement was observed postoperatively in 40 patients (80%), mean Karnofsky performance status (KPS) scale change was from 37.8 to 46.0, and median survival from VPS was 3.0 months (2 days to 54 months). A ventricular opening pressure of >30 cmH(2)O (HR 6.44, 95% CI 1.26-32.9, P = 0.02) and further cancer treatment after VPS (HR 0.17, 95% CI 0.07-0.42, P Hydrocephalus in CNS metastasis requiring VPS is commonly associated with LMS. VPS is an effective palliative measure and an adequate cancer treatment after VPS may provide the best means of improving survival.

  15. Central nervous system infections in the intensive care unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Vengamma

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Neurological infections constitute an uncommon, but important aetiological cause requiring admission to an intensive care unit (ICU. In addition, health-care associated neurological infections may develop in critically ill patients admitted to an ICU for other indications. Central nervous system infections can develop as complications in ICU patients including post-operative neurosurgical patients. While bacterial infections are the most common cause, mycobacterial and fungal infections are also frequently encountered. Delay in institution of specific treatment is considered to be the single most important poor prognostic factor. Empirical antibiotic therapy must be initiated while awaiting specific culture and sensitivity results. Choice of empirical antimicrobial therapy should take into consideration the most likely pathogens involved, locally prevalent drug-resistance patterns, underlying predisposing, co-morbid conditions, and other factors, such as age, immune status. Further, the antibiotic should adequately penetrate the blood-brain and blood- cerebrospinal fluid barriers. The presence of a focal collection of pus warrants immediate surgical drainage. Following strict aseptic precautions during surgery, hand-hygiene and care of catheters, devices constitute important preventive measures. A high index of clinical suspicion and aggressive efforts at identification of aetiological cause and early institution of specific treatment in patients with neurological infections can be life saving.

  16. Systematic review of central nervous system anomalies in incontinentia pigmenti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minić Snežana

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this study was to present a systematic review of the central nervous system (CNS types of anomalies and to consider the possibility to include CNS anomalies in Incontinentia pigmenti (IP criteria. The analyzed literature data from 1,393 IP cases were from the period 1993–2012. CNS anomalies were diagnosed for 30.44% of the investigated IP patients. The total number of CNS types of anomalies per patient was 1.62. In the present study there was no significantly higher number of anomalies per patient in females than males. The most frequent CNS types of anomalies were seizures, motor impairment, mental retardation, and microcephaly. The most frequently registered CNS lesions found using brain imaging methods were brain infarcts or necrosis, brain atrophies, and corpus callosum lesions. IKBKG exon 4–10 deletion was present in 86.00% of genetically confirmed IP patients. The frequency of CNS anomalies, similar to the frequency of retinal anomalies in IP patients, concurrent with their severity, supports their recognition in the list of IP minor criteria.

  17. Growth Cone Biomechanics in Peripheral and Central Nervous System Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbach, Jeffrey; Koch, Daniel; Rosoff, Will; Geller, Herbert

    2012-02-01

    The growth cone, a highly motile structure at the tip of an axon, integrates information about the local environment and modulates outgrowth and guidance, but little is known about effects of external mechanical cues and internal mechanical forces on growth-cone mediated guidance. We have investigated neurite outgrowth, traction forces and cytoskeletal substrate coupling on soft elastic substrates for dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons (from the peripheral nervous system) and hippocampal neurons (from the central) to see how the mechanics of the microenvironment affect different populations. We find that the biomechanics of DRG neurons are dramatically different from hippocampal, with DRG neurons displaying relatively large, steady traction forces and maximal outgrowth and forces on substrates of intermediate stiffness, while hippocampal neurons display weak, intermittent forces and limited dependence of outgrowth and forces on substrate stiffness. DRG growth cones have slower rates of retrograde actin flow and higher density of localized paxillin (a protein associated with substrate adhesion complexes) compared to hippocampal neurons, suggesting that the difference in force generation is due to stronger adhesions and therefore stronger substrate coupling in DRG growth cones.

  18. Pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antiretrovirals in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calcagno, Andrea; Di Perri, Giovanni; Bonora, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    HIV-positive patients may be effectively treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy and such a strategy is associated with striking immune recovery and viral load reduction to very low levels. Despite undeniable results, the central nervous system (CNS) is commonly affected during the course of HIV infection, with neurocognitive disorders being as prevalent as 20-50 % of treated subjects. This review discusses the pathophysiology of CNS infection by HIV and the barriers to efficacious control of such a mechanism, including the available data on compartmental drug penetration and on pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationships. In the reviewed articles, a high variability in drug transfer to the CNS is highlighted with several mechanisms as well as methodological issues potentially influencing the observed results. Nevirapine and zidovudine showed the highest cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to plasma ratios, although target concentrations are currently unknown for the CNS. The use of the composite CSF concentration effectiveness score has been associated with better virological outcomes (lower HIV RNA) but has been inconsistently associated with neurocognitive outcomes. These findings support the CNS effectiveness of commonly used highly antiretroviral therapies. The use of antiretroviral drugs with increased CSF penetration and/or effectiveness in treating or preventing neurocognitive disorders however needs to be assessed in well-designed prospective studies.

  19. MRI in central nervous system infections: A simplified patterned approach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krithika; Rangarajan; Chandan; J; Das; Atin; Kumar; Arun; Kumar; Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Recognition and characterization of central nervous system infections poses a formidable challenge to the neuro-radiologist.Imaging plays a vital role,the lesions typically being relatively inaccessible to tisue sampling.The results of an accurate diagnosis are endlessly re-warding,given the availability of excellent pharmaco-logical regimen.The availability of numerous magnetic resonance(MR)sequences which provide functional and molecular information is a powerful tool in the hands of the radiologist.However,the plethora of se-quences and the possibilities on each sequence is also intimidating,and often confusing as well as time con-suming.While a large number of reviews have already described in detail the possible imaging findings in each infection,we intend to classify infections based on their imaging characteristics.In this review we describe an algorithm for first classifying the imaging findings into patterns based on basic MR sequences(T1,T2 and enhancement pattern with Gadolinium),and then sub-classify them based on more advanced molecular and functional sequences(Diffusion,Perfusion,Susceptibili-ty imaging,MR Spectroscopy).This patterned approachis intended as a guide to radiologists in-training and in-practice for quickly narrowing their list of differentials when faced with a clinical challenge.The entire content of the article has also been summarised in the form of flow-charts for the purpose of quick reference.

  20. Changing trends in nervous system diseases among hospitalized children in the Chongqing region

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin Zou; Nong Xiao; Bei Xu

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the changing trends of nervous system diseases among hospitalized children and the risk factors of death. METHOD: The disease was statistically classified according to the International Statistical Classification of Disease and Health Problem (ICD10). The retrospective investigation includes demographic characteristics, as well as categories and fatality rates for nervous system diseases. All data was statistically analyzed. RESULTS: The percentage of nervous system diseases among inpatients in all wards was 2.4% (2 537/ 107 250) between January 1993 and December 1999, and 3.6% (6 082/170 619) between January 2000 and December 2006. The first ten patterns of various etiologic forms of nervous system diseases were identical-epilepsies and seizures, infections of the central nervous system, autoimmune and demyelination disorders, cerebral palsy, motor unit disorders, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy, hydrocephalus, extra-pyramidal disorders, congenital abnormalities of nervous system, and headache. Epilepsies and seizures took first place in both year groups, with 29.4% and 35%, respectively. Bacterial infections were responsible for the majority of cranial infections in both year groups, with 78.9% and 63.6% respectively. The death rate in the year group January 2000 to December 2006 was significantly less than in the year group January 1993 to December 1999 (X2= 27.832, P<0.01). CONCLUSION: Among all nervous system diseases, epilepsies and seizures were among the most common, with the lowest fatality rate.

  1. ADAMTS expression and function in central nervous system injury and disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschall, Paul E.; Howell, Matthew D.

    2016-01-01

    The components of the adult extracellular matrix in the central nervous system form a lattice-like structure that is deposited as perineuronal nets, around axon initial segments and as synapse-associated matrix. An abundant component of this matrix is the lecticans, chondroitin sulfate-bearing proteoglycans that are the major substrate for several members of the ADAMTSs (a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs) family. Since lecticans are key regulators of neural plasticity, ADAMTS cleavage of lecticans would likely also contribute to neuroplasticity. Indeed, many studies have examined the neuroplastic contribution of the ADAMTSs to damage and recovery after injury and in central nervous system disease. Much of this data supports a role for the ADAMTSs in recovery and repair following spinal cord injury by stimulating axonal outgrowth after degradation of a glial scar and improving synaptic plasticity following seizure-induced neural damage in the brain. The action of the ADAMTSs in chronic diseases of the central nervous system appears to be more complex and less well-defined. Increasing evidence indicates that lecticans participate in synaptic plasticity in neurodegenerative disease states. It will be interesting to examine how ADAMTS expression and action would affect the progression of these diseases. PMID:25622912

  2. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation - An international primary central nervous system lymphoma study group project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); J.K. Doorduijn (Jeanette); G. Illerhaus (Gerald); K. Jahnke (Kristoph); A. Korfe (Agniezka); L. Fischer (Lutz); K. Fritsch (Kristina); O. Kuittinen (Outi); S. Issa (Samar); C.A.G.M. Montfort (Kees); M.J. van den Bent (Martin)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractAutologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, the

  3. Molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of statins in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFarland, Amelia J; Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra; Arora, Devinder S; Grant, Gary D; McDermott, Catherine M; Perkins, Anthony V; Davey, Andrew K

    2014-11-10

    3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors, commonly referred to as statins, are widely used in the treatment of dyslipidaemia, in addition to providing primary and secondary prevention against cardiovascular disease and stroke. Statins' effects on the central nervous system (CNS), particularly on cognition and neurological disorders such as stroke and multiple sclerosis, have received increasing attention in recent years, both within the scientific community and in the media. Current understanding of statins' effects is limited by a lack of mechanism-based studies, as well as the assumption that all statins have the same pharmacological effect in the central nervous system. This review aims to provide an updated discussion on the molecular mechanisms contributing to statins' possible effects on cognitive function, neurodegenerative disease, and various neurological disorders such as stroke, epilepsy, depression and CNS cancers. Additionally, the pharmacokinetic differences between statins and how these may result in statin-specific neurological effects are also discussed.

  4. Protective Effects of Breast Milk on Central Nervous System and the Incidence of Febrile Convulsion in Breast-Fed Children

    OpenAIRE

    A Tayarani Bathayi; KH Farivar

    1999-01-01

    It is known that central nervous system is well protected in breast-fed children, recognized in decreased incidence of multiple sclerosis, infectious and malignant diseases of the central nervous system, sudden infant death syndrome, 5th day convulsion, and botulism as well as an increase in IQ rates. In this retrospective study we have found also an indirect correlation between in incidence of febrile convulsion and length of breast-feeding. Among 270 cases of febrile convulsion 144 (53.3%) ...

  5. Experimental pneumococcal meningitis causes central nervous system pathology without inducing the 72-kd heat shock protein.

    OpenAIRE

    Täuber, M G; Kennedy, S L; Tureen, J H; Lowenstein, D. H.

    1992-01-01

    We examined whether experimental pneumococcal meningitis induced the 72-kd heat shock protein (HSP72), a sensitive marker of neuronal stress in other models of central nervous system (CNS) injury. Brain injury was characterized by vasculitis, cerebritis, and abscess formation in the cortex of infected animals. The extent of these changes correlated with the size of the inoculum (P less than 0.003) and with pathophysiologic parameters of disease severity, i.e., cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) lactat...

  6. Human Herpesviruses 6 and 7 and Central Nervous System Infection in Children1

    OpenAIRE

    Ansari, Asad; Li, Shaobing; Abzug, Mark J.; Weinberg, Adriana

    2004-01-01

    The role and frequency of human herpesviruses (HHV)-6 and -7 in central nervous system (CNS) diseases of children are unclear. Cerebrospinal fluid samples from 245 pediatric patients (median age 43 days), submitted for evaluations of possible sepsis or of neurologic symptoms, were tested for HHV-6 and HHV-7 DNA by polymerase chain reaction. HHV-6 DNA was found in 3 of 245 samples, and HHV-7 was found in 0 of 245 samples. The three patients with HHV-6 DNA were

  7. MR imaging with pathologic correlation of central nervous system manifestations of AIDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the MR findings with the pathologic correlation of various examples of the opportunistic infection and other related conditions of head and neck involvement in patients with AIDS. Included in this exhibit are cryptococcal meningitis, tuberculous meningitis, tuberculoma, demyelinating white matter disease, aspergillosis, cervical osteomyelitis, transverse myelitis, primary central nervous system lymphoma, metastatic lymphoma, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, parotid cysts, AIDS-related otomastoiditis, and severe nasopharyngeal lymphadenopathy. The basis pathology and MR findings of each entity are described

  8. Clinical features and early treatment response of central nervous system involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Mette; Taskinen, Mervi; Abrahamsson, Jonas;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) remains a therapeutic challenge. PROCEDURE: To explore leukemia characteristics of patients with CNS involvement at ALL diagnosis, we analyzed clinical features and early treatment response of 744....... Symptoms or clinical findings were present among 27 of 54 patients with CNS3 versus only 7 of 39 patients with CNS2 and 15 of 75 patients with TLP+ (P bone marrow residual disease level did...

  9. Production of Lentiviral Vectors for Transducing Cells from the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Mingjie; Husic, Nada; Lin, Ying; Snider, B. Joy

    2012-01-01

    Efficient gene delivery in the central nervous system (CNS) is important in studying gene functions, modeling neurological diseases and developing therapeutic approaches. Lentiviral vectors are attractive tools in transduction of neurons and other cell types in CNS as they transduce both dividing and non-dividing cells, support sustained expression of transgenes, and have relatively large packaging capacity and low toxicity 1-3. Lentiviral vectors have been successfully used in transducing ma...

  10. Superficial siderosis of the central nervous system due to brachial plexus injury: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Superficial siderosis can be caused by hemosiderin deposition o the leptomeninges and subpial layers of the neuro-axis due to recurrent subarachnoid haemorrhage. Probable intrathecal bleeding sites must be investigated. In ut t 50% of the patients the bleeding source may be identified and the progression of the disease can be interrupted. In this study, the authors present a case of superficial siderosis of the central nervous system developed two decades after a traumatic lesion of the brachial plexus.(author)

  11. Cancer stem cells in the mammalian central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilkington, G J

    2005-12-01

    Malignant tumours intrinsic to the central nervous system (CNS) are among the most difficult of neoplasms to treat effectively. The major biological features of these tumours that preclude successful therapy include their cellular heterogeneity, which renders them highly resistant to both chemotherapy and radiotherapy, and the propensity of the component tumour cells to invade, diffusely, the contiguous nervous tissues. The tumours are classified according to perceived cell of origin, gliomas being the most common generic group. In the 1970s transplacental administration of the potent neurocarcinogen, N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU), enabled investigation of the sequential development of brain and spinal neoplasms by electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry. The significance of the primitive cells of the subependymal plate in cellular origin and evolution of a variety of glial tumours was thereby established. Since then, the development of new cell culture methods, including the in vitro growth of neurospheres and multicellular tumour spheroids, and new antigenic markers of stem cells and glial/neuronal cell precursor cells, including nestin, Mushashi-1 and CD133, have led to a reappraisal of the histological classification and origins of CNS tumours. Moreover, neural stem cells may also provide new vectors in exciting novel therapeutic strategies for these tumours. In addition to the gliomas, stem cells may have been identified in paediatric tumours including cerebellar medulloblastoma, thought to be of external granule cell neuronal derivation. Interestingly, while the stem cell marker CD133 is expressed in these primitive neuroectodermal tumours (PNETs), the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan neuronal/glial 2 (NG2), which appears to denote increased proliferative, but reduced migratory activity in adult gliomas, is rarely expressed. This is in contrast to the situation in the histologically similar supratentorial PNETs. A possible functional 'switch' between

  12. 75 FR 17417 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  13. 76 FR 3912 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  14. 78 FR 20328 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  15. 78 FR 63478 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  16. 76 FR 44595 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  17. 75 FR 12768 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  18. 77 FR 20037 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  19. 75 FR 75681 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  20. 78 FR 63481 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  1. 75 FR 36428 - Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory...). The meeting will be open to the public. Name of Committee: Peripheral and Central Nervous System...

  2. Doppler colour flow mapping of fetal intracerebral arteries in the presence of central nervous system anomalies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.W. Wladimiroff (Juriy); R. Heydanus (Rogier); P.A. Stewart (Patricia)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractThe adjunctive role of Doppler colour flow mapping in the evaluation of intracerebral morphology and arterial blood flow in the presence of normal and abnormal central nervous system morphology was determined. A total of 59 fetuses with suspected central nervous system pathology between

  3. Similar chemokine receptor profiles in lymphomas with central nervous system involvement - possible biomarkers for patient selection for central nervous system prophylaxis, a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemma, Siria A; Pasanen, Anna Kaisa; Haapasaari, Kirsi-Maria; Sippola, Antti; Sormunen, Raija; Soini, Ylermi; Jantunen, Esa; Koivunen, Petri; Salokorpi, Niina; Bloigu, Risto; Turpeenniemi-Hujanen, Taina; Kuittinen, Outi

    2016-05-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) relapse occurs in around 5% of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cases. No biomarkers to identify high-risk patients have been discovered. We evaluated the expression of lymphocyte-guiding chemokine receptors in systemic and CNS lymphomas. Immunohistochemical staining for CXCR4, CXCR5, CCR7, CXCL12, and CXCL13 was performed on 89 tissue samples, including cases of primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL), secondary CNS lymphoma (sCNSL), and systemic DLBCL. Also, 10 reactive lymph node samples were included. Immunoelectron microscopy was performed on two PCNSLs, one sCNSL, one systemic DLBCL, and one reactive lymph node samples, and staining was performed for CXCR4, CXCR5, CXCL12, and CXCL13. Chi-square test was used to determine correlations between clinical parameters, diagnostic groups, and chemokine receptor expression. Strong nuclear CXCR4 positivity correlated with systemic DLBCL, whereas strong cytoplasmic CXCR5 positivity correlated with CNS involvement (P = 0.003 and P = 0.039). Immunoelectron microscopy revealed a nuclear CXCR4 staining in reactive lymph node, compared with cytoplasmic and membranous localization seen in CNS lymphomas. We found that CNS lymphoma presented a chemokine receptor profile different from systemic disease. Our findings give new information on the CNS tropism of DLBCL and, if confirmed, may contribute to more effective targeting of CNS prophylaxis among patients with DLBCL.

  4. Central nervous system tumors: Radiologic pathologic correlation and diagnostic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishita Pant

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was conducted to formulate location-wise radiologic diagnostic algorithms and assess their concordance with the final histopathological diagnosis so as to evaluate their utility in a rural setting where only basic facilities are available. Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis to assess the concordance of radiology (primarily MRI with final histopathology report was done. Based on the most common incidence of tumor location and basic radiology findings, diagnostic algorithms were prepared. Results: For supratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location concordance was seen in all high-grade astrocytomas, low- and high-grade oligodendrogliomas, metastatic tumors, primitive neuroectodermal tumors, high-grade ependymomas, neuronal and mixed neuro-glial tumors and tumors of hematopoietic system. Lowest concordance was seen in low-grade astrocytomas. In the supratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, agreement was observed in choroid plexus tumors, ependymomas, low-grade astrocytomas and meningiomas; in the supratentorial extraaxial location, except for the lack of concordance in the only case of metastatic tumor, concordance was observed in meningeal tumors, tumors of the sellar region, tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves; the infratentorial intraaxial parenchymal location showed agreement in low- as well as high-grade astrocytomas, metastatic tumors, high-grade ependymoma, embryonal tumors and hematopoietic tumors; in the infratentorial intraaxial ventricular location, except for the lack of concordance in one case of low-grade astrocytoma and two cases of medulloblastomas, agreement was observed in low- and high-grade ependymoma; infratentorial extraaxial tumors showed complete agreement in all tumors of cranial and paraspinal nerves, meningiomas, and hematopoietic tumors. Conclusion: A location-based approach to central nervous system (CNS tumors is helpful in establishing an appropriate differential diagnosis.

  5. Central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma in the era of stem cell transplantation--an International Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma Study Group project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bromberg, Jacoline E; Doorduijn, Jeanette K; Illerhaus, Gerald; Jahnke, Kristoph; Korfel, Agniezka; Fischer, Lars; Fritsch, Kristina; Kuittinen, Outti; Issa, Samar; van Montfort, Cees; van den Bent, Martin J

    2013-05-01

    Autologous stem cell transplantation has greatly improved the prognosis of systemic recurrent non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. However, no prospective data are available concerning the feasibility and efficacy of this strategy for systemic lymphoma relapsing in the central nervous system. We, therefore, we performed an international multicenter retrospective study of patients with a central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma to assess the outcome of these patients in the era of stem cell transplantation. We collected clinical and treatment data on patients with a first central nervous system recurrence of systemic lymphoma treated between 2000 and 2010 in one of five centers in four countries. Patient- and treatment-related factors were analyzed and compared descriptively. Primary outcome measures were overall survival and percentage of patients transplanted. We identified 92 patients, with a median age of 59 years and a median Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group/World Health Organization performance status of 2, of whom 76% had diffuse large B-cell histology. The majority (79%) of these patients were treated with systemic chemotherapy with or without intravenous rituximab. Twenty-seven patients (29%) were transplanted; age and insufficient response to induction chemotherapy were the main reasons for not being transplanted in the remaining 65 patients. The median overall survival was 7 months (95% confidence interval 2.6-11.4), being 8 months (95% confidence interval 3.8-5.2) for patients ≤ 65 years old. The 1-year survival rate was 34.8%; of the 27 transplanted patients 62% survived more than 1 year. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Prognostic Index for primary central nervous system lymphoma was prognostic for both undergoing transplantation and survival. In conclusion, despite the availability of autologous stem cell transplantation for patients with central nervous system progression or relapse of systemic lymphoma, prognosis is still poor. Long-term survival

  6. Central nervous system activity ofIllicium verum fruit extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Divya Chouksey; Neeraj Upmanyu; RS Pawar

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To research the acute toxicity of Illicium verum(I. verum) fruit extracts and its action on central nervous system.Methods:TheTLC andHPTLC techniques were used as fingerprints to determine the chemical components present in I. verum.Male albino rats and mice were utilized for study.The powdered material was successively extracted withn-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol using aSoxhlet extractor.Acute toxicity studies were performed as per OECD guidelines.TheCNS activity was evaluated on parameters of general behavior, sleeping pattern, locomotor activity, anxiety and myocoordination activity.The animals were trained for seven days prior to experiments and the divided into five groups with six animals in each.The drug was administered by intraperitoneal route according to body weight.The dosing was done as prescribed in each protocol.Results:Toxicity studies reported2000 mg/kg as toxicological dose and1/10 of the same dose was taken as therapeutic doseIntraperitoneal injection of all extracts at dose of200 mg prolonged phenobarbitone induced sleeping time, produced alteration in general behavior pattern, reduced locomotor activity and produced anxiolytic effects but the extracts do not significantlyalter muscles coordination activity.The three extracts of I. verum at the dose of200 mg, methanol extract was found to produce more prominent effects, then hexane and ethylacetate extracts.Conclusions:The observation suggested that the extracts ofI. verum possess potentCNS depressant action and anxiolytic effect without interfering with motor coordination.

  7. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States. PMID:11856998

  8. Central Nervous System Effects of Ginkgo Biloba, a Plant Extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itil, Turan M.; Eralp, Emin; Tsambis, Elias; Itil, Kurt Z.; Stein, Ulrich

    1996-01-01

    Extracts of Ginkgo biloba (EGb) are among the most prescribed drugs in France and Germany. EGb is claimed to be effective in peripheral arterial disorders and in "cerebral insufficiency." The mechanism of action is not yet well understood. Three of the ingredients of the extract have been isolated and found to be pharmacologically active, but which one alone or in combination is responsible for clinical effects is unknown. The recommended daily dose (3 x 40 mg extract) is based more on empirical data than on clinical dose-findings studies. However, despite these, according to double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials, EGb has therapeutic effects, at least, on the diagnostic entity of "cerebral insufficiency," which is used in Europe as synonymous with early dementia. To determine whether EGb has significant pharmacological effects on the human brain, a pharmacodynamic study was conducted using the Quantitative Pharmacoelectroencephalogram (QPEEG(R)) method. It was established that the pharmacological effects (based on a predetermined 7.5--13.0-Hz alpha frequency band in a computer-analyzed electroencephalogram = CEEG(R)) of EGb on the central nervous system (CNS) are significantly different than placebo, and the high and low doses could be discriminated from each other. The 120-mg, but particularly the 240-mg, single doses showed the most consistent CNS effects with an earlier onset (1 h) and longer duration (7 h). Furthermore, it was established that the electrophysiological effects of EGb in CNS are similar to those of well-known cognitive activators such as "nootropics" as well as tacrine, the only marketed "antidementia" drug currently available in the United States.

