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Sample records for central montana usa

  1. Echinococcus granulosus in gray wolves and ungulates in Idaho and Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreyt, William J; Drew, Mark L; Atkinson, Mark; McCauley, Deborah

    2009-10-01

    We evaluated the small intestines of 123 gray wolves (Canis lupus) that were collected from Idaho, USA (n=63), and Montana, USA (n=60), between 2006 and 2008 for the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus. The tapeworm was detected in 39 of 63 wolves (62%) in Idaho, USA, and 38 of 60 wolves (63%) in Montana, USA. The detection of thousands of tapeworms per wolf was a common finding. In Idaho, USA, hydatid cysts, the intermediate form of E. granulosus, were detected in elk (Cervus elaphus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), and a mountain goat (Oreamnos americanus). In Montana, USA, hydatid cysts were detected in elk. To our knowledge, this is the first report of adult E. granulosus in Idaho, USA, or Montana, USA. It is unknown whether the parasite was introduced into Idaho, USA, and southwestern Montana, USA, with the importation of wolves from Alberta, Canada, or British Columbia, Canada, into Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA, and central Idaho, USA, in 1995 and 1996, or whether the parasite has always been present in other carnivore hosts, and wolves became a new definitive host. Based on our results, the parasite is now well established in wolves in these states and is documented in elk, mule deer, and a mountain goat as intermediate hosts.

  2. Monitoring biological control agents and leafy spurge populations along the Smith River in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Birdsall; G. Markin; T. Kalaris; J. Runyon

    2013-01-01

    The Smith River originates in west central Montana and flows north approximately 100 miles before joining the Missouri River. The central 60 miles of the river flows through a relatively inaccessible, forested, scenic limestone canyon famous for its trout fishing. Because of its popularity, the area was designated Montana's first and only controlled river, with...

  3. High-temperature carbonates in the Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aird, H. M.; Boudreau, A. E.

    2012-12-01

    by Cl-rich fluids [4]. The association of high-temperature carbonates with sulphides beneath the J-M reef supports the hydromagmatic theory which involves a late-stage chloride-carbonate fluid percolating upwards, dissolving PGE and sulphides and redepositing them at a higher stratigraphic level. [1] Anovitz, L.M., and Essene, E.J., 1987, Phase Equilibria in the System CaCO3-MgCO3-FeCO3: Journal of Petrology, v. 28, p. 389-414. [2] Hanley, J.J., Mungall, J.E., Pettke, T., Spooner, E.T.C., and Bray, C.J., 2008, Fluid and Halide Melt Inclusions of Magmatic Origin in the Ultramafic and Lower Banded Series, Stillwater Complex, Montana, USA: Journal of Petrology, v. 49, p. 1133-1160. [3] Boudreau, A.E., and McCallum, I.S., 1989, Investigations of the Stillwater Complex: Part V. Apatites as indicators of evolving fluid composition: Contributions to Mineralogy and Petrology, v. 102, p. 138-153. [4] Newton, R.C., and Manning, C.E., 2002, Experimental determination of calcite solubility in H2O-NaCl solutions at deep crust/upper mantle pressures and temperature: implications for metasomatic processes in shear zones: American Mineralogist, v. 87, p. 1401-1409.

  4. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Keyes, Christopher R.; Gonzalez, Ruben Manso

    2015-01-01

    Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA). Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicul...

  5. Assessment of undiscovered oil and gas resources in the North-Central Montana Province, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Woodall, Cheryl A.; Le, Phuong A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Finn, Thomas M.; Pitman, Janet K.; Marra, Kristen R.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2018-02-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated mean undiscovered, technically recoverable resources of 55 million barrels of oil and 846 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana Province.

  6. Assessment of undiscovered continuous oil and gas resources in the Heath Formation, central Montana and western North Dakota, 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Ronald M.; Schenk, Christopher J.; Klett, Timothy R.; Le, Phuong A.; Leathers, Heidi M.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Finn, Thomas M.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Marra, Kristen R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2017-06-07

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated undiscovered, technically recoverable mean resources of 884 million barrels of oil and 106 billion cubic feet of gas in the North-Central Montana and Williston Basin Provinces of central Montana and western North Dakota.

  7. 78 FR 53158 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-28

    ..., Central Montana District Manager, Lewistown Field Office, 920 NE Main, Lewistown, MT 59457, (406) 538-1900... Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-677-8339 to contact the above individual during normal business... individual. You will receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This 15-member...

  8. Decadal-scale climate drivers for glacial dynamics in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Gregory T.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Gray, Stephen T.; Graumlich, Lisa J.

    2004-06-01

    Little Ice Age (14th-19th centuries A.D.) glacial maxima and 20th century retreat have been well documented in Glacier National Park, Montana, USA. However, the influence of regional and Pacific Basin driven climate variability on these events is poorly understood. We use tree-ring reconstructions of North Pacific surface temperature anomalies and summer drought as proxies for winter glacial accumulation and summer ablation, respectively, over the past three centuries. These records show that the 1850's glacial maximum was likely produced by ~70 yrs of cool/wet summers coupled with high snowpack. Post 1850, glacial retreat coincides with an extended period (>50 yr) of summer drought and low snowpack culminating in the exceptional events of 1917 to 1941 when retreat rates for some glaciers exceeded 100 m/yr. This research highlights potential local and ocean-based drivers of glacial dynamics, and difficulties in separating the effects of global climate change from regional expressions of decadal-scale climate variability.

  9. Potential effects of climate change on streamflow for seven watersheds in eastern and central Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine J. Chase

    2016-09-01

    New hydrological insights for the region: Projected changes in mean annual and mean monthly streamflow vary by the RegCM3 model selected, by watershed, and by future period. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to increase (11–21% for two of the four central Montana watersheds: Middle Musselshell River and Cottonwood Creek. Mean annual streamflows for all future periods are projected to decrease (changes of −24 to −75% for Redwater River watershed in eastern Montana. Mean annual streamflows are projected to increase slightly (2–15% for the 2030 period and decrease (changes of −16 to −44% for the 2080 period for the four remaining watersheds.

  10. Climate-influenced ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed masting trends in western Montana, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Keyes

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The aim of this study was to analyze 10-year records of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa seed production, in order to confirm synchronic seed production and to evaluate cyclical masting trends, masting depletion effect, and climate-masting relationships. Area of study: The study area was located in a P. ponderosa stand in the northern Rocky Mountains (western Montana, USA. Material and methods: The study was conducted in one stand that had been subjected to a silvicultural study of uneven-aged management techniques that was carried out in 1984, and which resulted in three separate units consisting of one control, one cut/no-burn treatment, and one cut/burn treatment. Seeds were collected during the 10 years following treatment in 15 traps systematically deployed within each of the stand’s three units. The total numbers of seeds collected in each unit were plotted over time to analyze crop synchrony, with Spearman rank correlation coefficient used to test for masting cycles and crop depletion after a mast year. Meteorological records over the period 1983-1994 were related to the occurrence of a mast event (defined as crops exceeding 50,000 viable seeds/ha. Main results: The seed production pattern was non-cyclical, synchronous, and independent of silvicultural treatment history. A mast-depletion effect was evident but was not statistically significant. Mast events seem to be promoted by the occurrence of optimum mean temperatures at the beginning of spring during both the first (11 °C and second (9 °C years of cone maturation. The probability of a mast year was also affected by summer temperature (number of late frost days; negative effect and precipitation amount (positive effect. All these factors would seemingly explain the observed synchronous pattern in cone production. Research highlights: The non-cyclical trend of ponderosa pine seed mast years is influenced by specific climate determinants. Fluctuations in mean early

  11. Uniquely Acquired Vintage Seismic Reflection Data Reveal the Stratigraphic and Tectonic History of the Montana Disturbed Belt, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speece, M. A.; Link, C. A.; Stickney, M.

