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Sample records for central nepal himalaya

  1. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

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    Hem Bahadur Katuwal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were recorded new for the areas. Overall, Carnivore species (nine were encountered more, followed by species of the order Cetartiodactyla (seven. The highest number of mammalian fauna (18 was identified from Manaslu Conservation Area whereas the least (11 from Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley. Human wildlife conflict was frequent with Himalayan Goral (Naemorhedus goral, Barking Deer (Muntiacus vaginalis, Himalayan Tahr (Hemitragus jemlahicus, Rhesus Macaque (Macaca mulatta, Nepal Grey Langur (Semnopithecus schistaceus and Himalayan Black Bear (Ursus thibetanus for crop depredation in these areas. Although mammalian research started a long time ago, scenario of comprehensive research is not satisfactory in the Central Himalaya, Nepal.

  2. The mammalian fauna from the Central Himalaya, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hem Bahadur Katuwal; Bhaiya Khanal; Khadga Basnet; Bhim Rai; Shiva Devkota

    2013-01-01

    Nepal harbors unique mammalian fauna, but it is poorly studied at higher elevation. Mammalian fauna were recorded in Manaslu Conservation Area, Dudhkunda and Dudhkoshi valley of Solukhumbu district and Kanchenjunga Conservation Area of Nepal during March 2011 to April 2013 along the trail and the study plots from 700m to 4400m a.s.l. Semi-structured interviews were made with local people to understand their behavior and habitats. Altogether, 29 mammalian fauna were recorded. Five species were...

  3. Water soluble ions in aerosols (TSP) : Characteristics, sources and seasonal variation over the central Himalayas, Nepal

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    Tripathee, Lekhendra; Kang, Shichang; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Dipesh

    2016-04-01

    Atmspheric pollutants transported from South Asia could have adverse impact on the Himalayan ecosystems. Investigation of aerosol chemistry in the Himalayan region in Nepal has been limited on a temporal and spatial scale to date. Therefore, the water-soluble ionic composition of aerosol using TSP sampler was investigated for a year period from April 2013 to March 2014 at four sites Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom characterized as an urban, rural, semi-urban and remote sites in Nepal. During the study period, the highest concentration of major cation was Ca2+ with an average concentration of 8.91, 2.17, 7.85 and 6.42 μg m-3 and the highest concentration of major anion was SO42- with an average of 10.96, 4.06, 6.85 and 3.30 μg m-3 at Bode, Dhunche, Lumbini and Jomsom respectively. The soluble ions showed the decrease in concentrations from urban to the rural site. Correlations and PCA analysis suggested that that SO42-, NO3- and NH4+ were derived from the anthropogenic sources where as the Ca2+ and Mg2+ were from crustal sources. Our results also suggest that the largest acid neutralizing agent at our sampling sites in the central Himalayas are Ca2+ followed by NH4+. Seasonal variations of soluble ions in aerosols showed higher concentrations during pre-monsoon and winter (dry-periods) due to limited precipitation amount and lower concentrations during the monsoon which can be explained by the dilution effect, higher the precipitation lower the concentration. K+ which is regarded as the tracer of biomss burning had a significant peaks during pre-monsoon season when the forest fires are active around the regions. In general, the results of this study suggests that the atmospheric chemistry is influenced by natural and anthropogenic sources. Thus, soluble ionic concentrations in aerosols from central Himalayas, Nepal can provide a useful database to assess atmospheric environment and its impacts on human health and ecosystem in the southern side of central

  4. Thermo-kinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal: The Composite Orogenic System

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    Parsons, A. J.; Law, R. D.; Lloyd, G. E.; Phillips, R. J.; Searle, M. P.

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayan orogen represents a "Composite Orogenic System" in which channel flow, wedge extrusion, and thrust stacking operate in separate "Orogenic Domains" with distinct rheologies and crustal positions. We analyze 104 samples from the metamorphic core (Greater Himalayan Sequence, GHS) and bounding units of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal. Optical microscopy and electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) analyses provide a record of deformation microstructures and an indication of active crystal slip systems, strain geometries, and deformation temperatures. These data, combined with existing thermobarometry and geochronology data are used to construct detailed deformation temperature profiles for the GHS. The profiles define a three-stage thermokinematic evolution from midcrustal channel flow (Stage 1, >700°C to 550-650°C), to rigid wedge extrusion (Stage 2, 400-600°C) and duplexing (Stage 3, modular components of a Composite Orogenic System. These Orogenic Domains may be active at the same time at different depths/positions within the orogen. The thermokinematic evolution of the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya describes the migration of the GHS through these Orogenic Domains and reflects the spatial and temporal variability in rheological boundary conditions that govern orogenic systems.

  5. Effective radium concentration across the Main Central Thrust in the Nepal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective radium concentration (EC(Ra)) of 622 rock samples from 6 different sites in the Nepal Himalayas was measured in the laboratory using radon accumulation experiments. These sites, located from Lower Dolpo in Western Nepal to Eastern Nepal, are divided into 9 transects which cut across the Main Central Thrust zone (MCT zone) separating low-grade metamorphic Lesser Himalayan Sequence (LHS) units to the south and higher-grade metamorphic Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) units to the north. This boundary remains difficult to define and is the subject of numerous debates. EC(Ra) values range from 0.03 ± 0.03 to 251.6 ± 4.0 Bq kg-1, and appear to be representative of the formation and clearly related to the local lithology. For example, for the Upper Trisuli and Langtang Valleys site in Central Nepal, the most studied place with 350 available EC(Ra) values, LHS rocks are characterized by a mean value of 5.3 ± 1.3 Bq kg-1 while GHS rocks of Formations I and II show significantly lower values with a mean value of 0.69 ± 0.11 Bq kg-1, thus leading to a LHS/GHS EC(Ra) ratio of 7.8 ± 2.2. This behavior was systematically confirmed by other transects (ratio of 7.9 ± 2.2 in all other sites), with a threshold ECRa value, separating LHS from GHS, of 0.8 Bq kg-1, thus bringing forward a novel method to characterize, within the MCT shear zone, which rocks belong to the GHS and LHS units. In addition, Ulleri augen gneiss, belonging to LHS rocks, occurred in several transects and were characterized by high EC(Ra) values (17.9 ± 4.3 Bq kg-1), easy to distinguish from the GHS gneisses, characterized by low EC(Ra) values at the bottom of the GHS, thus providing a further argument to locate the MCT. The measurement of EC(Ra) data, thus, provides a cost-effective method which can be compared with neodymium isotopic anomalies or estimates of the peak metamorphic temperature. This study, therefore, shows that the measurements of EC(Ra) provides additional information to

  6. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

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    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  7. Seasonal Changes in Bird Species and Feeding Guilds along Elevational Gradients of the Central Himalayas, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katuwal, Hem Bahadur; Basnet, Khadga; Khanal, Bhaiya; Devkota, Shiva; Rai, Sanjeev Kumar; Gajurel, Jyoti Prasad; Scheidegger, Christoph; Nobis, Michael P.

    2016-01-01

    The Himalayas are a global hotspot for bird diversity with a large number of threatened species, but little is known about seasonal changes in bird communities along elevational gradients in this region. We studied the seasonality of bird diversity in six valleys of the Central Himalayas, Nepal. Using 318 plots with a 50 m radius, located from 2200 to 3800 m a.s.l., and repeated sampling during different seasons (mainly pre-monsoon, monsoon, and post-monsoon), we analyzed 3642 occurrences of 178 species. Birds classified in the literature as resident were more species-rich than migratory birds (140 vs. 38 species). In all six valleys and within the studied elevation range, species richness of all birds showed a peak at mid-elevation levels of 2600 or 3000 m a.s.l. Similar patterns were found for the most species-rich feeding guilds of insectivores (96 species) and omnivores (24 species), whereas the species richness of herbivores (37 species including frugivores) increased towards higher elevations. Among these feeding guilds, only species richness of insectivores showed pronounced seasonal changes with higher species numbers during post-monsoon season. Similarly, individual bird species showed distinct spatio-temporal distribution patterns, with transitions from species dominated by elevational differences to those characterized by strong seasonal changes. In an era of climate change, the results demonstrate that individual bird species as well as feeding guilds might greatly differ in their responses to climate warming and changes in the seasonality of the precipitation regime, two aspects of climate change which should not be analyzed independently. PMID:27367903

  8. Ethnobotany in the Nepal Himalaya

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    Bussmann Rainer W

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indigenous knowledge has become recognized worldwide not only because of its intrinsic value but also because it has a potential instrumental value to science and conservation. In Nepal, the indigenous knowledge of useful and medicinal plants has roots in the remote past. Methods The present study reviews the indigenous knowledge and use of plant resources of the Nepal Himalayas along the altitudinal and longitudinal gradient. A total of 264 studies focusing on ethnobotany, ethnomedicine and diversity of medicinal and aromatic plants, carried out between 1979 and 2006 were consulted for the present analysis. In order to cross check and verify the data, seven districts of west Nepal were visited in four field campaigns. Results In contrast to an average of 21–28% ethnobotanically/ethnomedicinally important plants reported for Nepal, the present study found that up to about 55% of the flora of the study region had medicinal value. This indicates a vast amount of undocumented knowledge about important plant species that needs to be explored and documented. The richness of medicinal plants decreased with increasing altitude but the percentage of plants used as medicine steadily increased with increasing altitude. This was due to preferences given to herbal remedies in high altitude areas and a combination of having no alternative choices, poverty and trust in the effectiveness of folklore herbal remedies. Conclusion Indigenous knowledge systems are culturally valued and scientifically important. Strengthening the wise use and conservation of indigenous knowledge of useful plants may benefit and improve the living standard of poor people.

  9. The Katmandu and Gosainkund nappes, central Nepal Himalaya (cartography, structure, metamorphism, geochemistry and radio-chronology)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In central Nepal, a multidisciplinary study has been carried out to characterize and distinguish the crystalline nappes of Katmandu and Gosainkund from the Midland formations. Two principal deformations are recorded: one ductile, syn-metamorphic, marked by microstructures (stretching lineation, S-C structures, etc. ), another, post-metamorphic, recorded by an anticline, roughly EW -directed, and by NNE-SSW -directed folds. The syn-metamorphic P-T conditions show differences between Katmandu Crystalline Nappe (900-720 MPa; 700-480 deg C) and Gosainkund Crystalline Nappe (890-580 MPa; 750-590 deg C). They exhibit well preserved inverted metamorphism between the Upper Midland Formations (750 Mpa; 560 deg C) and the Gosainkund Nappe. In central Nepal, the augen gneisses and the 'Lesser Himalayan' Cambro-Ordovician granites bear similar petrographic and geochemical characteristics which suggest a common origin. However, the geological setting and age of the Proterozoic Ulleri augen gneiss rule out correlation with these formations. 40Ar/39Ar analyses of muscovite, indicate cooling ages younger from south to north: 22 to 13 Ma in the Katmandu Nappe, 16 to 5 Ma in the Gosainkund Nappe, and 12 to 6 Ma in the Midland Formation. The principal points summarized by this study are the following: clear distinction between two nappes marked by their litho-stratigraphy and metamorphism; the ductile movement of MCT in the north of Katmandu is blocked since approximately 25 Ma; the late emplacement and late or common post metamorphic history of the two nappes; but earlier cooling history of the Katmandu nappe; the present uplift of the Katmandu region, underlined by the intense micro-seismicity, concerns indifferently the two nappes that form a single tectonic block at present; the combined uplift of the two nappes is due to the displacement on a ramp of major decollement surface. (author)

  10. Microstructural analysis of the Greater Himalayan Sequence, Annapurna-Dhaulagiri Himalaya, central Nepal: Channel Flow and Orogen-parallel deformation.

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    Parsons, A. J.; Phillips, R. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Searle, M. P.; Law, R. D.

    2014-12-01

    Knowledge of deformation processes that occur in the lithosphere during orogenesis can be gained from microstructural analysis of exhumed terranes and shear zones. Here, we use Crystallographic Preferred Orientation (CPO) and Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) data to reveal the kinematic evolution of the metamorphic core of the Himalayan orogen, the Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS). The Himalayan orogen is commonly explained with models of channel flow, which describe the GHS as a partially molten, rheologically weak mid crustal channel. Extrusion of the channel was facilitated by coeval reverse- and normal-sense shear zones, at the lower and upper channel margins respectively. Whilst many thermobarometric studies support the occurrence of channel flow, the spatial and temporal distribution of strain within the GHS is one aspect of the model that is yet to be fully resolved. We present a quantified strain proxy profile for the GHS in the Annapurna-Dhaulagiri region of central Nepal and compare our results with the kinematic predictions of the channel flow model. Samples were collected along a NS transect through the Kali Gandaki valley of central Nepal for CPO and AMS analysis. Variations in CPO strength are used as a proxy for relative strain magnitude, whilst AMS data provide a proxy for strain ellipsoid shape. Combining this information with field and microstructural observations and thermobarometric constraints reveals the kinematic evolution of the GHS in this region. Low volumes of leucogranite and sillimanite bearing rocks and evidence of reverse-sense overprinting normal-sense shearing at the top of the GHS suggest that channel flow was not as intense as model predictions. Additionally, observed EW mineral lineations and oblate strain ellipsoid proxies in the Upper GHS, indicative of three dimensional flattening and orogen parallel stretching, cannot be explained by current channel flow models. Whilst the results do not refute the occurrence of

  11. Sources and environmental processes of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and mercury along a southern slope of the Central Himalayas, Nepal.

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    Pokhrel, Balram; Gong, Ping; Wang, Xiaoping; Gao, Shaopeng; Wang, Chuanfei; Yao, Tandong

    2016-07-01

    Semi-volatile pollutants can undergo long-range atmospheric transport from low-altitude source regions to high-altitude regions and then accumulate in surface matrices (soil and plants). The Himalayas is the highest mountain range worldwide, but there have been limited studies on the source, transport, and deposition of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury (Hg) in the region. In this study, atmospheric PAHs, and the PAHs and Hg in soil and foliage were determined along a transect on a southern slope of the Himalayas, Nepal. The study showed anthropogenic emissions of PAHs and Hg occurred in the lowland areas of Nepal, and upslope transport to the high-altitude regions happened for both pollutants. During the upslope transport, forest filter effect and snow scavenging may be the important factors that enhance the deposition of PAHs, contributing to the negative pattern between concentrations of PAHs and altitudes. On the contrary, more Hg accumulated in the high Himalayas, relating to the enhanced deposition in the high altitude caused by the higher input from upper atmosphere. Graphical abstract Distribution and environmental processes of PAHs and Hg along the southern slope of Himalayan mountain. PMID:27032636

  12. Chemical evidences of the effects of global change in high elevation lakes in Central Himalaya, Nepal

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    Tartari, Gianni; Lami, Andrea; Rogora, Michela; Salerno, Franco

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that the lakes integrate the pressure of their surrounding terrestrial environment and the climatic variability. Both the water column and sediments are capable to accumulate signals of global change, such as warming of the deep layers or mutation of diverse biological records (e.g., fossil diatoms) and the nutrient loads variability affecting the trophic state. Typically, the biological responses to climate change have been studied in several types of lakes, while documented changes in water chemistry are much rare. A long term study of 20 high altitude lakes located in central southern Himalaya (Mt Everest) conducted since the 90s has highlighted a general change in the chemical composition of the lake water: a substantial rise in the ionic content was observed, particularly pronounced in the case of sulphate. In a couple of these lakes, monitored on an annual basis, the sulphate concentrations increased over 4-fold. A change in the composition of atmospheric wet deposition, as well as a possible influence of decrease in seasonal snow cover duration, which could have exposed larger basin surfaces to alteration processes, were excluded. The chemical changes proved to be mainly related to the sulphide oxidation processes occurring in the bedrocks or the hydrographic basins. In particular, the oxidation processes, considered as the main factor causing the sulphate increase, occurred in subglacial environments characterized by higher glacier velocities causing higher glacier shrinkage. Associated to this mechanism, the exposure of fresh mineral surfaces to the atmosphere may have contributed also to increases in the alkalinity of lakes. Weakened monsoon of the past two decades may have partially contributed to the solute enrichment of the lakes through runoff waters. The almost synchronous response of the lakes studied, which differs in terms of the presence of glaciers in their basins, highlights the fact that the increasing ionic content of lake

  13. Two times lowering of lake water at around 48 and 38 ka, caused by possible earthquakes, recorded in the Paleo-Kathmandu lake, central Nepal Himalaya

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    Sakai, Harutaka; Fujii, Rie; Sugimoto, Misa; Setoguchi, Ryoko; Paudel, Mukunda Raj

    2016-02-01

    Sedimentary facies and micro-fossil analyses, and AMS14C dating were performed in order to reveal the water-level fall events and draining process of the lake (Paleo-Kathmandu Lake) that existed in the past in the Central Nepal Himalaya. The sedimentary facies change from the lacustrine Kalimati Formation to the deltaic Sunakothi Formation in the southern and central Kathmandu basin, and the abrupt and prominent increase of phytoliths Bambusoideae and Pediastrum, and contemporaneous decrease of sponge spicule and charcoal grains around 48 and 38 ka support the lowering of water level at these times. According to the pollen analysis, both events occurred under rather warm and wet climate, thus supporting that they were triggered by tectonic cause and not by climate change. The first event might be linked to a possible occurrence of a large earthquake with an epicenter in the vicinity of the Paleo-Kathmandu Lake. The occurrence of a mega landslide in Langtang area close to the north of the Kathmandu Valley producing pseudotachylite dated at 51 ± 13 ka could be linked to this earthquake. Finally, the water was completely drained out from the remnant lake at the central part of the Kathmandu basin by ca.12 ka.

  14. Evolution of a large landslide in the High Himalaya of central Nepal during the last half-century

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    Gallo, F.; Lavé, J.

    2014-10-01

    Episodic and catastrophic landslides are considered to be one of the main sources of sediment in the steep, mountainous landscapes of the Himalayas. However, the evolution of a single landslide through time and its contribution to erosional processes remain poorly constrained. In this study, we focus on a single, large (0.5 km2) landslide in a small catchment on the southern flank of the Annapurnas in Nepal (the Khudi valley) in order to quantify its importance in the overall erosion of this steep Himalayan catchment. The evolution of the Saituti landslide has been continuously monitored by remote sensing for the past 46 years. During that period, the Saituti landslide displayed sustained activity, such that the area of the landslide scar increased by a factor of 4. This retrogressive failure, a consequence of several sporadic flank and crown collapses, has not been continuous. Rather, acceleration phases have alternated with more quiescent periods. Simultaneously, the upper edge moved upward by 900 m. Based on field evidence from recent activity (such as scarps and open tension cracks above the landslide) and on an analysis of slope angles, at least the next 500 m is expected to fail. Volume losses within the landslide were estimated from differences between digital elevation models (DEMs) and from changes in landslide area, using a calibrated power law relationship between landslide area and volume. Corresponding landslide-induced erosion rates at the scale of the whole Khudi catchment were found to be 2.6 ± 0.9 mm/y for the past half-century. Those rates are similar to denudation rates obtained from sediment load measurements between 1999 and 2004. Those results, along with the lack of other major landslides in the valley for the last 46 years, suggest that the Saituti landslide plays a dominant role in the modern erosion of the High Himalayan Khudi catchment for the last years and possibly for the past few decades. We propose that continuous and sustained

  15. Monsoon Season Moisture Deficit Limits Growth in Co-Occurring Alpine Shrub (Cassiope fastigata) and Tree (Abies spectabilis) Species in the Central Himalayas, Nepal

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    Rayback, S. A.; Shrestha, K. B.; Hofgaard, A.

    2015-12-01

    Recent evidence indicates changing climatological conditions in the Nepalese Himalayas including decreasing precipitation, a weakening Indian monsoon and rising temperatures. Trees and shrubs found at treeline are considered to be highly sensitive to climate, but the climatic effects on these ecotone species in the Himalayas are not well understood. Dendrochronological techniques applied to co-occurring shrubs and trees up-and down-slope of treeline extend our understanding of vegetation response at range margins and into tree-less environments. We developed tree-ring width and annual height increment chronologies for Abies spectabilis (Himalayan fir) and the first annual growth increment and annual production of leaves chronologies for Cassiope fastigata (Himalayan heather) at a high elevation site in central Nepal. C. fastigata chronologies showed moisture availability in late pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons of the previous year are critical to stem elongation and leaf production (AGI and previous May-August SPEI-12, r = 0.790; LEAF and previous June-September SPEI-12, r = 0.708) A. spectabilis chronologies were significantly and negatively correlated with monsoon season temperature during the current year (tree-ring width and June mean temperature, r = -0.677; height-increment and Sept maximum temperature, r = -0.605). In addition to both long-term and recent declines in moisture in the Himalayas, moisture deficit may be further exacerbated at high elevation sites via run-off and higher levels of evapotranspiration resulting in growth reductions, dieback and even death of these species. These results highlight that not all mid-latitude, high elevation treelines are limited by temperature as previously thought and that severe drought stress may initiate downslope treeline retraction. Understanding the response of co-occurring tree and shrub species to climate, now and in the future, may help to elucidate the physiological mechanisms controlling local and

  16. Copycats of the Central Himalayas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.A. Arora (Payal)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis case study highlights practices of a rarely documented group of neo-users of the Internet or newbies from Central Himalayas, serving as a catalyst for delving deeply into the act of ‘plagiarism’ in online learning By looking at such ‘learning’ practices away from schools, namely at

  17. Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas.

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    Tej B Basnet

    Full Text Available Understanding factors determining the distribution of species is a key requirement for protecting diversity in a specific area. The aim of this study was to explore the factors affecting diversity and distribution of species of birds on different forested hills in central Nepal. The area is rich in species of birds. Because the area is characterized by steep gradients, we were also interested in the importance of altitude in determining the diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We assessed bird diversity and species composition based on point observations along a gradient of increasing altitude in two valleys (Kathmandu and Palung in central Nepal. Data on environmental variables were also collected in order to identify the main determinants of bird diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We recorded 6522 individual birds belonging to 146 species, 77 genera and 23 families. Resident birds made up 80% (117 species of the total dataset. The study supported the original expectation that altitude is a major determinant of species richness and composition of bird communities in the area. More diverse bird communities were found also in areas with steeper slopes. This together with the positive effect of greater heterogeneity suggests that forests on steep slopes intermixed with patches of open habitats on shallow soil at large spatial scales are more important for diverse bird communities than more disturbed habitats on shallow slopes. In addition, we demonstrated that while different habitat characteristics such as presence of forests edges and shrubs play an important role in driving species composition, but they do not affect species richness. This indicates that while habitat conditions are important determinants of the distribution of specific species, the number of niches is determined by large scale characteristics, such as landscape level habitat heterogeneity and altitude. Thus, to protect bird

  18. Heterogeneous Landscapes on Steep Slopes at Low Altitudes as Hotspots of Bird Diversity in a Hilly Region of Nepal in the Central Himalayas.

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    Basnet, Tej B; Rokaya, Maan B; Bhattarai, Bishnu P; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Understanding factors determining the distribution of species is a key requirement for protecting diversity in a specific area. The aim of this study was to explore the factors affecting diversity and distribution of species of birds on different forested hills in central Nepal. The area is rich in species of birds. Because the area is characterized by steep gradients, we were also interested in the importance of altitude in determining the diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We assessed bird diversity and species composition based on point observations along a gradient of increasing altitude in two valleys (Kathmandu and Palung) in central Nepal. Data on environmental variables were also collected in order to identify the main determinants of bird diversity and species composition of the bird communities. We recorded 6522 individual birds belonging to 146 species, 77 genera and 23 families. Resident birds made up 80% (117 species) of the total dataset. The study supported the original expectation that altitude is a major determinant of species richness and composition of bird communities in the area. More diverse bird communities were found also in areas with steeper slopes. This together with the positive effect of greater heterogeneity suggests that forests on steep slopes intermixed with patches of open habitats on shallow soil at large spatial scales are more important for diverse bird communities than more disturbed habitats on shallow slopes. In addition, we demonstrated that while different habitat characteristics such as presence of forests edges and shrubs play an important role in driving species composition, but they do not affect species richness. This indicates that while habitat conditions are important determinants of the distribution of specific species, the number of niches is determined by large scale characteristics, such as landscape level habitat heterogeneity and altitude. Thus, to protect bird diversity in the mid

  19. Detrital zircon U-Pb geochronology of the Siwalik Group of the Nepal Himalaya: implications for provenance analysis

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    Baral, Upendra; Lin, Ding; Chamlagain, Deepak

    2016-04-01

    This paper deals with the provenance analysis of the Neogene foreland basin sediments of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya. This study adopts the techniques of the optical petrography and detrital zircon U-Pb ages from two river sections: the Koshi Nadi in eastern Nepal and the Surai Khola in western Nepal Himalaya. The optical petrography data and resulting QFL plot show a "recycled orogeny" field for the studied sandstone samples, indicating northern lithotectonic units; Tethys Himalaya, Higher Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya as the source of the foreland basin sediments. The detrital zircon geochronological data set has clearly revealed that the cluster ages are younger than ~1000 Ma; however, the older grains (>1000 Ma) are significantly fewer. The obtained age spectrum is similar to the Tethys Himalaya and the upper Lesser Himalaya, but the lower Lesser Himalayan rocks were not distinct, which indicates that sediments in the Neogene foreland basin of the Nepal Himalaya were primarily sourced from the Tethys Himalaya and upper Lesser Himalaya. The minor subordinate scattered peaks that roughly correspond to the age of the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya may indicate that a lower proportion of the sediments might have a link with the Higher Himalaya and lower Lesser Himalaya. Therefore, the provenance of the Siwalik Group in the Nepal Himalaya might have witnessed a mixed type of provenance similar to the northwestern Himalaya.

  20. Seismic slip deficit along Nepal Himalayas: implications for seismic hazard

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    Bollinger, Laurent; Tapponnier, Paul; Nath Sapkota, Soma; Klinger, Yann

    2016-04-01

    In 1255, 1344 and 1408 AD, then again in 1833, 1934 and 2015, large earthquakes, devastated Kathmandu. The 1255 and 1934 surface ruptures have been identified east of the city, along comparable segments of the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT). Whether the other two pairs of events were similar, is unclear. Taking into account charcoal's "Inbuilt-ages", we revisit the timing of terrace offsets at key sites, to compare them with the seismic record since 1200 AD. The location, extent, and seismic moment of the 1833 and 2015 events imply that they released only a small part of the regional slip deficit, on a deep thrust segment that stopped north of the Siwaliks. By contrast, the 1344 or 1408 AD earthquake may have ruptured the MFT up to the surface in central Nepal between Kathmandu and Pokhara, East of the surface trace of the great 1505 AD earthquake which affected Western Nepal. If so, the whole megathrust system in Nepal ruptured during a sequence of earthquakes that lasted less than three centuries and propagated the rupture up to the surface from East to West. Today's situation in the himalayan seismic sequence might be close to that of the 14th century.

  1. Radiocarbon ages of upper quaternary deposit in central Nepal and their geomorphological significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author visited Nepal from October, 1980, to February, 1981, investigated the geomorphology and upper Quaternary geology in Central Nepal, and collected a number of samples for radiocarbon dating. After returning to his university, he dated ten samples by himself. In Nepal, radiocarbon age has been scarcely reported as yet, besides in Kathmandu valley. Therefore, the author's ten data of the age are very important for the late Quaternary chronological study of Nepal Himalayas. In this paper, the author describes sampling localities and horizons, dating results and their geomorphological significance. These ten samples included Pokhara valley, Marsyandi Kohla, Modi Khola, Madi Khola and Muktinath samples. Some conclusion was derived as for the geomorphological development in central Nepal: The last Himalayan glacial age had already ended before 9,000 yr BP (years before A.D. 1950); In the Midland region, from 4,300 to 600 yr BP, some large-scale mudflows broke out nearly contemporaneously in the upper valleys, and they flowed down torrentially and catastrophically to deposit in the middle course of rivers. But the cause of vast quantity of material suddenly brought down from the Great Himalayas has been still left unexplained. The conclusion like this also was able to be applied to the middle Marsyandi Khola and the Pokhara valley. The wide-spread schema that the river was aggraded in the glacial age and degraded in the interglacial age may not be applicable to the rivers in the Midland region of Nepal Himalayas. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  2. Seasonal and annual mass balances of Mera and Pokalde glaciers (Nepal Himalaya since 2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Wagnon

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the Everest region, Nepal, ground-based monitoring programs were started on the debris-free Mera Glacier (27.7° N, 86.9° E; 5.1 km2, 6420 to 4940 m a.s.l. in 2007 and on the small Pokalde Glacier (27.9° N, 86.8° E; 0.1 km2, 5690 to 5430 m a.s.l., ∼ 25 km North of Mera Glacier in 2009. These glaciers lie on the southern flank of the central Himalaya under the direct influence of the Indian monsoon and receive more than 80% of their annual precipitation in summer (June to September. Despite a large inter-annual variability with glacier-wide mass balances ranging from −0.77± 0.40 m w.e. in 2011–2012 (Equilibrium-line altitude (ELA at ∼ 6055 m a.s.l. to + 0.46 ± 0.40 m w.e. in 2010–2011 (ELA at ∼ 5340 m a.s.l., Mera Glacier has been shrinking at a moderate mass balance rate of −0.10± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1 since 2007. Ice fluxes measured at two distinct transverse cross sections at ∼ 5350 m a.s.l. and ∼ 5520 m a.s.l. confirm that the mean state of this glacier over the last one or two decades corresponds to a limited mass loss, in agreement with remotely-sensed region-wide mass balances of the Everest area. Seasonal mass balance measurements show that ablation and accumulation are concomitant in summer which in turn is the key season controlling the annual glacier-wide mass balance. Unexpectedly, ablation occurs at all elevations in winter due to wind erosion and sublimation, with remobilized snow likely being sublimated in the atmosphere. Between 2009 and 2012, the small Pokalde Glacier lost mass more rapidly than Mera Glacier with respective mean glacier-wide mass balances of −0.72 and −0.26 ± 0.40 m w.e. yr−1. Low-elevation glaciers, such as Pokalde Glacier, have been usually preferred for in-situ observations in Nepal and more generally in the Himalayas, which may explain why compilations of ground-based mass balances are biased toward negative values compared with the regional mean under the present-day climate.

  3. Hydropower development in the Central Himalayas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, N. (Irrigation Design Organization, Rourkee (India))

    1992-10-01

    The Central Himalayas comprise eight hill districts of the State of Uttar Pradesh, India. These mountains are the source of the Ganga and its main tributaries: the Yamuna, Ramganga and Sarda rivers. The identified hydro potential of the Ganga, Yamuna, Sarda and their tributaries in the Central Himalayas is about 30 000 MW, with an annual average energy potential of 100 TWh. The projects which have been completed so far have only developed 3.2 per cent of this potential. The projects which are now under construction will exploit another 10.4 per cent of the potential. Thus, the untapped potential is as much as 85 per cent of the total. The minor tributaries also offer vast potential for mini and micro hydroelectric stations. In most conservative estimates, this potential is about 2000 MW. (author).

  4. The High Cybercafe: Internet in the Nepal Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Saimre, Tanel

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to look more closely at the processes involving the adoption of internet in a Nepali mountain village. Two and a half months of fieldwork was performed at a primary school and a cybercafe in Namche Bazaar, Solukhumbu district, Nepal. My aim is to be informative about the processes revolving around the internet in a general global sense. Therefore my thesis is more concerned with the internet than the particular cultural setting of Nepal or Namche. I will be concent...

  5. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away. PMID:26676354

  6. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal's second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Jeeban Panthi; Piyush Dahal; Madan Lall Shrestha; Suman Aryal; Krakauer, Nir Y.; Soni M. Pradhanang; Tarendra Lakhankar; Ajay K. Jha; Mohan Sharma; Ramchandra Karki

    2015-01-01

    Landslides, floods, and droughts are recurring natural disasters in Nepal related to too much or too little water. The summer monsoon contributes more than 80% of annual rainfall, and rainfall spatial and inter-annual variation is very high. The Gandaki River, one of the three major rivers of Nepal and one of the major tributaries of the Ganges River, covers all agro-ecological zones in the central part of Nepal. Time series tests were applied for different agro-ecological zones of the Ganda...

  8. Describing earthquakes potential through mountain building processes: an example within Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Zhang, Huai; Shi, Yaolin; Mary, Baptiste; Wang, Liangshu

    2016-04-01

    How to reconcile earthquake activities, for instance, the distributions of large-great event rupture areas and the partitioning of seismic-aseismic slips on the subduction interface, into geological mountain building period is critical in seismotectonics. In this paper, we try to scope this issue within a typical and special continental collisional mountain wedge within Himalayas across the 2015 Mw7.8 Nepal Himalaya earth- quake area. Based on the Critical Coulomb Wedge (CCW) theory, we show the possible predictions of large-great earthquake rupture locations by retrieving refined evolutionary sequences with clear boundary of coulomb wedge and creeping path inferred from interseismic deformation pattern along the megathrust-Main Himalaya Thrust (MHT). Due to the well-known thrusting architecture with constraints on the distribution of main exhumation zone and of the key evolutionary nodes, reasonable and refined (with 500 yr interval) thrusting sequences are retrieved by applying sequential limit analysis (SLA). We also use an illustration method-'G' gram to localize the relative positions of each fault within the tectonic wedge. Our model results show that at the early stage, during the initial wedge accumulation period, because of the small size of mountain wedge, there's no large earthquakes happens in this period. Whereas, in the following stage, the wedge is growing outward with occasionally out-of-sequence thrusting, four thrusting clusters (thrusting 'families') are clarified on the basis of the spatio-temporal distributions in the mountain wedge. Thrust family 4, located in the hinterland of the mountain wedge, absorbed the least amount of the total convergence, with no large earthquakes occurrence in this stage, contributing to the emplacement of the Greater Himalayan Complex. The slips absorbed by the remnant three thrust families result in large-great earthquakes rupturing in the Sub-Himalaya, Lesser Himalaya, and the front of Higher Himalaya. The

  9. Modelling glacier change in the Everest region, Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Shea

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we apply a glacier mass balance and ice redistribution model to simulate historical and future glacier change in the Everest region of Nepal. High-resolution temperature and precipitation fields derived from gridded APHRODITE data, and validated against independent station observations from the EVK2CNR network, are used to drive the historical model from 1961 to 2007. The model is calibrated against geodetically derived estimates of net glacier mass change from 1992 to 2008, termini position of four large glaciers at the end of the calibration period, average velocities observed on selected debris-covered glaciers, and total glacierized area. We integrate field-based observations of glacier mass balance and ice thickness with remotely-sensed observations of decadal glacier change to validate the model. Between 1961 and 2007, the mean modelled volume change over the Dudh Kosi basin is −6.4 ± 1.5 km3, a decrease of 15.6% from the original estimated ice volume in 1961. Modelled glacier area change between 1961 and 2007 is −101.0 ± 11.4 km2, a decrease of approximately 20% from the initial extent. Scenarios of future climate change, based on CMIP5 RCP4.5 and RCP8.5 end members, suggest that glaciers in the Everest region will continue to lose mass through the 21st century. Glaciers in the basin are concentrated between 5000 and 6000 m of elevation, and are thus expected to be sensitive to changes in temperature and equilibrium line altitude (ELA. Glacier volume reductions between −35 to −62% are possible by 2050, and sustained temperature increases to 2100 may result in total glacier volume losses of between −73 and −96%.

  10. Repeated catastrophic valley infill following medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Bernhardt, Anne; Stolle, Amelie; Hoelzmann, Philipp; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Andermann, Christoff; Tofelde, Stefanie; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Geomorphic footprints of past large Himalayan earthquakes are elusive, although they are urgently needed for gauging and predicting recovery times of seismically perturbed mountain landscapes. We present evidence of catastrophic valley infill following at least three medieval earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. Radiocarbon dates from peat beds, plant macrofossils, and humic silts in fine-grained tributary sediments near Pokhara, Nepal’s second-largest city, match the timing of nearby M > 8 earthquakes in ~1100, 1255, and 1344 C.E. The upstream dip of tributary valley fills and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry of their provenance rule out local sources. Instead, geomorphic and sedimentary evidence is consistent with catastrophic fluvial aggradation and debris flows that had plugged several tributaries with tens of meters of calcareous sediment from a Higher Himalayan source >60 kilometers away.

  11. Variations of the crustal thickness in Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Koulakov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available We estimate variations of the crustal thickness beneath the Nepal Himalayas based on tomographic inversion of regional earthquake data. We have obtained a low-velocity anomaly in the upper part of the model down to depths of 40 to 80 km and proposed that the lower limit of this anomaly represents variations of the Moho depth. This statement was supported by results of synthetic modeling. The obtained variations of crustal thickness match fairly well with the free-air gravity anomalies: thinner crust patterns correspond to lower gravity values and vice versa. There is also some correlation with magnetic field: higher magnetic values correspond to the major areas of thicker crust. We propose that elevated magnetic values can be associated with more rigid segments of the incoming Indian crust which cause more compression in the thrust zone and leads to stronger crustal thickening.

  12. Rb-Sr ages of the biotite and muscovite of the Himalayas, eastern Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr ages of biotite from the southern flank of Mt. Everest, eastern Nepal, range from 14.1 to 1.3 m.y., the youngest biotite coexists with muscovite of 7.3 m.y. These different ages for different samples reflect the difference in cooling history related to the uplift of the Himalayas. The biotite ages decrease with increasing distance from the high mountain range, suggesting that the high range, i.e., the northern area, was uplifted earlier than the southern area. The relationship between the ages and altitutes of sampling sites indicates that the uplift rate of the northern area was 0.60 mm/yr. (author)

  13. Evaluation of Future Precipitation Scenario Using Statistical Downscaling MODEL over Three Climatic Region of Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigdel, M.

    2014-12-01

    Statistical downscaling model (SDSM) was applied in downscaling precipitation in the three climatic regions such as humid, sub-humid and arid region of Nepal Himalaya. The study includes the calibration of the SDSM model by using large-scale atmospheric variables encompassing NCEP reanalysis data, the validation of the model and the outputs of downscaled scenarios A2 (high green house gases emission) and B2 (low green house gases emission) of the HadCM3 model for the future. Under both scenarios H3A2 and H3B2, during the prediction period of 2010-2099, the change of annual mean precipitation in the three climatic regions would present a tendency of surplus of precipitation as compared to the mean values of the base period. On the average for all three climatic regions of Nepal the annual mean precipitation would increase by about 13.75% under scenario H3A2 and increase near about 11.68% under scenario H3B2 in the 2050s. For the 2080s there would be increase of 8.28% and 13.30% under H3A2 and H3B2 respectively compared to the base period.

  14. Medieval pulse of great earthquakes in the central Himalaya: Viewing past activities on the frontal thrust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C. P.; John, Biju; Rajendran, Kusala

    2015-03-01

    The Himalaya has experienced three great earthquakes during the last century—1934 Nepal-Bihar, 1950 Upper Assam, and arguably the 1905 Kangra. Focus here is on the central Himalayan segment between the 1905 and the 1934 ruptures, where previous studies have identified a great earthquake between thirteenth and sixteenth centuries. Historical data suggest damaging earthquakes in A.D. 1255, 1344, 1505, 1803, and 1833, although their sources and magnitudes remain debated. We present new evidence for a great earthquake from a trench across the base of a 13 m high scarp near Ramnagar at the Himalayan Frontal Thrust. The section exposed four south verging fault strands and a backthrust offsetting a broad spectrum of lithounits, including colluvial deposits. Age data suggest that the last great earthquake in the central Himalaya most likely occurred between A.D. 1259 and 1433. While evidence for this rupture is unmistakable, the stratigraphic clues imply an earlier event, which can most tentatively be placed between A.D. 1050 and 1250. The postulated existence of this earlier event, however, requires further validation. If the two-earthquake scenario is realistic, then the successive ruptures may have occurred in close intervals and were sourced on adjacent segments that overlapped at the trench site. Rupture(s) identified in the trench closely correlate with two damaging earthquakes of 1255 and 1344 reported from Nepal. The present study suggests that the frontal thrust in central Himalaya may have remained seismically inactive during the last ~700 years. Considering this long elapsed time, a great earthquake may be due in the region.

  15. A comparison of different methods of evaluating glacier response characteristics: application to glacier AX010, Nepal Himalaya

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, S; Marshall, S. J.; Huybrechts, P.

    2009-01-01

    Himalayan glaciers are considered to be amongst the most sensitive glaciers to climate change. However, the response behaviour of these glaciers is not well understood. Here we use several approaches to estimate characteristic timescales of glacier AX010, a small valley glacier in the Nepal Himalaya, as a measure of glacier sensitivity. Assuming that temperature solely defines the mass budget, glacier AX010 waits for about 8 yr (r...

  16. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Rainfall in the Gandaki River Basin of Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeeban Panthi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Landslides, floods, and droughts are recurring natural disasters in Nepal related to too much or too little water. The summer monsoon contributes more than 80% of annual rainfall, and rainfall spatial and inter-annual variation is very high. The Gandaki River, one of the three major rivers of Nepal and one of the major tributaries of the Ganges River, covers all agro-ecological zones in the central part of Nepal. Time series tests were applied for different agro-ecological zones of the Gandaki River Basin (GRB for rainfall trends of four seasons (pre-monsoon, monsoon, post-monsoon and winter from 1981 to 2012. The non-parametric Mann-Kendall and Sen’s methods were used to determine the trends. Decadal anomalies relative to the long-term average were analyzed using the APHRODITE precipitation product. Trends in number of rainy days and timing of the monsoon were also analyzed. We found that the post-monsoon, pre-monsoon and winter rainfalls are decreasing significantly in most of the zones but monsoon rainfall is increasing throughout the basin. In the hill region, the annual rainfall is increasing but the rainy days do not show any trend. There is a tendency toward later departure of monsoon from Nepal, indicating an increase in its duration. These seasonally and topographically variable trends may have significant impacts for the agriculture and livestock smallholders that form the majority of the population in the GRB.

  17. Hazard Assessment of Glacial Lake Outburst Flood and Potential of ICTs for Coping: A Case of Eastern Himalaya of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, D. R.

    2015-12-01

    Retreat of glaciers and formation of glacial lakes in Nepal Himalaya have been reported to be related with the temperature rise in the region. Glacier Lake Outburst Floods (GLOF) are the growing climate induced hazards in the Himalaya. GLOF has increased the vulnerability of community and fragile ecosystem in the mountain valleys. This study has analyzed the potential impacts from GLOF in the highland of eastern Nepal and the potential role of Information Communication Technologies (ICT) to cope with such impacts. I analyzed the trend of climatic pattern (temperature and precipitation) of the Eastern Himalaya Region of Nepal available from the Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Government of Nepal, and prepared the latest location map of the glacial lakes using google earth and ArcGIS applications in the highland of the Kanchanjungha Conservation Area of the region. Tiptala glacial lake, located at an elevation of 4950 m, within the conservation area, was selected for the GLOF hazard assessment. I used semi-structured questionnaire survey and key informants' interviews in the community in order to assess the potential hazard of GLOF. With the varying sizes, 46 glacial lakes were located in the region, which covers over 2.57 sq. km in total. Though the larger portion of the downstream area of the Tiptala glacial lake fall in the remote location away from major residential area, few villages, major pasture lands for Yaks, foot trails, and several bridges across the Tamor River below the lake are in risk of GLOF. Poor access due to extreme geographical remoteness and capacity to afford the modern technologies in the community are the major limiting factor to the knowledge and information about the climate change and related impacts. Modern ICTs has high potential to reduce the risk of climate related hazards in the remote area by information dissemination and awareness.

  18. Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nepal is on the following: geography; the people; history; the government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Nepal and the US. In 1986 the population was estimated to be 17 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The Nepalese are descendants of 3 major migrations from India, Tibet, and Central Asia. About 1/3 of the population lives in the Terai -- about 20% of the land area -- while 2/3 live in the central or hilly region. Officially, Nepal is a Hindu kingdom, but Hinduism has been influenced by and has had an influence on a large Buddhist minority. The result is a synthesis of the 2 religions. Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. Efforts were made throughout the 1950s to frame a constitution for Nepal which would establish a representative form of government, patterned on a modified British model. Such a constitution was issued by King Mahendra in early 1959, and the 1st democratic elections were held for a national assembly shortly thereafter. According to the constitution, the king (chief of state) is the sole source of authority for all government institutions, exercising broad powers over the country's partyless "panchayat" (councils) system of government. In April 1986, Prime Minister Chand and his cabinet resigned in order to contest the elections for the second 5-year term of the directly elected National Panchayat, and an interim cabinet was appointed to oversee the Mah elections. The election brought the defeat of a majority of the incumbents seeking relations. Despite the 1980 referendum confirming the partyless panchayat system, the role of the banned parties continues to be an important political issue. Nepal, which ranks among the world's poorest countries, has a per capita income of about $160. Due to

  19. Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-09-01

    Focus in this discussion of Nepal is on the following: geography; the people; history; the government; political conditions; the economy; defense; foreign relations; and relations between Nepal and the US. In 1986 the population was estimated to be 17 million with an annual growth rate of 2.6%. The Nepalese are descendants of 3 major migrations from India, Tibet, and Central Asia. About 1/3 of the population lives in the Terai -- about 20% of the land area -- while 2/3 live in the central or hilly region. Officially, Nepal is a Hindu kingdom, but Hinduism has been influenced by and has had an influence on a large Buddhist minority. The result is a synthesis of the 2 religions. Modern Nepal was created in the latter half of the 18th century when Prithvi Narayan Shah, the ruler of the small principality of Gorkha, formed a unified country from a number of independent hill states. Efforts were made throughout the 1950s to frame a constitution for Nepal which would establish a representative form of government, patterned on a modified British model. Such a constitution was issued by King Mahendra in early 1959, and the 1st democratic elections were held for a national assembly shortly thereafter. According to the constitution, the king (chief of state) is the sole source of authority for all government institutions, exercising broad powers over the country's partyless "panchayat" (councils) system of government. In April 1986, Prime Minister Chand and his cabinet resigned in order to contest the elections for the second 5-year term of the directly elected National Panchayat, and an interim cabinet was appointed to oversee the Mah elections. The election brought the defeat of a majority of the incumbents seeking relations. Despite the 1980 referendum confirming the partyless panchayat system, the role of the banned parties continues to be an important political issue. Nepal, which ranks among the world's poorest countries, has a per capita income of about $160. Due to

  20. A new remote hazard and risk assessment framework for glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rounce, David R.; McKinney, Daene C.; Lala, Jonathan M.; Byers, Alton C.; Watson, C. Scott

    2016-08-01

    Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs) pose a significant threat to downstream communities and infrastructure due to their potential to rapidly unleash stored lake water. The most common triggers of these GLOFs are mass movement entering the lake and/or the self-destruction of the terminal moraine due to hydrostatic pressures or a buried ice core. This study initially uses previous qualitative and quantitative assessments to understand the hazards associated with eight glacial lakes in the Nepal Himalaya that are widely considered to be highly dangerous. The previous assessments yield conflicting classifications with respect to each glacial lake, which spurred the development of a new holistic, reproducible, and objective approach based solely on remotely sensed data. This remote hazard assessment analyzes mass movement entering the lake, the stability of the moraine, and lake growth in conjunction with a geometric GLOF to determine the downstream impacts such that the present and future risk associated with each glacial lake may be quantified. The new approach is developed within a hazard, risk, and management action framework with the aim that this remote assessment may guide future field campaigns, modeling efforts, and ultimately risk-mitigation strategies. The remote assessment was found to provide valuable information regarding the hazards faced by each glacial lake and results were discussed within the context of the current state of knowledge to help guide future efforts.

  1. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh [Economic Analysis Division, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu (Nepal); Skutsch, Margaret [Centro de Investigaciones en Geographia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); University of Twente, PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-economic and resources use data collected from forest users in three sites of Nepal Himalaya. The paper estimates the incremental carbon from forest enhancement on a yearly basis over a five-year period using the value of 1 and 5 per tCO{sub 2} for conservative analysis. The results based on the three sites indicate that community forest management may be one of the least cost ways to abate carbon with a break-even price under Scenario 2 which ranges from 0.55 to 3.70 per tCO{sub 2}. However, bringing community forests into the carbon market may entail high opportunity costs as forests provide numerous non-monetary benefits to the local population, who regard these as the main incentive for conservation and management. An important finding of the research is that if forest resources use by local communities is not permitted, then carbon trading will not be attractive to them as revenue from carbon will not cover the cost foregone by not harvesting forest resources. (author)

  2. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohani Usha

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred groups of such populations in the country and the group Tamang is one of these. The present paper studies Tamang-animal relationships in central Nepal. There is a growing trend of scientific ethnozoological studies all across the globe, but this field is yet in its infancy in Nepal. The country is losing important fauna as well as ancient human cultures at the advent of development processes. As a result, ethnozoological knowledge is also teetering on the brink of extinction. Methods Ethnozoological data were collected by applying different participatory approaches techniques such as semi-structured interviews, participatory rural appraisal, key informant interviews and focus group discussions. Quantitative data were obtained by employing a household level questionnaire survey. Data were collected from the period of September 2004 to August 2005. Most of the animals were identified up to the species level with the help of standard taxonomic keys. Results The Tamang community treasures knowledge on various uses of 41 genera belonging to 28 families. Out of total number of animals, 14.6% belong to the Invertebrate group and the rest to the Vertebrate group. Of the total uses 58% fall in the food and medicinal use category, 16% in the magico-religious use category, 18% in the category of omen indication, and 2% each in the categories such as weather forecasting, trophy, ethnomusical and taboos. Conclusions The Tamang maintain strong ties with animals both at a

  3. Spatial and temporal evolution of tectonometamorphic discontinuities in the central Himalaya: Constraints from P-T paths and geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jia-Min; Zhang, Jin-Jiang; Liu, Kai; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Xiao-Xian; Rai, SantaMan; Scheltens, Mark

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies evoke dispute whether the Greater Himalayan Crystalline Complex (GHC) was exhumed during more than one phase. This contribution investigates the timing of ductile shear along the South Tibetan Detachment (STD), Main Central Thrust (MCT), and hidden discontinuities within the GHC of the central Himalaya. New data from the Nyalam transect, southern Tibet, suggest that ductile shear along the STD was active from ~ 27-25 Ma to ~ 17-15 Ma, whereas ductile shear along the MCT was active from ~ 19-16 Ma to ~ 10-8 Ma. Pseudosection modeling results and published metamorphic ages indicate a P-T-t path discontinuity within the GHC and the upper GHC reached higher peak metamorphic temperatures (ΔT 100 °C), similar peak pressures and older metamorphic ages (~ 5-10 Myr), in favor of the presence of the Nyalam Discontinuity. Summarized results from literature suggest that timing of ductile shear along the STD was ~ 5-10 Myr earlier than that along the MCT across the Nepal, Sikkim and Bhutan Himalayas. In addition, the GHC in Nepal can be separated into two portions by a regional-scale (> 800 km) in-sequence ductile shear zone - the High Himalayan Discontinuity. This shear zone was active coevally with the STD during 25-16 Ma, but ~ 5-10 Myr earlier than the MCT. The High Himalayan Discontinuity could possibly extend to the Sikkim Himalayas, but ends in Bhutan. The identified new architecture suggests that both in-sequence and out-of-sequence tectonometamorphic discontinuities are important components that formed the duplexing structure of the GHC in the central and eastern Himalaya, thus calling for more sophisticated numerical simulation than the current models such as the channel flow and critical taper.

  4. The physical basis of enhanced temperature index ice melt parameterizations in the Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Maxime; Shea, Joseph; Koch, Inka; Wagnon, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Glacier melt is an important component of seasonal water flows in the Himalayas. Due to scarce data availability and computational convenience, most glaciological projections in the Himalayan region derive ice melt from temperature index (TI) or enhanced temperature index (ETI) parameterizations, which require only temperature and solar radiation as inputs. Still, the processes linking these variables to melt remain poorly documented under high-altitude climates, where the air is cold, and the main input is shortwave radiation. In this study, we question the physical basis of enhanced temperature index (ETI) melt parameterizations in the Nepal Himalayas. Using atmospheric weather station (AWS) installed on Yala glacier at 5090 m a.s.l and Mera glaciers at 6350 m a.s.l., we study the surface energy balance (SEB) during one melt season, i.e, the monsoon and surrounding weeks, in 2014. The SEB estimates provide insights into the atmospheric controls on the glaciers. We study the variability of correlation coefficients linking daily means of temperature, SEB and SEB components. On Yala at 5090 m a.s.l, energy inputs are high during the pre-monsoon due to low surface albedo and strong incoming solar radiation near the solstice, and melt is strong. The temperature correlates moderately with the SEB (R = 0.58) mainly through sublimation and net longwave radiation. During the monsoon snow deposition reduces the magnitude of net shortwave radiation, thus dampening the melt rates. Strong longwave emission from clouds compensates for the surface emission, and the correlation of temperature with the SEB, mainly explained through net shortwave radiation, decreases (R = 0.49). During the post-monsoon, high albedo, heat losses through sublimation and clear-skies favoring longwave losses at the surface lead to a near zero SEB, and reduced melt. Temperature correlates well with the SEB (R = 0.88) through net longwave radiation. On Mera at 6300 m a.s.l, high surface albedo and

  5. Climate change and livestock system in mountain: Understanding from Gandaki River basin of Nepal Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahal, P.; Shrestha, N. S.; Krakauer, N.; Lakhankar, T.; Panthi, J., Sr.; Pradhanang, S.; Jha, A. K.; Shrestha, M.; Sharma, M.

    2015-12-01

    In recent years climate change has emerged as a source of vulnerability for agro-livestock smallholders in Nepal where people are mostly dependent on rain-fed agriculture and livestock farming for their livelihoods. There is a need to understand and predict the potential impacts of climate change on agro-livestock farmer to develop effective mitigation and adaptation strategies. To understand dynamics of this vulnerability, we assess the farmers' perceptions of climate change, analysis of historical and future projections of climatic parameters and try to understand impact of climate change on livestock system in Gandaki River Basin of Central Nepal. During the period of 1981-2012, as reported by the mountain communities, the most serious hazards for livestock system and agriculture are the increasing trend of temperature, erratic rainfall patterns and increase in drought. Poor households without irrigated land are facing greater risks and stresses than well-off people. Analysis of historical climate data also supports the farmer perception. Result shows that there is increasing trend of temperature but no consistent trend in precipitation but a notable finding is that wet areas are getting wetter and dry areas getting drier. Besides that, there is increase in percentage of warm days and nights with decrease in the cool nights and days. The magnitude of the trend is found to be higher in high altitude. Trend of wet days has found to be increasing with decreasing in rainy days. Most areas are characterized by increases in both severity and frequency of drought and are more evident in recent years. The summers of 2004/05/06/09 and winters of 2006/08/09 were the worst widespread droughts and have a serious impact on livestock since 1981. Future projected change in temperature and precipitation obtained from downscaling the data global model by regional climate model shows that precipitation in central Nepal will change by -8% to 12% and temperature will change by 1

  6. Reforesting severely degraded grassland in the Lesser Himalaya of Nepal: Effects on soil hydraulic conductivity and overland flow production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Chandra Prasad; Bonell, Mike; Bruijnzeel, L. Adrian; Coles, Neil A.; Lubczynski, Maciek W.

    2013-12-01

    degraded hillslopes in the Lesser Himalaya challenge local communities as a result of the frequent occurrence of overland flow and erosion during the rainy season and water shortages during the dry season. Reforestation is often perceived as an effective way of restoring predisturbance hydrological conditions but heavy usage of reforested land in the region has been shown to hamper full recovery of soil hydraulic properties. This paper investigates the effect of reforestation and forest usage on field-saturated soil hydraulic conductivities (Kfs) near Dhulikhel, Central Nepal, by comparing degraded pasture, a footpath within the pasture, a 25 year old pine reforestation, and little disturbed natural forest. The hillslope hydrological implications of changes in Kfs with land-cover change were assessed via comparisons with measured rainfall intensities over different durations. High surface and near-surface Kfs in natural forest (82-232 mm h-1) rule out overland flow occurrence and favor vertical percolation. Conversely, corresponding Kfs for degraded pasture (18-39 mm h-1) and footpath (12-26 mm h-1) were conducive to overland flow generation during medium- to high-intensity storms and thus to local flash flooding. Pertinently, surface and near-surface Kfs in the heavily used pine forest remained similar to those for degraded pasture. Estimated monsoonal overland flow totals for degraded pasture, pine forest, and natural forest were 21.3%, 15.5%, and 2.5% of incident rainfall, respectively, reflecting the relative ranking of surface Kfs. Along with high water use by the pines, this lack of recovery of soil hydraulic properties under pine reforestation is shown to be a critical factor in the regionally observed decline in base flows following large-scale planting of pines and has important implications for regional forest management.

  7. Recent temperature trends at mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dambaru Ballab Kattel; Tandong Yao

    2013-02-01

    Insufficient long-term in situ observations and complex topographic conditions pose major problems in quantifying the magnitude of climatic trends in mountainous regions such as Nepal. Presented here is three decades (1980–2009) of data on annual maximum, minimum and average temperature trends from 13 mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas. The stations are located at elevations between 1304 and 2566 m above sea level and with varied topography. Spatial analyses of the average temperature trend show warming in most of the stations. The magnitude of warming is higher for maximum temperatures, while minimum temperatures exhibit larger variability such as positive, negative or no change. These results are consistent with patterns reported in some parts of the Indian subcontinent and Upper Indus Basin, but different from conditions on the Tibetan Plateau (China), where the warming of minimum temperatures is more prominent than that of the maximum temperatures. From the temporal variations, a dramatic increase in temperature is observed in the latest decade, particularly in the average and maximum temperatures. The results from the cumulative sum chart analyses suggest that the thermal regime shifted in 1997. The dramatic enhancement of average temperature in the last decade is strongly consistent with the result of contemporary studies of the surrounding regions, where warming is attributed to an increase in anthropogenic greenhouse gases. However, as in the western Himalayas and the Upper Indus Basin, the mountain stations on the southern slope of the central Himalayas show variability in temperature trends, particularly for the minimum temperature. This inhomogeneous trend is likely ascribed to the differences in topography and microclimatic regime of the observed stations.

  8. Man-animal relationships in Central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Lohani Usha

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Nepal is small in size but rich in bio-cultural diversity. The rugged terrain of the country is home to a number of unique assemblages of fauna, some of which are endemic. Not only faunal resources the country also harbors some very ancient populations whose interrelationship with these diverse faunal resources is very intimate and thus demands scientific study. Animals play important role in both material and spiritual spheres of their life. There are more than hundred gr...

  9. A comparison of different methods of evaluating glacier response characteristics: application to glacier AX010, Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Adhikari

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Himalayan glaciers are considered to be amongst the most sensitive glaciers to climate change. However, the response behaviour of these glaciers is not well understood. Here we use several approaches to estimate characteristic timescales of glacier AX010, a small valley glacier in the Nepal Himalaya, as a measure of glacier sensitivity. Assuming that temperature solely defines the mass budget, glacier AX010 waits for about 8 yr (reaction time to exhibit its initial terminus response to changing climate. On the other hand, it takes between 29–56 yr (volume response time and 37–70 yr (length response time to adjust its volume and length following the changes in mass balance conditions, respectively. A numerical ice-flow model, the only method that yields both length and volume response time, confirms that a glacier takes longer to adjust its length than its volume.

  10. Carbon and oxygen isotope changes in Siwalik soils from Nepal Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siwalik sediments of lower Himalayas are derived from the erosion of the rocks from higher reaches and deposited in the foreland basin. These group of sediments are formed over the time span of last ∼20 Ma

  11. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Kshhetri Hari B; Nepal Bal K; Kunwar Ripu M; Rai Sanjeev K; Bussmann Rainer W

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a...

  12. Evolution and outburst risk analysis of moraine-dammed lakes in the central Chinese Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Wang Shijin; Jiao Shitai

    2015-04-01

    The recent evolution and outburst risk of two typical moraine-dammed lakes, Galong and Gangxi, central Chinese Himalaya, are analyzed using topographic maps from 1974 and Landsat satellite imagery acquired in 1988, 2000 and 2014. The datasets show the areas of Galong and Gangxi lakes increasing at rates of 0.45 and 0.34 km2/year during the period 1974–2014, an expansion of 501% and 107%, respectively, in the past 41 years, while the areas of the parent glaciers, Reqiang and Jipucong decreased by 44.22% and 37.76%, respectively. The accelerating retreat of the glaciers not only reflects their generally negative mass balance but is consistent with the rapid expansion of the moraine-dammed lakes. When acted upon by external forces such as earthquakes, heavy rainfall, rapid melting of glaciers and dead ice, and snow/ice/rock avalanches, these lakes can become extremely dangerous, easily forming outburst mudslides, which can potentially spread to the Poiqu river basin and develop into cross-border (China and Nepal) GLOF disasters. Therefore, there is an urgent need to strengthen integrated risk management of glacial lake outburst disasters with multiple objectives and modes.

  13. Hillslope-channel coupling in the Nepal Himalayas and threat to man-made structures: The middle Kali Gandaki valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, M.; Cossart, E.; Arnaud-Fassetta, G.

    2010-12-01

    In mountain areas, the confinement of valleys favours landslide interaction with rivers, causing channel changes or short-lived dams and lakes that may threaten trails, roads and human settlements. Their impacts may occur successively in space and time, and they affect randomly the functioning of the sediment fluxes. The present study focuses on the interaction patterns between unstable mountain slopes and the Kali Gandaki River, in the Nepal Himalayas. In this valley, the deepest on earth, a road linking the Myagdi and Mustang districts has been under construction for the past 5 years, either cutting into the bedrock or crossing areas affected episodically by debris slides, earth flows, debris flows and rock slides. On the basis of the geomorphic evolution observed over the last three decades, we assess the potential threats that now arise following completion of the road. We mapped three areas of recurrent mass wasting features characteristic of the most frequent situations encountered in this valley. We analyzed the combination of the hydro-geomorphic processes involved. With the use of a DEM, we assessed the volume and spatial impact of temporary river dams on infrastructure located along the valley floor. We estimated hydraulic parameters to document the geomorphic efficiency of river flooding after dam breaching. We reconstructed the spatial extent of (1) areas threatened by backwater flooding upstream of the dams and (2) areas threatened by the collapse of the dams. We describe the current geomorphic and sedimentary adjustments still at work along the valley sides. Our findings confirm that in the High Himalaya, medium scale landslides (10 5-6 m 3) play a major role in the overall process of denudation and sediment transfer. They highly influence the transient nature of bedload transport in the channel. In reducing the residence time of sediments in temporary, spatially limited traps of the valley bottom, they enhance the vulnerability of land and people

  14. Organic persistent toxic substances in soils, waters and sediments along an altitudinal gradient at Mt. Sagarmatha, Himalayas, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important classes of compounds of serious environmental concern. These compounds were measured in waters, sediments and soils from several high altitude sites in the Sagarmatha National Park (Nepal) and included in the Himalayan ridge. In water samples, low-level substituted PCBs and PBDEs, along with more volatile PAHs, were the most common contaminants. In sediment and soil samples, the PCB profile was mainly composed of medium-level chlorinated congeners and significantly correlated with altitude. The PAH profile for water and soil samples showed the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs due to emissions of solid combustion, whereas the profile for sediments indicated the main contribution of pyrogenic PAHs from gasoline emissions. The PAH levels measured in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated, whereas the regarded Himalayan stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OC compounds. - Highlights: → POPs were measured in environmental samples from remote lakes in the Himalaya ridge. → It was confirmed the hypothesis of Long-Range Atmospheric Transport for lighter POPs. → PAH levels in Himalayan samples must be considered as low to medium contaminated. → The stations can be considered undisturbed remote areas concerning PCB, PBDE and OCC. - Organic PTSs in environmental matrices in remote regions of the Himalayan ridge.

  15. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, P.; Hegde, P; Dumka, U. C.; Sagar, Ram; S. K. Satheesh; Moorthy, K. Krishna

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended ...