  9. Control of the Cutaneous Circulation by the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blessing, William; McAllen, Robin; McKinley, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS), via its control of sympathetic outflow, regulates blood flow to the acral cutaneous beds (containing arteriovenous anastomoses) as part of the homeostatic thermoregulatory process, as part of the febrile response, and as part of cognitive-emotional processes associated with purposeful interactions with the external environment, including those initiated by salient or threatening events (we go pale with fright). Inputs to the CNS for the thermoregulatory process include cutaneous sensory neurons, and neurons in the preoptic area sensitive to the temperature of the blood in the internal carotid artery. Inputs for cognitive-emotional control from the exteroceptive sense organs (touch, vision, sound, smell, etc.) are integrated in forebrain centers including the amygdala. Psychoactive drugs have major effects on the acral cutaneous circulation. Interoceptors, chemoreceptors more than baroreceptors, also influence cutaneous sympathetic outflow. A major advance has been the discovery of a lower brainstem control center in the rostral medullary raphé, regulating outflow to both brown adipose tissue (BAT) and to the acral cutaneous beds. Neurons in the medullary raphé, via their descending axonal projections, increase the discharge of spinal sympathetic preganglionic neurons controlling the cutaneous vasculature, utilizing glutamate, and serotonin as neurotransmitters. Present evidence suggests that both thermoregulatory and cognitive-emotional control of the cutaneous beds from preoptic, hypothalamic, and forebrain centers is channeled via the medullary raphé. Future studies will no doubt further unravel the details of neurotransmitter pathways connecting these rostral control centers with the medullary raphé, and those operative within the raphé itself. © 2016 American Physiological Society. Compr Physiol 6:1161-1197, 2016. PMID:27347889

  10. Immunosenescence of microglia and macrophages: impact on the ageing central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawji, Khalil S; Mishra, Manoj K; Michaels, Nathan J; Rivest, Serge; Stys, Peter K; Yong, V Wee

    2016-03-01

    Ageing of the central nervous system results in a loss of both grey and white matter, leading to cognitive decline. Additional injury to both the grey and white matter is documented in many neurological disorders with ageing, including Alzheimer's disease, traumatic brain and spinal cord injury, stroke, and multiple sclerosis. Accompanying neuronal and glial damage is an inflammatory response consisting of activated macrophages and microglia, innate immune cells demonstrated to be both beneficial and detrimental in neurological repair. This article will propose the following: (i) infiltrating macrophages age differently from central nervous system-intrinsic microglia; (ii) several mechanisms underlie the differential ageing process of these two distinct cell types; and (iii) therapeutic strategies that selectively target these diverse mechanisms may rejuvenate macrophages and microglia for repair in the ageing central nervous system. Most responses of macrophages are diminished with senescence, but activated microglia increase their expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines while diminishing chemotactic and phagocytic activities. The senescence of macrophages and microglia has a negative impact on several neurological diseases, and the mechanisms underlying their age-dependent phenotypic changes vary from extrinsic microenvironmental changes to intrinsic changes in genomic integrity. We discuss the negative effects of age on neurological diseases, examine the response of senescent macrophages and microglia in these conditions, and propose a theoretical framework of therapeutic strategies that target the different mechanisms contributing to the ageing phenotype in these two distinct cell types. Rejuvenation of ageing macrophage/microglia may preserve neurological integrity and promote regeneration in the ageing central nervous system.

  11. Nervous system disease associated with dominant cellular radiosensitivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation sensitivity has been demonstrated in the following neurological diseases: sporadic and familial Alzheimer's disease, familial non-specific dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Parkinsonism dementia of Guam, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis. Family studies in many cases give data consistent with dominant genetics, as does cell fusion analysis in the one disease so studied. In no case was there an absolute association between radiosensitivity and a given neurological disease. It is proposed that the underlying mutations are in genes controlling facets of nervous or immune system differentiation and development. 15 references, 2 tables

  12. Treatment of Parkinson's disease: nanostructured sol–gel silica–dopamine reservoirs for controlled drug release in the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessy López

    2010-12-01

    -induced rotation behavior in hemiparkisonian rats.Results: The in vitro dopamine delivery profiles indicate two regimes of release, a fast and sustained dopamine delivery was observed up to 24 hours, and after this time the rate of delivery became constant. Histologic analysis of formalin-fixed brains performed 24–32 weeks after reservoir implantation revealed that silica–dopamine implants had a reddish-brown color, suggesting the presence of oxidized dopamine, likely caused by the fixation procedure, while implants without dopamine were always translucent.Conclusion: The major finding of the study was that intrastriatal silica–dopamine implants reversed the rotational asymmetry induced by apomorphine, a dopamine agonist, in hemiparkinsonian rats. No dyskinesias or other motor abnormalities were observed in animals implanted with silica or silica–dopamine.Keywords: Parkinson's disease, silica–dopamine, controlled drug release, central nervous system, reservoirs

  13. Complement and the central nervous system: emerging roles in development, protection and regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutkowski, Martin J; Sughrue, Michael E; Kane, Ari J; Mills, Steven A; Fang, Shanna; Parsa, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    As expanding research reveals the novel ability of complement proteins to promote proliferation and regeneration of tissues throughout the body, the concept of the complement cascade as an innate immune effector has changed rapidly. In particular, its interactions with the central nervous system have provided a wealth of information regarding the ability of complement proteins to mediate neurogenesis, synaptogenesis, cell migration, neuroprotection, proliferation and regeneration. At numerous phases of the neuronal and glial cell cycle, complement proteins exert direct or indirect influence over their behavior and fate. Neuronal stem cells differentiate and migrate in response to complement, and it prevents injury and death in adult cells in response to toxic agents. Furthermore, complement proteins promote survival via anti-apoptotic actions, and can facilitate clearance and regeneration of injured tissues in various models of CNS disease. In summary, we highlight the protean abilities of complement proteins in the central nervous system, underscoring an exciting avenue of research that has yielded greater understanding of complement's role in central nervous system health and disease.

  14. Nervous system Lyme disease, chronic Lyme disease, and none of the above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halperin, John J

    2016-03-01

    Lyme borreliosis, infection with the tick-borne spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, causes nervous system involvement in 10-15 % of identified infected individuals. Not unlike the other well-known spirochetosis, syphilis, infection can be protracted, but is microbiologically curable in virtually all patients, regardless of disease duration. Diagnosis relies on 2-tier serologic testing, which after the first 4-6 weeks of infection is both highly sensitive and specific. After this early, acute phase, serologic testing should rely only on IgG reactivity. Nervous system involvement most commonly presents with meningitis, cranial neuritis and radiculoneuritis, but can also present with a broader array of peripheral nervous system manifestations. Central nervous system infection typically elicits a cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis and, often, intrathecal production of specific antibody, findings that should not be expected in disease not affecting the CNS. Treatment with recommended courses of oral or, when necessary, parenteral antibiotics is highly effective. The attribution of chronic, non-specific symptoms to "chronic Lyme disease", in the absence of specific evidence of ongoing B. burgdorferi infection, is inappropriate and unfortunate, leading not only to unneeded treatment and its associated complications, but also to missed opportunities for more appropriate management of patients' often disabling symptoms.

  15. Central nervous system myeloid cells as drug targets: current status and translational challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biber, Knut; Möller, Thomas; Boddeke, Erik; Prinz, Marco

    2016-02-01

    Myeloid cells of the central nervous system (CNS), which include parenchymal microglia, macrophages at CNS interfaces and monocytes recruited from the circulation during disease, are increasingly being recognized as targets for therapeutic intervention in neurological and psychiatric diseases. The origin of these cells in the immune system distinguishes them from ectodermal neurons and other glia and endows them with potential drug targets distinct from classical CNS target groups. However, despite the identification of several promising therapeutic approaches and molecular targets, no agents directly targeting these cells are currently available. Here, we assess strategies for targeting CNS myeloid cells and address key issues associated with their translation into the clinic.

  16. Central nervous system gene expression changes in a transgenic mouse model for bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tortosa Raül

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Gene expression analysis has proven to be a very useful tool to gain knowledge of the factors involved in the pathogenesis of diseases, particularly in the initial or preclinical stages. With the aim of finding new data on the events occurring in the Central Nervous System in animals affected with Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy, a comprehensive genome wide gene expression study was conducted at different time points of the disease on mice genetically modified to model the bovine species brain in terms of cellular prion protein. An accurate analysis of the information generated by microarray technique was the key point to assess the biological relevance of the data obtained in terms of Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy pathogenesis. Validation of the microarray technique was achieved by RT-PCR confirming the RNA change and immunohistochemistry techniques that verified that expression changes were translated into variable levels of protein for selected genes. Our study reveals changes in the expression of genes, some of them not previously associated with prion diseases, at early stages of the disease previous to the detection of the pathological prion protein, that might have a role in neuronal degeneration and several transcriptional changes showing an important imbalance in the Central Nervous System homeostasis in advanced stages of the disease. Genes whose expression is altered at early stages of the disease should be considered as possible therapeutic targets and potential disease markers in preclinical diagnostic tool development. Genes non-previously related to prion diseases should be taken into consideration for further investigations.

  17. Kynurenines and Multiple Sclerosis: The Dialogue between the Immune System and the Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cecilia Rajda

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system, in which axonal transection takes place in parallel with acute inflammation to various, individual extents. The importance of the kynurenine pathway in the physiological functions and pathological processes of the nervous system has been extensively investigated, but it has additionally been implicated as having a regulatory function in the immune system. Alterations in the kynurenine pathway have been described in both preclinical and clinical investigations of multiple sclerosis. These observations led to the identification of potential therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis, such as synthetic tryptophan analogs, endogenous tryptophan metabolites (e.g., cinnabarinic acid, structural analogs (laquinimod, teriflunomid, leflunomid and tranilast, indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase inhibitors (1MT and berberine and kynurenine-3-monooxygenase inhibitors (nicotinylalanine and Ro 61-8048. The kynurenine pathway is a promising novel target via which to influence the immune system and to achieve neuroprotection, and further research is therefore needed with the aim of developing novel drugs for the treatment of multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases.

  18. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranial computed tomography scans were performed on 47 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Abnormal findings in the computed tomograms (CT) were observed in 17 patients (36.2%). Cerebral atrophy was the most common feature (eight cases), followed by abnormal high density areas (five cases), abnormal low density areas (three cases), sulcal enlargement (two cases), intracranial hemorrhage (one case) and others (two cases). The abnormal cranial CT group of SLE was associated with a significantly higher incidence of urinary casts and of thrombocytopenia. In particular, the frequency of urinary casts was greater in the group with cerebral atrophy than in the group with normal CT findings, and there was a higher incidence of alopecia, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in the group with intracranial calcifications. Neuropsychiatric involvements were noted in 70.6% of patients with CT abnormalities, but neuropsychiatric features (20.7%) and electroencephalographic abnormalities (44.8%) were also observed in patients with normal CT findings. The age at onset of SLE, the mean duration of the disease and the survival rate were not significantly different between the groups with and without CT abnormalities, but the mortality rate was significantly greater in the group with CT abnormalities, especially among those with brain atrophy. Concerning the relationship between the findings of cranial CT and corticosteroid treatment, there was no significant difference in either the total dose or the mean duration of prednisolone therapy. Although SLE patients with cerebral atrophy were taking a larger maintenance dose of corticosteroids, the differences were not statistically significant. (J.P.N.)

  19. Electromagnetic fields and health effects-epidemiologic studies of cancer, diseases of the central nervous system and arrhythmia-related heart disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansen, C.

    2004-07-01

    cohort of mobile phone subscribers comprising some 420 000 persons. No increased risk was observed for the cancers considered a priori to be possibly associated with the radiofrequency fields emitted by mobile phones, which were brain tumors, including acoustic neuroma, salivary gland tumors, and leukemia. The data were analyzed by duration of phone use, latency, system used (NMT, GSM or both) and age at first subscription. A study of the incidence of ocular malignant melanoma in comparison with the annual increase among the mobile phone subscribers showed a highly stable incidence rate for this rare cancer in Denmark over close to 50 years of registration. On the basis of these studies and the scientific literature, it is concluded that occupational exposure to 50-Hz EMF is not associated with an increased risk of cancer, but that these fields, electric shocks, or some other unknown factor related to alternating current electricity may be associated with the risk of ALS. There is no clear evidence that 50-Hz EMF is associated with other neurodegenerative or cardiovascular diseases. At present, there is little, if any, evidence that the use of mobile phones is associated with cancer in adults, including brain tumors, acoustic neuroma, cancer of the salivary glands, leukemia, or malignant melanoma of the eye. (orig.)

  20. Late Isolated Central Nervous System Relapse from Ovarian Serous Adenocarcinoma: A Case Report and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Biachi de Castria

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system involvement by ovarian serous adenocarcinoma is rare. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman that developed brain metastasis as isolated site of relapse 4.5 years after a complete resection and adjuvant chemotherapy for a stage Ic disease. She proceeded to a craniotomy with resection of the lesion and, subsequently, to a whole brain radiotherapy. Nineteen months later, she developed carcinomatous meningitis as isolated site of recurrence. Patient was submitted to intrathecal chemotherapy with methotrexate; however, she died from progressive neurologic involvement disease few weeks later.

  1. The activation pattern of macrophages in giant cell (temporal) arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihm, Bernhard; Bergmann, Markus; Brück, Wolfgang; Probst-Cousin, Stefan

    2014-06-01

    To determine if the pattern of macrophage activation reflects differences in the pathogenesis and clinical presentation of giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system, specimens of 10 patients with giant cell arteritis and five with primary angiitis of the central nervous system were immunohistochemically studied and the expression of the macrophage activation markers 27E10, MRP14, MRP8 and 25F9 was determined in the vasculitic infiltrates. Thus, a partly different expression pattern of macrophage activation markers in giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system was observed. The group comparison revealed that giant cell arteritis cases had significantly higher numbers of acute activated MRP14-positive macrophages, whereas primary angiitis of the central nervous system is characterized by a tendency toward more MRP8-positive intermediate/late activated macrophages. Furthermore, in giant cell arteritis comparably fewer CD8-positive lymphocytes were observed. These observations suggest, that despite their histopathological similarities, giant cell arteritis and primary angiitis of the central nervous system appear to represent either distinct entities within the spectrum of granulomatous vasculitides or different stages of similar disease processes. Their discrete clinical presentation is reflected by different activation patterns of macrophages, which may characterize giant cell arteritis as a more acute process and primary angiitis of the central nervous system as a more advanced inflammatory process.

  2. Herpesvirus-associated central and peripheral nervous system involvement: two clinical cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. E. Popova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Herpesviruses can directly affect the structure of the nervous system, resulting in encephalitis, and also induce immune-mediated disorders of the peripheral nervous system as sensory-predominant chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP. Patients with immunodeficiency may simultaneously develop two pathological processes, determining the severity of the condition. Parainfectious limbic encephalitis (PILE associated with viruses from the family Herpes viridae is a form of chronic herpes encephalitis, which is characterized by dysfunction of the limbic system and by a long-term course with exacerbations. CIDP is a dysimmune disease leasing to peripheral nervous system involvement, which belongs to a class of myelinopathies. The paper describes two clinical cases of a concurrence of chronic PILE and CIDP in middle-aged men who have symptomatic status epilepticus and iatrogenic complications. It characterizes difficulties in diagnosis and the clinical features of chronic herpes infection involving the central and peripheral nervous systems. The given clinical cases suggest that not only neurologistsand epileptologists, but also resuscitation specialists and ngiosurgeons should be particularly alert to the pathology in question.

  3. Peripheral nervous system manifestations in a Sandhoff disease mouse model: nerve conduction, myelin structure, lipid analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Strichartz Gary R; Seyfried Thomas N; Avila Robin L; Baek Rena C; McNally Melanie A; Kirschner Daniel A

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Sandhoff disease is an inherited lysosomal storage disease caused by a mutation in the gene for the β-subunit (Hexb gene) of β-hexosaminidase A (αβ) and B (ββ). The β-subunit together with the GM2 activator protein catabolize ganglioside GM2. This enzyme deficiency results in GM2 accumulation primarily in the central nervous system. To investigate how abnormal GM2 catabolism affects the peripheral nervous system in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (Hexb-/-), we examined t...

  4. 疾病控制论在中枢神经损伤研究中的应用探讨%Discussion about the Application of Disease Cybernetics in the Research of Central Nervous System Injure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆志方; 敖强

    2015-01-01

    To discuss and present a new thinking about the research of central nervous system injure based on disease cybernetics and the perfect health service system .There are three stages of the whole process of central nervous system injury ,including prevention ,treatment ,rehabilitation .This article is to analyze the neuroscience research process about research target ,relates to the field ,the focus of cooperation of every stage ,and put forward improvement strategy .The new neuroscience research strategies include:unified goal ,systemic ,horizontal linkages .The strategy based on disease cybernetics may contribute to reduce the incidence and disability of central nervous system injure .%根据疾病控制论的原理和完美医疗目标体系,探讨提出一种针对中枢神经损伤的神经科学研究新思路。编制中枢神经损伤的全流程,包括预防、救治、康复3个阶段,对每个阶段中神经科学的研究目标、涉及领域、合作重点进行分析,提出改进策略。新的神经科学研究策略包括:统一目标、系统性、横向联系。基于疾病控制论提出的新策略,可能有利于降低中枢神经损伤的发生率和致残率。

  5. MRI changes in the central nervous system in a child with lupus erythematosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gieron, M.A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Khoromi, S. [Dept. of Neurology, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States); Campos, A. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Univ. of South Florida, Coll. of Medicine, Tampa, FL (United States)

    1995-05-01

    We report on a 10-year-old girl with systemic lupus erythematosus who presented in status epilepticus as the only manifestation of central nervous system involvement. MRI of the brain showed diffuse gray and white matter lesions which almost completely resolved after treatment with methylprednisolone. MRI findings in this child are similar to those in adults with diffuse clinical manifestations. The study is essential in the initial evaluation of patients suspected of central nervous system lupus. (orig.)

  6. Central nervous system involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This paper deals with the clinical, immunological and pathological data of 5 eases of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Each of the five cases has typical SLE damages on the skin and multiple organs. Among

  7. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with hodgkin lymphoma with central nervous system involvement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheah, Chan Y; Bröckelmann, Paul J; Chihara, Dai;

    2016-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) involvement is rare in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). Thus, the clinical features and outcomes are not well described. Cases of histologically confirmed CNS HL diagnosed between 1995 and 2015 were retrospectively identified in institutional (n=7), national (n=2....../refractory disease in 11 (52%). Amongst these 11 patients, the median time from initial diagnosis of HL to development of CNS involvement was 1.9 years (range 0.4 - 6.6) and the median number of prior lines of therapy was 2 (range 1 - 7). Altogether, treatments included radiation, multi-agent systemic chemotherapy...

  8. cAMP反应元件结合蛋白在中枢神经系统疾病中的作用%The role of cAMP response element binding protein in central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玲玲; 王力娜; 崔丽丽; 杨蕊; 李敏; 杜炜; 张祥建

    2010-01-01

    The cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) is expressed widely in the central nervous system. It is involved extensively in the pathophysiological processes, such as the cell structure, signal transduction, genetic transcription, synaptic transmission, and metabolism by regulating its downstream genes transcription. CREB is not only involved in the process of normal development of the brain, but also closely correlated with the central nervous system diseases, including ischemic stroke, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease and drug addiction.%cAMP反应元件结合蛋白(cAMP-response element-binding protein,CREB)在中枢神经系统表达广泛,通过对其下游基冈的转录调控,广泛参与细胞结构、信号转导、基因转录、突触传递以及代谢等病理牛理学过程.CREB不仅参与脑的正常发育过程,而且还与缺血性卒中、阿尔茨海默病、亨廷顿病和药物成瘾等中枢神经系统疾病密切相关.

  9. Candida infection of the central nervous system following neurosurgery: a 12-year review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Brien, Deirdre

    2011-06-01

    Candida infection of the central nervous system (CNS) following neurosurgery is relatively unusual but is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We present our experience with this infection in adults and discuss clinical characteristics, treatment options, and outcome.

  10. Treatment Options for Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumors and Childhood Pineoblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... children. See the PDQ summary on Adult Central Nervous System Tumors Treatment for more information on the treatment of adults. There are different types of CNS embryonal tumors. Enlarge Anatomy of the inside of the brain, showing the ...

  11. Long non-coding RNAs in nervous system function and disease

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Irfan A.; Mattick, John S.; Mehler, Mark F.

    2010-01-01

    Central nervous system (CNS) development, homeostasis, stress responses, and plasticity are all mediated by epigenetic mechanisms that modulate gene expression and promote selective deployment of functional gene networks in response to complex profiles of interoceptive and environmental signals. Thus, not surprisingly, disruptions of these epigenetic processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of a spectrum of neurological and psychiatric diseases. Epigenetic mechanisms involve chromatin rem...

  12. Central nervous system involvement in acute lymphoblastic leukemia: diagnosis by immunophenotyping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Silva Peres Cancela

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The central nervous system is the most commonly affected extramedullary site in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Although morphologic evaluation of the cerebrospinal fluid has been traditionally used for diagnosing central nervous system involvement, it is a method of low sensitivity. The present study aimed at evaluating the use of immunophenotyping in the detection of blasts in the cerebrospinal fluid from children and adolescents with acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

  13. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xian-hui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade amplification in Alzheimer′s disease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer′s disease patients. An APP swe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer′s disease was used. The intragastric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer′s disease. These compounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer′s disease.

  14. Effective components of Chinese herbs reduce central nervous system function decline induced by iron overload

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xian-hui Dong; Cong Liu; Jiang-tao Bai; Wei-na Kong; Xiao-ping He; Peng Yan; Tie-mei Shao; Wen-guo Yu; Xi-qing Chai; Yan-hua Wu

    2015-01-01

    Abnormally increased levels of iron in the brain trigger cascade ampliifcation in Alzheimer’s dis-ease patients, resulting in neuronal death. This study investigated whether components extracted from the Chinese herbs epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root could relieve the abnormal expression of iron metabolism-related protein in Alzheimer’s disease patients. An APPswe/PS1ΔE9 double transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease was used. The intragas-tric administration of compounds from epimedium herb, milkvetch root and kudzuvine root improved pathological alterations such as neuronal edema, increased the number of neurons, downregulated divalent metal transporter 1 expression, upregulated ferroportin 1 expression, and inhibited iron overload in the cerebral cortex of mice with Alzheimer’s disease. These com-pounds reduced iron overload-induced impairment of the central nervous system, indicating a new strategy for developing novel drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. Microglia - insights into immune system structure, function, and reactivity in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirenfeldt, Martin; Babcock, Alicia A; Vinters, Harry V

    2011-01-01

    Microglia are essential cellular components of a well-functioning central nervous system (CNS). The development and establishment of the microglial population differs from the other major cell populations in the CNS i.e. neurons and macroglia (astrocytes and oligodendrocytes). This different...

  16. Culturing and expansion of "clinical grade" precursors cells from the fetal human central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelati, Maurizio; Profico, Daniela; Projetti-Pensi, Massimo; Muzi, Gianmarco; Sgaravizzi, Giada; Vescovi, Angelo Luigi

    2013-01-01

    NSCs have been demonstrated to be very useful in grafts into the mammalian central nervous system to investigate the exploitation of NSC for the therapy of neurodegenerative disorders in animal models of neurodegenerative diseases. To push cell therapy in CNS on stage of clinical application, it is necessary to establish a continuous and standardized, clinical grade (i.e., produced following the good manufacturing practice guidelines) human neural stem cell lines. In this chapter, we illustrate some of the protocols routinely used into our GMP cell bank for the production of "clinical grade" human neural stem cell lines.

  17. Efficient reactivation of latent herpes simplex virus from mouse central nervous system tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Yao, Hui-Wen; Huang, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2006-12-01

    For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated latent virus when they were dissociated into cell suspensions before ex vivo explant culture. The efficient reactivation of HSV from the mouse CNS was demonstrated with more than one viral strain, viral serotype, and mouse strain, further indicating that the CNS can be an authentic latency site for HSV with the potential to cause recurrent disease. PMID:17005636

  18. 酒精过量饮用相关的中枢神经系统疾病多模态MRI表现%Excessive drinking of alcohol-related diseases of the central nervous system performance multi-modal MRI

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    南东; 刘鹏飞

    2013-01-01

    根据世界卫生组织的报道,酒精是最常见的滥用物质之一,并且酒精依赖是全世界发展中国家疾病负担的第三大原因。酒精会对人体各系统产生影响,长期滥用更会导致损伤,尤其是对中枢神经系统,不但导致器质性病变,还会产生意识和精神障碍。我国是酒精消费大国,由其引起的社会和家庭问题日益凸显。由于酒精滥用导致的中枢神经系统病变是一个长期的过程,加之临床表现变化无常,漏诊和误诊时有发生,从而错过了治疗的最佳时期。磁共振成像(MRI)作为中枢神经系统最常用的检查方法,对诊断酒精导致的神经系统病变有很大帮助。本文包括了常见的与酒精过量饮用相关的中枢神经系统疾病的MRI表现。%According to the reports from World Health Organization (WHO), alcohol is one of the most common substance abuse, and alcohol dependence is the third leading cause of disease burden in developing countries around the world. Alcohol will affect most of the human body systems, and more damage can result from the long-term abuse, especially for the central nervous system, it does not only lead to organic disease, but also to generate awareness and mental disorders. There are thousands of consumers of alcohol in our country, which lead the social and family problems increasingly prominent. Since the change of the central nervous system caused by alcohol abuse is a long-term process, in addition to the vagaries of clinical manifestations, misdiagnosis have occurred, thus the best time for treatment is missed. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), as the most commonly used method for the diagnosis of diseases of the central nervous system, plays an important role in the diagnosis of disease of the central nervous system caused by alcohol. This article includes the common MRI manifestations of the central nervous system diseases associated with excessive alcohol

  19. Novel Indications for Benzodiazepine Antagonist Flumazenil in GABA Mediated Pathological Conditions of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulse, Gary; Kelty, Erin; Hood, Sean; Norman, Amanda; Basso, Maria Rita; Reece, Albert Stuart

    2015-01-01

    This review paper discusses the central role of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in diverse physiological systems and functions and the therapeutic potential of the benzodiazepine antagonist flumazenil (Ro 15- 1788) for a wide range of disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). Our group and others have studied the potential of flumazenil as a treatment for benzodiazepine dependence. A small but growing body of research has indicated that flumazenil may also have clinical application in CNS disorders such as Parkinson's disease, idiopathic hypersomnia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite this body of research the therapeutic potential of flumazenil remains poorly understood and largely unrealized. The purpose of this paper is not to provide an exhaustive review of all possible therapeutic applications for flumazenil but rather to stimulate research interest, and discussion of the exciting therapeutic potential of this drug for a range of chronic debilitating conditions.