    2011-12-01

    In 1983 and 1984 Techco of Denver, Colorado, acquired approximately 302 linear kilometers of two-dimensional (2D) seismic reflection data in Flathead and Lake Counties, Montana, USA, as part of an initiative to identify potential drilling targets beneath the Swan and Whitefish Mountain Ranges and adjacent basins of northwestern Montana. These seismic lines were collected in the Montana Disturbed Belt (MDB) or Montana thrust belt along the western edge of Glacier National Park in mountainous terrain with complicated subsurface structures including thrust faults and folds. These structures formed during the Laramide Orogeny as sedimentary rocks of the Precambrian Belt Supergroup were thrust eastward. Later, during the Cenozoic, high-angle normal faults produced prominent west-facing mountain scarps of the Mission, Swan and Whitefish mountains. The 1983 data set consisted of two profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) Vibroseis data and four profiles of 24-fold (96-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data. The dynamite data were collected using the Poulter Method in which explosives were placed on poles and air shots were recorded. The 1983 dynamite profiles extend from southwest to northeast across the Whitefish Mountain Range to the edge of Glacier National Park and the Vibroseis data were collected along nearby roadways. The 1984 data set consists of four profiles of 30-fold (120-channels) helicopter-assisted dynamite data that were also collected using the Poulter Method. The 1984 profiles cross the Swan Mountain Range between Flathead Lake and Glacier National Park. All of these data sets were recently donated to Montana Tech and subsequently recovered from nine-track tape. Conventionally processed seismic stacked sections from the 1980s of these data show evidence of a basement decollement that separates relatively undeformed basement from overlying structures of the MDB. Unfortunately, these data sets have not been processed using modern seismic processing

  12. Quantifying social preferences toward woody biomass energy generation in Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Campbell; Tyron Venn; Nathaniel Anderson

    2015-01-01

    A significant amount of the forestland in Montana is in need of mechanical forest restoration treatments, which can improve forest health and reduce wildfire risk, but can be expensive to implement and produce little merchantable timber. One option for disposal of the small diameter material produced by these treatments is to utilize it to produce energy,...

  13. Measuring effectiveness of three postfire hillslope erosion barrier treatments, western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter R. Robichaud; Frederick B. Pierson; Robert E. Brown; Joseph W. Wagenbrenner

    2008-01-01

    After the Valley Complex Fire burned 86 000 ha in western Montana in 2000, two studies were conducted to determine the effectiveness of contour-felled log, straw wattle, and hand-dug contour trench erosion barriers in mitigating postfire runoff and erosion. Sixteen plots were located across a steep, severely burned slope, with a single barrier installed in 12 plots (...

  14. The effects of wildfire and environmental amenities on property values in northwest Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle M. Stetler; Tyron J. Venn; David E. Calkin

    2010-01-01

    This study employed the hedonic price framework to examine the effects of 256 wildfires and environmental amenities on home values in northwest Montana between June 1996 and January 2007. The study revealed environmental amenities, including proximity to lakes, national forests, Glacier National Park and golf courses, have large positive effects on property values in...

  15. Euoplocephalus tutus and the diversity of ankylosaurid dinosaurs in the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada, and Montana, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria M Arbour

    Full Text Available Few ankylosaurs are known from more than a single specimen, but the ankylosaurid Euoplocephalus tutus (from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta, Canada and Montana, USA is represented by dozens of skulls and partial skeletons, and is therefore an important taxon for understanding intraspecific variation in ankylosaurs. Euoplocephalus is unusual compared to other dinosaurs from the Late Cretaceous of Alberta because it is recognized from the Dinosaur Park, Horseshoe Canyon, and Two Medicine formations. A comprehensive review of material attributed to Euoplocephalus finds support for the resurrection of its purported synonyms Anodontosaurus lambei and Scolosaurus cutleri, and the previously resurrected Dyoplosaurus acutosquameus. Anodontosaurus is found primarily in the Horseshoe Canyon Formation of Alberta and is characterized by ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and wide, triangular knob osteoderms. Euoplocephalus is primarily found in Megaherbivore Assemblage Zone 1 in the Dinosaur Park Formation of Alberta and is characterized by the absence of ornamentation posterior to the orbits and on the first cervical half ring, and keeled medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring. Scolosaurus is found primarily in the Two Medicine Formation of Montana (although the holotype is from Dinosaur Provincial Park, and is characterized by long, back-swept squamosal horns, ornamentation posterior to the orbit, and low medial osteoderms on the first cervical half ring; Oohkotokia horneri is morphologically indistinguishable from Scolosaurus cutleri. Dyoplosaurus was previously differentiated from Euoplocephalus sensu lato by the morphology of the pelvis and pes, and these features also differentiate Dyoplosaurus from Anodontosaurus and Scolosaurus; a narrow tail club knob is probably also characteristic for Dyoplosaurus.

  16. Mountain pine beetle selectivity in old-growth ponderosa pine forests, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Paul A; Soulé, Peter T; Maxwell, Justin T

    2013-05-01

    A historically unprecedented mountain pine beetle (MPB) outbreak affected western Montana during the past decade. We examined radial growth rates (AD 1860-2007/8) of co-occurring mature healthy and MPB-infected ponderosa pine trees collected at two sites (Cabin Gulch and Kitchen Gulch) in western Montana and: (1) compared basal area increment (BAI) values within populations and between sites; (2) used carbon isotope analysis to calculate intrinsic water-use efficiency (iWUE) at Cabin Gulch; and (3) compared climate-growth responses using a suite of monthly climatic variables. BAI values within populations and between sites were similar until the last 20-30 years, at which point the visually healthy populations had consistently higher BAI values (22-34%) than the MPB-infected trees. These results suggest that growth rates two-three decades prior to the current outbreak diverged between our selected populations, with the slower-growing trees being more vulnerable to beetle infestation. Both samples from Cabin Gulch experienced upward trends in iWUE, with significant regime shifts toward higher iWUE beginning in 1955-59 for the visually healthy trees and 1960-64 for the MPB-infected trees. Drought tolerance also varied between the two populations with the visually healthy trees having higher growth rates than MPB-infected trees prior to infection during a multi-decadal period of drying summertime conditions. Intrinsic water-use efficiency significantly increased for both populations during the past 150 years, but there were no significant differences between the visually healthy and MPB-infected chronologies.

  17. Ecological drought: Accounting for the non-human impacts of water shortage in the Upper Missouri Headwaters Basin, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEvoy, Jamie; Bathke, Deborah J.; Burkardt, Nina; Cravens, Amanda; Haigh, Tonya; Hall, Kimberly R.; Hayes, Michael J.; Jedd, Theresa; Podebradska, Marketa; Wickham, Elliot

    2018-01-01

    Water laws and drought plans are used to prioritize and allocate scarce water resources. Both have historically been human-centric, failing to account for non-human water needs. In this paper, we examine the development of instream flow legislation and the evolution of drought planning to highlight the growing concern for the non-human impacts of water scarcity. Utilizing a new framework for ecological drought, we analyzed five watershed-scale drought plans in southwestern Montana, USA to understand if, and how, the ecological impacts of drought are currently being assessed. We found that while these plans do account for some ecological impacts, it is primarily through the narrow lens of impacts to fish as measured by water temperature and streamflow. The latter is typically based on the same ecological principles used to determine instream flow requirements. We also found that other resource plans in the same watersheds (e.g., Watershed Restoration Plans, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Watershed Assessments or United States Forest Service (USFS) Forest Plans) identify a broader range of ecological drought risks. Given limited resources and the potential for mutual benefits and synergies, we suggest greater integration between various planning processes could result in a more holistic consideration of water needs and uses across the landscape.

  18. The dispersion of fibrous amphiboles by glacial processes in the area surrounding Libby, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William H.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Meeker, Gregory P.; Adams, David T.; Hoefen, Todd M.