  16. A direct evidence for high carbon dioxide and radon-222 discharge in Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas discharges have been identified at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located at the front of the High Himalaya in Central Nepal, in the Main Central Thrust zone. The hot spring waters are characterized by a temperature reaching 61 C, high salinity, high alkalinity and δ13C varying from +0. 7 parts per thousand to +4. 8 parts per thousand. The gas is mainly dry carbon dioxide, with a δ13C of -0. 8 parts per thousand. The diffuse carbon dioxide flux, mapped by the accumulation chamber method, reached a value of 19000 g m-2day-1, which is comparable with values measured on active volcanoes. Similar values have been observed over a two-year time interval and the integral around the main gas discharge amounts to 0. 25 ± 0. 07 mol s-1, or 350 ± 100 ton a-1. The mean radon-222 concentration in spring water did not exceed 2. 5 Bq L-1, exponentially decreasing with water temperature. In contrast, in gas bubbles collected in the water or in the dry gas discharges, the radon concentration varied from 16 000 to 41000 Bq m-3. In the soil, radon concentration varied from 25000 to more than 50000 Bq m-3. Radon flux, measured at more than fifty points, reached extreme values, larger than 2 Bq m-2s-1, correlated to the larger values of the carbon dioxide flux. Our direct observation confirms previous studies which indicated large degassing in the Himalaya. The proposed understanding is that carbon dioxide is released at mid-crustal depth by metamorphic reactions within the Indian basement, transported along pre-existing faults by meteoric hot water circulation, and degassed before reaching surface. This work, first, confirms that further studies should be undertaken to better constrain the carbon budget of the Himalaya, and, more generally, the contribution of mountain building to the global carbon balance. Furthermore, the evidenced gas discharges provide a unique natural laboratory for methodological studies, and appear particularly important to study as a function of time

  17. A direct evidence for high carbon dioxide and radon-222 discharge in Central Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrier, F.; Byrdina, S. [Inst Phys Globe, UMR 7154, Equipe Geomagnetisme, F-75005 Paris (France); Univ Paris Diderot, F-75005 Paris (France); Richon, P.; Bollinger, L.; Bureau, S. [CEA Bruyeres le Chatel, DIF, Dept Anal Surveillance Environm, 91 (France); Richon, P. [Inst Phys Globe, UMR 7154, Equipe Geol Syst Volcan, F-75005 Paris (France); France-Lanord, Ch. [CNRS, Ctr Rech Petrog and Geochim, F-54501 Vandoeuvre Les Nancy (France); Rajaure, S.; Koirala, Bharat Prasad; Shrestha, Prithvi Lal; Gautam, Umesh Prasad; Tiwari, Dilli Ram; Sapkota, Soma Nath [Natl Seism Ctr, Dept Mines and Geol, Kathmandu (Nepal); Revil, A. [Colorado Sch Mines, Dept Geophys, Golden, CO 80401 (United States); Revil, A. [Univ Savoie, Equipe Volcans, CNRS, LGIT, UMR 5559, Chambery (France); Contraires, S. [Inst Phys Globe, Equipe Geomat and Environm, F-75005 Paris (France)

    2009-02-15

    Gas discharges have been identified at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located at the front of the High Himalaya in Central Nepal, in the Main Central Thrust zone. The hot spring waters are characterized by a temperature reaching 61 C, high salinity, high alkalinity and {delta}{sup 13}C varying from +0. 7 parts per thousand to +4. 8 parts per thousand. The gas is mainly dry carbon dioxide, with a {delta}{sup 13}C of -0. 8 parts per thousand. The diffuse carbon dioxide flux, mapped by the accumulation chamber method, reached a value of 19000 g m{sup -2}day{sup -1}, which is comparable with values measured on active volcanoes. Similar values have been observed over a two-year time interval and the integral around the main gas discharge amounts to 0. 25 {+-} 0. 07 mol s{sup -1}, or 350 {+-} 100 ton a{sup -1}. The mean radon-222 concentration in spring water did not exceed 2. 5 Bq L{sup -1}, exponentially decreasing with water temperature. In contrast, in gas bubbles collected in the water or in the dry gas discharges, the radon concentration varied from 16 000 to 41000 Bq m{sup -3}. In the soil, radon concentration varied from 25000 to more than 50000 Bq m{sup -3}. Radon flux, measured at more than fifty points, reached extreme values, larger than 2 Bq m{sup -2}s{sup -1}, correlated to the larger values of the carbon dioxide flux. Our direct observation confirms previous studies which indicated large degassing in the Himalaya. The proposed understanding is that carbon dioxide is released at mid-crustal depth by metamorphic reactions within the Indian basement, transported along pre-existing faults by meteoric hot water circulation, and degassed before reaching surface. This work, first, confirms that further studies should be undertaken to better constrain the carbon budget of the Himalaya, and, more generally, the contribution of mountain building to the global carbon balance. Furthermore, the evidenced gas discharges provide a unique natural laboratory for

  18. Transboundary Air Pollution over the Central Himalayas: Monitoring network and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qianggong; Kang, Shichang

    2016-04-01

    The Himalayas, stretching over 3000 kms along west-east, separates South Asia continent and the Tibetan Plateau with its extreme high altitudes. The South Asia is being increasingly recognized to be among the hotspots of air pollution, posing multi-effects on regional climate and environment. Recent monitoring and projection have indicated an accelerated decrease of glacier and increasing glacier runoff in the Himalayas, and a remarkable phenomenon has been recognized in the Himalayas that long-range transport atmospheric pollutants (e.g., black carbon and dust) deposited on glacier surface can promote glacier melt, and in turns, may liberate historical contaminant legacy in glaciers into downward ecosystems. To understand the air pollution variation and how they can infiltrate the Himalayas and beyond, we started to operate a coordinated atmospheric pollution monitoring network composing 11 sites with 5 in Nepal and 6 in Tibet since April 2013. Atmospheric total suspended particles ( TSP < 100 μm) are collected for 24h at an interval of 3-6 days at all sites. Black carbon, typical persistent organic pollutants (PAHs) and heavy metals (particulate-bounded mercury) are measured to reveal their spatial and temporal distributions. Results revealed a consistent gradient decrease in almost all analyzed parameters along south-north gradient across the Himalayas, with a clear seasonal variation of higher values in pre-monsoon seasons. Analysis of geochemical signatures of carbonaceous aerosols indicated dominant sources from biomass burning and vehicle exhaust. PAHs concentrations and signatures from soils and aerosols indicated that low-ring PAHs can readily transport across the Himalayas. Integrated analysis of satellite images and air mass trajectories suggested that the transboundary air pollution over the Himalayas is episodic and is likely concentrated in pre-monsoon seasons. Our results emphasis the potential transport and impact of air pollution from South Asia

  19. Ethnomedicine in Himalaya: a case study from Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kshhetri Hari B

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Traditional plant use in Nepal has been documented for millennia. The importance of plants as medicine has not diminished in any way in recent times, and traditional medicines are still the most important health care source for the vast majority of the population. This paper examines the ethnobotany and traditional use of plants extracted from the vulnerable alpine zone in the Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang districts of Nepal. The results of this ethnobotanical study indicate that a very large number of plant species is used as traditional medicines. There were 107, 59, 44 and 166 species of ethnomedicinal importance in surveyed areas of Dolpa, Humla, Jumla and Mustang district respectively. Of these, 84 common species, used at least in two districts, were selected to enumerate their ethnomedicinal properties. The 84 species belonged to 75 genera and 39 families. The commonest species in this pharmacopoeia were: Allium wallichii, Cordyceps sinensis, Dactylorhiza hatagirea, and Rheum australe. A total of 21 species were most common in three districts and 59 in two districts. The genera Aconitum, Allium, Arisaema, Berberis, Corydalis, Gentiana, Hippophae, Juniperus and Rhododendron each possessed two species with ethnomedicinal use. Labiatae was the most medicinally important family with five species used, followed by Araceae, Compositae, Liliaceae, Polygonaceae, Ranunculaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Umbelliferae, each contributing four species.

  20. Noise characteristics of Continuous GPS time series of Central and Eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, J. D.; Vijayan, M. S. M.; Kumar, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global positioning system measurements with its millimetre level accuracy have been widely used to monitor the crustal dynamics. Geodetic crustal deformation studies require accurate estimate of the parameters which demands realistic estimate of the uncertainties in order to constrain the signal. GPS based crustal deformation studies in tectonically active region, such as Central and Eastern Himalaya have been carried out by several groups however, proper noise characteristics of GPS time series of this study region are unknown. In this work, we attempt to address the noise characteristics of GPS position time series by analysing the GPS time series of 22 stations from North-East India, Bhutan and Nepal Himalaya spanning 2002-2013. We have employed Spectral analysis and Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) to study the noise characteristics. Power spectrum obtained by using Lomb-Scargle method reveals characteristics of white noise at the high frequencies and power law noise at lower frequencies. Estimation of the spectral index by finding the slope of the spectral curve suggests fractal white noise with overall index of -0.61. MLE was performed in two ways. First, by assuming the time series to be composed of (a) white (WN), (b) white plus flicker (FL) and (c) white plus random walk noise (WRN) and then by estimating spectral index assuming the noise to be composition of white and power law noise (WPN). The comparison of MLE values of three noise model suggest that white plus flicker noise model (FL) is the most preferred noise model. Comparison of velocity uncertainties between white noise and white plus flicker noise, obtained from MLE, suggest that velocity uncertainty is under estimated by factor of ~8 when simple white noise model is used. The spectral index estimated using MLE is -1.1 (~1) which suggests that flicker noise is the main power law noise in time series of all 22 GPS stations. A slight difference of noise amplitudes of two different monument types

  1. Tropospheric ozone variations at the Nepal climate observatory – pyramid (Himalayas, 5079 m a.s.l.) and influence of stratospheric intrusion events

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillermoz, E.; H. Venzac; Roccato, F.; Pichon, J. M.; Laj, P.; Duchi, R.; Calzolari, F; U. Bonafè; Marinoni, A.; Sprenger, M.; Cristofanelli, P; A. Bracci; Bonasoni, P.

    2010-01-01

    The paper presents the first 2-years of continuous surface ozone (O3) observations and systematic assessment of the influence of stratospheric intrusions (SI) at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P; 27°57' N, 86°48' E), located in the Southern Himalayas at 5079 m a.s.l. Continuous O3 monitoring has been carried out at this GAW-WMO station in the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR SHARE and UNEP ABC projects since March 2006. Over the period March 2006–February 2008, an avera...

  2. Glacial lakes amplify glacier recession in the central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Owen; Quincey, Duncan; Carrivick, Jonathan; Rowan, Ann

    2016-04-01

    The high altitude and high latitude regions of the world are amongst those which react most intensely to climatic change. Across the Himalaya glacier mass balance is predominantly negative. The spatial and temporal complexity associated with this ice loss across different glacier clusters is poorly documented however, and our understanding of the processes driving change is limited. Here, we look at the spatial variability of glacier hypsometry and glacial mass loss from three catchments in the central Himalaya; the Dudh Koshi basin, Tama Koshi basin and an adjoining section of the Tibetan Plateau. ASTER and SETSM digital elevation models (2014/15), corrected for elevation dependant biases, co-registration errors and along or cross track tilts, are differenced from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission (SRTM) data (2000) to yield surface lowering estimates. Landsat data and a hypsometric index (HI), a classification scheme used to group glaciers of similar hypsometry, are used to examine the distribution of glacier area with altitude in each catchment. Surface lowering rates of >3 m/yr can be detected on some glaciers, generally around the clean-ice/debris-cover boundary, where dark but thin surface deposits are likely to enhance ablation. More generally, surface lowering rates of around 1 m/yr are more pervasive, except around the terminus areas of most glaciers, emphasising the influence of a thick debris cover on ice melt. Surface lowering is only concentrated at glacier termini where glacial lakes have developed, where surface lowering rates are commonly greater than 2.5 m/yr. The three catchments show contrasting hypsometric distributions, which is likely to impact their future response to climatic changes. Glaciers of the Dudh Koshi basin store large volumes of ice at low elevation (HI > 1.5) in long, debris covered tongues, although their altitudinal range is greatest given the height of mountain peaks in the catchment. In contrast, glaciers of the Tama Koshi

  3. Rb-Sr geochronology of the rocks of the Himalayas, Eastern Nepal, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr isotopic measurements are made on the Makalu granite, which is one of leucocratic granite occurring sporadically in the high range of the Himalayas. The granite is intruded between the Himalayan gneiss and the Tethyan sediments. In this study, Rb-Sr analyses have been made on both whole rock and small sliced rock. The Rb-Sr isotopic analytical results on whole rock of the Makalu granite define the age of 92.7 +- 9.4 m.y. The analytical results on small slabs suggest that Sr isotopic redistribution occurred after the intrusion of the granite. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the Makalu granite is 0.7433 +- 0.0019 and is remarkably high. Such high ratio indicates that the granite originated from the remelting or partial remelting of old crustal materials such as Himalayan gneiss. (author)

  4. Karnali and Jajarkot Klippen in Western Nepal Himalaya Inconsistent with Tectonic Wedging Model Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucy La Roche, R.; Godin, L.; Cottle, J. M.; Kellett, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Himalayan metamorphic core, exposed between two opposite sense shear zones, is locally preserved in a series of foreland klippen. The upper shear zone, the South Tibetan Detachment (STD), is a key element in many competing tectonic models. One of these models, tectonic wedging, requires that the STD merges with the reverse-sense basal shear zone towards the foreland. We tested this hypothesis in two foreland klippen in western Nepal. The Karnali klippe is a doubly-plunging synform underlain by a folded reverse-sense shear zone. It comprises amphibolite metamorphic facies rocks overlain by greenschist to subgreenschist facies sedimentary rocks. The contact is marked by a folded ca. 1 km thick normal-sense shear zone, which we correlate with the STD. Quartz and calcite recrystallization textures and quartz crystallographic preferred orientations suggest an abrupt decrease in temperature of deformation from ~750 °C in the footwall to 580 and 475 °C at the base and top of the shear zone, respectively, and to 150-200 °C in the hanging wall. In-situ monazite petrochronology indicates prograde metamorphism between 36 and 30 Ma in the immediate footwall of the STD, followed by tectonic exhumation from 28 to STD ceased by ca. 18 Ma. Field data from the adjacent Jajarkot klippe indicate a similar first order structural architecture, although protoliths, metamorphic grade and deformation temperature differ significantly. Transport-parallel exposure of the STD in this area implies a minimum slip of 165 km. The presence of the STD on both flanks of the Karnali and the Jajarkot klippen is inconsistent with predictions that the STD merges at depth with the basal shear zone in the Karnali klippe and north of the Jajarkot klippe. Our observations are consequently not compatible with the tectonic wedging model proposed for western Nepal.

  5. Measurements of radiocarbon concentrations by accelerator mass spectrometry in the bottom sediments from Lake Tilitso in Nepal, Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentrations of radionuclides such as14C, 137Cs, 210Pb, and 214Pb, the contents of organic C and N, and 13C/12C ratios were measured for near surface sediments collected from Tilitso, a high altitude lake in Nepal, Himalayas, Living attached algae obtained from the streams feeding Lake Tilitso were also analyzed on their 14C abundances. The 14C concentration Δ14C, was measured by direct detection of 14C atoms using a Tandetron accelerator mass spectrometer, on the acid-insoluble organic carbon that was extracetd from each sediment or each algae sample. Activities of 137Cs, 210Pb, and 214Pb in the sediments were measured with a coaxial-well-type high-purity-germanium detector. The sedimentation rate was estimated to be 0.56±0.27 cm y-1 by the 210Pb method. The content of carbon as acid-insoluble organic compounds was from 0.5 to 0.7%, and such carbon was depleted in 14C, yielding Δ14C values between -855±5 and -905±4mil (apparent 14C ages between 15,520±250 and 18,910±360 y BP). Values of Δ14C for attached algae samples were also low, ranging from -463±31 to -701±29mil (apparent ages from 4,980±460 to 9,700±780 y BP). The unexpectedly low 14C concentrations of these sediment and attached algae samples can be reasonably explained by considering geological and climatic environments around Lake Tilitso. (author)

  6. Geomorphic impacts, age and significance of two giant landslide dams in the Nepal Himalayas: Ringmo-Phoksundo (Dolpo District) and Dhampu-Chhoya (Mustang District).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fort, Monique; Braucher, Regis; Bourlès, Didier; Guillou, Valery; Nath Rimal, Lila; Gribenski, Natacha; Cossart, Etienne

    2014-05-01

    Large catastrophic slope failures have recently retained much attention in the northern dry Himalayas (1). They play a prominent role in the denudation history of active orogens at a wide range of spatial and time scales (2), and they impact durably landforms and process evolution in upstream catchments. Their occurrence mostly results from three different potential triggers: earthquakes, post-glacial debuttressing, and permafrost melting. We focus on two examples of giant rock slope failures that occurred across and north of the Higher Himalaya of Nepal and assess their respective influence on the regional, geomorphic evolution. The Ringmo rockslide (4.5 km3) results from the collapse of a mountain wall (5148 m) cut into palaeozoic dolomites of the Tethysian Himalayas. It caused the damming of the Suli Gad River at the origin of the Phoksumdo Lake (3600 m asl). The presence of glacial till at the very base of the sequence suggests the rockslide event is post-glacial, a field assumption confirmed by cosmogenic dating. Two consistent 36Cl ages of 20,885 ±1675 argue for a single, massive event of paraglacial origin that fits well with the last chronologies available on the Last Glacial Maximum in the Nepal Himalaya. The persistence of the Phoksumdo Lake is due to its dam stability (i.e. high lime content of landslide components) and to low sediment flux from the arid, upper Suli Gad catchment. The Dhampu-Chhoya rock avalanche (about 1 km3, area extent 10 km2) was derived from the northward failure of the Kaiku ridge, uphold by north-dipping, upper crystallines of the Higher Himalaya. It dammed the Kali Gandaki River, with complex interactions with the Late Pleistocene ice tongues derived from the Dhaulagiri (8167 m) and Nilgiris (7061 m) peaks. Both the rock avalanche and glaciers controlled the existence and level of the "Marpha Lake" (lacustrine deposits up to Kagbeni). Again, consistent 10Be ages of 29,680 ± 1015 ka obtained from two large blocks (>1000 m3

  7. Uncertainty analysis of tunnel squeezing for two tunnel cases from Nepal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panthi, K.K.; Nilsen, B. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering

    2007-01-15

    Weak rocks such as shale, slate, phyllite and schist, and the rock mass of weakness/fault zones are incapable of sustaining high tangential stress. Severe tunnel squeezing is therefore common in the tectonically active Himalayan rock mass is one of the major areas of concern regarding stability. A reliable prediction of the extent of squeezing is essential so that a strategy can be established regarding stabilizing measures and for optimizing the support well in advance (during planning and design). In this paper, a probabilistic approach to uncertainty analysis that focuses on the effect of the variation in each input parameter of squeezing is used for analyzing and predicting the extent of tunnel squeezing for two tunnel cases in Nepal; Kalingandaki 'A' (completed) and Middle Marsyangdi (under construction). A semi-analytical method suggested by Hoek and Marinos [Predicting tunnel squeezing problems in weak heterogeneous rock masses. Tunnels Tunnell Int, 2000; 32(11 and 12): 45-51 and 34-36] for predicting squeezing, an empirical formula proposed by Panthi [Analysis of engineering geological uncertainties related to tunnelling in Himalayan rock mass conditions. PhD thesis, Department of Geology and Mineral Resources Engineering. Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU), Norway, 2006] and the Palisade's 2002 version of 'At' Risk statistical software program have been used for the uncertainty analysis. The analysis results for Kaligandaki indicate fairly good correlation between predicted and actually measured squeezing. The same approach has been used for predicting the degree of tunnel squeezing at Middle Marsyangdi tunnel. It is concluded that the methodology proposed in this paper has potential for predicting the squeezing of future tunnel projects in weak rock mass conditions. (author)

  8. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 m a.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH4+ and Ca2+, whereas the main anion was HCO3−, which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO3−, SO42− and Cl−. Data analysis suggested that Na+, Cl− and K+ were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca2+, Mg2+ and HCO3− were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO3− and SO42− concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH4+ was derived from gaseous NH3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from − 1.9 to − 23.2‰ in δ18O, and from − 0.8 to − 174‰ in δ2H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha−1 y−1) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO3− concentrations in the surface waters (from 2

  9. Fishing methods in upper Ganga River system of Central Himalaya, India

    OpenAIRE

    Gurnam Singh; Naresh Kumar Agarwal

    2014-01-01

    Present study on fishing methods in the upper Ganga River system was conducted during the period 2010-2012. Upper Ganga river system consists of two major rivers basins viz. Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers and number of their 1st and 2nd order tributaries which flows through Garhwal region (Central Himalaya). This large network of fluvial water resources harbours rich Ichthyofaunal diversity. The varied potential of fish resources from these water bodies permits the utilization of wide array ...

  10. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balestrini, Raffaella, E-mail: balestrini@irsa.cnr.it [Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), Via del Mulino 19, Brugherio, MB (Italy); Polesello, Stefano [Water Research Institute, National Research Council (IRSA-CNR), Via del Mulino 19, Brugherio, MB (Italy); Sacchi, Elisa [Department of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Pavia and IGG-CNR, Via Ferrata 1, 27100 Pavia (Italy)

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 m a.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH{sub 4}{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+}, whereas the main anion was HCO{sub 3}{sup −}, which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO{sub 3}{sup −}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and Cl{sup −}. Data analysis suggested that Na{sup +}, Cl{sup −} and K{sup +} were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca{sup 2+}, Mg{sup 2+} and HCO{sub 3}{sup −} were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO{sub 3}{sup −} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH{sub 4}{sup +} was derived from gaseous NH{sub 3} scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from − 1.9 to − 23.2‰ in δ{sup 18}O, and from − 0.8 to − 174‰ in δ{sup 2}H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha{sup −1} y{sup −1

  11. Chemistry and isotopic composition of precipitation and surface waters in Khumbu valley (Nepal Himalaya): N dynamics of high elevation basins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balestrini, Raffaella; Polesello, Stefano; Sacchi, Elisa

    2014-07-01

    We monitored the chemical and isotopic compositions of wet depositions, at the Pyramid International Laboratory (5050 ma.s.l.), and surrounding surface waters, in the Khumbu basin, to understand precipitation chemistry and to obtain insights regarding ecosystem responses to atmospheric inputs. The major cations in the precipitation were NH4(+) and Ca(2+), whereas the main anion was HCO3(-), which constituted approximately 69% of the anions, followed by NO3(-), SO4(2-) and Cl(-). Data analysis suggested that Na(+), Cl(-) and K(+) were derived from the long-range transport of marine aerosols. Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO3(-) were related to rock and soil dust contributions and the NO3(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations were derived from anthropogenic sources. Furthermore, NH4(+) was derived from gaseous NH3 scavenging. The isotopic composition of weekly precipitation ranged from -1.9 to -23.2‰ in δ(18)O, and from -0.8 to -174‰ in δ(2)H, with depleted values characterizing the central part of the monsoon period. The chemical composition of the stream water was dominated by calcite and/or gypsum dissolution. However, the isotopic composition of the stream water did not fully reflect the composition of the monsoon precipitation, which suggested that other water sources contributed to the stream flow. Precipitation contents for all ions were the lowest ones among those measured in high elevation sites around the world. During the monsoon periods the depositions were not substantially influenced by anthropogenic inputs, while in pre- and post-monsoon seasons the Himalayas could not represent an effective barrier for airborne pollution. In the late monsoon phase, the increase of ionic contents in precipitation could also be due to a change in the moisture source. The calculated atmospheric N load (0.30 kg ha(-1) y(-1)) was considerably lower than the levels that were measured in other high-altitude environments. Nevertheless, the NO3(-) concentrations in the surface waters

  12. Ethnomedicinal plants used by the people of Manang district, central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Ram P

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The district of Manang (2000 – 6000 m is located in the Central Himalayas, Nepal. The majority of local inhabitants of the area are Gurungs, of Tibetan origin. The remoteness of the region has resulted in continued use of plants as medicine in an area where the ethnobotany has sparsely been documented. Methods Interviews were conducted with amchi (Tibetan medicinal practitioners, local healers (including priests locally known as 'lamas', plant traders, and knowledgeable villagers (including herders regarding local plant names and their medicinal uses during several field visits (2002–2005. When convenient to the locals, a jungle or forest walk was done with the healers, allowing for both plant collection and detailed information gathering. Results This present research documented 91 ethnomedicinal plant species, belonging to 40 families under 73 genera, and 45 new ethnomedicinal plant species are added. These 91 locally used medicinal plants are found to treat 93 ailments. This study provides information on 45 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in Manang. The indication for use, mode of preparation, dose and administration of medicine are described in detail for each species. Conclusion This wealth of ethnobotanical knowledge persists, and is being transferred to the next generation in some areas in upper Manang, in a country where this is often not the case. The senior amchi of the area (Karma Sonam Lama, who has been practicing Tibetan medicine for three generations, feels that it is of utmost importance to conserve the traditional healing system and to pass his knowledge on to the local community about the importance of medicinal plants. He hopes that this will lead to the conservation and sustainable management of medicinal plants in the villages. Over the duration of this research, the prices of several rare medicinal plants of Manang increased dramatically, highlighting both the scarcity and

  13. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Boon Emmanuel K; Asselin Hugo; Uprety Yadav; Yadav Saroj; Shrestha Krishna K

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nep...

  14. Characterization of glacier debris cover via in situ and optical remote sensing methods: a case study in the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Field spectrometry and physical samples of debris, snow and ice were collected from the ablation zones of Ngozumpa and Khumbu glaciers of the Khumbu Himalaya, Nepal in November and December 2009. Field acquired spectral reflectances and mineral and chemical composition of samples were used as ground truth for comparison with satellite optical remote sensing data. Supraglacial debris was characterized by several optical remote sensing methods, including hyperspectral reflectance analysis, multispectral band composites and indices, spectral angle relationships, thermal band temperature and emissivity analysis, as well as repeat image derived glacier velocity and theoretical supraglacial particle transport. Supraglacial mineral components were identified and mineral abundances were estimated on Khumbu Himalayan glaciers. Mass flux was estimated by false color composites and glacier velocity displacement fields. Supraglacial temperatures were compared with mineral abundances, implying potential parameters to estimate differential melt. Overall, glaciologic implications of debris cover characterizations are applicable to (1 glacier energy balance, (2 glacial kinematics and (3 mapping glacial extent. The methods presented can be used in synergy to improve supraglacial debris quantification and reduce errors associated with debris covered ice extent mapping, surface radiative properties, as well as debris covered ice mass flux and loss estimations.

  15. Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Koji; Sakai, Akiko; Nuimura, Takayuki [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Yamaguchi, Satoru [Snow and Ice Research Center, National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, Nagaoka 940-0821 (Japan); Sharma, Rishi R [Department of Hydrology and Meteorology, Ministry of Environment, Science and Technology, Babar Mahal, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2009-10-15

    Changes in the area and bathymetry of Imja Glacial Lake and in the elevation of its damming moraine, Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya are investigated. Previously reported changes in the lake area have been updated by multi-temporal ASTER images, which revealed a decreased expansion rate after 2000. A provisional expansion of the lake observed in 2004, from which some studies concluded an accelerated lake expansion due to global warming, has, from 2005, subsided to the glacier surface. Bathymetric changes for the period 1992-2002 that were first obtained for Himalayan glacial lakes suggest that the melting of debris-covered ice beneath the lake is insignificant in terms of the increase in lake volume, and that the retreat of a glacier in contact with the lake by calving is essential for the lake's expansion. Changes in the height of a damming moraine for the period 2001-2007 suggest a continuous surface lowering near the lake, though the lowering rates are smaller than those for the period 1989-1994.

  16. POP and PAH contamination in the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal): Long-range atmospheric transport, glacier shrinkage, or local impact of tourism?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzzella, Licia; Salerno, Franco; Freppaz, Michele; Roscioli, Claudio; Pisanello, Francesca; Poma, Giulia

    2016-02-15

    Due to their physico-chemical properties, POPs and PAHs are subjected to long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) and may be deposited in remote areas. In this study, the contamination with DDx, PCBs, PBDEs, and PAHs was investigated in sediments and soils collected on the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (Himalaya, Nepal) in two different sampling campaigns (2008 and 2012). The results showed a limited contamination with POPs and PAHs in both soil and sediment samples. Therefore, the southern slopes of Mt. Everest can be considered a remote area in almost pristine condition. The LRAT mechanism confirmed its primary role in the transfer of contaminants to remote regions, while the gradual melting of glaciers, due to global warming, and the subsequent release of contaminants was suggested to be a secondary source of pollution of the lake sediments. In addition, the increase of tourism in this area during the last decades might have influenced the present concentrations of PAHs in the sediments and soils. PMID:26657383

  17. Recent changes in Imja Glacial Lake and its damming moraine in the Nepal Himalaya revealed by in situ surveys and multi-temporal ASTER imagery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in the area and bathymetry of Imja Glacial Lake and in the elevation of its damming moraine, Khumbu region, Nepal Himalaya are investigated. Previously reported changes in the lake area have been updated by multi-temporal ASTER images, which revealed a decreased expansion rate after 2000. A provisional expansion of the lake observed in 2004, from which some studies concluded an accelerated lake expansion due to global warming, has, from 2005, subsided to the glacier surface. Bathymetric changes for the period 1992-2002 that were first obtained for Himalayan glacial lakes suggest that the melting of debris-covered ice beneath the lake is insignificant in terms of the increase in lake volume, and that the retreat of a glacier in contact with the lake by calving is essential for the lake's expansion. Changes in the height of a damming moraine for the period 2001-2007 suggest a continuous surface lowering near the lake, though the lowering rates are smaller than those for the period 1989-1994.

  18. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda Nautiyal; Vir Singh

    2013-01-01

    Oak (Quercus leucotichophora) and pine (Pinus roxburghii) are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potent...

  19. Potential of conservation agriculture practices (CAPs) in enhancing food security of tribal people in central mid-hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Halbrendt, Jacqueline; Thapa, K

    2012-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of steep sloping lands, resulting lower productivity, degradation of soil health and reduction of livelihood options. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological framework to develop improved conservation practices (CAPs) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of Chepang tribal people in central Nepal. CAPs were identif...

  20. Pattern of Maxillofacial fracture in Western and Central Nepal: An experience in 3 tertiary level health institutions

    OpenAIRE

    S. Subedi; Shrestha, B; RB Adhikari

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There are only few studies regarding the pattern and causes of maxillofacial fractures till date in Nepal and no such study in western and central Nepalese population has been conducted. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to describe the causes and the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in western and central part of Nepal over the period of 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of maxillofacial fractures was conducted on 328 patients who were treated in ...

  1. Status of Thyroid Disorders in Central Nepal: A Tertiary Care Hospital Based Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RV Mahato

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Nepal is a Himalayan, landlocked country surrounded by India and China. It is endemic for iodine deficiency disease. Thyroiddysfunction is major health problem among the Nepalese people. Its prevalence increases with age. Screening of thyroid disease is advised inhigh risk population. Objectives: To find out the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction among subjects who attended Biochemistry Departmentof Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal. Material and Methods: This is a hospital based retrospective studyconducted in the Department of Biochemistry Tribhuwan University Teaching Hospital, Institute of Medicine. This study was designed toinvestigate status of thyroid dysfunction in central Nepal. A total of 5230 cases from all over Nepal were studied in a single year. Blood sampleswere collected, serum separated and thyroid hormones (fT3, fT4 and TSH were assayed by Vitros ECIQ analyser Ortho Clinical DiagonosticsUSA. Result and discussion: Among 5230 subjects prevalence of thyroid dysfunction was 29.0% with subclinical hypothyroidism17%,hypothyroidism 8%, hyperthyroidism 3%, subclinical hyperthyroidism1% and euthyroidism 71%.Higher prevalence was seen in the age group31-45. Conclusion: This study revealed that subclinical and overt hypothyroidism is preponderant followed by sub clinical hyperthyroidism.Females are more vulnerable to the thyroid dysfunction. Since it is a hospital based study, the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction may not beapplicable. So an extensive demographic survey should be done to provide accurate data of thyroid dysfunction in the general population

  2. Aerosol Characteristics at a High Altitude Location in Central Himalayas: Optical Properties and Radiative Forcing

    CERN Document Server

    Pant, P; Dumka, U C; Sagar, R; Satheesh, S K; Moorthy, K K; Sagar, Ram

    2006-01-01

    Collocated measurements of the mass concentrations of aerosol black carbon (BC) and composite aerosols near the surface were carried out along with spectral aerosol optical depths (AODs) from a high altitude station, Manora Peak in Central Himalayas, during a comprehensive aerosol field campaign in December 2004. Despite being a pristine location in the Shivalik Ranges of Central Himalayas, and having a monthly mean AOD (at 500 nm) of 0.059 $\\pm$ 0.033 (typical to this site), total suspended particulate (TSP) concentration was in the range 15 - 40 micro g m^(-3) (mean value 27.1 $\\pm$ 8.3 micro g m^(-3)). Interestingly, aerosol BC had a mean concentration of 1.36 $\\pm$ 0.99 micro g m^(-3), contributed to ~5.0 $\\pm$ 1.3 % to the composite aerosol mass. This large abundance of BC is found to have linkages to the human activities in the adjoining valley and to the boundary layer dynamics. Consequently, the inferred single scattering albedo lies in the range of 0.87 to 0.94 (mean value 0.90 $\\pm$ 0.03), indicatin...

  3. Tree ring variability and climate response of Abies spectabilis along an elevation gradient in Mustang, Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kharal, D.K.; Meilby, Henrik; Rayamajhi, S.;

    2014-01-01

    climate along an elevation gradient in the high Himalayas of central Nepal. Tree core samples were collected from four sites in Mustang district. All sites were located in the same valley and exposed to similar weather conditions. Out of 232 samples collected from the sites, Titi lower (2700 m), Titi...

  4. Tropospheric ozone variations at the Nepal climate observatory – pyramid (Himalayas, 5079 m a.s.l. and influence of stratospheric intrusion events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Vuillermoz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the first 2-years of continuous surface ozone (O3 observations and systematic assessment of the influence of stratospheric intrusions (SI at the Nepal Climate Observatory at Pyramid (NCO-P; 27°57' N, 86°48' E, located in the Southern Himalayas at 5079 m a.s.l. Continuous O3 monitoring has been carried out at this GAW-WMO station in the framework of the Ev-K2-CNR SHARE and UNEP ABC projects since March 2006. Over the period March 2006–February 2008, an average O3 value of 49±12 ppbv (±1δ was recorded, with a large annual cycle characterized by a maximum during the pre-monsoon (61±9 ppbv and a minimum during the monsoon (39±10 ppbv. In general, the average O3 diurnal cycles had different shapes in the different seasons, suggesting an important interaction between the synoptic-scale circulation and the local mountain wind regime. Short-term O3 behaviour in the middle/lower troposphere (e.g. at the altitude level of NCO-P can be significantly affected by deep SI which, representing the most important natural input for tropospheric O3, can also influence the regional atmosphere radiative forcing. To identify days possibly influenced by SI at the NCO-P, analyses were performed on in-situ observations (O3 and meteorological parameters, total column O3 data from OMI satellite and air-mass potential vorticity provided by the LAGRANTO back-trajectory model. In particular, a specially designed statistical methodology was applied to the time series of the observed and modelled stratospheric tracers. On this basis, during the 2-year investigation, 14.1% of analysed days were found to be affected by SI. The SI frequency showed a clear seasonal cycle, with minimum during the summer monsoon (1.2% and higher values during the rest of the year (21.5%. As suggested by the LAGRANTO analysis, the position of the subtropical jet stream could play an important role in determining the occurrence of deep SI transport on the Southern Himalayas

  5. Himalayas as seen from STS-66 shuttle Atlantis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-01-01

    View is southeastward across China (Tibet), half of Nepal and India. The partly frozen lake near the center of the frame is Pei-Ku T'so ('Bos-tie Lake'). The central Himalaya stretches from Mount Everest on the left past Annapurna on the right. Large tributaries converge to form the Ganges River, flowing through the lowland basin south of the Himalaya. This photograph illustrates the rain shadow effect of the Himalaya Chain; wet, warm air from the Indian Ocean is driven against the mountains, lifted, and drained of water that forms ice caps, the abundant rivers, and forests of the foothills. In contrast the high plateau of Tibet is arid, composed largely of topographically-closed basins because stream flow is inadequate to form integrated drainage networks.

  6. Heterogeneity in Ethnoecological Knowledge and Management of Medicinal Plants in the Himalayas of Nepal: Implications for Conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yildiz Aumeeruddy-Thomas

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance accorded to ethnoecological knowledge for suggesting new paths in scientific research, understanding ecological processes, and designing sustainable management of natural resources has grown in recent years. However, variation in knowledge and practices, both within and across cultures, has not been given much attention in resource management nor in developing scientific understanding of the ecological status of key resources. In this paper, we discuss the heterogeneity and complexity of local ecological knowledge in relation to its practical and institutional context with respect to management of Himalayan medicinal plants. We show factors affecting this variation, and discuss how knowledge is put into action. We assessed variation in knowledge relating to the diversity of medicinal plant species, their distribution, medicinal uses, biological traits, ecology, and management within and between two culturally different social groups living in villages located in the Shey-Phoksundo National Park and its buffer zone in northwestern Nepal. Heterogeneity in levels of knowledge and in practices both within and between these groups corresponds to differences in level of specialization in relation to medicinal plants, to socio-cultural and institutional contexts, and to extra-local factors that govern people's activities. We argue that understanding the heterogeneity of knowledge and practices within a given area is crucial to design management practices that build on the intricate links between knowledge, practices, and institutional context. It is also important to develop ecological studies that will best inform management.

  7. Glacial Lake Outburst Flood Risk in the Poiqu/Bhote Koshi/Sun Koshi River Basin in the Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narendra Raj Khanal

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas have experienced several glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs, and the risk of GLOFs is now increasing in the context of global warming. Poiqu watershed in the Tibet Autonomous Region, China, also known as the Bhote Koshi and Sun Koshi downstream in Nepal, has been identified as highly prone to GLOFs. This study explored the distribution of and changes in glacial lakes, past GLOFs and the resulting losses, risk from potential future GLOFs, and risk reduction initiatives within the watershed. A relationship was established between lake area and volume of lake water based on data from 33 lakes surveyed within the Hindu Kush Himalayan region, and the maximum possible discharge was estimated using this and other previously developed empirical equations. We recommend different strategies to reduce GLOF risk and highlight the need for a glacial lake monitoring and early-warning system. We also recommend strong regional cooperation, especially on issues related to transboundary rivers.

  8. Mapping regional distribution of land surface heat fluxes on the southern side of the central Himalayas using TESEBS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amatya, Pukar Man; Ma, Yaoming; Han, Cunbo; Wang, Binbin; Devkota, Lochan Prasad

    2016-05-01

    Recent scientific studies based on large-scale climate model have highlighted the importance of the heat release from the southern side of the Himalayas for the development of South Asian Summer Monsoon. However, studies related to land surface heat fluxes are nonexistent on the southern side. In this study, we test the feasibility of deriving land surface heat fluxes on the central Himalayan region using Topographically Enhanced Surface Energy Balance System (TESEBS), which is forced by MODIS land surface products and Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) meteorological data. The model results were validated using the first eddy covariance measurement system established in the southern side of the central Himalayas. The derived land surface heat fluxes were close to the field measurements with mean bias of 15.97, -19.89, 8.79, and -20.39 W m-2 for net radiation flux, ground heat flux, sensible heat flux, and latent heat flux respectively. Land surface heat fluxes show strong contrast in pre monsoon, summer monsoon, post monsoon, and winter seasons and different land surface states among the different physiographic regions. In the central Himalayas, the latent heat flux is the dominant consumer of available energy for all physiographic regions except for the High Himalaya where the sensible heat flux is high.

  9. Investigation of aerosol characteristics from the central Himalayas and its adjacent foothills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Hema; Naja, Manish; Babu, Suresh; Satheesh, Sk; Pal Singh, Krishna; Kumar, Rajesh; Moorthy, KKrishna

    2016-04-01

    Studies on atmospheric aerosols are important in the South Asia, especially over the Himalayas owing to their crucial role in regional climate change, radiation budget etc. The present study provides some of the crucial insights into the understanding of aerosol characteristics and associated processes over the central Himalayan region. The long term ground based aerosol data from high altitude site, Nainital (29.4°N, 79.5°E, 1958 m), India, are utilized extensively and estimated trends of the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and black carbon (BC) shows the increasing trend over this region. The significant amount of aerosol abundance is also observed in spring season each year. Further, in order to understand the transport and influence of aerosols from the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) region to the nearby Himalayas, aerosols observation initiated from the low altitude site Pantnagar (29.0°N, 79.5°E, 231 m), India, are also utilized. Observations at these both sites which are merely at a distance of ~30 km show marked differences in the levels and seasonal and diurnal variations. The Himalayan site, is marked with low AOD and BC, except in spring, while IGP site is marked with high level of aerosols throughout the year. BC is maximum in winter (7.9±5.2 μg m-3) and minimum in summer-monsoon in IGP which exhibits nearly an inverse relation with mixing layer depth which is strongest in winter. On the other hand, BC reaches maximum in spring at Nainital. AOD is high throughout the year in IGP which shows annual peak (AOD500nm>0.6) in May-June, dominated by coarse mode, while fine mode aerosols dominates in late autumn and early winter. The Nainital site is marked with very low AOD in winter typical to clean site. Seasonal mean BC is found to be significantly higher at Pantnagar in winter (~652%), followed by in autumn (~577%), summer-monsoon (~318%) and spring (~248%) as compared to those at Nainital. Co-located observation of AOD along with aerosols extinction

  10. Glacier variations and climate warming and drying in the central Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Jiawen; QIN Dahe; KANG Shichang; HOU Shugui; PU Jianchen; JING Zhefan

    2004-01-01

    Repeat measurements of glacier terminus positions show that glaciers in the central Himalayas have been in a continuous retreat situation in the past decades. The average retreat rate is 5.5-8.7 m/a in Mt. Qomolangma (Everest) since the 1960s and 6.4 m/a in Mt. Xixiabangma since the 1980s. In recent years, the retreat rate is increasing. Ice core studies revealed that the accumulation rate of glaciers has a fluctuating decrease trend in the last century with a rapid decrease in the 1960s and a relatively steady low value afterwards. Meteorological station record indicates that the annual mean temperature has a slow increase trend but summer temperature had a larger increase in the past 30 a. All these suggest that the glacier retreat results from precipitation decrease in combination with temperature increase, and hence glacier shrinkage in this region will speed up if the climatic warming and drying continues.

  11. Integrated approach for understanding spatio-temporal changes in forest resource distribution in the central Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    A K Joshi; P K Joshi; T Chauhan; Brijmohan Bairwa

    2014-01-01

    Intense anthropogenic exploitation has altered distribution of forest resources. This change was analyzed using visual interpretation of satellite data of 1979, 1999 and 2009. Field and interactive social surveys were conducted to identify spatial trends in forest degradation and data were mapped on forest cover and land use maps. Perceptions of villagers were compiled in a pictorial representation to understand changes in forest resource distribution in central Himalaya from 1970 to 2010. For-ested areas were subject to degradation and isolation due to loss of con-necting forest stands. Species like Lantana camara and Eupatorium adenophorum invaded forest landscapes. Intensity of human pressure differed by forest type and elevation. An integrated approach is needed to monitor forest resource distribution and disturbance.

  12. Carbon Stock Potential of Oak and Pine Forests in Garhwal Region in Indian Central Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanda Nautiyal

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Oak (Quercus leucotichophora and pine (Pinus roxburghii are the two most dominant forest types occurring in Indian Central Himalayas. CO2 mitigation potential of these two forest types was observed in the present study. Carbon stock densities for AGTB, BB, LHG, DWS, AGSB and SOC were estimated and higher values were recorded in oak forest stands. Total carbon density estimated was 2420.54 Mg/ha for oak forest of Gopeshwar and 986.93 Mg/ha for pine forest of Nandprayag. CO2 mitigation potential of oak forest of Gopeshwar was recorded to be 8,713.94 CO2e and of pine forests 3552.95 CO2e.

  13. Lateral uniformity of India Plate strength over central and eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthet, Théo; Hetényi, György; Cattin, Rodolphe; Sapkota, Soma Nath; Champollion, Cédric; Kandel, Thakur; Doerflinger, Erik; Drukpa, Dowchu; Lechmann, Sarah; Bonnin, Mickael

    2013-12-01

    The current understanding of the Himalayan lithosphere stems mostly from cross-sections through the range at the longitude of the Kathmandu Basin. In this paper we laterally extend the analyses of structures and rheology along the Nepal Himalayas between the Pokhara valley and the Arun river. We take advantage of available information and a new data set including gravity measurements and a receiver function profile. It appears that the geometry of the Moho inferred from seismological profiles and long-wavelength gravity anomalies does not exhibit major East-West variations within the 350-km-wide study area. Using thermomechanical modelling, we show that the northward deepening of the Moho observed along profiles perpendicular to the main thrust faults can be interpreted simply as the bending of a strong India Plate. This result suggests a gradual mechanical decoupling between the crust and the mantle, leading to a northward decrease of the effective elastic thickness of the Indian lithosphere from ˜75 km to ˜25 km beneath the Ganga Basin and the Tibetan Plateau, respectively. Our results also confirm (partially) eclogitized lower Indian crust beneath southern Tibet. At shorter wavelengths, the observed gravity profiles exhibit some small lateral variations that can be interpreted in terms of east-west variations of the thickness of subsurface geological structures such as the Ganga Basin and the Tethyan Sedimentary Sequence.

  14. Socio-economic and Demographic Determinants of Antenatal Care Services Utilization in Central Nepal

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    Srijana Pandey, PhD

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background/Objective: The importance of maternal health services in lessening maternal mortality and morbidity as well as neonatal deaths has received substantial recognition in the past decade. The lack of antenatal care has been identified as a risk factor for maternal mortality and other adverse pregnancy outcomes. The purpose of this study was to determine the factors affecting attendance of antenatal care services in Nepal. Methods: This is a cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in Central Nepal. Using semi-structured questionnaire, interviews were conducted with married women aged between 15-49 years, who had delivered their babies within one year. Systematic random sampling method was used to select the sample. Results were obtained by frequency distribution and cross-tabulation of the variables. Results: More than half of the women were not aware of the consequences of lack of antenatal care. Age, education, income, type of family were strongly associated with the attendance at antenatal care service. Conclusions and Public Health Implications: In Nepal and in other developing countries, maternal mortality and morbidity continue to pose challenges to the health care delivery system. Variety of factors including socio-demographic, socio-economic, cultural and service availability as well as accessibility influences the use of maternal health services.

  15. Five years of ozonesoundings from the central Himalayas: role of dynamical processes and biomass burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naja, Manish; Bhardhwaj, Piyush; Lal, Shyam; Venkataramani, Sethuram; Kumar, Rajesh

    2016-04-01

    Higher water vapour, intense solar radiation and increasing levels of trace species over the tropical Asia are making this region more complex for understanding the physical, dynamical and chemical process over here. One of the most populated regions (The Indo-Gangetic Plain, IGP) of the world and a variety of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources are also housing in the foothill of one of the pristine region, i.e. Himalaya. Uplifting and transport of polluted air-masses to the higher heights is a major concern in the South Asia. However, observations of vertical distribution of ozone, and other trace gases including water vapour, aerosols and meteorological parameters are very limited in South Asia. In view of this, an observational facility was setup at ARIES, Nainital (29.4N, 79.5E; 1950 m) in the central Himalayas. Regular, once in a week, balloon borne measurements of ozone, RH, temperature and GPS winds are being made since January 2011. Surface observations of different trace gases (Ozone, CO, NO, NOy, light NMHCs, SO2, CO2 and other GHGs) and aerosols are also being made at this site. Here, we present five years of ozonesoundings observations. A strong seasonal cycle in the lower tropospheric ozone with highest values during spring (~ 100 ppbv) and lowest during summer-monsoon (20-40 ppbv) is discerned. Elevated ozone levels (~120 ppbv) were observed in the middle-upper troposphere along with very high wind speed (~50 m/s) which indicates the role of dynamics in bringing ozone rich air from higher altitude. The signatures of ozone downward transport have also been noticed in TES water vapour and PV. In contrast, such influence is seen to be weaker in the eastern part of the Himalayas. A very clear enhancement (20-30 ppbv) in the lower tropospheric ozone is seen that is induced by the biomass burning. Further analysis of these observations with the help of air trajectories and satellite data will be presented.

  16. Reorientation of lineation in the Central Crystalline Zone, Munsiari–Milam area of the Kumaun Greater Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A K Verma; A R Bhattacharya

    2015-03-01

    During large scale ductile shear deformation, linear features of the rocks tend to be reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. This is demonstrated in a crustal scale shear zone of the Himalaya, the Main Central Thrust (MCT), typically exposed in the Munsiari–Milam area of eastern Kumaun Greater Himalaya. Along the MCT, the crystalline rocks of the Greater Himalaya are thrust over the younger sedimentary belt of the Lesser Himalaya. In the study area, the scatter of lineation orientation in the vicinity of the MCT has been observed to drastically reduce within 27° in a zone of about 18 km (about 13 km in the crystalline rocks and about 5 km in the sedimentary rocks). Beyond this zone, the scatter is very high, up to 70° or more. The low scatter of lineation orientation around the MCT could be related to the strong ductile shear deformation associated with the movement along this thrust due to which the linear features got reoriented towards the direction of bulk shear. Away from this zone, ductile shearing had negligible or no effect on the rocks and, therefore, the scatter of lineation remains very high.

  17. Late Quaternary tectonic landforms and fluvial aggradation in the Saryu River valley: Central Kumaun Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kothyari, Girish Ch.; Luirei, Khayingshing

    2016-09-01

    The present study has been carried out with special emphasis on the aggradational landforms to explain the spatial and temporal variability in phases of aggradation/incision in response to tectonic activity during the late Quaternary in the Saryu River valley in central Kumaun Himalaya. The valley has preserved cut-and-fill terraces with thick alluvial cover, debris flow terraces, and bedrock strath terraces that provide signatures of tectonic activity and climate. Morphostratigraphy of the terraces reveals that the oldest landforms preserved south of the Main Central Thrust, the fluvial modified debris flow terraces, were developed between 30 and 45 ka. The major phase of valley fill is dated between 14 and 22 ka. The youngest phase of aggradation is dated at early and mid-Holocene (9-3 ka). Following this, several phases of accelerated incision/erosion owing to an increase in uplift rate occurred, as evident from the strath terraces. Seven major phases of bedrock incision/uplift have been estimated during 44 ka (3.34 mm/year), 35 ka (1.84 mm/year), 15 ka (0.91 mm/year), 14 ka (0.83 mm/year), 9 ka (1.75 mm/year), 7 ka (5.38 mm/year), and around 3 ka (4.4 mm/year) from the strath terraces near major thrusts. We postulate that between 9 and 3 ka the terrain witnessed relatively enhanced surface uplift (2-5 mm/year).

  18. Distribution pattern and conservation of threatened medicinal and aromatic plants of Central Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L. S. Kandari; K.S. Rao; R. K. Maikhuri; G. Kharkwal; K. Chauhan; C.P. Kala

    2011-01-01

    A study was conducted to examine the distribution pattern of four rhizomatous medicinal and aromatic plant species (MAPs) viz., Angelica glauca, Pleurospermum angelicoides, Rheum emodi and Arne- bia benthamii in different forest stands in Central Himalaya. Results show that A. Glauca and P. Angelicoides had a higher (50%) frequency at Chipkoan, Garpak and Phagati forest, R. Emodi had a higher (60%) fre- quency at Rishikund, Suki and Himtoli, and A. Benthamii had a higher (70%) frequency at Suki and Khambdhar The densities of A. Glauca (0.6 plants·m) and P. Angelicoides (0.5 plants·m) were higher at Chipkoan and Garpak sites than at other micro-sites, while densities of R. Emodi (0.8 plants·m) and A. Benthamii (1.0 plants·m) were higher at Suki and Khambdhar sites. A. Glauca had highest total basal covers (TBC) (1.2 cm·m) at Chipkoan, P. Angelicoides had highest TBC (0.92 cm·m) at Lati kharak site, A. Benthamii had the highest TBC (6.48 cm·m) at Khambdhar, and R. Emodi had highest TBC (4.53 cm·m) at Rishikund. For the four studied species, A. Glauca showed a contagious distribution, P. Angelicoides and R. Emodi showed the random and A. Benthamii showed the regular type of distribution.

  19. Atmospheric carbonaceous aerosols from Indo-Gangetic Plain and Central Himalaya: impact of anthropogenic sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Kirpa; Sarin, M M

    2015-01-15

    In the present-day scenario of growing anthropogenic activities, carbonaceous aerosols contribute significantly (∼20-70%) to the total atmospheric particulate matter mass and, thus, have immense potential to influence the Earth's radiation budget and climate on a regional to global scale. In addition, formation of secondary organic aerosols is being increasingly recognized as an important process in contributing to the air-pollution and poor visibility over urban regions. It is, thus, essential to study atmospheric concentrations of carbonaceous species (EC, OC and WSOC), their mixing state and absorption properties on a regional scale. This paper presents the comprehensive data on emission sources, chemical characteristics and optical properties of carbonaceous aerosols from selected urban sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) and from a high-altitude location in the central Himalaya. The mass concentrations of OC, EC and WSOC exhibit large spatio-temporal variability in the IGP. This is attributed to seasonally varying emissions from post-harvest agricultural-waste burning, their source strength, boundary layer dynamics and secondary aerosol formation. The high concentrations of OC and SO4(2-), and their characteristic high mass scattering efficiency, contribute significantly to the aerosol optical depth and scattering coefficient. This has implications to the assessment of single scattering albedo and aerosol radiative forcing on a regional scale. PMID:25199599

  20. Fishing methods in upper Ganga River system of Central Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurnam Singh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Present study on fishing methods in the upper Ganga River system was conducted during the period 2010-2012. Upper Ganga river system consists of two major rivers basins viz. Alaknanda and Bhagirathi rivers and number of their 1st and 2nd order tributaries which flows through Garhwal region (Central Himalaya. This large network of fluvial water resources harbours rich Ichthyofaunal diversity. The varied potential of fish resources from these water bodies permits the utilization of wide array of fishing methods. Most of the fishing methods of the Garhwal region are primitive, based on indigenous traditional knowledge and well suited to turbulent nature of the streams. In present study eighteen fishing methods and gears have been documented from the upper Ganga River system. Study observed season, habitat and species specificity of the fishing methods. The utilization of crude and unscientific fishing methods is frequent in the streams of remote areas resulting into decline in fish resource. All the fishing methods employed in upper Ganga River system are classified into four types. The classification is based on their utilisation up to the level which will allow the sustainable harvesting and proper management of valuable fish resources.

  1. Late miocene/pliocene origin of the inverted metamorphism of the Central Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, T.M.; Ryerson, F.J.; LeFort, P.; Yin, A. Lovera, O.M.

    1997-01-01

    The spatial association of intracontinental thrusting and inverted metamorphism, recognized in the Himalaya more than a century ago, has inspired continuing efforts to identify their causal relationship. Perhaps the best known sequence of inverted metamorphism is that found immediately beneath the Himalayan Main Central Thrust (MCT), generally thought to have been active during the Early Miocene. It has been widely assumed that the pattern of inverted metamorphism also developed at that time. Using a new approach, in situ Th-Pb dating of monazite included in garnet, we have discovered that the peak metamorphic recrystallization recorded in the footwall of the MCT fault occurred at ca. 5 Ma. The apparent inverted metamorphism resulted from activation of a broad shear zone beneath the MCT zone which juxtaposed two right-way-up metamorphic sequences. Recognition of this remarkably youthful phase of metamorphism resolves outstanding problems in Himalayan tectonics, such as why the MCT (and not the more recently initiated thrusts) marks the break in slope of the present day mountain range, and transcends others, such as the need for exceptional conditions to explain Himalayan anatexis.

  2. Spatio-Temporal Distribution of Dengue and Lymphatic Filariasis Vectors along an Altitudinal Transect in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhimal, Meghnath; Gautam, Ishan; Kreß, Aljoscha; Müller, Ruth; Kuch, Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Background Rapidly increasing temperatures in the mountain region of Nepal and recent reports of dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases from mountainous areas of central Nepal prompted us to study the spatio-temporal distribution of the vectors of these two diseases along an altitudinal transect in central Nepal. Methodology/Principal Findings We conducted a longitudinal study in four distinct physiographical regions of central Nepal from September 2011 to February 2012. We used BG-Sentinel and CDC light traps to capture adult mosquitoes. We found the geographical distribution of the dengue virus vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus along our study transect to extend up to 1,310 m altitude in the Middle Mountain region (Kathmandu). The distribution of the lymphatic filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus extended up to at least 2,100 m in the High Mountain region (Dhunche). Statistical analysis showed a significant effect of the physiographical region and month of collection on the abundance of A. aegypti and C. quinquefasciatus only. BG-Sentinel traps captured significantly higher numbers of A. aegypti than CDC light traps. The meteorological factors temperature, rainfall and relative humidity had significant effects on the mean number of A. aegypti per BG-Sentinel trap. Temperature and relative humidity were significant predictors of the number of C. quinquefasciatus per CDC light trap. Dengue fever and lymphatic filariasis cases had previously been reported from all vector positive areas except Dhunche which was free of known lymphatic filariasis cases. Conclusions/Significance We conclude that dengue virus vectors have already established stable populations up to the Middle Mountains of Nepal, supporting previous studies, and report for the first time the distribution of lymphatic filariasis vectors up to the High Mountain region of this country. The findings of our study should contribute to a better planning and scaling-up of mosquito

  3. Chemical composition and aerosol size distribution of the middle mountain range in the Nepal Himalayas during the 2009 pre-monsoon season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Shrestha

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particle number size distribution and chemical composition were measured at two low altitude sites, one urban and one relatively pristine valley, in Central Nepal during the 2009 pre-monsoon season (May–June. This is the first time that aerosol size distribution and chemical composition were measured simultaneously at lower elevation in the Middle Himalayan region in Nepal. The aerosol size distribution was measured using a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS, 14~340 nm, and the chemical composition of the filter samples collected during the field campaign was analyzed in the laboratory. Teflon membrane filters were used for ion chromatography (IC and water-soluble organic carbon and nitrogen analysis. Quartz fiber filters were used for organic carbon and elemental carbon analysis. Multi-lognormal fits to the measured aerosol size distribution indicated a consistent larger mode around 100 nm which is usually the oldest, most processed background aerosol. The smaller mode was located around 20 nm, which is indicative of fresh but not necessarily local aerosol. The diurnal cycle of the aerosol number concentration showed the presence of two peaks (early morning and evening, during the transitional period of boundary layer growth and collapse. The increase in number concentration during the peak period was observed for the entire size distribution. Although the possible contribution of local emissions in size ranges similar to the larger mode cannot be completely ruled out, another plausible explanation is the mixing of aged elevated aerosol in the residual layer during the morning period as suggested by previous studies. Similarly, the evening time concentration peaks when the boundary layer becomes shallow concurrent with increase in local activity. A decrease in aerosol number concentration was observed during the nighttime with the development of cold (downslope mountain winds that force the low level warmer air in the valley to

  4. Soil Bioengineering Application and Practices in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhital, Yam Prasad; Kayastha, Rijan Bhakta; Shi, Jiancheng

    2013-02-01

    The small mountainous country Nepal is situated in the central part of the Himalayas. Its climate varies from tropical in the south to arctic in the north; and natural vegetation follows the pattern of climate and altitude. Water-induced disaster problems including soil erosion, debris flow, landslides and flooding are common due to the unstable landscape. Soil erosion is the most important driving force for the degradation of upland and mountain ecosystems. Soil bioengineering has been used in Nepal for nearly 30 years to deal with erosion problems on slopes, in high way construction and riverbank stabilization. The main soil bioengineering techniques used in Nepal are brush layering, palisades, live check dams, fascines and vegetative stone pitching. This study is based on the geology, climate and vegetation of Nepal and briefly summarizes the application of soil bioengineering on slopes and stream banks, with especial attention to the role of vegetation on slope and stream bank stabilization. Furthermore, this paper addresses the role of community participation and responsibility for successful application of vegetation-based techniques in management, maintenance and utility aspects for the future. In recent years, soil bioengineering techniques are extensively used due to their cost-effectiveness, using locally available materials and low-cost labour in comparison to more elaborate civil engineering works. However, scientific implementation and record-keeping and evaluation of the work are indeed essential.

  5. Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas: first two years of continuous observations at the Nepal-Climate Observatory at Pyramid (5079 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available South Asia is strongly influenced by the so-called Atmospheric Brown Cloud (ABC, a wide polluted layer extending from the Indian Ocean to the Himalayas during the winter and pre-monsoon seasons (November to April. This thick, grey-brown haze blanket substantially interacts with the incoming solar radiation, causing a cooling of the Earth's surface and a warming of the atmosphere, thus influencing the monsoon system and climate. In this area, the Himalayan region, particularly sensitive to climate change, offers a unique opportunity to detect global change processes and to analyse the influence of anthropogenic pollution on background atmospheric conditions through continuous monitoring activities.

    This paper provides a detailed description of the atmospheric conditions characterizing the high Himalayas, thanks to continuous observations begun in March 2006 at the Nepal Climate Observatory – Pyramid (NCO-P located at 5079 m a.s.l. on the southern foothills of Mt. Everest, in the framework of ABC-UNEP and SHARE-Ev-K2-CNR projects. Besides giving an overview of the measurement site and experimental activities, the work presents an in-depth characterization of meteorological conditions and air-mass circulation at NCO-P during the first two years of activity (March 2006–February 2008. The mean values of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed recorded at the site were: 551 hPa, −3.0 °C, 4.7 m s−1, respectively. The highest seasonal values of temperature (1.7 °C and relative humidity (94% were registered during the monsoon season, which was also characterized by thick clouds present in about 80% of the afternoon hours and by a frequency of cloud-free sky less than 10%. The lowest temperature and relative humidity values were registered during winter, −6.3 °C and 22%, respectively, the season being characterised by mainly cloud-free sky conditions and rare thick clouds. The summer monsoon influenced

  6. Atmospheric Brown Clouds in the Himalayas: first two years of continuous observations at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Bonasoni

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a detailed description of the atmospheric conditions characterizing the high Himalayas, thanks to continuous observations begun in March 2006 at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (NCO-P located at 5079 m a.s.l. on the southern foothills of Mt. Everest, in the framework of ABC-UNEP and SHARE-Ev-K2-CNR projects. The work presents a characterization of meteorological conditions and air-mass circulation at NCO-P during the first two years of activity. The mean values of atmospheric pressure, temperature and wind speed recorded at the site were: 551 hPa, −3.0 °C, 4.7 m s−1, respectively. The highest seasonal values of temperature (1.7 °C and relative humidity (94% were registered during the monsoon season, which was also characterized by thick clouds, present in about 80% of the afternoon hours, and by a frequency of cloud-free sky of less than 10%. The lowest temperature and relative humidity seasonal values were registered during winter, −6.3 °C and 22%, respectively, the season being characterised by mainly cloud-free sky conditions and rare thick clouds. The summer monsoon influenced rain precipitation (seasonal mean: 237 mm, while wind was dominated by flows from the bottom of the valley (S–SW and upper mountain (N–NE.

    The atmospheric composition at NCO-P has been studied thanks to measurements of black carbon (BC, aerosol scattering coefficient, PM1, coarse particles and ozone. The annual behaviour of the measured parameters shows the highest seasonal values during the pre-monsoon (BC: 316.9 ng m−3, PM1: 3.9 μg m−3, scattering coefficient: 11.9 Mm−1, coarse particles: 0.37 cm−3 and O3: 60.9 ppbv, while the lowest concentrations occurred during the monsoon (BC: 49.6 ng m−3, PM1: 0.6 μg m−3, scattering coefficient: 2.2 Mm−1, and O3: 38.9 ppbv

  7. Distribution of natural radionuclide along Main Central Thrust in Garhwal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.C. Ramola

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Study of natural radionuclide is important to assess the radiation level in a particular area. Radionuclide present in earth's crust is different for different geological areas because of the variety of soil and rocks present in a particular area. In present study, the estimation of natural radionuclides have been carried out along the Main Central Thrust (MCT in Uttarkashi, Budhakedar, Ukhimath and Healang regions of Garhwal Himalaya, India. The large variations in the radionuclide distribution have been estimated along the Main Central Thrust. The 226Ra, 232Th and 40K contents in MCT area varies from 8 ± 1 Bq.kg−1 to 285 ± 28 Bq.kg−1 with an average of 64 Bq.kg−1, 7 ± 1 Bq.kg−1 to 136 ± 15 Bq.kg−1 with an average 69 Bq.kg−1 and 115 ± 18 Bq.kg−1 to 1588 ± 162 Bq.kg−1 with an average 792 Bq.kg−1, respectively. The radon exhalation rate and radon concentration in the soil of study area varies from 2.20 × 10−5 Bq.kg−1h−1 to 3.2 × 10−5 Bq.kg−1h−1 and 287 Bq/m3 to 417 Bq/m3, respectively. It was observed that the distribution of natural radionuclide in the soil of study area is not uniform and concentrated along geological active region. These values of radionuclide and radon mass exhalation rate may be used as baseline data for further study in the area.

  8. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in selected rocks from Hetaunda area, Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were measured in rock samples from the Hetaunda area, central Nepal, by using gamma spectrometry. The specific activities were found to be in the range of 17 - 95 Bq.kg-1 for 238U, 24 - 260 Bq.kg-1 for 232Th and 32 - 541 Bq.kg-1 for 40K. From these data absorbed dose rates in air and annual effective doses were calculated and compared with respective data from the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) compilation. The results from our study open the door to the safe applicability of most of the investigated materials as a cheep building material. (author)

  9. Determination of naturally occurring radionuclides in selected rocks from Hetaunda area, central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The specific activities of the naturally occurring radionuclides 238U, 232Th, and 40K were measured in rock samples from the Hetaunda area, central Nepal, using gamma spectrometry. The specific activities were found to be in the range of 17-95 Bq kg-1 for 238U, 24-260 Bq kg-1 for 232Th and 32-541 Bq kg-1 for 40K. From these data absorbed dose rates in air and annual effective doses were calculated and compared with respective data from the UNSCEAR compilation. The results from our study open the door to the safe applicability of most of the investigated materials as a cheep building material. (author)

  10. Climatic and paleoclimatic forcing of erosion in the southern Central Andes and the northwestern Himalaya (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The windward flanks of the tectonically active southern Central Andes and the NW Himalaya are characterized by steep climatic, tectonic, and topographic gradients. The first windward topographic rise of these mountain ranges constitutes a significant orographic barrier resulting in high orographic rainfall causing some of the wettest places on Earth. However, the higher-elevation areas of the windward flanks of both regions become progressively drier, until arid conditions are attained in the orogen interiors (i.e., the Altiplano-Puna and Tibet plateaus). Both areas have experienced significant paleoclimatic changes with deeper penetration of moisture into the orogen and thus an orogenward shift of the climate gradient. Some of the world's largest rivers with high sediment loads emerge from these mountain belts, and understanding the relation between climate and erosion is key in predicting mass fluxes, assessing the impacts of climate variability, and long-term climate forcing of erosion on landscape evolution. Here, we quantify the impact of the climatic gradients and their spatial shifts during the late Pleistocene and Holocene. We rely on sedimentary archives, digital topography, and cosmogenic inventories of river sands (10Be) and bedrock-erosion rates (10Be and 26Al) from the Puna Plateau in NW Argentina and the interior of the western Himalaya in NW India. We make three key observations that underline the importance of present-day climatic parameters and paleoclimatic changes on the effiency of surface processes in both areas: (1) First-order spatial erosion patterns follow the climatic gradient and catchment-mean erosion rates vary by three orders of magnitude from the wet mountain fronts to the dry orogen interior. In NW Argentina, our measurements represent the fluvial transport rates and indicate very low fluvial activity in the interior of the Puna Plateau during the Late Pleistocene; (2) the spatial distribution of erosion rates can be explained by a

  11. Indigenous use and bio-efficacy of medicinal plants in the Rasuwa District, Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boon Emmanuel K

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By revealing historical and present plant use, ethnobotany contributes to drug discovery and socioeconomic development. Nepal is a natural storehouse of medicinal plants. Although several ethnobotanical studies were conducted in the country, many areas remain unexplored. Furthermore, few studies have compared indigenous plant use with reported phytochemical and pharmacological properties. Methods Ethnopharmacological data was collected in the Rasuwa district of Central Nepal by conducting interviews and focus group discussions with local people. The informant consensus factor (FIC was calculated in order to estimate use variability of medicinal plants. Bio-efficacy was assessed by comparing indigenous plant use with phytochemical and pharmacological properties determined from a review of the available literature. Criteria were used to identify high priority medicinal plant species. Results A total of 60 medicinal formulations from 56 plant species were documented. Medicinal plants were used to treat various diseases and disorders, with the highest number of species being used for gastro-intestinal problems, followed by fever and headache. Herbs were the primary source of medicinal plants (57% of the species, followed by trees (23%. The average FIC value for all ailment categories was 0.82, indicating a high level of informant agreement compared to similar studies conducted elsewhere. High FIC values were obtained for ophthalmological problems, tooth ache, kidney problems, and menstrual disorders, indicating that the species traditionally used to treat these ailments are worth searching for bioactive compounds: Astilbe rivularis, Berberis asiatica, Hippophae salicifolia, Juniperus recurva, and Swertia multicaulis. A 90% correspondence was found between local plant use and reported plant chemical composition and pharmacological properties for the 30 species for which information was available. Sixteen medicinal plants were

  12. Meteoric fluids in the South Tibetan Detachment and palaeoaltimetry of Central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gébelin, Aude; Mulch, Andreas; Teyssier, Christian; Jessup, Micah J.; Brunel, Maurice; Cosca, Michael A.; Law, Rick D.