  20. Nerve Regeneration in the Peripheral Nervous System versus the Central Nervous System and the Relevance to Speech and Hearing after Nerve Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Tessa; Gordon, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Schwann cells normally form myelin sheaths around axons in the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and support nerve regeneration after nerve injury. In contrast, nerve regeneration in the central nervous system (CNS) is not supported by the myelinating cells known as oligodendrocytes. We have found that: 1) low frequency electrical stimulation can be…

  1. Dosage of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid in infectious diseases of the central nervous system Dosagem de lactato no líquido cefalorraqueano em moléstias infecciosas do sistema nervoso central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideraldo Luis Souza Cabeça

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the diagnosis aid of the dosage of lactate in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF in infectious diseases of the central nervous system (CNS. We analyzed prospectively 130 samples of CSF of 116 patients with diagnoses of infectious processes in the CNS. The 130 samples of CSF were divided into five groups: 28 samples of the control group, 40 of bacterial meningitis, 22 of viral meningitis, 16 of fungal meningitis and 24 of patients presenting acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS. The concentration of lactate in the CSF was elevated in the group of patients with bacterial meningitis (average = 46.2 mg/dL, fungal meningitis (average = 27.3 mg/dL and in the AIDS group (average = 23.5 mg/dL. In the control group and viral meningitis group the lactate content in the CSF presented the reference rates according to the employed method. The lactate dosage in the CSF presented a negative correlation with glycorrhachia and positive correlation with the cellularity and total proteins of the CSF. We conclude that the lactate dosage in the CSF, although unspecific, helps to distinguish the infectious processes of the CNS.O presente estudo tem como objetivo analisar o auxílio diagnóstico da dosagem do lactato no líquido cefalorraqueano (LCR em moléstias infecciosas do sistema nervoso central (SNC. Foram estudadas, de modo prospectivo, 130 amostras de LCR de 116 pacientes com diagnóstico de processos infecciosos do SNC. As 130 amostras de LCR foram distribuídas em cinco grupos, sendo: 28 amostras controles, 40 meningite bacteriana, 22 meningite viral, 16 meningite fúngica e 24 pacientes com a síndrome da imunodeficiência humana adquirida (SIDA. A concentração do lactato no LCR estava elevada no grupo de pacientes com meningite bacteriana (média=46,20 mg/dL, meningite fúngica (média=27,37 mg/dL e no grupo SIDA (média=23,54 mg/dL. Nos grupos controle e de meningite viral o teor de lactato no LCR encontrava-se entre os valores de

  2. Doenças do sistema nervoso central em caprinos e ovinos no semi-árido Diseases of the central nervous system in goats and sheep of the semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla M.R. Guedes

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das doenças dos animais domésticos, nas diferentes regiões do Brasil é importante para determinar formas eficientes de profilaxia e controle. Este trabalho tem como objetivo descrever a epidemiologia, sinais clínicos e patologia das enfermidades do sistema nervoso central (SNC de caprinos e ovinos, que ocorreram de janeiro de 2000 a maio de 2006 no semi-árido, principalmente do estado da Paraíba. Durante o período, 365 casos ou surtos foram diagnosticados em caprinos e 270 em ovinos. Desses, 63 (9,92% eram doenças do SNC, sendo 34 (9,31% em caprinos e 29 (10,7% em ovinos. As principais enfermidades foram abscessos (19,04%, tétano (15,9%, raiva (9,52% intoxicação por Ipomoea asarifolia (7,93%, listeriose (6,34%, trauma (6,34%, polioencefalomalacia (4,77%, toxemia da prenhez (3,17%, ataxia enzoótica (3,17% e meningite (3,17%. Outras doenças diagnosticadas numa única oportunidade (1,59% foram intoxicações por Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea carnea, Ipomoea sericophylla e Prosopis juliflora, otite com encefalite, malformação, linfossarcoma linfoblástico, meduloblastoma e necrose simétrica focal. Em 6,34% dos casos o diagnóstico foi inconclusivo.The knowledge of the diseases of domestic animals in the different Brazilian regions is important to determine measures for their control and prevention. The objective of this paper is to report the epidemiology, clinical signs and pathology of the diseases of the central nervous system (CNS of goats and sheep in the Brazilian semiarid, mainly in the state of Paraíba, diagnosed at the Veterinary Hospital of the Federal University of Campina Grande, from January 2000 to May 2006. During the period, 365 cases or outbreaks were diagnosed in goats and 270 in sheep. From these, 63 (9.92% were of diseases of the CNS, being 34 (9.31% in goats and 29 (10.7% in sheep. The main diseases were abscesses (19.04%, tetanus (15.9%, rabies (9.52% poisoning by Ipomoea asarifolia (7

  3. Gut Commensalism, Cytokines, and Central Nervous System Demyelination

    OpenAIRE

    Telesford, Kiel; Ochoa-Repáraz, Javier; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing support for the importance of risk factors such as genetic makeup, obesity, smoking, vitamin D insufficiency, and antibiotic exposure contributing to the development of autoimmune diseases, including human multiple sclerosis (MS). Perhaps the greatest environmental risk factor associated with the development of immune-mediated conditions is the gut microbiome. Microbial and helminthic agents are active participants in shaping the immune systems of their hosts. This concept...

  4. Turning sex inside-out: Peripheral contributions to sexual differentiation of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Swift-Gallant Ashlyn; Niel Lee; Monks D

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Sexual differentiation of the nervous system occurs via the interplay of genetics, endocrinology and social experience through development. Much of the research into mechanisms of sexual differentiation has been driven by an implicit theoretical framework in which these causal factors act primarily and directly on sexually dimorphic neural populations within the central nervous system. This review will examine an alternative explanation by describing what is known about the role of p...

  5. High-dose chemotherapy followed by autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for adult histiocytic disorders with central nervous system involvement

    OpenAIRE

    Gaspar, Nathalie; Van Den Neste, Eric; Boudou, Pascaline; Haroche, Julien; Wechsler, Bertrand; Hoang-Xuan, Khe; Amoura, Zahir; Guillevin, Remy; Savatovski, Julien; Azar, Nabih; Piette, Jean-Charles; Leblond, Veronique

    2006-01-01

    We postulated that high-dose chemotherapy (HDC) followed by peripheral autologous hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might help to control refractory central nervous system (CNS) histiocytic disorders. Six patients with histiocytic CNS involvement were treated in this way. Two patients achieved non-active disease status, although one relapsed at 84 months. Two patients had regressive disease, one of whom progressed at 21 months. One patient had progressive disease at 14 months. One patie...

  6. Catalytic nucleic acid enzymes for the study and development of therapies in the central nervous system: Review Article

    OpenAIRE

    Tritz, Richard; Habita, Cellia; Robbins, Joan M.; Gomez, German G.; Kruse, Carol A.

    2005-01-01

    Nucleic acid enzymes have been used with great success for studying natural processes in the central nervous system (CNS). We first provide information on the structural and enzymatic differences of various ribozymes and DNAzymes. We then discuss how they have been used to explore new therapeutic approaches for treating diseases of the CNS. They have been tested in various systems modeling retinitis pigmentosum, proliferative vitreoretinopathy, Alzheimer's disease, and malignant brain tumors....

  7. Adrenalectomy alters the sensitivity of the central nervous system melanocortin system

    OpenAIRE

    Drazen, DL; Wortman, MD; Schwartz, MW; Clegg, DJ; Van Dijk, G.; Woods, SC; Seeley, RJ; Drazen, Deborah L.; Wortman, Matthew D.; Schwartz, Michael W.; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.

    2003-01-01

    Removal of adrenal steroids by adrenalectomy (ADX) reduces food intake and body weight in rodents and prevents excessive weight gain in many genetic and dietary models of obesity. Thus, glucocorticoids appear to play a key role to promote positive energy balance in normal and pathological conditions. By comparison, central nervous system melanocortin signaling provides critical inhibitory tone to regulate energy balance. The present experiments sought to test whether glucocorticoids influence...

  8. Gut-central nervous system axis is a target for nutritional therapies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pimentel Gustavo D

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Historically, in the 1950s, the chemist Linus Pauling established a relationship between decreased longevity and obesity. At this time, with the advent of studies involving the mechanisms that modulate appetite control, some researchers observed that the hypothalamus is the "appetite centre" and that peripheral tissues have important roles in the modulation of gut inflammatory processes and levels of hormones that control food intake. Likewise, the advances of physiological and molecular mechanisms for patients with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, inflammatory bowel diseases, bariatric surgery and anorexia-associated diseases has been greatly appreciated by nutritionists. Therefore, this review highlights the relationship between the gut-central nervous system axis and targets for nutritional therapies.

  9. Electroporation Transfection as an Effective Tool to Trace Transplanted NSCs in Adult Central Nervous System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周畅; 温哲钘; 王志萍; 郭行; 史冬梅; 左焕琮; 谢佐平

    2004-01-01

    Neural stem cells, which are clonogenic cells with self-renewal and multilineage differentiation properties, are currently considered as powerful candidates for cell replacement therapy in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease. A key issue is whether stem cells can survive, migrate and differentiate following transplantation into the adult central nervous system. This research shows that enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) plasmid electroporation transfected neural stem cells can functionally differentiate in vitro and that most of the EGFP-positive cells can survive and migrate towards the damaged areas when transplanted into the brain of a Parkinson's disease model rat. The results suggest an effective and maneuverable tracing tool to detect whether transplanted neural stem and progenitor cells function in the adult brain in vivo.

  10. The role of myelin in Theiler's virus persistence in the central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean-Pierre Roussarie

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available Theiler's virus, a picornavirus, persists for life in the central nervous system of mouse and causes a demyelinating disease that is a model for multiple sclerosis. The virus infects neurons first but persists in white matter glial cells, mainly oligodendrocytes and macrophages. The mechanism, by which the virus traffics from neurons to glial cells, and the respective roles of oligodendrocytes and macrophages in persistence are poorly understood. We took advantage of our previous finding that the shiverer mouse, a mutant with a deletion in the myelin basic protein gene (Mbp, is resistant to persistent infection to examine the role of myelin in persistence. Using immune chimeras, we show that resistance is not mediated by immune responses or by an efficient recruitment of inflammatory cells into the central nervous system. With both in vivo and in vitro experiments, we show that the mutation does not impair the permissiveness of neurons, oligodendrocytes, and macrophages to the virus. We demonstrate that viral antigens are present in cytoplasmic channels of myelin during persistent infection of wild-type mice. Using the optic nerve as a model, we show that the virus traffics from the axons of retinal ganglion cells to the cytoplasmic channels of myelin, and that this traffic is impaired by the shiverer mutation. These results uncover an unsuspected axon to myelin traffic of Theiler's virus and the essential role played by the infection of myelin/oligodendrocyte in persistence.

  11. Magnetic resonance features of primary central nervous system lymphoma in the immunocompetent patient: a pictorial essay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is an uncommon but important variant of non-Hodgkin lymphoma and represents up to 6% of all primary central nervous system (CNS) malignancies. Recognition of this entity by radiologist on MRI may avoid unnecessary neurosurgical resection and redirect to biopsy. The pretreatment MRI of patients with biopsy proven PCNSL from the last 5 years at our institution was reviewed. Selected examples were used to construct a pictorial essay to illustrate some of the typical and atypical MR features of PCNSL. MRI of other CNS conditions with imaging similarities to PCNSL was included to demonstrate possible mimics. The typical features of PCNSL lymphoma are intra-axial homogenous single or multiple contrast enhancing lesions, with marked surrounding oedema and restricted diffusion, usually contacting a cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) surface. Necrosis, peripheral enhancement, haemorrhage or calcification are unusual and other diagnoses should be considered if any of these features are present. Potential mimics include high grade glioma, infarcts, metastatic disease, demyelination, abscess and secondary lymphoma. Careful assessment of the MR features and correlation with the clinical findings should enable the radiologists to raise the possibility of PCNSL and minimise the risk of unnecessary resection.

  12. Insulin hormone: Mechanism and effects on the body and relationship with central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Zuhal Altunkaynak

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus (DM is one of the most common andchronic disease all over the world. It is characterized witheither insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Insulin is ahormone which is secreted by beta cells in the LangerhansIslets of pancreas and playing a role in carbohydratemetabolism regulation in association with glucagon. Regardingthe insulin’s effects on carbohydrates, almost inall tissues (except brain insulin increases the facilitateddiffusion of glucose into cells and shows and an effect toreduce the blood glucose levels. In other words, it haveregulator role on blood sugar level; insulin secretion isknown to be associated with an increase in the amountof energy. Insulin secretion is related with increasing glucoselevel. It has been shown that it is closely relatedwith intracellular enzymes and has a stimulating effecton transcription of glucokinase, pyruvate kinase, phosphofructokinase and fructose-2,6 biphosphatase thatare glicolytic and an inhibitory effect on transcription ofphosphophenolpyruvate carboxykinase that is gluconeogenetic.Besides being the primary regulator of carbohydratemetabolism, insulin also has an important effect onlipid and protein metabolisms that are interrelated withcarbohydrate metabolism. For the basis of diabetes effectson Central Nervous system (CNS two mechanismsare emphasized; first is the oxidative stress developeddue to metabolic changes and the second is damagesof calcium ion metabolism. In this review, it was intendedto reach detailed information by reviewing insulin’s basiceffect mechanism, its reflection on cellular level and itsrelationship with central nervous system.

  13. Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis in bone marrow transplantation recipients: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is being seen with an increased frequency, particularly due to the increased number of immunosuppressed patients. The major cause of invasive central nervous system aspergillosis is bone marrow transplantation. In most cases, aspergillosis develops in the paranasal sinuses and in the lungs, and secondarily spreads to the brain. Imaging of cerebral aspergillosis may present different patterns depending on the lesion's age and the immunologic status of the patient. Lesions of the spinal cord are far less common but has been encountered in our series. In this article we review the clinical and radiologic features of aspergillosis affecting the central nervous system in patients who underwent bone marrow transplantation. Different CT and MR patterns are presented, including pertinent clinical and pathologic material. Significant morbidity and mortality can be associated with this fungal infection, and it is therefore incumbent upon the radiologist to identify intracranial aspergillosis as early as possible so that appropriate therapy can be administered. (orig.)

  14. The central nervous system sites mediating the orexigenic actions of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, B L; Wang, Q; Zigman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  15. Endothelial cells are a replicative niche for entry of Toxoplasma gondii to the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konradt, Christoph; Ueno, Norikiyo; Christian, David A; Delong, Jonathan H; Pritchard, Gretchen Harms; Herz, Jasmin; Bzik, David J; Koshy, Anita A; McGavern, Dorian B; Lodoen, Melissa B; Hunter, Christopher A

    2016-01-01

    An important function of the blood-brain barrier is to exclude pathogens from the central nervous system, but some microorganisms benefit from the ability to enter this site. It has been proposed that Toxoplasma gondii can cross biological barriers as a motile extracellular form that uses transcellular or paracellular migration, or by infecting a host cell that then crosses the blood-brain barrier. Unexpectedly, analysis of acutely infected mice revealed significant numbers of free parasites in the blood and the presence of infected endothelial cells in the brain vasculature. The use of diverse transgenic parasites combined with reporter mice and intravital imaging demonstrated that replication in and lysis of endothelial cells precedes invasion of the central nervous system, and highlight a novel mechanism for parasite entry to the central nervous system. PMID:27572166

  16. THE RESUSCITATION OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM OF MAMMALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, G N; Guthrie, C C; Burns, R L; Pike, F H

    1906-03-26

    the same side as the stimulus, crossing of reflexes, to involve the other side, not occurring till later. As a rule, all reflexes return, and a short period of quiet follows. The anterior part of the cord again becomes irritable to strychnine, but succumbs to its action before the normal part. Spasms, of tonic, clonic, or mixed type, then appear, terminating in (a) death, (b) partial or (c) complete recovery. In partial recovery, disturbances of locomotion, such as walking in a circle, paralysis, dementia, loss of sight, hearing, and general intelligence, characterize the post-convulsive period. After complete recovery, there is a return to normal deportment. No gross lesions of the nervous system, other than a congested appearance of the previously anaemic area, were observed. Transection of the spinal cord stops the spasms below the level of section. Hemisection of the cord stops the spasms on the same side, below the level of section. Death, without any return of the reflexes after release of the cerebral arteries, has followed an occlusion of seven and one-half minutes. Respiration has returned after an occlusion of one hour. Five animals have recovered completely after an occlusion of seven minutes or more. Only one animal has recovered completely after an occlusion of fifteen minutes. No animal has recovered completely after an occlusion of twenty minutes. In Herzen's (26) resuscitation of an animal after several hours of cerebral anaemia, there must have been some anastomotic channels to the brain. Mayer's (27) limit of ten to fifteen minutes of cerebral anaemia, beyond which resuscitation is not practicable, is close to the correct one. It appears to us that, in cases of resuscitation two hours after cessation of the heart-beat, (Prus., loc.cit.) the auricles must have kept up a slow but, in some degree, an efficient movement of the blood through the brain. The truth of this suggestion might be tested by introducing some easily recognized, non

  17. Gross anatomy of central nervous system in firefly, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudawiyah, Nur; Wahida, O. Nurul; Norela, S.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes for the first time the organization and fine structure of the central nervous system (CNS) in the fireflies, Pteroptyx tener (Coleoptera: Lampyridae). The morphology of the CNS was examined by using Carl Zeiss AxioScope A1 photomicroscope with iSolution Lite software. Some specific structural features such as the localization of protocerebrum, deutocerebrum and tritocerebrum in the brain region were analyzed. Other than that, the nerve cord and its peripheral structure were also analyzed. This study suggests that, there is a very obvious difference between male and female central nervous system which illustrates that they may differ in function in controlling physiological and behavioral activities.

  18. Central nervous system medications and falls risk in men aged 60-75 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masud, Tahir; Frost, Morten; Ryg, Jesper;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years.......Introduction: drugs acting on the central nervous system (CNS) increase falls risk. Most data on CNS drugs and falls are in women/mixed-sex populations. This study assessed the relationship between CNS drugs and falls in men aged 60-75 years....

  19. Infectious exposure in the first years of life and risk of central nervous system tumours in children: analysis of birth order, childcare attendance and seasonality of birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Kamper-Jørgensen, M; Schmiegelow, K;

    2010-01-01

    An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease.......An infective, mostly viral basis has been found in different human cancers. To test the hypothesis of a possible infectious aetiology for central nervous system (CNS) tumours in children, we investigated the associations with proxy measures of exposure to infectious disease....

  20. Role of Immune Cells in the Course of Central Nervous System Injury: Modulation with Natural Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2016-01-01

    Immune cells actively participate to the central nervous system (CNS) injury either damaging or protecting neural tissue with release of various mediators. Residential microglia and monocyte-derived macrophages play a fundamental role within the injured CNS and, here, special emphasis will be placed on M1 and M2 macrophages for their different functional activities. On the other hand, peripheral T regulatory (Treg) cells exert antiinflammatory activities in the diseased host. In this respect, activation of Treg cells by nutraceuticals may represent a novel approach to treat neuroinflammation. Omega-3 fatty acids and polyphenols will be described as substances endowed with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. However, taking into account that Treg cells act in the later phase of CNS injury, favoring immune suppression, manipulation of host immune system with both substances requires caution to avoid undesired side effects. PMID:26635268

  1. Targeting Oxidative Stress in Central Nervous System Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manisha

    2016-09-01

    There is widespread recognition that reactive oxygen species (ROS) play key roles in normal brain function and pathology in the context of neurological disease. Oxidative stress continues to be a key therapeutic target for neurological diseases. In developing antioxidant therapies for neurological disease, special attention should be given to the brain's unique vulnerability to oxidative insults and its architecture. Consideration of antioxidant therapy should be guided by a strong rationale for oxidative stress in a given neurological disease. This review provides an overview of processes that can guide the development of antioxidant therapies in neurological diseases, such as knowledge of basic redox mechanisms, unique features of brain pathophysiology, mechanisms and classes of antioxidants, and desirable properties of drug candidates. PMID:27491897

  2. Video Views and Reviews: Neurulation and the Fashioning of the Vertebrate Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watters, Christopher

    2006-01-01

    The central nervous system (CNS) is the first adult organ system to appear during vertebrate development, and the process of its emergence is commonly called neurulation. Such biological "urgency" is perhaps not surprising given the structural and functional complexity of the CNS and the importance of neural function to adaptive behavior and…

  3. Turning sex inside-out: Peripheral contributions to sexual differentiation of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swift-Gallant Ashlyn

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sexual differentiation of the nervous system occurs via the interplay of genetics, endocrinology and social experience through development. Much of the research into mechanisms of sexual differentiation has been driven by an implicit theoretical framework in which these causal factors act primarily and directly on sexually dimorphic neural populations within the central nervous system. This review will examine an alternative explanation by describing what is known about the role of peripheral structures and mechanisms (both neural and non-neural in producing sex differences in the central nervous system. The focus of the review will be on experimental evidence obtained from studies of androgenic masculinization of the spinal nucleus of the bulbocavernosus, but other systems will also be considered.

  4. An altered form of pp60c-src is expressed primarily in the central nervous system.

    OpenAIRE

    Le Beau, J M; Wiestler, O D; Walter, G.

    1987-01-01

    The expression of two forms of pp60c-src, pp60 and pp60+, was measured in the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system. Both forms were expressed in the CNS, whereas only pp60 was primarily detected in the peripheral nervous system. Our findings suggest that pp60+ may play a role in events important to the CNS.

  5. Role of taurine in the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Wu Jang-Yen; Prentice Howard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Taurine demonstrates multiple cellular functions including a central role as a neurotransmitter, as a trophic factor in CNS development, in maintaining the structural integrity of the membrane, in regulating calcium transport and homeostasis, as an osmolyte, as a neuromodulator and as a neuroprotectant. The neurotransmitter properties of taurine are illustrated by its ability to elicit neuronal hyperpolarization, the presence of specific taurine synthesizing enzyme and receptors in t...

  6. Neuronal activation in the central nervous system of rats in the initial stage of chronic kidney disease-modulatory effects of losartan and moxonidine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós Palkovits

    Full Text Available The effect of mild chronic renal failure (CRF induced by 4/6-nephrectomy (4/6NX on central neuronal activations was investigated by c-Fos immunohistochemistry staining and compared to sham-operated rats. In the 4/6 NX rats also the effect of the angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan, and the central sympatholyticum moxonidine was studied for two months. In serial brain sections Fos-immunoreactive neurons were localized and classified semiquantitatively. In 37 brain areas/nuclei several neurons with different functional properties were strongly affected in 4/6NX. It elicited a moderate to high Fos-activity in areas responsible for the monoaminergic innervation of the cerebral cortex, the limbic system, the thalamus and hypothalamus (e.g. noradrenergic neurons of the locus coeruleus, serotonergic neurons in dorsal raphe, histaminergic neurons in the tuberomamillary nucleus. Other monoaminergic cell groups (A5 noradrenaline, C1 adrenaline, medullary raphe serotonin neurons and neurons in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (innervating the sympathetic preganglionic neurons and affecting the peripheral sympathetic outflow did not show Fos-activity. Stress- and pain-sensitive cortical/subcortical areas, neurons in the limbic system, the hypothalamus and the circumventricular organs were also affected by 4/6NX. Administration of losartan and more strongly moxonidine modulated most effects and particularly inhibited Fos-activity in locus coeruleus neurons. In conclusion, 4/6NX elicits high activity in central sympathetic, stress- and pain-related brain areas as well as in the limbic system, which can be ameliorated by losartan and particularly by moxonidine. These changes indicate a high sensitivity of CNS in initial stages of CKD which could be causative in clinical disturbances.

  7. Central Nervous System Parasitosis and Neuroinflammation Ameliorated by Systemic IL-10 Administration in Trypanosoma brucei-Infected Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Kennedy, Peter G E; Sternberg, Jeremy M

    2015-01-01

    Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) by African trypanosomes represents a critical step in the development of human African trypanosomiasis. In both clinical cases and experimental mouse infections it has been demonstrated that predisposition to CNS invasion is associated with a type 1 systemic inflammatory response. Using the Trypanosoma brucei brucei GVR35 experimental infection model, we demonstrate that systemic delivery of the counter-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 lowers plasma IFN-γ and TNF-α concentrations, CNS parasitosis and ameliorates neuro-inflammatory pathology and clinical symptoms of disease. The results provide evidence that CNS invasion may be susceptible to immunological attenuation.

  8. Current Proteomic Methods to Investigate the Dynamics of Histone Turnover in the Central Nervous System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrelly, L.A.; Dill, B.D.; Molina, H.; Birtwistle, M.R.; Maze, I.

    2016-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamic behavior of nucleosomes in the central nervous system is vital to our understanding of brain-specific chromatin-templated processes and their roles in transcriptional plasticity. Histone turnover—the complete loss of old, and replacement by new, nucleosomal histones—is one such phenomenon that has recently been shown to be critical for cell-type-specific transcription in brain, synaptic plasticity, and cognition. Such revelations that histones, long believed to static proteins in postmitotic cells, are highly dynamic in neurons were only possible owing to significant advances in analytical chemistry-based techniques, which now provide a platform for investigations of histone dynamics in both healthy and diseased tissues. Here, we discuss both past and present proteomic methods (eg, mass spectrometry, human “bomb pulse labeling”) for investigating histone turnover in brain with the hope that such information may stimulate future investigations of both adaptive and aberrant forms of “neuroepigenetic” plasticity. PMID:27423867

  9. The role of diffusion-weighted echo planar MRI in central nervous system infections regarding etiopathogeneses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kıroğlu, Yılmaz; Karabulut, Nevzat; Alkan, Alpay

    2010-12-01

    Neuroimaging constitutes an important component in the diagnosis of the underlying infectious agents in central nervous system (CNS) infections. Despite the recent advances in neuroimaging evaluation, the diagnosis of unclear infectious CNS diseases remains a challenge. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is used in routine practice to identify abnormal areas involved in CNS infections. More recent MRI techniques, such as diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), provide additional helpful information in the assessment of CNS infectious lesions compared with conventional MRI. This pictorial essay summarizes the clinical role of DWI in the demonstration of CNS infections including meningitis, encephalitis and pyogenic infections, and determination of the lesions compared with conventional MRI on the basis of physiopathologic phases of the infections.