    2011-01-01

    Mining operations began at a world-class vermiculite deposit at Vermiculite Mountain near Libby, Montana, circa 1920 and ended in 1990. Fibrous and asbestiform amphiboles intergrown with vermiculite ore are suspected to be a causative factor in an abnormally high number of cases of respiratory diseases in former mine and mill workers, and in residents of Libby. The question addressed in this report is whether some of the amphibole from Vermiculite Mountain could have been dispersed by Pleistocene glacial processes rather than by human activity after vermiculite mining began. The history of Pinedale glaciation in the Libby area provides a framework for estimating the presence and distribution of asbestiform amphiboles derived from Vermiculite Mountain and found in naturally occurring sediments of Glacial Lake Kootenai that underlie the Libby Valley area. There were two situations where sediments derived from Vermiculite Mountain were deposited into Glacial Lake Kootenai: (1) as lake-bottom sediments derived from meltwater flowing down Rainy Creek when the valley south of Vermiculite Mountain was free of ice but active ice still covered Vermiculite Mountain; and (2) as lake-bottom sediments eroded from the Rainy Creek outwash and re-deposited during a re-advance of the Purcell Trench Glacier lobe near Moyie Springs, Idaho.

  19. Beaver dams and channel sediment dynamics on Odell Creek, Centennial Valley, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Rebekah; Meyer, Grant A.

    2014-01-01

    Beaver dams in streams are generally considered to increase bed elevation through in-channel sediment storage, thus, reintroductions of beaver are increasingly employed as a restoration tool to repair incised stream channels. Here we consider hydrologic and geomorphic characteristics of the study stream in relation to in-channel sediment storage promoted by beaver dams. We also document the persistence of sediment in the channel following breaching of dams. Nine reaches, containing 46 cross-sections, were investigated on Odell Creek at Red Rock Lakes National Wildlife Refuge, Centennial Valley, Montana. Odell Creek has a snowmelt-dominated hydrograph and peak flows between 2 and 10 m3 s- 1. Odell Creek flows down a fluvial fan with a decreasing gradient (0.018-0.004), but is confined between terraces along most of its length, and displays a mostly single-thread, variably sinuous channel. The study reaches represent the overall downstream decrease in gradient and sediment size, and include three stages of beaver damming: (1) active; (2) built and breached in the last decade; and (3) undammed. In-channel sediment characteristics and storage were investigated using pebble counts, fine-sediment depth measurements, sediment mapping and surveys of dam breaches. Upstream of dams, deposition of fine (≤ 2 mm) sediment is promoted by reduced water surface slope, shear stress and velocity, with volumes ranging from 48 to 182 m3. High flows, however, can readily transport suspended sediment over active dams. Variations in bed-sediment texture and channel morphology associated with active dams create substantial discontinuities in downstream trends and add to overall channel heterogeneity. Observations of abandoned dam sites and dam breaches revealed that most sediment stored above beaver dams is quickly evacuated following a breach. Nonetheless, dam remnants trap some sediment, promote meandering and facilitate floodplain development. Persistence of beaver dam sediment

  20. Dinosaur Census Reveals Abundant Tyrannosaurus and Rare Ontogenetic Stages in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation (Maastrichtian), Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, John R.; Goodwin, Mark B.; Myhrvold, Nathan

    2011-01-01

    Background A dinosaur census recorded during the Hell Creek Project (1999–2009) incorporates multiple lines of evidence from geography, taphohistory, stratigraphy, phylogeny and ontogeny to investigate the relative abundance of large dinosaurs preserved in the Upper Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation of northeastern Montana, USA. Overall, the dinosaur skeletal assemblages in the Hell Creek Formation (excluding lag-influenced records) consist primarily of subadult or small adult size individuals. Small juveniles and large adults are both extremely rare, whereas subadult individuals are relatively common. We propose that mature individuals of at least some dinosaur taxa either lived in a separate geographic locale analogous to younger individuals inhabiting an upland environment where sedimentation rates were relatively less, or these taxa experienced high mortality before reaching terminal size where late stage and often extreme cranial morphology is expressed. Methodology/Principal Findings Tyrannosaurus skeletons are as abundant as Edmontosaurus, an herbivore, in the upper Hell Creek Formation and nearly twice as common in the lower third of the formation. Smaller, predatory dinosaurs (e.g., Troodon and dromaeosaurids) are primarily represented by teeth found in microvertebrate localities and their skeletons or identifiable lag specimens were conspicuously absent. This relative abundance suggests Tyrannosaurus was not a typical predator and likely benefited from much wider food choice opportunities than exclusively live prey and/or specific taxa. Tyrannosaurus adults may not have competed with Tyrannosaurus juveniles if the potential for selecting carrion increased with size during ontogeny. Conclusions/Significance Triceratops is the most common dinosaur and isolated skulls contribute to a significant portion of this census. Associated specimens of Triceratops consisting of both cranial and postcranial elements remain relatively rare. This rarity may be explained

  1. 77 FR 31873 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-30

    ... Main, Lewistown, Montana 59457, (406) 538-1900, [email protected] . Persons who use a... to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This 15-member council advises the Secretary of the...

  2. 76 FR 52968 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ..., Montana 59457, (406) 538-1900, [email protected] . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the... individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during normal business hours...

  3. 76 FR 21780 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ..., Lewistown, Montana 59457, (406) 538-1900. Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may... during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during normal business hours. Diane M. Friez...

  4. GREYBULL SANDSTONE PETROLEUM POTENTIAL ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2000-12-14

    Evaluation of the Lower Cretaceous Greybull Sandstone on the Crow Indian Reservation for potential stratigraphic traps in the valley-fill sandstone was the focus of this project. The Crow Reservation area, located in south-central Montana, is part of the Rocky Mountain Foreland structural province, which is characterized by Laramide uplifts and intervening structural basins. The Pryor and Bighorn mountains, like other foreland uplifts, are characterized by asymmetrical folds associated with basement-involved reverse faults. The reservation area east of the mountains is on the northwestern flank of the Powder River Basin. Therefore, regional dips are eastward and southeastward; however, several prominent structural features interrupt these regional dips. The nearly 4,000 mi{sup 2} reservation is under explored but has strong potential for increased oil and gas development. Oil and gas production is well established in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming to the south as well as in the areas north and west of the reservation. However, only limited petroleum production has been established within the reservation. Geologic relations and trends indicate strong potential for oil and gas accumulations, but drilling has been insufficient for their discovery. The Greybull Sandstone, which is part of the transgressive systems tract that includes the overlying Fall River Sandstone, was deposited on a major regional unconformity. The erosional surface at the base of the Greybull Sandstone is the +100 Ma, late Aptian-Early Albian regional unconformity of Weimer (1984). This lowstand erosional surface was controlled by a basin-wide drop in sea level. In areas where incised Greybull channels are absent, the lowstand erosional unconformity is at the base of the Fall River Sandstone and equivalent formations. During the pre-Greybull lowstand, sediment bypassed this region. In the subsequent marine transgression, streams began to aggrade and deposit sand of the lower Greybull Sandstone

  5. Geochemistry, water balance, and stable isotopes of a “clean” pit lake at an abandoned tungsten mine, Montana, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gammons, Christopher H.; Pape, Barbara L.; Parker, Stephen R.; Poulson, Simon R.; Blank, Carrine E.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • An abandoned open pit mine is now a 30 m deep lake with excellent water quality. • Concentrations of sulfate, nutrients, and most trace metals are extremely low. • Based on water isotopes, the lake is 30% evaporated with a 2.5 yr residence time. • Stable isotopes of DIC and DO track in-lake bio-geochemical processes. • Phytoplankton are active at depths as great as 20 m. - Abstract: The Calvert Mine is a small tungsten-rich (scheelite) skarn deposit in a remote, mountainous region of southwest Montana, USA. The open-pit mine closed in the 1970s and subsequently flooded to form a pit lake that is roughly conical in shape, 30 m deep and 120 m in diameter, with no surface inlet or outlet. The lake is holomictic with a groundwater flow-through hydrology and an estimated residence time of 2.5–5 y. Water isotopes show that the lake is at an approximate steady state with respect to water balance and has experienced 30% evaporation. The lake has a near-neutral pH, exceptional clarity, and extremely low concentrations of nutrients, sulfate, and most metals, including tungsten. Manganese concentrations are slightly elevated and increase with depth towards the sediment–water interface. Despite seasonally anoxic conditions in the deep water, dissolved Fe concentrations are orders of magnitude lower than Mn, suggesting that insufficient organic carbon is present in the sediment of this oligotrophic lake to drive bacterial Fe reduction. Based on stable isotope fingerprinting, diffuse seepage that enters a nearby headwater stream at the base of a large waste-rock pile can be directly linked to the partially evaporated pit lake. However, this seepage has neutral pH and low metal concentrations, and poses no threats to the environment. Stable isotopes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and dissolved oxygen (DO) are used to track the relative importance of photosynthesis and respiration with depth. In summer, a zone of high productivity exists near the

  6. Simulated effects of surface coal mining and agriculture on dissolved solids in the Redwater River, east-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, R.F.; Lambing, J.H.