    2015-04-01

    have started earlier than previously thought; (2) a strong Himalayan rain shadow characterized the Tibetan plateau already at 15 Ma, inducing a strong aridity on the Tibetan plateau over most of the Neogene. These results are further supported by very low dD values of synkinematic minerals that formed in the high strain STD footwall along a N-S transect in central Himalaya between Kodari and Nyalam.

  13. Boundary layer evolution over the central Himalayas from radio wind profiler and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra; Solanki, Raman; Ojha, Narendra; Janssen, Ruud H. H.; Pozzer, Andrea; Dhaka, Surendra K.

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the time evolution of the Local Boundary Layer (LBL) for the first time over a mountain ridge at Nainital (79.5° E, 29.4° N, 1958 m a.m.s.l.) in the central Himalayan region, using a radar wind profiler (RWP) during November 2011 to March 2012, as a part of the Ganges Valley Aerosol Experiment (GVAX). We restrict our analysis to clear-sunny days, resulting in a total of 78 days of observations. The standard criterion of the peak in the signal-to-noise ratio (S / N) profile was found to be inadequate in the characterization of mixed layer (ML) top at this site. Therefore, we implemented a criterion of S / N > 6 dB for the characterization of the ML and the resulting estimations are shown to be in agreement with radiosonde measurements over this site. The daytime average (05:00-10:00 UTC) observed boundary layer height ranges from 440 ± 197 m in November (late autumn) to 766 ± 317 m above ground level (a.g.l.) in March (early spring). The observations revealed a pronounced impact of mountain topography on the LBL dynamics during March, when strong winds (> 5.6 m s-1) lead to LBL heights of 650 m during nighttime. The measurements are further utilized to evaluate simulations from the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. WRF simulations captured the day-to-day variations up to an extent (r2 = 0.5), as well as the mean diurnal variations (within 1σ variability). The mean biases in the daytime average LBL height vary from -7 % (January) to +30 % (February) between model and observations, except during March (+76 %). Sensitivity simulations using a mixed layer model (MXL/MESSy) indicated that the springtime overestimation of LBL would lead to a minor uncertainty in simulated surface ozone concentrations. However, it would lead to a significant overestimation of the dilution of black carbon aerosols at this site. Our work fills a gap in observations of local boundary layer over this complex terrain in the Himalayas, and highlights the need for

  14. Gradient distribution of persistent organic contaminants along northern slope of central-Himalayas, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Ping; Yao, Tan-Dong; Cong, Zhi-Yuan; Yan, Xing-Liang; Kang, Shi-Chang; Zhang, Yong

    2006-12-15

    High mountains may serve as condenser for persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and the vegetation in remote areas has been used as a means to characterized atmospheric concentrations of air pollutants. In this study, organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Himalayan spruce needle samples from Zhangmu-Nyalam region (central-Himalayas) were analyzed and the altitudinal gradient of these pollutants was investigated. Total HCHs and DDTs concentration in needles were in the range of 1.3-2.9 ng g(-1) dry weight and 1.7-11 ng g(-1) dry weight, which were lower than concentrations reported in spruce needles from Alps, however higher than concentrations in conifer needles from mountain areas of Alberta. Total Himalayan spruce needle PAHs was below 600 ng g(-1) and fluorene, phenanthrene and acenaphthene were abundant individual compounds measured. The ratios of alpha-HCH/gamma-HCH in pine needles were similar with the usual values for technical HCH, implying technical HCHs might be used in this region. The high ratios of o-p'-DDT/p-p'-DDT and no p-p'-DDE measured in this study led to the suspicion that a new source of o-p'-DDT and/or p-p'-DDT existed in this region. In addition, higher ratios of low molecular weight-/high molecular weight-PAHs in this region indicated that petroleum combustion, vehicle emission and low-temperature combustion might be the major contributions of PAH source. To examine the POPs distillation, the analyte concentrations were correlated with altitude. The more volatile OCPs, alpha-HCH, gamma-HCH, aldrin and alpha-endosulfan positively correlated with altitude, however, less volatile OCPs (DDT and DDD) inversely related with elevation. Almost all PAHs detected in this area showed positive correlations with altitude. It is worthy to note that heavy PAHs (Benzo[k] fluoranthene and Benzo[a]anthracene) displayed positive correlation, which implied the sources of PAHs were near the sampling sites. The

  15. Aetiologies of Central Nervous System infections in adults in Kathmandu, Nepal: A prospective hospital-based study

    OpenAIRE

    Giri, Abhishek; Arjyal, Amit; Koirala, Samir; Karkey, Abhilasha; Dongol, Sabina; Thapa, Sudeep Dhoj; Shilpakar, Olita; Shrestha, Rishav; Van Tan, Le; Thi Thuy Chinh, Bkrong Nguyen; Krishna K. C., Radheshyam; Pathak, Kamal Raj; Shakya, Mila; Farrar, Jeremy; Van Doorn, H. Rogier

    2013-01-01

    We conducted a prospective hospital based study from February 2009-April 2011 to identify the possible pathogens of central nervous system (CNS) infections in adults admitted to a tertiary referral hospital (Patan Hospital) in Kathmandu, Nepal. The pathogens of CNS infections were confirmed in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using molecular diagnostics, culture (bacteria) and serology. 87 patients were recruited for the study and the etiological diagnosis was established in 38% (n = 33). The bacter...

  16. Tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities in the Greater Himalayan Sequence in Central Himalaya: in-sequence shearing by accretion from the Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carosi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) is the main metamorphic unit of the Himalayas, stretching for over 2400 km, bounded to the South by the Main Central Thrust (MCT) and to the North by the South Tibetan Detachment (STD) whose contemporanous activity controlled its exhumation between 23 and 17 Ma (Godin et al., 2006). Several shear zones and/or faults have been recognized within the GHS, usually regarded as out of sequence thrusts. Recent investigations, using a multitechnique approach, allowed to recognize a tectonic and metamorphic discontinuity, localized in the mid GHS, with a top-to-the SW sense of shear (Higher Himalayan Discontinuity: HHD) (Carosi et al., 2010; Montomoli et al., 2013). U-(Th)-Pb in situ monazite ages provide temporal constraint of the acitivity of the HHD from ~ 27-25 Ma to 18-17 Ma. Data on the P and T evolution testify that this shear zone affected the tectono-metamorphic evolution of the belt and different P and T conditions have been recorded in the hanging-wall and footwall of the HHD. The HHD is a regional tectonic feature running for more than 700 km, dividing the GHS in two different portions (Iaccarino et al., 2015; Montomoli et al., 2015). The occurrence of even more structurally higher contractional shear zone in the GHS (above the HHD): the Kalopani shear zone (Kali Gandaki valley, Central Nepal), active from ~ 41 to 30 Ma (U-Th-Pb on monazite) points out to a more complex deformation pattern in the GHS characterized by in sequence shearing. The actual proposed models of exhumation of the GHS, based exclusively on the MCT and STD activities, are not able to explain the occurrence of the HHD and other in-sequence shear zones. Any model of the tectonic and metamorphic evolution of the GHS should account for the occurrence of the tectonic and metamorphic discontinuities within the GHS and its consequences on the metamorphic paths and on the assembly of Himalayan belt. References Godin L., Grujic D., Law, R. D. & Searle, M. P. 2006

  17. Knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever among the healthy population of highland and lowland communities in central Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghnath Dhimal

    Full Text Available Dengue fever (DF is the most rapidly spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. In this decade it has expanded to new countries and from urban to rural areas. Nepal was regarded DF free until 2004. Since then dengue virus (DENV has rapidly expanded its range even in mountain regions of Nepal, and major outbreaks occurred in 2006 and 2010. However, no data on the local knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP of DF in Nepal exist although such information is required for prevention and control measures.We conducted a community based cross-sectional survey in five districts of central Nepal between September 2011 and February 2012. We collected information on the socio-demographic characteristics of the participants and their knowledge, attitude and practice regarding DF using a structured questionnaire. We then statistically compared highland and lowland communities to identify possible causes of observed differences.Out of 589 individuals interviewed, 77% had heard of DF. Only 12% of the sample had good knowledge of DF. Those living in the lowlands were five times more likely to possess good knowledge than highlanders (P<0.001. Despite low knowledge levels, 83% of the people had good attitude and 37% reported good practice. We found a significantly positive correlation among knowledge, attitude and practice (P<0.001. Among the socio-demographic variables, the education level of the participants was an independent predictor of practice level (P<0.05, and education level and interaction between the sex and age group of the participants were independent predictors of attitude level (P<0.05.Despite the rapid expansion of DENV in Nepal, the knowledge of people about DF was very low. Therefore, massive awareness programmes are urgently required to protect the health of people from DF and to limit its further spread in this country.

  18. Multi-System and Compound-Specific Isotopic Study of Neogene Vegetation and Climate Changes in the Siwalik Strata, Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neupane, P. C.; Gani, M. R.; Huang, Y.; Gani, N. D.

    2014-12-01

    Despite many studies, causes of the late Neogene vegetation and climate change in the Siwalik succession deposited in the Himalayan foreland basin are still controversial. To render plausible mechanisms of C4 grass expansion replacing C3 trees, we applied compound specific isotope analysis of lipid biomarkers preserved in mudstones and paleosols of the Nepal Siwalik. We investigate δ13C (vegetation proxy), δD (precipitation proxy) and brGDGTs (mean annual air temperature proxy) of the sedimentary strata deposited in a continental fluvial environment. Samples were collected from various river sections of the Nepal Siwalik to document temporal as well as lateral (along east-west tectonic-strike) variations in vegetation and climate shift. Published paleomagnetic ages of the region provides age constrain of the studied deposits, which range in age from 16 Ma to 2 Ma. This is the first study that provides compound-specific isotopic data and paleotemperatures of the Siwalik strata in the region. As shown by δ13C values, C4 vegetation (grasses) likely started to expand around 6.5 Ma and became highly dominated in 5.2 Ma. Increased precipitation, likely due to monsoonal intensification, is recorded in δD data around this interval of vegetation shift. brGDGTs data revealed an intriguing cyclic (~2 Ma cycle) variation of paleotemperatures. Integration and further analyses of these key proxy data are ongoing. Key words: monsoon, Nepal Siwalik, late Neogene, vegetation and climate shift, paleotemperature.

  19. Pattern of Maxillofacial fracture in Western and Central Nepal: An experience in 3 tertiary level health institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Subedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are only few studies regarding the pattern and causes of maxillofacial fractures till date in Nepal and no such study in western and central Nepalese population has been conducted. The purpose of this study, therefore, was to describe the causes and the pattern of maxillofacial fractures in western and central part of Nepal over the period of 5 years. MATERIAL AND METHODS A retrospective analysis of maxillofacial fractures was conducted on 328 patients who were treated in the department of maxillofacial surgery. Data was extracted and analyzed based on age, sex, cause of injury and anatomic location. RESULT Young males of 3rd decade of life most commonly sustained the maxillofacial trauma. The commonest site involved was the zygomatic complex (42% when only mid face fractures was considered and parasymphysis (32% when only mandible was considered.The most common cause of injuries was road traffic accidents (289 patients; 88.1% followed by interpersonal violence (25 patients; 7.6 % and falls accounting for 4.2% of the all injuries. CONCLUSION The findings of this study suggest the need for expansion of the motorway network, ensuring compliance of strict traffic rules and regulations, replacing old vehicles without safety measures and implement school education in alcohol abuse.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v10i3.12771 Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2014, Vol-10, No-3, 8-13

  20. Understanding Earthquake Hazard & Disaster in Himalaya - A Perspective on Earthquake Forecast in Himalayan Region of South Central Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanker, D.; Paudyal, ,; Singh, H.

    2010-12-01

    It is not only the basic understanding of the phenomenon of earthquake, its resistance offered by the designed structure, but the understanding of the socio-economic factors, engineering properties of the indigenous materials, local skill and technology transfer models are also of vital importance. It is important that the engineering aspects of mitigation should be made a part of public policy documents. Earthquakes, therefore, are and were thought of as one of the worst enemies of mankind. Due to the very nature of release of energy, damage is evident which, however, will not culminate in a disaster unless it strikes a populated area. The word mitigation may be defined as the reduction in severity of something. The Earthquake disaster mitigation, therefore, implies that such measures may be taken which help reduce severity of damage caused by earthquake to life, property and environment. While “earthquake disaster mitigation” usually refers primarily to interventions to strengthen the built environment, and “earthquake protection” is now considered to include human, social and administrative aspects of reducing earthquake effects. It should, however, be noted that reduction of earthquake hazards through prediction is considered to be the one of the effective measures, and much effort is spent on prediction strategies. While earthquake prediction does not guarantee safety and even if predicted correctly the damage to life and property on such a large scale warrants the use of other aspects of mitigation. While earthquake prediction may be of some help, mitigation remains the main focus of attention of the civil society. Present study suggests that anomalous seismic activity/ earthquake swarm existed prior to the medium size earthquakes in the Nepal Himalaya. The mainshocks were preceded by the quiescence period which is an indication for the occurrence of future seismic activity. In all the cases, the identified episodes of anomalous seismic activity were

  1. Erosion and Sediment Transport Across and Along Pronounced Topographic and Climatic Gradients: Examples from the Central Andes and Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred; Olen, Stephanie

    2016-04-01

    Moisture impinging on high topographic barriers results in effective orographic barriers. For example, the interaction of the Indian Monsoon with the southern Himalaya and the South American Monsoon System with the eastern central Andes result in some of the most efficient orographic barriers on Earth. The steep topographic gradients, the impact of focused rainfall along the southern and eastern flanks of the range, and the northward and westward shifts of rainfall during frequent intensified storm systems are responsible for an efficient erosional regime, with some of the highest known erosion rates. The spatiotemporal correlation between various topographic, tectonic, climatic, and exhumational phenomena in these regions has resulted in the formulation of models of possible long-term erosional and tectonic feedback processes that drive the lateral expansion and vertical growth of mountain belts. However, despite an increase in thermochronologic, cosmogenic radionuclide, and sedimentological datasets that help explain some underlying mechanisms, the true nature of these relationships is still unclear and controversies particularly exist concerning the importance of the different forcing factors that drive sediment transport on different time scales. Here, we synthesize and assess these controversies with observations from studies conducted perpendicular to and along strike of the orogens, and combine them with new basin-wide erosion-rate data from the Sutlej Valley in the NW Himalaya and from the southern central Andean Plateau (Puna) in NW Argentina. At first order and across strike, erosion rates based on cosmogenic nuclide inventories on river sands suggest a correlation with rainfall rates. But along-strike rainfall gradients in the Himalaya indicate additional moderating factors, such as vegetation. Leeward of the orographic barrier, fluvial erosion variability increases and erosion processes become more stochastic. Further leeward in the high-elevation and

  2. Characteristics of Aerosol Spectral Optical Depths over Manora Peak, Nainital $-$ A High Altitude Station in the Central Himalayas

    CERN Document Server

    Sagar, R; Dumka, U C; Moorthy, K K; Pant, P

    2003-01-01

    We present for the first time spectral behaviour of aerosol optical depths (AODs) over Manora Peak, Nainital located at an altitude of ~2 km in the central Himalayas. The observations were carried out using a Multi-Wavelength Solar Radiometer during January to December 2002. The primary features of the study are (i) larger AOD during afternoon periods compared to forenoon, attributable to change in the ray path from comparatively cleaner environment in the forenoon to polluted environment in the afternoon (ii) extremely low AODs during local winter and a remarkable increase to high values in summer (iii) a distinct change in the spectral dependencies of AODs from a relatively steeper spectra during winter to a shallower one in summer representing both transparent (meteorological aerosols) and polluted summer (urban haze aerosols) skies.The mean aerosol extinction law at Nainital during 2002 is best represented by $0.10 \\lambda^{-0.61}$.

  3. The Giant Pill-Millipedes of Nepal (Diplopoda, Sphaerotheriida, Zephroniidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesener, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The type of the only species of the order Sphaerotheriida with a record in Nepal, Kophosphaera excavata (Butler, 1874), originally described from Sikkim, is redescribed. The subspecies K. excavata mammifera Attems, 1936 from Sureil, Darjeeling, India, is elevated to species rank, K. mammifera stat. nov.. A species of unclear country of origin ('Himalaya'), Sphaeropoeus montanus Karsch, 1881, is briefly redescribed and transferred to the genus Zephronia, Z. montana (Karsch, 1881) n. comb.. Z. tumida Butler, 1882, an apparently widespread north Indian Zephronia species, is redescribed. Sphaerotheriida specimens collected during several expeditions to Nepal undertaken by Prof. J. Martens in the 1970s and 1980s were examined. The material contained 10 specimens (7 males, 3 females) from seven localities, including three undescribed species, Zephronia nepalensis n. sp., Kophosphaera shivapuri n. sp., and Kophosphaera martensi n. sp., as well as a specimen of Kophosphaera politissima Attems, 1935, type species of the genus and described previously from India. A key to all (now seven) species of Kophosphaera is presented. A brief diagnosis of the Kophosphaera excavata group is provided. While Zephronia seems to be restricted to the eastern part of Nepal, two endemic and two more widespread Kophosphaera species occur also in its central and mid-western part, representing the western-most records of the family Zephroniidae in Asia. The current distribution of the family in Nepal clearly indicates the Zephroniidae as a family adapted to tropical environments.

  4. Flora of the Pan-Himalayas: General guidelines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Editorial Committee,Flora of the Pan-Himalayas [May 2011]1.The Pan-Himalayas (the Himalayas and adjacent regions) forms a natural geographic unit,from the Wakhan Corridor and northeastern Hindu Kush eastwards to the Hengduan Mountains by way of Karakorum and the Himalayas.This region covers the northeastern corner of Afghanistan,northern Pakistan,northern India,Nepal,Bhutan,northern Myanmar,and southwest China (S Tibet,SE Qinghai,SE Gansu,W Sichuan,and NW Yunnan).

  5. Effects of new roads on environmental resource use in the Central Himalaya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Charlery, Lindy Callen; Nielsen, Martin Reinhardt; Meilby, Henrik;

    2016-01-01

    construction), annual increment and annual wood extraction. Results show that the new road had significant positive effects on absolute household environmental income, but negative effects on reliance as other income options became available. Wood product extraction levels remained below increment levels......Construction of roads into remote rural areas can improve livelihoods by reducing transportation costs, but may also have negative environmental impacts, such as increased deforestation. However, evidence of the effect of rural roads on household environmental income and reliance, as well as local...... level forest stand conservation is limited. This study, conducted in Mustang District in Nepal, contributes to answering the following questions: (i) what are the impacts of the establishment of rural roads on household environmental income and reliance; (ii) what are the determinants of environmental...

  6. Continuous observations of synoptic-scale dust transport at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid (5079 m a.s.l. in the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Duchi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study presents two years of continuous observations of physical aerosol properties at the GAW-WMO global station "Nepal Climate Observatory – Pyramid" (NCO-P, 27°57' N, 86°48' E, sited at 5079 m a.s.l. in the high Himalayan Khumbu Valley (Nepal. Measurements of aerosol number size distribution, aerosol optical depth (AOD and single scattering albedo (SSA are analysed from March 2006 to February 2008. By studying the temporal variations of coarse (1 μm < Dp ≤ 10 μm particle number concentration, 53 mineral Dust Transport Events (DTEs are identified, accounting for 22.2% of the analysed data-set. Such events occurred prevalently during pre-monsoon (for 30.6% of the period and winter (22.1% seasons. However, uncommon cases of mineral dust transport are observed even during the monsoon season. The main sources of mineral dust reaching NCO-P are identified in the arid regions not far from the measurement site, i.e. from Tibetan Plateau, and Lot-Thar deserts, which account for 52% of the dust transport days. Moreover, a non-negligible contribution can be attributed to the Arabian Peninsula (17% and the Indo-Gangetic Plains (16%, as indicated by three dimensional (3-D back-trajectory analyses performed with LAGRANTO model.

    The observed DTEs lead to significant enhancements in the coarse aerosol number concentration (+513% and coarse aerosol mass (+655%, as compared with average values observed in "dust-free" conditions ( 0.05 ± 0.11 cm−3 and 3.4 ± 3.7 μg m−3, respectively. During DTEs, SSA is higher (0.84–0.89 than on "dust-free" days (0.75–0.83, confirming the importance of this class of events as a driver of the radiative features of the regional Himalayan climate. Considering the dust events, a significant seasonal AOD increase (+37.5% is observed in the post-monsoon, whereas lower increase (less than +11.1% characterises the pre-monsoon and winter seasons confirming the

  7. Relationship between fluvial clastic sediment and source rock abundance in Rapti river basin of central Nepal Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many tributaries from carbonate sedimentary, metamorphic and igneous rocks of the Lesser Himalayan and clastic sedimentary rocks of the Sub-Himalayan Ranges carry gravelly sediments to the Rapti River. River bar sediments were analyzed for composition and texture to evaluate downstream changes in properties, and to establish relationship between proportion of clasts and the abundance of rock types in the source areas. Percent quartzite clast or granite clast increases whereas that of carbonate, schist or slate decreases along downstream. The largest grain size decreases downstream, whereas fatness index and sphericity tend to increase. Despite of little diminish in relative abundance of rock types in source areas along the river, the relative proportion of corresponding clast type shows rapid reduction (e.g. slate or phyllite or carbonate clasts) or rapid enhancement (e.g. granite clast). The relationships of quartzite clast and schist clasts with their corresponding source rocks are statistically significant suggesting that these clasts can provide clue to source rock abundance. About 85 to 94% of the gravel clasts represent rock types of the Lesser Himalayan Range suggesting that this range has been contributing enormous amount of sediments.

  8. Habitat Range of two Alpine Medicinal Plants in a Trans-Himalayan Dry Valley, Central Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bharat Babu SHRESTHA; Pramod Kumar JHA

    2009-01-01

    Understanding of the habitat range of threatened Himalayan medicinal plants which are declining in their abundance due to high anthropogenic disturbances is essential for developing conservation strategies and agro-technologies for cultivation. In this communication, we have discussed the habitat range of two alpine medicinal plants, Aconitum naviculare (Briihl) Stapf and Neopierorhiza scrophulariiflora (Pennel) Hong in a trans-Himalayan dry valley of central Nepal, Manang district. They are the most prioritized medicinal plants of the study area in terms of ethnomedicinal uses. A. naviculare occurs on warm and dry south facing slopes between 4090-4650 m asl along with sclerophyllous and thorny alpine scrubs, while N. serophulariiflora is exclusively found on cool and moist north facing slope between 4o0o and 4400 m asl where adequate water is available from snow melt to create a suitable habitat for this wetland dependent species. The soil in rooting zone of the two plants differs significantly in organic carbon (OC), organic matter (OM), total nitrogen (N) and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio. Due to cool and moist condition of N. scrophulariiflora habitat, accumulation of soil OC is higher, but soil N content is lower probably due to slow release from litter, higher leaching loss and greater retention in perennial live biomass of the plant. The C/N ratio of soil is more suitable in A. navuculare habitat than that of N scrophulariiflora for N supply. Warm and sunny site with N rich soft can be suitable for cultivation of A. naviculare, while moist and cool site with organic soil for N. scrophulariiflora. The populations of both the plants are fragmented and small. Due to collection by human and trampling damage by livestock, the population of A. naviculare was found absent in open areas in five of the six sampling sites and it was confined only within the bushes of alpine scrubs. For N. serophulariiflora, high probability of complete receding of small glaciers may

  9. A 1000-year history of large floods in the Upper Ganga catchment, central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasson, R. J.; Sundriyal, Y. P.; Chaudhary, Shipra; Jaiswal, Manoj K.; Morthekai, P.; Sati, S. P.; Juyal, Navin

    2013-10-01

    Determining the frequency, magnitude and causes of large floods over long periods in the flood-prone Himalaya is important for estimating the likelihood of future floods. A thousand year record (with some information from 2600 years ago) of the frequency and some estimates of velocities and discharges of large floods has been reconstructed in the Upper Ganga catchment, India, using written reports, litho-stratigraphy and sedimentology, and dated by optical and radiocarbon methods. In the Upper Ganga catchment rainfall triggers large landslides that dam rivers and release large amounts of water when they burst, thereby amplifying the effects of rainfall. The large floods in the catchment may be the result of landslide dam bursts rather than glacial lake bursts, and these are likely to continue and possibly worsen as the monsoon intensifies over the next century. However preliminary information suggests that the recent devastating flood of June 2013 was the result of heavy rainfall not landslide dam bursts. The frequency record is non-random and shows a high frequency between AD 1000 and AD 1300 (omitting uncertainties), then a low frequency until a cluster of floods occurred about 200 years ago, then increased frequency. This temporal pattern is like but not identical with that in Peninsular India, and both appear to be the result of variations in the monsoon.

  10. Resource Flows of Villages with Contrasting Lifestyles in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve, Central Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. S. Rao; S. Nautiyal; R. K. Maikhuri; K. G. Saxena

    2005-01-01

    Resource use efficiency analyses of village ecosystem are necessary for effective and efficient planning of resource utilization. This paper deals with economic and energy input-output analyses of different components of village ecosystem in representative buffer zone villages, which are practicing transhumance and settled way of lifestyles in Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve (NDBR) of Garhwal Himalaya. While the villages practicing transhumance used various natural resources spatially segregated,the villages practicing settled way of lifestyle have to manage resources from a limited spatial area through rotation and varied extraction intensities. Forests subsidized the production activity in both type of villages and the per capita resource extractions were found to be greater in transhumance village than settled village. Though crops provided maximum energy, in terms of economic criteria, animal husbandry played important role in both settled and transhumance villages. As villages representing both the situations showed different ways of adjustments to the conservation oriented land use changes,management authority needs to address the eco-development plans fulfilling the aspirations of all people traditionally using the resources of the Reserve to reduce the conflicts and encourage their participation in the conservation of the area.

  11. Probabilistic seismic hazard assessment of NW and central Himalayas and the adjoining region

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Madan Mohan Rout; Josodhir Das; Kamal; Ranjit Das

    2015-04-01

    The Himalayan region has undergone significant development and to ensure safe and secure progress in such a seismically vulnerable region there is a need for hazard assessment. For seismic hazard assessment, it is important to assess the quality, consistency, and homogeneity of the seismicity data collected from different sources. In the present study, an improved magnitude conversion technique has been used to convert different magnitude scales to moment magnitude scale. The study area and its adjoining region have been divided into 22 seismogenic zones based upon the geology, tectonics, and seismicity including source mechanism relevant to the region. Region specific attenuation equations have been used for seismic hazard assessment. Standard procedure for PSHA has been adopted for this study and peak ground motion is estimated for 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years at the bed rock level. For the 10% and 2% probability of exceedance in 50 years, the PGA values vary from 0.06 to 0.36 g and 0.11 to 0.65 g, respectively considering varying -value. Higher PGA values are observed in the southeast part region situated around Kaurik Fault System (KFS) and western parts of Nepal.

  12. Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in the high Himalaya based on measurements at the Nepal Climate Observatory – pyramid site (5100 m a.s.l

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Intense anthropogenic emissions over the Indian sub-continent lead to the formation of layers of particulate pollution that can be transported to the high altitude regions of the Himalaya-Hindu-Kush (HKH. Aerosol particles contain a substantial fraction of strongly absorbing material, including black carbon (BC, organic compounds (OC, and dust all of which can contribute to atmospheric warming, in addition to greenhouse gases. Using a 3-year record of continuous measurements of aerosol optical properties, we present a time series of key climate relevant aerosol properties including the aerosol absorption (σap and scattering (σsp coefficients as well as the single-scattering albedo (w. Results of this investigation show substantial seasonal variability of these properties, with long range transport during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons and efficient precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles during the monsoon season. The monthly averaged scattering coefficients range from 0.1 Mm−1 (monsoon to 20 Mm−1 while the average absorption coefficients range from 0.5 Mm−1 to 3.5 Mm−1. Both have their maximum values during the pre-monsoon period (April and reach a minimum during Monsoon (July–August. This leads to w values from 0.86 (pre-monsoon to 0.79 (monsoon seasons. Significant diurnal variability due to valley wind circulation is also reported. Using typical air mass trajectories encountered at the station, and aerosol optical depth (aod measurements, we calculated the resulting direct local radiative forcing due to aerosols. We found that the presence of absorbing particulate material can locally induce an additional top of the atmosphere (TOA forcing of 10 to 20 W m−2 for the first atmospheric layer (500 m above surface. The TOA positive forcing depends on the presence of snow at the surface, and takes place preferentially during episodes

  13. Aerosol optical properties and radiative forcing in the high Himalaya based on measurements at the Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid site (5079 m a.s.l.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Intense anthropogenic emissions over the Indian sub-continent lead to the formation of layers of particulate pollution that can be transported to the high altitude regions of the Himalaya-Hindu-Kush (HKH. Aerosol particles contain a substantial fraction of strongly absorbing material, including black carbon (BC, organic compounds (OC, and dust all of which can contribute to atmospheric warming, in addition to greenhouse gases. Using a 3-year record of continuous measurements of aerosol optical properties, we present a time series of key climate relevant aerosol properties including the aerosol absorption (σap and scattering (σsp coefficients as well as the single-scattering albedo (w0. Results of this investigation show substantial seasonal variability of these properties, with long range transport during the pre- and post-monsoon seasons and efficient precipitation scavenging of aerosol particles during the monsoon season. The monthly averaged scattering coefficients range from 0.1 Mm−1 (monsoon to 20 Mm−1 while the average absorption coefficients range from 0.5 Mm−1 to 3.5 Mm−1. Both have their maximum values during the pre-monsoon period (April and reach a minimum during Monsoon (July–August. This leads to dry w0 values from 0.86 (pre-monsoon to 0.79 (monsoon seasons. Significant diurnal variability due to valley wind circulation is also reported. Using aerosol optical depth (AOD measurements, we calculated the resulting direct local radiative forcing due to aerosols for selected air mass cases. We found that the presence of absorbing particulate material can locally induce an additional top of the atmosphere (TOA forcing of 10 to 20 W m−2 for the first atmospheric layer (500 m above surface. The TOA positive forcing depends on the presence of snow at the surface, and takes place preferentially during episodes of

  14. Observational evidence of pollutant transport from Indo-Gangetic Plain into the higher Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau through the Kali Gandaki Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, Shradda; Panday, Arnico; Kathayat, Bhogendra

    2016-04-01

    pollutant transport into higher Himalaya and the TP.

  15. Temporal signatures of advective versus diffusive radon transport at a geothermal zone in Central Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richon, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.richon@cea.f [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Equipe Geologie des Systemes Volcaniques, Institut de Physique du Globe, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75238 Paris cedex 05 (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France); Perrier, Frederic [Equipe de Geomagnetisme, Institut de Physique du Globe, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75238 Paris cedex 05 (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France), CNRS (UMR 7154) (France); Koirala, Bharat Prasad [National Seismological Centre, Department of Mines and Geology, Lainchaur, Kathmandu (Nepal); Girault, Frederic [Equipe de Geomagnetisme, Institut de Physique du Globe, 1 rue Jussieu, F-75238 Paris cedex 05 (France); Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite (France), CNRS (UMR 7154) (France); Bhattarai, Mukunda; Sapkota, Soma Nath [National Seismological Centre, Department of Mines and Geology, Lainchaur, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2011-02-15

    Temporal variation of radon-222 concentration was studied at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located on the Main Central Thrust zone in Central Nepal. This site is characterized by several carbon dioxide discharges having maximum fluxes larger than 10 kg m{sup -2} d{sup -1}. Radon concentration was monitored with autonomous Barasol{sup TM} probes between January 2008 and November 2009 in two small natural cavities with high CO{sub 2} concentration and at six locations in the soil: four points having a high flux, and two background reference points. At the reference points, dominated by radon diffusion, radon concentration was stable from January to May, with mean values of 22 {+-} 6.9 and 37 {+-} 5.5 kBq m{sup -3}, but was affected by a large increase, of about a factor of 2 and 1.6, respectively, during the monsoon season from June to September. At the points dominated by CO{sub 2} advection, by contrast, radon concentration showed higher mean values 39.0 {+-} 2.6 to 78 {+-} 1.4 kBq m{sup -3}, remarkably stable throughout the year with small long-term variation, including a possible modulation of period around 6 months. A significant difference between the diffusion dominated reference points and the advection-dominated points also emerged when studying the diurnal S{sub 1} and semi-diurnal S{sub 2} periodic components. At the advection-dominated points, radon concentration did not exhibit S{sub 1} or S{sub 2} components. At the reference points, however, the S{sub 2} component, associated with barometric tide, could be identified during the dry season, but only when the probe was installed at shallow depth. The S{sub 1} component, associated with thermal and possibly barometric diurnal forcing, was systematically observed, especially during monsoon season. The remarkable short-term and long-term temporal stability of the radon concentration at the advection-dominated points, which suggests a strong pressure source at depth, may be an important asset to detect

  16. Temporal signatures of advective versus diffusive radon transport at a geothermal zone in Central Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Temporal variation of radon-222 concentration was studied at the Syabru-Bensi hot springs, located on the Main Central Thrust zone in Central Nepal. This site is characterized by several carbon dioxide discharges having maximum fluxes larger than 10 kg m-2 d-1. Radon concentration was monitored with autonomous BarasolTM probes between January 2008 and November 2009 in two small natural cavities with high CO2 concentration and at six locations in the soil: four points having a high flux, and two background reference points. At the reference points, dominated by radon diffusion, radon concentration was stable from January to May, with mean values of 22 ± 6.9 and 37 ± 5.5 kBq m-3, but was affected by a large increase, of about a factor of 2 and 1.6, respectively, during the monsoon season from June to September. At the points dominated by CO2 advection, by contrast, radon concentration showed higher mean values 39.0 ± 2.6 to 78 ± 1.4 kBq m-3, remarkably stable throughout the year with small long-term variation, including a possible modulation of period around 6 months. A significant difference between the diffusion dominated reference points and the advection-dominated points also emerged when studying the diurnal S1 and semi-diurnal S2 periodic components. At the advection-dominated points, radon concentration did not exhibit S1 or S2 components. At the reference points, however, the S2 component, associated with barometric tide, could be identified during the dry season, but only when the probe was installed at shallow depth. The S1 component, associated with thermal and possibly barometric diurnal forcing, was systematically observed, especially during monsoon season. The remarkable short-term and long-term temporal stability of the radon concentration at the advection-dominated points, which suggests a strong pressure source at depth, may be an important asset to detect possible temporal variations associated with the seismic cycle. - Graphical abstract: Radon

  17. Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes: Seismic hazard and risk assessment for Himalayas, Lake Baikal, and Central China regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekrasova, Anastasia; Kossobokov, Vladimir; Parvez, Imtiyaz; Tao, Xiaxin

    2015-04-01

    The Unified Scaling Law for Earthquakes (USLE), that generalizes the Gutenberg-Richter recurrence relation, has evident implications since any estimate of seismic hazard depends on the size of the territory that is used for investigation, averaging, and extrapolation into the future. Therefore, the hazard may differ dramatically when scaled down to the proportion of the area of interest (e.g. territory occupied by a city) from the enveloping area of investigation. In fact, given the observed patterns of distributed seismic activity the results of multi-scale analysis embedded in USLE approach demonstrate that traditional estimations of seismic hazard and risks for cities and urban agglomerations are usually underestimated. Moreover, the USLE approach provides a significant improvement when compared to the results of probabilistic seismic hazard analysis, e.g. the maps resulted from the Global Seismic Hazard Assessment Project (GSHAP). We apply the USLE approach to evaluating seismic hazard and risks to population of the three territories of different size representing a sub-continental and two different regional scales of analysis, i.e. the Himalayas and surroundings, Lake Baikal, and Central China regions.

  18. Haematological profile of crossbred dairy cattle to monitor herd health status at medium elevation in Central Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, B; Pachauri, S P

    2000-10-01

    Haematological profile-haemoglobin concentration (Hb), total erythrocytes count (TEC), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte indices-mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) were studied in crossbred dairy cattle (Holstein Friesian x Sahiwal) under various physiological states: non-pregnant heifers (NPH), pregnant heifers (PH), empty dry cows (EDC), pregnant lactating cows (PLC), medium yield early lactating cows (MYELC) and high yield early lactating cows (HYELC) during summer and winter seasons at 1700 metres altitude from mean sea level in the Central Himalayas. On comparison of annual means, the highest values of Hb and PCV were recorded in PH and of TEC in NPH, whereas the lowest values of these parameters were found in EDC. The Hb and TEC tended to decrease with increasing milk yield. Comparison of annual means of erythrocyte indices revealed the highest MCV and MCH in EDC, which simultaneously showed the lowest MCHC. Significant seasonal variations in haematological profile were recorded. The overall group mean (OGM) of Hb, MCV, MCH and MCHC was found to be significantly higher (P OGM (P < 0.01) during the winter season.

  19. An improved method to compute supra glacial debris thickness using thermal satellite images together with an Energy Balance Model in the Nepal Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egli, Pascal; Ayala, Alvaro; Buri, Pascal; Pellicciotti, Francesca

    2016-04-01

    A significant proportion of Himalayan glaciers is debris covered. Knowing the thickness of the debris cover is essential to obtain accurate estimates of melt rates. Due to the remoteness of these glaciers, collecting field measurements of debris thickness for a large number of glaciers is not realistic. For this reason, previous studies have proposed an approach based on computing the energy balance at the debris surface using surface temperature from satellite imagery together with meteorological data and solving the energy balance for debris thickness. These studies differ only in the way they account for the nonlinearity of debris temperature profiles and the heat stored in the debris layer. In our study we aim to 1) assess the performance of three existing models, and 2) develop a new methodology for calculating the conductive heat flux within the debris, which accounts for the history of debris temperature profiles by solving the advection-diffusion equation of heat numerically. Additionally, we found that in the previous studies several input variables are considered as uniform and we improved this by using distributed representations. As a study case we use Lirung glacier in Langtang valley, Nepal, and we work with Landsat satellite thermal images. Results are validated using measurements of debris thickness on the glacier from October 2012 and 2015. In some cases the existing models yield realistic results. But there is very little consistency between results for different satellite images. In general, computed debris thickness is frequently too thin compared to reality. Two of the existing models were able to accurately reproduce the extent of thin debris cover on the upper part of Lirung glacier. The mean debris thickness on Lirung obtained with the existing models lies between 0.1 m and 0.3 m depending on the model used, whereby the upper value of 0.3 m corresponds best to the field measurements. Preliminary results from our new model show a larger

  20. Evaluation of prescribing indicators and pattern among dermatological outpatients in a teaching hospital of central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manohar Pradhan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Evaluation of prescribing indicators by proper analysis of prescriptions under the guidelines of World Health Organization enables us to detect some of the common problems of prescribing.Methodology: This study was conducted on randomly selected 325 prescriptions of dermatological outpatients of teaching hospital of College of Medical Sciences Bharatpur (Nepal with an objective to detect the problems of prescribing as well as to delineate the pattern of medicines prescribing.Results: Total number of medicines prescribed on these prescriptions was 743. The average number of medicines per encounter was 2.28. Antihistamines, antifungals, corticosteroids and antibiotics were four most frequently prescribed therapeutic classes. One systemic as well as one topical medicine belonging to same therapeutic class was prescribed on about one-third of totally analyzed prescriptions. Cetrizine was the most common individually prescribed medicine and fluconazole was the most commonly prescribed antifungal. Medicines prescribed by their generic name were 15.07% and those prescribed from national essential medicines list were 23.42%.Conclusion: This study reveals polypharmacy, inclination of prescribers for branded medicines and prescribing out of national formulary as problems. Educational and managerial interventions are required to rationalize the prescribing practice.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(2:44-9.

  1. Role of snow-albedo feedback in higher elevation warming over the Himalayas, Tibetan Plateau and Central Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent literature has shown that surface air temperature (SAT) in many high elevation regions, including the Tibetan Plateau (TP) has been increasing at a faster rate than at their lower elevation counterparts. We investigate projected future changes in SAT in the TP and the surrounding high elevation regions (between 25°–45°N and 50°–120°E) and the potential role snow-albedo feedback may have on amplified warming there. We use the Community Climate System Model version 4 (CCSM4) and Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) model which have different spatial resolutions as well as different climate sensitivities. We find that surface albedo (SA) decreases more at higher elevations than at lower elevations owing to the retreat of the 0 °C isotherm and the associated retreat of the snow line. Both models clearly show amplified warming over Central Asian mountains, the Himalayas, the Karakoram and Pamir during spring. Our results suggest that the decrease of SA and the associated increase in absorbed solar radiation (ASR) owing to the loss of snowpack play a significant role in triggering the warming over the same regions. Decreasing cloud cover in spring also contributes to an increase in ASR over some of these regions in CCSM4. Although the increase in SAT and the decrease in SA are greater in GFDL than CCSM4, the sensitivity of SAT to changes in SA is the same at the highest elevations for both models during spring; this suggests that the climate sensitivity between models may differ, in part, owing to their corresponding treatments of snow cover, snow melt and the associated snow/albedo feedback. (letter)

  2. Sensitivity of annual mass balance gradient and Hypsometry to the changing climate: the case of Dokriani Glacier, central Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratap, B.

    2015-12-01

    The glacier mass balance is undelayed, unfiltered and direct method to assess the impact of climate change on the glaciers. Many studies suggest that some of the Himalayan glaciers have lost their mass at an increased rate during the past few decades. Furthermore, the mass balance gradient and hypsometric analysis are important to understand the glacier response towards climatic perturbations. Our long term in-situ monitoring on the Dokriani Glacier provides great insights to understand the variability in central Himalayan glaciers. We report the relationship between glacier hypsometry and annual mass balance gradient (12 years) to understand the glacier's response towards climate change. Dokriani Glacier in the Bhagirathi basin is a small (7 km2) NNW exposed glacier in the western part of central Himalaya, India. The study analysed the annual balance, mass balance gradient and length changes observed during first decade of 21st century (2007-2013) and compare with the previous observations of 1990s (1992-2000). A large spatial variability in the mass balance gradients of two different periods has been observed. The equilibrium-line altitude (ELA) was fluctuated between 5000 and 5100 m a.s.l. and the derived time averaged ELA (ELAn) and balance budget ELA (ELA0) were 5075 and 4965 m a.s.l respectively during 1992-2013. The observed time-averaged accumulation-area ratio (AARn) and balance budget AAR (AAR0) were 0.67 and 0.72 respectively during 1992-2013. The higher value of AAR comprises due to flat and broader accumulation area (4.50 km2) of the glacier. Although, having larger accumulation area, the glacier has faced strong mass wasting with average annual ablation of -1.82 m w.e. a-1 in the ablation zone as compare to residual average annual accumulation of 0.41 m w.e. a-1. Based on the annual mass balance series (12 years) Dokriani Glacier has continuous negative annual balances with monotonically negative cumulative mass loss of -3.86 m w.e with the average

  3. Systemic lupus erythematosus in Nepal: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafle, M P; Lee, Vws

    2016-08-01

    Nepal is a small country that is landlocked between India and China. Several ethnic groups live within the 147,181 km(2) of this country. Geographic diversity ranges from the high Himalayas to the flatlands of the Ganges plains. Lupus nephritis (LN), a complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), is a common kidney problem in Nepal; but the real incidence and prevalence of SLE in Nepal is largely not known. Here, it more commonly affects people (mostly women) living in the southern flatlands, but SLE is reported to be uncommon further south in India. Even though the disease appears to be common, good quality research is uncommon in Nepali literature. This article was written to provide a review of the articles published to date about SLE in Nepal and to discuss the gaps in knowledge that require further evaluation. PMID:26957353

  4. MYCOTOXINS IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES: A CASE STUDY OF MAIZE IN NEPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize (Zea mays) is an important food crop in the foothills of the Nepal Himalaya Mountains. Surveys have found that maize in Nepal is contaminated with Fusarium species, mainly F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum, which produce fumonisins, and F. graminearum, which produces trichothecenes, main...

  5. Psychosocial problems among adolescent students: An exploratory study in the central region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bihungum Bista

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, school has drawn attention, as one of the dominant factors for psychosocial development of students. Nepal, however has limited studies on this issue. Study sought to assess the prevalence of psychosocial problem among adolescent students and family related factors. Methods: Taking 787 adolescent students from 13 schools of Hetauda municipality, we accomplished a cross-sectional study. A set of structured questionnaire and Y-PSC (Youth-Pediatric Symptoms Checklist was adopted. A series of univariate, bivarite and multivariate analysis were performed for statistical analysis.Results: One-fifth (17.03% adolescent students suffered with psychosocial problem. Male (9.50% got affected more, compared to their female counterparts (7.80%. Figure of psychosocial problem rose with rise in age group and class. Frequency of family dispute was significantly associated with psychosocial problem (95% CI: 2.27-17.23. Conclusion: Interventions on psychosocial problems need a greater start, with special emphasis on school setting, targeting adolescents and community settings, targeting parents.

  6. Soft sediment deformation structures and their implications for Late Quaternary seismicity on the South Tibetan Detachment System, Central Himalaya (Uttarakhand), India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Naresh; Bhattacharya, Falguni; Basavaiah, N.; Pant, R. K.; Juyal, Navin

    2013-04-01

    The South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) defines the lithological and tectonic boundary between the Higher Himalayan crystallines and the Tethyan sedimentaries. Earlier studies have suggested that the STDS has been dormant since its inception during the Miocene along with the Main Central Thrust (MCT). However, recent studies indicate that the STDS was active during the Pleistocene-Holocene period. We provide additional support for this more recent activity based on the occurrence of seismically induced Soft Sediment Deformation Structures (SSDS) preserved in relict lake sediments in the Dhauli Ganga, Gori Ganga and Kali Ganga river basins of the Central Himalaya. The relict lakes are located on the hanging wall of the STDS. An optical chronology of the lake sediments brackets the seismically induced SSDS between 20 ka and 11 ka with a major seismic event of magnitude > 6.5 occurring between 17 ka and 13.5 ka. Since MCT and STDS are considered to be the coupled structures, our observation supports the hypothesis that the STDS is providing accommodation space to the strain gradient arising due to the north-south compression in the Himalaya during the late Quaternary.

  7. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-01-01

    Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstrea...

  8. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopacz, M.; Mauzerall, D. L.; Wang, J.; Leibensperger, E. M.; Henze, D. K.; Singh, K.

    2011-03-01

    The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC) emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5-15 W m-2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  9. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and find the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect to vary from 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo likely accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis may help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  10. Origin and radiative forcing of black carbon transported to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kopacz

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The remote and high elevation regions of central Asia are influenced by black carbon (BC emissions from a variety of locations. BC deposition contributes to melting of glaciers and questions exist, of both scientific and policy interest, as to the origin of the BC reaching the glaciers. We use the adjoint of the GEOS-Chem model to identify the location from which BC arriving at a variety of locations in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau originates. We then calculate its direct and snow-albedo radiative forcing. We analyze the seasonal variation in the origin of BC using an adjoint sensitivity analysis, which provides a detailed map of the location of emissions that directly contribute to black carbon concentrations at receptor locations. We find that emissions from northern India and central China contribute the majority of BC to the Himalayas, although the precise location varies with season. The Tibetan Plateau receives most BC from western and central China, as well as from India, Nepal, the Middle East, Pakistan and other countries. The magnitude of contribution from each region varies with season and receptor location. We find that sources as varied as African biomass burning and Middle Eastern fossil fuel combustion can significantly contribute to the BC reaching the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. We compute radiative forcing in the snow-covered regions and estimate the forcing due to the BC induced snow-albedo effect at about 5–15 W m−2 within the region, an order of magnitude larger than radiative forcing due to the direct effect, and with significant seasonal variation in the northern Tibetan Plateau. Radiative forcing from reduced snow albedo accelerates glacier melting. Our analysis can help inform mitigation efforts to slow the rate of glacial melt by identifying regions that make the largest contributions to BC deposition in the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau.

  11. Modelling the Crust beneath the Kashmir valley in Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, R. R.; Parvez, I. A.; Gaur, V. K.; A.; Chandra, R.; Romshoo, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the crustal structure beneath five broadband seismic stations in the NW-SE trendingoval shaped Kashmir valley sandwiched between the Zanskar and the Pir Panjal ranges of thenorthwestern Himalaya. Three of these sites were located along the southwestern edge of the valley andthe other two adjoined the southeastern. Receiver Functions (RFs) at these sites were calculated usingthe iterative time domain deconvolution method and jointly inverted with surface wave dispersiondata to estimate the shear wave velocity structure beneath each station. To further test the results ofinversion, we applied forward modelling by dividing the crust beneath each station into 4-6homogeneous, isotropic layers. Moho depths were separately calculated at different piercing pointsfrom the inversion of only a few stacked receiver functions of high quality around each piercing point.These uncertainties were further reduced to ±2 km by trial forward modelling as Moho depths werevaried over a range of ±6 km in steps of 2 km and the synthetic receiver functions matched with theinverted ones. The final values were also found to be close to those independently estimated using theH-K stacks. The Moho depths on the eastern edge of the valley and at piercing points in itssouthwestern half are close to 55 km, but increase to about 58 km on the eastern edge, suggesting thathere, as in the central and Nepal Himalaya, the Indian plate dips northeastwards beneath the Himalaya.We also calculated the Vp/Vs ratio beneath these 5 stations which were found to lie between 1.7 and1.76, yielding a Poisson's ratio of ~0.25 which is characteristic of a felsic composition.

  12. Three-dimensional velocity structure around Tehri region of the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya: constraints on geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanaujia, Jyotima; Kumar, Ashwani; Gupta, S. C.

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the upper crustal velocity structure beneath the Tehri region of the Garhwal Himalaya. The investigated region is situated within the 700-km-long central seismic gap of the Himalaya that has experienced three gap-filling earthquakes since 1991 including the recent 2015 Nepal earthquake (Mw 7.8). The local tomographic inversion is based on a data set of 1365 events collected from 2008 January to 2012 December by a 12-station local network that covers an area of about 100 × 80 km around Tehri Dam. We perform a simultaneous inversion for P- and S-wave velocity anomalies. Tomograms are interpreted in the backdrop of the regional geological and tectonic framework of the region. The spatial distribution of relocated events from the 3-D velocity model has shed new light on the pattern of seismicity in the vicinity of the Main Central thrust (MCT), and has elucidated the structure of the underthrusting Indian plate. Our model exhibits a significant negative velocity anomaly up to ˜5 per cent beneath the central part of the Garhwal Inner Lesser Himalaya, and a P-wave low velocity anomaly near the Chamoli region. The seismicity zone around the Chamoli region may be attributed to the presence of fluid-filled rocks. Furthermore, an area with ˜3-4 per cent positive velocity anomaly is delineated to the northwest of the Uttarkashi thrust in the vicinity of the MCT. Significant findings of the study include: a flat-ramp-flat-type subsurface geometry of the underthrusting Indian plate below the Garhwal Himalaya, high-velocity images representing the trend and configuration of Delhi-Haridwar ridge below the Sub Himalaya and Lesser Himalaya and a seismically active zone representing geometrical asperity on the basement thrust in the vicinity of the MCT.

  13. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  14. Panigarh cave stalagmite evidence of climate change in the Indian Central Himalaya since AD 1256: Monsoon breaks and winter southern jet depressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Fuyuan; Brook, George A.; Kotlia, Bahadur S.; Railsback, L. Bruce; Hardt, Benjamin; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence; Kandasamy, Selvaraj

    2015-09-01

    Variations in petrography, stable isotopes, reflectance, and luminescence along the central growth axis of a 14.5 cm stalagmite from Panigarh cave indicate cooler and slightly wetter conditions in the Himalayan foothills of northern India during the Little Ice Age (LIA), which lasted from ˜AD 1489-1889 based on deposition of calcite, and AD 1450-1820 based on rapid changes in δ18O values. Conditions were warmer and drier during the preceding Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) and also in the post-LIA periods, as evidenced by deposition of aragonite. A review of currently existing stalagmite and other proxy data from south and east Asia reveals a broad spatial pattern in precipitation over south and east Asia during the LIA, with northern areas showing generally increased precipitation and southern areas reduced precipitation. During the MCA and after the LIA, the records suggest this pattern was reversed. Weaker ISM during the LIA brought drought conditions to the core ISM area but triggered more monsoon 'breaks' that brought higher precipitation to the Himalayas. At the same time, the weaker ISM may also have pushed more depressions along the path of the southern winter jet which brought more winter precipitation to the Himalayas and therefore a LIA wetter in our study area.

  15. Neogene vegetation and past climate change in the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben (central Nepal).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Wagreich, Michael; Draxler, Ilse; Paudayal, Khum N.

    2010-05-01

    The Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which reflects Neogene extensional tectonics in the Tibetan Plateau and Himalaya, lies north of the Dhaulagiri-Annapurna ranges and south of the Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone. The basement of Thakkhola-Mustang Graben is made up of Tibetan-Tethyan sedimentary rocks of Paleozoic and Mesozoic ages, which are unconformably overlain by continental debris (more than 850 m) of Neogene to Quaternary age. Stratigraphically, the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben sediments have been divided into five formations namely the Tetang Formation, the Thakkhola Formation, the Sammargaon Formation, the Marpha Formation and the Kaligandaki Formation. Different approaches have been made to study the Neogene sediments in this graben. In this study, we mainly focused on sedimentological and palynological studies of the Thakkhola-Mustang Graben, which provides a basis for discussing the paleo-environmental evolution of the southern continental margin of the Tibetan Plateau towards the end of the Miocene. Field mapping, profile logging, stable carbon and oxygen isotope analysis, and palynological studies were carried out to understand the depositional environment and the paleoclimate. The methodology developed by Zetter (1989) was followed for the pollen extraction. Pollen samples were processed in the laboratory and were studied under the light microscope (LM), which were later transferred to the scanning electron microscope (SEM). A variety of sedimentary environments are recognized including alluvial fan, lacustrine, braided river and glacio-fluvial. Neogene sediments are composed of braided fluvial deposits with lacustrine deposits in different level of the succession. Most of the pollens were found in the lacustrine layers of the Tetang and Thakkhola formations. Pollen analysis shows that the sediments contain dominant alpine trees like Abies, Pinus, Keteleeria, Picea Tsuga and Quercus with some steppe elements like Artemisia, Compositae, Chenopodiaceae, Plantago and

  16. Study of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in recently diagnosed hypertensives in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shankar Laudari

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available CORRECTION: The conclusion on the PDF of this article was replaced on 17th April 2016. The corrected PDF is now available by clicking on the link below.Background & Objectives: Ectopic Left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is now well established as a cause of left sided heart failure and as a powerful predictor of cardiovascular events. It is attributed mostly to systemic hypertension. The objective of the study was to determine the prevalence of left ventricular diastolic dysfunction in recently diagnosed hypertensives in Nepalese population using echocardiography. Materials & Methods: Two-dimensional echocardiography was performed on 120 newly diagnosed patients of systemic hypertension. Transmitral Doppler indexes of diastolic function, Valsalva maneuver applied to the same mitral inflow pattern, pulsed tissue Doppler of the mitral annulus, deceleration time, isovolumic relaxation time and pulmonary venous flow pattern.Results: The age of the patients in our study ranged from 20 to 84 years with mean age of 50years±14.13 years (standard deviation and male:female ratio being 1.35:1. Hypertensive patients were highest in age group 45-64 years followed by 25-44 years in both the genders. Majority of the patients had stage 1 hypertension (44.16% followed by stage 2 HTN in 34.17% and pre-hypertension in 21.67%. The majority of the patients in our study had Grade 1 LVDD (66.67%, 10.83% patients had Grade II LVDD, only 2.50% had non-restrictive Grade III LVDD and none had LVDD-IV. Stage II hypertensives had more LVDD(I+II+III: 39/41-95.12% than stage I hypertensives(39/53-73.58% and pre-hypertensives (8/26-30.77%. The association between stages of systemic HTN and LVDD was found to be highly statistically significant (p=0.002. Conclusion: Our study showed that left ventricular diastolic dysfunction is a common entity in Nepalese population with systemic hypertension.JCMS Nepal. 2016;12(1:14-18.

  17. Out-of-Sequence Thrust in the Higher Himalaya- a Review & Possible Genesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, S.; Koyi, H. A.; Talbot, C. J.

    2009-04-01

    An out-of-sequence thrust (OOST) has been established inside the Higher Himalaya by previous workers more frequently from Nepal- and Bhutan Himalaya. The OOST lies between the South Tibetan Detachment System-Upper (STDSU) and the South Tibetan Detachment System-Lower (STDSL). The thrust has been recognized as the Kakhtang Thrust in Bhutan (Grujic et al., 2002 and references therein); Khumbu Thrust (Searle, 1999), Modi Khola Shear Zone (Hodges et al., 1996), Kalopani Shear Zone (Vannay and Hodges, 1999), Toijem Shear Zone in Nepal (Carosi et al., 2007), Chaura Thrust (Jain et al., 2000)- also designated as the Sarahan Thrust (Chambers et al., 2008) in the western Indian Himalaya in Sutlej section, Zimithang Thrust in the eastern Indian Himalaya (Yin et al., 2006), as ‘physiographic transition' in Marsyandi valley, Nepal (Burbank et al., 2003). We note that considering the upper strand of the Main Central Thrust (the MCTU) as the lower boundary of the Higher Himalaya, the physiographic transition has also been referred to lie in the Lesser Himalaya.The period of activity of the OOST was 22.5-18.5 Ma (Hodges et al., 1996), 14-10 Ma (Grujic et al., 2002), 4.9-1.5 Ma (Jain et al., 2000), and from Late Pliocene to even Holocene Period (Burbank, 2005). The out-of-sequence thrusting was followed after the initiation of channel flow at ~ 15 Ma in the Higher Himalaya with a maximum delay of ~ 13 Ma. However, in the Bhutan Himalaya, the thrusting continued along with the extensional ductile shearing in the STDSU at 11-10 Ma (Hollister and Grujic, 2006). The OOST in the Higher Himalaya lies inside the zone of the top-to-SW sense of ductile shearing. The OOST, at Kakhtang, Toijem, and Chaura are ductile shear zones with a top-to-SW sense of shearing. The OOST merges with the MCT and the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) at a depth of 30 km or more and either runs 200-300 km beneath the Tibetan plateau (Grujic et al., 2002; Hollister and Grujic, 2006). The hanging wall side of the

  18. Sedimentology of a Mid-Late Ordovician carbonate mud-mound complex from the Kathmandu nappe in Central Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pas, Damien; Da Silva, Anne-Christine; Dhital, Megh Raj; Boulvain, Frédéric

    2011-08-01

    This sedimentological study of the Godavari quarry is the first relating to the Palaeozoic Tethyan sedimentary rocks of the Katmandu nappe (Central Nepal). Sedimentological analyses led to the identification of six microfacies belonging to a large carbonate mud-mound complex, which can be divided into mound, flank and off-mound main depositional settings. Identification of two dasycladaceans ( Dasyporell a cf. silurica ( Stolley, 1893) and Vermiporella sp.) in the mound facies gives a Mid-Late Ordovician age to this newly discovered Godavari carbonate mud-mound, which makes this mound one of the oldest ever described in the Asian continent. The mound microfacies are characterized by a high micritic content, the presence of stromatactis and the prevalence of red coloured sediments (the red pigmentation probably being related to organic precipitation of iron). The flank microfacies are characterized by a higher crinoid and argillaceous content and the presence of bio- and lithoclasts concentrated in argillaceous lenses. Finally, the off-mound microfacies show very few bioclasts and a high argillaceous content. Palaeoenvionmental interpretation of microfacies, in terms of bathymetry, leads us to infer that the Godavari mud-mound started to grow in a deep environment setting below the photic and wave action zones and that it evolved to occupy a location below the fair weather wave base. Cementation of cavities within the mound facies underlines a typical transition from a marine to a burial diagenetic environment characterized by: (1) a radiaxial non luminescent feroan calcite cement (marine) showing a bright orange luminescent band in its middle part; (2) a bright zoned orange fringe of automorphic feroan calcite (meteoric phreatic); (3) a dull orange xenomorphic feroan calcite cement in the centre of cavities (burial) and (4) a saddle dolomite within the centre of larger cavities. The faunal assemblage (diversity and relative proportion) of the Godavari mound facies

  19. Geochronogy of leucogranites in Yadong region: constraints on the age of the South Tibetan Detachment System in central-eastern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhi-Chao; Wu, Fu-Yuan; Ji, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Jian-Gang; Liu, Xiao-Chi

    2016-04-01

    The South Tibetan Detachment System (STDS) is a series of low-angle normal faults with an extension of more than 2000 km along strike of the Himalaya orogen (Burchfiel et al., 1992). It separates the high-grade rocks of the Greater Himalaya Sequence (GHS) from the generally low-grade metasedimentary rocks of Tethyan Himalaya Sequence (THS) above. Knowing the timing of deformations related to the STDS is critical to understanding the exhumation history of the Himalaya. In central-eastern Himalaya, the STDS is disrupted by a major northeast-trending fault zone that was referred as Yadong Cross Structure (YCS). Exposures of the STDS either side of the YCS have been well determined, and the cessation timing of shearing have been estimated prior to 22~16 Ma for the western section and younger than 12 Ma for the eastern section (see the review in Leloup et al., 2010). It suggests that the YCS is key region that corresponds to a major timing discontinuity. However, the exposure of STDS in Yadong region and its activity timing has not been well constrained. Field mapping of the Yadong region reveals that a klippen of Cambrian biotite schist, chlorite schist, calcischists and quartzite, and Ordovician limestones of the THS units was resting on garnet-sillimanite-plagioclase gneisses, augen granitic gneisses and migmatites of the GHS basement (China University of Geosciences, 2005, unpublished). Structural relationships indicate that the contact is a low-angle normal fault, which was termed as Yadong shear zone (Xu et al., 2013). We correlate the Yadong shear zone to the STDS following the broader convention that STDS is defined as the contact between the THS and GHS. There are two leucogranite plutons within the shear zone, the Dingga pluton to the north and the Gaowu pluton to the south. They intruded into both GHS and THS, with the main bodies are undeformed and isotropic. Furthermore, there are numbers of undeformed dykes crosscut the foliations of the country rocks

  20. WETLAND TYPES AND ASSOCIATE VEGETATION IN NEPAL:AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohan Siwakoti

    2007-01-01

    Wetland is the transitional zone between the permanently wet and dry environment and shares the characteristics of the environment. Wetland is not yet to be classified unambiguously as either aquatic or terrestrial. However, the Ramsar Convention adopts an extremely broad approach in determining the wetland; as a result, several varieties of habitat types are included under the wetland definition. Wetlands are among the world's most productive ecosystems and provide a wide variety of goods and services. Nepal lies on the southern slopes of central Himalayas and occupies a total area of 147 181 km2 between the latitudes 26°22′ N and 30°27′ N and the longitudes 80°40′ E and 88°12′ E. The diverse landscape (60-8 848 m) and bioclimatic conditions (alpine to tropical) of the country provide a unique niche for different types of wetlands. These are distributed from high altitudinal glacial lakes to hot springs, ponds, ox-bow lakes to river floodplains, marshes and swamps. The country has 15 types of inland freshwater natural wetlands as classified by the Ramsar Convention. These wetlands house several species of rare and endangered flora and fauna. The present paper attempts to highlight the various types of wetlands in Nepal with associate vegetation.

  1. Short-term variability in the dates of the Indian monsoon onset and retreat on the southern and northern slopes of the central Himalayas as determined by precipitation stable isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Wusheng; Yao, Tandong; Tian, Lide; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Rong; Devkota, Lochan P.; Wang, Weicai; Qu, Dongmei; Chhetri, Tek B.

    2016-07-01

    This project launched the first study to compare the stable isotopes (δ18O and δD) in daily precipitation at Kathmandu (located on the southern slope of the central Himalayas) and Tingri (located on the northern slope). The results show that low δ18O and δD values of summer precipitation at the two stations were closely related to intense convection of the Indian monsoon. However, summer δ18O and δD values at Tingri were lower than those at Kathmandu, a result of the lift effect of the Himalayas, coupled with convection disturbances and lower temperatures at Tingri. In winter, the relatively high δ18O and δD values at the two stations appears to have resulted from the influence of the westerlies. Compared with those during the summer, the subsidence of the westerlies and northerly winds resulted in relatively high δ18O and δD values of the winter precipitation at Tingri. Winter δ18O and δD values at Kathmandu far exceeded those at Tingri, due to more intense advection of the southern branch of the westerlies, and higher temperatures and relative humidity at Kathmandu. The detailed differences in stable isotopes between the two stations follow short-term variability in the onset date of the Indian monsoon and its retreat across the central Himalayas. During the sampling period, the Indian monsoon onset at Tingri occurred approximately 1 week later than that at Kathmandu. However, the retreat at Tingri began roughly 3 days earlier. Clearly, the duration of the Indian monsoon effects last longer at Kathmandu than that at Tingri. Our findings also indicate that the India monsoon travels slowly northward across the central Himalayas due to the blocking of the Himalayas, but retreats quickly.

  2. DEM-based delineation for improving geostatistical interpolation of rainfall in mountainous region of Central Himalayas, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Madhuri; Singh, Chander Kumar; Bakimchandra, Oinam; Basistha, Ashoke

    2016-07-01

    In mountainous region with heterogeneous topography, the geostatistical modeling of the rainfall using global data set may not confirm to the intrinsic hypothesis of stationarity. This study was focused on improving the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps by spatial stratification in complex terrain. Predictions of the normal annual rainfall data were carried out by ordinary kriging, universal kriging, and co-kriging, using 80-point observations in the Indian Himalayas extending over an area of 53,484 km2. A two-step spatial clustering approach is proposed. In the first step, the study area was delineated into two regions namely lowland and upland based on the elevation derived from the digital elevation model. The delineation was based on the natural break classification method. In the next step, the rainfall data was clustered into two groups based on its spatial location in lowland or upland. The terrain ruggedness index (TRI) was incorporated as a co-variable in co-kriging interpolation algorithm. The precision of the kriged and co-kriged maps was assessed by two accuracy measures, root mean square error and Chatfield's percent better. It was observed that the stratification of rainfall data resulted in 5-20 % of increase in the performance efficiency of interpolation methods. Co-kriging outperformed the kriging models at annual and seasonal scale. The result illustrates that the stratification of the study area improves the stationarity characteristic of the point data, thus enhancing the precision of the interpolated rainfall maps derived using geostatistical methods.