  10. Stabilisation of the emergency patient Part III: Central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Sigrist, Nadja

    2011-01-01

    The emergency patient with decreased consciousness is identified by clinical examination of pupil size and reaction, additional brain stem reflexes, level of consciousness and motor activity. Priority stabilisation of respiration and perfusion is mandatory in the management of patients with neurological diseases and is part of the strategy aiming at preventing secondary neuronal damage induced by hypoxia, hypercapnia and decreased cerebral perfusion. The goal of the emergency stabilisation is...

  11. The role of microbiome in central nervous system disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Kasper, Lloyd H.

    2013-01-01

    Mammals live in a co-evolutionary association with the plethora of microorganisms that reside at a variety of tissue microenvironments. The microbiome represents the collective genomes of these co-existing microorganisms, which is shaped by host factors such as genetics and nutrients but in turn is able to influence host biology in health and disease. Niche-specific microbiome, prominently the gut microbiome, has the capacity to effect both local and distal sites within the host. The gut micr...

  12. Clinical magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratai, Eva-Maria; Gilberto González, R

    2016-01-01

    Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H MRS) is a noninvasive imaging technique that can easily be added to the conventional magnetic resonance (MR) imaging sequences. Using MRS one can directly compare spectra from pathologic or abnormal tissue and normal tissue. Metabolic changes arising from pathology that can be visualized by MRS may not be apparent from anatomy that can be visualized by conventional MR imaging. In addition, metabolic changes may precede anatomic changes. Thus, MRS is used for diagnostics, to observe disease progression, monitor therapeutic treatments, and to understand the pathogenesis of diseases. MRS may have an important impact on patient management. The purpose of this chapter is to provide practical guidance in the clinical application of MRS of the brain. This chapter provides an overview of MRS-detectable metabolites and their significance. In addition some specific current clinical applications of MRS will be discussed, including brain tumors, inborn errors of metabolism, leukodystrophies, ischemia, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative diseases. The chapter concludes with technical considerations and challenges of clinical MRS. PMID:27432661

  13. Chemokine biomarkers in central nervous system tissue and cerebrospinal fluid in the Theiler's virus model mirror those in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachner, Andrew R; Li, Libin; Gilli, Francesca

    2015-12-01

    Chemokines have increasingly been implicated in inflammatory and infectious disease of the central nervous system, both as biomarkers and as molecules important in pathogenesis. Multiple sclerosis is a disabling disease of unknown etiology, and recently chemokines have been identified as being upregulated molecules in the disease. We were interested in how the chemokine expression patterns in the central nervous system of a viral model of multiple sclerosis, Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelinating disease (TMEV-IDD), compared to that in humans with multiple sclerosis. Cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord tissue were analyzed for expression of a range of cytokines and chemokines. Three chemokines, CXCL10, CXCL9, and CCL5 were strongly and specifically upregulated in both the cerebrospinal fluid and spinal cord in chronic disease, a pattern identical to that in multiple sclerosis. These data, the first study of cytokines in central nervous system tissue and cerebrospinal fluid in TMEV-IDD, support the hypothesis that multiple sclerosis is caused by chronic infection with an as-yet unidentified pathogen, possibly a picornavirus.

  14. Radiotherapy applied to tumours of the intracranial central nervous systems in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As domestic animals such as dogs are living older because of a better life quality and better cares, they may more frequently develop tumours in their intracranial central nervous system. In this research thesis, the author addresses this specific topic. He first recalls fundamental physical and biological aspects for the understanding of radiotherapy action mechanisms, and the modalities of such a treatment. He addresses the general study of intracranial central nervous system tumours in dogs: brief recall on anatomic and histological aspects, presentation of their classification and their prevalence, and precise descriptions of their characteristics. In the third part, the author reports clinical and para-clinical data which allow the diagnosis of an intracranial nervous tissue tumour. The last part presents different available therapeutic modalities, more particularly addresses the interest of radiotherapy in neuro-oncology, and compares published results

  15. Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenges in a Liver Transplant Recipient with Central Nervous System Invasive Aspergillosis

    OpenAIRE

    Dionissios, Neofytos; Shmuel, Shoham; Kerry, Dierberg; Katharine, Le; Simon, Dufresne; Sean, Zhang X; Kieren, Marr A

    2012-01-01

    This is a case report of central nervous system (CNS) invasive aspergillosis (IA) in a liver transplant recipient, which illustrates the utility of enzyme-based diagnostic tools for the timely and accurate diagnosis of IA, the treatment challenges and poor outcomes associated with CNS IA in liver transplant recipients.

  16. Primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma mimicking meningoencephalomyelitis in a cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guil-Luna, Silvia; Carrasco, Librado; Gómez-Laguna, Jaime; Hilbe, Monika; Mínguez, Juan J; Köhler, Kernt; de las Mulas, Juana Martín

    2013-06-01

    A cat was presented with right head tilt and circling. The lack of expression of virus antigens did not support the postmortem diagnosis of encephalomyelitis pointing to a diffuse primary central nervous system T-cell lymphoma on the basis of CD3 and CD45R co-expression with absence of CD79α staining. PMID:24155454

  17. National Training Course. Emergency Medical Technician. Paramedic. Instructor's Lesson Plans. Module VII. Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This instructor's lesson plan guide on the central nervous system is one of fifteen modules designed for use in the training of emergency medical technicians. Four units of study are presented: (1) anatomy and physiology; (2) assessment of patients with neurological problems; (3) pathophysiology and management of neurological problems; (4)…

  18. Dysfunctional astrocytes as key players in the pathogenesis of central nervous system disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Keyser, Jacques; Mostert, Jop P.; Koch, Marcus W.

    2008-01-01

    Once considered little more than the glue that holds neurons in place, astrocytes are now becoming appreciated for the key roles they play in central nervous system functions. They supply neurons and oligodendrocytes with substrates for energy metabolism, control extracellular water and electrolyte

  19. Trends in tumors in the central nervous system in elderly in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlrot, Rikke H; Poulsen, Frantz R; Nguyen, Nina N T T;

    2016-01-01

    Background Tumors in the central nervous system (CNS) comprise a heterogeneous group of tumors with different treatment strategies and prognoses. Current treatment regimens are based on studies on patients mainly younger than 70 years. The aim of the present study was to analyze and describe trends...

  20. Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system: a review with focus on molecular aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kusters-vandevelde, H.V.; Kusters, B.; Grunsven, A.C.H. van; Groenen, P.J.T.A.; Wesseling, P.; Blokx, W.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    Primary melanocytic tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) represent a spectrum of rare tumors. They can be benign or malignant and occur in adults as well as in children, the latter often in the context of neurocutaneous melanosis. Until recently, the genetic alterations in these tumors were la

  1. Downregulation of membrane type-matrix metalloproteinases in the inflamed or injured central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft-Hansen, Henrik; Babcock, Alicia A; Millward, Jason M;

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are thought to mediate cellular infiltration in central nervous system (CNS) inflammation by cleaving extracellular matrix proteins associated with the blood-brain barrier. The family of MMPs includes 23 proteinases, including six membrane type-MMPs (MT...

  2. Biomarkers in early phase development of central nervous system drugs : a conceptual framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, Jeroen-Paul van der

    2006-01-01

    The main objective of this thesis is to provide a conceptual framework for the use of Central Nervous System (CNS) biomarkers in early phase clinical drug development. In the Introduction the current use of biomarkers in early CNS drug development is discussed. A conceptual framework for the classif

  3. Mild hypothermia as a treatment for central nervous system injuries Positive or negative effects?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rami Darwazeh; Yi Yan

    2013-01-01

    Besides local neuronal damage caused by the primary insult, central nervous system injuries may secondarily cause a progressive cascade of related events including brain edema, ischemia, oxida-tive stress, excitotoxicity, and dysregulation of calcium homeostasis. Hypothermia is a beneficial strategy in a variety of acute central nervous system injuries. Mild hypothermia can treat high intra-cranial pressure fol owing traumatic brain injuries in adults. It is a new treatment that increases sur-vival and quality of life for patients suffering from ischemic insults such as cardiac arrest, stroke, and neurogenic fever fol owing brain trauma. Therapeutic hypothermia decreases free radical produc-tion, inflammation, excitotoxicity and intracranial pressure, and improves cerebral metabolism after traumatic brain injury and cerebral ischemia, thus protecting against central nervous system dam-age. Although a series of pathological and physiological changes as wel as potential side effects are observed during hypothermia treatment, it remains a potential therapeutic strategy for central nervous system injuries and deserves further study.

  4. Targeting the chemokine receptor CXCR3 and its ligand CXCL10 in the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2004-01-01

    focuses on the present data regarding CXCL10 (previously known as IP-10) and CXRC3 in multiple sclerosis, since consistent data has suggested that this chemokine/chemokine receptor pair has a pivotal role in leukocyte recruitment into the central nervous system (CNS) in multiple sclerosis....

  5. Herpes simplex virus type 2 infections of the central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Omland, Lars Haukali; Vestergaard, Bent Faber; Wandall, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are rare with meningitis as the most common clinical presentation. We have investigated the clinical spectrum of CNS infections in 49 adult consecutive patients with HSV-2 genome in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). HSV...

  6. Expression of Nogo-A mRNA after injury of the rat central nervous system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xigao Guo; Yang Guo; Tao Huang

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Nogo protein has been identified as an inhibitor of axonal growth, which was highly expressed in central nervous system; however, there are only a few studies on changes of Nogo-A expression following central nervous system injury.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the dynamic expression of Nogo-A mRNA after rat central nervous system injury.DESIGN: Randomized controlled animal study.MATERIALS: Thirty-five rats were randomly divided into two groups, normal animal group (n = 5) and model group (n = 30). The model group was then divided into six subgroups at six time points: 12, 24 hours and 3, 9, 15, and 21 days post-injury, with five rats in each subgroup.METHODS: The left parietal lobe of rats was contused by free-fall strike, and total RNA was extracted from the entire brain tissue. Semi-quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect Nogo-A mRNA expression, and the ratio between expression of the target gene and glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase was used to determine the relative expression level.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: To determine whether Nogo-A mRNA expression was higher than usual following brain injury.RESULTS: The level of Nogo-A mRNA started to increase 12 hours after injury (P 0.05).CONCLUSION: After injury of the central nervous system, Nogo-A may play a pivotal role in obstructing regeneration of the nerve.

  7. A Comparative Study of Successful Central Nervous System Drugs Using Molecular Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyosub; Sulaimon, Segun; Menezes, Sandra; Son, Anne; Menezes, Warren J. C.

    2011-01-01

    Molecular modeling is a powerful tool used for three-dimensional visualization and for exploring electrostatic forces involved in drug transport. This tool enhances student understanding of structure-property relationships, as well as actively engaging them in class. Molecular modeling of several central nervous system (CNS) drugs is used to…

  8. Seasonality of birth in children with central nervous system tumours in Denmark, 1970-2003

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, L S; Grell, K; Frederiksen, K;

    2008-01-01

    We investigated possible seasonal variation of births among children central nervous system tumour in Denmark (N=1640), comparing them with 2,582,714 children born between 1970 and 2003. No such variation was seen overall, but ependymoma showed seasonal variation....

  9. Expression of specific chemokines and chemokine receptors in the central nervous system of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Tani, M; Jensen, J;

    1999-01-01

    Chemokines direct tissue invasion by specific leukocyte populations. Thus, chemokines may play a role in multiple sclerosis (MS), an idiopathic disorder in which the central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory reaction is largely restricted to mononuclear phagocytes and T cells. We asked whether...

  10. Cognitive functions in primary central nervous system lymphoma: Literature review and assessment guidelines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.D. Correa; L. Maron; H. Harder (Helena); M. Klein (Martin); C.L. Armstrong; P. Calabrese; J.E.C. Bromberg (Jacolien); L.E. Abrey (Lauren); T.T. Batchelor (Tracy); D. Schiff (David)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Treatment-related neurotoxicity has been recognized as a significant problem in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) as effective treatment has increased survival rates. There is, however, a paucity of research on cognitive functions in this populatio

  11. Insulin in Central Nervous System: More than Just a Peripheral Hormone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana I. Duarte

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Insulin signaling in central nervous system (CNS has emerged as a novel field of research since decreased brain insulin levels and/or signaling were associated to impaired learning, memory, and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. Thus, besides its well-known role in longevity, insulin may constitute a promising therapy against diabetes- and age-related neurodegenerative disorders. More interestingly, insulin has been also faced as the potential missing link between diabetes and aging in CNS, with Alzheimer's disease (AD considered as the “brain-type diabetes.” In fact, brain insulin has been shown to regulate both peripheral and central glucose metabolism, neurotransmission, learning, and memory and to be neuroprotective. And a future challenge will be to unravel the complex interactions between aging and diabetes, which, we believe, will allow the development of efficient preventive and therapeutic strategies to overcome age-related diseases and to prolong human “healthy” longevity. Herewith, we aim to integrate the metabolic, neuromodulatory, and neuroprotective roles of insulin in two age-related pathologies: diabetes and AD, both in terms of intracellular signaling and potential therapeutic approach.

  12. [Current cell therapy strategies for repairing the central nervous system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Féron, F

    2007-09-01

    One of the chief contemporary goals of neurologists and neuroscientists is to find a way to overcome the debilitating effects of brain diseases, especially neurodegenerative diseases. Since very few molecules have been found to be efficient in curing the patients and even halting the progression of the symptoms, cell therapy is now seen as an attractive alternative. Two therapeutic strategies are currently under investigation: i) the "substitution" strategy, based on grafts of cells capable of differentiating in the appropriate cells and restoring lost functions and ii) the "neuroprotective" or "conservative" strategy aiming to increase the resistance of spared cells to the toxicity of their environment and to reinforce the body's own mechanisms of healing. Twenty years ago, foetal neuroblasts were the first cells to be transplanted in the brains of patients with Parkinson's or Huntington disease. A phase II clinical trial is presently conducted in France for the latter disorder. However, the numerous ethical and technical issues raised by the use of embryonic and foetal cells have directed the focus of clinicians and researchers towards substitute cell types. In this review, we summarise the main findings of the most recent basic studies and clinical trials based on: i) the grafting of surrogate adult cells such as bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells and olfactory ensheathing cells; ii) the potential therapeutic applications of neuropoiesis - the persistent neurogenesis in the brain - as a source for tissue engraftment and as self-repair by a person's own indigenous population of pluripotent cells and iii) immune-based therapy (autologous activated macrophages and T cell vaccination) as well as administration of immunomodulatory molecules. Unexpectedly, it has been found that undifferentiated adult stem cells can display immune-like functions when they home in on an inflamed brain area while immune cells and immunosuppressors can improve functional and

  13. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Won Jin; Park, Dong Woo; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok; Ju, Kyung Bin [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Tae [Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-01-01

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI.

  14. Langerhans cell histiocytosis involving central nervous system: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis(LCH) is a systemic disorder characterized by idiopathic proliferation of histiocytes in the reticuloendothelial system; CNS involvement outside the hypothalamus or pituitary gland is uncommon. We present a case of LCH involving the brainstem, cerebellum, and temporal lobes, and also showing hypothalamic involvement. The lesions were isointense or hypointense on T1WI and hyperintense on T2WI, and showed multifocal enhancing nodules on post-contrast CT and Gd-enhanced MRI

  15. Atypical Imaging Findings in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Afravi

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The incidence of primary CNS lymphomas (PCNSL is increasing. Timely diagnosis of PCNSL can lead to proper therapeutic management. There are some atypical imaging findings that may easily be misdiagnosed as other pathologic processes such as infectious and demyelinative diseases. As a result, histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for all suspected lesions."nPatients and Methods: In this research we studied 120 cases of PCNSL over the past 16 years. Some of them had atypical imaging findings, suggesting many differential diagnoses. Having said that, stereotactic biopsy was performed for all cases and the diagnosis was proved."nResults: We selected some interesting cases with atypical imaging findings of PCNSL, which were unlikely to be diagnosed without histopathologic evaluation. "nConclusion: PCNSL must be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis for other brain lesions. Histopathologic diagnosis is necessary for prompt management.

  16. Central nervous system aspergillus infection complicating renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A case of catastrophic intracerebral haemorrhage secondary to aspergillus infection in an immunocompromised renal transplant patient is presented. The pathological features and related images are described and the radiology of CNS aspergillus infection is reviewed. A 37-year-old woman was admitted with abdominal pain. She had recently received a cadaveric renal transplant following failure of the previous live donor kidney. Gastroscopy showed changes suspicious of cytomegalovirus (CMV) gastroduodenitis and she was treated with gancyclovir, with resolution of her symptoms. While in hospital her creatinine began to rise. The renal biopsy was suggestive of cyclosporin toxicity and the cyclosporin level was raised 537 mg/mL (normal 160-360 mg/mL). Several days later, she developed slurred speech and weakness in her right arm. Non-contrast CT showed multifocal regions of low attenuation over the right temporal convexity, within the basal ganglia, inferior frontal lobe and corona radiata on the left side. Magnetic resonance imaging on the same day showed multiple areas of high signal on the FLAIR images, some of which contained central areas of low signal. There was no significant enhancement post gadolinium but several of the lesions showed increased signal on the diffusion-weighted images, reflecting cytotoxic oedema. Repeat CT showed an increase in the size of the cerebral lesions with haemorrhagic transformation of the right basal ganglia mass. A further lesion with a peripheral dense rim on the non-contrast images was identified in the right cerebellar hemisphere. The possibility of a vasculitis secondary to a fungal infection was raised. Two days later the patient became comatose with CT showing a large intracerebral haematoma in the left basal ganglia, intraventricular blood and hydrocephalus. The patient died soon afterwards. Post-mortem examination showed multifocal cerebral haemorrhage associated with necrotizing vasculitis and aspergillus infection

  17. Diagnostic accuracy of frozen section in Central nervous system lesions, a 10-year study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliheh KHODDAMI*

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available How to Cite This Article: Khoddami M, Akbarzadeh A, Mordai A, Bidari Zerehpoush F, Alipour H, Samadzadeh S, Alipour B.Diagnostic Accuracy of Frozen Section of Central Nervous System Lesions: A 10-Year Study. Iran J Child Neurol. 2015 Winter;9(1:25-30. AbstractObjectiveDefinitive diagnosis of the central nervous system (CNS lesions is unknown prior to histopathological examination. To determine the method and the endpoint for surgery, intraoperative evaluation of the lesion helps the surgeon.In this study, the diagnostic accuracy and pitfalls of using frozen section (FS ofCNS lesions is determined.Materials & MethodsIn this retrospective study, we analyzed the results of FS and permanent diagnoses of all CNS lesions by reviewing reports from 3 general hospitals between March 2001 and March 2011.Results273 cases were reviewed and patients with an age range from 3 to 77 years of age were considered. 166 (60.4% had complete concordance between FS and permanent section diagnosis, 83 (30.2% had partial concordance, and 24 cases (9.5% were discordant. Considering the concordant and partially concordant cases, the accuracy rate was 99.5%, sensitivity was 91.4%, specificity was 99.7%, and positive and negative predictive values were 88.4% and 99.8%, respectively.ConclusionOur results show high sensitivity and specificity of FS diagnosis in the evaluation of CNS lesions. A Kappa agreement score of 0.88 shows high concordance for FS results with permanent section. Pathologist’s misinterpretation, small biopsy samples (not representative of the entire tumor, suboptimal slides, and inadequate information about tumor location and radiologic findings appear to be the major causes for these discrepancies indicated from our study. ReferencesTaxy JB, Anthony G. Biopsy interpretation: the frozen section. 1st ed. China: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2010. P.301-3.Somerset HL, Kleinschmidt-DeMasters BK. Approach to the intraoperative consultation for

  18. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System

    OpenAIRE

    Drummond, Rebecca A.; Collar, Amanda L.; Muthulekha Swamydas; Rodriguez, Carlos A.; Jean K. Lim; Laura M Mendez; Fink, Danielle L.; Hsu, Amy P.; Bing Zhai; Hatice Karauzum; Mikelis, Constantinos M.; Rose, Stacey R.; Ferre, Elise M. N.; Lynne Yockey; Kimberly Lemberg

    2015-01-01

    Author Summary CARD9 is a molecule expressed by mammalian immune cells and is centrally positioned downstream of several C-type lectin receptors, which sense fungi. The critical role of CARD9 in the activation of antifungal host defense has been highlighted by the demonstration that human mutations that disrupt the function of CARD9 are associated with the development of spontaneous life-threatening fungal infections, many of which target the central nervous system (CNS). However, why CARD9-d...

  19. Medicinal chemical properties of successful central nervous system drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajouhesh, Hassan; Lenz, George R

    2005-10-01

    Fundamental physiochemical features of CNS drugs are related to their ability to penetrate the blood-brain barrier affinity and exhibit CNS activity. Factors relevant to the success of CNS drugs are reviewed. CNS drugs show values of molecular weight, lipophilicity, and hydrogen bond donor and acceptor that in general have a smaller range than general therapeutics. Pharmacokinetic properties can be manipulated by the medicinal chemist to a significant extent. The solubility, permeability, metabolic stability, protein binding, and human ether-ago-go-related gene inhibition of CNS compounds need to be optimized simultaneously with potency, selectivity, and other biological parameters. The balance between optimizing the physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties to make the best compromises in properties is critical for designing new drugs likely to penetrate the blood brain barrier and affect relevant biological systems. This review is intended as a guide to designing CNS therapeutic agents with better drug-like properties. PMID:16489364

  20. The impact of nandrolone decanoate on the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busardò, Francesco P; Frati, Paola; Sanzo, Mariantonia Di; Napoletano, Simona; Pinchi, Enrica; Zaami, Simona; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2015-01-01

    Nandrolone is included in the class II of anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) which is composed of 19-nor-testosterone-derivates. In general, AAS is a broad and rapidly increasing group of synthetic androgens used both clinically and illicitly. AAS in general and nandrolone decanoate (ND) in particular have been associated with several behavioral disorders. The purpose of this review is to summarize the literature concerning studies dealing with ND exposure on animal models, mostly rats that mimic human abuse systems (i.e. supraphysiological doses). We have focused in particular on researches that have investigated how ND alters the function and expression of neuronal signaling molecules that underlie behavior, anxiety, aggression, learning and memory, reproductive behaviors, locomotion and reward. PMID:26074747

  1. [Pharmacological correction of central nervous system function in exposure to Coriolis acceleration].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkishchenko, N N; Dimitriadi, N A; Molchanovskiĭ, V V

    1986-01-01

    Healthy volunteers with a low vestibular tolerance were exposed to Coriolis acceleration. Potassium orotate, pyracetame and riboxine were used as prophylactic measures against disorders in the function of the vestibular apparatus and higher compartments of the higher nervous system. The central nervous function was assessed with respect to the spectral power of electroencephalograms, short-term memory and mental performance. Potassium orotate given at a dose of 40 mg/kg body weight/day during 12-14 days as well as pyracetame given at a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight/day during 3 or 7 days increased significantly statokinetic tolerance and produced a protective effect on the central nervous function against Coriolis acceleration.

  2. Atypical central nervous system Whipple's disease: a case report and review of the literature%不典型性中枢神经系统Whipple病:一例报告并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱海蓉; 孟宇宏; 王巍; 卢德宏; 朴月善; 戚晓昆

    2011-01-01

    Objective To report the first case of central nervous system Whipple's disease (WD) with relatively good prognosis in China and present a brief review of central nervous system WD so as to improve the understanding of the diagnosis and treatment of this rare disease. Methods The clinical data of diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of one case of 35-year-old female was analysed in detail. Results Headache, hemiplesia and dementia were the main symptoms of this case and hypercranial pressure crisis occurred. During the course of disease, the patient successively presented paroxysmal extremity convulsion, right leg weakness, urinary incontinence, overeating, body mass increase. Despite of high dose of corticosteroid, penicillin and compound sulfamethoxazole were used, no effect was seen. Along with the increasing of intracranial pressure, cerebral hernia occurred. Cerebrospinal fluid examination indicated that glucose and chloride were normal while protein was obviously increased to 1700 mg/L. Electrocardiography (EEG) showed slow wave in right frontal and temporal lobes. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed mutiple long Ti and long T2 signals mainly in right cerebral hemisphere, frontal parietal temporal lobes, seraioval center and basal ganglion, with edema and irregular loose contrast and extended to left cerebral. Brain biopsy showed large pieces of necrosis at right fronto-temporal lobe with massive infiltration of lymphocytes and plasmocytes at perivascular and brain tissue, and exudation of glitter cells. Positive PAS and methenamine silver staining revealed bacterial particles inglitter cells. Central nervous systemtumor, demyelinating disease and inflammatory pseudotumor were excluded. Both clinical symptoms and neuroimging recovered well after regular antibiotic therapy.Conclusion Central nervous system WD is a rare disease with complicated symptoms and imaging characters challenging diagnosis and treatment. The pathological findings may only

  3. Exercise Strengthens Central Nervous System Modulation of Pain in Fibromyalgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellingson, Laura D.; Stegner, Aaron J.; Schwabacher, Isaac J.; Koltyn, Kelli F.; Cook, Dane B.