    1985-01-01

    Dissolved solids concentrations in five reaches of the Redwater River in east-central Montana were simulated to evaluate the effects of surface coal mining and agriculture. A mass-balance model of streamflow and dissolved solids load developed for the Tongue River in southeastern Montana was modified and applied to the Redwater River. Mined acreages, dissolved solids concentrations in mined spoils, and irrigated acreage can be varied in the model to study relative changes in the dissolved solids concentration in consecutive reaches of the river. Because of extreme variability and a limited amount of data, the model was not consecutively validated. Simulated mean and median monthly mean streamflows and consistently larger than those calculated from streamflow records. Simulated mean and median monthly mean dissolved solids loads also are consistently larger than regression-derived values. These discrepancies probably result from extremely variable streamflow, overestimates of streamflow from ungaged tributaries, and weak correlations between streamflow and dissolved solids concentrations. The largest increases in simulated dissolved solids concentrations from mining and agriculture occur from September through January because of smaller streamflows and dissolved solids loads. Different combinations of agriculture and mining under mean flow conditions resulted in cumulative percentage increases of dissolved solids concentrations of less than 5% for mining and less than 2% for agriculture. (USGS)

  7. Cyclic platform dolomites and platform-to-basin transition of Jefferson Formation (Frasnian), southwest Montana and east-central Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorobek, S.L.

    1987-08-01

    The Jefferson Formation (Frasnian) in southwestern Montana consists of cyclic sequences of shallow marine platformal dolomites that grade westward into slope/basinal facies in east-central Idaho. Regional sedimentologic characteristics of slope facies in Idaho indicate that the Jefferson platform resembled a distally steepened ramp. Slope facies consist of slope laminites with local small scale slumps and slope breccias. Shallow water platform-derived clasts are lacking in the slope breccias. Individual shallowing upward platform cycles are 25 m to < 1 m thick and consists of, in descending order: local solution-collapse breccia caps; cryptalgal dolomudstone; rare ooid dolograinstone; thin-bedded Amphipora dolowackestone; coarsely crystalline dolostones with abundant lenticular to domal stromatoporoids; and basal thin-bedded, fine-grained, shale dolostones with closely spaced hard-grounds that grade upward into burrow-homogenized, irregularly bedded dolostones.

  8. Effects of ancient porosity and permeability on formation of sedimentary dolomites: Devonian Jefferson Formation (Frasnian), south-central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, T.M.; Dorobek, S.L.

    1987-08-01

    Petrographic and geochemical evidence indicates that multiple dolomitization and dolomite stabilization events affected the Devonian Jefferson Formation (Frasnian) in south-central Montana. Several types of dolomite occur, defined by cathodoluminescence: nonzoned, dully luminescent subhedral-anhedral mosaics (most common), euhedral nonzoned and zoned dolomites, zoned dolomite cements, and irregularly luminescent dolomites (dully luminescent with irregularly luminescent regions). The irregularly luminescent fabrics probably represent partial replacement of early dolomite phases with later dolomite phases. Nonzoned, Ca-enriched, euhedral dolomites occur in calcite-cemented, coarse-grained limestone layers. These permeable layers probably were conduits for early meteoric waters, that occluded porosity in the limestones and prevented later dolomite stabilization. Irregularly luminescent dolomites are interpreted as intermediate fabrics in the dolomite stabilization process. Later calcite cements which occlude intercrystalline porosity prevented further dolomite replacement. Total recrystallization of remaining dolomites and formation of final dully luminescent mosaics occurred prior to brecciation and stylolitization.

  9. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee H. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Dobeck, Laura M. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Repasky, Kevin S. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Nehrir, Amin R. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Humphries, Seth D. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Barr, Jamie L. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Keith, Charlie J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Shaw, Joseph A. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Rouse, Joshua H. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering; Cunningham, Alfred B. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Benson, Sally M. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States). Global Climate and Energy Project; Oldenburg, Curtis M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Lewicki, Jennifer L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Wells, Arthur W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Diehl, J. Rodney [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Strazisar, Brian R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Fessenden, Julianna E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Div. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Rahn, Thom A. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Div. of Earth and Environmental Sciences; Amonette, James E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Barr, Jon L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pickles, William L. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Jacobson, James D. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Silver, Eli A. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Male, Erin J. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States). Earth and Planetary Sciences; Rauch, Henry W. [Univ. of West Virginia, Morgantown, WV (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geography; Gullickson, Kadie S. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemistry and Biochemistry; Trautz, Robert [Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI), Palo Alto, CA (United States); Kharaka, Yousif [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Birkholzer, Jens [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Earth Sciences Div.; Wielopolski, Lucien [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2010-03-01

    A controlled field pilot has been developed in Bozeman, Montana, USA, to study near surface CO2 transport and detection technologies. A slotted horizontal well divided into six zones was installed in the shallow subsurface. The scale and CO2 release rates were chosen to be relevant to developing monitoring strategies for geological carbon storage. The field site was characterized before injection, and CO2 transport and concentrations in saturated soil and the vadose zone were modeled. Controlled releases of CO2 from the horizontal well were performed in the summers of 2007 and 2008, and collaborators from six national labs, three universities, and the U. S. Geological Survey investigated movement of CO2 through the soil, water, plants, and air with a wide range of near surface detection techniques. An overview of these results will be presented.

  10. Timing of lake-level changes for a deep last-glacial Lake Missoula: optical dating of the Garden Gulch area, Montana, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Larry N.; Sohbati, Reza; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter

    2018-01-01

    Glaciolacustrine sediments in the Clark Fork River valley at Garden Gulch, near Drummond, Montana, USA record highstand positions of the ice-dammed glacial Lake Missoula and repeated subaerial exposure. During these highstands the lake was at greater than 65% of its recognized maximum capacity......-level fluctuation, occurred over time scales of decades to ∼2 ka. Bioturbated sandy slopewash dated at 10.6 ± 0.9 ka and 11.9 ± 1.2 ka unconformably overlies the upper glaciolacustrine deposits. The uppermost sediments, above the glaciolacustrine section, are younger than the Glacier Peak tephra (13.7-13.4 cal ka B...... the lake's highstand position due to ice-dam failure likely led to scour in the downstream portions of the glacial Lake Missoula basin and megafloods in the Channeled Scabland....

  11. Management guide to ecosystem restoration treatments: two-aged lodgepole pine forests of central Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon M. Hood; Helen Y. Smith; David K. Wright; Lance S. Glasgow

    2012-01-01

    Lodgepole pine is one of the most widely distributed conifers in North America, with a mixed-severity rather than stand-replacement fire regime throughout much of its range. These lodgepole pine forests are patchy and often two-aged. Fire exclusion can reduce two-aged lodgepole pine heterogeneity. This management guide summarizes the effects of thinning and prescribed...