  3. Atmospheric Modelling for Air Quality Study over the complex Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapipith, Vanisa; Panday, Arnico; Mukherji, Aditi; Banmali Pradhan, Bidya; Blumer, Sandro

    2014-05-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) for the assessment of Air Quality across the Himalaya mountain ranges. The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model version 3.5 has been implemented over the regional domain, stretching across 4995 x 4455 km2 centred at Ichhyakamana , the ICIMOD newly setting-up mountain-peak station (1860 m) in central Nepal, and covering terrains from sea-level to the Everest (8848 m). Simulation is carried out for the winter time period, i.e. December 2012 to February 2013, when there was an intensive field campaign SusKat, where at least 7 super stations were collecting meteorology and chemical parameters on various sites. The very complex terrain requires a high horizontal resolution (1 × 1 km2), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, into 3 coarser ones (27, 9, 3 km resolution). Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, and the challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed, before moving forward with the fully coupled chemistry module (WRF-Chem), having local and regional emission databases as input. The effort aims at finding a better understanding of the atmospheric processes and air quality impact on the mountain population, as well as the impact of the long-range transport, particularly of Black Carbon aerosol deposition, to the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The higher rate of snowcap melting, and shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Better prediction will supply crucial information to form the proper mitigation and adaptation strategies for saving people lives across the Himalayas in the changing climate.

  4. On-farm Conservation of Landraces of Rice (Oryza Sativa L.) through Cultivation in the Kumaun Region of Indian Central Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Himalayan region is a known hot spot of crop diversity. Traditional varieties (usually called primitive cultivars or landraces), having withstood the rigors of time (including harsh climatic conditions as well as attacks of insects, pests and diseases), can still be found in crop fields in rural parts of Indian Central Himalaya (ICH). These landraces harbor many desired traits from which, for example, varieties that are tolerant/resistant to abiotic/biotic stresses could be developed. In addition to the above benefits,landraces provide a basis for food security and a more varied and interesting diet. Some landraces are also known to be of medicinal value. These, along with some lesser known hill crops, are often referred to by different names such as under exploited crops, crops for marginal lands, poor person crops, and neglected mountain crops. The Himalayan region continues to be a reservoir of a large number of landraces and cultivars whose economic and ecological potential is yet to be fully understood and/or exploited. Indians have had a history of rice cultivation since ancient times. Farmers, including tribals inhabiting the IHR, still cultivate a plethora of landraces of rice and thus directly contribute towardson-farm conservation of valuable germplasm and help in the preservation of crop diversity. The present paper looks at the on-farm conservation of rice germplasm, which is still practised in the Kumaun region of ICH.

  5. Measurements of radon flux and soil-gas radon concentration along the Main Central Thrust, Garhwal Himalaya, using SRM and RAD7 detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourai, Abhay; Aswal, Sunita; Dangwal, Anoop; Rawat, Mukesh; Prasad, Mukesh; Naithani, Nagendra; Joshi, Veena; Ramola, Rakesh

    2013-08-01

    Radon in the Earth's crust or soil matrix is free to move only if its atoms find their way into pores or capillaries of the matrix. 222Rn atoms from solid mineral grains get into air, filling pores through emanation process. Then 222Rn enters into the atmosphere from air-filled pores by exhalation process. The estimation of radon flux from soil surface is an important parameter for determining the source term for radon concentration modeling. In the present investigation, radon fluxes and soil-gas radon concentration have been measured along and around the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in Uttarkashi district of Garhwal Himalaya, India, by using Scintillation Radon Monitor (SRM) and RAD7 devices, respectively. The soil radon gas concentration measured by RAD7 with soil probe at the constant depth was found to vary from 12 ± 3 to 2330 ± 48 Bq·m-3 with geometrical mean value of 302 ± 84 Bq·m-3. Th significance of this work is its usefulness from radiation protection point of view.

  6. Structure, Composition and Dominance � Diversity Relations in Three Forest Types of a Part of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary, Central Himalaya, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Prasad SEMWAL

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant diversity assessment was carried out on the basis of species richness, tree crown cover and dominance-diversity pattern in different forests of Kedarnath Wildlife Sanctuary (KWLS, Central Himalaya, India during 2006-2009. The maximum tree species richness (10 spp. was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest and minimum in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus. forest (8 spp.. Maximum tree density (170 trees/ha and high importance value index (89.68 was found in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. Mixed Rhododendron arboreum Sm. forest showed high tree diversity (H=0.96, while shrub were found highest in Quercus leucotrichophora A. Camus forest (H=0.62 and herb diversity in Q. semecarpifolia Sm.forest (H=0.73 respectively Maximum tree crown cover (82% was observed in Rhododendron arboreum Sm. dominated mixed forest while minimum tree crown cover (58% was observed in Q. semecarpifolia Sm. forest. In general random distribution pattern (A/F ratio was observed in all three types of forest. Alterations of land use pattern and population pressure are found to be main cause of increase in resources exploitation and that ultimately decreases species richness and diversity. Agro-forestry, alternate use of sites for resources and providing a recovery period to the forests are some of the strategies suggested for forest conservation, management and sustainable utilization of resources by the local people.

  7. Effect of mixed-cropping and water-stress on macro-nutrients and biochemical constituents of rhizomatous medicinal plants in Central Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.S.Kandari; K.S.Rao; R.K.Maikhuri; Kusum Payal

    2012-01-01

    Plants in the alpine zone mainly depend on the reserved food materials stored in their rhizomes for the next growing season.We investigated the effect of mixed cropping (Phaseolus vulgaris L.var.Pinto)with four rhizomatous medicinal plants,i.e.,Angelica glauca,Arnebia benthamii,Rheum emodi and Pleurospermum angelicoides as well as three levels of water stress treatment under two conditions (shade net and open field) on macronutrients (NPK) and biochemicals (carbohydrates and protein).The experiment was conducted by completely randomized design (CDR).The data were analyzed with ANOVA as well as CDR.The experimental results show that in all the species shade conditions with sever water stress (SSWS) increased the level of macronutrients (NPK).However,(N) concentration was highest under shade with mixed cropping (SMIX).Under SMIX,carbohydrate content was highest than open field control conditions (CONT).This investigation results demonstrate that mixed cropping of medicinal plants with Phaseolus vulgaris could be a good livelihood option in the mountainous regions of Indian Central Himalaya.And the water-stress conditions along with mixed cropping could improve the biochemical constituents in the rhizome of these species.

  8. Stability Assessment of Headrace Tunnel, Middle Modi Hydropower Project,Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Panta, Mohan Raj

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a land locked country with diversified topographical and geological features. Most of its parts are covered by the low hills to high Himalayas. The Himalayan geology is one of the tectonically youngest geological formations in the world. Except the young formations, rock mass in the Himalaya is highly weathered, fractured and weak in strength and is thus challenging for the construction of underground structure like tunnel and caverns especially for the development of hydropower proj...

  9. Ancient Himalayan wolf ( Canis lupus chanco ) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V.; Jnawali, Shant R.; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The taxonomic status of the wolf ( Canis lupus ) in Nepal’s Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco , has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. Du...

  10. Weak precipitation, warm winters and springs impact glaciers of south slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya in the last two decades (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Salerno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on recent climate trends from the Himalayan range are limited, and even completely absent at high elevation. This contribution specifically explores the southern slopes of Mt. Everest (central Himalaya, analyzing the minimum, maximum, and mean temperature and precipitation time series reconstructed from seven stations located between 2660 and 5600m a.s.l. over the last twenty years (1994–2013. We complete this analysis with data from all the existing ground weather stations located on both sides of the mountain range (Koshi Basin over the same period. Overall we observe that the main and more significant increase in temperature is concentrated outside of the monsoon period. At higher elevations minimum temperature (0.072 ± 0.011 °C a−1, p −1, p > 0.1, while mean temperature increased by 0.044 ± 0.008 °C a−1, p −1, p p < 0.05, but the magnitude of this phenomenon is decidedly lower than the observed decrease of precipitation. (4 The lesser accumulation could be the cause behind the observed lower glacier flow velocity and the current stagnation condition of tongues, which in turn could have trigged melting processes under the debris glacier coverage, leading to the formation of numerous supraglacial and proglacial lakes that have characterized the region in the last decades. Without demonstrating the causes that could have led to the climate change pattern observed at high elevation, we conclude by listing the recent literature on hypotheses that accord with our observations.

  11. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Achyut Aryal; David Raubenheimer; Sambandam Sathyakumar; Buddi Sagar Poudel; Weihong Ji; Kamal Jung Kunwar; Jose Kok; Shiro Kohshima; Dianne Brunton

    2012-01-01

    The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus). However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear ...

  12. 山国尼泊尔之行%A Visit to Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Phyllis Weston

    2003-01-01

    @@ Nepal, tucked into the Himalayas, and its capital,Katmandu are well worth a visit. In preparation for King Berendra's coronation in 1975 a grand refurbishing had taken place: streets and roads paved, the temples of Durbar Square improved with much paint and general repairs.

  13. Detection of snow melt and freezing in Himalaya using OSCAT data

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajashree V Bothale; P V N Rao; C B S Dutt; V K Dadhwal

    2015-02-01

    A study of the snow cover melt and freeze using Ku band Oceansat scatterometer (OSCAT) HH polarised backscatter coefficient (0HH) for 2011 and 2012 is reported for the Himalayas, which contain the world’s largest reserve of ice and snow outside polar regions. The analysis shows spatial and temporal inter-annual variations in the onset of melt/freeze across four regions (Upper Himalaya, Western Himalaya, Central Himalaya, and Eastern Himalaya), nine elevation bands and four aspect zones. A threshold based on temperature–0HH relation and average 0HH for the months January–March was used for melt/freeze detection. When the three consecutive images (6 days) satisfied the threshold, the day of first image was selected as melt onset/freeze day. The average melt onset dates were found to be March 11 ± 11 days for Eastern Himalaya, April 3 ± 18 days for Central Himalaya, April 16 ± 27 days for Western Himalaya, and May 12 ± 18 days for Upper Himalaya. Similarly average freeze onset dates were found to be August 23 ± 27 days for Eastern Himalaya, September 08 ± 24 days for Central Himalaya, August 27 ± 11 days for Western Himalaya, and September 13 ± 11 days for Upper Himalaya. All the zones experienced the melt onset earlier by around 20 days in 2011 at elevation above 5000 m. All the zones experienced freeze earlier in 2012, with onset being 18, 19, 11, and 21 days earlier in Eastern, Central, Western, and Upper Himalaya, respectively.

  14. Challenges of Freshwater Fisheries in Nepal: A Short Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawaraj Gautam

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abundant freshwater resources originated from Himalayas and high geographical variations in Nepal are two factors which might be positive benefits to improve the aquaculture in land locked country. Low labor cost is also another plus point to get better management in fisheries sector. Freshwater fisheries in Nepal are mostly dominated by catch up fisheries of indigenous fish species available in rivers, lakes and paddy fields but exotic and sophisticated species been also introduced in small scales. Beside these, poly cultural pond fish farming is most viable. Carp fishes are the major species and uncontrolled unmanaged capture fisheries dominants over systematic aquaculture. Poor technological implementations, poor budgetary plan, not proper management strategies, lack of quality fish feed and fingerlins, lower market availability are some of the major challenges of Nepalese freshwater fisheries. Long-term sustainable plan, scientific and technological study on indigenous fish species, proper hygiene management and better disease control might improve the current aquaculture status of Nepal.

  15. Long-term record of aerosol optical properties and chemical composition from a high-altitude site (Manora Peak in Central Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ram

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This MS reports on a long-term study of aerosol optical properties and chemical composition, conducted during February 2005–July 2008, from a high-altitude site (Manora Peak, ~2000 m a.s.l. in the central Himalaya. The chemical analyses suggest that, on average, total carbonaceous aerosols (TCA and water-soluble inorganic species (WSIS contribute nearly 25% and 10% of the total suspended particulate (TSP mass, respectively. Both, TSP and aerosol optical depth (AOD exhibit significant increase during summer months, with simultaneous increase in the abundance of mineral dust under the prevailing south-westerly winds and long-range transport from desert regions (from middle-East and Thar Desert in western India. The temporal variability in the abundance pattern of carbonaceous species (EC, OC is also significantly pronounced, with lower concentrations occurring during summertime (April–June and monsoon (July–August and relatively high during post-monsoon (September–November and wintertime (December–March. The WSOC/OC ratios (range: 0.32 to 0.83 during summer and post-monsoon suggest significant contribution from secondary organic aerosols. The mass fraction of absorbing EC (elemental carbon ranges from less than a percent (during summer and monsoon to as high as 7.6% (during winter and absorption coefficient (babs, at 678 nm varied as 0.9–33.9 Mm−1 (1 Mm−1=10−6 m−1. The linear regression analysis between (babs and EC concentration (μgC m−3 yields a slope of 12.2(±2.3 m2 g−1, referred as mass absorption efficiency (σabs of EC. However, temporal data suggests lower σabs values during winter and higher in summer and post-monsoon. The change in the mixing state of aerosols and/or variability in the emission sources could be a plausible reason for the variability in σabs at this

  16. Nepal Networking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    Technical Assistance courses have many functions apart from disseminating knowledge and information, one such function is to engender networks. During the course period, participants meet and establish contact and some of these contacts remain connections between alumni for many years after...... the courses are finished. The alumni networks depend on the uses they are put to by the individual alumni and the support they get from alumni and host countries. The United Nations initiated technical assistance courses in the late 1940s in order to train nationals from developing countries as a means......, as a Danida fellow. Today, the older sister works in Nepal and the younger in Seattle, where they still make use of their personal networks including connections to their fellow alumni of technical assistance courses. Inspired by work on social remittances in combination with network theory , I argue...

  17. Microbial infection and antibiotic patterns among intensive care unit patients in a tertiary hospital in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RK Sanjana

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aims The present study is a fundamental effort to evaluate the bacteriological and antibiotic patterns in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU setting in a tertiary care hospital. This study was carried out to guide the clinician in choosing the appropriate antibiotics and to prevent emergence of multidrug resistance bacteria. Materials and Methods Between March 2009 to Feb 2012, the samples from various ICUs that were submitted to the microbiology laboratory for culture and sensitivity were included in this study. All the organisms were identified morphologically and biochemically by standard laboratory procedure and antibiotic susceptibility pattern was determined by disc diffusion methods. Result Of 3,780 specimens, 2,312 (61.1% isolates were recovered. Single organisms were isolated from 1,746 (75.5% samples while the remaining 566 (24.4% had two or more organisms isolated. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most common isolate 819 (35.4%, followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae 637 (27.5%. Antibiotics sensitivity of Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed that almost all isolates were resistant to cephalexin (97.8% and ciprofloxacin (80.3%. However (95.8% of the isolates were sensitive to tobramycin, (92.0% to meropenem & (74.80 % to amikacin. Conclusion It is concluded that Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the predominate pathogen isolated from ICUs of this Hospital. Most of the frequently isolated pathogens are resistant to cephalosporins and quinolone antibiotics as compared to aminoglycosides and carbapenem. Regular surveillance of antibiotic susceptibility pattern is very important for setting a guideline to the clinician in choosing an appropriate therapy of infected patients of ICUs. Journal of College of Medical Sciences-Nepal, 2012, Vol-8, No-3, 1-8 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3126/jcmsn.v8i3.8678

  18. A retrospective analysis of mature cystic teratomas of the ovary: a cross sectional study from a tertiary care hospital of central region of Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushna Maharjan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Mature cystic teratoma (MCT, usually known as dermoid cysts derived from primordial germ cells. Comparing with different other types of germ cell tumors like dysgerminomas, and endodermal sinus tumors, they are most commonly observed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, clinical and pathological characteristics; and complications of MCT of the ovary in Chitwan district, central region of Nepal. Methods A retrospective, hospital based study was carried out in all histopathologically proven cases of MCT from July 2011 to June 2014. Relevant data were retrieved from the records of Pathology Department of Chitwan Medical College-Teaching Hospital. According to the guidelines of World Health Organization (WHO, classification of ovarian tumors was done mainly based on histogenetic principles. Results Seventy four MCTs were studied from 62 patients. Majority of the patients (74.19% were in reproductive age group of 21-40years. Chief complaint was abdominal pain. Ascites was the most common complication found in 6.45% patients. The rate of torsion was 4.84%; larger tumors underwent torsion more frequently than smaller tumors (P <0.05. Right-sided tumors outnumbered the left-sided tumors. The bilaterality rate was 19.35%. Conclusion Integrated MCT accounts for 49% of all ovarian neoplasm and occur principally during the reproductive years. Postmenopausal women or children sometimes affected. Prevalence rates of torsion were relatively less. Larger tumors have more risk of undergoing torsion than smaller tumors.

  19. Transport of short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P) to the Himalayas during the South Asian summer monsoon onset

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the course of six years (2006–2011), equivalent black carbon (eqBC), coarse aerosol mass (PM1–10), and surface ozone (O3), observed during the monsoon onset period at the Nepal Climate Observatory–Pyramid WMO/GAW Global Station (NCO-P, 5079 m a.s.l.), were analyzed to investigate events characterized by a significant increase in these short-lived climate forcers/pollutants (SLCF/P). These events occurred during periods characterized by low (or nearly absent) rain precipitation in the central Himalayas, and they appeared to be related to weakening stages (or ‘breaking’) of the South Asian summer monsoon system. As revealed by the combined analysis of atmospheric circulation, air-mass three-dimensional back trajectories, and satellite measurements of atmospheric aerosol loading, surface open fire, and tropospheric NO x, the large amount of SLCF/P reaching the NCO-P appeared to be related to natural (mineral dust) and anthropogenic emissions occurring within the PBL of central Pakistan (i.e., Thar Desert), the Northwestern Indo-Gangetic plain, and the Himalayan foothills. The systematic occurrence of these events appeared to represent the most important source of SLCF/P inputs into the central Himalayas during the summer monsoon onset period, with possible important implications for the regional climate and for hydrological cycles. (letter)

  20. Hydrodollars in the Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the controversy surrounding the building of the Arun III dam in Nepal. Funded by foreign investment via the World Bank, this large scale project will generate 402 MW of hydroelectricity. The Nepal government and its foreign investors are determined to press ahead despite local criticism. Opponents, in this fledgling democracy, claim that the project will only benefit an urban elite, while displacing local people and devastating the environment around the dam site. It is also claimed that the scheme merely adds to Nepal's foreign debt while stifling the development of locally run, small-scale hydroelectric plants. (UK)

  1. Tomography of the source zone of the 2015 M 7.8 Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Wei; Zhao, Dapeng

    2016-04-01

    We conducted P-wave anisotropic tomography beneath Nepal and surrounding areas to clarify the causal mechanism of the 25 April 2015 Nepal earthquake (Mw 7.8) and dynamic processes of the India-Asia collision zone. Our results show that hypocenters of the 2015 Nepal mainshock and the 1833 Nepal earthquake (M 8.0) are located in a zone with a higher P-wave velocity (high-V), and the high-V zone coincides with the coseismic slip area of the 2015 Nepal mainshock. The high-V zone may reflect a strongly coupled patch (i.e., asperity) in the megathrust zone between the subducting Indian plate and the overlying Eurasian plate. This result suggests that the nucleation of the Nepal earthquakes was controlled by structural heterogeneities in the megathrust zone. Significant variations of P-wave velocity anisotropy are revealed across the Himalaya collision belt. The predominant fast P-wave velocity direction is NE-SW beneath northern India, whereas it becomes NW-SE beneath the Himalaya, suggesting that the fossil anisotropy in the Indian plate is overprinted by the ongoing India-Asia collision.

  2. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Achyut; Ashok SUBEDI

    2011-01-01

    The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster) is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve). However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26...

  3. Pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss in the Kali Gandaki valley (Central Nepal): Investigation of Late Eocene-Early Oligocene melting processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaccarino, Salvatore; Montomoli, Chiara; Carosi, Rodolfo; Massonne, Hans-Joachim; Langone, Antonio; Visonà, Dario

    2015-08-01

    Kyanite-bearing migmatitic paragneiss of the lower Greater Himalayan Sequence (GHS) in the Kali Gandaki transect (Central Himalaya) was investigated. In spite of the intense shearing, it was still possible to obtain many fundamental information for understanding the processes active during orogenesis. Using a multidisciplinary approach, including careful meso- and microstructural observations, pseudosection modelling (with PERPLE_X), trace element thermobarometry and in situ monazite U-Th-Pb geochronology, we constrained the pressure-temperature-time-deformation path of the studied rock, located in a structural key position. The migmatitic gneiss has experienced protracted prograde metamorphism after the India-Asia collision (50-55 Ma) from ~ 43 Ma to 28 Ma. During the late phase (36-28 Ma) of this metamorphism, the gneiss underwent high-pressure melting at "near peak" conditions (710-720 °C/1.0-1.1 GPa) leading to kyanite-bearing leucosome formation. In the time span of 25-18 Ma, the rock experienced decompression and cooling associated with pervasive shearing reaching P-T conditions of 650-670 °C and 0.7-0.8 GPa, near the sillimanite-kyanite transition. This time span is somewhat older than previously reported for this event in the study area. During this stage, additional, but very little melt was produced. Taking the migmatitic gneiss as representative of the GHS, these data demonstrate that this unit underwent crustal melting at about 1 GPa in the Eocene-Early Oligocene, well before the widely accepted Miocene decompressional melting related to its extrusion. In general, kyanite-bearing migmatite, as reported here, could be linked to the production of the high-Ca granitic melts found along the Himalayan belt.

  4. Ancient Himalayan wolf (Canis lupus chanco) lineage in Upper Mustang of the Annapurna Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetri, Madhu; Jhala, Yadvendradev V; Jnawali, Shant R; Subedi, Naresh; Dhakal, Maheshwar; Yumnam, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    The taxonomic status of the wolf (Canis lupus) in Nepal's Trans-Himalaya is poorly understood. Recent genetic studies have revealed the existence of three lineages of wolves in the Indian sub-continent. Of these, the Himalayan wolf, Canis lupus chanco, has been reported to be the most ancient lineage historically distributed within the Nepal Himalaya. These wolves residing in the Trans-Himalayan region have been suggested to be smaller and very different from the European wolf. During October 2011, six fecal samples suspected to have originated from wolves were collected from Upper Mustang in the Annapurna Conservation Area of Nepal. DNA extraction and amplification of the mitochondrial (mt) control region (CR) locus yielded sequences from five out of six samples. One sample matched domestic dog sequences in GenBank, while the remaining four samples were aligned within the monophyletic and ancient Himalayan wolf clade. These four sequences which matched each other, were new and represented a novel Himalayan wolf haplotype. This result confirms that the endangered ancient Himalayan wolf is extant in Nepal. Detailed genomic study covering Nepal's entire Himalayan landscape is recommended in order to understand their distribution, taxonomy and, genetic relatedness with other wolves potentially sharing the same landscape. PMID:27199590

  5. Sedimentology and uranium prospecting of the Siwaliks in Western Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Siwaliks (Miocene to Pleistocene) distributed along the southern side of the Main Boundary Thrust in Nepal are composed of conglomerates, sandstones, mudstones and lignites. The lower and Middle Siwaliks show various kinds of cyclic repetition in their lithofacies and sedimentary structures. A generalized unit of the cycles consists of sandstones, mudstones and lignites from bottom to top. The sandstones are well-stratified and frequently cross-bedded while the mudstones exhibit massive aspect occasionally with lenticular bedding. In the unit, each lithofacies gradually change into overlying one whereas the boundaries between units are mostly discontinuous and erosional. These cyclic sedimentation, sedimentary structures and fossil evidence suggest the Siwaliks to have been deposited in coastal environments of a fresh water basin. The conglomerates of the Middle and Upper Siwaliks of the investigated area do not contain any High Himalayan rocks such as gneisses and granites. The composition of the conglomerates combined with the palaeocurrent data reveals the sediments to be derived mainly from the Lesser Himalayas just north of the Main Boundary Thrust. As in Pakistan, uranium deposits are expected to occur in the Siwalik sandstones in Nepal. In most places, however, the Siwaliks would have less possibility of uranium occurrence because the Lesser Himalayas do not contain big granite bodies from which uranium minerals are supposed to be originated. In the High Himalayas, granitic rocks are widely distributed, and three big rivers of Nepal have percolated through them and transported the sediments into the Siwalik basin from the ancient time. It seems to be more effective to concentrate our uranium prospecting to the area where these rivers have descended into the Siwalik basin. (author)

  6. A new species of Stellaria (Caryophyllaceae) from the Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Majumdar, N.C.

    1968-01-01

    Herba perennis, gracilis, caule repente valde furcato. Rami erecti vel suberecti, quadrangulares, e gemmis axillaribus emergentes, straminei, squamosi, simpliccs et infra glabrescentes, corymbose furcati et glandulari-pubescentes, sursum altitudine 10—20 cm attingentes. Folia simplicia, exstipulata,

  7. Arc parallel extension in Higher and Lesser Himalayas, evidence from western Arunachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sharmistha De Sarkar; George Mathew; Kanchan Pande

    2013-06-01

    The existence of E–W extensional features from northeast (NE) Himalaya is poorly documented. Our investigation in the western part of Arunachal Himalaya provides evidences of active Quaternary E–W arc-parallel extensional features in the Higher and Lesser Himalayas. They are represented by arcperpendicular normal faults and arc-parallel sinistral strike-slip faults. We discuss the occurrences of these arc-parallel extensional features in terms of oblique convergence and radial expansion models. The partitioning of stress due to oblique convergence is argued based on evidences of left-lateral slip in NEHimalaya, right-lateral slip in NW-Himalaya and absence of translation in the central part. The amount of arc-parallel extension in the hinterland regions is correlated to the amount of radial shortening in the foreland. The computation of arc-parallel extension in the NE Himalayan arc is carried out by defining a small-circle centered at 88° 39′ ± 0.7′E longitude and 33° 40′ ± 0.6′N latitude having a radius of 770.7 ± 15.1 km, for the segment between 92° 01′ and 95° 16′E longitudes. The amount of arc-parallel extension estimated is ∼110 km for the NE Himalayan segment. Our result agrees closely with the 104 km extension determined based on geodetically computed extension rate and age of initiation of rifting in southern Tibet.

  8. Response of monsoon variability in Himalayas to global warming

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Reconstructed annual net accumulation from the Dasuopu ice core recovered in Himalayas, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in central Himalayas. The Dasuopu accumulation (DSP An) also shows a strong correlation to the Northern Hemispheric temperature. Generally, as the Northern Hemispheric temperature increases by 0.1 K, the accumulation decreases by about 90 mm and vise versa. Under the condition of global warming, especially since 1920, the Northern Hemispheric mean temperature has increased by about 0.5 K, whereas accumulation in Dasuopu ice core has decreased by about 450 mm. According to the relationship between accumulation and temperature, a scenario prediction of monsoon rainfall in central Himalayas is made.

  9. Depositional environment and provenance of Middle Siwalik sediments in Tista valley, Darjiling District, Eastern Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhik Kundu; Abdul Matin; Malay Mukul

    2012-02-01

    The frontal part of the active, wedge-shaped Indo-Eurasian collision boundary is defined by the Himalayan fold-and-thrust belt whose foreland basin accumulated sediments that eventually became part of the thrust belt and is presently exposed as the sedimentary rocks of the Siwalik Group. The rocks of the Siwalik Group have been extensively studied in the western and Nepal Himalaya and have been divided into the Lower, Middle and Upper Subgroups. In the Darjiling–Sikkim Himalaya, the Upper Siwalik sequence is not exposed and the Middle Siwalik Subgroup exposed in the Tista river valley of Darjiling Himalaya preserves a ∼325 m thick sequence of sandstone, conglomerate and shale. The Middle Siwalik section has been repeated by a number of north dipping thrusts. The sedimentary facies and facies associations within the lithostratigraphic column of the Middle Siwalik rocks show temporal repetition of sedimentary facies associations suggesting oscillation between proximal-, mid- and distal fan setups within a palaeo-alluvial fan depositional environment similar to the depositional setup of the Siwalik sediments in other parts of the Himalaya. These oscillations are probably due to a combination of foreland-ward movement of Himalayan thrusts, climatic variations and mountain-ward shift of fanapex due to erosion. The Middle Siwalik sediments were derived from Higher- and Lesser Himalayan rocks. Mineral characteristics and modal analysis suggest that sedimentation occurred in humid climatic conditions similar to the moist humid climate of the present day Eastern Himalaya.

  10. Landslides and glacier fall - ice/debris avalanches triggered by the April 2015 Gorkha Earthquake, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuoka, Hiroshi; Bhandari, Netra Prakash; Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Yamasaki, Shintaro

    2016-04-01

    On 25 April 2015, a large-scale earthquake of M7.8 attacked central Nepal. Epicenter is located in Gorkha, west of Kathmandu. Aftershocks epicenter area extended about 100 km long and 150 km wide. Acceleration records inside Kathmandu basin show that the main shock predominant period is 3 - 5 s and PGA is smaller than 0.2 g, because of underneath thick deposits. Japanese expert investigation team dispatched immediately after the quake found numerous small- to large-scale landslides in the earthquake fault rupture zone except Kathmandu basin. Those characteristics are (1) number of larger landslides are much smaller than expected from the main shock magnitude, (2) uncountable rock falls were observed which claimed casualties in the mountain communities; (3) as many landslides were reactivated since the main/after-shock area are occupied by landslide-prone hill slopes; (4) some large-scale rock slides resulting in landslide dam creation, were confirmed by the immediate satellite imagery analysis; (5) In the Langtang village in Himalaya mountains, an hanging glacier fall - ice/debris avalanche was triggered, claiming the lives of all the residents and trekkers staying in the community. Authors had returned debris sample to Japan, trying to apply geotechnical tests for mechanism study; (6) subsidence sites along the highway of artificial fills and adjacent communities of Kathmandu were observed; (7) Small-scale landslides and subsidence were observed in some of UNESCO's World heritage sites.

  11. Hydroclimatic influence on particle size distribution of suspended sediments evacuated from debris-covered Chorabari Glacier, upper Mandakini catchment, central Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Amit; Gokhale, Anupam Anand; Shukla, Tanuj; Dobhal, Dwarika Prasad

    2016-07-01

    Sediments released from high altitude glaciers exhibit varying evacuation patterns and transport characteristics owing to the presence of thick debris cover over the glacier. Despite the recent needs for integrated hydrometeorological studies in the Himalaya, little is known about the impacts of suspended sediment on hydropower generation, reservoir sedimentation, and abrasion of turbine components. Present study involves analysis of particle size distribution of suspended sediments to understand sediment evacuation patterns and transport characteristics in variable energy conditions during the ablation season. Peak suspended sediments were evacuated during extreme rainfall events. The estimated seasonal modern sediment erosion rate varies from 0.6 to 2.3 mm y- 1 for the study period (2009-2012). The analysis shows dominance of medium silt-sized to fine sand-sized particles having sediment size of 0.0156-0.25 mm corresponding to 70-80% without any significant seasonal variation. These transported sediments show that they are poorly sorted, coarser in nature with a nearly symmetrical to coarse skewed texture and kurtosis analysis suggesting mesokurtic distribution of sediments. The particle size fraction ranges between 4.65 and 5.23 ϕ, which is dominantly medium to coarse silty in texture. Results indicate that suspended sediments are evacuated in highly variable energy conditions through subglacial transport pathways because of increase in availability of meltwater with the progressive ablation season. Bulk geochemical characterization has been carried out to differentiate the source of suspended sediments and intensity of weathering. Chemical Index of Alterations (CIA) values of sediment flux range from 54.68 to 55.18 compared to the Upper Continental Crust (UCC) ~ 50, indicating moderate intensity of weathering. Mean seasonal (2009-2012) elemental fluxes and their contribution to the suspended sediment flux reflect that Si and Al are responsible for about 85% of

  12. Geomorphological features of active tectonics and ongoing seismicity of northeastern Kumaun Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vivekanand Pathak; Charu C Pant; Gopal Singh Darmwal

    2015-08-01

    The northeastern part of Kumaun Lesser Himalaya, Uttarakhand, India, lying between the rupture zones of 1905, Kangra and 1934, Bihar–Nepal earthquakes and known as ‘central seismic gap’ is a segment of an active fault known to produce significant earthquakes and has not slipped in an unusually long time when compared to other segments. The studied section forms a part of this seismic gap and is seismically an active segment of the Himalayan arc, as compared to the remaining part of the Kumaun Lesser Himalaya and it is evident by active geomorphological features and seismicity data. The geomorphological features of various river valley transects suggest that the region had a history of tectonic rejuvenation which is testified by the deposition of various levels of terraces and their relative uplift, shifting and ponding of river channels, uplifted potholes, triangular facets on fault planes, fault scarps, etc. Further, the seismic data of five-station digital telemetered seismic network along with two stand alone systems show the distribution of earthquakes in or along the analyzed fault transects. It is observed that the microseismic earthquakes (magnitude 1.0–3.0) frequently occur in the region and hypocenters of these earthquakes are confined to shallow depths (10–20 km), with low stress drop values (1.0–10 bar) and higher peak ground velocity (PGV). The cluster of events is observed in the region, sandwiched between the Berinag Thrust (BT) in south and Main Central Thrust (MCT) in north. The occurrences of shallow focus earthquakes and the surface deformational features in the different river valley transect indicates that the region is undergoing neotectonic rejuvenation. In absence of chronology of the deposits it is difficult to relate it with extant seismicity, but from the geomorphic and seismic observations it may be concluded that the region is still tectonically active. The information would be very important in identifying the areas of

  13. The Role of Obstetric Knowledge in Utilization of Delivery Service in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karkee, Rajendra; Baral, Om Bahadur; Khanal, Vishnu; Lee, Andy H.

    2014-01-01

    Birth Preparedness and Complication Readiness (BP/CR) program has been promoted in Nepal to equip pregnant women with obstetric knowledge so as to motivate them to seek professional care. Using a prospective design of 701 pregnant women of more than 5 months gestation in a central hills district of Nepal, we evaluated if having obstetric knowledge…

  14. Tectonic deformation zones across the Himalaya of northwest India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiede, R. C.; Faruhn, J.; Robert, X.; Dey, S.; Nennewitz, M.; Jain, V.; Stübner, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Strecker, M. R.

    2015-12-01

    Although the large-scale tectonic features of the Himalayan wedge are now thought to be understood, e.g. spatio-temporal distribution of deformation across the orogen is still unknown. For instance, it has been favored that crustal shortening dominantly accommodates along the toe of the wedge and that the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) forms the direct surface expression of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT). The oblique convergence of NW-Himalaya, provides a unique opportunity to detect important differences in deformation patter compared to the arc-perpendicular convergence in Nepal and further east. The following observation provide a key for understanding the location of the main decoupling horizon and where strain is accommodated between the under thrusting India and the Himalayan wedge. (a) In the NW-Himalaya segments of the MFT grow arc-parallel in contrast to the strongly undulating trend of the MBT resulting in a strongly curved topographic front. (b) Majority of Holocene shorting is accommodated along the out-of-sequence thrust, e.g. Jwalamukhi-Thrust, that is located in the center of the Sub-Himalaya and probably only minor parts of the total shortening is accommodated along the MFT. (c) We observed top-to-west thrust ramps that are uplifting early tertiary Subathu and Dhramsala formation within the footwall of the here north-south trending segment of the MBT. This pattern of deformation strongly suggest that the Sub-Himalaya is more strongly connected and effected by the under-thrusting of India rather than triggered by deformation of the Himalayan Wedge, behaving here as regit indentor. (d) Low temperature thermochronology transects across the Dhauladar Rangeindicate continuous uplift and fault displacement with rates in the range of 1-2 mm/yr along the MBT-fault zone hanging wall since the late Miocene. In summary these deformation pattern demonstrates that MBT and MFT developed independently from each other and that deformation within Sub-Himalaya is

  15. Glacier Ecosystems of Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohshima, S.; Yoshimura, Y.; Takeuchi, N.; Segawa, T.; Uetake, J.

    2012-12-01

    Biological activity on glaciers has been believed to be extremely limited. However, we found various biotic communities specialized to the glacier environment in various part of the world, such as Himalaya, Patagonia and Alaska. Some of these glacier hosted biotic communities including various cold-tolerant insects, annelids and copepods that were living in the glacier by feeding on algae and bacteria growing in the snow and ice. Thus, the glaciers are simple and relatively closed ecosystems sustained by the primary production in the snow and ice. In this presentation, we will briefly introduce glacier ecosystems in Himalaya; ecology and behavior of glacier animals, altitudinal zonation of snow algal communities, and the structure of their habitats in the glacier. Since the microorganisms growing on the glacier surface are stored in the glacial strata every year, ice-core samples contain many layers with these microorganisms. We showed that the snow algae in the ice-core are useful for ice core dating and could be new environmental signals for the studies on past environment using ice cores. These microorganisms in the ice core will be important especially in the studies of ice core from the glaciers of warmer regions, in which chemical and isotopic contents are often heavily disturbed by melt water percolation. Blooms of algae and bacteria on the glacier can reduce the surface albedo and significantly affect the glacier melting. For example, the surface albedo of some Himalayan glaciers was significantly reduced by a large amount of dark-colored biogenic material (cryoconite) derived from snow algae and bacteria. It increased the melting rates of the surfaces by as much as three-fold. Thus, it was suggested that the microbial activity on the glacier could affect the mass balance and fluctuation of the glaciers.

  16. The seasonal in-situ mass balance, temperature and precipitation of Yala Glacier, Langtang Valley, Nepal, from 2011 to 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumm, Dorothea; Fujita, Koji; Gurung, Tika; Joshi, Sharad; Litt, Maxime; Shea, Joseph; Sherpa, Mingma; Sinisalo, Anna; Wagnon, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    In-situ glacier mass balance measurements are still scarce in the Hindu Kush Himalayan (HKH) region and little is known about the seasonal balances. The glaciers in the Nepalese Himalaya have been considered summer accumulation glacier types because of the assumption that the majority of the accumulation occurs in the summer months during the monsoon. The glacier mass balance of Yala Glacier in the Langtang Valley of Nepal has been measured using the glaciological method since autumn 2011. Stakes were measured biannually in pre- and post-monsoon, usually in early May and in November, respectively. The measured mass balance gradient for the summer balance was larger than the winter balance, which is typical for glaciers with distinct ablation and accumulation seasons. On Yala Glacier, the summer balance was negative, and the winter balance was positive in all years with measurements. However, the annual net balance was negative for all four mass balance years from 2011 to 2015. The mass balances were further compared to temperature and precipitation data measured at nearby climate stations during the same time periods. In October 2013 and 2014, the Central Himalayas received large amounts of precipitation brought by the cyclones Phailin and Hudhud. These precipitation events contributed to the summer balance since the measurements were taken after the cyclones passed. In conclusion, on Yala Glacier accumulation processes dominated ablation processes during the winter, and ablation processes dominated during the summer, which could be explained by the low elevation range of Yala Glacier and precipitation from westerlies in the winter. Hence, this should be kept in mind when using the term 'summer accumulation glacier' for Yala Glacier. For future research in the HKH region, seasonal mass balances should be measured, and the processes impacting the mass balance and the role of winter precipitation should be investigated for other glaciers in the HKH region.

  17. Variation of precipitation in Langtang Valley,Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The variation of the δ 18O in precipitation and the relationship with precipitation amountat Kyangjin Base House and Yala Glacier Camp in Langtang Valley, Nepal Himalayas were ana-lyzed. The variations of the δ 18O with precipitation had great scatter, and the correlations betweenthe δ18O and precipitation changed with time on the synoptic scale. On the seasonal scale, therewas marked amount effect at Kyangjin Base House. However, the δ18O-precipitation gradient wassmaller than that on the synoptic scale. Because of the maintenance of the basic equilibrium be-tween stable isotopic compositions in atmospheric vapor and precipitation, the evaporation en-richment was light during the rainy season. Therefore, the variation of stable isotopic compositionsin precipitation was independent on the sampling intervals. Simulations show that the rainfall inLangtang Valley was not the outcome of the initial condensation of ocean vapor that originatedfrom low latitudes. The stable isotopic compositions in precipitation were greatly depleted due tothe strong rainout of the vapor from oceans as the vapor was raised over the Himalayas

  18. Petrography, geochemistry and regional significance of crystalline klippen in the Garhwal Lesser Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Islam; S K Ghosh; S Vyshnavi; Y P Sundriya

    2011-06-01

    Uphalda gneisses (UG) is a crystalline klippe located near Srinagar in Garhwal Himalaya. These gneisses are compared with Debguru porphyroids (DP) (≈ Ramgarh group) of Garhwal–Kumaun Himalaya and Baragaon mylonitic gneisses (BMG) of Himachal Himalaya. Petrographic study reveals that the deformation of UG was initiated at higher temperature (above 350°C) and continued till lowering of temperature and deformation led to the mylonitization. Geochemically, these granitic gneisses (UG, DP and BMG) exhibit similar composition. Features such as high molecular A/CNK value (< 1), presence of normative corundum and absence of normative diopside, enhanced Rb/Sr, Rb/Zr ratios, enrichment of Th and containing rounded zircons support their crustally-derived S-type granitic nature. The linear plot in major oxides is interpreted in terms of fractional crystallization processes. Mantle normalized multi-element spider diagram of UG illustrates depletion of Ba, Nb, Sr, P and Ti and enrichment of Th and show similarities with DP and BMG. Similarities were observed in lithology, petrographic characters and chemical composition of UG, DP, BMG and Ulleri augen gneisses (Nepal). Comparison with the rocks of Higher Himalayan crystallines (≈ Vaikrita), suggests that these rocks (UG) are not transported from Higher Himalaya as understood earlier. This study however proposes that, these gneissic bodies represent an older basement occurring as a tectonic sliver which emplaced within the cover sequence as wedges at different structural levels. This is a regional phenomena observed throughout the Lesser Himalayan region.

  19. Regeneration of Shorea robusta and Schima wallichii under Community Forest Management in Ludikhola watershed, Gorkha district, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Klokkeide, Kristin Madsen

    2013-01-01

    Resource and forest management in Nepal: Resource management is of current global interest because of its role in sustaining natural resources and livelihood for future generations. Hardin's paper, the Tragedy of the Commons", served as a starting point to the wider discussion on challenges for sustainable resource management. Hardin's theory is widely cited in the context of forest management, especially to explain forest degradation, e.g. in the Himalaya where forest degradation has a long...

  20. Erodibility controls on the vertical and horizontal scalings of topography : a case study in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godard, V.; Steer, P.

    2011-12-01

    Understanding the scaling properties of topography in actively uplifting areas is a major issue in quantitative geomorphology. Analytical formulations of non-glaciated landscape evolution clearly demonstrate that metrics such as local relief or drainage density are explicitly related to the spatial distribution of tectonic uplift, precipitation, erodibility and local slope across the landscape. However, in most regions, these parameters are seldom documented with enough resolution and precision to allow a systematic and statistically significant investigation of their relationships with both horizontal and vertical scaling properties of topography. A notable exception is the Himalaya of central Nepal, where the last 20 years of tectonic and geomorphological research have produced one of the densest regional data-set and documented major gradients in uplift and precipitation across the range [e.g. Lavé and Avouac, 2001; Bookhagen and Burbank, 2006]. The purpose of our study is to use this data in order to develop a detailed investigation of the influence of the erodibility parameter in controlling the structure and texture of the landscape. We first build on the derivation of total catchment relief of Tucker and Whipple [2002] to include the contribution of precipitation in addition to uplift, erodibility. Then, by minimizing the misfit between observed and predicted catchment relief, we assess the erodibility parameter for each second or third order catchment in our area of investigation. The resultant erodibility map (1) matches the distribution of geological units and (2) reveals a number of interesting second order patterns, such as along-strike fluctuations in the Lesser Himalayas and a significant decrease in erodibility coincident with the location of the MCT zone. This latter result possibly highlights the effect of intense schistosity and fracturation on large scale erosion efficiency [Molnar et al., 2007]. Then to assess the influence of erodibility on

  1. Oblique convergence and slip partitioning in the NW Himalaya: Implications from GPS measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Yadav, Rajeev Kumar; Bali, Bikram Singh; Chowdhury, Sonalika; Gahalaut, V. K.

    2014-10-01

    We report GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the Kashmir Himalaya. We combined these results with the published results of GPS measurements from the Karakoram fault system and suggest that in the Kashmir Himalaya, the motion between the southern Tibet and India plate is oblique with respect to the structural trend. We estimated this almost north-south oblique motion to be 17 ± 2 mm/yr, which is partitioned between dextral motion of 5 ± 2 mm/yr on the Karakoram fault system and oblique motion of 13.6 ± 1 mm/yr with an azimuth of N198°E in the northwest-southeast trending Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. Thus, the partitioning of the India-Southern Tibet oblique motion is partial in the Kashmir Himalayan frontal arc. However, in the neighboring Nepal Himalaya, there is no partitioning; the entire India-Southern Tibet motion of 19-20 mm/yr is arc normal and is accommodated entirely in the Himalayan frontal arc. The convergence rate in the Kashmir frontal Himalaya is about 25% less than that in the Nepal Himalayan region. However, here the Karakoram fault system accommodates about 20% of the southern Tibet and Indian plate convergence and marks the northern extent of the NW Himalayan arc sliver. The Kaurik Chango rift, a north-south oriented seismically active cross-wedge transtensional fault appears to divide the sliver in two parts causing varying translatory motion on the Karakoram fault on either side of the Kaurik Chango rift.

  2. A study of the clinical profile of atrial fibrillation in a tertiary care super-specialty referral centre in Central Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MP Gautam

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The conventional causes and risk factors for atrial fibrillation (AF are somewhat arbitrary; overlap exists, multiple aetiologies are often present in one individual, and clinical presentation is non- specific. This study was an attempt to study the clinical and echocardiographic profile of patients with AF in a tertiary care super-specialty hospital of a developing country. Materials and Methods This study was conducted in College of Medical Sciences, Chitwan, Nepal throughout the year 2010. Subjects with AF, diagnosed based on clinical history, medical records and surface ECG, were included in the study. The presentation, types and causes of AF and structural as well as functional abnormalities were assessed. Results A total of 136 consecutive subjects were included in the study. The mean age was 42.40 (20.48 years ranging from 17 to 80 years. Majority of the AF subjects were female (54.41%. Among symptomatic cases, palpitation was the most common (23.53% presentation followed by dyspnea (17.65% and stroke or transient ischemic attack (15.44%. Asymptomatic presentation was also not uncommon (25%. Persistent AF was the most common form (31.62%. Rheumatic heart disease was the most common cause (33.09% followed by lone atrial fibrillation (23.52%, coronary artery disease (16.18%, hypertension (8.82% and thyrotoxicosis (7.35%. Other causes included chronic obstructive airway disease (5.88%, diabetes (2.94%, cardiomyopathy (1.47%, constrictive pericarditis (1.47%, myocarditis (0.74% and infective endocarditis (0.74%. Nearly 65 % subjects had either structural or functional abnormalities in echocardiographic study; dilated left atrium was the most prevalent abnormality. Conclusion In contrast to the studies reported from developed nations, our subjects with AF were younger and female, the most common cause was RHD and the majority had either structural or functional abnormalities in echocardiographic study. Journal of College of Medical

  3. Education reform in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carney, Stephen; Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    The article discusses various reports published within the issue, including papers on various aspects of Nepal's education policy dynamic, a study on young people's experiences of education, especially the faith in schooling as a means to social and economic betterment, and a more radical critique...... of modernity and its relation to education in the South....

  4. Nepal Human Development Note

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2013-01-01

    Investments in education, health and social protection are the key to improving the state of human development in any society. In recent years, Nepal too has invested heavily in these sectors, particularly in education and health. This note provides an overview of the progress and current state of access and equity in these three sectors. It also presents evidence on some aspects of qualit...

  5. Human Trafficking in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Keeling, June; Kallestrup, Per

    2016-01-01

    As Nepal mourns the 1-year commemoration of the April 2015 earthquake and its aftershocks that killed more than 8500 people and left thousands injured and displaced, other more hidden repercussions of the resultant chaotic environment need attention: the increased risk of human trafficking...

  6. 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week Held in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao; Weimin; Gan; Qianyi

    2013-01-01

    <正>The year of 2012 was designated the "China-Nepal Friendship Exchange Year" by the Chinese and Nepalese governments,and,as one of the important cultural exchange programs, the 2012 Nepal-China Friendship Week, co-sponsored by the CPAFFC and the World Culture Net(WCN) of Nepal,was held from November 30 to December 6. The CPAFFC organized an 18-member Delegation of government

  7. An SEM study of the nuchal organ in Daphnia himalaya (nov. sp. embryos and neonates collected from the Khumbu region (Nepalese Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina MANCA

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Zooplankton from the Khumbu region in Nepal are rarely studied, and little is known regarding their morphology and physiology. During the EV-K2-CNR Project, a collaboration between the Government of the Republic of Italy and the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST as part of “The long distance transport of micro-pollutants”, zooplankton samples revealed the presence of small head shields’ remains in the sediment possessing a hole in the dorsal margin. This observation led to the hypothesis that Daphnia himalaya neonates must possess a nuchal organ for osmoregulation in these alpine lakes. Here we report the presence of a nuchal organ in embryos and neonates, and explore its development, noting that the nuchal organ is retained up until the first post-embryonic moult. We also examine the chemistry of the lakes and in particular their conductivity, which is lower in lakes having D. himalaya than in lakes that do not (16 μS and 32 μS cm-1 respectively.

  8. Mapping the vulnerability hotspots over Hindu-Kush Himalaya region to flooding disasters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shada Elalem

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A disproportionate share of the global economic and human losses caused by environmental shocks is borne by people in the developing nations. The mountain region of Hindu-Kush Himalaya (HKH in South Asia is threatened by numerous flooding events annually. An efficient disaster risk reduction often needs to rest upon location-based synoptic view of vulnerability. Resolving this deficit improves the ability to take risk reduction measures in a cost-effective way, and in doing so, strengthens the resilience of societies to flooding disasters. The central aim of this research is to identify the vulnerable locations across HKH boundary from the perspective of reported history of economic and human impacts due to occurrence of flooding disasters. A detailed analysis indicates a very high spatial heterogeneity in flooding disaster occurrence in the past 6 decades. The most recent decade reported highest number of disasters and greater spatial coverage as compared to the earlier decades. The data indicates that, in general, economic impacts of flooding disasters were notably higher in Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nepal. On the other hand, vulnerability scenarios with respect to human impacts were diverse for different countries. In terms of morbidity and mortality, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Bhutan and India were detected to be most susceptible to human impacts. Although Bhutan had seen lesser number of flooding disasters, higher population living within disaster prone region make them vulnerable. In summary, complex interactions between natural and socio-economic conditions play a dominant role to define and characterize the type and magnitude of vulnerability of HKH countries to disaster occurrence and their economic and human impacts.

  9. Operationalizing crop monitoring system for informed decision making related to food security in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qamer, F. M.; Shah, S. N. Pd.; Murthy, M. S. R.; Baidar, T.; Dhonju, K.; Hari, B. G.

    2014-11-01

    In Nepal, two thirds of the total population depend on agriculture for their livelihoods and more than one third of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) comes from the agriculture sector. However, effective agriculture production across the country remains a serious challenge due to various factors, such as a high degree of spatial and temporal climate variability, irrigated and rain-fed agriculture systems, farmers' fragile social and economic fabric, and unique mountain practices. ICIMOD through SERVIR-Himalaya initiative with collaboration of Ministry of Agricultural Development (MoAD) is working on developing a comprehensive crop monitoring system which aims to provide timely information on crop growth and drought development conditions. This system analyzes historical climate and crop conditions patterns and compares this data with the current growing season to provide timely assessment of crop growth. Using remote sensing data for vegetation indices, temperature and rainfall, the system generated anomaly maps are inferred to predict the increase or shortfall in production. Comparisons can be made both spatially and in graphs and figures at district and Village Developmental Committee (VDC) levels. Timely information on possible anomaly in crop production is later used by the institutions like Ministry of Agricultural Development, Nepal and World Food Programme, Nepal to trigger appropriate management response. Future potential includes integrating data on agricultural inputs, socioeconomics, demographics, and transportation to holistically assess food security in the region served by SERVIR-Himalaya.

  10. Conservation Strategy for Brown Bear and Its Habitat in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut Aryal

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalaya region of Nepal encompasses significant habitats for several endangered species, among them the brown bear (Ursus arctos pruinosus. However, owing to the remoteness of the region and a dearth of research, knowledge on the conservation status, habitat and population size of this species is lacking. Our aim in this paper is to report a habitat survey designed to assess the distribution and habitat characteristics of the brown bear in the Nepalese Himalaya, and to summarize a conservation action plan for the species devised at a pair of recent workshops held in Nepal. Results of our survey showed that brown bear were potentially distributed between 3800 m and 5500 m in the high mountainous region of Nepal, across an area of 4037 km2 between the eastern border of Shey Phoksundo National Park (SPNP and the Manasalu Conservation Area (MCA. Of that area, 2066 km2 lie inside the protected area (350 km2 in the MCA; 1716 km2 in the Annapurna Conservation Area and 48% (1917 km2 lies outside the protected area in the Dolpa district. Furthermore, 37% of brown bear habitat also forms a potential habitat for blue sheep (or bharal, Pseudois nayaur, and 17% of these habitats is used by livestock, suggesting a significant potential for resource competition. Several plant species continue to be uprooted by local people for fuel wood. Based on the results of our field survey combined with consultations with local communities and scientists, we propose that government and non-government organizations should implement a three-stage program of conservation activities for the brown bear. This program should: (a Detail research activities in and outside the protected area of Nepal; (b support livelihood and conservation awareness at local and national levels; and (c strengthen local capacity and reduce human-wildlife conflict in the region.

  11. Protracted fluvial recovery from medieval earthquakes, Pokhara, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolle, Amelie; Bernhardt, Anne; Schwanghart, Wolfgang; Andermann, Christoff; Schönfeldt, Elisabeth; Seidemann, Jan; Adhikari, Basanta R.; Merchel, Silke; Rugel, Georg; Fort, Monique; Korup, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    River response to strong earthquake shaking in mountainous terrain often entails the flushing of sediments delivered by widespread co-seismic landsliding. Detailed mass-balance studies following major earthquakes in China, Taiwan, and New Zealand suggest fluvial recovery times ranging from several years to decades. We report a detailed chronology of earthquake-induced valley fills in the Pokhara region of western-central Nepal, and demonstrate that rivers continue to adjust to several large medieval earthquakes to the present day, thus challenging the notion of transient fluvial response to seismic disturbance. The Pokhara valley features one of the largest and most extensively dated sedimentary records of earthquake-triggered sedimentation in the Himalayas, and independently augments paleo-seismological archives obtained mainly from fault trenches and historic documents. New radiocarbon dates from the catastrophically deposited Pokhara Formation document multiple phases of extremely high geomorphic activity between ˜700 and ˜1700 AD, preserved in thick sequences of alternating fluvial conglomerates, massive mud and silt beds, and cohesive debris-flow deposits. These dated fan-marginal slackwater sediments indicate pronounced sediment pulses in the wake of at least three large medieval earthquakes in ˜1100, 1255, and 1344 AD. We combine these dates with digital elevation models, geological maps, differential GPS data, and sediment logs to estimate the extent of these three pulses that are characterized by sedimentation rates of ˜200 mm yr‑1 and peak rates as high as 1,000 mm yr‑1. Some 5.5 to 9 km3 of material infilled the pre-existing topography, and is now prone to ongoing fluvial dissection along major canyons. Contemporary river incision into the Pokhara Formation is rapid (120-170 mm yr‑1), triggering widespread bank erosion, channel changes, and very high sediment yields of the order of 103 to 105 t km‑2 yr‑1, that by far outweigh bedrock

  12. Journey through Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Nepal is one of the richest countries in the world in terms of bio-diversity due to its unique geographical position and altitude variation. The elevation of the country ranges from 60 meters above sea level to the highest point on earth, Mt. Everest at8,848 meters, all within a distance of 150 kilometers resulting in climatic conditions from Sub-tropical to Arctic.

  13. Inflation Expectations in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    T.P. Koirala Ph.D.

    2008-01-01

    There is a significant positive relati onship between inflation and inflation expectations in Nepal, where the latter variable has been generated under Adaptive Expectation Hypothesis (AEH). Using 33 annual observations of actual inflation from 1973 to 2006, one percent increase in inflation expectations has 0.83 percent impact on contemporaneous inflation. The forecastability of inflation expectations on current inflation is higher than that of the expected inflation proxied by one-period la...

  14. Development in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Koirala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of the existing industries involved in the production of components of hydropower to the Francis turbine manufacturer up to 5 MW unit size has been recognized as one of the most promising business models in Nepal. Given the current fact that the development of Francis turbines with the manufacturers of Nepal has not been done yet, due to lack of designing expertise and limitations in the available technology, this paper presents the use of different available manufacturing technologies, which is suitable in the Nepalese hydropower market. This is an experience based paper, in which the advanced manufacturing process implementing Computer Aided Simulation (CAS, Computer Aided Design (CAD, and Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAM is introduced for turbine manufacturing. Moreover, CAD from Solidworks, 3D printing from Rapid Prototyping Machine (RPM, and manufacturing of three designs by three different methods, dye casting, lost wax casting, and forging in a local workshop, have been described. The outcome of this work is the identification of suitable Francis turbine development methodologies in context of Nepal, incorporating industrial revolution through research based products.

  15. Engineering geological aspect of Gorkha Earthquake 2015, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Basanta Raj; Andermann, Christoff; Cook, Kristen

    2016-04-01

    Strong shaking by earthquake causes massif landsliding with severe effects on infrastructure and human lives. The distribution of landslides and other hazards are depending on the combination of earthquake and local characteristics which influence the dynamic response of hillslopes. The Himalayas are one of the most active mountain belts with several kilometers of relief and is very prone to catastrophic mass failure. Strong and shallow earthquakes are very common and cause wide spread collapse of hillslopes, increasing the background landslide rate by several magnitude. The Himalaya is facing many small and large earthquakes in the past i.e. earthquakes i.e. Bihar-Nepal earthquake 1934 (Ms 8.2); Large Kangra earthquake of 1905 (Ms 7.8); Gorkha earthquake 2015 (Mw 7.8). The Mw 7.9 Gorkha earthquake has occurred on and around the main Himalayan Thrust with a hypocentral depth of 15 km (GEER 2015) followed by Mw 7.3 aftershock in Kodari causing 8700+ deaths and leaving hundreds of thousands of homeless. Most of the 3000 aftershocks located by National Seismological Center (NSC) within the first 45 days following the Gorkha Earthquake are concentrated in a narrow 40 km-wide band at midcrustal to shallow depth along the strike of the southern slope of the high Himalaya (Adhikari et al. 2015) and the ground shaking was substantially lower in the short-period range than would be expected for and earthquake of this magnitude (Moss et al. 2015). The effect of this earthquake is very unique in affected areas by showing topographic effect, liquefaction and land subsidence. More than 5000 landslides were triggered by this earthquake (Earthquake without Frontiers, 2015). Most of the landslides are shallow and occurred in weathered bedrock and appear to have mobilized primarily as raveling failures, rock slides and rock falls. Majority of landslides are limited to a zone which runs east-west, approximately parallel the lesser and higher Himalaya. There are numerous cracks in

  16. A CERN flag is set to wave up in the Himalayas

    CERN Multimedia

    Roberto Cantoni

    2010-01-01

    On 18 October, Hubert Reymond, from the Industrial Controls and Engineering group of the EN Department, will be leaving to Nepal with a CERN flag in his backpack. He will place it at the highest point of his trek across the Annapurna mountains in the Himalayas, Thorong La pass, at 5,416 m above sea level.   A view of the Annapurna mountains (source: www.flickr.com/minutesalone) “Is there any official CERN flag I can carry with me during my trek through Nepal?” Some days ago, the Press Office was confronted with this unusual (but see box) question from Hubert Reymond. From 18 October to 10 November, Reymond, who works as an industrial computing engineer in the EN Department, will be trekking across the 55 km-long Annapurna massif in the Himalayas, whose highest point lies at 8,091 m (making it the 10th-highest summit in the world). The area is well-known to trekkers from around the world, as it includes several world-class circuits, including the Annapurna circuit which Reym...

  17. Calculation of former ELA depressions in the Himalaya - a comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, M.

    2009-04-01

    For the reconstruction of former Equilibrium Line Altitudes (ELA) and ELA depressions in the Himalaya, the group of the Toe-to-Summit-Altitude-Methods (TSAM) is most suited. In this investigation the Kuhle (1986) method that is particularly tailored to the extreme high mountain relief, as well as the widely used Höfer (1879) method and Louis (1954/55) method, have been applied. Applying the relief specific correction factor FSD (Factor for snowline deviation) in the Kuhle method, it is thereby possible to simulate the shifting position of the ELA within the vertical extension of the glacier in dependence on the relief characteristics and glacial type. The results of this work, carried out along the Kali Gandaki in central Nepal, illustrate that as a rule, the Louis method results in the highest ELAs and the lowest ELA depressions, while the Höfer method yields the lowest ELAs and the highest ELA depressions. In affirmation of the literature, the Louis method tends to overestimate the ELA, since using the maximum peak height, especially for large glaciers in mountain ranges with high relief energy, leads to an overly high position of the glacier upper limit. With respect to the Höfer method, the suspicion already voiced by Höfer (1879) himself, that with the use of his method, the for the Himalaya typically high elevated, and with marginal gradient toward the valley moving ridge progressions, would lead to a too low ELA, can be affirmed. Clearly to be disputed, however, is the statement of Gross et al. (1976) that the Höfer method leads to an overestimation of the ELA. The reason for this can be found in a wrong computation of the mean ridge height above the ELA and consequently of the ELA itself within the Höfer method, based on the erroneous assumption that otherwise the ELA could not be calculated due to a circular conclusion (Gross et al. 1976). As is evidenced by this study, the Kuhle method mediates between the empiric overly high values of the Louis

  18. The Yakha : culture, environment and development in East Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Russell, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    This is a social anthropological study of a Tibeto-Burman ethnic group, the Yakha, based in East Nepal. The field research involved was carried out from from January 1989 until October 1990. To the best of my knowledge, the Yakha have never before been the subject of anthropological study, and hence this work aims at filling a void in the ethnographic and linguistic record of Nepal. A central question addressed in this regard is the extent to which the Yakha can be treated ...

  19. Monsoon variability in the Himalayas under the condition of global warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ice core-drilling program was carried out at the accumulation area of Dasuopu glacier (28deg23'N, 85deg43'E, 7100 m a.s.l.) in the central Himalayas in 1997. The ice core was analyzed continuously for stable isotopes (δ18O), and major ions throughout the core. Cycles indicated by δ18O, cations were identified and counted as seasonal fluctuations as annual increment from maximum to maximum values. Reconstructed 300-year annual net accumulation (water equivalent) from the core, with a good correlation to Indian monsoon, reflects a major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. The accumulation trend, separated from the time series, shows a strong negative correlation to Northern Hemisphere temperature. Generally, as northern hemisphere temperature increases 0.1degC, the accumulation decreases about 80 mm, reflecting monsoon rainfall in the central Himalayas has decreased over the past decades in the condition of global warming. (author)

  20. Societal impacts and vulnerability to floods in Bangladesh and Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanvir H. Dewan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Bangladesh and Nepal lie between the Himalayas and low-lying coasts of the Bay of Bengal and are traversed by hundreds of rivers and tributaries. Historical data shows that, since 1970, the scale, intensity and duration of floods have increased in Bangladesh and Nepal, causing grave human suffering; disruptions in normal life and activity, damages of infrastructure, crops and agricultural land with severe impacts on the economy. Bangladesh is affected by torrential rain, glacier melt, upstream water flow and tidal surges. In 1988, Bangladesh experienced one of the most severe floods of the twentieth century which aroused significant concern internationally and triggered the Bangladesh Action Plan for Flood Control. The Government of Bangladesh (GOB has so far constructed a number of flood shelters and carried out 482 water and flood control projects involving flood protection embankments, drainage channels, sluice gates and regulators on different rivers and canals. These also provided safety measures against inundation by tidal waves, storm-surges and flooding. The Terai region of Nepal is highly prone to hydrological risks including torrential rain, floods, glaciers resulting in erosion and landslides. The Government of Nepal (GON has implemented different mitigation measures mainly early warning awareness, rescue measure, relief, and post-flood rehabilitation programs etc. Disaster Management Bureaus of both the countries have already conducted many trainings, workshops and seminars to disseminate scientific knowledge and coping up practices to disaster managers and to create public awareness. Besides the contemporary approaches to mitigating flood effects, people of these countries have coped with floods through generations relying on traditional/indigenous knowledge and other local adaptation practices. It is crucial that along with scientific process, indigenous, traditional and conventional practices are to be integrated for a national

  1. Rural Tourism in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Dal

    2016-01-01

    Nepal, the country which is on the process of uplifting the economic status is a beautiful and magnificent place for the tourists who visit here and holds even more possibility for the development of the tourism industry which is the key factor in this country that directly affects the economy in its heart. Tourism is the key that unlocks the locks of unemployment and poverty to turn it into something positive. The primary purpose of this Bachelor’s thesis is to discuss about one of the m...

  2. Collection for Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    Following the violent earthquake in Nepal and neighbouring countries, a collection of money to help the victims was organized at CERN. A sum of 34 800 CHF was collected, and transferred to the NGO Live to Love. On July 22, the NGO sent a letter to CERN thanking for the support (see below). You can also find more information concerning this NGO and how they use their funds on our website: http://staff-association.web.cern.ch/sites/staff-association.web.cern.ch/files/Docs/Live_to_Love.pdf

  3. Collection for Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2015-01-01

    You are wonderful, thank you! On 25 April 2015, Nepal and neighboring countries suffered a violent earthquake, which killed thousands. On 28 April CERN Staff Association and CERN Management appealed to your generosity to help those affected, and opened an account to be able to receive your donations. We are now pleased to announce that the amount raised is CHF 34'800, and was donated to the NGO Live to Love of His Holiness the Gyalwang Drukpa. We thank everyone who contributed to this important cause.

  4. Soil and Terrain Database for Nepal (version 1.0) - scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Nepal)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijkshoorn, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    The Soil and Terrain database for Nepal primary data (version 1.0), at scale 1:1 million (SOTER_Nepal). SOTER_Nepal is generalized from the original Soils and Terrain database of Nepal at scale 1:50,000 compiled by FAO and Nepal's Survey Dept. The SOTER_Nepal database provides generalized informatio

  5. Geomorphological evidences of post-LGM glacial advancements in the Himalaya: A study from Chorabari Glacier, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Manish Mehta; Zahid Majeed; D P Dobhal; Pradeep Srivastava

    2012-02-01

    Field geomorphology and remote sensing data, supported by Optical Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) dating from the Mandakini river valley of the Garhwal Himalaya enabled identification of four major glacial events; Rambara Glacial Stage (RGS) (13 ± 2 ka), Ghindurpani Glacial Stage (GhGS) (9 ± 1 ka), Garuriya Glacial Stage (GGS) (7 ± 1 ka) and Kedarnath Glacial Stage (KGS) (5 ± 1 ka). RGS was the most extensive glaciation extending for ∼6 km down the valley from the present day snout and lowered to an altitude of 2800 m asl at Rambara covering around ∼31 km2 area of the Mandakini river valley. Compared to this, the other three glaciations (viz., GhGS, GGS and KGS) were of lower magnitudes terminating around ∼3000, ∼3300 and ∼3500 m asl, respectively. It was also observed that the mean equilibrium line altitude (ELA) during RGS was lowered to 4747 m asl compared to the present level of 5120 m asl. This implies an ELA depression of ∼373 m during the RGS which would correspond to a lowering of ∼2°C summer temperature during the RGS. The results are comparable to that of the adjacent western and central Himalaya implying a common forcing factor that we attribute to the insolation-driven monsoon precipitation in the western and central Himalaya.