    2016-01-01

    To begin to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the benefits of exercise for chronic pain, we assessed the influence of exercise on brain responses to pain in fibromyalgia (FM). Complete data were collected for nine female FM patients and nine pain-free controls (CO) who underwent two functional neuroimaging scans, following exercise (EX) and following quiet rest (QR). Brain responses and pain ratings to noxious heat stimuli were compared within and between groups. For pain ratings, there was a significant (p < 0.05) Condition by Run interaction characterized by moderately lower pain ratings post EX compared to QR (d = 0.39–0.41) for FM but similar to ratings in CO (d = 0.10–0.26), thereby demonstrating that exercise decreased pain sensitivity in FM patients to a level that was analogous to pain-free controls. Brain responses demonstrated a significant within-group difference in FM patients, characterized by less brain activity bilaterally in the anterior insula following QR as compared to EX. There was also a significant Group by Condition interaction with FM patients showing less activity in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex following QR as compared to post-EX and CO following both conditions. These results suggest that exercise appeared to stimulate brain regions involved in descending pain inhibition in FM patients, decreasing their sensitivity to pain. Thus, exercise may benefit patients with FM via improving the functional capacity of the pain modulatory system. PMID:26927193

  4. Cerebrolysin as a nerve growth factor for treatment of acquired peripheral nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sherifa Ahmad Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Cerebrolysin is a drug consisting of low-molecular-weight neurotrophic peptides and free amino acids. Cerebrolysin has been shown to ameliorate the effects of oxidative stress, reduce apoptosis, and promote neuronal growth in several degenerative and acquired central nervous system insults, including dementias, stroke, and traumatic injuries. Little is known about its therapeutic efficacy in peripheral nervous system diseases. In this study, we clinically evaluated the effects of cerebrolysin on peripheral nervous system lesions. We evaluated the clinical efficacy of cerebrolysin in six patients with the following conditions who failed to respond to conventional therapies: (1) atonic bladder due to inflammatory radiculitis; (2) paraplegia due to inflammatory radiculoneuropathy; (3) post-traumatic brachial plexopathy; (4) compressive radial nerve injury; (5) post-traumatic facial nerve paralysis; and (6) diabetic ophthalmoplegia. Our results showed that cerebrolysin was more associated with rapid neurological recovery after various peripheral nerve lesions than other therapies including steroids and supportive therapies such as vitamins and antioxidants. The present results support the therapeutic efficacy of cerebrolysin in the treatment of acquired peripheral nervous system diseases.

  5. Classifying Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors through near Optimal Feature Selection and Mutual Information: A Single Center Cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faranoush

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Labeling, gathering mutual information, clustering and classificationof central nervous system tumors may assist in predicting not only distinct diagnosesbased on tumor-specific features but also prognosis. This study evaluates the epidemi-ological features of central nervous system tumors in children who referred to Mahak’sPediatric Cancer Treatment and Research Center in Tehran, Iran.Methods: This cohort (convenience sample study comprised 198 children (≤15years old with central nervous system tumors who referred to Mahak's PediatricCancer Treatment and Research Center from 2007 to 2010. In addition to the descriptiveanalyses on epidemiological features and mutual information, we used the LeastSquares Support Vector Machines method in MATLAB software to propose apreliminary predictive model of pediatric central nervous system tumor feature-labelanalysis. Results:Of patients, there were 63.1% males and 36.9% females. Patients' mean±SDage was 6.11±3.65 years. Tumor location was as follows: supra-tentorial (30.3%, infra-tentorial (67.7% and 2% (spinal. The most frequent tumors registered were: high-gradeglioma (supra-tentorial in 36 (59.99% patients and medulloblastoma (infra-tentorialin 65 (48.51% patients. The most prevalent clinical findings included vomiting,headache and impaired vision. Gender, age, ethnicity, tumor stage and the presence ofmetastasis were the features predictive of supra-tentorial tumor histology.Conclusion: Our data agreed with previous reports on the epidemiology of centralnervous system tumors. Our feature-label analysis has shown how presenting features maypartially predict diagnosis. Timely diagnosis and management of central nervous systemtumors can lead to decreased disease burden and improved survival. This may be furtherfacilitated through development of partitioning, risk prediction and prognostic models.

  6. Dietary Fatty Acids Directly Impact Central Nervous System Autoimmunity via the Small Intestine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haghikia, Aiden; Jörg, Stefanie; Duscha, Alexander; Berg, Johannes; Manzel, Arndt; Waschbisch, Anne; Hammer, Anna; Lee, De-Hyung; May, Caroline; Wilck, Nicola; Balogh, Andras; Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge; Akkad, Denis A; Grohme, Diana A; Kleinewietfeld, Markus; Kempa, Stefan; Thöne, Jan; Demir, Seray; Müller, Dominik N; Gold, Ralf; Linker, Ralf A

    2015-10-20

    Growing empirical evidence suggests that nutrition and bacterial metabolites might impact the systemic immune response in the context of disease and autoimmunity. We report that long-chain fatty acids (LCFAs) enhanced differentiation and proliferation of T helper 1 (Th1) and/or Th17 cells and impaired their intestinal sequestration via p38-MAPK pathway. Alternatively, dietary short-chain FAs (SCFAs) expanded gut T regulatory (Treg) cells by suppression of the JNK1 and p38 pathway. We used experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) as a model of T cell-mediated autoimmunity to show that LCFAs consistently decreased SCFAs in the gut and exacerbated disease by expanding pathogenic Th1 and/or Th17 cell populations in the small intestine. Treatment with SCFAs ameliorated EAE and reduced axonal damage via long-lasting imprinting on lamina-propria-derived Treg cells. These data demonstrate a direct dietary impact on intestinal-specific, and subsequently central nervous system-specific, Th cell responses in autoimmunity, and thus might have therapeutic implications for autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis. PMID:26488817

  7. Central Nervous System Based Computing Models for Shelf Life Prediction of Soft Mouth Melting Milk Cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Gyanendra Kumar Goyal; Sumit Goyal

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the latency and potential of central nervous system based system intelligent computer engineering system for detecting shelf life of soft mouth melting milk cakes stored at 10o C. Soft mouth melting milk cakes are exquisite sweetmeat cuisine made out of heat and acid thickened solidified sweetened milk. In today’s highly competitive market consumers look for good quality food products. Shelf life is a good and accurate indicator to the food quality and safety. To achieve g...

  8. Prevalence of Chromosomally Integrated Human Herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) in Patients with HHV-6 Central Nervous System Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Hill, Joshua A; Sedlak, Ruth Hall; Zerr, Danielle M.; Huang, Meei-Li; Yeung, Cecilia; Myerson, David; Jerome, Keith R.; Boeckh, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We identified 37 hematopoietic cell transplantation recipients with human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6) central nervous system dysfunction and tested donors/recipients for chromosomally integrated (ci)HHV-6. One patient had ciHHV-6A with possible HHV-6A reactivation and encephalitis. There was no ciHHV-6 enrichment in this group, but larger studies are needed to determine if patients with ciHHV-6 are at increased risk for HHV-6-associated diseases or other complications.

  9. IFN-γ inhibits central nervous system myelination through both STAT1-dependent and STAT1-independent pathways

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Wensheng; Lin, Yifeng

    2010-01-01

    Immune cytokine interferon-γ (IFN-γ) plays a crucial role in immune-mediated demyelination diseases such as multiple sclerosis and experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Our previous studies have shown that enforced expression of IFN-γ in the central nervous system (CNS) inhibits developmental myelination or remyelination in EAE demyelinated lesions. While many of the cellular actions of IFN-γ result from its activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT...

  10. 75 FR 56548 - Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and the Drug...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Joint Meeting of the Peripheral and Central Nervous System... the public. Name of Committees: Peripheral and Central Nervous System Drugs Advisory Committee and...

  11. Immunohistochemical distribution of Calbindin D-28K immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of adult cat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Tao; LI Jin-lian; XIONG Kang-hui; LI Ji-shuo

    2002-01-01

    Objective: In order to get more information about the possible functions of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat, the distribution of Calbindin D-28K in the central nervous system of adult cat was examined. Methods: Immunohistochemical staining techniques were used, and immunostained sections were observed under a light microscopy. Results: A high density of both immunoreactive perikarya and fibers were observed in the basal ganglia, amygdaloid complex, nucleus of the fields of Forel, subthalamic nucleus, paracentral nucleus, pulvinar nucleus, subthalamus, dorsal hypothalamic area, lateral hypothalamic area, anterior hypothalamus, suprachiasmatic nucleus, superior colliculus, inferior colliculus, oculomo-tor nucleus, superior olivary complex, marginal nucleus of the brachium conjunctivum, vestibular nuclei, the spinal trigeminal nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, cuneate nucleus, inferior olivary complex, dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus nerve, the molecular layer of the cerebellum, the purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the laminae Ⅱ of the spinal cord, whereas the dentate gyrus, the central medial nucleus of the thalamus, the paracentral and central lateral nucleus of the thalamus, the lateral dorsal nucleus of the thalamus,the ventrolateral complex of the thalamus, the medioventral nucleus of the thalamus, the posterior hypothalamic area, the dorsal hypothalamic area, the infundibular nucleus, the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus and the interfascicular nucleus had just a high density of immunoreactive perikarya, and no positive fibres were detected in these areas. Conclusion: The present results showed that Calbindin D-28K-like immunoreactivity was widely distributed throughout the central nervous system of adult cat and might play an important role in the activities of the neurons in the central nervous system of adult cat.

  12. Central nervous system tumors. Primary malignant lymphoma generated in the central nervous system-treatment of its recurrence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Described are the present state and perspective of radiotherapy and chemotherapy for the recurrent or refractory (r/r) primary CNS lymphoma (PCNSL) as those therapies can prolong the survival time despite still not-established regimen. It has been reported that 36-40 Gy irradiation to the whole brain results in the imaging response rate of 74-79% and median survival time of 10.9-16 mo. Delayed neurotoxicity is seen in 15-29% of patients and its incidence tends to increase in those of age >60 y. The irradiation is effective and in cases with complete response (CR) of ages 90Y-ibritumomab is a labeled mouse anti-CD20 antibody (ibritumomab) used for preparation of rituximab, and emits beta-ray. In 9/10 cases in its phase II study, the response rate of 44% was reported (CR 2 cases, CR-uncertain 1 and partial response 1). In the case CRu, efficacy was observed over 30 mo. Hematological toxicity of grade 3-4 was seen in all 10 patients, one of whom died by sepsis. In addition to support with autologous stem cell transplantation (ASCT) against the toxicity, necessity of combination with chemotherapy is suggested to cover the short duration of the effect. Other treatments include the high-dose chemotherapy combined with ASCT and arterial infusion chemotherapy under blood-brain barrier disruption. For r/r PCNSL, new anticancer drugs for the first primary disease, therapy with new molecular targeting drugs and findings of biomarker are awaited. (T.T.)

  13. CCR1+/CCR5+ mononuclear phagocytes accumulate in the central nervous system of patients with multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trebst, C; Sørensen, Torben Lykke; Kivisäkk, P;

    2001-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) are considered central to multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Molecular cues that mediate mononuclear phagocyte accumulation and activation in the central nervous system (CNS) of MS patients may include chemokines RANTES/CCL5...

  14. Autonomic Nervous System Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with breathing and swallowing Erectile dysfunction in men Autonomic nervous system disorders can occur alone or as the result of another disease, such as Parkinson's disease, alcoholism and diabetes. Problems can affect either part ...

  15. Central Nervous System Based Computing Models for Shelf Life Prediction of Soft Mouth Melting Milk Cakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyanendra Kumar Goyal

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the latency and potential of central nervous system based system intelligent computer engineering system for detecting shelf life of soft mouth melting milk cakes stored at 10o C. Soft mouth melting milk cakes are exquisite sweetmeat cuisine made out of heat and acid thickened solidified sweetened milk. In today’s highly competitive market consumers look for good quality food products. Shelf life is a good and accurate indicator to the food quality and safety. To achieve good quality of food products, detection of shelf life is important. Central nervous system based intelligent computing model was developed which detected 19.82 days shelf life, as against 21 days experimental shelf life.

  16. Multiple hemodynamic effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide on central nervous system in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Yong-sheng; WU Sheng-ying; WANG Xing-jun; YU Fang; ZHAO Jing; TANG Chao-shu; OUYANG Jing-ping; GENG Bin

    2011-01-01

    Background Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is a new neuromodulator which takes part in the regulation of central nervous system physiology and diseases.Whether endogenous hydrogen sulfide in the central nervous system regulates cardiovascular activity is not known.In the present study,we observed the hemodynamic changes of hydrogen sulfide or its precursor by intracerebroventricular injection,and investigate the possible roles of endogenous digitalis like factors and sympathetic activity in the regulation.Methods Ninety-four Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a right cerebroventricular puncture,then the hydrogen sulfide saturation buffer or its precursor injected by intrcerebroventricular catheter.A heperin-filled catheter was inserted into the right femoral artery or into the left ventricle,and changes of blood pressure or cardiac function recorded by a Powerlab/4S instrument.Phentolamine or metoprolol were pre-injected to observe the possible role in autonomic nerve activity.After rats were sacrificed,plasma was collected and endogenous digitalis-like factors were measured with a commercial radioimmunoassay kit.The aortic,cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles were isolated and the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase was measured as ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis under maximal velocity conditions by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate from ATP.Unpaired Student's ttest for two groups or analysis of variances (ANOVA) for multiple groups were used to compare the differences of the changes.Results Intracerebroventricular injection of hydrogen sulfide induced a transient hypotension,then dramatic hypertenive effects in a dose-dependent manner.Bolus injection of L-cysteine or beta-mercaptopyruvate also increased mean arterial pressure (P <0.01),whereas hydroxylamine-a cystathionine beta synthase inhibitor decreased the arterial pressure (P <0.01).Hydrogen sulfide and L-cysteine increased mean arterial pressure,left ventricular develop pressure and left-ventricle maximal rate of

  17. A phase Ib multiple ascending dose study of the safety, tolerability, and central nervous system availability of AZD0530 (saracatinib) in Alzheimer’s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Nygaard, Haakon B; Wagner, Allison F; Bowen, Garrett S; Good, Susan P; MacAvoy, Martha G.; Strittmatter, Kurt A; Kaufman, Adam C; Rosenberg, Brian J; Sekine-Konno, Tomoko; Varma, Pradeep; Chen, Kewei; Koleske, Anthony J.; Eric M Reiman; Strittmatter, Stephen M.; van Dyck, Christopher H.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Despite significant progress, a disease-modifying therapy for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) has not yet been developed. Recent findings implicate soluble oligomeric amyloid beta as the most relevant protein conformation in AD pathogenesis. We recently described a signaling cascade whereby oligomeric amyloid beta binds to cellular prion protein on the neuronal cell surface, activating intracellular Fyn kinase to mediate synaptotoxicity. Fyn kinase has been implicated in AD pathophysiol...

  18. The central nervous system complications of bone marrow transplantation in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Shoko; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Yamamoto, Akira [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Radiology, Kyoto (Japan); Kuroda, Hiroshi; Imashuku, Shinsaku [Kyoto City Hospital, Department of Pediatrics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2008-10-15

    Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is widely performed for both neoplastic and non-neoplastic disease. Before BMT, patients are prepared with high-dose chemotherapy, frequently associated with total-body radiation, to destroy residual malignant cells and to reduce immunologic resistance. BMT is associated with several central nervous system (CNS) complications secondary to underlying disease, prolonged myelosuppression, and the use of immunosuppressive drugs. These complications include infections, vascular disease, drug-induced neurotoxicity, metabolic disturbance, and post-BMT carcinogenesis. The immune status of children after BMT can be divided into three phases: the pre-engraftment period (days 0-30 after BMT), the post-engraftment period (days 30-100), and the late phase (after day 100). The timing of CNS complications that occur after BMT, as for complications in other organs, can be described with reference to these three phases of immune status. It is essential that radiologists become familiar with the relationships between the immune status of the recipient and the times of onset of these disorders, and with the neuroimaging patterns associated with the various complications. CNS complications can be life-threatening for immunosuppressed children, so accurate diagnosis is important for prompt and appropriate treatment. (orig.)

  19. CEACAM1 mediates B cell aggregation in central nervous system autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovituso, Damiano M; Scheffler, Laura; Wunsch, Marie; Kleinschnitz, Christoph; Dörck, Sebastian; Ulzheimer, Jochen; Bayas, Antonios; Steinman, Lawrence; Ergün, Süleyman; Kuerten, Stefanie

    2016-01-01

    B cell aggregates in the central nervous system (CNS) have been associated with rapid disease progression in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Here we demonstrate a key role of carcinoembryogenic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule1 (CEACAM1) in B cell aggregate formation in MS patients and a B cell-dependent mouse model of MS. CEACAM1 expression was increased on peripheral blood B cells and CEACAM1(+) B cells were present in brain infiltrates of MS patients. Administration of the anti-CEACAM1 antibody T84.1 was efficient in blocking aggregation of B cells derived from MS patients. Along these lines, application of the monoclonal anti-CEACAM1 antibody mCC1 was able to inhibit CNS B cell aggregate formation and significantly attenuated established MS-like disease in mice in the absence of any adverse effects. CEACAM1 was co-expressed with the regulator molecule T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain -3 (TIM-3) on B cells, a novel molecule that has recently been described to induce anergy in T cells. Interestingly, elevated coexpression on B cells coincided with an autoreactive T helper cell phenotype in MS patients. Overall, these data identify CEACAM1 as a clinically highly interesting target in MS pathogenesis and open new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of the disease. PMID:27435215

  20. Modelling the spatial organization of cell proliferation in the developing central nervous system

    CERN Document Server

    Clairambault, Jean; Perthame, Benoit; Rapacioli, Melina; Rofman, Edmundo; Verdes, Rafael

    2010-01-01

    How far is neuroepithelial cell proliferation in the developing central nervous system a deterministic process? Or, to put it in a more precise way, how accurately can it be described by a deterministic mathematical model? To provide tracks to answer this question, a deterministic system of transport and diffusion partial differential equations, both physiologically and spatially structured, is introduced as a model to describe the spatially organized process of cell proliferation during the development of the central nervous system. As an initial step towards dealing with the three-dimensional case, a unidimensional version of the model is presented. Numerical analysis and numerical tests are performed. In this work we also achieve a first experimental validation of the proposed model, by using cell proliferation data recorded from histological sections obtained during the development of the optic tectum in the chick embryo.

  1. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. PMID:27555221

  2. Does Acupuncture Alter Pain-related Functional Connectivity of the Central Nervous System? A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal Santiago, María; Tumilty, Steve; Mącznik, Aleksandra; Mani, Ramakrishnan

    2016-08-01

    Acupuncture has been studied for several decades to establish evidence-based clinical practice. This systematic review aims to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of acupuncture in influencing the functional connectivity of the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain. A systematic search of the literature was conducted to identify studies in which the central response of acupuncture in patients with musculoskeletal pain was evaluated by neuroimaging techniques. Databases searched were AMED, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, PEDro, Pubmed, SCOPUS, SPORTDiscuss, and Web of Science. Included studies were assessed by two independent reviewers for their methodological quality by using the Downs and Black questionnaire and for their levels of completeness and transparency in reporting acupuncture interventions by using Standards for Reporting Interventions in Clinical Trials of Acupuncture (STRICTA) criteria. Seven studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies were randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and four studies were nonrandomized controlled trials (NRCTs). The neuroimaging techniques used were functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and positron emission tomography (PET). Positive effects on the functional connectivity of the central nervous system more consistently occurred during long-term acupuncture treatment. The results were heterogeneous from a descriptive perspective; however, the key findings support acupuncture's ability to alter pain-related functional connectivity in the central nervous system in patients with musculoskeletal pain.

  3. Cardiac biopotentials influence on central nervous system functioning: first steps in hypothesis verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondal'skaya Yu.O.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The research goal is to verify the hypothesis on influence of cardiac biopotentials on central nervous system. Materials: 20 healthy individuals aged 18-26 years old have been participated in the investigations. Two groups composed of 10 patients each have been formed. Double increase in heart biopotentials by means of artificial impulse insertion between natural cardiac contractions has been modeled. Artificial impulses have been similar to unaffected ones, produced in a normal heart work. Additional impulses have been generated using external pacemaker and have been linked up with electrodes on the chest. They have been synchronized with the heart rhythm and located in-between R waves. The duration of those impulses has been fully matched to ventricular complex. Their amplitude has been adjusted individually depending on the height of R wave. Nervous system mobility has been used as the indicator reflecting the central nervous system functioning. Degree of mobility has been defined on the basis of tapping test results. The test has been repeated at specific intervals. Groups have been exposed to two adverse testing modes. Additional impulses have been conducted to the patients of group I within an hour over a period of the first and the third 15-minute intervals and to the patients of group II over a period of the second and the fourth 15-minute intervals. In the middle and in the end of each time interval tapping test has been carried out. After preliminary analysis two other modes of stimulation have been tested. The stimulation has been performed within the 40-minute course: over a period of the first 20-minute interval and vice versa. Results: Detailed evaluation has revealed that short-time increase of nervous processes has been checked in combination with decrease in their stability. Conclusion: The data obtained have shown that there is possible influence on central nervous system functioning. The article ends with prospects of further

  4. Central nervous system Toll-like receptor expression in response to Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination disease in resistant and susceptible mouse strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turrin Nicolas P

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In immunopathological diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS, genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the initiation and progression of the disease are often discussed. The Theiler murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced demyelination disease (TMEV-IDD model used to study MS reflects this: genetically susceptible mice infected intra-cerebrally with TMEV develop a chronic demyelination disease. TMEV-IDD can be induced in resistant mouse strains by inducing innate immunity with lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Interestingly, Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4 is the cognate receptor for LPS and its activation can induces up-regulation of other TLRs, such as TLR7 (the receptor for TMEV and 9, known to be involved in autoimmunity. Up-regulation of TLRs could be involved in precipitating an autoimmune susceptible state. Consequently, we looked at TLR expression in the susceptible (SJL/J and resistant (C57BL/6 strains of mice infected with TMEV. The resistant mice were induced to develop TMEV-IDD by two LPS injections following TMEV infection. Results Both strains were found to up-regulate multiple TLRs (TLR2, 7 and 9 following the TMEV infection. Expression of these TLRs and of viral mRNA was significantly greater in infected SJL/J mice. The susceptible SJL/J mice showed up-regulation of TLR3, 6 and 8, which was not seen in C57BL/6 mice. Conclusion Expression of TLRs by susceptible mice and the up-regulation of the TLRs in resistant mice could participate in priming the mice toward an autoimmune state and develop TMEV-IDD. This could have implications on therapies that target TLRs to prevent the emergence of conditions such as MS in patients at risk for the disease.

  5. TNFR2 Deficiency Acts in Concert with Gut Microbiota To Precipitate Spontaneous Sex-Biased Central Nervous System Demyelinating Autoimmune Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patrick G; Bonn, Michael B; Franklin, Craig L; Ericsson, Aaron C; McKarns, Susan C

    2015-11-15

    TNF-α antagonists provide benefit to patients with inflammatory autoimmune disorders such as Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis. However, TNF antagonism unexplainably exacerbates CNS autoimmunity, including multiple sclerosis and neuromyelitis optica. The underlying mechanisms remain enigmatic. We demonstrate that TNFR2 deficiency results in female-biased spontaneous autoimmune CNS demyelination in myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific 2D2 TCR transgenic mice. Disease in TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 mice was associated with CNS infiltration of T and B cells as well as increased production of myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific IL-17, IFN-γ, and IgG2b. Attenuated disease in TNF(-/-) 2D2 mice relative to TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 mice identified distinctive roles for TNFR1 and TNFR2. Oral antibiotic treatment eliminated spontaneous autoimmunity in TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 mice to suggest role for gut microbiota. Illumina sequencing of fecal 16S rRNA identified a distinct microbiota profile in male TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 that was associated with disease protection. Akkermansia muciniphila, Sutterella sp., Oscillospira sp., Bacteroides acidifaciens, and Anaeroplasma sp. were selectively more abundant in male TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 mice. In contrast, Bacteroides sp., Bacteroides uniformis, and Parabacteroides sp. were more abundant in affected female TNFR2(-/-) 2D2 mice, suggesting a role in disease causation. Overall, TNFR2 blockade appears to disrupt commensal bacteria-host immune symbiosis to reveal autoimmune demyelination in genetically susceptible mice. Under this paradigm, microbes likely contribute to an individual's response to anti-TNF therapy. This model provides a foundation for host immune-microbiota-directed measures for the prevention and treatment of CNS-demyelinating autoimmune disorders. PMID:26475926

  6. PICK1 expression in the Drosophila central nervous system primarily occurs in the neuroendocrine system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansen, Anna M; Nässel, Dick R; Madsen, Kenneth L;

    2009-01-01

    in the adult and larval Drosophila central nervous system. PICK1 was found in cell bodies in the subesophageal ganglion, the antennal lobe, the protocerebrum, and the neuroendocrine center pars intercerebralis. The cell types that express PICK1 were identified using GAL4 enhancer trap lines. The PICK1...... (AMPA) receptor subunit GluR2 and the dopamine transporter. PICK1 is strongly implicated in GluR2 trafficking and synaptic plasticity. In mammals, PICK1 has been characterized extensively in cell culture studies. To study PICK1 in an intact system, we characterized PICK1 expression immunohistochemically...... neurons in the neuroendocrine system, which express the transcription factor DIMM and the amidating enzyme peptidylglycine-alpha-hydroxylating monooxygenase (PHM). The PICK1-positive cells include neurosecretory cells that produce the insulin-like peptide dILP2. PICK1 expression in insulin-producing cells...