  12. An Optimal Centralized Carbon Dioxide Repository for Florida, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Poiencot

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available For over a decade, the United States Department of Energy, and engineers, geologists, and scientists from all over the world have investigated the potential for reducing atmospheric carbon emissions through carbon sequestration. Numerous reports exist analyzing the potential for sequestering carbon dioxide at various sites around the globe, but none have identified the potential for a statewide system in Florida, USA. In 2005, 83% of Florida’s electrical energy was produced by natural gas, coal, or oil (e.g., fossil fuels, from power plants spread across the state. In addition, only limited research has been completed on evaluating optimal pipeline transportation networks to centralized carbon dioxide repositories. This paper describes the feasibility and preliminary locations for an optimal centralized Florida-wide carbon sequestration repository. Linear programming optimization modeling is used to plan and route an idealized pipeline network to existing Florida power plants. Further analysis of the subsurface geology in these general locations will provide insight into the suitability of the subsurface conditions and the available capacity for carbon sequestration at selected possible repository sites. The identification of the most favorable site(s is also presented.

  13. A digital model for planning water management at Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimick, David A.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Fields, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge is an important area for waterfowl production and migratory stopover in west-central Montana. Eight wetland units covering about 5,600 acres are the essential features of the refuge. Water availability for the wetland units can be uncertain owing to the large natural variations in precipitation and runoff and the high cost of pumping supplemental water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, has developed a digital model for planning water management. The model can simulate strategies for water transfers among the eight wetland units and account for variability in runoff and pumped water. This report describes this digital model, which uses a water-accounting spreadsheet to track inputs and outputs to each of the wetland units of Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Inputs to the model include (1) monthly values for precipitation, pumped water, runoff, and evaporation; (2) water-level/capacity data for each wetland unit; and (3) the pan-evaporation coefficient. Outputs include monthly water volume and flooded surface area for each unit for as many as 5 consecutive years. The digital model was calibrated by comparing simulated and historical measured water volumes for specific test years.

  14. Development of a Geologic Exploration Model foe the Permo-Pennsylvanian Petroleum System in South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    2007-06-30

    presented: migration occurred (1) before mid-Jurassic erosion produced a major regional unconformity or (2) about 82 million years ago. Migration pre-Laramide occurred because oil in both the Bighorn Basin and the Powder River Basin are part of the same petroleum system. Geochemical analyses of oils from producing fields across the region show the oils are all similar and have the same source and generation history. No Phosphoria source rocks exist in the project area of south-central Montana, requiring that oil migrated from distant source areas, probably in central and southwestern Wyoming. Oil shows and production in the Tensleep are absent in the northern part of the project area. This appears to be controlled by the merging of the top of the Tensleep Sandstone and the Jurassic unconformity (top of the Triassic Chugwater Formation). There should be potential for the discovery of oil in Tensleep stratigraphic traps or combination traps everywhere south of the Jurassic-Pennsylvanian Isopach zero contour except where the Tensleep has been exposed by uplift and erosion. Known Tensleep fields in south-central Montana are generally small in area, which agrees with outcrop studies that show eolian dune sequences are generally quite small in lateral extent, on the order of 10 to 40 acres. Although existing fields are small in area, they are very productive; individual wells will probably make 300,000 to 500,000 barrels of oil. In the project area, hydrodynamic considerations are important. All the existing Tensleep fields have active water drives. In many cases, the reservoir pressure today is as it was when initially discovered. In areas of high structural complexity, such as the Lodge Grass-Crow Agency fault and the Lake Basin fault zone, significant structural closure may be necessary to trap oil because of the strong hydrodynamic influence exerted by the underlying Madison Formation aquifer.

  15. Strontium isotope systematics of mixing groundwater and oil-field brine at Goose Lake in northeastern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Zell E.; Thamke, Joanna N.; Futa, Kiyoto; Preston, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Groundwater, surface water, and soil in the Goose Lake oil field in northeastern Montana have been affected by Cl−-rich oil-field brines during long-term petroleum production. Ongoing multidisciplinary geochemical and geophysical studies have identified the degree and local extent of interaction between brine and groundwater. Fourteen samples representing groundwater, surface water, and brine were collected for Sr isotope analyses to evaluate the usefulness of 87Sr/86Sr in detecting small amounts of brine. Differences in Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr are optimal at this site for the experiment. Strontium concentrations range from 0.13 to 36.9 mg/L, and corresponding 87Sr/86Sr values range from 0.71097 to 0.70828. The local brine has 168 mg/L Sr and a 87Sr/86Sr value of 0.70802. Mixing relationships are evident in the data set and illustrate the sensitivity of Sr in detecting small amounts of brine in groundwater. The location of data points on a Sr isotope-concentration plot is readily explained by an evaporation-mixing model. The model is supported by the variation in concentrations of most of the other solutes.

  16. Mesoscale surface equivalent temperature (T E) for East Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Keri; Mahmood, Rezaul; Goodrich, Gregory; Pielke, Roger A.; Durkee, Joshua

    2018-04-01

    The purpose of this research is to investigate near surface mesoscale equivalent temperatures (T E) in Kentucky (located in east central USA) and potential land cover influences. T E is a measure of the moist enthalpy composed of the dry bulb temperature, T, and absolute humidity. Kentucky presents a unique opportunity to perform a study of this kind because of the observational infrastructure provided by the Kentucky Mesonet (www.kymesonet.org). This network maintains 69 research-grade, in-situ weather and climate observing stations across the Commonwealth. Equivalent temperatures were calculated utilizing high-quality observations from 33 of these stations. In addition, the Kentucky Mesonet offers higher spatial and temporal resolution than previous research on this topic. As expected, the differences (T E - T) were greatest in the summer (smallest in the winter), with an average of 35 °C (5 °C). In general, the differences were found to be the largest in the western climate division. This is attributed to agricultural land use and poorly drained land. These differences are smaller during periods of drought, signifying less influence of moisture.

  17. A 28,000 year history of vegetation and climate from Lower Red Rock Lake, Centennial Valley, Southwestern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumma, Stephanie Ann; Whitlock, Cathy; Pierce, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    A sediment core extending to 28,000 cal yr BP from Lower Red Rock Lake in the Centennial Valley of southwestern Montana provides new information on the nature of full-glacial vegetation as well as a history of late-glacial and Holocene vegetation and climate in a poorly studied region. Prior to 17,000 cal yr BP, the eastern Centennial Valley was occupied by a large lake (Pleistocene Lake Centennial), and valley glaciers were present in adjacent mountain ranges. The lake lowered upon erosion of a newly formed western outlet in late-glacial time. High pollen percentages of Juniperus, Poaceae, Asteraceae, and other herbs as well as low pollen accumulation rates suggest sparse vegetation cover. Inferred cold dry conditions are consistent with a strengthened glacial anticyclone at this time. Between 17,000 and 10,500 cal yr BP, high Picea and Abies pollen percentages suggest a shift to subalpine parkland and warmer conditions than before. This is attributed to the northward shift of the jet stream and increasing summer insolation. From 10,500 to 7100 cal yr BP, pollen evidence of open dry forests suggests warm conditions, which were likely a response to increased summer insolation and a strengthened Pacific subtropical high-pressure system. From 7100 to 2400 cal yr BP, cooler moister conditions promoted closed forest and wetlands. Increases in Picea and Abies pollen percentages after 2400 cal yr BP suggest increasing effective moisture. The postglacial pattern of Pseudotsuga expansion indicates that it arrived later on the Atlantic side of the Continental Divide than on the Pacific side. The Divide may have been a physical barrier for refugial populations or it delimited different climate regions that influenced the timing of Pseudotsuga expansion.

  18. Spatiotemporal Dynamics of Fire in Whitebark Pine Stands on two Mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, E. R.; Grissino-Mayer, H. D.