  6. Dental aid in the Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rylands, V

    1992-03-01

    From January to July of 1991, I worked on a dental project in Dharamsala, Northern India whose aim was to leave the Tibetan community there dentally self-sufficient. Since 1959, following the Chinese invasion of Tibet, India and Nepal have become home to thousands of Tibetan refugees. Dharamsala is home to His Holiness the Dalai Lama, the spiritual leader of Tibet, and also of the largest Tibetan refugee communities (approximately 15,000).

  7. Declining Large-Cardamom Production Systems in the Sikkim Himalayas: Climate Change Impacts, Agroeconomic Potential, and Revival Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Sharma

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Large cardamom (Amomum subulatum is an economically valuable, ecologically adaptive, and agro-climatically suitable perennial cash crop grown under tree shade in the eastern Himalayas. In Sikkim, India, the focus of this study, large-cardamom production peaked early in the 21st century, making India the largest producer in the world, but dropped sharply after 2004; Nepal is now the largest producer. This crop is an important part of the local economy, contributing on average 29.2% of the income of households participating in this study. Farmers and extension agencies have worked to reverse its decline since 2007, and thus, there is a steady increase in production and production area. After reviewing the literature, we carried out extensive field research in 6 locations in Sikkim in 2011–2013 to investigate the causes of this decline and measures being undertaken to reverse it, using a combination of rapid rural appraisal, participatory rural appraisal, structured questionnaire, and field sampling techniques. Study participants attributed the decline in large-cardamom farming to 4 broad types of drivers: biological, socioeconomic, institutional/governance-related, and environmental/climate-change-related. Altered seasons, erratic or scanty rainfall, prolonged dry spells, temperature increase, soil moisture loss, and increasing instances of diseases and pests were prominent factors of climate change in the study region. Multistakeholder analysis revealed that development and implementation of people-centered policy that duly recognizes local knowledge, development of disease-free planting materials, training, subsidies, and improved irrigation facilities are central to improving cardamom farming and building socioeconomic and ecological resilience.

  8. New climatic classification of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Ramchandra; Talchabhadel, Rocky; Aalto, Juha; Baidya, Saraju Kumar

    2016-08-01

    Although it is evident that Nepal has an extremely wide range of climates within a short latitudinal distance, there is a lack of comprehensive research in this field. The climatic zoning in a topographically complex country like Nepal has important implications for the selection of scientific station network design and climate model verification, as well as for studies examining the effects of climate change in terms of shifting climatic boundaries and vegetation in highly sensitive environments. This study presents a new high-resolution climate map of Nepal on the basis of long-term (1981-2010) monthly precipitation data for 240 stations and mean air temperature data for 74 stations, using original and modified Köppen-Geiger climate classification systems. Climatic variables used in Köppen-Geiger system were calculated (i) at each station and (ii) interpolated to 1-km spatial resolution using kriging which accounted for latitude, longitude, and elevation. The original Köppen-Geiger scheme could not identify all five types of climate (including tropical) observed in Nepal. Hence, the original scheme was slightly modified by changing the boundary of coldest month mean air temperature value from 18 °C to 14.5 °C in order to delineate the realistic climatic condition of Nepal. With this modification, all five types of climate (including tropical) were identified. The most common dominant type of climate for Nepal is temperate with dry winter and hot summer (Cwa).

  9. Alternative energy in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, H.B.; Bhandari, K.P.

    2011-05-15

    Renewable energy Technology (RET) becomes the mainstream option for rural Nepal to access modern source of energy. It focuses on the trend of RET applications consisting of biogas technology, solar thermal, micro and Pico hydropower, biomass technology bio fuel technology, wind power technology etc. The RET's which provide both electricity based as well as non electricity based services, have been shown to most immediately meet the needs of a cleaner indoor environment, better quality lightning for education and income generating, activities, alternative cooking fuels and agro processing as well as rural industries. Improved cooking stoves and much more beneficial than other technologies. Wind energy utilization is still not popular. Solar thermal to generate thermal energy to cook, warm and dry, biogas for lighting and cooking services. Micro hydropower for electric as well as mechanical use and solar PV mainly for domestic lighting may become choice. The most important Renewable Energy Technology (RET's) in Nepal are related to Pico hydropower and micro-hydropower, biomass energy (biogas, briquettes, gasifies, improved cooking stoves, bio-fuels etc.) solar photovoltaic energy, solar PV water pumping, solar thermal energy (solar heater, solar dryers, solar cookers etc.) and wind energy (such as wind generators, wind mills etc.). One renowned Non-governmental organization has been established in the Jhapa and Mornag Bhutanese refugee camp. Two families from all the seven camps in Nepal received one solar cooker, one hay box and two cooking posts to each family. Under this programme, a total of 6,850 solar cookers, 12600 hay boxes and 25,200 cooking pots have been distributed 2009. The number of beneficiaries from this program has reached 85,000. Before the distribution of the cookers and the utensils, the instruction and orientation training for the maintenance and repair and operation method was improved. The refugees were divided in 315 groups of 40

  10. NGA Nepal Earthquake Support Data Services

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Geospatial Intelligence Agency — In support of the Spring 2015 Nepal earthquake response, NGA is providing to the public and humanitarian disaster response community these Nepal data services. They...

  11. Body Wave Crustal Attenuation Characteristics in the Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Sanjay S.; Paul, Ajay; Joshi, Anand; Kamal

    2015-06-01

    We estimate frequency-dependent attenuation of P and S waves in Garhwal Himalaya using the extended coda normalization method for the central frequencies 1.5, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 16 Hz, with earthquake hypocentral distance ranging from 27 to 200 km. Forty well-located local earthquake waveforms were used to study the seismic attenuation characteristics of the Garhwal Himalaya, India, as recorded by eight stations operated by Wadia Institute of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun, India, from 2007 to 2012. We find frequency-dependent P and S wave quality factors as defined by the relations Q P = 56 ± 8 f 0.91±0.002 and Q S = 151 ± 8 f 0.84±0.002 by fitting a power-law frequency dependence model for the estimated values over the whole region. Both the Q P and Q S values indicate strong attenuation in the crust of Garhwal Himalaya. The ratio of Q S/ Q P > 1 obtained for the entire analyzed frequency range suggests that the scattering loss is due to a random and high degree of heterogeneities in the earth medium, playing an important role in seismic wave attenuation in the Himalayan crust.

  12. Medical adventure in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boon, D A

    1980-12-01

    In 1977 a request for teaching of otologic surgery from a Nepalese doctor to a Canadian colleague resulted in Doctor David Boon and his wife, Joan, travelling to Nepal in February, 1979, as volunteers. They participated in the "Lions Club of Kathmandu First Free Ear Camp" sponsored jointly by the International Sound Foundation Society and the Lions Club of Kathmandu. Fifteen hundred patients were seen and otosclerosis was one of the commonest ear diseases encountered. Adhesive otitis media with attic cholesteatoma was prevalent and a few cases of childhood serous otitis media were diagnosed. Severe sensorineural hearing loss was also prevalent and related to heredity, post febrile illness, and ototoxic drugs. Seventy surgical procedures were performed consisting of mastoidectomy, stapes reconstruction, tympanoplasty and myringotomy.

  13. Global warming may lead to catastrophic floods in the Himalayas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Nepal, data from 49 surveillance stations show that there has been a distinct temperature increase since the middle of the 1970s, the greatest changes being on the highest summits. When lakes overfill and beaches threaten to break down, this is a result of the global warming that melts the glaciers. The glaciers in Bhutan are observed to decrease by 30 - 40 metres per year, in some years as much as 100 metres. In the village of Tribeni an advanced warning system has been established to warn the 10 000 inhabitants of a potential flood from Lake Tsho Rolpa 108 km upstream. Research from the Himalayas also point to another serious threat. The melting threatens not only human lives, tourism, foot paths, roads, bridges and power stations. Since the mountains are the water towers of the world, filling rivers and lakes with water upon which all life depends, continued shrinking of the world's glaciers as is now observed will cause many rivers and fresh-water systems to dry out. Researchers from the UN Unep programme and International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development have registered at least 44 glacier lakes that are increasing so fast that they may cause outburst floods within five years. Similar investigations are being planned in India, Pakistan and China

  14. The long-range transport of atmospheric aerosols from South Asia to Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Zhiyuan; Kang, Shichang; Kawamura, Kimitaka

    2016-04-01

    High levels of carbonaceous aerosol exist over South Asia, the area adjacent to the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau. Little is known about if they can be transported across the Himalayas, and as far inland as the Tibetan Plateau. To resolve such scientific questions, aerosol samples were collected weekly from August 2009 to July 2010 at Qomolangma (Mt. Everest) Station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research(QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.). In the laboratory, major ions, elemental carbon, organic carbon, levoglucosan, water-soluble organic carbon, and organic acids were analyzed. The concentration levels of OC and EC at QOMS are comparable to those at high-elevation sites on the southern slopes of the Himalayas (Langtang and NCO-P), but 3 to 6 times lower than those at Manora Peak, India, and Godavari, Nepal. Sulfate was the most abundant anion species followed by nitrate. The dust loading, represented by Ca2+ concentration, was relatively constant throughout the year. OC, EC and other ionic species (NH+4 , K+, NO‑ and SO2‑) exhibited a pronounced peak in the pre-monsoon period and a minimum in the monsoon season, being similar to the seasonal trends of aerosol compo-sition reported previously from the southern slope of the Himalayas. The strong correlation of OC and EC in QOMS aerosols with K+ and levoglucosan indicates that they mainly originated from biomass burning. Molecular distributions of dicarboxylic acids and related compounds (malonic acid/ succinic acid, maleic acid/fumaric acid) further support this finding. The fire spots observed by MODIS and backward air-mass trajectories further demonstrate that in pre-monsoon season, agricultural and forest fires in northern India and Nepal were most likely sources of carbonaceous aerosol at QOMS. In addition to large-scale atmospheric circulation, the unique mountain/valley breeze system can also have an important effect on air-pollutant transport.With the consideration of the darkening force of

  15. Global projects and Astronomy awareness activities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gautam, Suman

    2015-08-01

    Modern astronomy is a crowning achievement of human civilization which inspires teenagers to choose career in science and technology and is a stable of adult education. It is a unique and cost effective tool for furthering sustainable global development because of its technological, scientific and cultural dimensions which allow us to reach with the large portion of the community interact with children and inspire with our wonderful cosmos.Using astronomy to stimulate quality and inspiring education for disadvantaged children is an important goal of Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO) since its inception. NASO is carrying out various awareness activities on its own and in collaboration with national and international organizations like Central Department of Physics Tribhuvan University (TU), International astronomical Union (IAU), Department of Physics Prithvi Narayan Campus Pokhara, Nepal academy of science and technology (NAST), Global Hands on Universe (GHOU), EU- UNAWE and Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) to disseminate those activities for the school children and teachers in Nepal. Our experiences working with kids, students, teachers and public in the field of universe Awareness Activities for the school children to minimize the abstruse concept of astronomy through some practical approach and the project like Astronomy for the visually impaired students, Galileo Teacher Training program and International School for young astronomers (ISYA) outskirts will be explained which is believed to play vital role in promoting astronomy and space science activities in Nepal.

  16. Events of abrupt change ofIndian monsoon recorded in Dasuopu ice core fromHimalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Three ice cores distributed across Dasuopu glacier in Himalayas were recovered. A 400-year net annual accumulation record reconstructed from one of the cores reflects the major precipitation trend in the central Himalayas. This record is related closely to the Indian monsoon precipitation. Wavelet and moving T-test were applied to the 400-year-long Dasuopu accumulation record, and significant staggered variability and abrupt change of the record on interannual to centennial time scales are identified. Finally the possible reason for abrupt change of the accumulation record is discussed.

  17. Precipitation and snow cover in the Himalaya: from reanalysis to regional climate simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ménégoz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We applied a Regional Climate Model (RCM to simulate precipitation and snow cover over the Himalaya, between March 2000 and December 2002. Due to its higher resolution, our model simulates a more realistic spatial variability of wind and precipitation than those of the reanalysis of the European Centre of Medium range Weather Forecast (ECMWF used as lateral boundaries. In this region, we found very large discrepancies between the estimations of precipitation provided by reanalysis, rain gauges networks, satellite observations, and our RCM simulation. Our model clearly underestimates precipitation at the foothills of the Himalaya and in its eastern part. However, our simulation provides a first estimation of liquid and solid precipitation in high altitude areas, where satellite and rain gauge networks are not very reliable. During the two years of simulation, our model resembles the snow cover extent and duration quite accurately in these areas. Both snow accumulation and snow cover duration differ widely along the Himalaya: snowfall can occur during the whole year in western Himalaya, due to both summer monsoon and mid-latitude low pressure systems bringing moisture into this region. In Central Himalaya and on the Tibetan Plateau, a much more marked dry season occurs from October to March. Snow cover does not have a pronounced seasonal cycle in these regions, since it depends both on the quite variable duration of the monsoon and on the rare but possible occurrence of snowfall during the extra-monsoon period.

  18. Glacier length, area and volume changes in the Himalaya: an overview and specific examples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, T.; Bhambri, R.; Kamp, U.; Pieczonka, T.

    2011-12-01

    The Himalaya comprises one of the largest glacier-covered areas outside the polar regions. Glaciers are of special interest for several reasons. For instance, receding glaciers can cause the development of hazardous glacial lakes and glaciers contribute to the overall river runoff. The importance of the glacier melt to run off, however, varies significantly depending especially on the precipitation regime. Previous studies indicate that the vast majority of the Himalayan glaciers retreated during the recent decades with only few exemptions. Although the numbers of investigates glaciers increased in the last few years, there is still a lack of knowledge about the glacier behaviour in the different regions of the Himalaya. Existing length measurements in the Indian Himalaya show continuous retreat with an accelerating trend in recent years for most of the glaciers. The annual retreat rates vary between ~5m and more than 50m. However, several measurements are based on topographic maps or coarse satellite data and can have therefore higher uncertainties. Own reassessments for the debris-covered Gangotri Glacier situated in Garhwal Himalaya/western India based on high resolution imagery such as Corona, Hexagon, IRS PAN, LISS IV, and Cartosat-1 show an continuous retreat with an average rate of 19.9 ± 0.3 m a-1 from 1965 to 2006. This is significant but less than previously published. Similar results were revealed for the area changes in upper Alaknanda and Bhagirathi valleys in Garhwal Himalaya. We found a lower but still significant area loss of 4.6 ± 2.8 % between 1968 and 2006. Area changes in Khumbu Himalaya/Nepal are with ~5% between 1962 and 2005 comparable. Investigations in the Greater Himalayan Range in southern Ladakh/northwest India revealed a general receding trend but with some of the larger glaciers with high altitude catchments being stable or even advancing. Preliminary results for Shyok Valley (Jammu and Kashmir) show on average stable or slightly

  19. THE CONSERVATION AND POTENTIAL HABITAT OF THE HIMALAYAN MUSK DEER, MOSCHUS CHRYSOGASTER, IN THE PROTECTED AREAS OF NEPAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Achyut ARYAL

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan musk deer (Moschus chrysogaster is a cervid distributed from the eastern to the western Himalayas of Nepal. The species is listed as endangered in appendix I of IUCN Red data, and protected in Nepal under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1973. Musk deer occupy the middle to the higher mountain regions, which cover 12 protected areas of Nepal (6 national parks, 5 conservation areas, 1 hunting reserve. However, of the 30177.19 km2 potential habitat, only 19.26% (5815.08 km2 is inside the protected areas and the remaining 80.73% falls outside the protected areas. Consequently, poaching, habitat destruction, livestock grazing and forest fire in the musk deer habitat are important challenges for the conservation of musk deer in the country. A thorough status survey in and outside the protected areas should be carried out and a species-focused conservation action plan should be prepared and implemented properly. A program for increasing awareness and enhancing livelihood of the local populations be launched in the poor and poaching risk zones of Nepal.

  20. Peasant household type and its land use pattern in Melamchi basin of central mountainous area in Nepal%尼泊尔中部山区Melamchi流域农户类型及其土地利用方式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏艺; 邓伟; 张继飞; Hriday Lal Koirala

    2016-01-01

    Changes in household livelihood strategy have provided a new research perspective for land utilization changes. By means of questionnaire survey, semi-structured interview, mathematical statistics and other research methods, this research conducts a systematic investigation on the households and land plots of 4 typical villages located at the Melamchi basin in the central mountainous areas in Nepal. Then based on the income combinations, this research classifies the peasant households into 4 types, which are pure agriculture type, agriculture-dependent type, non-farming-dependent type and non-agriculture type. With above classification, the analysis is carried out on different types of households’ livelihood strategies and land use patterns, in terms of the number of land plots, the area of land, the renting of land, the arrangement of labor forces and the yield-increasing input and so on. Through contrastive study on different types of households’ perceptions and strategies of livelihood improving, this paper analyzes their influences on land use and comes up with the suggestions including properly utilizing land resources as well as improving household livelihood capability and level. The results show that different types of households reflect different characteristics in their family scale, family member, labor allocation, age structure and cultural level. To be specific, for the households of agriculture-dependent type and non-farming-dependent type, their livelihood strategy combination is better and livelihood diversity index is higher, and hence they possess relatively lower livelihood risks. Different households’ land use patterns are obviously different. From the angle of the area of land, land area per household and per capita, it can be summarized as the sequence of agriculture-dependent type>pure agriculture type>non-farming-dependent type>non-agriculture type. Among these, the households of agriculture-dependent type possess the largest renting

  1. Geodetic Imaging of the Coseismic and Postseismic deformation from the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake and Mw 7.3 Aftershock in Nepal with SAR and GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fielding, E. J.; Liang, C.; Agram, P. S.; Sangha, S. S.; Huang, M. H.; Samsonov, S. V.; Owen, S. E.; Moore, A. W.; Rodriguez-Gonzalez, F.; Minchew, B. M.

    2015-12-01

    The 25th of April 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha Earthquake in Nepal affected a large area of central Nepal and adjacent parts of India and Tibet. It was followed by a number of large aftershocks, with the largest so far an Mw 7.3 aftershock on the 12th of May 2015. We integrate geodetic measurements from Global Positioning System (GPS) data and synthetic aperture radar (SAR) satellite images to image the three-dimensional vector field of coseismic surface deformation for these two large events. We analyze SAR data from the Copernicus Sentinel-1A satellite operated by the European Space Agency; the RADARSAT-2 satellite operated by MacDonald, Dettwiler and Associates (MDA); and the Advanced Land Observation Satellite-2 (ALOS-2) satellite operated by the Japanese Aerospace Exploration Agency. We combine less precise analysis of large scale displacements from the SAR images of the three satellites by pixel offset tracking or sub-pixel correlation, including the along-track component of surface motion, with the more precise SAR interferometry (InSAR) measurements in the radar line-of-sight direction to estimate all three components of the surface displacement for the mainshock and large aftershock. A large area of central Nepal was pushed southward, due to thrust slip on the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) at depth extending about 170 km along-strike. The InSAR measurements show that there was no detectable slip on the shallower part of the MHT up-dip from the large coseismic slip or on other thrust faults in the Himalayas, except for one area of very shallow triggered slip of up to 5 cm on a thrust to the north of the Himalayan Frontal Thrust, during the two event. We also image postseismic deformation after these earthquakes with ongoing continuous GPS measurements and InSAR analysis of the SAR satellite data. Initial analysis of the GPS measurements indicates the most likely process in the first months is afterslip down-dip from the main coseismic slip. Large atmospheric effects in

  2. Local Service Delivery in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2014-01-01

    The effectiveness of public service delivery depends in large part on the capability, resources and inputs, and the motivation of frontline service providers at the local level. In Nepal a combination of de-concentrated line agencies and local bodies at the district, municipal, and village level provides inputs which are translated into delivery of service outputs and outcomes. Yet the rel...

  3. Nepal mental health country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, S K; Pokharel, A; Ojha, S P; Pradhan, S N; Chapagain, G

    2004-01-01

    The Kingdom of Nepal is situated in the heart of Asia, between its two big neighbours China and India. Nepal is home to several ethnic groups. The majority of the 23 million population reside in the countryside. Although figures on many of the health and socio-economic indicators are non-existing, some existing ones show gradual improvement over the years. However the figures for illiteracy and infant mortality are still one of the highest in the world. As per GDP, and population living below the poverty line and per capita income, Nepal still remains one of the poorest countries in the world. Despite this, it provides shelter to thousands of Bhutanese refugees in its land. Frequent natural disasters and recent violent conflicts in Nepal have further added hardship to life. Less than 3% of the national budget is allocated to the health sector. Mental health receives insignificant attention. The Government spends about 1% of the health budget on mental health. There is no mental health act and the National Mental Health Policy formulated in 1997 is yet to be fully operational. Mental ill health is not much talked about because of the stigma attached. The roles of the legal and insurance systems are almost negligible. The financial burden rests upon the family. The traditional/religious healing methods still remain actively practiced, specifically in the field of mental health. The service, comprising little more than two-dozen psychiatrists along with a few psychiatric nurses and clinical psychologists (mainly practicing in modern health care facilities) has started showing its impact--however this is limited to specific urban areas. The majority of the modern health care facilities across the country are devoid of a mental health facility. The main contextual challenges for mental health in Nepal are the provision of adequate manpower, spreading the services across the country, increasing public awareness and formulating and implementing an adequate policy. PMID

  4. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwar, Bishnu Raj; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2012-01-01

    Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 H...

  5. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  6. Nepal CRS project incorporates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    The Nepal Contraceptive Retail Sales (CRS) Project, 5 years after lauching product sales in June 1978, incorporated as a private, nonprofit company under Nepalese management. The transition was finalized in August 1983. The Company will work through a cooperative agreement with USAID/Kathmandu to complement the national family planning goals as the program continues to provide comtraceptives through retail channels at subsidized prices. Company objectives include: increase contraceptive sales by at least 15% per year; make CRS cost effective and move towards self sufficiency; and explore the possibility of marketing noncontraceptive health products to improve primary health care. After only5 years the program can point to some impressive successes. The number of retial shops selling family planning products increased from 100 in 1978 to over 8000, extending CRS product availability to 66 of the country's 75 districts. Retail sales have climbed dramatically in the 5-year period, from Rs 46,817 in 1978 to Rs 271,039 in 1982. Sales in terms of couple year protection CYP) have grown to 24,451 CYP(1982), a 36% increase over 1980 CYP. Since the beginning of the CRS marketing program, total distribution of contraceptives--through both CRS and the Family Planning Maternal and Child Haelth (FP/MCH) Project--has been increasing. While the FP/MCH program remains the largest distributor,contribution of CRS Products is increasing, indicating that CRS is creating new product acceptors. CRS market share in 1982 was 43% for condoms and 16% for oral contraceptives (OCs). CRS markets 5 products which are subsidized in order to be affordable to consumers as well as attractive to sellers. The initial products launched in June 1978 were Gulaf standard dose OCs and Dhaal lubricated colored condoms. A less expensive lubricates, plain Suki-Dhaal condom was introduced in June 1980 in an attempt to reach poorer rural populations, but rural distribution costs are excessive and Suki

  7. Clean Energy Scenario for Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastav, Pushkar K

    2008-01-01

    The focus of this study was to develop energy futures under different growthconditions in Nepal for 2050 and describes how the sustainable energy supply can bemade by using backcasting method to develop scenarios.The major distinguishingcharacteristic of backcasting analysis is a concern, not with what futures are likely tohappen, but with how desirable futures can be attained. It involves workingbackwards from a particular desirable future end-point to the present in order todetermine the ph...

  8. NEPAL AND INDIA MAY INCREASE POWER TRADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Nepal and India may increase the quantity of power exchanged between the two nations to meet shortages in bordering areas. Technical paneles from the two countries have recommended that the power exchange be raised from 50MW to 150MW, according to Bholanath Chalise, chief of the state-run Nepal Electricity Authority(NEA).

  9. Increasing Science Literacy in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, Jeevan

    2016-07-01

    Nepal, a small landlocked and one of the least developed countries in south Asia is curious with its neighbor's giant space missions. As for now, space mission is not imminent to Nepal at least for decade. Due to lack of proper education and the resources; space education is also not very effective. In the curriculum of Nepal, basic astronomy is included in the science book of middle school which consist only 5% of the total course and 10% in high school. However the total course has been mostly theoretical which has made this subject uninteresting and difficult among the students. The examinations in all education levels are practiced on the rote memorization of contents. Pokhara Astronomical Society (PAS) introduced new techniques in teaching with more practical approach. We helped students to construct bamboo telescopes and observe the night sky which brought tremendous interest in studying astronomy in middle school. Similarly in high schools we organized different kinds of webinar with renowned scientist from different parts of the world. We screened documentaries of space activities; we helped them to use online robotic telescopes by using internet. This eventually is creating more interest in students to study science and particularly astronomy in their higher studies. The use of mobile Apps and different satellite tracking website helped students determine the location of space objects and created more interest for detail study of them. We are now reaching thousands of students with different proceedings to popularize astronomy and generating interest to pursue higher education in this subject. As well as creating the scientific awareness and understanding among others who are not choosing science in their higher studies. This paper highlights the comparative study of advanced and practical approach of teaching over traditional approach. The results of survey suggest most students are interested in choosing science in their higher studies where practical

  10. Conflict Management in Natural Resources - A study of Land, Water and Forest Conflicts in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their resolution/managem

  11. Uncertainty Analysis for Assessing Leakage Through Water Tunnels: A Case from Nepal Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panthi, Krishna Kanta; Nilsen, Bjørn

    2010-09-01

    Water leakage problems in unlined or shotcrete lined water tunnels are not new issues. In many occasions severe water leakage problems have been faced that not only have reduced the stability of the rock mass, but also have caused valuable water to be lost from it, causing safety risk as well as huge economic loss to the projects. Hence, making tunnels water tight plays an important role in improving stability and safety of underground excavations. The real challenge is however accurate prediction and quantification of possible water leakage, so that cost consequences can be incorporated during planning of a water conveying tunnel project. The main purposes of this paper are to analyze extensive data on leakage test carried out through exploratory drillhole used to define the need for pre-injection grouting of Khimti headrace tunnel and to carry out probabilistic approach of uncertainty analysis based on relationship established between leakage, hydrostatic head and selected Q-value parameters. The authors believe that the new approach regarding uncertainty analysis of leakage presented in this paper will improve the understanding of leakage characteristics of the rock mass, and hope this will lead to a better understanding concerning quantification of possible water leakage from unlined and shotcrete lined water tunnels.

  12. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh; Skutsch, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-

  13. Medicinal Plants and Ethnomedicine in Peril: A Case Study from Nepal Himalaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ripu M. Kunwar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The impacts of climate change were severe on indigenous medicinal plant species and their dependent communities. The harvesting calendar and picking sites of these species were no longer coinciding and the changes were affecting harvesters’ and cultivators’ abilities to collect and use those species. Secondary sites: road-heads, wastelands, regenerated forests, and so forth, were being prioritized for collection and the nonindigenous medicinal plant species were being increasingly introduced into the medical repertoire as a substitution and to diversify the local medicinal stock. Acceptance and application of nonindigenous species and sites for livelihood and ethnopharmacopoeias with caution were considered as an important adaptation strategy. Findings on species and site specific accounts urged further researches on medicinal plants, ethnomedicine, and their interrelationship with impacts of climate change.

  14. Rb-Sr geochronology of the rocks of the Himalayas, Eastern Nepal, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rb-Sr isotopic measurements were carried out for whole rock and small sliced rock from the Himalayan gneiss which constitutes the metamorphosed basement of the Tethyan sediments. The results of the measurements on whole rock from the Barun migmatite, the Barun gneiss and the Irkhua gneiss indicate that complete Sr isotopic redistribution occurred about 520 m.y. ago. This age is interpreted as the time of the regional metamorphism. The analytical results of the small sliced slabs of the Himalayan gneiss indicate that Sr isotopic redistribution occurred among the sliced slabs 33.3 +- 13.2 m.y. ago. This age is interpreted as the time of the metamorphism in the sillimanite-amphibolite facies. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7372 +- 0.0031 from the Barun migmatite of the Himalayan gneiss suggests the Precambrian Origin of the source rocks. The analytical results on the sliced slab of the Barun migmatite indicate that the original age of the rocks is about 800 m.y. The rock is interpreted as the remobilized Precambrian crustal rock. The high initial 87Sr/86Sr ratio of the Barun gneiss and the Irkhua gneiss of the Himalayan gneiss (0.7234 +- 0.0013) indicates also the Precambrian origin of the source rocks. (author)

  15. Coseismic landsliding associated with the 2015 April 25th Gorkha earthquake, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Marin; Zekkos, Dimitrios; West, A. Joshua; Gallen, Sean; Roback, Kevin; Chamlagain, Deepak; Athanasopoulos-Zekkos, Adda; Greenwood, William; Bateman, Julie; Partenio, Michael; Li, Gen; Cook, Kristen; Godt, Jonathan; Howat, Ian; Morin, Paul

    2016-04-01

    The characteristics of earthquake-triggered landslides have the potential to inform us about the ground motions during large earthquakes and the rock properties of the near surface environment. From the recent Mw7.8 2015 Gorkha earthquake in Nepal, we use satellite imagery to identify over 20,000 landslides that are associated with the main shock. While most landslides are located on steep hillslopes, we also present field measurements of alluvial terraces that have either failed or remained stable during the earthquake. We show how both hillslope and terrace failures can be used to better understand the earthquake. These local, site-specific surveys and analyses of alluvial terraces can be used to constrain co-seismic peak ground acceleration (PGA) and large landslide inventories can be used to gain insight into regional patterns of strong ground motion. Our regional landslide mapping reveals two principal patterns: (1) landslides are concentrated in the steep Greater Himalaya in the north, with conspicuously fewer landslides in the moderately-steep Lesser Himalaya in the south, and (2) within the Greater Himalaya, landslide density increases from west to east across the rupture area. We have compared our observed map of landslide occurrence to predictions from forward models using hillslope angles, average rock strength, and PGA estimated from ground motion prediction equations (GMPE). The higher concentration of landslides in the Greater Himalaya compared to the Lesser Himalaya can be predicted by the models and explained by the steeper topography of the Greater Himalaya. However, these forward models do not reproduce the east to west variation in observed landslide density, which is lower than model predictions near the epicenter, and greater than model predictions toward the eastern limit of the rupture. From limit equilibrium stability analysis of both failed and stable fluvial terraces, we constrain local PGA values in the eastern region of dense landsliding

  16. Predicted Attenuation Relation and Observed Ground Motion of Gorkha Nepal Earthquake of 25 April 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. P.; Ahmad, R.

    2015-12-01

    A comparison of recent observed ground motion parameters of recent Gorkha Nepal earthquake of 25 April 2015 (Mw 7.8) with the predicted ground motion parameters using exitsing attenuation relation of the Himalayan region will be presented. The recent earthquake took about 8000 lives and destroyed thousands of poor quality of buildings and the earthquake was felt by millions of people living in Nepal, China, India, Bangladesh, and Bhutan. The knowledge of ground parameters are very important in developing seismic code of seismic prone regions like Himalaya for better design of buildings. The ground parameters recorded in recent earthquake event and aftershocks are compared with attenuation relations for the Himalayan region, the predicted ground motion parameters show good correlation with the observed ground parameters. The results will be of great use to Civil engineers in updating existing building codes in the Himlayan and surrounding regions and also for the evaluation of seismic hazards. The results clearly show that the attenuation relation developed for the Himalayan region should be only used, other attenuation relations based on other regions fail to provide good estimate of observed ground motion parameters.

  17. The Seasonal Hydrological Loading Impacts on Post-Earth Measurements for the 2015 Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Rong; Wang, Qi; Freymueller, Jeffrey T.; Poutanen, Markku

    2016-04-01

    In southern Tibet and Himalaya, ongoing vertical and horizontal motions due to the collision between India and Eurasia are monitored by large numbers of global positioning system (GPS) continuous and campaign sites installed in the past decade. Displacements measured by GPS usually include tectonic deformation as well as non-tectonic, time-dependent signals. To estimate the regional long-term tectonic deformation using GPS more precisely, seasonal elastic deformation signals associated with surface loading must be removed from the observations. Seasonal oscillations in GPS site time series also can bias estimates of postseismic deformation, especially in the critical first months after an earthquake. We investigate tectonic and hydrologic deformation at GPS sites in southern Tibet and Himalaya, focusing on removing seasonal signals in GPS time series for a robust determination of tectonic deformation. The 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake occurred in late April. In the first half -year since this thrusting earthquake, postseimic displacements for sites in southern Tibet and Himalaya have mainly to the south, in the same direction as the coseismic displacement. Because this is in the same direction as the largest horizontal seasonal oscillation, and because the impact of an annual period oscillation on the estimated rate is greatest when the data span is half a cycle, the seasonal displacements can have a significant impact on the early postseismic displacements. This study represents a considerable complement to the previous works that were based exclusively on analyzing the Nepal continuous GPS network because new sites in southern Tibet, China are considered, and numerous time series of campaign sites are analyzed. In particular, we analyze how removing seasonal hydrologic signals from GPS site time series impacts estimates of the postseismic transient following the 2015 Mw 7.8 Gorkha earthquake.

  18. Prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Sharma, Rajan; Neupane, Dinesh;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Understanding the prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal can help in planning for health services and recognising risk factors. This review aims to systematically identify and collate studies describing the prevalence of type 2 diabetes, to summarise the findings, and to explore...... populations was 8.1% (95% CI: 7.3-8.9%) and 1.0% (95% CI: 0.7-1.3%), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This is, to our knowledge, the first study to systematically evaluate the literature of prevalence of type 2 diabetes in Nepal. Results showed that type 2 diabetes is currently a high-burden disease in Nepal...

  19. An ethnobotanical survey of medicinal plants used in Terai forest of western Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh Anant

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nepal Himalayas have been known as a rich source for valuable medicinal plants since Vedic periods. Present work is the documentation of indigenous knowledge on plant utilization as natural remedy by the inhabitants of terai forest in Western Nepal. Methods Study was conducted during 2010–2011 following standard ethnobotanical methods. Data about medicinal uses of plants were collected by questionnaire, personal interview and group discussion with pre identified informants. Voucher specimens were collected with the help of informants, processed into herbarium following standard methods, identified with the help of pertinent floras and taxonomic experts, and submitted in Department of Botany, Butwal Multiple Campus, Tribhuvan University, Nepal for future references. Results During the present study 66 medicinal plant species belonging to 37 families and 60 genera has been documented. These plants were used to treat various diseases and ailments grouped under 11 disease categories, with the highest number of species (41 being used for gastro-intestinal disorders, followed by dermatological disorders (34. In the study area the informants’ consensus about usages of medicinal plants ranges from 0.93 to 0.97 with an average value of 0.94. Herbs (53% were the primary source of medicine, followed by trees (23%. Curcuma longa (84% and Azadirachta indica (76% are the most frequently and popularly used medicinal plant species in the study area. Acacia catechu, Bacopa monnieri, Bombax ceiba, Drymaria diandra, Rauvolfia serpentina, and Tribulus terrestris are threatened species which needs to be conserved for future use. Conclusions The high degree of consensus among the informants suggests that current use and knowledge are still strong, and thus the preservation of today's knowledge shows good foresight in acting before much has been lost. The connections between plant use and conservation are also important ones, especially as the

  20. The Byanshi: an ethnographic note on a trading group in far western Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzardo, A E; Dahal, D R; Rai, N K

    1976-09-01

    The Byanshi who live in the district of Darchula are among the lesser known trading groups of Nepal. The Byanshi, close to the borders of Nepal, India, and Tibet, make their living trading wool, yak tails, salt, grain, and other commodities across the Himalayas and over the border into Pithoragarh district and even down into the Terai. The Byanshi live their lives in 2 separate areas. In the summer they live in their traditional homeland in Byana panchayat in the northern section of Darchula, close to Nepal's border with China. The major settlements in the area are Tinkar and Chhangru. The entire panchayat has a population of about 2000. In the winter, when snow makes life difficult in the high mountains, the Byanshi migrate down to Khalanga panchayat. Of greater importance than agriculture is animal husbandry, which is the backbone of trade in the Himalayas. Most important is that husbandry supports trade. The Byanshi social organization is somewhat confusing. An attempt is made to explain the clan structure as simply as possible. Upon the birth of a child the women from the village bring local beer, meat, and other food to the mother. Up to the 11th day after childbirth, the new mother and child are considered to be polluted. On the 8th day after delivery a ceremony known as "malengkho kormo" is performed, where the mother and child are ritually bathed. From this point, both the mother and child may enter the hearth area of their house, but the house itself is considered polluted. On the 11th day, all villagers are invited to attend the ceremony known as "chhyosimo" which purifies the house and the people. The Byanshi practice 3 forms of marriage: marriage by capture; love marriage, a form of elopmement; and the arranged marriage. The latter is becoming most common. Death rituals have always been the most exaggerated and costly ceremonies for the Bayanshi. The religion of the Byanshi combines features of Tibetan Buddhism, hill animism, and Hinduism in a very

  1. Solar home systems in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henryson, Jessica; Haakansson, Teresa

    1999-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) technology is a clean and environmentally friendly technology that does not require any fuels. The high reliability of operation and little need for maintenance makes it ideally suited for rural areas. Today PV systems are used in Nepal to power telecommunications centres, navigational aids, in pumping systems for irrigation and drinking water, and for household electrification. A solar home system consists of a PV module, a battery, a charge controller and 3-4 fluorescent light bulbs with fixture. The system provides power for lighting and operation of household appliances for several hours. The success of donor supported programs have shown that solar home systems can be a practical solution for many rural households. In 1996 the Government of Nepal launched a subsidy program for solar home systems, which dramatically has increased the demand for solar home systems among rural customers. This report includes a survey of 52 households with solar home systems in two villages. The field-study shows that the villagers are very happy with their systems and the technical performance of the systems in both villages is satisfactory. The study also shows the positive impact electricity has on education, health, income generation and quality of life. The beneficiaries of introducing electricity in remote areas are the children and the women 39 refs, 18 tabs. Examination paper

  2. 10-year record of atmospheric composition in the high Himalayas: source, transport and impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonasoni, Paolo; Laj, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Maione, Michela; Putero, Davide; Calzolari, Francescopiero; Decesari, Stefano; Facchini, Maria Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro; Gobbi, Gianpaolo; Sellegri, Karine; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Arduini, Jgor

    2016-04-01

    South Asia represents a global "hot-spot" for air-quality and climate impacts. Since the end of the 20th Century, field experiments and satellite observations identified a thick layer of atmospheric pollutants extending from the Indian Ocean up to the atmosphere of the Himalayas. Since large amount of short-lived climate pollutants (SLCPs) - like atmospheric aerosol (in particular, the light-absorbing aerosol) and ozone - characterize this region, severe implications were recognized for population health, ecosystem integrity as well as regional climate impacts, especially for what concerns hydrological cycle, monsoon regimes and cryosphere. Since 2006, the Nepal Climate Observatory - Pyramid (NCO-P, 27.95N, 86.82 E, 5079 m a.s.l.), a global station of the WMO/GAW programme has been active in the eastern Nepal Himalaya, not far from the Mt. Everest. NCO-P is located away from large direct anthropogenic pollution sources. The closest major urban area is Kathmandu (200 km south-west from the measurement site). As being located along the Khumbu valley, the observations are representative of synoptic-scale and mountain thermal circulation, providing direct information about the vertical transport of pollutants/climate-altering compounds to the Himalayas and to the free troposphere. In the framework of international programmes (GAW/WMO, UNEP-ABC, AERONET) the following continuous measurement programmes have been carried out at NCO-P: surface ozone, aerosol size distribution (from 10 nm to 25 micron), total particle number, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, equivalent BC, PM1-PM10, AOD by sun-photometry, global solar radiation (SW and LW), meteorology. Long-term sampling programmes for the off-line determination of halogenated gases and aerosol chemistry have been also activated. The atmospheric observation records at NCO-P, now representing the longest time series available for the high Himalayas, provided the first direct evidences about the systematic

  3. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed

  4. Nepal efter jordskælvet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirslund, Dan Vesalainen; Webster, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Efter jordskælvet i Nepal er der behov for nødhjællp, humanitær bistand, genopbygning og udvikling. Og der er behov for at vi fastholder vores fokus på at hjælpe Nepal videre, også når nyhedens interesse har lagt sig.......Efter jordskælvet i Nepal er der behov for nødhjællp, humanitær bistand, genopbygning og udvikling. Og der er behov for at vi fastholder vores fokus på at hjælpe Nepal videre, også når nyhedens interesse har lagt sig....

  5. The spatial heterogeneity between Japanese encephalitis incidence distribution and environmental variables in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel E Impoinvil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: To identify potential environmental drivers of Japanese Encephalitis virus (JE transmission in Nepal, we conducted an ecological study to determine the spatial association between 2005 Nepal JE incidence, and climate, agricultural, and land-cover variables at district level. METHODS: District-level data on JE cases were examined using Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA analysis to identify spatial clusters from 2004 to 2008 and 2005 data was used to fit a spatial lag regression model with climate, agriculture and land-cover variables. RESULTS: Prior to 2006, there was a single large cluster of JE cases located in the Far-West and Mid-West terai regions of Nepal. After 2005, the distribution of JE cases in Nepal shifted with clusters found in the central hill areas. JE incidence during the 2005 epidemic had a stronger association with May mean monthly temperature and April mean monthly total precipitation compared to mean annual temperature and precipitation. A parsimonious spatial lag regression model revealed, 1 a significant negative relationship between JE incidence and April precipitation, 2 a significant positive relationship between JE incidence and percentage of irrigated land 3 a non-significant negative relationship between JE incidence and percentage of grassland cover, and 4 a unimodal non-significant relationship between JE Incidence and pig-to-human ratio. CONCLUSION: JE cases clustered in the terai prior to 2006 where it seemed to shift to the Kathmandu region in subsequent years. The spatial pattern of JE cases during the 2005 epidemic in Nepal was significantly associated with low precipitation and the percentage of irrigated land. Despite the availability of an effective vaccine, it is still important to understand environmental drivers of JEV transmission since the enzootic cycle of JEV transmission is not likely to be totally interrupted. Understanding the spatial dynamics of JE risk factors may be

  6. Hot springs and the geothermal energy potential of Jammu & Kashmir State, N.W. Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, J.; Absar, A.; Bhat, G.; Cadel, G.; Hafiz, M.; Hakhoo, N.; Kashkari, R.; Moore, J.; Ricchiuto, T. E.; Thurow, J.; Thusu, B.

    2013-11-01

    India has an estimated geothermal power potential of 10,600 MWe, but this potential is entirely undeveloped at present. The 'Geothermal Atlas of India' prepared by the Geological Survey of India (GSI) in 1991 describes some 340 hot spring sites and identifies more than 300 sites with geothermal potential in at least seven key geothermal provinces throughout India. There are more than 20 hot spring sites in Jammu & Kashmir State, mainly in the Chenab Valley in the Lesser/Central Himalaya, the Kashmir Valley and in the High Himalaya region of Ladakh. At least three localities in the Ladakh region - Chamuthang and Puga in the Indus valley and Panamik in the Nubra Valley - are considered to have geothermal power generation potential of between 3 and > 20 MWe.

  7. Geophysical Characterization of the Salna Sinking Zone, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastry, Rambhatla G.; Mondal, Suman K.

    2013-01-01

    Infrastructure and communication facilities are repeatedly affected by ground deformation in Gharwal Himalaya, India; for effective remediation measures, a thorough understanding of the real reasons for these movements is needed. In this regard, we undertook an integrated geophysical and geotechnical study of the Salna sinking zone close to the Main Central Thrust in Garhwal Himalaya. Our geophysical data include eight combined electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and induced polarization imaging (IPI) profiles spanning 144-600 m, with 3-10 m electrode separation in the Wenner-Schlumberger configuration, and five micro-gravity profiles with 10-30 m station spacing covering the study region. The ERT sections clearly outline the heterogeneity in the subsurface lithology. Further, the ERT, IPI, and shaliness (shaleyness) sections infer the absence of clayey horizons and slip surfaces at depth. However, the Bouguer gravity analysis has revealed the existence of several faults in the subsurface, much beyond the reach of the majority of ERT sections. These inferred vertical to subvertical faults run parallel to the existing major lineaments and tectonic elements of the study region. The crisscross network of inferred faults has divided the entire study region into several blocks in the subsurface. Our studies stress that the sinking of the Salna village area is presently taking place along these inferred vertical to subvertical faults. The Chamoli earthquake in March 1999 probably triggered seismically induced ground movements in this region. The absence of few gravity-inferred faults in shallow ERT sections may hint at blind faults, which could serve as future source(s) for geohazards in the study region. Soil samples at two sites of study region were studied in a geotechnical laboratory. These, along with stability studies along four slope sections, have indicated the critical state of the study region. Thus, our integrated studies emphasize the crucial role of

  8. Framing hydropower as green energy: assessing drivers, risks and tensions in the Eastern Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, R.; Budds, J.; Joshi, D.; Merme, V.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2015-04-01

    The culturally and ecologically diverse region of the Eastern Himalayas is the target of ambitious hydropower development plans. Policy discourses at national and international levels position this development as synergistically positive: it combines the production of clean energy to fuel economic growth at regional and national levels with initiatives to lift poor mountain communities out of poverty. Different from hydropower development in the 20th century in which development agencies and banks were important players, contemporary initiatives importantly rely on the involvement of private actors, with a prominent role of the private finance sector. This implies that hydropower development is not only financially viable but also understood as highly profitable. This paper examines the new development of hydropower in the Eastern Himalayas of Nepal and India. It questions its framing as green energy, interrogates its links with climate change, and examines its potential for investment and capital accumulation. To do this, we also review the evidence on the extent to which its construction and operation may modify existing hydrogeological processes and ecosystems, as well as its impacts on the livelihoods of diverse groups of people that depend on these. The paper concludes that hydropower development in the region is characterized by inherent contentions and uncertainties, refuting the idea that dams constitute development projects whose impacts can be simply predicted, controlled and mitigated. Indeed, in a highly complex geological, ecological, cultural and political context that is widely regarded to be especially vulnerable to the effects of climate change, hydropower as a development strategy makes for a toxic cocktail.

  9. Atmospheric aerosol brown carbon in the high Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirillova, Elena; Decesari, Stefano; Marinoni, Angela; Bonasoni, Paolo; Vuillermoz, Elisa; Facchini, M. Cristina; Fuzzi, Sandro

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic light-absorbing atmospheric aerosol can reach very high concentrations in the planetary boundary layer in South-East Asia ("brown clouds"), affecting atmospheric transparency and generating spatial gradients of temperature over land with a possible impact on atmospheric dynamics and monsoon circulation. Besides black carbon (BC), an important light-absorbing component of anthropogenic aerosols is the organic carbon component known as 'brown carbon' (BrC). In this research, we provided first measurements of atmospheric aerosol BrC in the high Himalayas during different seasons. Aerosol sampling was conducted at the GAW-WMO Global station "Nepal Climate Observatory-Pyramid" (NCO-P) located in the high Khumbu valley at 5079 m a.s.l. in the foothills of Mt. Everest. PM10 aerosol samples were collected from July 2013 to November 2014. The sampling strategy was set up in order to discriminate the daytime valley breeze bringing polluted air masses up to the observatory and free tropospheric air during nighttime. Water-soluble BrC (WS-BrC) and methanol-soluble BrC (MeS-BrC) were extracted and analyzed using a UV/VIS spectrophotometer equipped with a 50 cm liquid waveguide capillary cell. In the polluted air masses, the highest levels of the BrC light absorption coefficient at 365 nm (babs365) were observed during the pre-monsoon season (1.83±1.46 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 2.86±2.49 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC) and the lowest during the monsoon season (0.21±0.22 Mm-1 for WS-BrC and 0.32±0.29 Mm-1 for MeS-BrC). The pre-monsoon season is the most frequently influenced by a strong atmospheric brown cloud (ABC) transport to NCO-P due to increased convection and mixing layer height over South Asia combined with the highest up-valley wind speed and the increase of the emissions from open fires due to the agricultural practice along the Himalayas foothills and the Indo-Gangetic Plain. In contrast, the monsoon season is characterized by a weakened valley wind regime and an

  10. Historical analysis of vocational education in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sheel Manju

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze the vocational education plans of Nepal through an historical study by identifying their successes and failures. The specific objectives of the study were (a) to provide an historical background of general education and vocational education, (b) to analyze the strengths and inadequacies of the vocational education systems implemented in Nepal since 1950, (c) to review vocational education components implemented in other developing ...

  11. Determinants of Stock Market Performance in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar Shrestha Ph.D.; Biggyan Raj Subedi

    2014-01-01

    This paper empirically examines the determinants of the stock market performance in Nepal using monthly data for the period of mid-August 2000 to mid-July 2014. The impact of major changes in politics and Nepal Rastra Bank’s policy on lending against share collateral has also been assessed. Empirical results obtained from OLS estimations of behavioural equations reveal that the performance of stock market is found to respond positively to inflation and broad money growth, and negatively to in...

  12. CODA Q estimates for Kumaun Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Paul; S C Gupta; Charu C Pant

    2003-12-01

    Coda (c) estimates for the Kumaun Himalaya region have been obtained in high frequency range. Local earthquakes, recorded by a digital seismic network in the region, which fall in the epicentral distances range of 10 to 80km and with a local magnitude range of 1.4 to 2.8, have been used. The coda waves of 30 sec window length, filtered at seven frequency bands centered at 1.5, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 Hz, have been analysed using the single backscattering model. The values of c estimates vary from 65 to 283 at 1.5 Hz to 2119 to 3279 at 24.0 Hz which showed that c is frequency dependent and its value increases as frequency increases. A frequency-dependent c relationship, c = (92 ± 4.73) (1.07 ± .023), is obtained for the region representing the average attenuation characteristics of seismic waves for Kumaun Himalaya region.

  13. Stalagmite growth perturbations from the Kumaun Himalaya as potential earthquake recorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, C. P.; Sanwal, Jaishri; Morell, Kristin D.; Sandiford, Mike; Kotlia, B. S.; Hellstrom, John; Rajendran, Kusala

    2016-04-01

    The central part of the Himalaya (Kumaun and Garhwal Provinces of India) is noted for its prolonged seismic quiescence, and therefore, developing a longer-term time series of past earthquakes to understand their recurrence pattern in this segment assumes importance. In addition to direct observations of offsets in stratigraphic exposures or other proxies like paleoliquefaction, deformation preserved within stalagmites (speleothems) in karst system can be analyzed to obtain continuous millennial scale time series of earthquakes. The Central Indian Himalaya hosts natural caves between major active thrusts forming potential storehouses for paleoseismological records. Here, we present results from the limestone caves in the Kumaun Himalaya and discuss the implications of growth perturbations identified in the stalagmites as possible earthquake recorders. This article focuses on three stalagmites from the Dharamjali Cave located in the eastern Kumaun Himalaya, although two other caves, one of them located in the foothills, were also examined for their suitability. The growth anomalies in stalagmites include abrupt tilting or rotation of growth axes, growth termination, and breakage followed by regrowth. The U-Th age data from three specimens allow us to constrain the intervals of growth anomalies, and these were dated at 4273 ± 410 years BP (2673-1853 BC), 2782 ± 79 years BP (851-693 BC), 2498 ± 117 years BP (605-371 BC), 1503 ± 245 years BP (262-752 AD), 1346 ± 101 years BP (563-765 AD), and 687 ± 147 years BP (1176-1470 AD). The dates may correspond to the timings of major/great earthquakes in the region and the youngest event (1176-1470 AD) shows chronological correspondence with either one of the great medieval earthquakes (1050-1250 and 1259-1433 AD) evident from trench excavations across the Himalayan Frontal Thrust.

  14. Region-wide glacier mass balances over the Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya during 1999–2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gardelle

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The recent evolution of Pamir-Karakoram-Himalaya (PKH glaciers, widely acknowledged as valuable high-altitude as well as mid-latitude climatic indicators, remains poorly known. To overcome the lack of region-wide mass balance data, we compared the 2000 Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM digital elevation model (DEM to recent (2008–2011 DEMs derived from SPOT5 stereo-imagery for 8 sites spread from Pamir to eastern Himalaya. The region-wide glacier mass balances were contrasted during the last decade, with moderate mass losses in eastern and central Himalaya (−0.21 ± 0.10 m yr−1 w.e. to −0.29 ± 0.09 m yr−1 w.e. and larger losses in western Himalaya (−0.41 ± 0.11 m yr−1 w.e.. Recently reported slight mass gain of glaciers in central Karakoram is confirmed for a larger area (+0.10 ± 0.19 m yr−1 w.e. and, new, also observed for glaciers in western Pamir (+0.14 ± 0.10 m yr−1 w.e.. We propose that the "Karakoram anomaly" should be renamed the "Pamir-Karakoram anomaly", at least for the last decade. The overall mass balance of PKH glaciers is estimated at −0.12 ± 0.06 m yr−1 w.e. In contrast to Indus, the relative glacier imbalance contribution to Brahmaputra and Ganges discharges is higher than previously modeled glacier seasonal contribution.

  15. Private power producers urged to cut rates in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The government of Nepal has urged Norwegian and US utility companies operating in the country to slash the price of the electricity they sell to the state-owned power distributor, Nepal Electricity Authority(NEA).

  16. Nuclear Medicine in Nepal and the 22nd All Nepal Medical Conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nepal Medical Association (NMA) is the largest professional organization of medical doctors in Nepal. The association started with 20 founder members, several decades ago. Today it has grown into about 2000 life members and 11 branches in the country. The majority of doctors in Nepal are members of this association, including the doctors belonging to the specialty of nuclear medicine. The NMA organised its 22nd Annual Conference from 2-4 March, 2005 in Kathmandu. The theme of this year's conference 'Health, Human Rights and Conflict' was very much appropriate in the national context, which in fact offered an opportunity and challenge to the medical professionals of Nepal to develop the national health care system in the country for providing quality health care to the people of Nepal

  17. Bivariate Statistical Analysis of Landslide Susceptibility in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Landslide susceptibility mapping is very crucial for planning and development in a disaster prone region in Nepal. Nepal is one of the landslide prone countries of the World. Very high relief, steep slopes, complex geology and diverse vegetation cover has made Nepal vulnerable to landslides. Some national level and individual research initiatives have been published about landslide process, mechanisms and hazard zonation. But there are a few studies carried out in the Western region of Nepal...

  18. Elevation Map of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    These Shuttle Radar Topgraphy Mission (SRTM) images show the basin of Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal: On the left a detail (27 km x 20.5 km) of the X-SAR digital elevation model (shown below), on the right the corresponding radar amplitude image. The amplitude is a measure of the backscattering of the transmitted microwaves. In the amplitude image the 'Bagmati-River' is visible south of the city center and the international Airport in the eastern part. The runway appears as a dark stripe. The airport is infamous for its difficult landing/takeoff conditions due to the close vicinity of the surrounding high mountains. For more information and a image of the region around Kathmandu, visit the German Remote Sensing Data Center SRTM Treasure Vault. Image courtesy German Remote Sensing Data Center

  19. Predicting the distributions of predator (snow leopard) and prey (blue sheep) under climate change in the Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aryal, Achyut; Shrestha, Uttam Babu; Ji, Weihong; Ale, Som B; Shrestha, Sujata; Ingty, Tenzing; Maraseni, Tek; Cockfield, Geoff; Raubenheimer, David

    2016-06-01

    Future climate change is likely to affect distributions of species, disrupt biotic interactions, and cause spatial incongruity of predator-prey habitats. Understanding the impacts of future climate change on species distribution will help in the formulation of conservation policies to reduce the risks of future biodiversity losses. Using a species distribution modeling approach by MaxEnt, we modeled current and future distributions of snow leopard (Panthera uncia) and its common prey, blue sheep (Pseudois nayaur), and observed the changes in niche overlap in the Nepal Himalaya. Annual mean temperature is the major climatic factor responsible for the snow leopard and blue sheep distributions in the energy-deficient environments of high altitudes. Currently, about 15.32% and 15.93% area of the Nepal Himalaya are suitable for snow leopard and blue sheep habitats, respectively. The bioclimatic models show that the current suitable habitats of both snow leopard and blue sheep will be reduced under future climate change. The predicted suitable habitat of the snow leopard is decreased when blue sheep habitats is incorporated in the model. Our climate-only model shows that only 11.64% (17,190 km(2)) area of Nepal is suitable for the snow leopard under current climate and the suitable habitat reduces to 5,435 km(2) (reduced by 24.02%) after incorporating the predicted distribution of blue sheep. The predicted distribution of snow leopard reduces by 14.57% in 2030 and by 21.57% in 2050 when the predicted distribution of blue sheep is included as compared to 1.98% reduction in 2030 and 3.80% reduction in 2050 based on the climate-only model. It is predicted that future climate may alter the predator-prey spatial interaction inducing a lower degree of overlap and a higher degree of mismatch between snow leopard and blue sheep niches. This suggests increased energetic costs of finding preferred prey for snow leopards - a species already facing energetic constraints due to the

  20. Spatiotemporal variation in exhumation of the Crystallines in the NW-Himalaya, India: Constraints from fission track dating analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, R. C.; Adlakha, Vikas; Lal, Nand; Singh, Paramjeet; Kumar, Y.

    2011-05-01

    During Himalayan orogeny, coeval thrusting along the Main Central/Munsiari Thrust (MCT/MT) and extension along the South Tibetan-Detachment System (STDS) are widely responsible for rapid exhumation of the Higher Himalayan Crystalline (HHC) zone. Apatite and zircon fission-track data along the Kaliganga and Darma valleys in the Kumaon Himalaya serve to document the shallow bedrock exhumation history of the HHC. Taking into account sample location within the HHC with respect to the MCT/MT, the apatite fission track (AFT) data-sets along the Darma (1.0 ± 0.1 to 2.8 ± 0.3 Ma) and Kaliganga (1.4 ± 0.2 to 2.4 ± 0.3 Ma) which are sharing same structural setting and rock types and being separated by 40 km, show very similar patterns of exhumation histories since Plio-Quaternary in the Kumaon Himalaya. Data sets along Darma and Kaliganga are very similar to data set of adjacent traverse (50 km away) along the Goriganga valley studied by Patel and Carter (2009). Whole data sets within the HHC in Kumaon Himalaya provide clear evidence for Plio-Quaternary tectonic activity along the Vaikrita Thrust (VT). Precipitation in this region exerts a strong influence on erosional surface processes. Fluvial erosional unloading along the Himalaya is focused on the high mountainous region of the HHC, where the orographic barrier forces out the maximum percentage of annual rainfall. FT cooling ages reveal coincidence between rapid erosion and exhumation that is focused in a ~ 25-30 km wide sector of the HHC, rather than covering the entire orogen. Similarity of AFT age pattern and exhumation rates along all three major traverses (Goriganga, Darma and Kaliganga) indicates that the region has been experiencing constant rate of crustal uplift and erosion since long time. Comparison of fission track ages from the Kumaon Himalaya with other segments of the NW-Himalaya shows spatiotemporal variation in exhumation. It is described due to the development of local structures such as dome

  1. [Who heals the healer? Shaman practice in the Himalayas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppitz, M

    1993-11-01

    The question has been put before: By which means or intervention does the shaman or faith healer effect his healing results? A new answer is attempted in this article in which a concrete example is being described and analysed: What do the shamanic healers of the Northern Magar in NW Central Nepal do, when confronted with a complicated birth? As neither medication or herbal treatment, nor any massage or obstetric manipulation is employed (methods well applied by the local midwife), the healing séance of the shaman has to be classified as a psychological manipulation of the patient. This is based on three elements: ritual acts during the séance; performance of mythical chants; and the presence of an audience. As for the chanted myths, it may be stressed that they relate stories which allude to the actual situation of the patient, insofar as their protagonist is in a similar situation as herself--only much worse. This overdramatisation permits the listening patient to first identify with and then to dis-identify from her mythical similé and to anticipate a happier end for herself than that related in the myth, which is always violent and tragic. The mechanism of healing (in our case: a successful birth) ensues from a gradual process of disidentification of the patient from the mythical heroine. This observation may be confirmed, if one compares the Magar case with similar ethnographic facts from other regions, both in Nepal and elsewhere. The described process of healing, effected through shamanic treatment, invites to a new comparison between this form of practice and that of Western psychoanalysis. PMID:8278567

  2. Urban Growth and Spatial Transition in Nepal: An Initial Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Muzzini, Elisa; Aparicio, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Nepal is undergoing two momentous transformations-from a rural to an urbanizing economy and from a unitary to a federal state. This book aims at understanding the first of these two transitions: Nepal's journey toward becoming a predominantly urban economy. The study carries out an initial assessment of Nepal's transition from a predominantly rural to an urbanizing economy. This assessment...

  3. The Collision Timing and Subsequent Deformation Phases in the Western Himalaya during the India-Eurasia Collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagoutz, O.; Upadhyay, R.; Bouilhol, P.; Van Buer, N. J.; Hanchar, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The western Himalaya differ from the central and eastern Himalaya due to the presence of the Kohistan-Ladakh paleo Island arc (KLA) that separates India from the former Eurasian margin (e.g. Karakoram). The KLA is separated from India by the Indus suture zone in the south, and in the north by the Shyok suture zone from the Karakorum. In an effort to understand the complicated collisional history in the western Himalaya we mapped ~8000 km2 in the western Himalaya in India over the last 4 years, focusing in detail on the intersection of the Shyok suture zone and the Karakoram fault. These results in combination with our previous work and published results from the western Himalaya in Pakistan, and U-Pb Zircon geochronology allows us to constrain the collisional history related to the India-Eurasia collision of this poorly studied region of the Himalayas. Our mapping indicate that the western Himalaya in India is dominated by four major fault zones: (1) the north dipping Indus suture, previously dated at 50 Ma; (2) the Shyok suture an originally south dipping fault zone of essentially unknown age; (3) a north dipping thrusts and reverse fault system likely the equivalent of the Karakoram thrust system described from northern Pakistan; and finally (4) the dextral Karakorum strike-slip fault. The continental Saltoro Molasse composed of conglomerate and sandstones is generally spatially associated in our mapping area with the Shyok suture zone and likely the western equivalent of the Purit formation described in Pakistan. The deposition of the Saltoro molasses postdated the formation of the Shyok suture zones, as serpentinized ultramafic conglomerate clasts are common in the molasse and are likely derived from the near-by ultramafics of the Shyok suture zone. However, both the Shyok suture and the Saltoro molasse are affected by the thrusting along the Karakoram thrust system and the deformation associated with movement of the Karakoram fault. These relative age

  4. Interpreting the geomorphometric indices for neotectonic implications: An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Naresh; Singh, Sunil; Sundriyal, Y. P.; Rawat, G. S.; Juyal, Navin

    2016-06-01

    Tectonic process can influence the erosion and exert the first order impression on hydrographic network of an area. Geomorphometry, a mathematical analysis of the configuration of the landforms, allows quantifying the degree of landform evolution and is widely used as a measure of tectonic deformation/uplift. Alaknanda valley lies in the tectonically active Garhwal Himalaya which has experienced two disastrous large earthquakes in the last two decades. Morphometric analyses of the valley were carried out in a fluvial erosion dominated regime and the morphometric indices were derived from the ASTER (30 m × 30 m pixel) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Arc GIS. The results of the analyses reveal two zones of high deformation/uplift in the valley, viz., the zone of high deformation proximal to the Main Central Thrust (MCT) in the Inner Lesser Himalaya (ILH) and the second zone of moderate deformation/uplift in the Outer Lesser Himalaya (OLH), south of the Tons Thrust (TT). The high deformation in the ILH is ascribed to the focussed convergence and high precipitation; however, the causes for the moderate deformation in the OLH are yet to be established.

  5. Interpreting the geomorphometric indices for neotectonic implications: An example of Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Naresh Rana; Sunil Singh; Y P Sundriyal; G S Rawat; Navin Juyal

    2016-06-01

    Tectonic process can influence the erosion and exert the first order impression on hydrographic networkof an area. Geomorphometry, a mathematical analysis of the configuration of the landforms, allows quantifyingthe degree of landform evolution and is widely used as a measure of tectonic deformation/uplift.Alaknanda valley lies in the tectonically active Garhwal Himalaya which has experienced two disastrouslarge earthquakes in the last two decades. Morphometric analyses of the valley were carried out in a fluvialerosion dominated regime and the morphometric indices were derived from the ASTER (30 m × 30 mpixel) Digital Elevation Model (DEM) using Arc GIS. The results of the analyses reveal two zones ofhigh deformation/uplift in the valley, viz., the zone of high deformation proximal to the Main CentralThrust (MCT) in the Inner Lesser Himalaya (ILH) and the second zone of moderate deformation/upliftin the Outer Lesser Himalaya (OLH), south of the Tons Thrust (TT). The high deformation in the ILHis ascribed to the focussed convergence and high precipitation; however, the causes for the moderatedeformation in the OLH are yet to be established.

  6. Seismic source zoning and maximum credible earthquake prognosis of the Greater Kashmir Territory, NW Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sana, Hamid; Nath, Sankar Kumar

    2016-09-01

    We present the seismic source zoning of the tectonically active Greater Kashmir territory of the Northwestern Himalaya and seismicity analysis (Gutenberg-Richter parameters) and maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimation of each zone. The earthquake catalogue used in the analysis is an extensive one compiled from various sources which spans from 1907 to 2012. Five seismogenic zones were delineated, viz. Hazara-Kashmir Syntaxis, Karakorum Seismic Zone, Kohistan Seismic Zone, Nanga Parbat Syntaxis, and SE-Kashmir Seismic Zone. Then, the seismicity analysis and maximum credible earthquake estimation were carried out for each zone. The low b value (measurements, and the probabilistic approach using the earthquake catalogue and is estimated to be M w 7.7, M w 8.5, and M w 8.1, respectively. The maximum credible earthquake (m max) estimated for each zone shows that Hazara Kashmir Syntaxis Seismic Zone has the highest m max of M w 8.1 (±0.36), which is espoused by the historical 1555 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6 as well as the recent 8 October 2005 Kashmir earthquake of M w 7.6. The variation in the estimated m max by the above discussed methodologies is obvious, as the definition and interpretation of the m max change with the method. Interestingly, historical archives (˜900 years) do not speak of a great earthquake in this region, which is attributed to the complex and unique tectonic and geologic setup of the Kashmir Himalaya. The convergence is this part of the Himalaya is distributed not only along the main boundary faults but also along the various active out-of-sequence faults as compared to the Central Himalaya, where it is mainly adjusted along the main boundary fault.