  7. The gut microbiota and its correlations with the central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, R; Anzalone, M; Calabrese, F; Milazzo, M; Capuana, M; Italia, A; Occhipinti, S; Marotta, F

    2015-09-01

    A mutual impact of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and central nervous system (CNS) functions has been recognized since the mid-twentieth century. It is accepted that the so-called gut-brain axis provides a two-way homeostatic communication, through immunological, hormonal and neuronal signals. A dysfunction of this axis has been associated with the pathogenesis of some diseases both within and outside the GIT, that have shown an increase in incidence over the last decades. Studies comparing germ-free animals and animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotics or antibiotics suggest the participation of the microbiota in this communication and a role in host defense, regulation of immunity and autoimmune disease appearance. The GIT could represent a vulnerable area through which pathogens influence all aspects of physiology and even induce CNS neuro-inflammation. All those concepts may suggest the modulation of the gut microbiota as an achievable strategy for innovative therapies in complex disorders. Moving from this background, the present review discusses the relationship between intestinal microbiota and CNS and the effects in health and disease. We particularly look at how the commensal gut microbiota influences systemic immune response in some neurological disorders, highlighting its impact on pain and cognition in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barrè Syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and Alzheimer's disease. In this review we discuss recent studies showing that the potential microbiota-gut-brain dialogue is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Gaining a better understanding of the relationship between microbiota and CNS could provide an insight on the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of these disorders.

  8. The gut microbiota and its correlations with the central nervous system disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catanzaro, R; Anzalone, M; Calabrese, F; Milazzo, M; Capuana, M; Italia, A; Occhipinti, S; Marotta, F

    2015-09-01

    A mutual impact of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and central nervous system (CNS) functions has been recognized since the mid-twentieth century. It is accepted that the so-called gut-brain axis provides a two-way homeostatic communication, through immunological, hormonal and neuronal signals. A dysfunction of this axis has been associated with the pathogenesis of some diseases both within and outside the GIT, that have shown an increase in incidence over the last decades. Studies comparing germ-free animals and animals exposed to pathogenic bacterial infections, probiotics or antibiotics suggest the participation of the microbiota in this communication and a role in host defense, regulation of immunity and autoimmune disease appearance. The GIT could represent a vulnerable area through which pathogens influence all aspects of physiology and even induce CNS neuro-inflammation. All those concepts may suggest the modulation of the gut microbiota as an achievable strategy for innovative therapies in complex disorders. Moving from this background, the present review discusses the relationship between intestinal microbiota and CNS and the effects in health and disease. We particularly look at how the commensal gut microbiota influences systemic immune response in some neurological disorders, highlighting its impact on pain and cognition in multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barrè Syndrome, neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders and Alzheimer's disease. In this review we discuss recent studies showing that the potential microbiota-gut-brain dialogue is implicated in neurodegenerative diseases. Gaining a better understanding of the relationship between microbiota and CNS could provide an insight on the pathogenesis and therapeutic strategies of these disorders. PMID:25390799

  9. Near Normalization of Metabolic and Functional Features of the Central Nervous System in Type 1 Diabetic Patients With End-Stage Renal Disease After Kidney-Pancreas Transplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Fiorina, Paolo; Vezzulli, Paolo; Bassi, Roberto; Gremizzi, Chiara; Falautano, Monica; D’Addio, Francesca; Vergani, Andrea; Chabtini, Lola; Altamura, Erica; Mello, Alessandra; Caldara, Rossana; Scavini, Marina; Magnani, Giuseppe; Falini, Andrea; Secchi, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The pathogenesis of brain disorders in type 1 diabetes (T1D) is multifactorial and involves the adverse effects of chronic hyperglycemia and of recurrent hypoglycemia. Kidney-pancreas (KP), but not kidney alone (KD), transplantation is associated with sustained normoglycemia, improvement in quality of life, and reduction of morbidity/mortality in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The aim of our study was to evaluate with magnetic reso...

  10. A Role of Ginseng and Its Constituents in the Treatment of Central Nervous System Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokot, Natasya Trivena; Kairupan, Timothy Sean; Cheng, Kai-Chun; Runtuwene, Joshua; Kapantow, Nova Hellen; Amitani, Marie; Morinaga, Akinori; Amitani, Haruka; Asakawa, Akihiro; Inui, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Ginseng, a perennial plant belonging to the Panax genus of the Araliaceae family, has been used in China, Korea, and Japan as a traditional herbal medicine for thousands of years. Ginseng is recorded to have exhibited a wide variety of beneficial pharmacological effects and has become a popular and worldwide known health supplement and drug. The protective effects of ginseng on central nervous system are discussed in this review. Ginseng species and ginsenosides and their intestinal metabolism and bioavailability are concisely introduced. The molecular mechanisms of the effects of ginseng on central nervous system, mainly focused on the neuroprotection properties of ginseng, memory, and learning enhanced properties, and the effects on neurodegenerative disorders are presented. Thus, ginseng and its constituents are of potential merits in the treatment of cerebral disorders. PMID:27630732

  11. Physiological, pathological, and engineered cell identity reprogramming in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Derek K; Wang, Lei-Lei; Zhang, Chun-Li

    2016-07-01

    Multipotent neural stem cells persist in restricted regions of the adult mammalian central nervous system. These proliferative cells differentiate into diverse neuron subtypes to maintain neural homeostasis. This endogenous process can be reprogrammed as a compensatory response to physiological cues, traumatic injury, and neurodegeneration. In addition to innate neurogenesis, recent research has demonstrated that new neurons can be engineered via cell identity reprogramming in non-neurogenic regions of the adult central nervous system. A comprehensive understanding of these reprogramming mechanisms will be essential to the development of therapeutic neural regeneration strategies that aim to improve functional recovery after injury and neurodegeneration. WIREs Dev Biol 2016, 5:499-517. doi: 10.1002/wdev.234 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27258392

  12. Medical management of primary central nervous system lymphoma refractory or resistant to standard of care treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL) is a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma arising in the central nervous system. Combined irradiation and methotrexate-based chemotherapy is the standard of care treatment for PCNSL. The median overall survival achieved with this therapy is 25 to 51 months. Failure after first-line treatment has been reported in most patients with PCNSL. Salvage therapy is known to improve outcome, and although many different treatment modes have been attempted the optimal treatment schedule remains to be determined. This review analyses the efficacy of salvage therapy by focusing on data obtained from reports reporting on salvage therapy. Well-designed, randomized trials will help clarify issues such as the best chemotherapy regimen for second-line treatment. (author)

  13. White-matter abnormalities in unirradiated patients cured of primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On MRI, primary brain tumors are commonly seen as contrast-enhancing masses surrounded by areas of abnormal signal on T2-weighted images. Following successful treatment tumors may no longer show contrast enhancement. The residual abnormalities are assumed to be represent ''edema'' and infiltrating tumor cells. We report nine patients with primary lymphoma of the central nervous system who had complete responses to intravenous methotrexate, but did not receive intrathecal chemotherapy or cranial irradiation. After complete resolution of contrast-enhancing lesions, persistent abnormalities on T2-weighted images in the region of prior tumor were initially assumed to reflect residual viable tumor. As they remained unchanged for years, however, this may not hold true in the cases in which primary central nervous system lymphoma responds to chemotherapy alone. (orig.)

  14. Primary central nervous system peripheral T-cell lymphoma in a child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualco, Gabriela; Wludarski, Sheila; Hayashi-Silva, Luciana; Medeiros Filho, Plinio; Veras, Geni; Bacchi, Carlos Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    A 10-year-old Caucasian boy was admitted to the hospital with a 3-month history of headache, vomiting, ataxia, and right amaurosis. A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a solid, expansive, parasagittal mass in the right parietal hemisphere that extended sagitally to include the optical chiasm. The lesion was considered unresectable. Histology and immunophenotyping of biopsy tissue revealed characteristics of peripheral T-cell lymphoma. No other anatomical region, including bone marrow, was compromised. Primary T-cell lymphomas of the central nervous system are rare, especially in childhood. Here, we describe the rapidly deteriorating and fatal clinical course of a boy with a primary T-cell lymphoma in the central nervous system.

  15. MicroRNA expression in the adult mouse central nervous system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Mads; Silahtaroglu, Asli; Møller, Morten;

    2008-01-01

    distinct areas of the adult mouse central nervous system (CNS). Microarray profiling in combination with real-time RT-PCR and LNA (locked nucleic acid)-based in situ hybridization uncovered 44 miRNAs displaying more than threefold enrichment in the spinal cord, cerebellum, medulla oblongata, pons......, hypothalamus, hippocampus, neocortex, olfactory bulb, eye, and pituitary gland. These findings suggest that a large number of mouse CNS-expressed miRNAs may be associated with specific functions within these regions. Notably, more than 50% of the identified mouse CNS-enriched miRNAs showed different expression......RNA-related gene regulatory networks in the mammalian central nervous system. Udgivelsesdato: 2008-Mar...

  16. Ramsay Hunt Syndrome Associated with Central Nervous System Involvement in an Adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Tommy L H; Cartagena, Ana M; Bombassaro, Anne Marie; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2016-01-01

    Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with varicella zoster virus reactivation affecting the central nervous system is rare. We describe a 55-year-old diabetic female who presented with gait ataxia, right peripheral facial palsy, and painful vesicular lesions involving her right ear. Later, she developed dysmetria, fluctuating diplopia, and dysarthria. Varicella zoster virus was detected in the cerebrospinal fluid by polymerase chain reaction. She was diagnosed with Ramsay Hunt syndrome associated with spread to the central nervous system. Her facial palsy completely resolved within 48 hours of treatment with intravenous acyclovir 10 mg/kg every 8 hours. However, cerebellar symptoms did not improve until a tapering course of steroid therapy was initiated. PMID:27366189

  17. AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Suppresses Autoimmune Central Nervous System Disease by Regulating M1-Type Macrophage-Th17 Axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangalam, Ashutosh K; Rattan, Ramandeep; Suhail, Hamid; Singh, Jaspreet; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Deshpande, Mandar; Fulzele, Sadanand; Denic, Alexander; Shridhar, Viji; Kumar, Ashok; Viollet, Benoit; Rodriguez, Moses; Giri, Shailendra

    2016-08-01

    The AMP-activated protein kinase, AMPK, is an energy-sensing, metabolic switch implicated in various metabolic disorders; however, its role in inflammation is not well defined. We have previously shown that loss of AMPK exacerbates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease severity. In this study, we investigated the mechanism through which AMPK modulates inflammatory disease like EAE. AMPKα1 knockout (α1KO) mice with EAE showed severe demyelination and inflammation in the brain and spinal cord compared with wild-type due to higher expression of proinflammatory Th17 cytokines, including IL-17, IL-23, and IL-1β, impaired blood-brain barrier integrity, and increased infiltration of inflammatory cells in the CNS. Infiltrated CD4 cells in the brains and spinal cords of α1KO with EAE were significantly higher compared with wild-type EAE and were characterized as IL-17 (IL-17 and GM-CSF double-positive) CD4 cells. Increased inflammatory response in α1KO mice was due to polarization of macrophages (Mϕ) to proinflammatory M1 type phenotype (IL-10(low)IL-23/IL-1β/IL-6(high)), and these M1 Mϕ showed stronger capacity to induce allogenic as well as Ag-specific (myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein [MOG]35-55) T cell response. Mϕ from α1KO mice also enhanced the encephalitogenic property of MOG35-55-primed CD4 T cells in B6 mice. The increased encephalitogenic MOG-restricted CD4(+) T cells were due to an autocrine effect of IL-1β/IL-23-mediated induction of IL-6 production in α1KO Mϕ, which in turn induce IL-17 and GM-CSF production in CD4 cells. Collectively, our data indicate that AMPK controls the inflammatory disease by regulating the M1 phenotype-Th17 axis in an animal model of multiple sclerosis. PMID:27354217

  18. Study of Congenital Malformations in Central Nervous System AND Gastro- Intestinal Tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saiyad SS

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Congenital malformations comprise 8% of the perinatal mortality in India. They rank fifth as a cause of perinatal mortality, after asphyxia, respiratory problems, infections and cerebral trauma. However, the pattern is changing rapidly with improvement in health care and living standards. Material & Method: In the present study, authors have tried to study the cases of congenital malformations specially related to Central nervous system and Gastro-intestinal system. 5240 cases of newborn babies were studied and results were analyzed and classified in to various categories. Findings: The results show that malformations are more common in still birth, more in female babies and more in central nervous system In live born babies the percentage of malformation is0.63 % whereas in still born baby it is6.53 %. Conclusions: Chances of having malformations increases as the age advances. Parity of mother also influences the incidence. Exposure to radiation & drugs also influences malformations. Incidence of congenital malformation is highest in central nervous system. [National J of Med Res 2012; 2(2.000: 121-123

  19. Presenilin controls CBP levels in the adult Drosophila central nervous system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy S Boyles

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dominant mutations in both human Presenilin (Psn genes have been correlated with the formation of amyloid plaques and development of familial early-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD. However, a definitive mechanism whereby plaque formation causes the pathology of familial and sporadic forms of AD has remained elusive. Recent discoveries of several substrates for Psn protease activity have sparked alternative hypotheses for the pathophysiology underlying AD. CBP (CREB-binding protein is a haplo-insufficient transcriptional co-activator with histone acetly-transferase (HAT activity that has been proposed to be a downstream target of Psn signaling. Individuals with altered CBP have cognitive deficits that have been linked to several neurological disorders. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a transgenic RNA-interference strategy to selectively silence CBP, Psn, and Notch in adult Drosophila, we provide evidence for the first time that Psn is required for normal CBP levels and for maintaining specific global acetylations at lysine 8 of histone 4 (H4K8ac in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition, flies conditionally compromised for the adult-expression of CBP display an altered geotaxis behavior that may reflect a neurological defect. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data support a model in which Psn regulates CBP levels in the adult fly brain in a manner that is independent of Notch signaling. Although we do not understand the molecular mechanism underlying the association between Psn and CBP, our results underscore the need to learn more about the basic relationship between Psn-regulated substrates and essential functions of the nervous system.

  20. Computerized rehabilitation for cognitive deficits after central nervous system malaria in Ugandan children

    OpenAIRE

    Bangirana, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Background: Malaria infecting the central nervous system (CNS) affects over 575,000 children annually in sub-Saharan Africa leading to cognitive deficits. The effect of this form of malaria on everyday behaviour and academic achievement has not been investigated in Uganda. In addition, no interventions have been carried out for children whose cognitive functioning has been affected by CNS malaria. Main objective: To investigate the effectiveness of a rehabilitation program for cognitive de...

  1. Role of Interleukin-2 and Herpes Simplex Virus 1 in Central Nervous System Demyelination in Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Mott, Kevin R; Zandian, Mandana; Allen, Sariah J.; Ghiasi, Homayon

    2013-01-01

    We have reported previously that ocular infection of different strains of mice with recombinant herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) constitutively expressing interleukin-2 (IL-2) provokes central nervous system (CNS) demyelination and optic neuropathy, as determined by changes in visual evoked cortical potentials and pathological changes in the optic nerve and CNS, whereas recombinant viruses expressing IL-4, gamma interferon, IL-12p35, IL-12p40, or IL-12p70 do not induce this neuropathy. The goal...

  2. Structure of the central nervous system of a juvenile acoel, Symsagittifera roscoffensis

    OpenAIRE

    Bery, Amandine; Cardona, Albert; Martinez, Pedro; Hartenstein, Volker

    2010-01-01

    The neuroarchitecture of Acoela has been at the center of morphological debates. Some authors, using immunochemical tools, suggest that the nervous system in Acoela is organized as a commissural brain that bears little resemblance to the central, ganglionic type brain of other flatworms, and bilaterians in general. Others, who used histological staining on paraffin sections, conclude that it is a compact structure (an endonal brain; e.g., Raikova 2004; von Graff 1891; Delage Arch Zool Exp Gén...

  3. Toxic effects of mercury on the cardiovascular and central nervous systems

    OpenAIRE

    Bruna Fernandes Azevedo; Lorena Barros Furieri; Franck Maciel Peçanha; Giulia Alessandra Wiggers; Paula Frizera Vassallo; Maylla Ronacher Simões; Jonaina Fiorim; Priscila Rossi de Batista; Mirian Fioresi; Luciana Rossoni; Ivanita Stefanon; María Jesus Alonso; Mercedes Salaices; Dalton Valentim Vassallo

    2012-01-01

    Environmental contamination has exposed humans to various metal agents, including mercury. This exposure is more common than expected, and the health consequences of such exposure remain unclear. For many years, mercury was used in a wide variety of human activities, and now, exposure to this metal from both natural and artificial sources is significantly increasing. Many studies show that high exposure to mercury induces changes in the central nervous system, potentially resulting in irritab...

  4. A biophysical study on molecular physiology of the uncoupling proteins of the central nervous system

    OpenAIRE

    Hoang, Tuan; Kuljanin, Miljan; Smith, Matthew D.; Jelokhani-Niaraki, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Uncoupling proteins (UCP)2, UCP4 and UCP5 transport protons across the inner membrane of mitochondria in the central nervous system (CNS). Novel recombinant protein expression allowed expression of UCPs in Escherichia coli membranes. Functional neuronal UCPs formed multimers in membranes and interacted with various fatty acids (FAs) to transport protons. Self-association and unique ion transport properties of UCPs distinguish their physiological roles in the CNS.

  5. Comparison of intelligence quotient in children surviving leukemia who received different prophylactic central nervous system treatments

    OpenAIRE

    Reisi Nahid; Khalilian Leila

    2012-01-01

    Background: Neurocognitive deficits and decrease in intelligence quotient (IQ) is one of the complication of prophylactic central nervous system (CNS) treatment in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients. In this study, we compare the IQ in survivors of ALL that were treated with different prophylactic CNS treatments. Materials and Methods : We compared 43 long-term survivors of ALL: 21 survivors with intrathecal methotrexate (IT MTX) as CNS prophylaxis, 22 with IT MTX+1800-2400 rads c...

  6. Genome-wide molecular characterization of central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor and pineoblastoma

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Suzanne; Rogers, Hazel A; Lyon, Paul; Rand, Vikki; Adamowicz-Brice, Martyna; Clifford, Steven C; Hayden, James T.; Dyer, Sara; Pfister, Stefan; Korshunov, Andrey; Brundler, Marie-Anne; Lowe, James; Coyle, Beth; Grundy, Richard G.

    2011-01-01

    Central nervous system primitive neuroectodermal tumor (CNS PNET) and pineoblastoma are highly malignant embryonal brain tumors with poor prognoses. Current therapies are based on the treatment of pediatric medulloblastoma, even though these tumors are distinct at both the anatomical and molecular level. CNS PNET and pineoblastoma have a worse clinical outcome than medulloblastoma; thus, improved therapies based on an understanding of the underlying biology of CNS PNET and pineoblastoma are n...

  7. HISTOPATHOLOGICAL STUDY OF SPECTRUM OF THE LESIONS OF CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasa

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to establish the relative frequency of biopsy proven tumors of central nervous system (CNS. Two hundred and forty two (242 CNS Biopsy specimens were studied in a one year period. Out of 72 CNS tumors, 66 were primary 4 were metastatic. Among 4 metastatic tumors, the most common histological type is adenocarcinoma. The most frequent type of CNS tumour was astrocytoma followed by meningioma.

  8. Unusual location of central nervous system langerhans cell histiocytosis: case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langerhans cell histiocytosis of the central nervous system (CNS) usually involves the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and T1-weighted MR images normally demonstrate infundibular thickening and/or a mass lesion in the hypothalamus and the absence of a posterior pituitary 'bright spot'. We recently encountered a case of CNS langerhans cell histiocytosis with no posterior pituitary 'bright spot' and with lesions involving the cerebellum and basal ganglia but not the hypothalamic-pituitary axis

  9. Direct Central Nervous System Effect of Alcohol Alters Synthesis and Degradation of Skeletal Muscle Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Pruznak, Anne M; Nystrom, Jay; Lang, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Aims: Alcohol can directly impair protein synthesis in cultured myocytes as well as in in situ perfused skeletal muscle. However, alcohol in the general circulation diffuses rapidly into the central nervous system (CNS). Therefore, this study determined whether localized elevation of alcohol within the CNS is capable of decreasing muscle protein synthesis. Methods: Conscious unstrained male rats received a continuous intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion of ethanol and skeletal muscle protei...

  10. Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1

    OpenAIRE

    Béguelin, Charles Antoine; Vázquez, Miriam; Bertschi, Manuel; Yerly, S; de Jong, Denise; Gutbrod, Klemens; Rauch, Andri; Cusini, Alexia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the case of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who developed ataxia and neurocognitive impairment due to viral escape within the central nervous system (CNS) with a multidrug-resistant HIV-1 despite long-term viral suppression in plasma. Antiretroviral therapy optimization with drugs with high CNS penetration led to viral suppression in the CSF, regression of ataxia, and improvement of neurocognitive symptoms.

  11. Viral Escape in the Central Nervous System with Multidrug-Resistant Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Béguelin, C; Vázquez, M; Bertschi, M; Yerly, S; de Jong, D; Gutbrod, K; Rauch, A; Cusini, A

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we report the case of a patient infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 who developed ataxia and neurocognitive impairment due to viral escape within the central nervous system (CNS) with a multidrug-resistant HIV-1 despite long-term viral suppression in plasma. Antiretroviral therapy optimization with drugs with high CNS penetration led to viral suppression in the CSF, regression of ataxia, and improvement of neurocognitive symptoms. PMID:26885540

  12. The Expression of MGMT and Ku80 in Primary Central Nervous System Lymphoma and Prognostic Significance

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xinwei

    2015-01-01

    The primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCSNL), as one of the uncommon extranodal lymphomas, has been recently paid more attention especially for its increasing incidence, unsatisfactory therapy and poor prognosis. MGMT is one of the most important factors determining drug resistance while Ku80 determining radiosensitivity, the expression of MGMT and Ku80 in PCNSL remains unclear. The aim of our study was to detect the expression of MGMT and Ku80 on PCNSL by IHC staining and to evaluate ...

  13. Efficient Reactivation of Latent Herpes Simplex Virus from Mouse Central Nervous System Tissues▿

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shih-Heng; Yao, Hui-Wen; Huang, Wen-Yen; Hsu, Kuei-Sen; Lei, Huan-Yao; Shiau, Ai-Li; Chen, Shun-Hua

    2006-01-01

    For decades, numerous ex vivo studies have documented that latent herpes simplex virus (HSV) reactivates efficiently from ganglia, but rarely from the central nervous systems (CNS), of mice when assayed by mincing tissues before explant culture, despite the presence of viral genomes in both sites. Here we show that 88% of mouse brain stems reactivated latent virus when they were dissociated into cell suspensions before ex vivo explant culture. The efficient reactivation of HSV from the mouse ...

  14. Loranthus longiflorus protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of electromagnetic radiation on rat

    OpenAIRE

    Hemant Nagar; Dilip Kumar Tiwari; Gaurav Dwivedi; Rishi Kant Tripathi; Jitendra Jena

    2013-01-01

    Background: The interaction of mobile phone radio-frequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) with the brain is a serious concern of our society. In this study, we aimed to experiment on the anti-oxidative property of a parasitic plant Loranthus longiflorus (Loranthaceae) to protect central nervous system against oxidative damages of mobile phone electromagnetic field (EMF). Materials and Methods: Healthy male albino wistar rats were exposed to RF-EMR by giving 5 min calling/5 min interval f...

  15. Central nervous system vasculitis and polyneuropathy as first manifestations of hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roberto J Carvalho-Filho; Janaína Luz Narciso-Schiavon; Luciano HL Tolentino; Leonardo L Schiavon; Maria Lucia G Ferraz; Antonio Eduardo B Silva

    2012-01-01

    Sensory or motor peripheral neuropathy may be observed in a significant proportion of hepatitis C virus (HCV)-infected patients. However, central nervous system (CNS) involvement is uncommon, especially in cryoglobulin-negative subjects. We describe a case of peripheral neuropathy combined with an ischemic CNS event as primary manifestations of chronic HCV infection without cryoglobulinemia. Significant improvement was observed after antiviral therapy. We discuss the spectrum of neurological manifestations of HCV infection and review the literature.

  16. Mammaglobin-A Immunohistochemistry in Primary Central Nervous System Neoplasms and Intracranial Metastatic Breast Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Cimino, Patrick J.; Perrin, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Metastases represent the most common type of intracranial neoplasm. In women, 30% of such tumors derive from breast carcinoma. In neurosurgical cases with ambiguous cellular morphology and/or limited biopsy material, immunohistochemistry (IHC) is often performed to distinguish metastases from primary central nervous system (CNS) neoplasms. IHC for mammaglobin-A (MGA), a protein expressed in a majority of breast carcinomas, is commonly applied in this setting, but its utility for distinguishin...

  17. Teratomas in central nervous system: A clinico-morphological study with review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Agrawal Meetu; Uppin Megha; Patibandla Mohana; Bhattacharjee Suchanda; Panigrahi Manas; Saradhi Vijay; Rani Jyotsna; Purohit A; Challa Sundaram

    2010-01-01

    Background: Cranio-spinal axis teratomas are rare. This subset is interesting because symptoms can be varied, depending on the location. Histopathology is diagnostic; most of the lesions are benign. Rarely, malignancy develops in any of the somatic components. Aims: To study the demographic, clinico-morphological and follow-up data of central nervous system (CNS) teratomas. Materials and Methods: Cases diagnosed as mature or immature teratomas in the CNS over a 20-year period were included in...

  18. Lipomas of the central nervous system in the newborns – a report of eight cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Central nervous system lipomas are rare tumours. In most of the cases they are located in corpus callosum of the brain. The ultrasonographic image of lipomas tends to be quite characteristic. Final diagnosis is however done on a basis of brain resonance. The purpose of this work is to present proceeding in case of central nervous system lipomas with particular attention to diagnostic imaging. This work is based on own research. There are eight patients with central nervous system lipomas described in this work. The ultrasonographic imaging performed upon patients’ birth revealed features of agenesis of corpus callosum with presence of hyperechoic structure in the area of median line within corpus callosum. This image correlated with Nuclear Magnetic Resonance examination results. Our research confirms that patients with central nervous system lipomas represent rare diagnostic and therapeutic cases. Due to characteristic results of ultrasonographic imaging of the brain, recognition of agenesis of corpus callosum would not cause difficulties. However the presence of hyperechoic structure without vascular flow which may suggest lipomas of corpus callosum would require final verification of the diagnosis and wider assessment of brain with NMR examination. We did not recognize any relation between corpus callosum pathology and neuroinfection of cytomegalovirus etiology. In all of the eight research cases there were malformations diagnostics conducted. There were genetic irregularities in case of two of the neonates only. Until today, all of the patients remain under neurological care. Their psychomotor development is regularly controlled. Taking into consideration that numerous malformations occur altogether with brain lipomas, it is recommended to conduct appropriate diagnostics, to inform parents on an essence of diagnosis and on necessity of observing child’s psychomotor development. Obviously, it is crucial to secure a patient with paediatric and neurological

  19. Drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS) targets as leads for non-CNS targets

    OpenAIRE

    Kharkar, Prashant S.