    2004-12-01

    Whitebark pine (Pinus albicaulis) is a long-lived tree species that exists throughout high elevation and treeline forest communities of western North America. It is the foundation of a diminishing ecosystem that supports Clark's nutcrackers (Nucifraga columbiana), red squirrels (Tamiasciurus hudsonicus), grizzly bears (Ursus arctos), and black bears (U. americana). Several factors are directly linked to the decline of the whitebark pine ecosystem: mortality from recent and widespread mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae) outbreaks, infestation by the invasive white pine blister rust (Cronartium ribicola, an exotic fungal canker that weakens and eventually kills white pines), and fire suppression that may have altered the historic fire regime and enabled fire-intolerant tree species to encroach upon whitebark pine stands. The synergistic effects of these factors have led to a dramatic decline in whitebark pine communities throughout its native range, and in response land managers and conservationists have called for research to better understand the ecological dynamics of this little studied ecosystem. My research uses dendrochronology to investigate the fire history of whitebark pine stands on three mountains in the Lolo National Forest, Montana, via fire-scar and age structure analyses. I present here the results from the fire-scar analyses from Morrell Mountain where I obtained 40 cross sections from dead and down whitebark pines. Individual tree mean fire return intervals (MFRI) range from 33 to 119 years, with a stand MFRI of 49 years that includes fire scars dating to the 16th century. Fire events scarred multiple trees in AD 1754, 1796, and 1843, indicating a mixed-severity fire regime. The majority of the samples recorded a frost event in AD 1601, perhaps evidence of the AD 1600 eruption of Mt. Huaynapatina in the Peruvian Andes. My research not only provides an historical framework for land managers, but also provides an opportunity to examine long

  19. The role of natural vegetative disturbance in determining stream reach characteristics in central Idaho and western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roper, B.B.; Jarvis, B.; Kershner, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    We evaluated the relationship between natural vegetative disturbance and changes in stream habitat and macroinvertebrate metrics within 33 randomly selected minimally managed watersheds in central Idaho and western Montana. Changes in stream reach conditions were related to vegetative disturbance for the time periods from 1985 to 1993 and 1993 to 2000, respectively, at the following three spatial scales; within the stream buffer and less than 1 km from the evaluated reach, within the watershed and within 1 km of the stream reach, and within the watershed. Data for stream reaches were based on field surveys and vegetative disturbance was generated for the watershed above the sampled reach using remotely sensed data and geographical information systems. Large scale (>100 ha) vegetative disturbance was common within the study area. Even though natural vegetative disturbance rates were high, we found that few of the measured attributes were related to the magnitude of vegetative disturbance. The three physical habitat attributes that changed significantly were sinuosity, median particle size, and percentage of undercut bank; each was related to the disturbance in the earlier (1985-1993) time frame. There was a significant relationship between changes in two macroinvertebrate metrics, abundance and percent collectors/filterers, and the magnitude of disturbance during the more recent time period (1993-2000). We did not find a consistent relationship between the location of the disturbance within the watershed and changes in stream conditions. Our findings suggest that natural vegetative disturbance within the northern Rocky Mountains is complex but likely does not result in substantial short-term changes in the characteristics of most stream reaches. ?? 2007 by the Northwest Scientific Association. All rights reserved.

  20. Comparison of Cottonwood Dendrochronology and Optically Stimulated Luminescence Geochronometers Along a High Plains Meandering River, Powder River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasse, T. R.; Schook, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Geochronometers at centennial scales can aid our understanding of process rates in fluvial geomorphology. Plains cottonwood trees (Populus deltoides ssp. Monilifera) in the high plains of the United States are known to germinate on freshly created deposits such as point bars adjacent to rivers. As the trees mature they may be partially buried (up to a few meters) by additional flood deposits. Cottonwood age gives a minimum age estimate of the stratigraphic surface where the tree germinated and a maximum age estimate for overlying sediments, providing quantitative data on rates of river migration and sediment accumulation. Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) of sand grains can be used to estimate the time since the sand grains were last exposed to sunlight, also giving a minimum age estimate of sediment burial. Both methods have disadvantages: Browsing, partial burial, and other damage to young cottonwoods can increase the time required for the tree to reach a height where it can be sampled with a tree corer, making the germination point a few years to a few decades older than the measured tree age; fluvial OSL samples can have inherited age (when the OSL age is older than the burial age) if the sediment was not completely bleached prior to burial. We collected OSL samples at 8 eroding banks of the Powder River Montana, and tree cores at breast height (±1.2 m) from cottonwood trees growing on the floodplain adjacent to the OSL sample locations. Using the Minimum Age Model (MAM) we found that OSL ages appear to be 500 to 1,000 years older than the adjacent cottonwood trees which range in age (at breast height) from 60 to 185 years. Three explanations for this apparent anomaly in ages are explored. Samples for OSL could be below a stratigraphic unconformity relative to the cottonwood germination elevation. Shallow samples for OSL could be affected by anthropogenic mixing of sediments due to plowing and leveling of hay fields. The OSL samples could have

  1. Assessing the impacts of river regulation on native bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats in the upper Flathead River, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlfeld, Clint C.; Jones, Leslie A.; Kotter, D.; Miller, William J.; Geise, Doran; Tohtz, Joel; Marotz, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Hungry Horse Dam on the South Fork Flathead River, Montana, USA, has modified the natural flow regimen for power generation, flood risk management and flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery in the Columbia River. Concern over the detrimental effects of dam operations on native resident fishes prompted research to quantify the impacts of alternative flow management strategies on threatened bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) and westslope cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii lewisi) habitats. Seasonal and life‐stage specific habitat suitability criteria were combined with a two‐dimensional hydrodynamic habitat model to assess discharge effects on usable habitats. Telemetry data used to construct seasonal habitat suitability curves revealed that subadult (fish that emigrated from natal streams to the river system) bull trout move to shallow, low‐velocity shoreline areas at night, which are most sensitive to flow fluctuations. Habitat time series analyses comparing the natural flow regimen (predam, 1929–1952) with five postdam flow management strategies (1953–2008) show that the natural flow conditions optimize the critical bull trout habitats and that the current strategy best resembles the natural flow conditions of all postdam periods. Late summer flow augmentation for anadromous fish recovery, however, produces higher discharges than predam conditions, which reduces the availability of usable habitat during this critical growing season. Our results suggest that past flow management policies that created sporadic streamflow fluctuations were likely detrimental to resident salmonids and that natural flow management strategies will likely improve the chances of protecting key ecosystem processes and help to maintain and restore threatened bull trout and westslope cutthroat trout populations in the upper Columbia River Basin.

  2. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  3. Flacourtia montana

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Admin

    Flacourtia montana Graham, referred to as Indian plum or mountain sweet thorn is restricted only to the evergreen and semi-evergreen forests of the Western Ghats. It belongs to the willow family, i.e., Salicaceae. The tree trunk at its base bears several long, sharp thorns. In the dry season the plant produces scarlet colored, ...

  4. Timing of lake-level changes for a deep last-glacial Lake Missoula: optical dating of the Garden Gulch area, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Larry N.; Sohbati, Reza; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Lian, Olav B.; Murray, Andrew; Jain, Mayank

    2018-03-01

    Glaciolacustrine sediments in the Clark Fork River valley at Garden Gulch, near Drummond, Montana, USA record highstand positions of the ice-dammed glacial Lake Missoula and repeated subaerial exposure. During these highstands the lake was at greater than 65% of its recognized maximum capacity. The initial lake transgression deposited a basal sand unit. Subsequent cycles of lake-level fluctuations are recorded by sequences of laminated and cross laminated silt, sand, and clay deformed by periglacial processes during intervening periods of lower lake levels. Optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating of quartz sand grains, using single-aliquot regenerative-dose procedures, was carried out on 17 samples. Comparison of infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) from K-rich feldspar to OSL from quartz for all the samples suggests that they were well bleached prior to deposition and burial. Ages for the basal sand and overlying glaciolacustrine exposure surfaces are indistinguishable within one standard deviation, and give a weighted mean age of 20.9 ± 1.3 ka (n = 11). Based on sedimentological and stratigraphic analysis we infer that the initial transgression, and at least six cycles of lake-level fluctuation, occurred over time scales of decades to ∼2 ka. Bioturbated sandy slopewash dated at 10.6 ± 0.9 ka and 11.9 ± 1.2 ka unconformably overlies the upper glaciolacustrine deposits. The uppermost sediments, above the glaciolacustrine section, are younger than the Glacier Peak tephra (13.7-13.4 cal ka B.P.), which was deposited across parts of the drained lake basin, but has not been found at Garden Gulch. Our study indicates that glacial Lake Missoula reached >65 percent of maximum capacity by about 20.9 ± 1.3 ka and either partially or completely drained twelve times from this position. Rapid lowering from the lake's highstand position due to ice-dam failure likely led to scour in the downstream portions of the glacial Lake Missoula basin and megafloods in the

  5. Conceptual modeling framework to support development of site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, Montana, U.S.A., and British Columbia, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenni, Karen E.; Naftz, David L.; Presser, Theresa S.