  7. Nepal

    CERN Multimedia

    Hubert,N

    1984-01-01

    Nadine Hubert essaie de nous faire connaître ce pays fascinant qu'elle aime tant. Présentation d'un film commenté par Alain Hubert qui nous fait partager avec beaucoup d'émotion et passion ses impressions qu'il a vécu à l'ascension avec André Georges.

  8. Mountain Commons: Changing Space and Status at Community Levels in the Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Narpat S. JODHA

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the imperatives of nature-society interaction in the Himalayas as seen through CPR (Common Property Resources). It specifically looks at the process and factors that characterize the dynamics of the above interactions,with particular reference to the changing status and governance of CPRs at community levels. The paper puts together the synthesis of observations and inferences of different studies by ICIMOD and others in mountain regions, particularly in different parts of Nepal, India, Bhutan, Bangladesh, China and Pakistan. Rural CPRs (providing sustenance supplies and services)as an important component of a community's natural resource base, manifest the institutional arrangements evolved by the communities to facilitate their adaptations to nature.The above process can be more clearly illustrated with reference to specific characteristics of mountain areas,called mountain specificities.However, over time, the situation of CPRs in terms of their extent and status, governance and management as well as contributions to community sustenance, has changed. The paper attempts to indicate potential lead lines for searching options for rehabilitation of CPRs, based on a closer understanding of the factors contributing to their decline.

  9. Environmental change and challenge in the Himalaya. A historical perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ives, Jack D.

    2012-05-01

    almost universal wisdom amongst scholars and development specialists, as well as conservationists, that the Himalaya were on the brink of environmental, and hence socio-economic and political collapse. This theme of gloom and doom was taken up avidly by journalists, politicians, and diplomats; it influenced the expenditure of large sums of aid and development money, and augmented periodic international confrontations. In concise terms, in the early 1970s an assumed approaching environmental disaster was perceived to be driven by relentless growth in the population of subsistence hill communities and their dependence on mountain forests for fuel, fodder, building materials, and conversion to agricultural land. The assumption of rapid and catastrophic deforestation of steep hillslopes under a monsoon climate (the World Bank predicted that there would be no accessible forest remaining in Nepal by the year 2000 led inexorably to a series of dependent assumptions: increasing soil erosion and worsening landslide incidence; accelerated flooding and siltation on the plains of Gangetic India and Bangladesh; social and political unrest, if not serious armed conflict – the notion of a world super-crisis, considering that the region in question contained about ten percent of the world’s entire human population and about thirty percent of its poorest. As will be emphasized later, none of this all-embracing construct was based on reliable evidence, but it was accepted world-wide as a given. It represents a prime example of the dangers associated with convenient adoption of environmental myths, or environmental orthodoxies, especially where the myth is a Western ‘scientific’ construct. I characterized it as The Theory of Himalayan Environmental Degradation (Ives, 1985.Esta perspectiva global, o retrospectiva, tiene dos objetivos. El primero es demostrar cómo se aplicaron los principios de la “geoecología de montaña” en un intento por contrarrestar los impactos pol

  10. Occurrence of Metals in Nepal: A Brief Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajendra Bahadur G.C.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In Nepal, fairly good amounts of different types of minerals have been reported. More than 85 minerals and their varieties have been known in large concentration in Nepal. The minerals which occur in Nepal is sizeable amounts have not been fully exploited. It is believed that there are areas in Nepal which contain plenty of tentalum, niobium, molybdenum, and rare earth metal ores. Nepal may become a major supplier of these metals if their proper execution is made. Alluvian plains of Nepal are known to have placer gold while the middle region contains copper, iron, zinc, nickel, cobalt etc. A few deposits of lead, zinc and iron have been reported in the snow-capped areas. Economic deposits of iron ore are noticed in phulchoki, near Kathmandu valley. This article gives the summary for the occurrence of most important metals in Nepal. Some important applications of these metals are also included here.

  11. Co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors in Kathmandu, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Chandra Shrestha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV, HBV, Syphilis and HCV share common modes of transmission. Objective: The study was aimed to determine the co-infection rate of HIV, HBV and Syphilis among HCV seropositive identified blood donors. Methods: The study was conducted on blood samples screened as HCV seropositive at Nepal Red Cross Society, Central Blood Transfusion Service, Kathmandu, Nepal. HCV seropositive samples were further tested for HIV, HBV and Syphilis. Results: Eight co-infections were observed in 139 HCV seropositives with total co-infection rate of 5.75% (95% CI = 2.52-11.03. Conclusion: Co-infection of HIV, HBV and Syphilis with HCV is prevalent in the healthy looking blood donors of Kathmandu, Nepal.

  12. Conflict Management in Natural Resources - A study of Land, Water and Forest Conflicts in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Upreti, B.R.

    2001-01-01

    This book is based on the research into natural resource (NR)-conflict carried out between 1997 and 2000 in the Dolakha district of central Nepal, and in several reference sites around the country. The study focussed especially on land, water and forest/pasture conflicts and their resolution/management practices. Five inter-connected conflict cases related to irrigation, Guthi -land, spring water source and forest-pasture land were examined and compared with eleven reference groups. The study...

  13. Rebuilding Earthquake Struck Nepal through Community Engagement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bipin; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Raut, Shristi

    2016-01-01

    Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters. The steps that could be taken in Nepal without additional resources include identifying community leaders and volunteers who could participate in health promotion initiatives, training of thus identified community volunteers, formation of community task force, devolvement of responsibilities with continual support (trainings and resources) and supervision of the community task force. PMID:27379225

  14. Rebuilding Earthquake Struck Nepal through Community Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Bipin; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Raut, Shristi

    2016-01-01

    Nepal underwent two major earthquakes during 2015 which claimed 9,000 deaths, left more than 23,000 injured, displaced about 2 million people and destroyed about 1,000 health facilities. Emerging health issues and disease outbreaks soon after the earthquakes were major priorities. However, preventive measures such as health education, health promotion and trainings embedded in community engagement remained largely unimplemented. Establishing community preparedness by delivering knowledge about the disasters, preparing contingency plans and conducting disaster drills can be promising in Nepal where geographical inaccessibility invariably impedes the on time management during disasters. The steps that could be taken in Nepal without additional resources include identifying community leaders and volunteers who could participate in health promotion initiatives, training of thus identified community volunteers, formation of community task force, devolvement of responsibilities with continual support (trainings and resources) and supervision of the community task force. PMID:27379225

  15. The state of Nepal birds 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Inskipp

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The national status of Nepal birds was determined using the IUCN Red List criteria and following IUCN regional guidelines. Records of all species identified as potentially at high risk were extracted from all relevant references in a comprehensive, up-to-date Nepal bird bibliography. In addition, numerous previously undocumented records were obtained from observers in Nepal. The initial list of potentially threatened species was revised as records were accumulated. Literature reviews were made of current pressures on Nepal birds, responses to these pressures and recommendations for the future. Finally a comprehensive summary table was compiled for all nationally threatened species, including their world distribution, global threat status, national threat status, occurrence, habitat, main altitudinal range, population, key threats, research needs, and key conservation interventions needed. In 2010, 149 bird species (17% of the total recorded of Nepal birds were considered nationally threatened: 53 Critically Endangered species, 48 Endangered and 47 Vulnerable. Near Threatened species were not assessed due to lack of time available for the necessary research. An additional 16 species were considered threatened in 2010 compared with 2004; no species assessed as threatened in 2004 was considered non-threatened in 2010. When habitat types are considered wetland species are the most threatened (35% of the total wetland species, followed by grassland species (23%. When altitudinal preferences are considered lowland species are the most threatened (36% of all lowland species, followed by species only occurring in the middle hills (17%. Human activities leading to habitat loss and damage are the major threats, with agriculture the root cause; hunting and trapping are other important threats. Effective responses for conservation include Nepal protected areas network, community forestry, designation of Ramsar sites, National Wetland Policy implementation

  16. NASA Response to Nepal Quake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, E.; Webb, F.; Green, D. S.; Stough, T.; Kirschbaum, D.; Goodman, H. M.; Molthan, A.

    2015-12-01

    In the hours following the magnitude 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake on April 25, 2015, NASA and its partners began the process of assessing their ability to provide actionable data from a variety of space resources and scientific capabiltiies in order to provide responders with actionable information to assist in the relief and humanitarian operations. Working with the USGS, NGA, ASI, and JAXA, in the hours and days following the event, the team generated a number of scientific data products that were distributed to organizations responding to the event. Data included, ground based geodetic observations, optical and radar data from international and domestic partners, to compile a variety of products, including "vulnerability maps," used to determine risks that may be present, and "damage proxy maps," used to determine the type and extent of existing damage. This talk will focus on the response process, highlighting some of the products generated and distributed and lessons learned that would be useful for responding to future events that would improve the effectiveness of such a broad, agency wide response.

  17. Snow cover sensitivity to black carbon deposition in the Himalayas: from atmospheric and ice core measurements to regional climate simulations

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ménégoz; G. Krinner; Balkanski, Y.; Boucher, O.; Cozic, A.; Lim, S.; Ginot, P.; Laj, P.; H. Gallée; P. Wagnon; Marinoni, A.; Jacobi, H. W.

    2014-01-01

    We applied a climate-chemistry global model to evaluate the impact of black carbon (BC) deposition on the Himalayan snow cover from 1998 to 2008. Using a stretched grid with a resolution of 50 km over this complex topography, the model reproduces reasonably well the remotely sensed observations of the snow cover duration. Similar to observations, modelled atmospheric BC concentrations in the central Himalayas reach a minimum during the monsoon and a maximum during the post- ...

  18. RURAL TOURISM IN NEPAL: DEVELOPMENT AND SUSTAINABILITY : A Case Study of Parbat District, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Regmi , Niroj

    2016-01-01

    Nepal is a country with over three thousand villages where rural tourism is a major part of the tourism industry. Its importance and value cannot be ignored or minimized. The main purpose of this thesis was to find out the possible measures that can be taken to make rural tourism sustainable in the context of Nepal. Development strategies and sustainable rural tourism development was the focal point of discussion in the thesis. To achieve these goals, a set of questionnaires was distributed a...

  19. Seasonal and diurnal variations of methane and carbon dioxide in the highly polluted Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahata, Khadak; Panday, Arnico; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of carbon dioxide and methane - key greenhouse gases (GHGs) - are primary causes of global warming and resultant impacts. The atmospheric warming is more pronounced and likely to cause more serious damage in vulnerable areas such as the Hindukush-Karakorum-Himalayan region (HKH). The HKH region is a data gap region according to the 5th Assessment report of the intergovernmental panel on climate change (IPCC). In order to understand the mixing ratios and variability of the key GHGs in the foothills of the Central Himalaya, we carried out continuous measurements of CO2, CH4, CO, and water vapor at Bode (an urban site in the Kathmandu valley, Nepal) for a year (March 2013 - Feb 2014), and again at Bode and at Chanban (a background outside the Valley) for 3 months (July 15 - Oct 3, 2015), with two state-of-the-art cavity ring-down instruments (Picarro G2401). The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign: SusKat- ABC (Sustainable atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). The annual average CO2 and CH4 concentrations at Bode were 419 ± 24 and 2.192 ± 0.224 ppm, respectively, which are notably higher than those observed at the background site at Mauna Loa Observatory in the same period. The CO2concentration at Bode was high during the pre-monsoon period and low during the monsoon, while CH4 was high in winter and lower during the pre-monsoon period. The monthly CO2concentration was highest in April. Forest fires and agro-waste burning in the region, and the local emissions in the Kathmandu valley were the main sources of the high CO2 in the pre-monsoon period. CH4 showed a maximum in September due to additional emissions from paddy fields. Seasonally, winter has the highest CH4 concentration which is due to brick production, which is a seasonal activity, and other local sources combined with the shallow mixing layer height in winter. The diurnal pattern of CO2 and CH4

  20. Decision Making Methodology to Mitigate Damage From Glacial Lake Outburst Floods From Imja Lake in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, D. C.; Cuellar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change has accelerated glacial retreat in high altitude glaciated regions of Nepal leading to the growth and formation of glacier lakes. Glacial lake outburst floods (GLOF) are sudden events triggered by an earthquake, moraine failure or other shock that causes a sudden outflow of water. These floods are catastrophic because of their sudden onset, the difficulty predicting them, and enormous quantity of water and debris rapidly flooding downstream areas. Imja Lake in the Himalaya of Nepal has experienced accelerated growth since it first appeared in the 1960s. Communities threatened by a flood from Imja Lake have advocated for projects to adapt to the increasing threat of a GLOF. Nonetheless, discussions surrounding projects for Imja have not included a rigorous analysis of the potential consequences of a flood, probability of an event, or costs of mitigation projects in part because this information is unknown or uncertain. This work presents a demonstration of a decision making methodology developed to rationally analyze the risks posed by Imja Lake and the various adaptation projects proposed using available information. In this work the authors use decision analysis, data envelopement analysis (DEA), and sensitivity analysis to assess proposed adaptation measures that would mitigate damage in downstream communities from a GLOF. We use an existing hydrodynamic model of the at-risk area to determine how adaptation projects will affect downstream flooding and estimate fatalities using an empirical method developed for dam failures. The DEA methodology allows us to estimate the value of a statistical life implied by each project given the cost of the project and number of lives saved to determine which project is the most efficient. In contrast the decision analysis methodology requires fatalities to be assigned a cost but allows the inclusion of uncertainty in the decision making process. We compare the output of these two methodologies and determine the

  1. Contemporary Surface Seasonal Oscillation and Vertical Deformation in Tibetan Plateau and Nepal Derived from the GPS, Leveling and GRACE Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, W.; Pan, Y.; Hwang, C.; Ding, H.

    2015-12-01

    We use 168 Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) stations distributed in the Tibetan Plateau (TP) and Nepal from lengths of 2.5 to 14 years to estimate the present-day velocity field in this area, including the horizontal and vertical deformations under the frame ITRF2008. We estimate and remove common mode errors in regional GPS time series using the principal component analysis (PCA), obtaining a time series with high signal to noise ratio. Following the maximum estimation analysis, a power law plus white noise stochastic model are adopted to estimate the velocity field. The highlight of Tibetan region is the crust vertical deformation. GPS vertical time series present seasonal oscillations caused by temporal mass loads, hence GRACE data from CSR are used to study the mass loads change. After removing the mass load deformations from GPS vertical rates, the results are improved. Leveling data about 48 years in this region are also used to estimate the rates of vertical movements. Our study suggests that the boundary of south Nepal is still sinking due to the fact that the India plate is crashing into the Eurasian plate. The uplift rates from south to north of TP reduce gradually. Himalayas region and north Nepal uplift around 6 mm/yr in average. The uplift rate along East TP in Qinhai is around 2.7 mm/yr in average. In contrast, the southeast of Tibetan Plateau, south Yunnan and Tarim in Xinjiang sink with different magnitudes. Our observation results suggest complicated mechanism of the mass migration in TP. This study is supported by National 973 Project China (grant Nos. 2013CB733302 and 2013CB733305), NSFC (grant Nos. 41174011, 41429401, 41210006, 41128003, 41021061).

  2. Similarities and differences of aerosol optical properties between southern and northern slopes of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Xu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas is located at the southern edge of the Tibetan Plateau, and it acts as a natural barrier for the transport of atmospheric aerosols, e.g. from the polluted regions of South Asia to the main body of the Tibetan Plateau. In this study, we investigate the seasonal and diurnal variations of aerosol optical properties measured at the three Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET sites over the southern (Pokhara station and EVK2-CNR station in Nepal and northern (Qomolangma (Mt. Everest station for Atmospheric and Environmental Observation and Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences (QOMS_CAS in Tibet, China slopes of the Himalayas. While observations at QOMS_CAS and EVK2-CNR can generally be representative of a remote background atmosphere, Pokhara is an urban site with much higher aerosol load due to the influence of local anthropogenic activities. The annual mean of aerosol optical depth (AOD during the investigated period was 0.06 at QOMS_CAS, 0.04 at EVK2-CNR and 0.51 at Pokhara, respectively. Seasonal variations of aerosols are profoundly affected by large scale atmospheric circulation. Vegetation fires, peaking during April in the Himalayan region and northern India, contribute to a growing fine mode AOD at 500 nm at the three stations. Dust transported to these sites results in an increase of coarse mode AOD during the monsoon season at the three sites. Meanwhile, coarse mode AOD at EVK2-CNR is higher than QOMS_CAS from July to September, indicating the Himalayas blocks the coarse particles carried by the southwest winds. The precipitation scavenging effect is obvious at Pokhara, which can significantly reduce the aerosol load during the monsoon season. Unlike the seasonal variations, diurnal variations are mainly influenced by meso-scale systems and local topography. In general, precipitation can lead to a decrease of the aerosol load and the average particle size at each station. AOD changes in a short time with the emission rate near

  3. Nepal Student Assessment : SABER Country Report 2012

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2012-01-01

    In 2012, Nepal joined the Russia Education Aid for Development (READ) trust fund program, the goal of which is to help countries improve their capacity to design, carry out, analyze, and use assessments for improved student learning. As part of the READ trust fund program, and in order to gain a better understanding of the strengths and weaknesses of its existing assessment system, Tajikistan ...

  4. Comparative Education and Development: Reflections from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Mahesh Nath; Wagley, Mana Prasad

    2010-01-01

    Relation between education and development has been recognized in Nepal since the beginning of planned development efforts and the modern schooling at mass level. Both were initiated during 1950s. Beginning of Development Studies in MPhil and PhD in Education in School of Education, Kathmandu University focused exploring such relationships in a…

  5. Murine Typhus and Febrile Illness, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Zimmerman, Mark D.; Murdoch, David R.; Rozmajzl, Patrick J.; Basnyat, Buddha; Woods, Christopher W.; Richards, Allen L.; Belbase, Ram Hari; Hammer, David A.; Anderson, Trevor P.; Reller, L. Barth

    2008-01-01

    Murine typhus was diagnosed by PCR in 50 (7%) of 756 adults with febrile illness seeking treatment at Patan Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Of patients with murine typhus, 64% were women, 86% were residents of Kathmandu, and 90% were unwell during the winter. No characteristics clearly distinguished typhus patients from those with blood culture–positive enteric fever.

  6. Rural Energy Development Programme-Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    On 16 Auguest 1996 the Rural Energy Develoment Programme (REDP) was initiated with the aim of improving livelihoods of rural people and pressrving the environment through the promotion of rural energy systems. The Programme is run by the United Nations Deelopment Programme and His Majesty's Government of Nepal.

  7. China-Nepal Friendship Association Founded

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangJinghua

    2004-01-01

    The China-Nepal Friendship Association (CNFA) initiated by the CPAFFC and cared and supported by people of various circles was formally founded on August 16, 2004. Sun Fuling,former vice chairman of the National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC),

  8. Internationalizing the Curriculum: Study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagenaar, Theodore C.; Subedi, Janardan

    1996-01-01

    Describes a program of summer study in Nepal that exposes students to a multicultural and international perspective. Examines the content, goals, and objectives of the program. The objectives include active learning, structuring learning communities, and developing higher-order thinking skills. Provides suggestions for setting up similar programs.…

  9. Girls Trafficked from Nepal into Indian Brothels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Arati

    1996-01-01

    Account of the underground culture of sexual slavery of young girls. Children from Nepal are being lured in large numbers into the sex industry in Bombay, India. Describes the process by which children are seduced and coerced into this bondage with active support from political and law enforcement leaders. (LSR)

  10. Nepal: Vocational Educator's Role in Elementary Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stitt, Thomas R.

    1974-01-01

    The innovative vocational education program of the elementary grades in the developing country of Nepal focuses on "self-help" within the "practical arts" (agriculture, trade and industrial, and home science fields) and emphasizes application of subject matter to students' daily lives, integration of skills into the curriculum, and occupational…

  11. Atmospheric brown clouds reach the Tibetan Plateau by crossing the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. L. Lüthi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayas and the Tibetan Plateau region (HTP, despite being a remote and sparsely populated area, is regularly exposed to polluted air masses with significant amounts of aerosols including black carbon. These dark, light-absorbing particles are known to exert a great melting potential on mountain cryospheric reservoirs through albedo reduction and radiative forcing. This study combines ground-based and satellite remote sensing data to identify a severe aerosol pollution episode observed simultaneously in central Tibet and on the southern side of the Himalayas during 13–19 March 2009 (pre-monsoon. Trajectory calculations based on the high-resolution numerical weather prediction model COSMO are used to locate the source regions and study the mechanisms of pollution transport in the complex topography of the HTP. We detail how polluted air masses from an atmospheric brown cloud (ABC over South Asia reach the Tibetan Plateau within a few days. Lifting and advection of polluted air masses over the great mountain range is enabled by a combination of synoptic-scale and local meteorological processes. During the days prior to the event, winds over the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP are generally weak at lower levels, allowing for accumulation of pollutants and thus the formation of ABCs. The subsequent passing of synoptic-scale troughs leads to southwesterly flow in the middle troposphere over northern and central India, carrying the polluted air masses across the Himalayas. As the IGP is known to be a hotspot of ABCs, the cross-Himalayan transport of polluted air masses may have serious implications for the cryosphere in the HTP and impact climate on regional to global scales. Since the current study focuses on one particularly strong pollution episode, quantifying the frequency and magnitude of similar events in a climatological study is required to assess the total impact.

  12. Interseismic Rates From the CTO cGPS Andes and Nepal Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genrich, J. F.; Galetzka, J.; Chowdhury, F.; Avouac, J.; Simons, M.; Barrientos, S. E.; Comte, D.; Norabuena, E. O.; Sapkota, S. N.

    2009-12-01

    To study crustal deformation at converging plate margins the Caltech Tectonics Observatory (CTO), together with partner institutions in the host countries, operates continuously observing GPS stations in the central Andes (northern Chile and southern Peru) and in Nepal. The currently 20-site Andes network was established in 2005 with 7 stations. Efforts are underway to provide data streaming links at near real time for the majority of sites. The Nepal network started with 10 sites in 2004 and has been expanded to 23 sites in the last couple of years. Dual frequency code and phase data from all sites are processed with the GAMIT/GLOBK processing package. Reliable interseismic velocities are now available for the majority of sites. Network metadata, rinex data files, processed time series and velocity estimates can be found online thru links at the CTO website: tectonics.caltech.edu.

  13. Sustainable urban housing in Kathmandu, Nepal: Proposals and evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Vikas

    Kathmandu Valley represents one of the oldest cultural hubs in the Himalayas. The historic towns in the valley consist of densely built traditional Chowk and Bahal houses with enclosed courtyards. With exposure to the outside world since 1951, the western style single-family detached house has become an image of the modern home and a status symbol. In the context of the exploding population, the prevailing trend of these free standing houses have exacerbated urban sprawl and led to inefficient use of the limited agricultural land in the valley. Devoid of shared open spaces, the new settlements lack play areas for children, places for social gathering and a sense of community. Building materials that are not manufactured locally must be trucked from India over the mountains. So is coal for the production of brick and cement, and diesel for transportation. Minimizing the amount of imported materials and energy used by these modern houses will reduce the environmental impact and also benefit the national economy. Kathmandu enjoys clear sky conditions during winter that makes passive solar design a potential strategy to achieve thermal comfort and eliminate kerosene heaters with their harmful effects. The abundance of rainfall during monsoon season makes rainwater collection a viable supplement to the unreliable municipal water supply. This dissertation creates three new housing prototypes that address all these issues. These prototypes are modern interpretations of the vernacular Chowk and Bahal, which create communal open space by grouping rowhouses around a common courtyard. Combining vernacular wisdom with the principles of sustainable design, these prototypes reduce land consumption; reduce resource consumption; create community open space; minimize imported materials; increase energy efficiency and thermal comfort; make homes and neighborhoods self sustainable for water supply and wastewater treatment; and altogether improve the quality of life. This dissertation

  14. Stigma and HIV risk among Metis in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, Erin; Pant, Sunil Babu; Comfort, Megan; Ekstrand, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Similar to other parts of Asia, the HIV epidemic in Nepal is concentrated among a small number of groups, including transgender people, or Metis. This study was conducted to explore the social context of stigma among Metis in Nepal to better understand their risk for HIV. Fourteen in-depth interviews were conducted with Metis in Kathmandu, Nepal. We found that stigma from families leading to rural-urban migration exposed Metis to discrimination from law enforcement, employers and sexual partn...

  15. Dynamics and cost of insurgency: the Maoist insurgency in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Baldeb Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Nepal faced a ten year long Maoist insurgency problem when the Communist Party of Nepal, CPN (Maoist) declared war in 1996 by rejecting the fundamental premises of Nepal's constitutional monarchy and parliamentary system established in 1990 and ended with a comprehensive peace agreement in 2006. A decade-long insurgency and counterinsurgency claimed many lives, destruction of infrastructure, internally displacement of people, and crossing over to India. Insurgency compelled to bear direct, in...

  16. Internationaiztion of waste management company in Kathmandu, Nepal : possible subtitle

    OpenAIRE

    Tamang Lama, Rakesh

    2015-01-01

    Internationalization in today’s world is very prevalent topic besides a very important element for company to enlarge. This study investigates the opportunity for international waste management companies to internationalize in Kathmandu’s Nepal waste management sector. Further this study also reveals the barrier to the multinational companies who desire to internationalize in Nepal. The objective of the thesis was to investigate the existing waste management system of Kathmandu, Nepal an...

  17. Comparing factors of vulnerability and resilience of mountain communities affected by landslides in Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudmeier-Rieux, Karen; Dubois, Jerome; Jaboyedoff, Michel

    2010-05-01

    This paper describes a methodology for assessing and quantifying vulnerability and resilience of mountain communities in Eastern Nepal increasingly affected by landslides and flooding. We are interested in improving our understanding of the complex interactions between land use, landslides and multiple dimensions of risk, vulnerability and resilience to better target risk management strategies. Our approach is based on assessing underlying social, ecological and physical factors that cause vulnerability and on the other hand, those resources and capacities that increase resilience. Increasing resilience to disasters is frequently used by NGOs, governments and donors as the main goal of disaster risk reduction policies and practices. If we are to increase resilience to disasters, we need better guidance and tools for defining, assessing and monitoring its parameters. To do so, we are establishing a methodology for quantifying and mapping an index of resilience to compare resilience factors between households and communities based on interdisciplinary research methods: remote sensing, GIS, qualitative and quantitative risk assessments, participatory risk mapping, household questionnaires and focus groups discussions. Our study applied this methodology to several communities in Eastern Nepal where small, frequent landslides are greatly affecting rural lives and livelihoods. These landslides are not captured by headlines or official statistics but are examples of cumulative, hidden disasters, which are impacting everyday life and rural poverty in the Himalayas. Based on experience, marginalized populations are often aware of the physical risks and the limitations of their land. However, they continue to live in dangerous places out of necessity and for the economic or infrastructure opportunities offered. We compare two communities in Nepal, both affected by landslides but with different land use, migration patterns, education levels, social networks, risk reduction

  18. S-P wave travel time residuals and lateral inhomogeneity in the mantle beneath Tibet and the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molnar, P.; Chen, W.-P.

    1984-01-01

    S-P wave travel time residuals were measured in earthquakes in Tibet and the Himalaya in order to study lateral inhomogeneities in the earth's mantle. Average S-P residuals, measured with respect to Jeffrey-Bullen (J-B) tables for 11 earthquakes in the Himalaya are less than +1 second. Average J-B S-P from 10 of 11 earthquakes in Tibet, however, are greater than +1 second even when corrected for local crustal thickness. The largest values, ranging between 2.5 and 4.9 seconds are for five events in central and northern Tibet, and they imply that the average velocities in the crust and upper mantle in this part of Tibet are 4 to 10 percent lower than those beneath the Himalaya. On the basis of the data, it is concluded that it is unlikely that a shield structure lies beneath north central Tibet unless the S-P residuals are due to structural variations occurring deeper than 250 km.

  19. Modeling the impact of black carbon on snowpack properties at an high altitude site in the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobi, Hans-Werner; Ménégoz, Martin; Gallée, Hubert; Lim, Saehee; Zanatta, Marco; Jaffrezo, Jean-Luc; Cozic, Julie; Laj, Paolo; Bonasoni, Paolo; Cristofanelli, Paolo; Stocchi, Paolo; Marinoni, Angela; Verza, Gianpietro; Vuillermoz, Elisa

    2013-04-01

    Light absorbing aerosols in the snow can modify the snow albedo. As a result, the seasonal snowpack can melt earlier compared to the unaffected snow leading to a warming effect on the atmosphere. Several global model studies have indicated that the long-range transport of light absorbing aerosols into the Himalayas and the subsequent deposition to the snow have contributed to a temperature rise in these regions. Due to its strong light absorbing properties, black carbon (BC) may play an important role in this process. To evaluate the possible impact of BC on snow albedo we determined BC concentrations in a range of fresh and older snow samples collected between 2009 and 2012 in the vicinity of the Pyramid station, Nepal at an altitude of more than 5000 m. BC concentrations in the snow were obtained after nebulizing the melted samples using a single particle soot photometer. The observed seasonal cycle in BC concentrations in the snow corresponds to observed seasonal cycles in atmospheric BC detected at the Pyramid station. Older snow showed somewhat higher concentrations compared to fresh snow samples indicating the influence of dry deposition of BC. In order to study in detail the impact of black carbon on snow properties, we upgraded the existing one-dimensional physical snowpack model CROCUS to account for the influence of black carbon on the absorption of radiation by the snow. A radiative transfer scheme was implemented into the snowpack model taking into account the solar zenith angle, the snow water equivalent and grain size, the soil albedo, and the concentration of black carbon in the snow. The upgraded model was applied to a high altitude site in the Himalayas using observed BC concentrations and meteorological data recorded at Pyramid station. First results of the simulations will be presented.

  20. Attenuation characteristics in eastern Himalaya and southern Tibetan Plateau: An understanding of the physical state of the medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sagar; Singh, Chandrani; Biswas, Rahul; Mukhopadhyay, Sagarika; Sahu, Himanshu

    2016-08-01

    Attenuation characteristics of the crust in the eastern Himalaya and the southern Tibetan Plateau are investigated using high quality data recorded by Himalayan Nepal Tibet Seismic Experiment (HIMNT) during 2001-2003. The present study aims to provide an attenuation model that can address the physical mechanism governing the attenuation characteristics in the underlying medium. We have studied the Coda wave attenuation (Qc) in the single isotropic scattering model hypothesis, S wave attenuation (Qs) by using the coda normalization method and intrinsic (Qi-1) and scattering (Qsc-1) quality factors by the multiple Lapse Time Window Analysis (MLTWA) method under the assumption of multiple isotropic scattering in a 3-D half space within the frequency range 2-12 Hz. All the values of Q exhibit frequency dependent nature for a seismically active area. At all the frequencies intrinsic absorption is predominant compared to scattering attenuation and seismic albedo (B0) are found to be lower than 0.5. The observed discrepancies between the observed and theoretical models can be corroborated by the depth-dependent velocity and attenuation structure as well as the assumption of a uniform distribution of scatterers. Our results correlate well with the existing geo-tectonic model of the area, which may suggest the possible existence of trapped fluids in the crust or its thermal nature. Surprisingly the underlying cause of high attenuation in the crust of eastern Himalaya and southern Tibet makes this region distinct from its adjacent western Himalayan segment. The results are comparable with the other regions reported globally.

  1. Atmospheric Modelling of Aerosols Long-Range Transport over the Himalayas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surapipith, V.; Adhikary, B.; Bhave, P.; Panday, A. K.; Mukherji, A.

    2014-12-01

    An Atmospheric Modelling System has been set up at International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development (ICIMOD) Headquarters in Kathmandu, Nepal, for the assessment of air quality in the Hindukush Himalaya region. The Weather Research and Forecasting with Chemistry (WRF-Chem) model version 3.6 is being implemented over a regional domain stretching across 4995 x 4455 km centred at Kathmandu, where an intensive field campaign, Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley (SusKat) took place from December 2012 to February 2013. Seven stations around the valley collected data on meteorology and chemical parameters. WRF-Chem simulation are carried out for the winter time period at high horizontal resolution (1 km × 1 km), which is achieved by nesting the domain of interest, e.g. Kathmandu Valley, inside three coarser domains. Model validation is performed against the field data as well as satellite data, focusing on aerosols. The challenge of capturing the necessary atmospheric processes is discussed. The effort aims for a better understanding of atmospheric processes and aerosol impacts, as well as the impact of long-range transport, particularly of black carbon aerosol upon the radiative budget over the Himalayan glaciers. The rapid melting of Himalayan glaciers and snowfields, and the shrinkage of permafrost as noticed by glaciologists is a concern. Based on physically adjusted schemes, the WRF meteorological model performs well with Pearson correlation coefficients higher than 0.8 for temperature and solar radiation, although it has a tendency to overestimate wind speed. The WRF with chemistry is then used with local and regional emission databases, in combination and after comparison with the global inventory, as input for describing the long-range transport of aerosols. Improved aerosol prediction will allow us to provide crucial information needed for mitigation and adaptation strategies that save people's lives across the Himalaya. The regional

  2. Negotiating geophysical hazards in Nepal: An interdisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oven, Katie; Petley, Dave; Rosser, Nick; Dunn, Chris; Rigg, Jonathan

    2010-05-01

    It is widely accepted that the impact of natural hazards reflects not only the nature of geophysical processes but also the social conditions that prevail. The need for collaborative research to address these complex interactions between the natural and human systems is well recognised, however moving from theory to practice presents a number of significant challenges. How researchers frame problems; develop their research questions; select the methodologies to explore these questions; and privilege certain knowledges over others, can be seen to vary between physical and social science. Drawing on a case study examining the vulnerability of rural communities to landslides in the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley, Central Nepal, this paper explores how these barriers can be overcome and the benefits of undertaking interdisciplinary research within the natural hazards field. This research investigates the different framings of landslide risk and vulnerability from different stakeholder and disciplinary perspectives. Specifically, we ask: 1. Who is vulnerable to landslide hazard? 2. Why do people occupy landslide prone areas? 3. How do ‘at risk' rural communities perceive and respond to landslide hazard and risk? The findings, based on a series of participatory methodologies, challenge a number of assumptions made regarding landslide vulnerability in mountain communities. Within the Upper Bhote Koshi Valley clear transitions in settlement patterns, rural livelihoods and thus the occupation of landslide prone areas have been seen over time. For the majority of households, their decision to occupy these areas is driven by the economic and social benefits associated with the Arniko Highway which runs through the valley, linking Nepal with Tibet. Landslide vulnerability therefore emerges not just from societal marginalisation but also from situations of relative prosperity. The findings suggest that occupants of landslide prone areas have a good understanding of landslide hazard

  3. Real-Time Science on Social Media: The Example of Twitter in the Minutes, Hours, Days after the 2015 M7.8 Nepal Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, A.; Bossu, R.; Mazet-Roux, G.

    2015-12-01

    Scientific information on disasters such as earthquakes typically comes firstly from official organizations, news reports and interviews with experts, and later from scientific presentations and peer-reviewed articles. With the advent of the Internet and social media, this information is available in real-time from automated systems and within a dynamic, collaborative interaction between scientific experts, responders and the public. After the 2015 M7.8 Nepal earthquake, Twitter Tweets from earth scientists* included information, analysis, commentary and discussion on earthquake parameters (location, size, mechanism, rupture extent, high-frequency radiation, …), earthquake effects (distribution of felt shaking and damage, triggered seismicity, landslides, …), earthquake rumors (e.g. the imminence of a larger event) and other earthquake information and observations (aftershock forecasts, statistics and maps, source and regional tectonics, seismograms, GPS, InSAR, photos/videos, …).In the future (while taking into account security, false or erroneous information and identity verification), collaborative, real-time science on social media after a disaster will give earlier and better scientific understanding and dissemination of public information, and enable improved emergency response and disaster management.* A sample of scientific Tweets after the 2015 Nepal earthquake: In the first minutes: "mb5.9 Mwp7.4 earthquake Nepal 2015.04.25-06:11:25UTC", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 8 min ago", "Epicenter between Pokhara and Kathmandu", "Major earthquake shakes Nepal 18 min ago. Effects derived from witnesses' reports". In the first hour: "shallow thrust faulting to North under Himalayas", "a very large and shallow event ... Mw7.6-7.7", "aftershocks extend east and south of Kathmandu, so likely ruptured beneath city", "Valley-blocking landslides must be a very real worry". In the first day: "M7.8 earthquake in Nepal 2hr ago: destructive in Kathmandu Valley and

  4. Causes of visual impairment and blindness in children in three ecological regions of Nepal: Nepal Pediatric Ocular Diseases Study

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari S; Shrestha MK; Adhikari K; Maharjan N; Shrestha UD

    2015-01-01

    Srijana Adhikari,1 Mohan K Shrestha,1 Kamala Adhikari,2 Nhukesh Maharjan,1 Ujjowala D Shrestha1 1Pediatric Ophthalmology unit, Tilganaga Institute of Ophthalmology, Gaushala, Kathmandu, Nepal; 2Private consultant, Kathmandu, Nepal Purpose: To study the causes of blindness and visual impairment in children in three ecologically diverse regions of Nepal.Materials and methods: This is a baseline survey report of a 3-year longitudinal population-based study. One district each from the three eco...

  5. Great earthquakes, seismicity gaps and potential for earthquake disaster along the Himalaya plate boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattri, K. N.

    1987-06-01

    Analysis of the space-time patterns of seismicity in the Himalaya plate boundary has established the existence of three seismic gaps: (1) The "Kashmir gap" lying west of the 1905 Kangra earthquake; (2) the "Central gap", situated between the 1905 Kangra and the 1934 Bihar earthquakes; (3) the "Assam gap" between the 1897 and 1950 Assam earthquakes. This study has shown that the above great earthquakes were preceded as well as followed by long periods (⩾ 19 years) of decreased levels of seismic activity in the epicentral regions. Remarkable decrease in the seismicity following the year 1970 has been observed in the western half of the Central gap as well as in the Assam gap. Local seismic investigation in the Assam gap confirms this feature and the seismicity suggests the existence there of an asperity. The local seismic investigations in Garhwal Himalaya have shown that the small earthquakes are confined to the upper 6-8 km of the crust and may have strike-slip motions. These earthquakes occur in a region where teleseismically recorded events were few.

  6. Role of vegetation in modulating denudation and topography across the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olen, Stephanie; Bookhagen, Bodo; Strecker, Manfred

    2015-04-01

    [Godard et al., 2014; Portenga et al., 2014; Scherler et al., 2014; Olen et al., submitted]. We calculate the relationship between various topographic metrics (e.g. mean basin slope, normalized channel steepness [ksn]) and the TCN catchment-mean denudation of non-glaciated fluvial watersheds from previously published and submitted studies. The variation in vegetation density between study sites correlates with the relationship between topography and denudation in each region. In sparsely vegetated areas, denudation increases in a rapid, non-linear fashion as topographic metrics such as the normalized channel steepness (ksn) or mean basin hillslope increase. Where vegetation cover is denser, the relationship between denudation and topography becomes increasingly linear, such that lower denudation rates are maintained as hillslopes and channels steepen. Additionally, more sparsely vegetated regions appear to reach a maximum steepness lower than that observed in densely vegetated regions. We therefore observe a negative correlation between increasing annual, summer, and winter EVI and the power-law exponent p of the relationship denudation ≈ (topographic metric)p; and a positive correlation between p and differential EVI. In contrast to recent studies arguing that Himalayan denudation is primarily forced by tectonics, our study emphasizes how vegetation density, as a climatic agent, modulates erosional style and landscape development along strike across the Himalaya. Carretier, S., et al. (2013), Slope and climate variability control of erosion in the Andes of central Chile, Geology, 41(2), 195-198. Collins, D. B. G., and R. L. Bras (2010), Climatic and ecological controls of equilibrium drainage density, relief, and channel concavity in dry lands, Water Resources Research, 46(4), W04508. Collins, D. B. G., R. L. Bras, and G. E. Tucker (2004), Modeling the effects of vegetation-erosion coupling on landscape evolution, Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface, 109(F3

  7. Geological, Geophysical, and Stochastic Factors in Nepal's Gorkha Earthquake-Triggered Landslide Distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J. S.; Shugar, D. H.; Haritashya, U. K.; Leonard, G. J.; Fielding, E. J.; Hudnut, K. W.; Jibson, R.; Collins, B. D.

    2015-12-01

    On 25 April 2015, a magnitude 7.8 earthquake struck Nepal. Subsequently many large aftershocks shook the region, including one of magnitude 7.3. Much damage and over 4300 landslides were triggered. The landslides were mapped by a volunteer group who self organized to undertake an emergency response to the earthquake disaster. The number of landslides is fewer than expected based on total released seismic energy. This may be because of lack of a surface rupture and possibly also because of high surface-wave attenuation due to rugged surface topography or to the geological and geophysical characteristics of the upper crust. The observed landslides were primarily in the southern half of the Himalaya in areas where the steepest slopes occur and where peak ground accelerations were relatively high. The landslides are also concentrated on the tectonically downdropped block. However, the distribution is complex and varies dramatically from valley to valley. Furthermore, different types of landslides are concentrated in different geologic materials, which suggests local factors control the valley-scale attenuation or amplification of seismic waves or the way wave disturbances couple to the local geologic materials. Across the earthquake-affected zone on the regional scale, wave attenuation and also net downdrop and uplift may also explain as much about the distribution of landslides as slopes and distance from large slips on the fault. We will offer the regional distribution results and some specific case studies to illustrate a set of possible controlling factors.

  8. Active Faults of the Northwest Himalaya: Pattern, Rate, and Timing of Surface Rupturing Earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, J.; Madden, C.; Gavillot, Y.; Hebeler, A.; Meigs, A.; Hussein, A.; Malik, M.; Bhat, M.; Kausar, A.; Ramzan, S.; Sayab, M.; Yeats, R. S.

    2012-12-01

    The 2005 Kashmir earthquake (Mw 7.6) is the only Himalayan earthquake to rupture the surface since the 15th to 16th century A.D. when >Mw 8.5 earthquakes ruptured the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT) in the central Himalaya. Megathrust-type earthquakes like these seem to relieve a majority of the accumulated interseismic strain and concentrate permanent strain across a narrow width at the deformation front (faults within the orogen appear to accommodate little strain). The 2005 within-plate rupture in Kashmir may be a clue that a different seismotectonic model applies to the northwest Himalaya where active deformation occurs on faults distributed more than 120 km across the orogen. An asymmetric anticline marks the deformation front in Kashmir where the HFT is inferred to be blind, though ~20 m-high escarpments suggest that unrecognized thrust fault(s) may reach the surface locally. Folded river terraces and dip data also suggest that this frontal fold contains a SW-dipping back thrust. In Pakistan the Salt Range thrust system (SRT) defines the thrust front. New mapping and preliminary OSL dates from deformed Holocene sediments exposed along the westernmost SRT reveal that the fault slips at 1-7 mm/yr and last ruptured within the last several thousand years. Within the orogenic wedge to the north of the deformation front, active shortening occurs along a system of surface-rupturing reverse faults, extending from the Balakot-Bagh fault (source of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake) to the Reasi fault (RF) in Indian Kashmir to the southeast. One strand of the RF displaces a 350 m-high, 80 ± 6 ka (preliminary OSL age) fluvial terrace, yielding a minimum shortening rate of 3-5 mm/yr. Trenches excavated across the RF nearby reveal a distinct angular unconformity that likely formed during a surface rupture ~4500 yrs BP. Farther north, three northeast-dipping reverse faults cut Quaternary terraces on the southwest side of the Kashmir Valley. Trenches expose evidence for at least

  9. Macroseismic Intensities from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, Earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. S.; Hough, S. E.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Hung, C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mw 7.8 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake, the largest central Himalayan earthquake in eighty-one years, yielded few instrumental recording of strong motion. To supplement these we collected 3800 detailed media and first-person accounts of macroseismic effects that included sufficiently detailed information to assign intensities. Our resultant macroseismic intensity map reveals the distribution of shaking in Nepal and the adjacent Gangetic basin. A key observation was that only in rare instances did near-field shaking intensities exceed intensity 8 on the European Macroseismic Scale (EMS), a level that corresponds with heavy damage or total collapse of many unengineered masonry structures. Within the Kathmandu Valley, intensities were generally 6-7 EMS, with generally lower intensities in the center of the valley than along the edges and foothills. This surprising (and fortunate) result can be explained by the nature of the mainshock ground motions, which were dominated by energy at periods significantly longer than the resonant periods of vernacular structures throughout Kathmandu. Outside the Kathmandu Valley the earthquake took a heavy toll on a number of remote villages, where many especially vulnerable masonry houses collapsed catastrophically in shaking equivalent to 7-8 EMS. Intensities were also generally higher along ridges and small hills, suggesting that topographic amplification played a significant role in controlling damage. The spatially rich intensity data set provides an opportunity to consider several key issues, including amplification of shaking in the Ganges basin, and the distribution of shaking across the rupture zone. Of note, relatively higher intensities within the near-field region are found to correlate with zones of enhanced high-frequency source radiation imaged by teleseismic back-projection (Avouac et al., 2015). We further reconsider intensities from a sequence of earthquakes on 26 August 1833, and conclude the largest of these ruptured

  10. Geoid of Nepal from airborne gravity survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Einarsson, Indriði;

    2011-01-01

    An airborne gravity survey of Nepal was carried out December 2010 in a cooperation between DTU-Space, Nepal Survey Department, and NGA, USA. The entire country was flown with survey lines spaced 6 nm with a King Air aircraft, with a varying flight altitude from 4 to 10 km. The survey operations...... were a major challenge due to excessive jet streams at altitude as well as occasional excessive mountain waves. Despite the large 400 mGal+ range of gravity anomaly changes from the Indian plains to the Tibetan Plateau, results appear accurate to a few mGal, with proper evaluation from cross...... as well as recent GPS-heights of Mt. Everest. The new airborne data also provide an independent validation of GOCE gravity field results at the local ~100 km resolution scale....

  11. Late Cenozoic exhumation and timing of the deformation front of the Kashmir Himalayas from U-Th/(He) thermochronometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavillot, Y. G.; Meigs, A.; Stockli, D. F.; Malik, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Apatite and zircon (U-Th)/He cooling ages are used to quantify the recent exhumation pattern associated with fault activity across the Kashmir Himalayas. Here we present data from thirty samples, totaling of 74 individual single-grain apatite and zircon dated aliquots. Cooling age data were collected from (1) molasse sediments of the Murree and Siwalik Formations from structures in the Sub-Himalayan belt (deformed foreland) and from (2) metasediments and plutonic rocks exhumed in the 'hinterland'. Structures of the Sub-Himalayan belt include the Suruin-Mastgarh anticline (SMA) at the deformation front, equivalent to the Himalayan Frontal thrust (HFT), and emergent local faults to the north (e.g. the Riasi thrust (RT)). In the hinterland, the Main Boundary (MBT) and Main Central (MCT) thrust sheets bound the Sub-Himalayan belt to the north. Apatite (U-Th)/He (AHe) cooling ages for the molasses sediments are consistently younger than the sediment age indicating that Sub-Himalayan belt samples are reset. Mean cooling age data based on the single grain populations from each sample ranges from ~1-10 Ma. Single grain and mean age probability density plots reveal a period of rapid cooling and exhumation between 1.8-2.75 Ma throughout the Sub-Himalaya. Distributed deformation associated with northward underthrusting along the MHT, and the onset of folding related to the SMA explains the regional exhumation of the Sub-Himalaya after ~2.75 Ma. Four samples from the hinterland MBT and MCT thrust sheets yield AHe cooling ages between ~5-21 Ma. Three of the samples have cooling ages between 4.7-7.2 Ma, likely coeval with activity of the MBT. Zircon (U-Th)/He (ZHe) samples from the hinterland are younger than the ages of the metasedimentary or plutonic source rocks. Most sample ages from the Sub-Himalaya are older or the same to the depositional age and are therefore detrital. Probability density plots of hinterland ZHe data show a pronounced spike in cooling between 16-21 Ma

  12. Dropout of Children from schools in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Wagle, Dhirendra

    2012-01-01

    Nepal, a developing country of the south-asian region has bigger problem of children not completing the full cycle of basic education. In other words, large number of children dropout of schools, especially in the primary and secondary level of schooling. Especially, the situation is worse for those of the backward and socially disadvantaged populations and of the rural and the remote areas. Being in this frame, this study focused on the reasons of dropout of children from schools and the pos...

  13. Strategic Brand Creation for Yeti Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Sushil

    2011-01-01

    The thesis aims to create a strategic brand for a recently established restaurant called Yeti Nepal that serves Nepalese food and is located at Helsinki. The new venture does not have a clear brand positioning, brand promise and satisfactory awareness level at the moment. The literature has been reviewed to highlight the process that begins from a new brand creation to the strategic positioning of the brand in the market. The techniques to increase the awareness to the level of...

  14. Geography, Poverty and Conflict in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Do, Quy-Toan; Iyer, Lakshmi

    2010-01-01

    We conduct an empirical analysis of the geographic, economic, and social factors that contributed to the spread of civil war in Nepal over the period 1996-2006. This within-country analysis complements existing cross-country studies on the same subject. Using a detailed dataset to track civil war casualties across space and over time, several patterns are documented. Conflict-related deaths are significantly higher in poorer districts and in geographical locations that favor insurgents, such ...

  15. Undifferentiated Febrile Illness in Kathmandu, Nepal.

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, CN; Blacksell, SD; Paris, DH; Arjyal, A; Karkey, A; Dongol, S.; Giri, A.; Dolecek, C.; Day, N; Baker, S.; Thwaites, G; Farrar, J.; Basnyat, B

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated febrile illnesses (UFIs) are common in low- and middle-income countries. We prospectively investigated the causes of UFIs in 627 patients presenting to a tertiary referral hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal. Patients with microbiologically confirmed enteric fever (218 of 627; 34.8%) randomized to gatifloxacin or ofloxacin treatment were previously reported. We randomly selected 125 of 627 (20%) of these UFI patients, consisting of 96 of 409 (23%) cases with sterile blood cultures a...

  16. Inflation Persistence in Nepal: A TAR Representation

    OpenAIRE

    T.P. Koirala Ph.D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper investigates inflation persistence under Threshold Autoregressive (TAR) model motivated by the fact that inflation in Nepal goes through different degrees of persistence based on various regime shifts. Using monthly time series of the Consumer Price Index (CPI) from 1998:01 to 2011:12, the presence of dynamic adjustment of inflation between high inflation and low inflation regimes defined by threshold inflation reveals non-linear behavior of inflation. A degree of low persistency i...

  17. Community mediation and social harmony in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Stein, Danielle

    2013-01-01

    This paper is part of the Theories in Practice series arising from the collaboration between JSRP and The Asia Foundation. The paper explores The Asia Foundation’s ‘Theory of Change’ for community mediation in Nepal. Through analysis of academic and practitioner sources combined with primary research across six Nepali districts, this paper analyses the evidence supporting the claim that mediation ‘improves social harmony’. This analysis is conducted using a framework of three potential path...

  18. Recession-based hydrological models for estimating low flows in ungauged catchments in the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. G. Rees

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The Himalayan region of Nepal and northern India experiences hydrological extremes from monsoonal floods during July to September, when most of the annual precipitation falls, to periods of very low flows during the dry season (December to February. While the monsoon floods cause acute disasters such as loss of human life and property, mudslides and infrastructure damage, the lack of water during the dry season has a chronic impact on the lives of local people. The management of water resources in the region is hampered by relatively sparse hydrometerological networks and consequently, many resource assessments are required in catchments where no measurements exist. A hydrological model for estimating dry season flows in ungauged catchments, based on recession curve behaviour, has been developed to address this problem. Observed flows were fitted to a second order storage model to enable average annual recession behaviour to be examined. Regionalised models were developed, using a calibration set of 26 catchments, to predict three recession curve parameters: the storage constant; the initial recession flow and the start date of the recession. Relationships were identified between: the storage constant and catchment area; the initial recession flow and elevation (acting as a surrogate for rainfall; and the start date of the recession and geographic location. An independent set of 13 catchments was used to evaluate the robustness of the models. The regional models predicted the average volume of water in an annual recession period (1st of October to the 1st of February with an average error of 8%, while mid-January flows were predicted to within ±50% for 79% of the catchments in the data set. Keywords: Himalaya, recession curve, water resources, ungauged catchment, regionalisation, low flows

  19. Security of highly radioactive sources in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subsequent to 9/11, concerned countries and UN agencies have taken especial interest in the security of highly radioactive sources throughout the world. The IAEA Nuclear Security Plan (2006-2009) consequently made as a result of UN Security Council Resolution 1540 is binding to all States. The Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) of the US and the Global Threat Reduction Programme (GTRP) of UK have assisted the four hospitals in Nepal having more than 1,000 Curies of radioactivity in their Cobalt-60 sources used for teletherapy. The physical upgrade of the security of the nuclear materials has also been launched in Nepal for prevention of theft with malicious intention or threats. In this presentation, the radioisotopes in Nepal that comes under different categories according to TECDOC-1355 of IAEA will be described. Problems and issues regarding the security and protection of radioactive sources at hospitals, academic and research institutions that could be prevalent in many developing counties too will be discussed by taking a case study of one of the cancer hospitals in Kathmandu valley. (author)

  20. Zoonotic aspects of cryptosporidiosis in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushil Paudyal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews cryptosporidiosis, a common protozoan disease in humans and animals in Nepal, acquired by ingestion of oocysts that were excreted in the feces of infected individuals. Contaminated water represents the major source of Cryptosporidium infections for humans and can be transmitted from person-to-person, from animal-to-person, animal-to-animal, by ingestion of contaminated water and food or by contact with contaminated surfaces. Being highly resistant to environmental and chemical processes and representing the only group of pathogen surviving chlorination, it has no effective chemotherapy identified for the treatment which makes cryptosporidiosis a debilitating and persistent disease with high potential of transmission among immune-compromised ones like children and AIDS patients. Various reports have been documented for potential transmission of the oocyst among humans and animals in Nepal through common niche like river water, tap water sources and also from wild animals through the interaction on buffer zones. Literatures reported prevalence rate of 16 % in Children, 11% in HIV infected patients in case of human; whereas, 14% in Calves, 19% in buffaloes and 12.5% in swamp deer in case of animals in Nepal. In conclusion, the persistent shedding of oocysts by reservoir hosts like calves, kids, poultry and wild animals like deer and monkeys possess great threat to the transmission to general public. The epidemiological studies of cryptosporidium and the knowledge of the pattern of the disease outbreak can guide therapy and effective preventive measures against this disease.

  1. Field-based assessment of landslide hazards resulting from the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, B. D.; Jibson, R.

    2015-12-01

    The M7.8 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake sequence caused thousands of fatalities, destroyed entire villages, and displaced millions of residents. The earthquake sequence also triggered thousands of landslides in the steep Himalayan topography of Nepal and China; these landslides were responsible for hundreds of fatalities and blocked vital roads, trails, and rivers. With the support of USAID's Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance, the U.S. Geological Survey responded to this crisis by providing landslide-hazard expertise to Nepalese agencies and affected villages. Assessments of landslide hazards following earthquakes are essential to identify vulnerable populations and infrastructure, and inform government agencies working on rebuilding and mitigation efforts. However, assessing landslide hazards over an entire earthquake-affected region (in Nepal, estimated to be ~30,000 km2), and in exceedingly steep, inaccessible topography presents a number of logistical challenges. We focused the scope of our assessment by conducting helicopter- and ground-based landslide assessments in 12 priority areas in central Nepal identified a priori from satellite photo interpretation performed in conjunction with an international consortium of remote sensing experts. Our reconnaissance covered 3,200 km of helicopter flight path, extending over an approximate area of 8,000 km2. During our field work, we made 17 site-specific assessments and provided landslide hazard information to both villages and in-country agencies. Upon returning from the field, we compiled our observations and further identified and assessed 74 river-blocking landslide dams, 12% of which formed impoundments larger than 1,000 m2 in surface area. These assessments, along with more than 11 hours of helicopter-based video, and an overview of hazards expected during the 2015 summer monsoon have been publically released (http://dx.doi.org/10.3133/ofr20151142) for use by in-country and international agencies.

  2. A Prevalence of Thyroid Disorder in Western Part of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Magar, Namrata Thapa; Poudel, Bibek; Yadav, Naval Kishor; Yadav, Binod

    2013-01-01

    Background: Nepal is an endemic area with regards to iodine deficiency, as well as a nutritional iodine deficiency is thought to be prevalent in all the Himalayan, sub-Himalayan and the Terai regions of Nepal. Thyroid dysfunction is a major public health problem among the Nepalese population.

  3. Education and Conflict in Nepal: Possibilities for Reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pherali, Tejendra J.

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyses the nexus of the "People's War" and education in Nepal and argues that education was one of the main causes of the violent conflict. Despite "modernisation" efforts and increased participation, schools in Nepal continued to embody socially and culturally prejudiced values and institutionally legitimised the inequitable…

  4. Promoting Lifelong Learning in Multilingual Context: A Case from Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Kapil Dev

    2011-01-01

    Nepal is a multilingual country with low adult literacy rate (about 57% in 2008). Through different policy documents and motivation from some of the transnational organizations such as UNESCO, Nepal is on the process of adopting lifelong learning perspective as a major educational policy. In this context the article raises two issues: how to…

  5. Dating and Sex among Emerging Adults in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regmi, Pramod R.; van Teijlingen, Edwin R.; Simkhada, Padam; Acharya, Dev R.

    2011-01-01

    Social and cultural changes in Nepal, including better communication facilities and transport, more urbanization and a rising age at which people marry, have created more opportunities for young people for "dating." Our qualitative study explores whether the existence of dating cultures influences young people's sexual behavior in Nepal. Focus…

  6. Building Organic Institutions in Nepal: Transformational Organic Leadership Perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sundar Kumar; Sharma, Ravina

    2014-01-01

    It is really challenging to transform the conventional trends of farming and consumption trends in Nepal. On the other hand, there is an opportunity to make use of the traditional ecological knowledge of the indigenous farmers for augmenting newly emerged organic farming practices. In this scenario, transformational organic leadership is needed to build organic institutions in Nepal.

  7. Hinterland tectonics and drainage evolution recorded by foreland basin archives: the Neogene Siwaliks of the Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huyghe, Pascale; van der Beek, Peter; Matthias, Bernet; Catherine, Chauvel; Jean-Louis, Mugnier; Laurent, Husson; François, Chirouze

    2014-05-01

    propagation of the main faults. The evolution of the sedimentary provenance can be explained by overall forward propagation of deformation in the Himalayan fold-thrust belt. In both the eastern and western syntaxes, it also shows stability of the major drainage systems of the Yarlung-Brahmaputra and Indus, respectively, suggesting that hinterland river incision kept pace with uplift of the syntaxes during the Neogene. Drainage reorganization may take place in the foreland basin because of thin-skinned tectonics but did not significantly affect sediment routing and the contribution of different sources of the upper catchment to the overall sediment budget. In contrast, major rivers in the Central Himalaya (such as the Kali Gandaki or the Karnali) could have been affected by changes in their upper catchment.

  8. Demographic situation and development in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhanang, A L

    1983-01-01

    In Nepal economic development has not kept pace with population growth. The government must develop a vigorous dual program to promote economic development and to reduce population growth. Previous efforts to promote economic development, using a macrolevel approach, failed to improve the economic conditions for the majority of Nepal's citizens. The macrolevel approach required large capital outlays and resulted in an influx of foreign investors and the importation of inappropriate technologies from the developed countries. As a result, urbanization and pollution increased, and both the proportion and the absolute number of poor persons increased. A microlevel approach is now being instituted by the government, and an emphasis is being placed on meeting the basic needs of the poor and on promoting economic self-sufficiency. The country has extensive water resources which can be tapped for irrigation purposes. Nepal also has rich mineral deposits which should be exploited in such a way as to ensure that the profits accrue to the Nepalese. The country has an abundance of manpower resources, but there is a dearth of skilled workers. Unemployment, especially in rural areas, is a serious problem, and efforts should be made to either develop the agricultural sector or create new jobs in other sectors. Nepal's demographic problems include rapid population growth, the influx of a large number of migrants from India, and a high rural to urban migration rate. In 1981, the population size was 15 million, the annual growth rate was 2.6%, the crude birth rate was 38.5, the crude death rate was 18.4, and life expectancy was 47.5 years. The government is currently developing plans 1) to promote the development of core sectors of the economy, 2) to provide family planning services for the poor, 3) to meet the basic needs of rural residents in order to stem the flow of migration to urban areas, 4) to mobilize women to play an active role in the country's development and population

  9. Lawful Limitation or Northern Influence? Restricting the Freedom of Expression of Tibetan Refugees in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, Barun

    2013-01-01

    Any exercise of Right to freedom of expression of Tibetan refugees living in Nepal if deemed as ‘anti-Chinese activity’ is restricted by the Government of Nepal. Nepal, having ratified the ICCPR, has undertaken an international obligation to recognize and protect freedom of expression. In this context, this paper aims to examine the lawfulness of the restriction imposed by Nepal within the framework of Article 19 (3) of ICCPR. This study also seeks to analyze whether Nepal is under any influe...

  10. Nature and Timing of Quaternary glaciation in the Himalaya: Review and Speculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, L. A.

    2012-12-01

    Reconstructions of the extent and defining the timing of Quaternary glaciation across the Himalaya is an important step towards understanding the nature of long-term (centennial-millennial scale) climate-glacier dynamics in the high mountains of Central Asia. Recent efforts, aided by extensive programs of mapping and numerical dating, are beginning to more accurately define the extent and timing of Quaternary glaciation throughout the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen. The picture that is emerging is one of complex variation in the timing and extent of glaciation within and between regions. This variation is likely controlled by regional differences in the role of the major climatic systems that influence the region over time and topographic factors. A transect across the western end of the Himalayan-Tibetan orogen, including detailed studies in the Lahul Himalaya, Zanskar, Ladakh, Hunza and the Pamir, illustrates this complexity. This transect has the potential, when examined in more detail using newly developing numerical dating, and geomorphic and sedimentologic methods, to derive high-resolution records of glaciation that will help in understanding the complex relationship between climate-glacier dynamics and topography.

  11. Seismic properties of naturally deformed quartzites of the Alaknanda valley, Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ruchika Sharma Tandon; Vikram Gupta; Koushik Sen

    2015-08-01

    The present contribution summarizes the results of a study focusing on the influence of quartz microstructures on the seismic wave velocities in the quartzites of the Garhwal Himalaya. Quartzites being monomineralic were chosen for the present study so as to nullify the effect of other mineral constituents on the seismic velocity. Samples were collected from different tectonic settings of the Higher and Lesser Himalayas which are separated from one another by the major tectonic zone ‘Main Central Thrust’ (MCT). These are mainly Pandukeshwar quartzite, Tapovan quartzite and Berinag quartzite. The samples of Berinag quartzite were collected from near the klippen and the thrust, termed as Alaknanda Thrust. The vast differences in microstructures and associated seismic wave velocities have been noted in different quartzites. It has also been observed that quartzites of the MCT zone and Alaknanda Thrust have higher seismic velocities. This is because of their coarse-grained nature of the rocks as evidenced by the strong positive relation between seismic velocities and grain area. The coarsening is either due to the operation of grain boundary migration and grain area reduction process or high aspect ratio/shape preferred orientation. The quartzites located around Nandprayag Klippen have undergone static recrystallization and exhibit the lowest seismic wave velocities.

  12. Projection of aggregate and farm benefits of conservation agriculture productions systems using economic surplus analysis and linear programing in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, B.; Chan-Halbrendt, Catherine; Nguema, A.; Norton, George W.; Tamang, Bishal B.; T.J.K. Radovich; Crow, S.; Halbrendt, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    Traditional agriculture in central mid hills of Nepal is characterized by cultivation of sloping lands, resulting in lower productivity and soil loss. The Sustainable Management of Agro-ecological Resources in Tribal Societies (SMARTS) project applied a participatory agro-ecological research framework to develop improved conservation agriculture practices system (CAPS) to contribute to sustainable livelihood of marginalized tribal farmers. This paper used economic surplus analysis at macro le...

  13. Living knowledge of the healing plants:ethno-phytotherapy in the Chepang communities from the mid-hills of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Rijal Arun

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Contribution of indigenous knowledge in developing more effective drugs with minimum or no side effects helped to realise importance of study of indigenous remedies and the conservation of biological resources. This study analysed indigenous knowledge regarding medicinal plants use among the Chepang communities from ward number 3 and 4 of Shaktikhor Village Development Committee located in the central mid hills of Nepal. Data were collected in a one-year period and included interview...

  14. Bhaktapur, Nepal: the MAL-ED birth cohort study in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Prakash Sunder; Shrestha, Sanjaya Kumar; Bodhidatta, Ladaporn; Strand, Tor; Shrestha, Binob; Shrestha, Rita; Chandyo, Ram Krishna; Ulak, Manjeswori; Mason, Carl J

    2014-11-01

    The Etiology, Risk Factors and Interactions of Enteric Infections and Malnutrition and the Consequences for Child Health and Development (MAL-ED) cohort study site in Nepal is located in the Bhaktapur municipality, 15 km east of Kathmandu, the capital city of Nepal. Bhaktapur, an ancient city famous for its traditional temples and buildings, is included on UNESCO's World Heritage List and is a major tourist attraction in Nepal. Nepal is a land-locked country located in South Asia between China and India with an area of 147 181 km(2), ranging from sea-level plains to Mount Everest, the world's highest peak. The total population as of the 2011 census was 26.6 million, with an average annual population growth rate of 1.4. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is ranked 157 of 186 in the 2013 Human Development Report; one-third of the Nepali population lives below the poverty line. The current under-5 mortality rate is 54 per 1000 live births, the infant mortality rate is 46 per 1000 live births, and the neonatal mortality rate is 33 per 1000 live births. Vaccine coverage for all Expanded Program on Immunization vaccines is >80%. Among children, the most common diseases contributing to significant morbidity and mortality are acute respiratory infection and dehydration from severe diarrhea. In this article, we report on the geographic, demographic, and socioeconomic features of the Bhaktapur MAL-ED site and describe the data that informed our cohort recruitment strategy. PMID:25305301

  15. Flexibility of Scope, Type and Temporality in Mustang, Nepal. Opportunities for Adaptation in a Farming System Facing Climatic and Market Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Holmelin

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change is projected to increase the seasonality in river flows in the great river systems of Himalaya and impose challenges to regional food production. Since climate change increases the uncertainty in local weather patterns, people’s ability to maintain local agricultural production will probably depend on how flexible the local farming systems are to adjust to unpredictable changes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the flexibility of one such farming system which is located in Mustang, Nepal, Himalaya. Defining flexibility as “uncommitted potentialities for change” following Gregory Bateson, the paper identifies opportunities for change in the farming system, as well as factors that constrain flexibility. Further developing the concept of flexibility, it is suggested that flexibility may be analyzed in terms of scope, type and temporal flexibility. Although there are several underexploited resources in the studied farming system, the present situation is not regarded as one of irrational and suboptimal exploitation of resources. Instead, unexploited resources imply opportunities for change, which provide the system with flexibility to rapidly adjust agricultural production to varying and uncertain conditions of production.