    2014-01-01

    Innovative drug discovery approaches are currently needed to rejuvenate the shrinking product pipelines of the pharmaceutical companies across the globe. Here a theme is presented – the use of central nervous system (CNS) drugs as leads for non-CNS targets. The approach is related to the use of existing drugs for new indications. Suitable chemical modifications of the CNS drugs abolish their CNS penetration. These novel analogs may then be screened for activity against non-CNS targets. Carefu...

  20. Neuroprotective activity of thioctic acid in central nervous system lesions consequent to peripheral nerve injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Daniele Tomassoni; Francesco Amenta; Lorenzo Di Cesare Mannelli; Carla Ghelardini; Nwankwo, Innocent E.; Alessandra Pacini; Seyed Khosrow Tayebati

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral neuropathies are heterogeneous disorders presenting often with hyperalgesia and allodynia. This study has assessed if chronic constriction injury (CCI) of sciatic nerve is accompanied by increased oxidative stress and central nervous system (CNS) changes and if these changes are sensitive to treatment with thioctic acid. Thioctic acid is a naturally occurring antioxidant existing in two optical isomers (+)- and (−)-thioctic acid and in the racemic form. It has been proposed for tre...

  1. Central nervous system involvement in incontinentia pigmenti: cranial MRI of two siblings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydingoez, Ue.; Midia, M. [Department of Radiology, Hacettepe University School of Medicine, Ankara (Turkey)

    1998-06-01

    Incontinentia pigmenti is an uncommon neurocutaneous syndrome characterised by skin lesions, dental and ocular abnormalities and central nervous system involvement. We report the cranial MRI findings in two sisters with this condition. These include hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, enlargement of the lateral ventricles and periventricular white-matter lesions. One girl also had unilateral microphthalmia and rostral agenesis of the corpus callosum, a feature not previously described. (orig.) With 2 figs., 9 refs.

  2. CD93 and GIPC expression and localization during central nervous system inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, CHUN; Cui, Zhichao; Wang, Shengjie; Zhang, Dongmei

    2014-01-01

    CD93 and GAIP-interacting protein, C termius (GIPC) have been shown to interactively alter phagocytic processes of immune cells. CD93 and GIPC expression and localization during central nervous system inflammation have not yet been reported. In this study, we established a rat model of brain inflammation by lipopolysaccharide injection to the lateral ventricle. In the brain of rats with inflammation, western blots showed increased CD93 expression that decreased over time. GIPC expression was ...

  3. MicroRNA in central nervous system trauma and degenerative disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Nai-Kui; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2011-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a novel class of small noncoding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level by binding to the 3'-untranslated region of target mRNAs leading to their translational inhibition or sometimes degradation. MiRNAs are predicted to control the activity of at least 20-30% of human protein-coding genes. Recent studies have demonstrated that miRNAs are highly expressed in the central nervous system (CNS) including the brain and spinal cord. Although we are currently in the initial stages of understanding how this novel class of gene regulators is involved in neurological biological functions, a growing body of exciting evidence suggests that miRNAs are important regulators of diverse biological processes such as cell differentiation, growth, proliferation, and apoptosis. Moreover, miRNAs are key modulators of both CNS development and plasticity. Some miRNAs have been implicated in several neurological disorders such as traumatic CNS injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. Recently, several studies suggested the possibility of miRNA involvement in neurodegeneration. Identifying the roles of miRNAs and their target genes and signaling pathways in neurological disorders will be critical for future research. miRNAs may represent a new layer of regulators for neurobiology and a novel class of therapeutic targets for neurological diseases.

  4. Heterogeneity of Matrin 3 in the developing and aging murine central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaprolu, Sruti; D'Alton, Simon; Crosby, Keith; Moloney, Christina; Howard, John; Duffy, Colin; Cabrera, Mariela; Siemienski, Zoe; Hernandez, Abigail R; Gallego-Iradi, Carolina; Borchelt, David R; Lewis, Jada

    2016-10-01

    Mutations in the MATR3 gene encoding the nucleotide binding protein Matrin 3 have recently been identified as causing a subset of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (fALS) and more rarely causing distal myopathy. Translating the identification of MATR3 mutations into an understanding of disease pathogenesis and the creation of mouse models requires a complete understanding of normal Matrin 3 levels and distribution in vivo. Consequently, we examined the levels of murine Matrin 3 in body tissues and regions of the central nervous system (CNS). We observed a significant degree of variability in Matrin 3 protein levels among different tissues of adult animals, with the highest levels found in reproductive organs and the lowest in muscle. Within the adult CNS, Matrin 3 levels were lowest in spinal cord. Further, we found that Matrin 3 declines significantly in CNS through early development and young adulthood before stabilizing. As previously reported, antibodies to Matrin 3 primarily stain nuclei, but the intensity of staining was not uniform in all nuclei. The low levels of Matrin 3 in spinal cord and muscle could mean that that these tissues are particularly vulnerable to alterations in Matrin 3 function. Our study is the first to characterize endogenous Matrin 3 in rodents across the lifespan, providing the groundwork for deciphering disease mechanisms and developing mouse models of MATR3-linked ALS. J. Comp. Neurol. 524:2740-2752, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26878116

  5. Modulation of fibronectin expression in the central nervous system of Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-Carvalho M.C.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Fibronectin (FN, a large family of plasma and extracellular matrix (ECM glycoproteins, plays an important role in leukocyte migration. In normal central nervous system (CNS, a fine and delicate mesh of FN is virtually restricted to the basal membrane of cerebral blood vessels and to the glial limitans externa. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE, an inflammatory CNS demyelinating disease, was induced in Lewis rats with a spinal cord homogenate. During the preclinical phase and the onset of the disease, marked immunolabelling was observed on the endothelial luminal surface and basal lamina of spinal cord and brainstem microvasculature. In the paralytic phase, a discrete labelling was evident in blood vessels of spinal cord and brainstem associated or not with an inflammatory infiltrate. Conversely, intense immunolabelling was present in cerebral and cerebellar blood vessels, which were still free from inflammatory cuffs. Shortly after clinical recovery minimal labelling was observed in a few blood vessels. Brainstem and spinal cord returned to normal, but numerous inflammatory foci and demyelination were still evident near the ventricle walls, in the cerebral cortex and in the cerebellum. Intense expression of FN in brain vessels ascending from the spinal cord towards the encephalon preceded the appearance of inflammatory cells but faded away after the establishment of the inflammatory cuff. These results indicate an important role for FN in the pathogenesis of CNS inflammatory demyelinating events occurring during EAE.

  6. Application of synchrotron radiation for elemental microanalysis of human central nervous System tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczerbowska-Boruchowska, M.; Lankosz, M.; Ostachowicz, J.; Adamek, D.; Krygowska-Wajs, A.; Tomik, B.; Szczudlik, A.; Simionovici, A.; Bohic, S.

    2003-03-01

    The pathogenesis of two neurodegenerative diseases i.e. Parkinson's Disease (PD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are still not known. It is supposed that disturbance of metal ions homeostasis may promote degeneration and atrophy of neurones. As a preliminary study. the quantitative and topographic elemental analysis of selected parts of human brain and spinal cord was performed using synchrotron microbeam-X ray fluorescence (μ-SXRF) technique. The samples were taken during the autopsy from patients with PD, ALS and from patients died due to non-neurological conditions events. X-ray fluorescence imaging showed that increased concentration of selected elements are observed in neurons perikarial parts in compare with surrounding area. Moreover, comparable analysis showed significant differences in accumulation of selected elements between the pathological and control cases. The investigations indicate that micro-beam of synchrotron radiation can be satisfactory applied for analysis of central nervous System tissue providing useful information about distribution and contents of elements at the single cell level.

  7. Chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans: extracellular matrix proteins that regulate immunity of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haylock-Jacobs, Sarah; Keough, Michael B; Lau, Lorraine; Yong, V Wee

    2011-10-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) is a complex network of scaffolding molecules that also plays an important role in cell signalling, migration and tissue structure. In the central nervous system (CNS), the ECM is integral to the efficient development/guidance and survival of neurons and axons. However, changes in distribution of the ECM in the CNS may significantly enhance pathology in CNS disease or following injury. One group of ECM proteins that is important for CNS homeostasis is the chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans (CSPGs). Up-regulation of these molecules has been demonstrated to be both desirable and detrimental following CNS injury. Taking cues from arthritis, where there is a strong anti-CSPG immune response, there is evidence that suggests that CSPGs may influence immunity during CNS pathological conditions. This review focuses on the role of CSPGs in CNS pathologies as well as in immunity, both from a viewpoint of how they may inhibit repair and exacerbate damage in the CNS, and how they are involved in activation and function of peripheral immune cells, particularly in multiple sclerosis. Lastly, we address how CSPGs may be manipulated to improve disease outcomes.

  8. Surgical treatment of refractory epilepsy, secondary to central nervous system infection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yunpeng Wang; Guojun Zhang; Lixin Cai; Yongjie Li

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have focused on medial temporal lobe epilepsy secondary to central nervous system infections.Several large-sample analyses of multi-lobe injuries or complications of medial temporal lobe epilepsy have been reported.The present study selected 29 patients (10 males and 19 females with a mean age of 18 years) with refractory epilepsy secondary to central nervous system infections (meningitis in 8, encephalitis in 21)from Beijing Functional Neurosurgical Institute from May 2006 to August 2008.All patients underwent computer tomography or magnetic resonance imaging, as well as electroencephalogram examinations; cortical electrodes were embedded in 11 patients.In addition, 13 (45%) patients underwent anterior temporal lobectomy,and 16 (56%) underwent extratemporal corcticectomy.Results showed that 18 (62%) patients obtained favorable outcomes following surgical treatment, including 80% with temporal lobe epilepsy and 50% with extratemporal epilepsy.Central nervous system infection was not a contraindication for epilepsy treatment, and identification of epileptic foci proved to be crucial.In addition, a young age at infection, as well as prolonged latent period from time of infection to initial afebrile seizure, were 2 predictive factors for all patients.Cortical electrodes significantly increased the detection rate of epileptic foci, but did not improve prognosis of foci excision.

  9. Study of Incidence of Pediatric Central Nervous System Tumors as Per Age Group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi S. Soni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: CNS tumors are the most common solid tumors in children. Tumors of the central nervous system can be divided into primary intracranial tumours that arise from parenchyma of brain, pituitary gland, covering of brain & secondary intracranial tumours which represent local extension from regional tumours or metastasis from primary malignancy in the body. The most common location of the brain tumours in childhood is below the tentorium within the posterior cranial fossa. Materials and methods: Surgical specimen of central nervous system of children (0 to 14 year of age group received from August 2013 to November 2015, in the Tertiary care center, Ahmedabad were studied with keeping the following features in mind: Age, Sex and site of tumours. Results: Fifty eight cases of central Nervous system Tumours between the age of 0 to 14 years over a period of 2.5 years at civil hospital, Ahmedabad were studied. Incidence were more common in male (60.34% than female(39.66% 89.65% were intracranial to 10.35% were intraspinal tumours.Commonly encountered tumour in descending order of frequency were Medulloblastoma (27.58%, astrocytoma (24.13%, Ependymoma (20.68%. All medulloblastomas arose infratentorial, schwannomas arose intraspinal and meningiomas in cranial cavity are supratentorial. Conclusion: CNS Tumors constitute a large proportion of cancers in childhood. They differ from adult CNS tumors both histologically and location wise. Site of the tumor is significant as it can lead to fatal consequences

  10. A Case Of Primary Central Nervous System Vasculitis Who Presented With Status Epilepticus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sırma Geyik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Primary central nervous system vasculitis (PCNV is limited with central nervous system and rare vasculitis that mostly seen in middle-aged men. PCNV vasculitis is usually presented that headache, dementia, stroke and multifocal common neurological symptoms. PCNV especially involves small medium-sized leptomeningeal and cortical arteries. 43 years old male patient who have been progressive forgetfulness and headache for 3 years. He applied with recurrent that before starting right focal and than sprawling whole body which generalized tonic-clonic seizures to us. During management that he was transfered to the intensive care unit due to status epilepticus (SE. Later than we found right hemiparesis, motor aphasia and right babinski positivity in neurologic examination. Diffusion restriction was revealed in left MCA territory in diffusion magnetic resonance imaging(MRI. EEG showed two types abnormality that a slow background ritm and epileptiform activity. Biochemistry of blood, complete blood count, blood sedimentation rate, CRP and markers of vasculitis were found in the normal range. Cerebral anjiography revealed that irregularities in the distal vascular areas and fusiform aneurysm at the top of basilar artery. He was consulted with rheumatology and diagnosed central nervous system vasculitis with the existing findings. Biopsy couldn't be taken from the brain to verify the diagnosis. Finally, we applied treatment that pulse steroid and cyclophosphamide to patient. This case has been presented due to emphasize that PCNV rarely may play a role in the etiology of recurrent stroke and status epilepticus.

  11. The effects of normal aging on myelinated nerve fibers in monkey central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan Peters

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aging on myelinated nerve fibers of the central nervous system are complex. Many myelinated nerve fibers in white matter degenerate and are lost, leading to some disconnections between various parts of the central nervous system. Other myelinated nerve fibers are affected differently, because only their sheaths degenerate, leaving the axons intact. Such axons are remyelinated by a series of internodes that are much shorter than the original ones and are composed of thinner sheaths. Thus the myelin-forming cells of the central nervous system, the oligodendrocytes, remain active during aging. Indeed, not only do these neuroglial cell remyelinate axons, with age they also continue to add lamellae to the myelin sheaths of intact nerve fibers, so that sheaths become thicker. It is presumed that the degeneration of myelin sheaths is due to the degeneration of the parent oligodendrocyte, and that the production of increased numbers of internodes as a consequence of remyelination requires additional oligodendrocytes. Whether there is a turnover of oligodendrocytes during life has not been studied in primates, but it has been established that over the life span of the monkey, there is a substantial increase in the numbers of oligodendrocytes. While the loss of some myelinated nerve fibers leads to some disconnections, the degeneration of other myelin sheaths and the subsequent remyelination of axons by shorter internodes slow down the rate conduction along nerve fibers. These changes affect the integrity and timing in neuronal circuits, and there is evidence that they contribute to cognitive decline.

  12. Expression of connexin 36 in central nervous system and its role in epileptic seizure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Yu-fen; WU Jiong-xing; YANG Heng; DONG Xuan-qi; ZHENG Wen; SONG Zhi

    2012-01-01

    Objective This review discusses the experimental and clinical studies those show the expression of connexin 36 in the central nervous system and the possible role of connexin 36 in epileptic seizure.Data sources All articles used in this review were mainly searched from PubMed published in English from 1996 to 2012.Study selection Odginal articles and reviews were selected if they were related to the expression of connexin 36 in the central nervous system and its role in epilepsy.Results The distribution of connexin 36 is developmentally regulated,cell-specific and region-specific.Connexin 36 is involved in some neuronal functions and epileptic synchronization.Changes in the connexin 36 gene and protein were accompanied by seizures.Selective gap junction blockers have exerted anticonvulsant actions in a variety of experiments examined in both humans end experimental animals.Conclusions Connexin 36 plays an important role in both physiological and pathological conditions in the central nervous system.A better understanding of the role of connexin 36 in seizure activity may contribute to the development of new therapeutic approaches to treating epilepsy.

  13. Current understanding of circulating tumor cells – potential value in malignancies of the central nervous system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukasz A. Adamczyk

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the blood via so-called 'liquid biopsies' carries enormous clinical potential in malignancies of the central nervous system (CNS because of the potential to follow disease evolution with a blood test, without the need for repeat neurosurgical procedures with their inherent risk of patient morbidity. To date studies in non-CNS malignancies, particularly in breast cancer, show increasing reproducibility of detection methods for these rare tumor cells in the circulation. However, no method has yet received full recommendation to use in clinical practice, in part because of lack of a sufficient evidence base regarding clinical utility. In CNS malignancies one of the main challenges is finding a suitable biomarker for identification of these cells, because automated systems such as the widely used Cell Search system are reliant on markers such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM which are not present in CNS tumors. This review examines methods for CTC enrichment and detection, and reviews the progress in non-CNS tumors and the potential for using this technique in human brain tumors.

  14. Axogenesis in the central and peripheral nervous system of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungerer, Petra; Geppert, Maria; Wolff, Carsten

    2011-03-01

    We describe the formation of the major axon pathways in the embryonic central and peripheral nervous systems of the amphipod crustacean Orchestia cavimana Heller, 1865 by means of antibody staining against acetylated alpha-tubulin. The data add to a long list of previous studies of various other aspects of development in Orchestia and provide a basis for future studies of neurogenesis on a deeper cellular and molecular level. Orchestia exhibits a tripartite dorsal brain, which is a characteristic feature of euarthropods. Its anlagen are the first detectable structures in the developing nervous system and can be traced back to distinct neuronal cell clusters in the early embryo. The development of the ventral nervous system proceeds with an anteroposterior gradient of development. In each trunk segment, the longitudinal connectives and the anterior commissure form first, followed by the intersegmental nerve, the posterior commissure and segmental nerves, respectively. A single commissure of a vestigial seventh pleonal segment is found. In the peripheral nervous system we observe a spatial and temporal pattern of leg innervation, which is strikingly similar in both limb types, the uniramous pereopods and the biramous pleopods. A proximal leg nerve splitting distally into two separated nerves probably reflects a general feature of crustaceans.

  15. Vorinostat and Bortezomib in Treating Young Patients With Refractory or Recurrent Solid Tumors, Including Central Nervous System Tumors and Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Childhood Burkitt Lymphoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Choriocarcinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germinoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Mixed Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Teratoma; Childhood Central Nervous System Yolk Sac Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Diffuse Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Immunoblastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Childhood Medulloepithelioma; Childhood Meningioma; Childhood Mixed Glioma; Childhood Nasal Type Extranodal NK/T-cell Lymphoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Recurrent Childhood Anaplastic Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Brain Stem Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Central Nervous System Embryonal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Grade III Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis; Recurrent Childhood Large Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Lymphoblastic Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Malignant Germ Cell Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Pineoblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Small Noncleaved Cell Lymphoma; Recurrent Childhood Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma; Recurrent/Refractory Childhood Hodgkin Lymphoma; Unspecified Childhood Solid Tumor, Protocol Specific

  16. FMRFamide-like immunoreactivity in the central nervous system of the cephalopod mollusc, Idiosepius notoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wollesen, Tim; Loesel, R.; Wanninger, Andreas Wilhelm Georg

    2008-01-01

    For more than a century, cephalopod molluscs have been the subject of extensive studies with respect to their complex neuroanatomy and behavior. In comparison to gastropod molluscs surprisingly little work has been carried out on the characterization of neurons in the central nervous system (CNS......-like immunoreactivity was observed in most of the brain lobes. High abundance of FMRFamidergic perikarya was found in the dorsal basal, the central palliovisceral, and the olfactory lobes, whereas none were observed in the middle suboesophageal mass. Single individual perikarya are located within the optic lobes...

  17. Efficacy of vinblastine in central nervous system Langerhans cell histiocytosis: a nationwide retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ng Wing Tin Sophie

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vinblastine (VBL is the standard treatment for systemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH, but little is known about its efficacy in central nervous system (CNS mass lesions. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted. Twenty patients from the French LCH Study Group register met the inclusion criteria. In brief, they had CNS mass lesions, had been treated with VBL, and were evaluable for radiologic response. Results The median age at diagnosis of LCH was 11.5 years (range: 1-50. Intravenous VBL 6 mg/m2 was given in a 6-week induction treatment, followed by a maintenance treatment. The median total duration was 12 months (range: 3-30. Eleven patients received steroids concomitantly. Fifteen patients achieved an objective response; five had a complete response (CR: 25%, ten had a partial response (PR: 50%, four had stable disease (SD: 20% and one patient progressed (PD: 5%. Of interest, four out of the six patients who received VBL without concomitant steroids achieved an objective response. With a median follow-up of 6.8 years, the 5-year event-free and overall survival was 61% and 84%, respectively. VBL was well-tolerated and there were no patient withdrawals due to adverse events. Conclusion VBL, with or without steroids, could potentially be a useful therapeutic option in LCH with CNS mass lesions, especially for those with inoperable lesions or multiple lesions. Prospective clinical trials are warranted for the evaluation of VBL in this indication.

  18. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca A Drummond

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Candida is the most common human fungal pathogen and causes systemic infections that require neutrophils for effective host defense. Humans deficient in the C-type lectin pathway adaptor protein CARD9 develop spontaneous fungal disease that targets the central nervous system (CNS. However, how CARD9 promotes protective antifungal immunity in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we show that a patient with CARD9 deficiency had impaired neutrophil accumulation and induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid despite uncontrolled CNS Candida infection. We phenocopied the human susceptibility in Card9-/- mice, which develop uncontrolled brain candidiasis with diminished neutrophil accumulation. The induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines is significantly impaired in infected Card9-/- brains, from both myeloid and resident glial cellular sources, whereas cell-intrinsic neutrophil chemotaxis is Card9-independent. Taken together, our data highlight the critical role of CARD9-dependent neutrophil trafficking into the CNS and provide novel insight into the CNS fungal susceptibility of CARD9-deficient humans.

  19. Multi-modality therapy leads to longer survival in primary central nervous system lymphoma patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singhal, D.; Witham, T.F.; Germanwala, A.; Flickinger, J.C.; Schiff, D.; Kondziolka, D. [Univ. of Pittsburgh, Dept. of Neurological Surgery and Radiation Oncology, Center for Image-Guided Neurosurgery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania (United States)

    2002-05-01

    Primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCL) is more frequently encountered by neurosurgeons given the increasing incidence among both nonimmunocompromised and immunocompromised patients. The most frequent surgery is stereotactic biopsy. Historically, radiation therapy has been the standard treatment modality for this disease and median survival was in the 15-month range. More recently, multi-modality therapy combining radiation therapy with chemotherapy (systemic, intrathecal, and/or intra-arterial) have resulted in longer survivals. We reviewed survival data for our series of patients treated for PCL over the last decade. Thirty-four patients with histologically confirmed PCL were treated at our center. Multivariate Cox regression analysis was performed to determine which factor(s) (age, gender, HIV status, Karnofsky Performance Scale, chemotherapy, single modality therapy, histology, location, number of lesions, surgical resection) had a significant impact on survival. The overall median survival was 19 months. Patients receiving multi-modality therapy (n=17) (chemotherapy and radiation) had a median survival of 34 months compared to four months for patients receiving single modality therapy (n=17 including seven HTV positive patients). Multi-modality therapy was the only significant factor affecting survival in this multivariate analysis (p<0.0001). Chemotherapy plus radiotherapy significantly enhances survival over patients treated with single modality therapy alone. Quality of life issues should be addressed on a case by case basis as additional treatment modalities are initiated. (author)

  20. Targeting the central nervous system with herpes simplex virus / Sleeping Beauty hybrid amplicon vectors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, Suresh; Bowers, William J

    2011-10-01

    The pursuits of sustainable treatments for diseases and disorders that afflict the central nervous system (CNS) have proven challenging for the field of viral vector-based gene therapy. However, recent advances in viral vector technology coupled with efficient delivery methods have opened up new avenues that show promise at the preclinical testing stage. The development of the Herpes Simplex Virus/Sleeping Beauty (HSV/SB) hybrid vector represents such an advance for devising treatments targeting the CNS with its potential for stably integrating large transgenomic segments of DNA within the genomes of transduced cells. In utero administration of this hybrid vector into the embryonic mouse brain has revealed the capacity for widespread transgene dissemination due to the targeting of a neuronal precursor cell population. This unique feature has provided the means to stably express a transgene throughout the brain for prolonged periods, which is a prerequisite for the treatment of progressive CNS disorders. In this review we provide a comprehensive breakdown of the characteristics of the HSV/SB vector system and how it can be efficiently employed in the derivation of CNS-targeted gene therapeutic strategies.