    2017-10-16

    The U.S. Geological Survey, working with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the British Columbia Ministry of the Environment and Climate Change Strategy, has developed a conceptual modeling framework that can be used to provide structured and scientifically based input to the Lake Koocanusa Monitoring and Research Working Group as they consider potential site-specific selenium criteria for Lake Koocanusa, a transboundary reservoir located in Montana and British Columbia. This report describes that modeling framework, provides an example of how it can be applied, and outlines possible next steps for implementing the framework.

  6. USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nedergaard, Peter

    http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html......http://www.systime.dk/ungdomsuddannelser/almen-studieforberedelse/usa-en-grundbog-i-politik-og-okonomi.html...

  7. FLOODPLAIN, YELLOWSTONE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  8. FLOODPLAIN, RAVALLI COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  9. ORTHOIMAGERY, LAKE COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — This data set contains imagery from the National Agricultural Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  10. Animal-vehicle collisions and habitat connectivity along Montana Highway 83 in the Seeley-Swan Valley, Montana: a reconnaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    "Montana Highway 83 in northwestern Montana, USA, is known for its great number of animal-vehicle collisions, : mostly with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). This document reports on the first phase of an effort to produce : an effective im...

  11. Factors influencing organic-horizon carbon pools in mixed-species stands of central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshua J. Puhlick; Shawn Fraver; Ivan J. Fernandez; Aaron R. Weiskittel; Laura S. Kenefic; Randy Kolka; Marie-Cecile Gruselle

    2016-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the correlation of multiple abiotic and biotic factors with organic-horizon (O-horizon) carbon (C) content on the Penobscot Experimental Forest in central Maine, USA. O-horizon samples were collected and their associated depths were recorded from stands managed with a range of silvicultural and harvesting treatments (i.e...

  12. Late Pleistocene dune activity in the central Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, J.A.; Swinehart, J.B.; Hanson, P.R.; Loope, D.B.; Goble, R.J.; Miao, X.; Schmeisser, R.L.

    2011-01-01

    Stabilized dunes of the central Great Plains, especially the megabarchans and large barchanoid ridges of the Nebraska Sand Hills, provide dramatic evidence of late Quaternary environmental change. Episodic Holocene dune activity in this region is now well-documented, but Late Pleistocene dune mobility has remained poorly documented, despite early interpretations of the Sand Hills dunes as Pleistocene relicts. New optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from drill cores and outcrops provide evidence of Late Pleistocene dune activity at sites distributed across the central Great Plains. In addition, Late Pleistocene eolian sands deposited at 20-25 ka are interbedded with loess south of the Sand Hills. Several of the large dunes sampled in the Sand Hills clearly contain a substantial core of Late Pleistocene sand; thus, they had developed by the Late Pleistocene and were fully mobile at that time, although substantial sand deposition and extensive longitudinal dune construction occurred during the Holocene. Many of the Late Pleistocene OSL ages fall between 17 and 14 ka, but it is likely that these ages represent only the later part of a longer period of dune construction and migration. At several sites, significant Late Pleistocene or Holocene large-dune migration also probably occurred after the time represented by the Pleistocene OSL ages. Sedimentary structures in Late Pleistocene eolian sand and the forms of large dunes potentially constructed in the Late Pleistocene both indicate sand transport dominated by northerly to westerly winds, consistent with Late Pleistocene loess transport directions. Numerical modeling of the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum has often yielded mean monthly surface winds southwest of the Laurentide Ice Sheet that are consistent with this geologic evidence, despite strengthened anticyclonic circulation over the ice sheet. Mobility of large dunes during the Late Pleistocene on the central Great Plains may have been the result of

  13. Effects of Groundwater Development on Uranium: Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgens, B.C.; Fram, M.S.; Belitz, K.; Burow, K.R.; Landon, M.K.

    2010-01-01

    Uranium (U) concentrations in groundwater in several parts of the eastern San Joaquin Valley, California, have exceeded federal and state drinking water standards during the last 20 years. The San Joaquin Valley is located within the Central Valley of California and is one of the most productive agricultural areas in the world. Increased irrigation and pumping associated with agricultural and urban development during the last 100 years have changed the chemistry and magnitude of groundwater recharge, and increased the rate of downward groundwater movement. Strong correlations between U and bicarbonate suggest that U is leached from shallow sediments by high bicarbonate water, consistent with findings of previous work in Modesto, California. Summer irrigation of crops in agricultural areas and, to lesser extent, of landscape plants and grasses in urban areas, has increased Pco2 concentrations in the soil zone and caused higher temperature and salinity of groundwater recharge. Coupled with groundwater pumping, this process, as evidenced by increasing bicarbonate concentrations in groundwater over the last 100 years, has caused shallow, young groundwater with high U concentrations to migrate to deeper parts of the groundwater system that are tapped by public-supply wells. Continued downward migration of U-affected groundwater and expansion of urban centers into agricultural areas will likely be associated with increased U concentrations in public-supply wells. The results from this study illustrate the potential long-term effects of groundwater development and irrigation-supported agriculture on water quality in arid and semiarid regions around the world. Journal compilation ?? 2009 National Ground Water Association. No claim to original US government works.

  14. Arsenic evolution in fractured bedrock wells in central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q.; Zheng, Y.; Culbertson, C.; Schalk, C.; Nielsen, M. G.; Marvinney, R.

    2010-12-01

    Elevated arsenic concentration in fractured bedrock wells has emerged as an important and challenging health problem, especially in rural areas without public water supply and mandatory monitoring of private wells. This has posed risks of skin, bladder, prostate diseases and cancers to private well users. In central Maine, including the study site, 31% of bedrock wells in meta-sedimentary formations have been reported of elevated arsenic concentrations of > 10 µg/L. Geophysical logging and fracture specific water sampling in high arsenic wells have been conducted to understand how water flowing through the aquifers enters the boreholes and how arsenic evolves in the fracture bedrock wells. Two domestic wells in Manchester, Maine, located 50 meter apart with 38 µg/L and 73 µg/L of arsenic in unfiltered water, were investigated to characterize fractures by geophysical logging and to determine flow rates by pumping test. Water samples, representing the bore hole and the fractures, were collected and analyzed for arsenic under ambient and pumping conditions. Transmissivity of the fractures was estimated at 0.23-10.6 m2/day. Water with high dissolved arsenic was supplied primarily by high yielding fractures near the bottom of the borehole. Dissolved arsenic concentrations in borehole water increased as fracture water with high arsenic was replacing borehole water with initially low dissolved arsenic in response to pumping. The precipitation of iron particulates enriched in arsenic was common during and after pumping. Laboratory experiment on well water samples over a period of 16 days suggested that in the borehole arsenic was mainly settled with iron enriched particles, likely amorphous ferric oxyhydroxides, with possibly minor adsorption on the iron minerals. Another bedrock well in Litchfield, Maine, with 478 µg/L of arsenic in the unfiltered well water, is being investigated to quantify and reconstruct of the groundwater flow under ambient and pumping conditions