  16. Geo-Hazards and Mountain Road Development in Nepal: Understanding the Science-Policy-Governance Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, Sumit; Dahal, Vaskar

    2015-04-01

    The foothills of Nepalese Himalayas located in the neotectonic mountain environment are among some of the most unstable and geomorphologically dynamic landscapes in the world. Young fold mountains in this region are characterized by complex tectonics that influence the occurrence of earthquakes, while climatic processes such as intense orographic rainfall often dictate the occurrence of floods and landslides. Development of linear infrastructures, such as roads, in mountainous terrain characterized by high relief and orogeny is considerably challenging where the complexity of landscape in steep and irregular topography, difficult ground conditions and weak geology, presents engineers and planners with numerous difficulties to construct and maintain mountain roads. Whilst application of engineering geology, geomorphic interpretation of terrain in terms of physiography and hydrology, and identification of geo-hazards along the road corridor is critical for long term operation of mountain roads, low-cost arterial roads in the Himalayan foothills generally fail to incorporate standard road slope engineering structures. This research provides unique insights on policy and governance issues in developing mountainous countries such as Nepal, where achieving a sound balance between sustainability and affordability is a major challenge for road construction. Road development in Nepal is a complex issue where socio-economic and political factors influence the budget allocation for road construction in rural hilly areas. Moreover, most mountain roads are constructed without any geological or geo-technical site investigations due to rampant corruption and lack of adequate engineering supervision. Despite having good examples of rural road construction practices such as the Dharan-Dhankuta Road in Eastern Nepal where comprehensive terrain-evaluation methods and geo-technical surveys led to an improved understanding of road construction, learnings from this project have not

  17. High-resolution seismic tomography of the 2015 Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake, Nepal: Evidence for the crustal tearing of the Himalayan rift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Shunping; Liu, Hongbing; Bai, Ling; Liu, Yanbing; Sun, Quan

    2016-09-01

    The Mw7.8 Gorkha earthquake struck Nepal and ruptured the boundary between the Indian and Eurasian plates. We conducted 2-D Pg wave tomography to clarify the seismogenic structure and try to understand causal mechanisms for this large earthquake, using the aftershock data recorded by 15 broadband seismic stations located near the China-Nepal border. Our high-resolution results show that coseismic slip area of the main shock is consistent with the high P wave velocity anomaly, and the region of maximum slip has a larger area with higher velocity than the region of initial slip, possibly resulting in the dominant low-frequency radiation of energy observed after the dominant high-frequency radiation of energy in the source rupture process. The boundary between these regions of contrasting high and low seismic velocity anomalies suggests a potential crustal tearing at the southern end of the Tangra Yum Co Rift, possibly resulting from different thrust speeds in the Greater Himalaya.

  18. Neurocysticercosis in Nepal: a retrospective clinical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Ojha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The prevalence of epilepsy is higher in Nepal. This study was conducted to analyze the clinical manifestations of neurocysticercosis (NCC among seizure patients admitted to our center. Methods: We retrospectively studied all the NCC patients admitted to Neurology Department, Bir Hospital, Kathmandu, Nepal from April 2012 to February 2014. Computer tomography/magnetic resonance imaging (CT/MRI head, clinical profile, lab investigations and exclusion of other causes were the basis of the NCC diagnosis. Chi-square and Student′s t-test were used for comparison of variables. Results: Out of 131 seizure patients admitted, 21 patients were diagnosed with NCC (mean age: 33.95 ± 16.41; male: 15 (71.4%, female: 6 (28.6%. Generalized tonic clonic seizure was the most common seizure type in NCC patients (18 patients; 85.7%, two of them had status epilepticus during presentation in Emergency Department. Three patients had focal seizure, one with epilepsia partialis continua. Neuroimaging showed multiple NCC lesions in 8 (38.1% and a single NCC lesion in 13 (61.9% patients. Seven of them (33.3% sought traditional healers before being presented to our center. Eight patients (38.1% were treated with antiepileptics in local health-post without neuroimaging studies done. Calcified stage of NCC was the most frequent CT/MRI findings (12 patients; 57.1%. Phenytoin was preferred both by physicians and patients due to its low cost. Conclusion: NCC is a common finding among seizure patients in Nepal. Poor economic status, illiteracy and underdeveloped rural society are the major challenges in prevention and treatment of NCC.

  19. Teachers interact with radio in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlak, P A

    1987-01-01

    The Nepal Radio Education Teacher Training Project (RETT) is an interactive program for upgrading underqualified primary school teachers, 27% of whom lack the 10th grade school leaving certificate. Nepal is so mountainous that reaching rural areas is too expensive to train teachers effectively. This program uses curriculum principles such as systematic planning, distributed learning, cyclical instruction, and radio techniques such as intensive broadcasting, interactive learning, immediate reinforcement and an engaging instructional pace for this adult audience. With the help of USAID, Radio Nepal operates a 100,000 watt shortwave transmitter from a studio in suburban Kathmandu. As of August 1980, 5593 teachers from 72 of 75 districts have enrolled, and 2944 have been certified. The 1st phase of the program taught Nepali, mathematics, social studies, health, physical education and art. The 2nd phase emphasizes the content taught in years 7-10, added English, mathematics, science and Nepali. There are major differences in this interactive program compared to those instituted in Kenya, Nicaragua, the Dominican Republic and Thailand, with young audiences. These adults are teachers, unmonitored, individual listeners, in a home setting, usually studying in the evenings in competition with other radio programming, and learning secondary school subject matter. In contrast, prior programs elsewhere have had captive children in primary school monitored by teachers. Incentives are being provided to keep teachers in the courses, such as discounted radios, job security, pay increments and certification. The use of repetition and rapid feedback inherent in interactive radio programming helps to meet the challenges in voluntary participation. PMID:12315027

  20. Spatial gradients in climate, vegetation, and catchment-mean erosion rates in the Arun Valley, Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olen, Stephanie; Bookhagen, Bodo; Hoffmann, Bernd; Sachse, Dirk; Adhikari, Danda; Strecker, Manfred

    2014-05-01

    A link between climate, vegetation cover, and regional erosion rates has been widely proposed in the Himalaya, but has proven hard to quantify. We investigate the connection between Indian Summer Monsoon (ISM) rainfall, vegetation cover, and erosion in the Arun valley of eastern Nepal. One of the largest trans-Himalayan rivers, the Arun has cut a natural cross-section through all major Himalayan geological units and structures from the northern Tethyan sequences in Tibet to the alluvial sediments of the southern Ganges plain. Located near the monsoonal moisture source in the Bay of Bengal, the Arun receives significant amounts of ISM rainfall (average 2 m yr-1 in the Arun gorge). Rainfall in the valley is focused along the Himalayan mountain front, forced by orographic barriers of the Lesser and Higher Himalayas, resulting in a steep, two-tiered rainfall gradient (from a peak >4 m yr-1 at the Higher Himalayan front to ~0.5 m yr-1 at the border with Tibet) [1]. Rainfall along this gradient is highly seasonal; based on meteorological stations along the Arun, approximately 80% of annual rainfall occurs during the peak summer monsoon months, corroborating earlier results [1]. Abundant precipitation and relatively warm temperatures in the deeply incised Arun gorge result in dense vegetation cover in much of the valley, ranging from sub-tropical forests to alpine vegetation cover. In order to quantify erosion variability in the Arun with respect to climate, vegetation, and tectonics, we collected 51 river sand samples over two field seasons for catchment-mean cosmogenic radionuclide (CRN) analysis [2,3]. Samples were collected from the main stem of the Arun and from tributary watersheds (

  1. Animal Feed Production and Quality in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    小栗, 克之; BHATTARAI, Til Chandra; 平児, 慎太郎; オグリ, カツユキ; ヒラコ, シンタロウ; OGURI, Katsuyuki; HIRAKO, Shintaro

    2002-01-01

    The present study is an attempt to assess the situation of feed industries and the quality of feed in Nepal. Feed production is a major component of poultry industry, because near about 80% of total cost require for production goes to feed. There are altogether 149 feed industries of different size in different location in operation. About 45% of them are of small unit producing less than 5 tones/day. About 35% are of medium size producing 6-10 tones/day, and rest 20% is of large size produci...

  2. Locking degree and slip rate deficit distribution on MHT fault before 2015 Nepal Mw 7.9 earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanchuan; Song, Xiaogang; Shan, Xinjian; Qu, Chunyan; Wang, Zhenjie

    2016-04-01

    The spatial pattern and rate of strain accumulation on a fault during the pre- and inter-seismic phases are very important for interpreting the mechanism of earthquakes and evaluating seismic potentials. Here we use global positioning system (GPS) data and the block-dislocation model to invert for the locking degree and slip rate deficit of the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) fault in the southern margin of Tibet before the 2015 Mw 7.9 Nepal earthquake. Results show that the locking depth and slip rate deficit increase from the west to the east. Along the western segment of the MHT fault (80°E-84°E), the locking depth is estimated to be 12-17 km with a slip rate deficit of 0-5 mm/a; along the central Nepal segment (84°E-87°E), the locking depth is 16-21 km with a slip rate deficit of 6-10 mm/a, whilst along the eastern segment (87°E-90°E), the locking depth increases to 23-26 km with a slip rate deficit of 8-13 mm/a. The 2015 Nepal earthquake initiated at the boundary between the western and central segments, an area with as where the slip rate deficit varies dramatically from 0 to 9 mm/a within 50 km resulting in high energy gradients. High strain concentration along the central and eastern segments leads to unilateral propagation of the rupture to the east. Given the paucity of large seismic events over the previous decades and the current high slip rate deficit, seismic hazard on the eastern Nepal segment remains high.

  3. Assessment of Erythemal UV Level in Nepal Based on Solar UV Estimatks from Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Binod Kumar BHATTARAF; Berit KJELDSTAD; Trond Morten THORSETH

    2011-01-01

    Nepal lies on the southern slope of Himalaya in Asia. In a width ranging between 150 and 250 km, the altitude varies greatly from about 100 m at its southern border to a maximum of 8848 min the northern part. Like the variation in altitude, climatic condition varies quite a lot. Long-term monthly mean erythemal UV daily dose values for Nepal arc evaluated using Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) estimation from the time of its overpass between 1996 and 2003. The results are presented as summer and winter maps of mean UV levels in each satellite grid. The mean winter erythemal UV daily dose ranges between 2.1 and 3.6 kJ m-2 whereas summer values are found to lie between 4.6 and 9.7 kJ m -2. The altitude variation increases the UV levels by about 0.2 kJ km-1 in winter months, and 0.9 kJ km-1 in summer. A multiyear monthly average erythemal daily dlose in most of the areas shows that the summer value is about three times higher than that in winter. Although year-to-year variation is not pronounced in high- and mid-elevation regions, UV levels seemed to decrease from 1997 to 2002 in the southern part of the country in the low elevation region by about 5.35%. Due to the combined effects of the altitude, low ozone concentration in the troposphere, and thin air, surface UV radiation at higher altitudes is found to be higher than in the surrounding regions.

  4. Predictability of Great Earthquakes: The 25 April 2015 M7.9 Gorkha (Nepal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossobokov, V. G.

    2015-12-01

    Understanding of seismic process in terms of non-linear dynamics of a hierarchical system of blocks-and-faults and deterministic chaos, has already led to reproducible intermediate-term middle-range prediction of the great and significant earthquakes. The technique based on monitoring charcteristics of seismic static in an area proportional to source size of incipient earthquake is confirmed at the confidence level above 99% by statistics of Global Testing in forward application from 1992 to the present. The semi-annual predictions determined for the next half-year by the algorithm M8 aimed (i) at magnitude 8+ earthquakes in 262 circles of investigation, CI's, each of 667-km radius and (ii) at magnitude 7.5+ earthquakes in 180 CI's, each of 427-km radius are communicated each January and July to the Global Test Observers (about 150 today). The pre-fixed location of CI's cover all seismic regions where the M8 algorithm could run in its original version that requires annual rate of activity of 16 or more main shocks. According to predictions released in January 2015 for the first half of 2015, the 25 April 2015 Nepal MwGCMT = 7.9 earthquake falls outside the Test area for M7.5+, while its epicenter is within the accuracy limits of the alarm area for M8.0+ that spread along 1300 km of Himalayas. We note that (i) the earthquake confirms identification of areas prone to strong earthquakes in Himalayas by pattern recognition (Bhatia et al. 1992) and (ii) it would have been predicted by the modified version of the M8 algorithm aimed at M7.5+. The modified version is adjusted to a low level of earthquake detection, about 10 main shocks per year, and is tested successfully by Mojarab et al. (2015) in application to the recent earthquakes in Eastern Anatolia (23 October 2011, M7.3 Van earthquake) and Iranian Plateau (16 April 2013, M7.7 Saravan and the 24 September 2013, M7.7 Awaran earthquakes).

  5. Interaction Between the Himalaya and the Flexed Indian Plate—Spatial Fluctuations in Seismic Hazard in India in the Past Millennium?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilham, Roger; Szeliga, Walter

    2008-07-01

    Between the tenth and early 16th centuries three megaquakes allowed most of the northern edge of the Indian plate to slip 20-24 m northward relative to the overlying Himalaya. Although the renewal time for earthquakes with this large amount of slip is less than 1300 years given a geodetic convergence rate of 16-20 mm/yr, recently developed scaling laws for the Himalaya suggest that the past 200 years of great earthquakes may be associated with slip of less than 10 m and renewal times of approximately 500 years. These same theoretical models show that the rupture lengths of the Himalaya's Medieval earthquakes (300-600 km) are too short to permit 24 m of slip given the relationships demonstrated by recent events. There is thus reason to suppose that recent earthquakes may have responded to different elastic driving forces from those that drove the megaquakes of Medieval times. An alternative source of energy to drive Himalayan earthquakes exists in the form of the elastic and gravitational energy stored in flexure of the Indian plate. The flexure is manifest in the form of a 200-450 m high bulge in central India, which is sustained by the forces of collision and by the end-loading of the plate by the Himalaya and southern Tibet. These flexural stresses are responsible for earthquakes in the sub-continent. The abrupt release of stress associated with the northward translation of the northern edge of the Indian plate by 24 m, were the process entirely elastic, would result in a deflation of the crest of the bulge by roughly 0.8 m. Geometrical changes, however, would be moderated by viscous rheologies in the plate and by viscous flow in the mantle in the following centuries. The hypothesized relaxation of flexural geometry following the Himalayan megaquake sequence would have the effect of backing-off stresses throughout central India resulting in quiescence both in the Himalaya and the Indian plate. The historical record shows an absence of great Himalayan earthquakes

  6. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources.

  7. Radon emanation of heterogeneous basin deposits in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective radium-226 concentration (ECRa) has been measured in soil samples from seven horizontal and vertical profiles of terrace scarps in the northern part of Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. The samples belong to the Thimi, Gokarna, and Tokha Formations, dated from 50 to 14 ky BP, and represent a diverse fluvio-deltaic sedimentary facies mainly consisting of gravelly to coarse sands, black, orange and brown clays. ECRa was measured in the laboratory by radon-222 emanation. The samples (n = 177) are placed in airtight glass containers, from which, after an accumulation time varying from 3 to 18 days, the concentration of radon-222, radioactive decay product of radium-226 and radioactive gas with a half-life of 3.8 days, is measured using scintillation flasks. The ECRa values from the seven different profiles of the terrace deposits vary from 0.4 to 43 Bq kg-1, with profile averages ranging from 12 ± 1 to 27 ± 2 Bq kg-1. The values have a remarkable consistency along a particular horizon of sediment layers, clearly demonstrating that these values can be used for long distance correlations of the sediment horizons. Widely separated sediment profiles, representing similar stratigraphic positions, exhibit consistent ECRa values in corresponding stratigraphic sediment layers. ECRa measurements therefore appear particularly useful for lithologic and stratigraphic discriminations. For comparison, ECRa values of soils from different localities having various sources of origin were also obtained: 9.2 ± 0.4 Bq kg-1 in soils of Syabru-Bensi (Central Nepal), 23 ± 1 Bq kg-1 in red residual soils of the Bhattar-Trisuli Bazar terrace (North of Kathmandu), 17.1 ± 0.3 Bq kg-1 in red residual soils of terrace of Kalikasthan (North of Trisuli Bazar) and 10 ± 1 Bq kg-1 in red residual soils of a site near Nagarkot (East of Kathmandu). The knowledge of ECRa values for these various soils is important for modelling radon exhalation at the ground surface, in particular in the vicinity

  8. Competing Perspectives on the Gurkhas and Identity Politics in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seeberg, Jens

    2015-01-01

    , the ‘symbolic value’ of the ‘Gurkha’ tradition being loaded with notions of bravery and pride has been challenged by competing notions of (post)colonialism and mercenary practice. Hence, the discussion about the ‘Gurkha’ tradition is also a debate about national identities in the changing Nepal. This debate...... is further complicated by the substantial economic returns to Nepal that are generated by ‘Gurkhas’. This paper explores the symbolic changes of the ‘Gurkha’ tradition as these are projected in media originating both within and outside Nepal and available on the Internet. The contested media constructions...... of the ‘Gurkhas’ are discussed in relation to post-conflict identity politics in Nepal....

  9. Childhood Immunization and Access to Health Care: Evidence From Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devkota, Satis; Panda, Bibhudutta

    2016-03-01

    This article examines the effect of access to health care center, in terms of travel time, on childhood immunization in Nepal using the 2004 and 2011 waves of the Nepal Living Standards Measurement Surveys. We employ probit and instrumental variable probit estimation methods to estimate the causal effect of travel time on the probability of immunization. Results indicate that travel time to the nearest health center displays a significant negative association with the probability of immunization (coefficient = -0.015,Peffect of travel time tends to be stronger in rural and distant areas of Nepal's mountain and hill regions. The results suggest that policy interventions should increase the number of mobile clinics in rural villages and provide conditional cash transfer to incentivize immunization coverage at the household level. In addition, household income, parental education, ethnicity, and household location emerge as important determinants of immunization in Nepal. PMID:26809971

  10. Urban demands for organic tomatoes in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatta, G.D.; Doppler, W; KC, K.B.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the willingness to pay for organic tomatoes by the consumers in urban areas of Nepal. It further makes an analysis of consumer preferences to this vegetables using conjoint modeling.

  11. Kyoto protocol and Nepal's energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokharel, Shaligram [School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 50 Nanyang Avenue, Singapore 639 798 (Singapore)]. E-mail: Shaligram@pmail.ntu.edu.sg

    2007-04-15

    Nepal has recently ratified Kyoto Protocol, which considers justifiable use of resources to limit or reduce the emission of gases that contribute to green house gas inventory in the atmosphere. Nepal's per capita green gas (GHG) emission from energy use is insignificant. However, it is important for Nepal to adopt environmentally friendly energy options based on local resources like hydropower and biomass. Nepal can benefit from the provisions of clean development mechanism (CDM) under the Kyoto Protocol of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCC) or carbon funds being promoted by various organizations in order to obtain funding for new projects that reduce GHG emissions (ER). Funding can be generated through Carbon trading in international market as well. In this paper, the country's current contribution to GHG due to energy consumption is evaluated. Options for promoting more sustainable and environmentally friendly projects have also been discussed.

  12. Administrative culture in Nepal: does it reflect the dominant socio-cultural values of Nepal?

    OpenAIRE

    Rameshwor, Dangal

    2005-01-01

    Nepalese bureaucracy is accused of being inefficient, corrupt, non-transparent and irresponsible. It is also said that Afno Manchhe and Chakari, which is deeply rooted in Nepalese social values, is also highly institutionalized in the Nepalese administration. Many studies have revealed that socio-cultural values affect the administrative system of a country. Upon this background, this study aimed to map the existing administrative culture in Nepal and examine whether socio-cultural values of ...

  13. Morphometric analysis of Suketi river basin, Himachal Himalaya, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil M Pophare; Umesh S Balpande

    2014-10-01

    Suketi river basin is located in the Mandi district of Himachal Pradesh, India. It encompasses a central inter-montane valley and surrounding mountainous terrain in the Lower Himachal Himalaya. Morphometric analysis of the Suketi river basin was carried out to study its drainage characteristics and overall groundwater resource potential. The entire Suketi river basin has been divided into five sub-basins based on the catchment areas of Suketi trunk stream and its major tributaries. Quantitative assessment of each sub-basin was carried out for its linear, areal, and relief aspects. The analysis reveals that the drainage network of the entire Suketi river basin constitutes a 7th order basin. Out of five sub-basins, Kansa khad sub-basin (KKSB), Gangli khad sub-basin (GKSB) and Ratti khad sub-basin (RKSB) are 5th order subbasins. The Dadour khad sub-basin (DKSB) is 6th order sub-basin, while Suketi trunk stream sub-basin (STSSB) is a 7th order sub-basin. The entire drainage basin area reflects late youth to early mature stage of development of the fluvial geomorphic cycle, which is dominated by rain and snow fed lower order streams. It has low stream frequency (Fs) and moderate drainage density (Dd) of 2.69 km/km2. Bifurcation ratios (Rb) of various stream orders indicate that streams up to 3rd order are surging through highly dissected mountainous terrain, which facilitates high overland flow and less recharge into the subsurface resulting in low groundwater potential in the zones of 1st, 2nd, and 3rd order streams of the Suketi river basin. The circulatory ratio (Rc) of 0.65 and elongation ratio (Re) of 0.80 show elongated nature of the Suketi river basin, while infiltration number (If) of 10.66 indicates dominance of relief features and low groundwater potential in the high altitude mountainous terrain. The asymmetry factor (Af) of Suketi river basin indicates that the palaeo-tectonic tilting, at drainage basin scale, was towards the downstream right side of the

  14. FAMILY RUN SMEs IN NEPAL AND THEIR APPROACH TO MARKETING

    OpenAIRE

    Sanghai, Megha Sanghai

    2007-01-01

    This exploratory research aims to study the role of marketing and its relevance in small and medium sized family businesses in Nepal by comparing it to the combined review of authors and academicians in the field of SME/ entrepreneurial marketing. Although marketing is a key factor in the survival and development of business ventures, SMEs in Nepal cannot do conventional marketing because of the limitations of resources which are inherent to Nepalese SMEs and also because business owner/ mana...

  15. El derecho a voto de los desplazados internos en Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Ghimire, Anita

    2007-01-01

    Nepal está saliendo de un conflicto y debatiendo el calendario electoral. Los rebeldes maoístas han depuesto las armas y se han unido a la coalición gubernamental. Pero, ¿tendrán las elecciones algún tipo de credibilidad si un gran número de desplazados no puede votar? ¿Qué puede aprender Nepal de las experiencias en otros lugares?.

  16. Caste Discrimination, Land Reforms and Land Market Performance in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Aryal, Jeetendra P.; Holden, Stein T.

    2011-01-01

    This paper assesses the implications of caste discrimination and past land reforms on the land rental market performance, land productivity and land use intensity in Nepal. The most severely discriminated group in the caste system is the Dalits, the so-called “untouchables”. Dalits faced religious, occupational and even, territorial discrimination. The study uses data from western Nepal. The low-caste households remain poorer than other households, have significantly smaller land endowments, ...

  17. Community Participation & Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Joshi, Sudip

    2011-01-01

    ABSTRACT Sudip Joshi. Community Ownership of Sanitation and Hygiene in Western Nepal. Language: English. Jarvenpaa, Autumn 2011, 79 p. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Jarvenpaa Unit, Degree Programme in Social Services. The study specifically intends to assess the situation of community ownership of sanitation and hygiene in rural communities of Western Nepal through a community development perspective. The present study provides an overview of the Rural Wate...

  18. Telemedicine for Rural and Underserved Communities of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Subedi, Ramesh; Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Health workers in rural health care serve most of the population in Nepal, but are isolated from specialist support and access to current medical information. Fortunately, the advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has unleashed new opportunities for the delivery of health services. In Nepal, there are very remote and less developed communities with limited access to roads and poor infrastructure to access direct health services; here, telemedicine can be taken as the best...

  19. Social Audits in Nepal's Community Schools : Measuring Policy Against Practice

    OpenAIRE

    Prasad Kafle, Agni; Patel, Darshana; Agarwal, Sanjay

    2012-01-01

    Nepal s publicly-funded schools have been managed by community-level stakeholders since 1950 when Nepal first adopted a demo¬cratic system of government. Subsequent changes to legislation and policy have further devolved school management to the com¬munity level, including the provision of financial resources to support decision making by school-level committees. In addition to these refor...

  20. Determinants of off-farm employment in eastern rural Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Kayastha, P.; Rauniyar, Ganesh P.; Parker, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Stagnant agricultural productivity and low returns in farming have led rural residents in Nepal to look elsewhere for alternative or supplemental income opportunities, primarily though off-farm employment. Off-farm employment provides supplemental income to support household expenditure. This study examined the contribution of off-farm employment to total household income for two ecologically distinct districts of Eastern Nepal and identified factors differentiating households with on-farm, o...

  1. International Uranium Resources Evaluation Project (IUREP) national favourability studies: Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is no information available at the IAEA concerning uranium occurrences and resources as well as past and present exploration. The lack of information on Nepal geology makes the selection of areas favourable for uranium exploration very difficult. It appears from the general geology of the country that the potential for new discovery in Nepal is very bad and could be defined as less than 1000 tonnes uranium

  2. Study of radiation safety conditions in different hospitals in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiology in Nepal began in 1923, but the current date niguna no infrastructure in radiation protection to control the use of ionizing radiation in different areas. Only recently Nepal is part of the IAEA and this should be a support and an acceleration creating the right conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the status of radiation protection in medicine. Due to the lack of regulation, monitoring or quality control, not even recommended.

  3. Is there new public health management (NPM) in Nepal? Arguments for and against NPM in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a reflection about whether new public management (NPM) styles of reforms seen in other developing countries are also seen in Nepal, and to substantiate these facts with the available evidence and findings. The author saw the emergence of NPM ideas in Western industrialized countries like the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Now it exists in several developing countries of Africa and Asia; but it is very hard to generalize the degree and scope of NPM elements' existence. In Southeast Asia, there is still a mix of the old bureaucratic system with new NPM-oriented reform initiatives. Series of administrative reforms, donor conditionality, and the reestablishment of democracy in the country after 1991 have influenced an orientation toward an efficient, people-oriented, mixed-economy model with increasing partnership of private agencies and nongovernmental organizations in Nepal. The political movement of the last 15 years in the country has strongly called for a new, efficient, and performance-oriented administration and management culture in the country. There are several initiatives already introduced (public-private partnership, decentralization, good governance, accountability/public auditing, performance-based outcome/results-oriented financing and reporting systems). However, to take this momentum up, it still requires strong willingness of political leaders and senior administrators. At the moment, peace and stability of turmoil, political stability, state-of-the-art management skills, and supportive organizational culture are the fundamental requirements for increasing the realization of, and sustaining the NPM-oriented reforms in Nepal.

  4. Is there new public health management (NPM) in Nepal? Arguments for and against NPM in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paudel, Mohan

    2013-01-01

    This article is a reflection about whether new public management (NPM) styles of reforms seen in other developing countries are also seen in Nepal, and to substantiate these facts with the available evidence and findings. The author saw the emergence of NPM ideas in Western industrialized countries like the United Kingdom and New Zealand. Now it exists in several developing countries of Africa and Asia; but it is very hard to generalize the degree and scope of NPM elements' existence. In Southeast Asia, there is still a mix of the old bureaucratic system with new NPM-oriented reform initiatives. Series of administrative reforms, donor conditionality, and the reestablishment of democracy in the country after 1991 have influenced an orientation toward an efficient, people-oriented, mixed-economy model with increasing partnership of private agencies and nongovernmental organizations in Nepal. The political movement of the last 15 years in the country has strongly called for a new, efficient, and performance-oriented administration and management culture in the country. There are several initiatives already introduced (public-private partnership, decentralization, good governance, accountability/public auditing, performance-based outcome/results-oriented financing and reporting systems). However, to take this momentum up, it still requires strong willingness of political leaders and senior administrators. At the moment, peace and stability of turmoil, political stability, state-of-the-art management skills, and supportive organizational culture are the fundamental requirements for increasing the realization of, and sustaining the NPM-oriented reforms in Nepal. PMID:24074134

  5. The 2014 Karnali River Floods in Western Nepal: Making Community Based Early Warning Systems Work When Data Is Lacking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugar, S.; MacClune, K.; Venkateswaran, K.; Yadav, S.; Szoenyi, M.

    2015-12-01

    Implementing Community Based Flood Early Warning System (EWS) in developing countries like Nepal is challenging. Complex topography and geology combined with a sparse network of river and rainfall gauges and little predictive meteorological capacity both nationally and regionally dramatically constrain EWS options. This paper provides a synopsis of the hydrological and meteorological conditions that led to flooding in the Karnali River, West Nepal during mid-August 2014, and analyses the effectiveness of flood EWS in the region. On August 14-15, 2014, a large, slow moving weather system deposited record breaking rainfall in the foothills of the Karnali River catchment. Precipitation depths of 200 to 500 mm were recorded over a 24-hour period, which led to rapid rise of river heights. At the Chisapani river gauge station used for the existing EWS, where the Karnali River exits the Himalaya onto the Indo-Gangetic Plain, water levels rapidly exceeded the 11 meter danger level. Between 3 to 6 am, water levels rose from 11 to 16. 1 meters, well beyond the design height of 15 meters. Analysis suggests that 2014 floods may have been a one-in-1000 year event. Starting with the onset of intense rainfall, the Chisapani gauge reader was in regular communication with downstream stakeholders and communities providing them with timely information regarding rising water level. This provided people just enough time to move to safe places with their livestock and key assets. Though households still lost substantial assets, without the EWS, floodwaters would have caught communities completely unaware and damage would almost certainly have been much worse. In particular, despite the complications associated with access to the Chisapani gauge and failure of critical communication nodes during the floods, EWS was instrumental in saving lives. This study explores both the details of the flood event and performance of the early warning system, and identifies lessons learned to help

  6. Communicating awareness of light pollution with the schools in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Jayanta

    2015-08-01

    Nepal is also highly polluted by the lights and other dusts partials, but lacks the formal education of light pollutions and effect of light for astronomy observations. When we get Sky Quality Meter (SQM) last year (2014) we have installed it in Kathmandu.This paper will highlight about installation SQM in Nepal, measurement of brightness of the night sky in magnitudes per square arc second. Research work of light pollution of Kathmandu will be more in focus. Highlight of the Astronomy programs by different Schools in Nepal along with the background of coverage of Astronomy education in the syllables of different education level. The various procedure , technique and idea used in providing the space education through different activities and program to school studentsThe paper will also deal with the Importance of light and use of artificial light. Beside it will also highlight the possibility of development of various observatories in Nepal because of its tremendous topography increasing the Astro tourism in Nepal.Hence the paper would focus on the light pollution of the city like Kathmandu and light system in Nepal and Astronomy education to its implementation along with its outreach to Nepalese society.

  7. Supraglacial dust and debris: geochemical compositions from glaciers in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. A. Casey

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Alpine glacier samples were collected in four contrasting regions to measure supraglacial dust and debris geochemical composition and quantify regional variability. A total of 70 surface glacier ice, snow and debris samples were collected in Svalbard, southern Norway, Nepal and New Zealand. Trace elemental abundances in snow and ice samples were measured via inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS. Supraglacial debris mineral, bulk oxide and trace element composition were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF. A total of 45 major, trace and rare earth elements and 10 oxide compound abundances are reported. Elemental abundances revealed sea salt aerosol and metal enrichment in Svalbard, low levels of crustal dust and marine influences to southern Norway, high crustal dust and anthropogenic enrichment in the Khumbu Himalayas, and sulfur and metals attributed to quiescent degassing and volcanic activity in northern New Zealand. Rare earth element and Al/Ti elemental ratios demonstrated distinct provenance of particulates in each study region. Ca/S elemental ratio data showed seasonal denudation in Svalbard and southern Norway. Ablation season atmospheric particulate transport trajectories were mapped in each of the study regions and suggest provenance pathways. The in situ data presented provides first-order glacier surface geochemical variability as measured in the four diverse alpine glacier regions. The surface glacier geochemical data set is available from the PANGAEA database at doi:10.1594/PANGAEA.773951. This geochemical surface glacier data is relevant to glaciologic ablation rate understanding as well as satellite atmospheric and land-surface mapping techniques currently in development.

  8. Multivariate morphological characteristics and classification of first-order basins in the Siwaliks, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Motilal

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies and analyzes a group of interrelated morphometric variables that contribute to the morphology of first-order basins in the Siwaliks and the adjacent part of the Lesser Himalaya in the Far West Nepal. First-order basins were identified and their various morphometric indices (21 variables) such as shape, area, pattern, roughness, height, gradient, angle, and distance were obtained from topographic maps (scale 1:25,000) and a digital elevation model using a geographic information system. The study also identifies the basin types based on morphometric properties and assesses their association with lithology, structure, and uplift rates. A principal component analysis identified seven major components that accounted for 78% of the total variance explained by the original 21 morphometric variables. Variables' loading reveals that the components are the expressions of slope, size, valley/depression, basin shape, relative massiveness, the convergence index, and basin asymmetry. Of these, slope and size components explain 48% of the total variance. The sets of variables represented by each major component for the entire study area were mostly common to all lithostratigraphic units. Some variables such as drainage density, junction angle, and the sediment transport index have associations with more than one group. This implies that complex geomorphic processes are involved in the development of basin morphology. Using the seven major components, five basin types were recognized by cluster analysis. The distributions of these basin types are similar in the Lower and Middle Siwaliks which have similar geological structures. The geometric relationship between the dip and the topography of a homoclinal structure significantly affects the proportion of basin types, as evidenced by the contrasting proportions between the cuesta and hogback and among dip, anti-dip and orthoclinal slopes. Correlation analysis also confirmed the effect of structure (dipping) on

  9. Persistence of radon-222 flux during monsoon at a geothermal zone in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girault, Frederic [Equipe de Geomagnetisme, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR-7154 and Universite Paris-Diderot, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France)], E-mail: girault@ipgp.jussieu.fr; Koirala, Bharat Prasad [National Seismic Centre, Department of Mines and Geology, Lainchaur, Kathmandu (Nepal); Perrier, Frederic [Equipe de Geomagnetisme, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR-7154 and Universite Paris-Diderot, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Richon, Patrick [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Equipe de Geologie des Systemes Volcaniques, Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, UMR-7154, 4 place Jussieu, F-75005 Paris (France); Rajaure, Sudhir [National Seismic Centre, Department of Mines and Geology, Lainchaur, Kathmandu (Nepal)

    2009-11-15

    The Syabru-Bensi hydrothermal zone, Langtang region (Nepal), is characterized by high radon-222 and CO{sub 2} discharge. Seasonal variations of gas fluxes were studied on a reference transect in a newly discovered gas discharge zone. Radon-222 and CO{sub 2} fluxes were measured with the accumulation chamber technique, coupled with the scintillation flask method for radon. In the reference transect, fluxes reach exceptional mean values, as high as 8700 {+-} 1500 g m{sup -2} d{sup -1} for CO{sub 2} and 3400 {+-} 100 x 10{sup -3} Bq m{sup -2} s{sup -1} for radon. Gases fluxes were measured in September 2007 during the monsoon and during the dry winter season, in December 2007 to January 2008 and in December 2008 to January 2009. Contrary to expectations, radon and its carrier gas fluxes were similar during both seasons. The integrated flux along this transect was approximately the same for radon, with a small increase of 11 {+-} 4% during the wet season, whereas it was reduced by 38 {+-} 5% during the monsoon for CO{sub 2}. In order to account for the persistence of the high gas emissions during monsoon, watering experiments have been performed at selected radon measurement points. After watering, radon flux decreased within 5 min by a factor of 2-7 depending on the point. Subsequently, it returned to its original value, firstly, by an initial partial recovery within 3-4 h, followed by a slow relaxation, lasting around 10 h and possibly superimposed by diurnal variations. Monsoon, in this part of the Himalayas, proceeds generally by brutal rainfall events separated by two- or three-day lapses. Thus, the recovery ability shown in the watering experiments accounts for the observed long-term persistence of gas discharge. This persistence is an important asset for long-term monitoring, for example to study possible temporal variations associated with stress accumulation and release.

  10. Persistence of radon-222 flux during monsoon at a geothermal zone in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Syabru-Bensi hydrothermal zone, Langtang region (Nepal), is characterized by high radon-222 and CO2 discharge. Seasonal variations of gas fluxes were studied on a reference transect in a newly discovered gas discharge zone. Radon-222 and CO2 fluxes were measured with the accumulation chamber technique, coupled with the scintillation flask method for radon. In the reference transect, fluxes reach exceptional mean values, as high as 8700 ± 1500 g m-2 d-1 for CO2 and 3400 ± 100 x 10-3 Bq m-2 s-1 for radon. Gases fluxes were measured in September 2007 during the monsoon and during the dry winter season, in December 2007 to January 2008 and in December 2008 to January 2009. Contrary to expectations, radon and its carrier gas fluxes were similar during both seasons. The integrated flux along this transect was approximately the same for radon, with a small increase of 11 ± 4% during the wet season, whereas it was reduced by 38 ± 5% during the monsoon for CO2. In order to account for the persistence of the high gas emissions during monsoon, watering experiments have been performed at selected radon measurement points. After watering, radon flux decreased within 5 min by a factor of 2-7 depending on the point. Subsequently, it returned to its original value, firstly, by an initial partial recovery within 3-4 h, followed by a slow relaxation, lasting around 10 h and possibly superimposed by diurnal variations. Monsoon, in this part of the Himalayas, proceeds generally by brutal rainfall events separated by two- or three-day lapses. Thus, the recovery ability shown in the watering experiments accounts for the observed long-term persistence of gas discharge. This persistence is an important asset for long-term monitoring, for example to study possible temporal variations associated with stress accumulation and release.

  11. Himalaya evolution at Paleogene-Neogene boundary unraveled by zircon age spectrum from Arabian Sea Sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Han; Lu, Huayu; Zhang, Hanzhi

    2016-04-01

    Although virtually all the intensive orogenic activities of Himalaya occurred in Neogene, the tectonic evolution of this high mountain range in Paleogene is poorly understood. Investigations of tectonic change pattern at Paleogene-Neogene boundary are important to better understand the interaction between mountain building and climate evolution. Here we present new U-Pb ages of zircon grains from Indus Fan sediments to constrain the orogenic history of Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary. 11 samples between late Oligocene and early Miocene from ODP 117 cores are dated by the zircon U-Pb technique. We calculate relative contributions of potential sources by counting zircon grains for each sample, and the quantized results indicate Himalaya contributed sediments to the coring site, and an extremely high input from Great and Tethyan Himalaya during late Oligocene-early Miocene. Four samples in Pleistocene are also dated for comparison, which indicates that high proportion of Lesser Himalaya has contributed to the sediment in Pleistocene. Our results suggest that the high contribution of Great and Tethyan Himalaya at Paleogene-Neogene boundary might correlate with the beginning of activity of MCT and extension of STD with leucogranite intrusion along Himalaya, which give rise to the extensive Great Himalaya exhumation. Our study demonstrates that zircon U-Pb dating technique is a good tool to reconstruct erosional history of mountain building on a tectonic timescale. Key words: ODP, Himalaya, Indus Fan, zircon U-Pb dating, Paleogene-Neogene boundary

  12. Vertical Zonation of Horticultural Farming in the Alaknanda Basin of Garhwal Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vishwambhar Prasad Sati

    2005-01-01

    Horticultural practice in the Himalayas has great importance not only for economic development but also for environmental restoration.In the entire Himalayan mountain system, from Jammu and Kashmir Himalaya to Assam Himalaya,the practice of horticulture is centuries old, which includes varieties of fruits along with availability of high quality and quantity. In terms of the Alaknanda Basin, which is centrally located in the Himalayan system, the practice of horticulture does not get commercial level; only it is cultivated domestically.The climatic conditions ranging from sub-tropical (low-lying river valleys) to alpine and frigid (highly elevated regions) are suited for varieties of fruit cultivation, yet the benefit of this could not be utilized by the residents who are working in the agricultural fields.Besides, less proportion of land is devoted for fruit cultivation along with domestic production of fruits. The varieties of fruit cultivated in the basin range from mango-guava-papaya, stone-net, citrus to apple at the different elevations. Along with the cultivated fruits, varieties of wild fruits are also found in the jungle. There are four climatic zones suitable for the production of various fruits as below:·Sub-tropical zone including the lower part of the Alaknanda, Pindar, Nandakini, and Mandakini rivers is suitable for mango, guava,and papaya;·Sub-temperate zone in the middle basin of the Alaknanda, Pindar, Nandakini and Mandakinirivers is a good place for citrus fruits,particularly orange and lemon;·Temperate zone occupying the Dauli, Vishnu Ganga, Upper Pinder, Nandakini and Mandakini rivers is highly productive for apple,nut and stone fruits;·Apline meadows in the highly elevated region are known as Bugyal famous for herb culture.Each of these zones has distinct physical features,environmental conditions and socio-economic identity for fruit cultivation. The present paper aims to discuss about the vertical zonation of the horticultural farming and

  13. Persistent organic pollutants and mercury in the Himalaya and Tibetan Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loewen, Mark

    Persistent organic pollutants and mercury are important contaminants due to their persistence in the environment and potential toxic effects on ecosystems and humans. Concerns related to these contaminants are particularly pertinent in Asia where the use of pesticides and mercury emissions have been increasing dramatically due to changing agricultural practices and rapidly expanding industrialization. Based on studies in European and North American mountain regions, evidence is increasing that alpine regions function as regional convergence zones for selected organic pollutants due to an effect called orographic cold trapping. It is hypothesized that such an effect may be particularly pronounced in the Himalaya because of dramatic elevational temperature and precipitation gradients relative to contaminant source regions in its immediate vicinity, and because of the regional monsoon system that has been shown to deliver particles and inorganic air pollutants to higher altitudes. We report here evidence for the movement of select environmentally relevant chlorinated organic pesticides into the Central Himalaya with strong seasonal differences due to the Indian monsoon. Atmospheric concentrations of these chemicals are positively correlated with altitude in summer up to an elevation of 5000m a.s.l and then decrease at higher elevation. In winter the atmospheric concentrations are negatively correlated with altitude indicating that during this season remote sites are above the boundary layer. Soil concentrations appear to follow the gradient of forestation, with maximum concentrations at 2600m a.s.l. and then declining above that altitude. Mercury in three Tibetan snow pits, well above the boundary layer shows the likelihood of particulate deposition in winter when particulate concentrations are highest. Strong dust storm activity is the largest source of mercury deposition on the plateau, though it is unsure if the mercury is transported on dust long distances or if

  14. Characterizing the impacts of water resources infrastructure, humans, and hydrologic nonstationarity on changes in flood risk across the Himalaya region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tullos, D. D.

    2014-12-01

    As flood control infrastructure reaches its design life, and climate change, population growth, and urban migration increase flood risk, the historical paradigm of store-then-release floodwaters behind rigid infrastructure is of decreasing physical and socioeconomic value. Instead, a new paradigm of sustainable flood management is emerging, which can be framed in the context of three elements that can contribute to and/or mitigate flood risk: 1) water resources infrastructure, 2) policies and socioeconomics, and 3) changing climates and land use. In this presentation, I present the results of analysis on the role of these three elements in contributing to flood risk of the Sutlej River (India) and the Koshi River (Nepal) basins for six historical flood events. The Himalaya region was selected based on the a) increasing intensity of monsoonal rains, b) increasing prevalence of glacial lake outburst floods, c) water resources management that achieves short-term development goals but lacks long-term sustainability, and d) other socio-economic, environmental, and geopolitical factors. I develop and apply a flood risk management framework that is based on metrics for characterizing the losses associated with the three elements contributing to major floods in the Himalaya region. Derived from a variety of data sources, results highlight how, across different hydrogeologic settings and various flood magnitudes, the largest influences on high flood losses are associated with inflexible water resources infrastructure and inappropriate development and flood management policies. Particularly for the most destructive events, which are generally associated with landslides and other natural hazards in this region, the effectiveness of some types of traditional and inflexible flood management infrastructure, including large dams and levees, is limited. As opposed to the probability of a particular flood event, findings illustrate the importance of the damages side of the flood

  15. Plastic Surgery—Myths and Realities in Developing Countries: Experience from Eastern Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Kajan Raj Shrestha; Surendra Shah; Buddhinath Adhikary; Nalini Tripathi; Robin Koirala; Brijesh Mishra

    2011-01-01

    B.P. Koirala Institute of Health Sciences, Dharan, Nepal, is the only tertiary care referral centre in the eastern region of Nepal. This paper discusses the author’s experience of starting a plastic surgery unit in eastern Nepal regarding need and present status of plastic surgery care in Nepal. Methods. We analyzed the data of patients treated in Plastic surgery unit from July 2007 to February 2009. We did evaluation regarding type of patients, procedures, and their outcome. We also evaluate...

  16. The Smooth-Coated Otter in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Houghton S.J.

    1987-03-01

    Full Text Available This study has shown that the Smooth-coated otter is common along the length of the Naryani river and that it relies heavily on fish. It also suggests their feeding habits are sufficiently flexible to adapt to local variations in their food supply. A comparison of river banks suggests human activities decrease the availability of suitable habitat and over-fishing decreases food supply. Extensive deforestation in the hills causes flooding and increases the turbidity of the lowland changing both the aquatic environment and the river's topography. Pollution, resulting from chemical discharge is increasingly an important problem in Nepal. Without an effective management plan controlling these, those animal species dependent on the riverine system may rapidly decrease in number or even disappear permanently.

  17. Psychosocial rehabilitation and democratic development in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantafillou, Peter; Sassene, Michel

    2011-01-01

    Today, centres and programmes for the rehabilitation of torture victims are found all over the world. In Nepal, one of the world's poorest countries, the Centre for Victims of Torture (CVICT) has since 1990 provided advanced psychosocial rehabilitation programmes. These and similar psychosocial...... interventions have made critics proclaim that Western psychosocial expertise subjects the bereaved of the Third World to repressive administrative power by objectifying and colonizing their minds. Meanwhile, advocates of psychosocial rehabilitation maintain that such criticisms fail to appreciate the ability...... of local healing strategies to actually empower torture victims through rehabilitation programmes. Inspired by Michel Foucault's concept of government, this article argues that both these assessments of torture rehabilitation overlook forms of power that work through the constitution of subjectivities...

  18. Clinico-pathologic profile of women with palpable breast lumps in Chitwan Medical College, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranabhat S

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Spectrum of female breast diseases is manifold and includes various non-neoplastic and neoplastic conditions. This study focused on the clinico-pathological profile of several breast diseases, including fibrocystic change, fibroadenoma and breast carcinoma. Methods: This cross sectional analytic observational study included Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology cases of female breast diseases diagnosed over three years from 2011 to 2014 in Chitwan Medical College Teaching hospital in Central Nepal. Univariate analysis was carried out to find out age group-wise proportion of the diseases in relation to five cytologic categories and various cytomorphologic diagnoses. Independent samples t-test was used to find out the significance of difference between mean age of benign and malignant breast diseases. Results: The proportion of benign, suspicious for malignancy and malignant breast diseases was 90.4 %, 0.8% and 8.8 % respectively. The mean age of patients at diagnosis for benign diseases and malignant disease was 31.7+/- 10.4 years and 49.2 +/- 12.0 years respectively. t-test showed difference in mean age between benign and malignant diseases to be statistically significant (t=8.79, p= <0.001. Fibrocystic change and fibroadenoma were the most common breast disease overall and the most common neoplasm respectively. 58.1 %, 25.9 % and 6.5 % of all carcinoma cases in this study were found below 50, below 40 and below 30 years of age respectively. Conclusions: Fibrocystic change and fibroadenoma are most common disease of breast and most common neoplasm of breast respectively. Breast cancer occurs in younger women in Nepal in comparison to women in developed countries. Therefore, breast cancer prevention programs in Nepal should target young women also. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1611-1616

  19. The use of medicinal plants in the trans-himalayan arid zone of Mustang district, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaudhary Ram P

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study documents the use of medicinal plants from the Mustang district of the north-central part of Nepal. Traditional botanical medicine is the primary mode of healthcare for most of the population of this district and traditional Tibetan doctors (Amchi serve as the local medical experts. Methods Field research was conducted in 27 communities of the Mustang district in Nepal from 2005-2007. We sampled 202 interviewees, using random and snowball sampling techniques. After obtaining prior informed consent, we collected data through semi-structured interviews and participant-observation techniques. Voucher specimens of all cited botanic species were deposited at TUCH in Nepal. Results We recorded the traditional uses of 121 medicinal plant species, belonging to 49 vascular plant and 2 fungal families encompassing 92 genera. These 121 species are employed to treat a total of 116 ailments. We present data on 58 plant species previously unknown for their medicinal uses in the Mustang district. Of the medicinal plants reported, the most common growth form was herbs (73% followed by shrubs, trees, and climbers. We document that several parts of individual plant species are used as medicine. Plant parts were generally prepared using hot or cold water as the 'solvent', but occasionally remedies were prepared with milk, honey, jaggery, ghee and oil. Amchis recommended different types of medicine including paste, powder, decoction, tablet, pills, infusion, and others through oral, topical, nasal and others routes of administration. Conclusions The traditional pharmacopoeia of the Mustang district incorporates a myriad of diverse botanical flora. Traditional knowledge of the remedies is passed down through oral traditions and dedicated apprenticeships under the tutelage of senior Amchi. Although medicinal plants still play a pivotal role in the primary healthcare of the local people of Mustang, efforts to ensure the conservation and

  20. Impact of Irrigation Method on Water Use Efficiency and Productivity of Fodder Crops in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay K Jha

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Improved irrigation use efficiency is an important tool for intensifying and diversifying agriculture in Nepal, resulting in higher economic yield from irrigated farmlands with a minimum input of water. Research was conducted to evaluate the effect of irrigation method (furrow vs. drip on the productivity of nutritious fodder species during off-monsoon dry periods in different elevation zones of central Nepal. A split-block factorial design was used. The factors considered were treatment location, fodder crop, and irrigation method. Commonly used local agronomical practices were followed in all respects except irrigation method. Results revealed that location effect was significant (p < 0.01 with highest fodder productivity seen for the middle elevation site, Syangja. Species effects were also significant, with teosinte (Euchlaena mexicana having higher yield than cowpea (Vigna unguiculata. Irrigation method impacted green biomass yield (higher with furrow irrigation but both methods yielded similar dry biomass, while water use was 73% less under drip irrigation. Our findings indicated that the controlled application of water through drip irrigation is able to produce acceptable yields of nutritionally dense fodder species during dry seasons, leading to more effective utilization and resource conservation of available land, fertilizer and water. Higher productivity of these nutritional fodders resulted in higher milk productivity for livestock smallholders. The ability to grow fodder crops year-round in lowland and hill regions of Nepal with limited water storages using low-cost, water-efficient drip irrigation may greatly increase livestock productivity and, hence, the economic security of smallholder farmers.

  1. Study of seismicity in the NW Himalaya and adjoining regions using IMS network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Sherif M.; Shanker, D.

    2016-08-01

    The Reviewed Event Bulletin (REB) of the International Data Center (IDC) has been used in order to investigate the seismicity of the Northwest Himalaya and its neighboring region for the time period June 1999 to March 2015 within the geographical coordinates 25-40° N latitude and 65-85° E longitude. We have used a very precisely located earthquake dataset recorded by the International Monitoring System (IMS) Network containing 7,583 events with body wave magnitudes from 2.5 to 6.3. The study area has been subdivided into six regions based on the Flinn-Engdahl (F-E) seismic and geographical regionalization scheme, which was used as the region classifications of the International Data Center catalog. The examined region includes NW India, Pakistan, Nepal, Xizang, Kashmir, and Hindukush. For each region, Magnitudes of completeness (Mc) and Gutenberg-Richter (GR) recurrence parameters (a and b values) have been estimated. The Gutenberg-Richter analysis is preceded by an overview of the seismotectonics of the study area. The obtained Mc values vary from 3.5 to 3.9. The lower value of Mc was found mainly in Xizang region whereas the higher Mc threshold is evident in Pakistan region. However, the b values vary from 1.19 to 1.48. The lowest b value is recorded in Xizang region, which is mostly related to the Main Karakoram Thrust (MKT) fault, whereas the highest b values are recorded in NW India and Kashmir regions, which are mostly related to the Main Frontal Thrust (MFT) fault. The REB for the selected period has been compared to the most renowned bulletin of global seismicity, namely that issued by the National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) of the United States Geological Survey (USGS). A study of 4,821 events recorded by USGS in the study region indicates that about 36 % of seismic events were missed and the catalog is considered as complete for events with magnitudes ≥4.0. However, both a and b values are obviously higher than those of IMS catalog. The a

  2. ANTI – CANCER DRUGS FROM U.P. HIMALAYA

    OpenAIRE

    Uniyal, M. R.; Tewari, L. C.

    1991-01-01

    Many ayurvedic texts mention arbuda which is considered as an equivalent of cancer. Vagbhata mentions arbuda of mouth, tongue, eyes, nose, breast and uterus. Caraka and Susruta also provide plenty of information on this dreaded group of diseases. Considering the importance of this disease in present day health care, the authors mention in this paper several plants of the Himalaya, used in the treatment of cancer.

  3. Teaching English as a Foreign/Second Language in Nepal: Past and Present

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bista, Krishna

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the author reviews the history of English language teaching English as a second or foreign language in schools and colleges in Nepal. Teaching English language and literature in Nepal is of about a half a decade, starting from the mid of twentieth century. English learners in Nepal do not have enough exposure to various techniques…

  4. Tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks of Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Goel R.K.

    2014-01-01

    A considerable amount of tunnelling has been going on in India for various projects such as hydroelectric power, irrigation, roads and railways. Most of these projects are located in Himalayas, far away from the urban areas. Tunnelling through weak and jointed rock masses such as the one in the Himalayas is a challenging task for the planners, designers, engineers and geologists because of high overburden, thickly vegetated surface, weak, poor and fragile rocks and highly varying geology with the presence of numerous small and big shear zones, faults, etc. Due to these reasons, various tunnelling problems have been faced in the past and are still being encountered. Failures and the problems may be regarded as challenges and opportunities for generating new knowledge base and thereby increasing self-reliance in tunnelling. The experiences of Himalayan tunnelling through weak and fragile rocks covering varying and mixed geology, understanding on tunnelling in squeezing ground conditions and applicability of TBM in Himalayas are presented. It has also been highlighted that the probe holes planning, drilling and mon-itoring shall be followed seriously to reduce the geological surprises.

  5. Joint inversion of teleseismic, geodetic, and near-field waveform datasets for rupture process of the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal, earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Takai, Nobuo; Shigefuji, Michiko; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-04-01

    The 2015 Gorkha earthquake and its aftershocks caused severe damage mostly in Nepal, while countries around the Himalayan region were warned for decades about large Himalayan earthquakes and the seismic vulnerability of these countries. However, the magnitude of the Gorkha earthquake was smaller than those of historical earthquakes in Nepal, and the most severe damage occurred in the north and northeast of Kathmandu. We explore reasons for these unexpected features by performing a joint source inversion of teleseismic, geodetic, and near-field waveform datasets to investigate the rupture process. Results indicate that the source fault was limited to the northern part of central Nepal and did not reach the Main Frontal Thrust. The zone of large slip was located in the north of Kathmandu, and the fault rupture propagated eastward with an almost constant velocity. Changes in the Coulomb failure function (ΔCFF) due to the Gorkha earthquake were computed, indicating that southern and western regions neighboring the source fault are potential source regions for future earthquakes related to the Gorkha earthquake. These two regions may correspond to the historical earthquakes of 1866 and 1344. Possible future earthquakes in the regions are predicted, and the warning for Himalayan seismic hazards remains high even after the Gorkha earthquake.

  6. Rb-Sr geochronological studies of the granitic and gneissic rocks of Chhotadara area, Himachal, Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The area under investigation forms a part of the inner zone of Crystalline Nappe which lies in the geographical Higher Himalayan belt of Himachal Himalaya. The rocks of the Central Crystalline Zone are low-grade to high-grade. McMahon and Hayden recognized Central Crystalline Zone as a major tectonic element separating fossiliferous Cambrian to Eocene marine sediments of the Tibetan Zone from unfossiliferous Pre-Tertiary rocks to the north and south of the Central Crystalline Zone, respectively.The present ratio of 87Sr/86Sr of the samples was determined in our laboratory. Six samples having a reasonable good spread of (87Sr/86Sr)present ratios were analyzed for the concentration of Rb and Sr. After digestion of samples, addition of tracers 87Rb and 86Sr separately and separation of Rb and Sr using ion exchange column was done in our laboratory, the (85Rb/87Rb)m and (88Sr/86Sr)m ratios were determined on a Thermal Ionization Mass-spectrometer (Triton) at Institute Instrumentation Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee

  7. Dissolved organic matter and inorganic ions in a central Himalayan glacier--insights into chemical composition and atmospheric sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jianzhong; Zhang, Qi; Li, Xiangying; Ge, Xinlei; Xiao, Cunde; Ren, Jiawen; Qin, Dahe

    2013-06-18

    Melting of Himalayan glaciers can be accelerated by the deposition of airborne black carbon and mineral dust as it leads to significant reductions of the surface albedo of snow and ice. Whereas South Asia has been shown a primary source region to these particles, detailed sources of these aerosol pollutants remain poorly understood. In this study, the chemical compositions of snow pit samples collected from Jima Yangzong glacier in the central Himalayas were analyzed to obtain information of atmospheric aerosols deposited from summer 2009 to spring 2010. Especially, an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) was used for the first time to chemically characterize the dissolved organic and inorganic matter (DOM and DIM) in snow samples. The concentrations of these species varied seasonally, with high levels observed during the winter-spring period and low levels during the summer monsoon period. On average, the dissolved substances was dominated by organics (58%) with important contributions from inorganic species, NO3(-) (12.5%), Ca(2+) (9.1%), NH4(+) (8.7%), and SO(4)(2-) (8.1%). DOM was found more oxidized with an average (± 1σ) atomic oxygen-to-carbon ratio (nO/nC) of 0.64 (± 0.14) and organic mass-to-carbon ratio (OM/OC) of 2.01 (± 0.19) during the winter-spring periods compared to the summer season (nO/nC = 0.31 ± 0.09 and OM/OC = 1.58 ± 0.12). In addition, biomass burning particles were found significantly enhanced in snow during the winter-spring periods, consistent with HYSPLIT back trajectory analysis of air mass history, which indicates prevailing atmospheric transport from northwest India and Nepal.

  8. Tourism Service Marketing and Development Efforts in Nepal : A Case Study : Alfresco Adventure Private Limited Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Gautam, Achyut; Rayamajhi, Amar Deep

    2013-01-01

    Tourism services are the pioneers of the tourism industry. Services determine the level of industry and its future at large. Tourism service marketing hence, has a significant role in up- lifting country‟s tourism Industry. The main aim of this Bachelor‟s thesis is to magnify Nepal‟s tourism service marketing structure, process and execution. The authors further researched on the developing efforts made by Nepal so as to uplift the standard of the tourism service marketing in domestic as well...

  9. The trajectory of methadone maintenance treatment in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambekar, Atul; Rao, Ravindra; Pun, Anan; Kumar, Suresh; Kishore, Kunal

    2013-11-01

    There are about 28,500 people who inject drugs (PWID) in Nepal and HIV prevalence among this group is high. Nepal introduced harm reduction services for PWID much earlier than other countries in South Asia. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) was first introduced in Nepal in 1994. This initial small scale MMT programme was closed in 2002 but reopened in 2007 as an emergency HIV prevention response. It has since been scaled up to include three MMT clinics and continuation of MMT is supported by the Ministry of Home Affairs (MOHA; the nodal ministry for drug supply reduction activities) and has been endorsed in the recent National Narcotics policy. Pressure from drug user groups has also helped its reintroduction. Interestingly, these developments have taken place during a period of political instability in Nepal, with the help of strong advocacy from multiple stakeholders. The MMT programme has also had to face resistance from those who were running drug treatment centres. Despite overcoming such troubles, the MMT programme faces a number of challenges. Coverage of MMT is low and high-risk injecting and sexual behaviour among PWID continues. The finance for MMT is largely from external donors and these donations have become scarce with the current global economic problems. With a multitude of developmental challenges for Nepal, the position of MMT in the national priority list is uncertain. Ownership of the programme by government, a cost-effective national MMT scale up plan and rigorous monitoring of its implementation is needed.

  10. The 2015 Gorkha Nepal Earthquake: Insights from Earthquake Damage Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuichiro eGoda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The 2015 Gorkha Nepal earthquake caused tremendous damage and loss. To gain valuable lessons from this tragic event, an earthquake damage investigation team was dispatched to Nepal from 1 May 2015 to 7 May 2015. A unique aspect of the earthquake damage investigation is that first-hand earthquake damage data were obtained 6 to 11 days after the mainshock. To gain deeper understanding of the observed earthquake damage in Nepal, the paper reviews the seismotectonic setting and regional seismicity in Nepal and analyzes available aftershock data and ground motion data. The earthquake damage observations indicate that the majority of the damaged buildings were stone/brick masonry structures with no seismic detailing, whereas the most of RC buildings were undamaged. This indicates that adequate structural design is the key to reduce the earthquake risk in Nepal. To share the gathered damage data widely, the collected damage data (geo-tagged photos and observation comments are organized using Google Earth and the kmz file is made publicly available.

  11. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-06-23

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest.

  12. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-01-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest. PMID:27335317

  13. Widespread ground motion distribution caused by rupture directivity during the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koketsu, Kazuki; Miyake, Hiroe; Guo, Yujia; Kobayashi, Hiroaki; Masuda, Tetsu; Davuluri, Srinagesh; Bhattarai, Mukunda; Adhikari, Lok Bijaya; Sapkota, Soma Nath

    2016-01-01

    The ground motion and damage caused by the 2015 Gorkha, Nepal earthquake can be characterized by their widespread distributions to the east. Evidence from strong ground motions, regional acceleration duration, and teleseismic waveforms indicate that rupture directivity contributed significantly to these distributions. This phenomenon has been thought to occur only if a strike-slip or dip-slip rupture propagates to a site in the along-strike or updip direction, respectively. However, even though the earthquake was a dip-slip faulting event and its source fault strike was nearly eastward, evidence for rupture directivity is found in the eastward direction. Here, we explore the reasons for this apparent inconsistency by performing a joint source inversion of seismic and geodetic datasets, and conducting ground motion simulations. The results indicate that the earthquake occurred on the underthrusting Indian lithosphere, with a low dip angle, and that the fault rupture propagated in the along-strike direction at a velocity just slightly below the S-wave velocity. This low dip angle and fast rupture velocity produced rupture directivity in the along-strike direction, which caused widespread ground motion distribution and significant damage extending far eastwards, from central Nepal to Mount Everest. PMID:27335317

  14. Decentralizing conservation and diversifying livelihoods within Kanchenjunga Conservation Area, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Pete; Thapa, Brijesh; Jacob, Aerin

    2015-12-01

    To alleviate poverty and enhance conservation in resource dependent communities, managers must identify existing livelihood strategies and the associated factors that impede household access to livelihood assets. Researchers increasingly advocate reallocating management power from exclusionary central institutions to a decentralized system of management based on local and inclusive participation. However, it is yet to be shown if decentralizing conservation leads to diversified livelihoods within a protected area. The purpose of this study was to identify and assess factors affecting household livelihood diversification within Nepal's Kanchenjunga Conservation Area Project, the first protected area in Asia to decentralize conservation. We randomly surveyed 25% of Kanchenjunga households to assess household socioeconomic and demographic characteristics and access to livelihood assets. We used a cluster analysis with the ten most common income generating activities (both on- and off-farm) to group the strategies households use to diversify livelihoods, and a multinomial logistic regression to identify predictors of livelihood diversification. We found four distinct groups of household livelihood strategies with a range of diversification that directly corresponded to household income. The predictors of livelihood diversification were more related to pre-existing socioeconomic and demographic factors (e.g., more landholdings and livestock, fewer dependents, receiving remittances) than activities sponsored by decentralizing conservation (e.g., microcredit, training, education, interaction with project staff). Taken together, our findings indicate that without direct policies to target marginalized groups, decentralized conservation in Kanchenjunga will continue to exclude marginalized groups, limiting a household's ability to diversify their livelihood and perpetuating their dependence on natural resources. PMID:26363256

  15. The Local Atmosphere and the Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Han; LI Peng; MA Shupo; ZHOU Libo; ZHU Jinhuan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the local atmosphere and heat transfer and to facilitate the boundary-layer parameterization of numerical simulation and prediction,an observational campaign was conducted in the Eastern Himalayas in June 2010.The local atmospheric properties and near-surface turbulent heat transfers were analyzed.The local atmosphere in this region is warmer,more humid and less windy,with weaker solar radiation and surface radiate heating than in the Middle Himalayas.The near-surface turbulent heat transfer in the Eastern Himalayas is weaker than that in the Middle Himalayas.The total heat transfer is mainly contributed by the latent heat transfer with a Bowen ratio of 0.36,which is essentially different from that in the Middle Himalayas and the other Tibetan regions.

  16. Evidence for Along-Strike Variations in the Crustal Deformation beneath the Bhutan Himalaya from Receiver Function Imaging and Seismicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J.; Kissling, E. H.; Diehl, T.; Hetényi, G.

    2015-12-01

    In the Bhutan Himalaya seismicity and geologic surface features like the Kuru Chu Spur (an embayment of the Main Central Thrust) or the Paro window indicate along-strike variations in the collisional structure. The deeper structure of the orogenic wedge and associated deformation processes, however, are poorly understood partly due to the lack of seismic images of the crust. To better understand these differences in structure and deformation, we use data of a temporary seismic broadband network in Bhutan to image the crustal structure with receiver functions (RF). We apply an iterative 3D wave-based migration scheme including a high-frequency ray approximation, which satisfies Snell's law for dipping interfaces. With this approach we image variably dipping intra-crustal interfaces and the Moho topography across the Bhutan Himalaya, and identify lateral variations in the orogenic structure, which we interpret jointly with a new local earthquake catalog. In West Bhutan, RF imaging depicts a northward dipping Moho at ~50 km depth. The low-angle dip steepens north of ~27.6°N which matches well observations by wide-angle seismics in South Tibet and the hypocenter of a deep crustal earthquake recorded by our network. We also identify the Main Himalayan Thrust (MHT) at ~14 km depth in West Bhutan with a ramp-like structure north of ~27.6°N. The ramp is characterized by a negative impedance contrast in the RF signals and coincides with a concentration of seismicity. In the East, the Moho appears to be almost flat at a depth of ~50 km without clear indications of steepening towards north. Beneath the Kuru Chu Spur in East Bhutan, we observe listric-shaped structures reaching from the upper crust beneath the Lesser Himalaya down to the Moho beneath the Greater Himalaya, which we interpret as a stack of crustal material typical for an accretionary wedge. While these structures appear aseismic, a horizontal alignment of seismicity at ~12 km depth suggests an active MHT in

  17. Development of coffee production in Nepal : analysis of an appropriate supply chain and institutional support for production and export of specialty coffee from Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hagen, Egil Ragnar

    2008-01-01

    The coffee industry in Nepal is young, and it is only since 2003 that export of washed Arabica coffee has commenced. The industry seems to be rather fragmented with several exporting companies competing to collect the relatively small output of the coffee production system. Two Norwegian investors are looking to promote coffee production for export from three hilly districts in eastern Nepal. There seems to be some recognition that coffee from Nepal can satisfy the quality criteria for specia...