  1. CARD9-Dependent Neutrophil Recruitment Protects against Fungal Invasion of the Central Nervous System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, Rebecca A; Collar, Amanda L; Swamydas, Muthulekha; Rodriguez, Carlos A; Lim, Jean K; Mendez, Laura M; Fink, Danielle L; Hsu, Amy P; Zhai, Bing; Karauzum, Hatice; Mikelis, Constantinos M; Rose, Stacey R; Ferre, Elise M N; Yockey, Lynne; Lemberg, Kimberly; Kuehn, Hye Sun; Rosenzweig, Sergio D; Lin, Xin; Chittiboina, Prashant; Datta, Sandip K; Belhorn, Thomas H; Weimer, Eric T; Hernandez, Michelle L; Hohl, Tobias M; Kuhns, Douglas B; Lionakis, Michail S

    2015-12-01

    Candida is the most common human fungal pathogen and causes systemic infections that require neutrophils for effective host defense. Humans deficient in the C-type lectin pathway adaptor protein CARD9 develop spontaneous fungal disease that targets the central nervous system (CNS). However, how CARD9 promotes protective antifungal immunity in the CNS remains unclear. Here, we show that a patient with CARD9 deficiency had impaired neutrophil accumulation and induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines in the cerebrospinal fluid despite uncontrolled CNS Candida infection. We phenocopied the human susceptibility in Card9-/- mice, which develop uncontrolled brain candidiasis with diminished neutrophil accumulation. The induction of neutrophil-recruiting CXC chemokines is significantly impaired in infected Card9-/- brains, from both myeloid and resident glial cellular sources, whereas cell-intrinsic neutrophil chemotaxis is Card9-independent. Taken together, our data highlight the critical role of CARD9-dependent neutrophil trafficking into the CNS and provide novel insight into the CNS fungal susceptibility of CARD9-deficient humans. PMID:26679537

  2. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles highlight early involvement of the choroid plexus in central nervous system inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Infante‑Duarte

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuroinflammation during multiple sclerosis involves immune cell infiltration and disruption of the BBB (blood–brain barrier. Both processes can be visualized by MRI (magnetic resonance imaging, in multiple sclerosis patients and in the animal model EAE (experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. We previously showed that VSOPs (very small superparamagnetic iron oxide particles reveal CNS (central nervous system lesions in EAE which are not detectable by conventional contrast agents in MRI. We hypothesized that VSOP may help detect early, subtle inflammatory events that would otherwise remain imperceptible. To investigate the capacity of VSOP to reveal early events in CNS inflammation, we induced EAE in SJL mice using encephalitogenic T-cells, and administered VSOP prior to onset of clinical symptoms. In parallel, we administered VSOP to mice at peak disease, and to unmanipulated controls. We examined the distribution of VSOP in the CNS by MRI and histology. Prior to disease onset, in asymptomatic mice, VSOP accumulated in the choroid plexus and in spinal cord meninges in the absence of overt inflammation. However, VSOP was undetectable in the CNS of non-immunized control mice. At peak disease, VSOP was broadly distributed; we observed particles in perivascular inflammatory lesions with apparently preserved glia limitans. Moreover, at peak disease, VSOP was prominent in the choroid plexus and was seen in elongated endothelial structures, co-localized with phagocytes, and diffusely disseminated in the parenchyma, suggesting multiple entry mechanisms of VSOP into the CNS. Thus, using VSOP we were able to discriminate between inflammatory events occurring in established EAE and, importantly, we identified CNS alterations that appear to precede immune cell infiltration and clinical onset.

  3. Radiation Therapy In Management Of Primary Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma Of Central Nervous System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From 1982 to 1991, sixteen patients with primary on-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the central nervous system (CNS) were seen at Kyung Hee University Hospital. The most common subtypes were large, noncleaved cell lymphoma and immunoblastic lymphoma of B cells. Lesions most commonly involved were the parietal lobes and/or deep nuclei. Positive cerebrospinal fluid cytology was rare at initial presentation. Sixteen patients were treated with surgical biopsy or resection followed by whole brain radiotherapy at a median dose of 40 Gy(range=30-50 Gy) with variable boost doses. Of 16 patients who underwent surgery and postoperative radiotherapy, fourteen patients died between 2 and 49 months following treatment, and two are alive with no evidence of disease at 8 and 22 months. The 1-and 2-year survival rates were 55.6% and 34.7% respectively with 12 months of median survival. Patterns of failure were analyzed in eleven patients of total 16 patients. Failure at the original site of involvement was uncommon after radiotherapy treatment. In contrast, failure in the brain at sites other than those originally involved was common in spite of the use of whole brain irradiation. Failure occurred in the brain 11/16(68.7%), in spinal axis 4/16(25.0%). The age, sex. Location of involvement within CNS, numbers of lesion, or radiation dose did not influence on survival. The authors conclude that primary CNS lymphoma is a locally aggressive disease that is poorly controlled with conventional radiation therapy. The limitation of current therapy for this disease are discussed, and certain promising modality should be made in regarding the management of future patients with this disease

  4. Osteopontin in cerebrospinal fluid as diagnostic biomarker for central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strehlow, Felicitas; Bauer, Sandra; Martus, Peter; Weller, Michael; Roth, Patrick; Schlegel, Uwe; Seidel, Sabine; Scheibenbogen, Carmen; Korfel, Agnieszka; Kreher, Stephan

    2016-08-01

    Central nervous system lymphoma (CNSL) is diagnostically challenging. The identification of reliable and easy to measure biomarkers is desirable to facilitate diagnosis. Here, we evaluated the value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) osteopontin (OPN) as a diagnostic biomarker for CNSL. OPN concentrations in CSF from 37 patients with CNSL (29 with primary CNSL and 8 with secondary CNS involvement of systemic lymphoma) and 36 controls [6 patients with inflammatory CNS disease other than multiple sclerosis (MS), 8 with MS, 9 with glioblastoma (GBM) and 13 healthy controls] were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Non-parametric tests and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were performed for determination of diagnostic accuracy. Median CSF OPN level in all CNSL patients was 620 ng/mL and higher than in patients with inflammatory CNS disease (356 ng/mL); P curve was 0.865 [95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.745-0.985] for differentiating CNSL and patients with inflammatory CNS disease; 0.956 (95 % CI 0.898-1.000) for CNSL and MS patients; 0.988 (95 % CI 0.964-1.000) for CNSL and GBM patients, and 0.915 (95 % CI 0.834-0.996) for CNSL patients and healthy controls. In multivariate analysis, high CSF OPN level was associated with shorter progression-free (HR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.13-2.31; P = .009) and overall survival (HR 1.52, 95 % CI 1.04-2.21; P = .029). CSF OPN is a potential biomarker in CNSL. PMID:27294357

  5. Intraventricular ciprofloxacin usage in treatment of multidrug-resistant central nervous system infections: report of four cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Karaaslan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, multidrug-resistant microorganisms appear as important nosocomial pathogens which treatment is quite difficult. As sufficient drug levels could not be achieved in cerebrospinal fluid during intravenous antibiotic therapy for central nervous system infections and due to multidrug-resistance treatment alternatives are limited. In this study, four cases of central nervous system infections due to multidrug-resistant microorganisms who were successfully treated with removal of the devices and intraventricular ciprofloxacin are presented. In conclusion, intraventricular ciprofloxacin can be used for treatment of central nervous system infections if the causative microorganism is sensitive to the drug and no other alternative therapy is available.

  6. The Research Advance of Fetuin-A in the Central Nervous System Related Diseases%胎球蛋白A与中枢神经系统相关疾病的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向英(综述); 陈莉芬(审校)

    2016-01-01

    The fetuin-A ( FA ) is an acute phase protein secreted by the liver, involved in the inflammatory response and inhibition of vascular calcification and so on.FA showed a significant associ-ation with ischemic stroke.FA is increased in serum and cerebrospinal fluid in multiple sclerosis,and its activity is increased more obviously in the active phase ,therefore FA may be used to assess the treat-ment effect.Along with the further study of FA,it′s found that FA is also correlate with other diseases of the central nervous system,such as migraine,Alzheimer disease.%胎球蛋白A( FA)是由肝脏分泌的急性时相蛋白,可参与炎症反应、抑制血管钙化等多种生物学作用。 FA与急性缺血性卒中密切相关,同时,FA因其抗炎作用,在多发性硬化患者脑脊液中升高,且在疾病的活动期升高更显著,可作为评定其治疗效果的指标。此外,随着对FA研究的深入,发现FA与其他中枢神经系统疾病(如偏头痛、阿尔茨海默病)也有相关性。

  7. Central nervous system tumors in chinese children under the age of 3: a population study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Anthony Pak-Yin; Shing, Matthew Ming-Kong; Yuen, Hui-Leung; Li, Chak-Ho; Ling, Siu-Cheung; Luk, Chung-Wing; Ha, Shau-Yin; Li, Chi-Kong; Chan, Godfrey Chi-Fung

    2015-03-01

    The management of central nervous system tumors in children below the age of 3 years represents a special challenge to pediatric oncologists with distinctive epidemiology, treatment considerations, and prognosis. Population-based epidemiological data on this particular patient group is lacking in Chinese. We reviewed the population-based pediatric tumor registry in Hong Kong between 1999 and 2011. Eighty-one children with primary central nervous system tumors from 0 to 3 years of age were identified (annual incidence: 4.16 cases per 100,000). Forty-one (50.6%) were male and the mean duration of follow-up was 94 months (±8.1). Primary tumors were infratentorial in 43 (53.1%). The tumor types in decreasing frequency were astrocytoma (n=17), medulloblastoma (n=16), ependymoma (n=13), choroid plexus tumor (n=7), primitive neuroectodermal tumor (n=7), atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (n=6), germ cell tumor (GCT, n=5), craniopharyngioma (n=4), and ganglioglioma (n=3). Three patients presented antenatally. Treatment included surgery in 82.7%, chemotherapy in 50.6%, and radiotherapy in 25.9%. There were 29 deaths (35.8%) and 19 relapses (23.5%) during the review period with the 1-year overall survival (OS), 5-year OS, 1-year event-free survival (EFS), and 5-year EFS being 79.4% (±4.6), 63.5% (±5.9), 68.9% (±5.3), and 52.5% (±5.9), respectively. Significantly better OS and EFS were observed in patients who received gross total resection, but those with high-grade tumors, antenatal diagnosis, or atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor/primitive neuroectodermal tumor had worse outcome. Survival did not differ with age. Comparison with statistics from other studies revealed higher rates of embryonal tumor, GCT, and craniopharyngioma in Hong Kong Chinese. Disease outcome appeared to be better in our cohort comparing to previous reports probably due to the higher proportion of GCT locally. PMID:24608077

  8. Tamoxifen accelerates the repair of demyelinated lesions in the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ginez A; Hofer, Matthias P; Syed, Yasir A; Amaral, Ana I; Rundle, Jon; Rahman, Saifur; Zhao, Chao; Kotter, Mark R N

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing central nervous system (CNS) myelin regeneration is recognized as an important strategy to ameliorate the devastating consequences of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Previous findings have indicated that myelin proteins, which accumulate following demyelination, inhibit remyelination by blocking the differentiation of rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) via modulation of PKCα. We therefore screened drugs for their potential to overcome this differentiation block. From our screening, tamoxifen emerges as a potent inducer of OPC differentiation in vitro. We show that the effects of tamoxifen rely on modulation of the estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ, and GPR30. Furthermore, we demonstrate that administration of tamoxifen to demyelinated rats in vivo accelerates remyelination. Tamoxifen is a well-established drug and is thus a promising candidate for a drug to regenerate myelin, as it will not require extensive safety testing. In addition, Tamoxifen plays an important role in biomedical research as an activator of inducible genetic models. Our results highlight the importance of appropriate controls when using such models. PMID:27554391

  9. Evidence Report: Risk of Acute and Late Central Nervous System Effects from Radiation Exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Gregory A.; Simonsen, Lisa; Huff, Janice L.

    2016-01-01

    Possible acute and late risks to the central nervous system (CNS) from galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar particle events (SPE) are concerns for human exploration of space. Acute CNS risks may include: altered cognitive function, reduced motor function, and behavioral changes, all of which may affect performance and human health. Late CNS risks may include neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), dementia and premature aging. Although detrimental CNS changes are observed in humans treated with high-dose radiation (e.g., gamma rays and 9 protons) for cancer and are supported by experimental evidence showing neurocognitive and behavioral effects in animal models, the significance of these results on the morbidity to astronauts has not been elucidated. There is a lack of human epidemiology data on which to base CNS risk estimates; therefore, risk projection based on scaling to human data, as done for cancer risk, is not possible for CNS risks. Research specific to the spaceflight environment using animal and cell models must be compiled to quantify the magnitude of CNS changes in order to estimate this risk and to establish validity of the current permissible exposure limits (PELs). In addition, the impact of radiation exposure in combination with individual sensitivity or other space flight factors, as well as assessment of the need for biological/pharmaceutical countermeasures, will be considered after further definition of CNS risk occurs.

  10. Tamoxifen accelerates the repair of demyelinated lesions in the central nervous system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Ginez A.; Hofer, Matthias P.; Syed, Yasir A.; Amaral, Ana I.; Rundle, Jon; Rahman, Saifur; Zhao, Chao; Kotter, Mark R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Enhancing central nervous system (CNS) myelin regeneration is recognized as an important strategy to ameliorate the devastating consequences of demyelinating diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Previous findings have indicated that myelin proteins, which accumulate following demyelination, inhibit remyelination by blocking the differentiation of rat oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) via modulation of PKCα. We therefore screened drugs for their potential to overcome this differentiation block. From our screening, tamoxifen emerges as a potent inducer of OPC differentiation in vitro. We show that the effects of tamoxifen rely on modulation of the estrogen receptors ERα, ERβ, and GPR30. Furthermore, we demonstrate that administration of tamoxifen to demyelinated rats in vivo accelerates remyelination. Tamoxifen is a well-established drug and is thus a promising candidate for a drug to regenerate myelin, as it will not require extensive safety testing. In addition, Tamoxifen plays an important role in biomedical research as an activator of inducible genetic models. Our results highlight the importance of appropriate controls when using such models. PMID:27554391

  11. 水通道蛋白4在中枢神经系统疾病中的研究进展%Research on AQP4 and central nervous system diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莹

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQP) are membrane channel proteins which facilitate water transport through cell membranes.AQP4 is abundantly expressed in brain which is located in endfeet of astrocytes adjacent to capillaries,neurons,and neuronal synapses.It has also been identified in neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus.AQP are closely related to many central nervous system diseases.Researches have showed that AQP4 participates in regulating and controling process of cerebral edema that caused by brain trauma,cerebral ischemia,intracranial infection and mmour,etc.AQP4 antibody is specific biological markers in serum of patients with neuromyelitis,which helps diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica and multiple sclerosis,predicting prognosis and therapy of neuromyelitis optica.AQP4 has been shown to play roles in pathological and physiological process of neurodegenerative diseases,epilepsy,migraine.This article aims to review the distribution,function,influential factors of AQP4 and research development of AQP4 in common diseases of the central nervous system.%水通道蛋白(aquaporins,AQP)是一组参与跨膜水转运的膜通道蛋白,促进细胞膜对水的转运,AQP4在脑中含量最高,主要分布于与毛细血管、神经元及神经突触相邻的星形胶质的终足,也分布于下丘脑的视上核和室旁核神经元.AQP与中枢神经系统的很多疾病均密切相关,研究表明AQP4对脑水肿起调控作用,如与脑外伤、脑缺血、颅内感染、肿瘤等引起的脑水肿均密切相关.AQP4抗体是视神经脊髓炎患者血清中的特异性生物学标记物,对鉴别视神经脊髓炎与多发性硬化、预测预后及指导治疗都有意义.AQP4在神经退行性疾病、偏头痛、癫(痫)疴等其它疾病的病理生理过程中均发挥了作用.该文就AQP4在中枢神经系统内分布及其功能、影响因素、常见中枢神经系统疾病中的研究进展进行综述.

  12. Development of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Rat Central Nervous System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raj K. Singh Badhan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system (CNS drug disposition is dictated by a drug’s physicochemical properties and its ability to permeate physiological barriers. The blood–brain barrier (BBB, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier and centrally located drug transporter proteins influence drug disposition within the central nervous system. Attainment of adequate brain-to-plasma and cerebrospinal fluid-to-plasma partitioning is important in determining the efficacy of centrally acting therapeutics. We have developed a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model of the rat CNS which incorporates brain interstitial fluid (ISF, choroidal epithelial and total cerebrospinal fluid (CSF compartments and accurately predicts CNS pharmacokinetics. The model yielded reasonable predictions of unbound brain-to-plasma partition ratio (Kpuu,brain and CSF:plasma ratio (CSF:Plasmau using a series of in vitro permeability and unbound fraction parameters. When using in vitro permeability data obtained from L-mdr1a cells to estimate rat in vivo permeability, the model successfully predicted, to within 4-fold, Kpuu,brain and CSF:Plasmau for 81.5% of compounds simulated. The model presented allows for simultaneous simulation and analysis of both brain biophase and CSF to accurately predict CNS pharmacokinetics from preclinical drug parameters routinely available during discovery and development pathways.

  13. Application of mouse nervous growth factor on hand-foot-mouth disease combined with central nervous system damage%鼠神经生长因子治疗手足口病合并中枢神经系统损害的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋蕊; 冯亮; 李兴旺; 徐艳丽; 卢联合; 蒋荣猛; 陈志海

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the application of mouse nervous growth factor (mNGF) on patients with hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) combined with central nervous system damage. Methods Clinical data of 48 patients with HFMD combined with central nervous system damage, admitted to our hospital and received treatment of mNGF from May 2008 to September 2010, were analyzed retrospectively. Results Children under 5 years old, especially between 1-3 years old, were the high-risk group of having HFMD combined with central nervous system damage. The average time of appearing of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) and recovering of muscle strength were (7.1±3.6) d and (17.5±6.0) d, respectively. A total of 31 patients (64.58%) appeared vomiting, with its average times of appearance and disappearance as (4.29±3.10) d and (5.74±2.90) d, respectively. A total of 33 patients (68.75%) tended to appear panic symptoms, which appeared on (2.67±1.76) d and disappeared on (7.80± 2.76) d averagely. Laboratory test showed number of white blood cells and CK values were elevated of certain degree, and cerebrospinal fluid pressure and protein expression level were increased to varying degrees. MRI showed that bulbus medulla was the most likely to be involved, followed by brain stem and other parts. Conclusion Application of mNGF on patients with HFMD combined with central system damage may help to improve the neurologic symptoms and prognosis.%目的 探讨鼠神经生长因子在手足口病合并中枢神经系统损害患者治疗中的应用.方法 收集北京地坛医院自2008年5月至2010年9月收治的手足口病合并中枢神经系统损害并使用鼠神经生长因子治疗的48例患者的临床资料,采用回顾性分析方法总结其特点.结果 5岁以下尤其是1~3岁儿童是手足口病合并中枢神经系统损害高危人群.患者急性弛缓性麻痹症状出现时间平均在病程第(7.1±3.6)天,肌力恢复平均在第(17.5±6.0)天;呕吐症状出现

  14. Detection and Cellular Localization of Phospho-STAT2 in the Central Nervous System by Immunohistochemical Staining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khorooshi, Reza; Owens, Trevor

    2013-01-01

    Phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (STATs) indicates their involvement in active signaling. Here we describe immunohistochemical staining procedures for detection and identification of the cellular localization of phospho-STAT2 in the central nervous system (CNS...

  15. Vascular, glial, and lymphatic immune gateways of the central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Britta; Carare, Roxana O; Bechmann, Ingo; Flügel, Alexander; Laman, Jon D; Weller, Roy O

    2016-09-01

    Immune privilege of the central nervous system (CNS) has been ascribed to the presence of a blood-brain barrier and the lack of lymphatic vessels within the CNS parenchyma. However, immune reactions occur within the CNS and it is clear that the CNS has a unique relationship with the immune system. Recent developments in high-resolution imaging techniques have prompted a reassessment of the relationships between the CNS and the immune system. This review will take these developments into account in describing our present understanding of the anatomical connections of the CNS fluid drainage pathways towards regional lymph nodes and our current concept of immune cell trafficking into the CNS during immunosurveillance and neuroinflammation. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and interstitial fluid are the two major components that drain from the CNS to regional lymph nodes. CSF drains via lymphatic vessels and appears to carry antigen-presenting cells. Interstitial fluid from the CNS parenchyma, on the other hand, drains to lymph nodes via narrow and restricted basement membrane pathways within the walls of cerebral capillaries and arteries that do not allow traffic of antigen-presenting cells. Lymphocytes targeting the CNS enter by a two-step process entailing receptor-mediated crossing of vascular endothelium and enzyme-mediated penetration of the glia limitans that covers the CNS. The contribution of the pathways into and out of the CNS as initiators or contributors to neurological disorders, such as multiple sclerosis and Alzheimer's disease, will be discussed. Furthermore, we propose a clear nomenclature allowing improved precision when describing the CNS-specific communication pathways with the immune system. PMID:27522506

  16. Pathological features of the central nervous system lesions with Epstein-Barr virus in patients with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozko V.N.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV infection/AIDS is a social disease and morbidity in some segments of the population is threatening. One of the target organs for HIV is the nervous system. The central nervous system lesion occurring in the form of meningoencephalitison the background of HIV infection is one of the leading death causes in patients with severe immunosuppression. Objective. Reveal the typicalmorphologic changes in the central nervous system during Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods. Brain tissue and meningesof deceased patients with Epstein-Barr virus meningoencephalitis. Selected 6 deaths – three women and three men, aged 28 to 34 years. Following routine procedure histologic sections were produced, which were stained with hematoxylin and eosin staining, Nissl. Results. We showed signs of development of subacute encephalitis with the presence of giant areas of demyelination by morphological study of the combination of clinical cases of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection. In brain tissue we identified giant cells. In addition to this significant feature of the combination of HIV and Epstein-Barr virus infection can be considered productive development of vasculitis with thrombosis and ischemic brain lesions. During histological studies in HIV-infected patients were found: infiltration of the vessel wall by leukocytes, edema and proliferative changes in the intima. All this leads to a narrowing of the lumen and thrombosis with further possible infarct, vessel rupture and hemorrhage. Conclusion. It is established that in case of damage of the central nervous system with Epstein-Barr virus in HIV patients develops subacute giant cell encephalitis with the presence of demyelination areas, a bland astrogliosis, development of productive vasculitis with thrombosis, that complicated by ischemic lesions of the brain.

  17. Primary Central Nervous System Burkitt Lymphoma With Non-Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Translocation in Right Ventricle: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Ming; Zhu, Jiang; Guan, Yong-Song; Zou, Li-qun

    2011-01-01

    Primary central nervous system Burkitt lymphoma (PCNSBL) is rare. Few cases of primary central nervous system involvement with sporadic Burkitt lymphoma have been reported and its treatment is now controversial. Here, the authors report a case of a 14-year-old boy suffering from non-immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) translocation PCNSBL. To the authors' knowledge, this is the second case report describing primary Burkitt lymphoma involving cerebral ventricles. After receiving combination treat...

  18. Lentivirus-mediated gene transfer to the central nervous system: therapeutic and research applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Liang-Fong; Goodhead, Lucy; Prat, Christine; Mitrophanous, Kyriacos A; Kingsman, Susan M; Mazarakis, Nicholas D

    2006-01-01

    The management of disorders of the nervous system remains a medical challenge. The key goals are to understand disease mechanisms, to validate therapeutic targets, and to develop new therapeutic strategies. Viral vector-mediated gene transfer can meet these goals and vectors based on lentiviruses have particularly useful features. Lentiviral vectors can deliver 8 kb of sequence, they mediate gene transfer into any neuronal cell type, expression and therapy are sustained, and normal cellular functions in vitro and in vivo are not compromised. After delivery into the nervous system they induce no significant immune responses, there are no unwanted side effects of the vectors per se to date, and manufacturing and safety testing for clinical applications are well advanced. There are now numerous examples of effective long-term treatment of animal models of neurological disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, motor neuron diseases, lysosomal storage diseases, and spinal injury, using a range of therapeutic genes expressed in lentiviral vectors. Significant issues remain in some areas of neural gene therapy including defining the optimum therapeutic gene(s), increasing the specificity of delivery, regulating expression of potentially toxic genes, and designing clinically relevant strategies. We discuss the applications of lentiviral vectors in therapy and research and highlight the essential features that will ensure their translation to the clinic in the near future. PMID:16409120

  19. Long-term survival following radiotherapy and cytarabine chemotherapy for sporadic primary central nervous system lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To analyze the long-term results following whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT) with sequential intrathecal (i.th.) cytosine arabinoside (Ara-C) ± intravenous (i.v.) Ara-C in patients with primary central nervous system lymphoma (PCNSL). Patients and Methods: 14 patients were treated between July 1987 and August 1995. All had sporadic PCNSL with proven histology of high-grade CNS lymphoma (twelve diffuse large-cell B-lymphomas, one lymphoblastic lymphoma, one large T-cell lymphoma). Patients were treated with two to four cycles of induction chemotherapy (40 mg/m2 Ara-C i.th.), four patients received additional Ara-C i.v. (150 mg/m2, d1-4). WBRT was administered using 1.8-Gy fractions. Intrathecal chemotherapy was planned afterwards in 4-week intervals for 6 months. Posttreatment neurocognitive evaluations were performed in two long-term survivors. Results: Two of four patients who received i.v. and i.th. induction chemotherapy showed progressive disease, and irradiation was started immediately. Six of 14 patients received 50.4 Gy WBRT, four patients had WBRT up to 39.6 Gy followed by a 10.8-Gy boost. Five patients died early during therapy either due to a decline of the general medical condition or progressive disease. Median survival was 41 months (95% confidence interval: 6-79 months), survival at 3 and 5 years was 59% and 42%, respectively. Six patients survived for 3 years, two younger patients are still alive (> 12 years). They show only slightly impaired neurocognitive functions without clinical relevance. Conclusion: This WBRT-based protocol with i.th. meningeal prophylaxis using Ara-C ± i.v. Ara-C yields substantial long-term survival with moderate toxicity. The value of i.v. chemotherapy is currently being investigated in prospective studies. (orig.)

  20. The ultrastructure of prosternal sensory hair afferents within the locust central nervous system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, A H; Pflüger, H J

    1984-01-01

    The sensory neurones innervating long prosternal hairs of Locusta migratorioides were backfilled with horseradish peroxidase through their dendrites. The neurones' central projections in and around the medial ventral tract were examined with electron microscopy. Most synapses occur on axon collaterals which ramify through the neuropile around the tract where both input and output synapses were observed. Serial sectioning methods were used to determine the relative distribution of inputs and outputs which often lie in close proximity to one another on the axon terminals. The prosternal hair terminals contain agranular synaptic vesicles approximately 37 nm in diameter. Surrounding unidentified neuropilar profiles contain vesicles which are either statistically indistinguishable in size, or are larger, 45 nm diameter agranular vesicles. Neurones which are pre- or postsynaptic to labelled terminals generally contain vesicles of the second type. Input synapses onto the central terminals of primary afferent neurones can be recognised as a widespread phenomenon in the nervous systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates which will allow a fine degree of control of sensory inflow into the central nervous system. PMID:6709188