  18. Astronomy Olympiad: An Initiative To Promote Astronomy Education In Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Suresh

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents National Astronomy Olympiad Program as a new initiative towards the development of astronomy education in Nepal by Nepal Astronomical Society (NASO).Innovoative components of the olympiad programs designed by NASO to engage both scince and non-science backgound people will be discussed in detail. It will discuss the first National Astronomy Olympiad 2014 and Second National Astronomy Olympiad 2015 in details. It will also present crowd funding, its effectiveness to outreach as well as collecting funds from around the world will be presented in brief. Proposed module of astronomy olympiad to promote astronnomy in the countries without formal astronomy education in high school like Nepal,will be presented in dedail. Possible strategry to strengthen such programs in developing nations and role of IAU to promote such educational program will be explored in detail.

  19. Challenges in diabetes mellitus type 2 management in Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyawali, Bishal; Ferrario, Alessandra; van Teijlingen, Edwin;

    2016-01-01

    on the prevalence, cost and treatment of diabetes mellitus type 2 and its complications in Nepal and to critically assess the challenges to be addressed to contain the epidemic and its negative economic impact. DESIGN: A comprehensive review of available evidence and data sources on prevalence, risk factors, cost......, complications, treatment, and management of diabetes mellitus type 2 in Nepal was conducted through an online database search for articles published in English between January 2000 and November 2015. Additionally, we performed a manual search of articles and reference lists of published articles for additional...... references. RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus type 2 is emerging as a major health care problem in Nepal, with rising prevalence and its complications especially in urban populations. Several challenges in diabetes management were identified, including high cost of treatment, limited health care facilities...

  20. Municipal solid waste management in Nepal: practices and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solid waste management in Kathmandu valley of Nepal, especially concerning the siting of landfills, has been a challenge for over a decade. The current practice of the illegal dumping of solid waste on the river banks has created a serious environmental and public health problem. The focus of this study was to carry out an evaluation of solid waste management in Nepal based on published information. The data showed that 70% of the solid wastes generated in Nepal are of organic origin. As such, composting of the solid waste and using it on the land is the best way of solid waste disposal. This will reduce the waste volume transported to the landfill and will increase its life

  1. Balancing Energy, Food, Natural Resources and Environment in Nepal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dilli Bahadur

    2010-09-15

    Nepal could harness less than 1% of its 83000 MW hydropower potential. Pancheshwar Multipurpose Project (6720 MW) is a bi-national project on Mahakali River bordering between Nepal and India. The earnings from: electricity (NRs. 34.55 billion/year); irrigation (NRs. 5.55 billion/year), fish farming (NRs. 8.65 billion/year), carbon trading (NRs. 4.42 billion/year) and many billions from other sources e.g. eco-tourism, industry, horticulture, herbiculture, floriculture, sericulture, rafting and water sports, educational and vocational training and other industrial/commercial activities can catapult the socioeconomic horizon of Nepal. Hence, PMP should be jointly developed in the earliest and build confidence for the further hydropower development.

  2. Cenozoic Climate-Tectonic Interactions in the Western Himalaya Recorded in the Indus Submarine Fan: Initial Results from IODP Expedition 355

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clift, Peter; Pandey, Dhananjai; Kulhanek, Denise; Andò, Sergio; Zhou, Peng; 355 Scientists Expedition

    2016-04-01

    The Indus Submarine Fan is the largest repository of clastic sediment eroded from the Western Himalayas since the start of India-Eurasia collision, likely around 50 Ma. Interpreting this sedimentary archive is central to understanding how the Asian monsoon and Himalaya have evolved together. Models indicate linkages between surface processes, controlled by climatic influences, and the tectonics of the solid Earth. The development of large-scale duplexes within the Lesser Himalaya starting in the Late Miocene may be linked to changes in erosion intensity and location, especially spanning the 7-8 Ma climatic transition previously identified in the foreland basin and offshore Oman. Although some of these issues can be addressed by studies onshore, erosion has removed much of the older record from the crystalline basement itself and the Siwalik Group foreland sediment tend to image limited stretches of the Himalayan front rather than supplying a basin-wide record. The sediment record of the Arabian Sea must be used to understand how the Indus catchment responds to changes in monsoon strength. Drilling by International Ocean Discovery Program Expedition 355 in the Eastern Arabian Sea has recovered two submarine fan sections spanning the last ca. 11 Ma, predated by a mass transport deposit. These should allow us to reconstruct how the Western Himalaya have responded to climate change since the late Miocene. Autocyclic processes within the fan and a major mass transport deposit mean that the record is not continuous, but is largely complete. Initial results indicate that the Indus Submarine Fan was receiving materials from Himalayan high-grade metamorphic rocks since at least ca. 14-17 Ma and that there was a direct connection with the suture, likely close to the western syntaxis, dating from the late Miocene. However, initial postcruise results now indicate that there has been significant flux directly from the Indian Peninsular, especially since 3 Ma that disrupts the

  3. Mental illness among Bhutanese shamans in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ommeren, Mark; Komproe, Ivan; Cardeña, Etzel; Thapa, Suraj B; Prasain, Dinesh; de Jong, Joop T V M; Sharma, Bhogendra

    2004-04-01

    Despite efforts to promote traditional medicine, allopathic practitioners often look with distrust at traditional practices. Shamans in particular are often regarded with ambivalence and have been considered mentally ill people. We tested the hypothesis that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. In the Bhutanese refugee community in Nepal, a community with a high number of shamans, we surveyed a representative community sample of 810 adults and assessed ICD-10 mental disorders through structured diagnostic interviews. Approximately 7% of male refugees and 0.5% of female refugees reported being shamans. After controlling for demographic differences, the shamans did not differ from the comparison group in terms of 12-month and lifetime ICD-10 severe depressive episode, specific phobia, persistent somatoform pain, posttraumatic stress, generalized anxiety, or dissociative disorders. This first-ever, community-based, psychiatric epidemiological survey among shamans indicated no evidence that shamanism is an expression of psychopathology. The study's finding may assist in rectifying shamans' reputation, which has been tainted by past speculation of psychopathology. PMID:15060406

  4. Practices of Poverty Measurement and Poverty Profile of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Chhetry, Devendra

    2004-01-01

    This paper reviews the poverty measuring practices, available measures of poverty, and economic growth figures of Nepal. The currently available three poverty rates for fiscal years 1976/77, 1984/85, and 1995/96 are found to be not comparable mainly due to change in methodology over time. Despite such methodological changes, the three poverty rates average around 40 percent. Nepal has experienced relatively high economic growth during the Seventh (1985/86 to 1989/90) and the Eighth (1992/93 t...

  5. Is rate of glacial retreat accelerated in Indian Himalaya? (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, A. V.

    2013-12-01

    The Himalaya has one of the largest concentration of glaciers and rivers like Indus, Ganga and Bramhputra originate from this region. The snow and glacier melt is an important source of water for these rivers. However, this source of water may get affected in the near future due to changes in the cryosphere. Therefore, retreat of Himalayan glaciers are discussed extensively in scientific and public forums in India. Conventionally health of glaciers is assessed using changes in glacial length, as it is widely measured. However changes in glacial length and loss in areal extent near terminus needs to be interpreted carefully, as these changes can be influenced by numerous terrain and climatically sensitive parameters. The terrain parameters which can influence glacial retreat are slope, area altitude distribution, debris cover and orientation. In addition, climatically sensitive parameters like mass balance, glacial lakes and black carbon can also influence glacier retreat. These multiple influences can produce a complex pattern of glacial retreat. In this paper long-term glacier retreat in three river basins in the Indian Himalaya as Tista, Baspa and Parbati will be discussed. These basins are located in different climatically sensitive regions and each basin has unique dominant process of mass wasting. In addition to terrain parameters, influence of process like formation and expansion of moraine dammed lakes in Tista basin, deposition of black carbon on accumulation area in Baspa basin and debris cover in Parbati basin will also be discussed. This will provide understanding on varying influence of different mass wasting processes on glacial retreat during last five decades in the Indian Himalaya.

  6. Examination of snowmelt over Western Himalayas using remote sensing data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sarita; Kar, Sarat C.; Bhatla, R.

    2016-07-01

    Snowmelt variability in the Western Himalayas has been examined using remotely sensed snow water equivalent (SWE) and snow-covered area (SCA) datasets. It is seen that climatological snowfall and snowmelt amount varies in the Himalayan region from west to east and from month to month. Maximum snowmelt occurs at the elevation zone between 4500 and 5000 m. As the spring and summer approach and snowmelt begins, a large amount of snow melts in May. Strength and weaknesses of temperature-based snowmelt models have been analyzed for this region by computing the snowmelt factor or the degree-day factor (DDF). It is seen that average DDF in the Himalayas is more in April and less in July. During spring and summer months, melting rate is higher in the areas that have height above 2500 m. The region that lies between 4500 and 5000 m elevation zones contributes toward more snowmelt with higher melting rate. Snowmelt models have been developed to estimate interannual variations of monthly snowmelt amount using the DDF, observed SWE, and surface air temperature from reanalysis datasets. In order to further improve the estimate snowmelt, regression between observed and modeled snowmelt has been carried out and revised DDF values have been computed. It is found that both the models do not capture the interannual variability of snowmelt in April. The skill of the model is moderate in May and June, but the skill is relatively better in July. In order to explain this skill, interannual variability (IAV) of surface air temperature has been examined. Compared to July, in April, the IAV of temperature is large indicating that a climatological value of DDF is not sufficient to explain the snowmelt rate in April. Snow area and snow amount depletion curves over Himalayas indicate that in a small area at high altitude, snow is still observed with large SWE whereas over most of the region, all the snow has melted.

  7. The Large-Bodied hominoids of the Himalayas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Trachtengerts

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The review of available data concerning to large-bodied hominoids detected in the Himalayas is presented. They are mainly footprints (photographs by E.Shipton and M.Ward, P.Bordet, F.Smythe, and A.Woodridge and also narration of one remote observation. It is shown that on the whole these data reveal basic features of the undefined creature, most probably humanlike primate, and allow describing it as a separate species. One of its features is unusual four-toed foot with two strong toes and two small toes. A taxonomic name for this hominoid is proposed ¾ Homo pardigitatus sp. nov. ("That has paired toes".

  8. Intensive Multi-Perspective Seminar on Nepal-China Relations:Past,Present and Future Held in Nepal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    <正>The Intensive Multi-Perspective Seminar on Nepal-China relations: Past, Present and Future, sponsored by Nepal World Culture Net, was held from August 1 to 3 in the capital Kathmandu, to mark the 56th anniversary of diplomatic ties. CPAFFC Vice President Jing Dunquan headed a delegation consisting of government officials, experts and scholars from the Tibet Autonomous Region, Sichuan Pro- vince, Xi’an City, Chengdu City and China Radio International. They had discussions with personages from Nepalese political, economic and cultural circles, expressed their views and offered suggestions on the present bilateral relations as well as development prospects.

  9. Quantifying sources, transport, deposition, and radiative forcing of black carbon over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Rudong; Wang, Hailong; Qian, Yun; Rasch, Philip J.; Easter, Richard C.; Ma, Po-Lun; Singh, Balwinder; Huang, Jianping; Fu, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Black carbon (BC)particles over the Himalayas and Tibetan Plateau (HTP), both airborne and those deposited on snow, have been shown to affect snowmelt and glacier retreat. Since BC over the HTP may originate from a variety of geographical regions and emission sectors, it is essential to quantify the source-receptor relationships of BC in order to understand the contributions of natural and anthropogenic emissions and provide guidance for potential mitigation actions. In this study, we use the Community Atmosphere Model version 5 (CAM5) with a newly developed source tagging technique, nudged towards the MERRA meteorological reanalysis, to characterize the fate of BC particles emitted from various geographical regions and sectors. Evaluated against observations over the HTP and surrounding regions, the model simulation shows a good agreement in the seasonal variation of the near-surface airborne BC concentrations, providing confidence to use this modeling framework for characterizing BC source- receptor relationships. Our analysis shows that the relative contributions from different geographical regions and source sectors depend on seasons and the locations in the HTP. The largest contribution to annual mean BC burden and surface deposition in the entire HTP region is from biofuel and biomass (BB) emissions in South Asia, followed by fossil fuel (FF) emissions from South Asia, then FF from East Asia. The same roles hold for all the seasonal means except for the summer when East Asia FF becomes more important. For finer receptor regions of interest, South Asia BB and FF have the largest impact on BC in Himalayas and Central Tibetan Plateau, while East Asia FF and BB contribute the most to Northeast Plateau in all seasons and Southeast Plateau in the summer. Central Asia and Middle East FF emissions have relatively more important contributions to BC reaching Northwest Plateau, especially in the summer. Although the HTP local emissions only contribute about 10% of BC in

  10. Variation of Seismic Coda Wave Attenuation in the Garhwal Region, Northwestern Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Jayant N.; Singh, Priyamvada; Sharma, Mukat L.

    2012-01-01

    Seismic coda wave attenuation ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) characteristics in the Garhwal region, northwestern Himalaya is studied using 113 short-period, vertical component seismic observations from local events with hypocentral distance less than 250 km and magnitude range between 1.0 to 4.0. They are located mainly in the vicinity of the Main Boundary Thrust (MBT) and the Main Central Thrust (MCT), which are well-defined tectonic discontinuities in the Himalayas. Coda wave attenuation ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) is estimated using the single isotropic scattering method at central frequencies 1.5, 3, 5, 7, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24 and 28 Hz using several starting lapse times and coda window lengths for the analysis. Results show that the ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} ) values are frequency dependent in the considered frequency range, and they fit the frequency power law ( Q_{text{c}}^{ - 1} left( f right) = Q0^{ - 1} f^{ - n} ). The Q 0 ( Q c at 1 Hz) estimates vary from about 50 for a 10 s lapse time and 10 s window length, to about 350 for a 60 s lapse time and 60 s window length combination. The exponent of the frequency dependence law, n ranges from 1.2 to 0.7; however, it is greater than 0.8, in general, which correlates well with the values obtained in other seismically and tectonically active and highly heterogeneous regions. The attenuation in the Garhwal region is found to be lower than the Q {c/-1} values obtained for other seismically active regions of the world; however, it is comparable to other regions of India. The spatial variation of coda attenuation indicates that the level of heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth. The variation of coda attenuation has been estimated for different lapse time and window length combinations to observe the effect with depth and it indicates that the upper lithosphere is more active seismically as compared to the lower lithosphere and the heterogeneity decreases with increasing depth.

  11. The aftershock sequence of the 2015 April 25 Gorkha-Nepal earthquake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, L. B.; Gautam, U. P.; Koirala, B. P.; Bhattarai, M.; Kandel, T.; Gupta, R. M.; Timsina, C.; Maharjan, N.; Maharjan, K.; Dahal, T.; Hoste-Colomer, R.; Cano, Y.; Dandine, M.; Guilhem, A.; Merrer, S.; Roudil, P.; Bollinger, L.

    2015-12-01

    The M 7.8 2015 April 25 Gorkha earthquake devastated the mountainous southern rim of the High Himalayan range in central Nepal. The main shock was followed by 553 earthquakes of local magnitude greater than 4.0 within the first 45 days. In this study, we present and qualify the bulletin of the permanent National Seismological Centre network to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of the aftershocks. The Gorkha sequence defines a ˜140-km-long ESE trending structure, parallel to the mountain range, abutting on the presumed extension of the rupture plane of the 1934 M 8.4 earthquake. In addition, we observe a second seismicity belt located southward, under the Kathmandu basin and in the northern part of the Mahabarat range. Many aftershocks of the Gorkha earthquake sequence have been felt by the 3 millions inhabitants of the Kathmandu valley.

  12. Seroprevalence of HIV and hepatitis C co-infection among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karki, Surendra; Ghimire, Prakash; Tiwari, Bishnu Raj; Shrestha, Ashish Chandra; Gautam, Avhishekh; Rajkarnikar, Manita

    2009-01-01

    We assessed the seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in different categories of blood donors and the hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection rate. A total of 33,255 blood samples were screened for HIV using a third generation ELISA test at the Central Blood Transfusion Service, Nepal Red Cross Society, Kathmandu from December 2006 to September 2007. The seroprevalence of HIV was 0.19% (95% CI= 0.15-0.25) and co-infection with HCV was found in 10.8% (95% CI= 4.4-20.9). There were no significant differences in HIV seroprevalence among the different categories of age, sex, type of donation and time of donation. The study revealed a relatively lower seroprevalence of HIV among blood donors in Kathmandu Valley than reported earlier but a higher HCV co-infection rate. The similar seroprevalence between first time and repeat donors suggests the need for more improved donor education and counselling. PMID:19323036

  13. Boreal spring precipitation variability in the cold arid western Himalaya during the last millennium, regional linkages, and socio-economic implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadava, Akhilesh K.; Bräuning, Achim; Singh, Jayendra; Yadav, Ram R.

    2016-07-01

    Precipitation in the monsoon shadow zone of the western Himalayan region, largely under the influence of mid-latitude westerlies, is the dominant regional socioeconomic driver. Current knowledge of long-term regional precipitation variability is scarce due to spatially and temporally limited weather and high-resolution proxy climate records. We developed the first boreal spring precipitation reconstruction for the western Himalaya covering the last millennium (1030-2011 C.E.). The annually resolved reconstruction is based on a large tree-ring data set of Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara) and neoza pine (Pinus gerardiana) from 16 ecologically homogeneous moisture stressed settings in Kinnaur, western Indian Himalaya. The precipitation reconstruction revealed persistent long-term spring droughts from the 12th to early 16th century C.E. and pluvial from the late 16th century C.E. to recent decades. The late 15th and early 16th centuries (1490-1514 C.E.) displayed the driest episode, with precipitation being ∼15% lower than the long-term mean. The early 19th century (1820-1844 C.E.) was the wettest period of the past millennium, with mean precipitation ∼13% above the long-term mean. The reconstructed boreal spring precipitation from the western Himalaya revealed large-scale consistency with hydrological records from westerly dominated regions in Central Asia, indicating synoptic-scale changes in atmospheric circulation during the major part of the Medieval and Little Ice Age periods. Protracted droughts in Central Asia could have caused severe contraction of the regional economy, as indicated by striking coherence of reconstructed drought periods and historic social upheavals and invasions of India from Central and Western Asian invaders. Vulnerability to climatic extremes underpins the need to develop a better understanding of the temporal and spatial variability in regional hydroclimate in order to devise viable water resource management plans.

  14. Masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liebrand, J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary This thesis documents my attempt to study masculinities among irrigation engineers and water professionals in Nepal. It is based on the recognition that more than two decades of mainstreaming gender in development research and policy have failed to come to grips with the mas

  15. Comparative Policy Brief: Status of Intellectual Disabilities in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crishna, Brinda; Prajapati, Surya Bhakta

    2008-01-01

    In Nepal, the estimates of the prevalence of disabilities vary, and there is sparse information specifically about people with intellectual disabilities (ID). Existing data suggest higher rates of prevalence of ID in the more remote northern area due to use of non-iodized salt, lack of health facilities, and extreme poverty. Superstitious beliefs…

  16. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29% and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional…

  17. Nepal's Budgetary Exercise During the Nineties: An Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Deepak Adhikari

    2004-01-01

    Budgetary policies of His Majesty's Government of Nepal (HMG/N) during the Nineties were directed towards economic liberalization, privatization, poverty reduction and decentralization. Policies and programs of the budget during the Nineties were essentially concerned with agriculture modernization, employment promotion, women empowerment, financial sector reform, government expenditure management, tax reform, good governance, social service and the development of basic and physical infrastru...

  18. Mobile Learning Practice in Higher Education in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parajuli, Krishna Prasad

    2016-01-01

    During the 15 years of this current century, mobile technology has become a leading technology in the support of educational outcomes. This study investigated the mobile learning practices among undergraduates in higher education in the semi-urban and rural areas of the Gorkha district of Nepal. The objectives were to explore the availability of…

  19. Corporal Punishment in Private Schools: The Case of Kathmandu, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanal, Jeevan; Park, Sae-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to elaborate the situation of corporal punishment which is being practiced in Nepalese schools going against new policies that promote the non-violence teaching. It was based on original qualitative study of one private school of Kathmandu (the capital city of Nepal) having more than 2000 students and 100 teachers.…

  20. Detection of G12 Human Rotaviruses in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pun, Sher Bahadur; Nakagomi, Toyoko; Sherchand, Jeevan Bahadur; Pandey, Basu Dev; Cuevas, Luis E.; Cunliffe, Nigel A.; Hart, C A; Nakagomi, Osamu

    2007-01-01

    Of 731 stool specimens collected from children with diarrhea in Kathmandu, Nepal, from August 2004 through July 2005, 170 (23.3%) tested positive for rotavirus. Reverse transcription–PCR, including a revised G12-specific primer set, identified 56 (32.9%) as G2P[4] and 39 (23.0%) as G12 with P[6], P[8], or P[4].

  1. Cultural Anarchism: The Consequences of Privileging Languages in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giri, Ram Ashish

    2010-01-01

    Nepali, the official language of administration of Nepal, has been privileged through systematic political manoeuvres throughout its history. English also enjoys special status and privileges, and despite the fact that it is officially only a "foreign" language, in practice it is one of the most dominant languages in educational and economic…

  2. Telemedicine for Rural and Underserved Communities of Nepal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peterson, Carrie Beth; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2011-01-01

    Health workers in rural health care serve most of the population in Nepal, but are isolated from specialist support and access to current medical information. Fortunately, the advent of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) has unleashed new opportunities for the delivery of health ser...

  3. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  4. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims. PMID:26743371

  5. [Nepal earthquake: nursing missions in Paris and Kathmandu].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poux, Chrystel; Sergent, Jean-Louis

    2016-01-01

    A violent earthquake hit Nepal on 25th April 2015, injuring and killing thousands. A nurse manager and a nurse, both working in anaesthesia and reservists in the French Health Emergency Preparedness and Response Organisation, describe their mission: one working in the crisis centre in Paris, the other on the ground, providing assistance to French victims.

  6. Nepal : Electronic Government Procurement Readiness Assessment and Roadmap

    OpenAIRE

    World Bank

    2007-01-01

    The assessment focused on the degree of readiness of Government of Nepal's (GoN's) current public procurement environment for making a transition from a traditional paper-based, manual procurement transaction processing and communication to electronic government procurement (e-GP). Some 20 public and private sector organizations, involved in a wide range of functions that relate to public...

  7. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species.

  8. Ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoo, Zahoor Ahmad; Reshi, Zafar A

    2014-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to document the ectomycorrhizal diversity associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India. The extensive field surveys carried out in the Kashmir Himalaya at five study sites resulted in the collection and identification of 76 potential ectomycorrhizal fungal species associated with the Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana. Maximum 32 number of species were found associated with Pinus wallichiana, 19 with Cedrus deodara and 25 species were found growing in association with both the conifers. The present study reveals that Cedrus deodara and Pinus wallichiana in the Kashmir Himalaya, India harbour diverse ectomycorrhizal fungal species. PMID:24783775

  9. Rock magnetic survey of Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan; Pakistan hokubu, Himalaya-Karakoram tai no ganseki jikigakuteki chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, M. [Geoscience Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Khadim, I.; Ahmad, M. [Geological Survey of Pakistan, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    1997-10-22

    This paper describes results of the rock magnetic survey mainly including measurement of magnetic susceptibility conducted in the northern Pakistan from 1992 to 1997. Magnetic characteristics in Himalaya-Karakoram ranges and prospective ore deposits are also described. Magnetic susceptibility data measured in this district were summarized as a frequency map in each geological block. Granitoids in the northern part of Kohistan batholith and granitoids of Ladakh batholith showed remarkably high magnetic susceptibility values, which suggested they are magnetite-series magmatism. It has been known that magnetite-series magmatism often accompanies sulfide-forming mineral resources, which suggests high potentiality of abundant mineral resources containing Mo, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ag and Au. From the results of the magnetic susceptibility measurements and the above-mentioned models, accordingly, it can be pointed out that the northern part of Kohistan batholith, the distribution area of Ladakh batholith, and surrounding areas are promising targets for mineral resources exploration in the Himalaya-Karakoram ranges, northern Pakistan. 5 refs., 3 figs.

  10. Climate change on the southern slope of Mt.Qomolangma (Everest) Region in Nepal since 1971

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Wei; ZHANG Yili; GAO Jungang; YANG Xuchao; LIU Linshan; Narendra R.KHANAL

    2013-01-01

    Based on monthly mean,maximum,and minimum air temperature and monthly mean precipitation data from 10 meteorological stations on the southern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region in Nepal between 1971 and 2009,the spatial and temporal characteristics of climatic change in this region were analyzed using climatic linear trend,Sen's Slope Estimates and Mann-Kendall Test analysis methods.This paper focuses only on the southern slope and attempts to compare the results with those from the northern slope to clarify the characteristics and trends of climatic change in the Mt.Qomolangma region.The results showed that:(1) between 1971 and 2009,the annual mean temperature in the study area was 20.0℃,the rising rate of annual mean temperature was 0.25℃/10a,and the temperature increases were highly influenced by the maximum temperature in this region.On the other hand,the temperature increases on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma region were highly influenced by the minimum temperature.In 1974 and 1992,the temperature rose noticeably in February and September in the southern region when the increment passed 0.9℃.(2) Precipitation had an asymmetric distribution; between 1971 and 2009,the annual precipitation was 1729.01 mm.In this region,precipitation showed an increasing trend of 4.27mm/a,but this was not statistically significant.In addition,the increase in rainfall was mainly concentrated in the period from April to October,including the entire monsoon period (from June to September) when precipitation accounts for about 78.9% of the annual total.(3) The influence of altitude on climate warming was not clear in the southern region,whereas the trend of climate warming was obvious on the northern slope of Mt.Qomolangma.The annual mean precipitation in the southern region was much higher than that of the northern slope of the Mt.Qomolangma region.This shows the barrier effect of the Himalayas as a whole and Mt.Qomolangma in particular.

  11. Processes driving rapid morphological changes observed on the Khumbu Glacier, Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quincey, Duncan; Rowan, Ann; Gibson, Morgan; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram; King, Owen; Watson, Scott

    2016-04-01

    The response of many Himalayan glaciers to climatic change is complicated by the presence of a supraglacial debris cover, which leads to a suite of processes controlling mass loss that are not commonly found where glaciers are debris-free. Here, we present a range of field, surface topographic and ice-dynamical observations acquired from Khumbu Glacier in Nepal, to describe and quantify these processes in fine spatial and temporal resolution. Like many other debris-covered glaciers in the Himalaya, the debris-covered tongue of the Khumbu Glacier is heavily in recession. For at least two decades, the lower ablation area has been stagnant as surface lowering in the mid-ablation zone has led to ever decreasing driving stresses. Contemporary velocity data derived from TerraSAR-X imagery confirms that the active-inactive ice boundary can now be found 5 km from the glacier terminus and that the maximum velocity, immediately below the icefall, is around 70 m per year. These data show that in this upper part of the ablation zone, the glacier velocity has not changed during the last 20 years, suggesting that at least above the icefall the glacier remains healthy. Across the stagnant debris-covered tongue there have been marked surface morphological changes. Mapping from 2004 shows relatively few surface ponds, a homogeneous debris-covered surface, and a small area towards the terminus supporting soil formation and low vegetation. Mapping from field observations in 2014 shows an abundance of surface meltwater, a more heterogeneous surface texture associated with many exposed ice cliffs, and a long (3 km) zone of stable terrain where soils are developing and, in places, low scrub can be found. Most dramatically, a string of surface ponds occupying the true-left lowermost 2 km of ice have expanded and coalesced, suggesting the glacier has crossed a threshold leading towards large glacial lake development. Two fine-resolution DEMs derived from Structure-from-Motion in spring

  12. The impact of wealth and female autonomy on fertility decisions in Nepal: an econometric analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gudbrandsen, Njård Håkon

    2010-01-01

    The last fifteen years, the fertility rate in Nepal has declined significantly. In the same period, the country has, despite political unrest and a civil war, experienced economic growth. Nepal has, contrary to its neighboring countries, India and China, not used legal action to limit its population growth. The fertility rate in Nepal is now below India's rate, and is reaching the replace rate. In this thesis I explore the role of families' wealth and female autonomy in determining individual...

  13. Implementation of the WTO Customs Valuation Agreement in Nepal: An Ex-ante Impact Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Pushpa Raj Rajkarnikar

    2006-01-01

    Customs Valuation of goods is an important aspect of trade facilitation. In Nepal, the process of customs valuation for the customs tariff was systematized only after the introduction of Customs Act, 1962. In 1997, the Customs Act was amended and basic valuation provisions based on transaction price were included in the Act. However, ACV is yet not fully implemented. At present Nepal's customs valuation system is hybrid of BDN and ACV. Nepal became a member of WTO on April 23, 2004. The count...

  14. Environmental impact assessment of mountain tourism in developing regions: A study in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mountain tourism in developing countries is becoming a growing environmental concern due to extreme seasonality, lack of suitable infrastructures and planning, and interference with fragile ecosystems and protected areas. This paper presents a study devoted to assess the adverse environmental impacts of tourism, and in particular of trekking-related activities, in Ladakh, Indian Himalaya. The proposed approach is based on the use of Geographical Information System (GIS) modeling and remote sensing imageries to cope with the lack of data that affect the region. First, stressors associated with trekking, and environmental receptors potentially affected were identified. Subsequently, a baseline study on stressors (trail use, waste dumping, camping, pack animal grazing and off-road driving) and receptors (soil, water, wildlife, vegetation) was conducted through field work, data collection, and data processing supported by GIS. Finally, impacts were modeled by considering the intensity of the stressors, and the vulnerability and the value of the receptors. The results were spatially aggregated into watershed units, and combined to generate composite impact maps. The study concluded that the most affected watersheds are located in the central and southeastern part of Ladakh, along some of the most visited trails and within the Hemis and the Tsokar Tsomoriri National parks. The main objective of the study was to understand patterns of tourism-induced environmental degradation, so as to support mitigation interventions, as well as the development of suitable tourism policies.

  15. Phytoremediation potential of Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland - a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Syed Shakeel; Reshi, Zafar A; Shah, Manzoor A; Rashid, Irfan; Ara, Roshan; Andrabi, Syed M A

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are an important class of pollutants with both lethal and sublethal effects on organisms. Wetlands are cheap natural alternatives for removal of heavy metals from soils; however, wetland plants vary greatly in their degree of metal uptake. Hokersar wetland, a Ramsar site of Kashmir Himalaya, India is a game reserve of international importance that provides suitable habitat for resident birds and an excellent stopover point for migratory birds visiting from Palaearctic breeding grounds in Central Asia, China, N-Europe and Siberia. The toxicity of chronic dietary metal exposure in birds may have adverse reproductive effects which include decreased egg production, decreased hatchability, and increased hatchling mortality. Thus, the present study aimed to assess the heavy metal sequestration capability of one of the most common wetland plant species Phragmites australis in Hokersar wetland. The accumulation of the different elements was in order of Al > Mn > Ba > Zn > Cu > Pb > Mo > Co > Cr > Cd > Ni. Translocation factor, i.e. ratio of shoot to root metal concentration revealed that metals were largely retained in the roots of P. australis, thus reducing the supply of metals to avifauna and preventing their bio-accumulation. PMID:24933910

  16. Dispersal events of Triassic-Jurassic boundary faunas, and paleoenvironment of Tibetan Himalaya

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FüRSICH; Franz; Theodor

    2009-01-01

    End-Triassic ammonoid and bivalve faunas of the Germig area, Tibetan Himalaya, lived in a tropical, shallow-water environment during the Triassic-Jurassic boundary interval. High stratigraphic resolution based on ammonite-biochrons allows to tracing the place of origin of several faunal elements. The bivalves Aguilerella and Ctenostreon occurred first in the Tibetan Himalaya and migrated from there to the eastern South Pacific, exhibiting a pantropic dispersal pattern. This dispersal route is supported by the distribution pattern of the ammonites Choristoceras, Discamphiceras, Pleuroacanthites, and Psiloceras calliphyllum. A few taxa, which went extinct everywhere else by the end of the Triassic, survived in the Tibetan Himalaya into early Early Jurassic times. They include the ammonites Choristoceras and Eopsiloceras, and the bivalves Newaagia, Terquemia, Persia, Ryderia guangdongensis, and Cultriopsis angusta. This suggests that the Tibetan Himalaya may have played a refugia role in the course of the end-Triassic mass extinction.

  17. High altitude survival: conflicts between pastoralism and wildlife in the Trans-Himalaya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mishra, C.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords : Pastoralism, agriculture, wildlife, Himalaya, competition, bharal, yak, livestock, snow leopard, wolf, herbivore, ungulate, resource, rangeland, steppe, mountainHow harmonious is the coexistence between pastoralism and wildlife? This thesis is a response to repeated calls for a better und

  18. Evaluating Coupled Human-Hydrologic Systems in High Altitude Regions: A Case Study of the Arun Watershed, Eastern Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, K.; Bookhagen, B.; Tague, C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Himalaya exhibit dynamic ecological, hydrological, and climatic extremes that magnify the variability and extent of natural hazards, resulting in destruction to both physical and human landscapes. Coupled with poverty, these factors intensify local communities' vulnerability to climate change. This study highlights the Arun watershed in eastern Nepal as a case study to evaluate how local communities in high altitude regions are managing their water for domestic and agricultural needs while coping with extreme events, such as floods and landslides. Remotely-sensed precipitation, snowpack and glacial extent data from the past decade are combined with preliminary results from extensive field-based community surveys in the Arun watershed. The analysis of remotely-sensed data will describe seasonal trends in water availability, glacial lake growth, and the spatial variation of these trends within the basin. These hydrologic changes will be linked to the human survey analysis, which will provide an understanding of locals' perceptions of water challenges and the current water management strategies within the basin. Particular attention will be given to a comparison between the eastern and western tributaries of the Arun River, where the catchments are mainly rain-fed (eastern) versus glacial-fed (western). This contrast will highlight how different hydrologic scenarios evidenced from remote-sensing data motivate diverse human water management responses as defined in field surveys. A particular focus will be given to management decisions related to agriculture expansion and hydropower development. This synthesis of remote-sensing and social research methodologies provides a valuable perspective on coupled human-hydrologic systems.

  19. Buddha's birthplace (Lumbini, Nepal) is polluted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupakheti, Dipesh; Adhikary, Bhupesh; Praveen Puppala, Siva; Kang, Shichang; Naja, Manish; Panday, Arnico; Zhang, Qianggong; Rupakheti, Maheswar; Mahata, Khadak; Lawrence, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Lumbini, in southern Nepal, is a UNESCO world heritage site of universal value as the birthplace of the Buddha. Poor air quality in Lumbini and surrounding regions is a great concern for public health as well as for preservation, protection and promotion of Buddhist heritage and culture. Measurements of the ambient concentrations of key air pollutants (BC, PM, CO, O3) were conducted in Lumbini, first of its kind in Lumbini, during an intensive measurement period of three months (April-June 2013) in the pre-monsoon season. The measurements were carried out as a part of the international air pollution measurement campaign; SusKat-ABC (Sustainable Atmosphere for the Kathmandu Valley - Atmospheric Brown Clouds). Hourly average concentrations were: BC: 4.9±3.8 (0.3-29.9) μg/m3; CO: 344.1±160.3 (124.9-1429.7) ppbv; O3: 46.6±20.3 (0.85-118.1) ppbv; PM10: 128.8±91.9 (10.5-603.9) μg/m3; and PM2.5: 53.1±35.1 (6.1-272.2) μg/m3. These levels are comparable to heavily polluted sites in the region. The 24-h average PM2.5 and PM10 concentrations frequently (94% and 85%, respectively, of the sampled period) exceeded the WHO guideline, which implies significant health risks for the residents and visitors in the region. Clear diurnal cycles were observed for the pollutants. Occurrences of peak concentrations during the study period were due to regional forest fires and meteorological conditions conducive of transport to Lumbini. The WRF-STEM model was used to simulate the meteorology and the pollution concentration, and showed the model concentration to be lower by a factor of ~1.4-5, even though the model was able to capture the observed variability. Regionally tagged CO tracers and the chemical composition of fine mode PM2.5 was obtained from the model. The aerosol spectral light absorption coefficients obtained from Lumbini indicated presence of BC from both biomass burning and fossil fuel combustion, with more than half of the ambient BC attributable to fossil fuel

  20. Exploration of nifH gene through soil metagenomes of the western Indian Himalayas

    OpenAIRE

    Soni, Ravindra; Suyal, Deep Chandra; Sai, Santosh; Goel, Reeta

    2016-01-01

    This group has previously highlighted the prevalence of Csp genes from cold Himalayan environments. However, this study has explored the uncultured diazotrophs from metagenomes of western Indian Himalayas. The metagenomic nifH gene clone library was constructed from the Temperate, Subtropical and Tarai soils of Western Himalaya, India followed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. After preliminary screening, selected clones were sequenced. In silico analysis of the clones was don...

  1. Snow cover trend and hydrological characteristics of the Astore River basin (Western Himalayas) and its comparison to the Hunza basin (Karakoram region).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tahir, Adnan Ahmad; Chevallier, Pierre; Arnaud, Yves; Ashraf, Muhammad; Bhatti, Muhammad Tousif

    2015-02-01

    A large proportion of Pakistan's irrigation water supply is taken from the Upper Indus River Basin (UIB) in the Himalaya-Karakoram-Hindukush range. More than half of the annual flow in the UIB is contributed by five of its snow and glacier-fed sub-basins including the Astore (Western Himalaya - south latitude of the UIB) and Hunza (Central Karakoram - north latitude of the UIB) River basins. Studying the snow cover, its spatio-temporal change and the hydrological response of these sub-basins is important so as to better manage water resources. This paper compares new data from the Astore River basin (mean catchment elevation, 4100 m above sea level; m asl afterwards), obtained using MODIS satellite snow cover images, with data from a previously-studied high-altitude basin, the Hunza (mean catchment elevation, 4650 m asl). The hydrological regime of this sub-catchment was analyzed using the hydrological and climate data available at different altitudes from the basin area. The results suggest that the UIB is a region undergoing a stable or slightly increasing trend of snow cover in the southern (Western Himalayas) and northern (Central Karakoram) parts. Discharge from the UIB is a combination of snow and glacier melt with rainfall-runoff at southern part, but snow and glacier melt are dominant at the northern part of the catchment. Similar snow cover trends (stable or slightly increasing) but different river flow trends (increasing in Astore and decreasing in Hunza) suggest a sub-catchment level study of the UIB to understand thoroughly its hydrological behavior for better flood forecasting and water resources management.

  2. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake.

  3. Socio-Cultural Dimensions of Cluster vs. Single Home Photovoltaic Solar Energy Systems in Rural Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimber Haddix McKay

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the socio-cultural dimensions of obstacles facing solar photovoltaic projects in two villages in rural Nepal. The study was conducted in Humla District, Nepal, one of the most remote and impoverished regions of the country. There are no roads in the district, homes lack running water and villagers’ health suffers from high levels of indoor air pollution from open cooking/heating fires and the smoky torches traditionally burned for light. The introduction of solar energy is important to these villagers, as it removes one major source of indoor air pollution from homes and provides brighter light than the traditional torches. Solar energy is preferable in many villages in the region due to the lack of suitable streams or rivers for micro-hydroelectric projects. In the villages under study in this paper, in-home solar electricity is a novel and recent innovation, and was installed within the last three years in two different geo-spatial styles, depending upon the configuration of homes in the village. In some villages, houses are grouped together, while in others households are widely dispersed. In the former, solar photovoltaic systems were installed in a “cluster” fashion with multiple homes utilizing power from a central battery store under the control of the householder storing the battery bank. In villages with widely spaced households, a single home system was used so that each home had a separate solar photovoltaic array, wiring system and battery bank. It became clear that the cluster system was the sensible choice due to the geographic layout of certain villages, but this put people into management groups that did not always work well due to caste or other differences. This paper describes the two systems and their management and usage costs and benefits from the perspective of the villagers themselves.

  4. Using Behavioral Science to Design a Peer Comparison Intervention for Postabortion Family Planning in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Hannah; Datta, Saugato; Sapkota, Sabitri

    2016-01-01

    Despite the provision of free and subsidized family planning services and clients' demonstrated intentions to delay pregnancies, family planning uptake among women who receive abortion and postabortion services at Sunaulo Parivar Nepal (SPN), one of Nepal's largest non-governmental sexual and reproductive health (SRH) providers, remains low. Through meetings, interviews, and observations with SPN's stakeholders, service providers, and clients at its 36 SRH centers, we developed hypotheses about client- and provider-side barriers that may inhibit postabortion family planning (PAFP) uptake. On the provider side, we found that the lack of benchmarks (such as the performance of other facilities) against which providers could compare their own performance and the lack of feedback on the performance were important barriers to PAFP uptake. We designed several variants of three interventions to address these barriers. Through conversations with team members at SPN's centralized support office and service providers at SPN centers, we prioritized a peer-comparison tool that allows providers at one center to compare their performance with that of other similar centers. We used feedback from the community of providers on the tools' usability and features to select a variant of the tool that also leverages and reinforces providers' strong intrinsic motivation to provide quality PAFP services. In this paper, we detail the process of identifying barriers and creating an intervention to overcome those barriers. The intervention's effectiveness will be tested with a center-level, stepped-wedge randomized control trial in which SPN's 36 centers will be randomly assigned to receive the intervention at 1-month intervals over a 6-month period. Existing medical record data will be used to monitor family planning uptake. PMID:27446891

  5. 77 FR 54944 - In the Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Matter of the Designation of The Communist Party of Nepal (Maoist) Also Known as United Revolutionary People's Council Also Known as People's Liberation Army of Nepal Also Known as CPN(M) Pursuant to Section... of Nepal (Maoist), also known as United Revolutionary People's Council, also known as...

  6. Retrospective Descriptive Study of Cerebral Palsy in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Ritesh

    2016-07-01

    There is very little data pertaining to cerebral palsy (CP) from Nepal. In this retrospective study it was observed that dyskinetic CP was seen in 29 % and the sex ratio of males to females was two in the study population of children with CP. Both of these are much higher than data from developed countries. Hence, further randomized cross-sectional community based study is recommended to enquire into this pattern. Data regarding early identification was encouraging as majority of the cases (56 %) were diagnosed before 4 years of age. There is a stark necessity of early screening and rehabilitation program with provision for follow-up for the affected children, which must also be accessible to the disadvantaged and marginalized groups in Nepal. PMID:26944590

  7. Women and citizenship post‐trafficking: the case of Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Diane; Laurie, Nina; Poudel, Meena; Townsend, Janet

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article analyses the relationship between gender, sexuality and citizenship embedded in models of citizenship in the Global South, specifically in South Asia, and the meanings associated with having – or not having – citizenship. It does this through an examination of women's access to citizenship in Nepal in the context of the construction of the emergent nation state in the ‘new’ Nepal ‘post‐conflict’. Our analysis explores gendered and sexualized constructions of citizenship in this context through a specific focus on women who have experienced trafficking, and are beginning to organize around rights to sustainable livelihoods and actively lobby for changes in citizenship rules which discriminate against women. Building from this, in the final section we consider important implications of this analysis of post‐trafficking experiences for debates about gender, sexuality and citizenship more broadly. PMID:27642193

  8. Back-thrusting in Lesser Himalaya: Evidences from magnetic fabric studies in parts of Almora crystalline zone, Kumaun Lesser Himalaya

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amar Agarwal; K K K K Agarwal; R Bali; Chandra Prakash; Gaurav Joshi

    2016-06-01

    The present study aims to understand evolution of the Lesser Himalaya, which consists of (meta) sedimentaryand crystalline rocks. Field studies, microscopic and rock magnetic investigations have beencarried out on the rocks near the South Almora Thrust (SAT) and the North Almora Thrust (NAT),which separates the Almora Crystalline Zone (ACZ) from the Lesser Himalayan sequences (LHS). Theresults show that along the South Almora Thrust, the deformation is persistent; however, near theNAT deformation pattern is complex and implies overprinting of original shear sense by a youngerdeformational event. We attribute this overprinting to late stage back-thrusting along NAT, active afterthe emplacement of ACZ. During this late stage back-thrusting, rocks of the ACZ and LHS were coupled.Back-thrusts originated below the Lesser Himalayan rocks, probably from the Main Boundary Thrust,and propagated across the sedimentary and crystalline rocks. This study provides new results frommultiple investigations, and enhances our understanding of the evolution of the ACZ.

  9. Variety and Manufacturing Methods of Native Milk Products in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    TOKITA, Fumisaburo; HOSONO, Akiyoshi; ISHIDA, Tetsuo; TAKAHASHI, Fujio; Otani, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    Nepal is a small land of great diversity. There exist a lot of identifiable ethnic groups. Due to the diversity of ethnic group, there are also great diversities in foods and food habits. Therefore, eating habits of milk and milk products or manufacturing methods of milk products are also different among the ethnic groups. Generally speaking, the Nepalese milk products have a long history and many varieties. These milk products are principally classified into two groups-namely, fermented milk...

  10. An appraisal of the maternal mortality decline in Nepal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Hussein

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A decline in the national maternal mortality ratio in Nepal has been observed from surveys conducted between 1996 and 2008. This paper aims to assess the plausibility of the decline and to identify drivers of change. METHODS: National and sub-national trends in mortality data were investigated using existing demographic and health surveys and maternal mortality and morbidity surveys. Potential drivers of the variation in maternal mortality between districts were identified by regressing district-level indicators from the Nepal demographic health surveys against maternal mortality estimates. RESULTS: A statistically significant decline of the maternal mortality ratio from 539 maternal deaths to 281 per 100,000 (95% CI 91,507 live births between 1993 and 2003 was demonstrated. The sub-national changes are of similar magnitude and direction to those observed nationally, and in the terai region (plains the differences are statistically significant with a reduction of 361 per 100,000 live births (95% CI 36,686 during the same time period. The reduction in fertility, changes in education and wealth, improvements in components of the human development index, gender empowerment and anaemia each explained more than 10% of the district variation in maternal mortality. A number of limitations in each of the data sources used were identified. Of these, the most important relate to the underestimation of numbers of deaths. CONCLUSION: It is likely that there has been a decline in Nepal's maternal mortality since 1993. This is good news for the country's sustained commitments in this area. Conclusions on the magnitude, pattern of the change and drivers of the decline are constrained by lack of data. We recommend close tracking of maternal mortality and its determinants in Nepal, attention to the communication of future estimates, and various options for bridging data gaps.

  11. Can Tourism Boost Development of Sustainable Infrastructure in Nepal?

    OpenAIRE

    Barnekow, Carl-Henrik

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to analyse both the existing planning system in Nepal and how tourism affects the local indigenous population. Furthermore it will try to understand how tourism can be used for poverty alleviation and sustainable development of infrastructure through planning. A study of planning theory has been interspersed with studies of the concept of sustainable development, planning, tourism, and infrastructure while and trying to find linkages between the fields of knowledge...

  12. Traditional Water Resource Use and Adaptation Efforts in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Ranjan Prakash; Maharjan, Keshav Lall

    2016-01-01

    Rapid population growth, unplanned urbanization and the drying up of traditional water resources have caused water scarcity in the Kathmandu Valley of Nepal. The impact of climate change has further exacerbated the increasing problem of water scarcity. Traditional water resources such as stone spouts and wells play an important role in meeting the increasing water demand in the Kathmandu Valley. This paper examines water use and conservation efforts of traditional water resources, especially ...

  13. Urban air quality of kathmandu valley "Kingdom of Nepal"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, C. K.

    The oval shaped tectonic basin of Kathmandu valley, occupying about 656 sq.km is situated in the middle sector of Himalayan range. There are three districts in the valley, i.e. Kathmandu, Lalitpur and Bhaktapur. Out of the three, the most populated is Kathmandu city (the capital of Kingdom of Nepal) which has a population of 668,00 in an area of approximately 50 km 2. The energy consumption of the city population is about 1/3 of the total import to Nepal of gasoline, diesel, kerosene, furnace oil and cooking gas. This has resulted heavy pollution of air in the city leading to bronchitis, and throat and chest diseases. Vehicles have increased several fold in recent months and there are 100,000 in number on the road and they have 900 km of road, out of which only 25% is metalled. Most of the two and three wheelers are polluting the air by emission of gases as well as dust particulate. SO 2 has been found to go as high as 202 μg cm -3 and NO 2 to 126 μg cm -3 particularly in winter months when a thick layer of fog covers the valley up to 10 am in the morning. All the gases are mixed within the limited air below the fog and the ground. This creates the problem. Furthermore, municipal waste of 500 m 3 a day and also liquid waste dumped directly into the Bagmati river at the rate of 500,000 ℓ d -1 makes the city ugly and filthy. Unless pollution of air, water and lard are controlled in time, Nepal will lose much of its foreign exchange earnings from the tourist industry. It is found that tourist arrivals have considerably reduced in recent years and most of hotels occupancy is 50-60% in peak time. Nepal is trying to introduce a legal framework for pollution control but it will take time to become effective.

  14. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Pratik; Karki, Deepak Kumar; Kallestrup, Per; Enemark, Ulrika

    2015-01-01

    The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9%) and rural (59%) discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015), the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS) after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal. PMID:26300556

  15. Chhaupadi practice in Nepal – analysis of ethical aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Kadariya, Shanti

    2015-01-01

    Shanti Kadariya, Arja R AroUnit for Health Promotion Research, University of Southern Denmark, Esbjerg, DenmarkAbstract: Chhaupadi practice, which is characterized by banishment of women during menstruation from their usual residence due to supposed impurity, is in existence in the mid- and far-western regions of Nepal. It has been criticized for violation of basic human rights of women and also for its associated physical and mental health impacts. Despite having been outlawed, it continues ...

  16. Premarital Sexual Behavior among male college students of Kathmandu, Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Tamang Jyotsna; Adhikari Ramesh

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In Nepal, as in other Asian countries, the issue of sexuality still remains a taboo. Despite this fact, an increasing number of sexual activities is being reported by Nepalese students. This trend warrants serious and timely attention. Due to the sensitivity of the topic of premarital sexuality, youth receive inadequate education, guidance and services on reproductive health. The main objectives of this paper are to explore the sexual behavior especially focusing on preval...

  17. Availability of tree cavities in a sal forest of Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Bhusal P; Czeszczewik D; Walankiewicz W; Churski M; Baral R; Lamichhane BR; Mikusinski G

    2016-01-01

    Tree cavities are important structural elements of forest ecosystem that host numerous birds, mammals and other cavity-dependent organisms. Pattern of cavity distribution in temperate and boreal forests are relatively well studied, yet little is known about cavities in tropical and subtropical forests. We compared cavity availability in relation to tree condition (living tree and snag), tree species and DBH class between two different sites in a subtropical deciduous sal forest in Nepal: the ...

  18. National health insurance policy in Nepal: challenges for implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiva Raj Mishra

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The health system in Nepal is characterized by a wide network of health facilities and community workers and volunteers. Nepal's Interim Constitution of 2007 addresses health as a fundamental right, stating that every citizen has the right to basic health services free of cost. But the reality is a far cry. Only 61.8% of the Nepalese households have access to health facilities within 30 min, with significant urban (85.9% and rural (59% discrepancy. Addressing barriers to health services needs urgent interventions at the population level. Recently (February 2015, the Government of Nepal formed a Social Health Security Development Committee as a legal framework to start implementing a social health security scheme (SHS after the National Health Insurance Policy came out in 2013. The program has aimed to increase the access of health services to the poor and the marginalized, and people in hard to reach areas of the country, though challenges remain with financing. Several aspects should be considered in design, learning from earlier community-based health insurance schemes that suffered from low enrollment and retention of members as well as from a pro-rich bias. Mechanisms should be built for monitoring unfair pricing and unaffordable copayments, and an overall benefit package be crafted to include coverage of major health services including non-communicable diseases. Regulations should include such issues as accreditation mechanisms for private providers. Health system strengthening should move along with the roll-out of SHS. Improving the efficiency of hospital, motivating the health workers, and using appropriate technology can improve the quality of health services. Also, as currently a constitution drafting is being finalized, careful planning and deliberation is necessary about what insurance structure may suit the proposed future federal structure in Nepal.

  19. An Empirical Analysis of Money Supply Process in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Prakash Kumar Shrestha Ph.D.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the money supply process in Nepal empirically on the basis of mainstream and Post-Keynesian theoretical perspectives for both pre and post-liberalization period covering the sample period of 1965/66-2009/10. The relative contribution of different components of money supply has been computed and the money supply as well as money multiplier function has been estimated. Empirical results show that disposable high powered money is found to be a major contributor to the change ...

  20. An Appraisal of the Maternal Mortality Decline in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hussein, Julia; Bell, Jacqueline; Dar Iang, Maureen; Mesko, Natasha; Amery, Jenny; Graham, Wendy

    2011-01-01

    Background A decline in the national maternal mortality ratio in Nepal has been observed from surveys conducted between 1996 and 2008. This paper aims to assess the plausibility of the decline and to identify drivers of change. Methods National and sub-national trends in mortality data were investigated using existing demographic and health surveys and maternal mortality and morbidity surveys. Potential drivers of the variation in maternal mortality between districts were identified by regres...

  1. Caste, local networks and lucrative jobs: Evidence from rural Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Hatlebakk, Magnus; Iversen, Vegard; Torsvik, Gaute

    2011-01-01

    We study how local connections to persons in influential positions affect access to lucrative international migrant jobs and attractive government employment. In rural Nepal, it would not be surprising if social status, captured by a household’s caste but also by wealth or education, strongly influenced or perhaps even exclusively determined the access to attractive labour market opportunities. This is not the case. Although much of the variation in migration can be attributed to wealth, educ...

  2. Nepal; Joint Staff Assessment of the Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    2003-01-01

    The Joint Staff Assessment on Nepal’s Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (PRSP) highlights the PRSP process aimed to provide sustainable macroeconomic framework, improving governance and the overall policy environment. It reviews the execution of the envisaged programs, expenditure planning, public expenditure management system, and the effectiveness of the monitoring system. It also identifies some shortcomings of the PRSP that could be addressed over time and reflected in the annual progres...

  3. SEXUAL HEALTH BEHAVIORS OF ADOLESCENTS IN POKHARA, NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha Niranjan; Prasad Paneru Damaru; Jnawali Kalpana

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Adolescent (10–19 years) is a transition of age during which hazardous sexual health behaviors may be adopted; increasing vulnerability to several kinds of behavioral disorders like drug use, unsafe sexual act leading to reproductive ill health. Objective of the study was to assess sexual health behaviors of adolescents in Pokhara, Nepal. METHODS: An institution based cross-sectional study was conducted among 15–19 years adolescents studying in grades 11 and 12. Probability ...

  4. Occupational radiation exposure monitoring among radiation workers in Nepal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nepal was accepted as a member of the IAEA in 2007. Nepal is one of the world's least developed countries and is defined in Health Level IV. The population counted 26.4 millions in 2007. The health care sector increases with new hospitals and clinics, however, Nepal has no radiation protection authority or radiation protection regulation in the country until now. The radiation producing equipment in the health sector includes conventional X-ray and dental X-ray equipment, fluoroscopes, mammography, CT, catheterization laboratory equipment, nuclear medicine facilities, a few linear accelerators, Co60 teletherapy and High Dose Rate brachytherapy sources. The situation regarding dosimetry service for radiation workers is unclear. A survey has been carried out to give an overview of the situation. The data collection of the survey was performed by phone call interviews with responsible staff at the different hospitals and clinics. Data about different occupationally exposed staff, use of personal radiation monitoring and type of dosimetry system were collected. In addition, it was asked if dosimetry reports were compiled in files or databases for further follow-up of staff, if needed. The survey shows that less of 25% of the procedures performed on the surveyed hospitals and clinics are performed by staff with personnel radiation monitoring. Radiation monitoring service for exposed staff is not compulsory or standardized, since there is no radiation protection authority. Nepal has taken a step forward regarding radiation protection, with the IAEA membership, although there are still major problems that have to be solved. An evaluation of the existing practice of staff dosimetry can be the first helpful step for further work in building a national radiation protection authority. (author)

  5. Fission track ages of some Himalayan muscovites (Kathmandu valley, Nepal)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fossil fission track technique has been used for dating of Himalayan muscovites of Kathmandu valley, Nepal. The mean ages obtained for different locations range from 2.5 +- 0.6 m.y. to 23 +- 3.3 m.y. The uranium concentration has been estimated to be 10-10 atom/atom. The experimental results confirm that the Himalayan orogeny belongs to the tertiary era. (author)

  6. Symptom Recognition to Diagnosis of Autism in Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Merina; Shrestha, Rena

    2014-01-01

    Awareness and knowledge about autism is almost non-existent in Nepal. Children who eventually get the diagnosis often miss their opportunity for early intervention. The current study shows that medical help was seeked at mean age of 27.9 + 14.5 months and most of them were for delayed language and the first preference for parents were…

  7. Status of radiation protection at different hospitals in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Adhikari, Kanchan P.; Jha, L.N.; Galan, Montenegro P.

    2012-01-01

    Nepal has a long history of medical radiology since1923 but unfortunately, we still do not have any Radiation Protection Infrastructure to control the use of ionizing radiations in the various fields. The objective of this study was an assessment of the radiation protection in medical uses of ionizing radiation. Twenty-eight hospitals with diagnostic radiology facility were chosen for this study according to patient loads, equipment and working staffs. Radiation surveys were also done at five...

  8. Effects of abortion legalization in Nepal, 2001-2010.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jillian T Henderson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Abortion was legalized in Nepal in 2002, following advocacy efforts highlighting high maternal mortality from unsafe abortion. We sought to assess whether legalization led to reductions in the most serious maternal health consequences of unsafe abortion. METHODS: We conducted retrospective medical chart review of all gynecological cases presenting at four large public referral hospitals in Nepal. For the years 2001-2010, all cases of spontaneous and induced abortion complications were identified, abstracted, and coded to classify cases of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications. We used segmented Poisson and ordinary logistic regression to test for trend and risks of serious complications for three time periods: before implementation (2001-2003, early implementation (2004-2006, and later implementation (2007-2010. RESULTS: 23,493 cases of abortion complications were identified. A significant downward trend in the proportion of serious infection, injury, and systemic complications was observed for the later implementation period, along with a decline in the risk of serious complications (OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.64, 0.85. Reductions in sepsis occurred sooner, during early implementation (OR 0.6, 95% CI 0.47, 0.75. CONCLUSION: Over the study period, health care use and the population of reproductive aged women increased. Total fertility also declined by nearly half, despite relatively low contraceptive prevalence. Greater numbers of women likely obtained abortions and sought hospital care for complications following legalization, yet we observed a significant decline in the rate of serious abortion morbidity. The liberalization of abortion policy in Nepal has benefited women's health, and likely contributes to falling maternal mortality in the country. The steepest decline was observed after expansion of the safe abortion program to include midlevel providers, second trimester training, and medication abortion, highlighting the

  9. DEMOGRAPHY AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIAN BORDER DISTRICTS ALONG NEPAL

    OpenAIRE

    Utpal Kumar De; Deepika Sankhyan

    2015-01-01

    India and Nepal shares an open border. The unrestricted movement of people across the border over the centuries has led to the development of well-entrenched socio-cultural linkages. These linkages have, in turn, facilitated greater economic interdependence and political ties. There is no denying the fact that an open border has been a great facilitator of strong and unique bilateral relations. At the same time, it has given rise to many irritants and problems that raise serious concerns, ...

  10. The conservation of Accipitridae vultures of Nepal: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    Of the nine Accipitridae vulture species found within Nepal the IUCN categorises White-rumped, Indian Vulture, Slender-billed and Red-headed Vultures as Critically Endangered and Egyptian Vulture as Endangered. Dramatic declines have occurred since the mid 1990s with the White-rumped Vulture, Indian Vulture and Slender-billed Vulture population declining by over 97%. The remaining species are listed as Near Threatened or Least Concern. Veterinary use of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory dru...

  11. Female empowerment and education of children in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Magnus Hatlebakk; Yogendra B. Gurung

    2014-01-01

    A family survey was conducted in Nepal to investigate whether female empowerment leads to more education, in particular for girls. The relative economic power of the male and female side of the extended family was used as an instrument for female empowerment. The findings indicate, however, that both female empowerment and relative economic power affect education. There is a positive association between female empowerment and children’s education for both gender, while boys are prioritized if...

  12. A Partnership in Burn Care Education - Nepal and Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar, D.; Tonkin, C.; T. Baker; Goodwin-Walters, A.; Wood, F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes some of the issues related to an education partnership which has been developed over the last four years between the Royal Perth Hospital Burn Team in Australia and the Bir Hospital Burn Team in Kathmandu, Nepal. The paper provides an insight into the preparation and collaboration required from both teams and describes some practical ideas to assist those who may be considering educating others in a developing burn service outside their catchment area.

  13. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues.

  14. Emergency medicine in Nepal: present practice and direction for future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nishant Raj

    2016-12-01

    Emergency medicine is one of the youngest recognized specialties in Nepal, and its growth in clinical practice and academic development has been challenging. In this paper, we reviewed the current state of emergency medicine in Nepal based on review of the literature, personal observations and experience, and interviews with many Nepali and foreign emergency physicians. Most hospitals in Nepal have adopted a multi-specialist approach, where emergency room physicians are primarily general practitioners/family physicians or house officers. As physicians are receiving their training via various pathways, national standards in training and certification have not been developed. As a result, the scope of practice for emergency physicians and the quality of care vary greatly among hospitals. Difficult working conditions, physician recruitment, compensation, and academic enrichment remain major challenges in the development of emergency medicine. For the sustainable development of this specialty, more international guidance and local leadership is needed to standardize the training curriculum, to provide adequate funding opportunities for academic development and to promote the overall development of the emergency care system. PMID:27416937

  15. Revisiting global body politics in Nepal: A reflexive analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Using the example of a human rights training in Nepal, the author looks at global body politics in a reflexive piece on her engagement in development practices that translate western feminist ideas on gender inequality and empowerment via UN human rights policies into non-western contexts. It firsts look at postcolonial and critical literature on feminist engagement in gender and development processes including a discussion on the concept of global body politics before examining briefly the framing of gender-based violence in Nepal. The core of the paper is a reflexive analysis and interrogation of the training in Nepal in order to bring out the tensions and contradictions around western developmental, feminist and human rights discourses. The discussion looks at how difficult it is for feminist, human rights and developmental discourses and practices to unmoor themselves from the notion of the 'expert' and those who do the rights/work/righting rights training and those who are perennially seen as requiring training. The conclusion reflects on possibilities of other epistemic practices found in intercultural dialogues. PMID:26268778

  16. Community Vulnerability to Floods and Landslides in Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K.C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We addressed the issue of differential vulnerability to natural disasters at the level of village communities in Nepal. The focus lay on the relative importance of different dimensions of socioeconomic status and in particular, we tried to differentiate between the effects of education and income/wealth, the latter being measured through the existence of permanent housing structures. We studied damage due to floods and landslides in terms of human lives lost, animals lost, and other registered damage to households. The statistical analysis was carried out through several alternative models applied separately to the Terai and the Hill and Mountain Regions, as well as all of Nepal. At all levels and under all models, the results showed consistently significant effects of more education on lowering the number of human and animal deaths as well as the number of households otherwise affected. With respect to the wealth indicator, the picture was less clear and particularly with respect to losses in human lives, the estimated coefficients tended to have the wrong signs. We concluded that the effects of education on reducing disaster vulnerability tended to be more pervasive than those of income/wealth in the case of floods and landslides in Nepal.

  17. Newborn Health Interventions and Challenges for Implementation in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatri, Resham Bahadur; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Khanal, Vishnu; Gelal, Khageshwor; Neupane, Subas

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal mortality is a major challenge in reducing child mortality rates in Nepal. Despite efforts by the Government of Nepal, data from the last three demographic and health surveys show a rise in the contribution of neonatal deaths to infant and child mortality. The Government of Nepal has implemented community-based programs that were piloted and then scaled up based on lessons learned. These programs include, but are not limited to ensuring safe motherhood, birth preparedness package, community-based newborn care package, and integrated management of childhood illnesses. Despite the implementation of such programs on a larger scale, their effective coverage is yet to be achieved. Health system challenges included an inadequate policy environment, funding gaps, inadequate procurement, and insufficient supplies of commodities, while human resource management has been found to be impeding service delivery. Such bottlenecks at policy, institutional and service delivery level need to be addressed incorporating health information in decision-making as well as working in partnership with communities to facilitate the utilization of available services. PMID:26904534

  18. An SEM study of the nuchal organ in Daphnia himalaya (nov. sp.) embryos and neonates collected from the Khumbu region (Nepalese Himalayas)

    OpenAIRE

    Manca, Marina; Carolina D. PEÑALVA-ARANA

    2007-01-01

    Zooplankton from the Khumbu region in Nepal are rarely studied, and little is known regarding their morphology and physiology. During the EV-K2-CNR Project, a collaboration between the Government of the Republic of Italy and the Nepal Academy of Science and Technology (NAST) as part of “The long distance transport of micro-pollutants”, zooplankton samples revealed the presence of small head shields’ remains in the sediment possessing a hole in the dorsal margin. This observation led to the hy...

  19. Public and Private School Performance in Nepal: An Analysis Using the SLC Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Amrit

    2015-01-01

    Using data from the survey of the Ministry of Education, Nepal-2005 for School Leaving Certificate Exam, this paper analyzes public and private school performance in Nepal. The ordinary least square estimates suggest that private school students perform better than public school students. However, the problem of self-selection bias arises, as…

  20. Farmers' Laws and Irrigation, Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poudel, R.

    2000-01-01

    The title of my Thesis is "Farmers' Laws and Irrigation: Water Rights and Dispute Management in the Hills of Nepal". This is based on a research I conducted in the Thulotar Kulo irrigation system in Nepal, during 1997 and 1998. Thulotar Kulo is a farmer-managed irrigation system.Although this is a c