  15. Geothermal Exploration of the Winston Graben, Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sophy, M. J.; Kelley, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    We are assessing the geothermal potential of the Winston Graben of central New Mexico using borehole temperature logs and geophysical data. The Winston Graben is a late Cenozoic rift basin, part of the larger Rio Grande rift, which is 5 to 10 km wide and 56 km long with northern and southern termini occurring at accommodation zones that coincide with late Cenozoic volcanic lineaments. The graben is interpreted to be symmetric based on geologic mapping, with 2 km of stratigraphic offset on both the western and eastern margins. The graben is bordered by the Black Range to the west and is separated from the Rio Grande valley by the Sierra Cuchillo, a horst block made of Paleozoic rocks intruded by a laccolith. Geothermal and geophysical data, including water table measurements, well temperature logs, thermal conductivity samples, bottom hole temperatures, water chemistry, and gravity data have been extracted from the New Mexico Geothermal Database, part of the National Geothermal Database, and the Geonet Gravity and Magnetic Dataset Repository. Combined with existing geologic maps of the Winston Graben and surroundings, these data help to identify spatial relationships between geologic structures and groundwater parameters and distribution. Geothermal gradients from industry temperature-depth well profiles range from 20°C/km to 60°C/km with a spatial distribution of higher gradients located on the eastern side of the Sierra Cuchillo horst, which is where a mapped warm spring is located. Lower thermal gradients were observed to the west in the groundwater recharge area of the basin. Analysis of Bouguer gravity data indicate a gravity low coinciding with the center of the Winston Graben, which is attributed to be the deepest part of the basin, symetrically surrounded by gravity highs. Gravity highs coincide with the middle Cenozoic Morenci and Chise volcanic lineaments along the northern and southern ends of the graben. The mapped warm spring occurs at the

  16. 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and geochemical reconnaissance of the Eocene Lowland Creek volcanic field, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudas, F.O.; Ispolatov, V.O.; Harlan, S.S.; Snee, L.W.

    2010-01-01

    We report geochronological and geochemical data for the calc-alkalic Lowland Creek volcanic field (LCVF) in westcentral Montana. 40Ar/ 39Ar age determinations show that the LCVF was active from 52.9 to 48.6 Ma, with tuff-forming eruptions at 52.9 ?? 0.14 and 51.8 ?? 0.14 Ma. These dates span the age range of vigorous Eocene igneous activity in the Kamloops-Absaroka-Challis belt. The LCVF evolved upward from basal rhyolites (SiO 2>71 wt%) to dacites and andesites (SiO 2 > 62 wt%). Compositional change parallels a transition from early explosive volcanism to late effusive activity. Four geochemical components can be detected in the rocks. A component with 206Pb/204Pb 18.3 and epsilon;Nd>-9 contain a third component; and an andesite with low Nd content and epsilon;Nd near-9 probably contains a fourth component. The first three components probably derive from the lower and middle crust, whereas the fourth is probably from the lithospheric mantle. ?? 2010 by The University of Chicago.

  17. A test of the compensatory mortality hypothesis in mountain lions: a management experiment in West-Central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Desimone, Richard; Hartway, Cynthia; Gude, Justin A.; Thompson, Michael J.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Hebblewhite, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Mountain lions (Puma concolor) are widely hunted for recreation, population control, and to reduce conflict with humans, but much is still unknown regarding the effects of harvest on mountain lion population dynamics. Whether human hunting mortality on mountain lions is additive or compensatory is debated. Our primary objective was to investigate population effects of harvest on mountain lions. We addressed this objective with a management experiment of 3 years of intensive harvest followed by a 6-year recovery period. In December 2000, after 3 years of hunting, approximately 66% of a single game management unit within the Blackfoot River watershed in Montana was closed to lion hunting, effectively creating a refuge representing approximately 12% (915 km2) of the total study area (7,908 km2). Hunting continued in the remainder of the study area, but harvest levels declined from approximately 9/1,000 km2 in 2001 to 2/1,000 km2 in 2006 as a result of the protected area and reduced quotas outside. We radiocollared 117 mountain lions from 1998 to 2006. We recorded known fates for 63 animals, and right-censored the remainder. Although hunting directly reduced survival, parameters such as litter size, birth interval, maternity, age at dispersal, and age of first reproduction were not significantly affected. Sensitivity analysis showed that female survival and maternity were most influential on population growth. Life-stage simulation analysis (LSA) demonstrated the effect of hunting on the population dynamics of mountain lions. In our non-hunted population, reproduction (kitten survival and maternity) accounted for approximately 62% of the variation in growth rate, whereas adult female survival accounted for 30%. Hunting reversed this, increasing the reliance of population growth on adult female survival (45% of the variation in population growth), and away from reproduction (12%). Our research showed that harvest at the levels implemented in this study did not

  18. Topography and vegetation as predictors of snow water equivalent across the alpine treeline ecotone at Lee Ridge, Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geddes, C.A.; Brown, D.G.; Fagre, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    We derived and implemented two spatial models of May snow water equivalent (SWE) at Lee Ridge in Glacier National Park, Montana. We used the models to test the hypothesis that vegetation structure is a control on snow redistribution at the alpine treeline ecotone (ATE). The statistical models were derived using stepwise and "best" subsets regression techniques. The first model was derived from field measurements of SWE, topography, and vegetation taken at 27 sample points. The second model was derived using GIS-based measures of topography and vegetation. Both the field- (R² = 0.93) and GIS-based models (R² = 0.69) of May SWE included the following variables: site type (based on vegetation), elevation, maximum slope, and general slope aspect. Site type was identified as the most important predictor of SWE in both models, accounting for 74.0% and 29.5% of the variation, respectively. The GIS-based model was applied to create a predictive map of SWE across Lee Ridge, predicting little snow accumulation on the top of the ridge where vegetation is scarce. The GIS model failed in large depressions, including ephemeral stream channels. The models supported the hypothesis that upright vegetation has a positive effect on accumulation of SWE above and beyond the effects of topography. Vegetation, therefore, creates a positive feedback in which it modifies its, environment and could affect the ability of additional vegetation to become established.

  19. Development of a spatial analysis method using ground-based repeat photography to detect changes in the alpine treeline ecotone, Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roush, W.; Munroe, Jeffrey S.; Fagre, D.B.

    2007-01-01

    Repeat photography is a powerful tool for detection of landscape change over decadal timescales. Here a novel method is presented that applies spatial analysis software to digital photo-pairs, allowing vegetation change to be categorized and quantified. This method is applied to 12 sites within the alpine treeline ecotone of Glacier National Park, Montana, and is used to examine vegetation changes over timescales ranging from 71 to 93 years. Tree cover at the treeline ecotone increased in 10 out of the 12 photo-pairs (mean increase of 60%). Establishment occurred at all sites, infilling occurred at 11 sites. To demonstrate the utility of this method, patterns of tree establishment at treeline are described and the possible causes of changes within the treeline ecotone are discussed. Local factors undoubtedly affect the magnitude and type of the observed changes, however the ubiquity of the increase in tree cover implies a common forcing mechanism. Mean minimum summer temperatures have increased by 1.5??C over the past century and, coupled with variations in the amount of early spring snow water equivalent, likely account for much of the increase in tree cover at the treeline ecotone. Lastly, shortcomings of this method are presented along with possible solutions and areas for future research. ?? 2007 Regents of the University of Colorado.

  20. A new ankylosaurine dinosaur from the Judith River Formation of Montana, USA, based on an exceptional skeleton with soft tissue preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbour, Victoria M.; Evans, David C.

    2017-05-01

    The terrestrial Judith River Formation of northern Montana was deposited over an approximately 4 Myr interval during the Campanian (Late Cretaceous). Despite having been prospected and collected continuously by palaeontologists for over a century, few relatively complete dinosaur skeletons have been recovered from this unit to date. Here we describe a new genus and species of ankylosaurine dinosaur, Zuul crurivastator, from the Coal Ridge Member of the Judith River Formation, based on an exceptionally complete and well-preserved skeleton (ROM 75860). This is the first ankylosaurin skeleton known with a complete skull and tail club, and it is the most complete ankylosaurid ever found in North America. The presence of abundant soft tissue preservation across the skeleton, including in situ osteoderms, skin impressions and dark films that probably represent preserved keratin, make this exceptional skeleton an important reference for understanding the evolution of dermal and epidermal structures in this clade. Phylogenetic analysis recovers Zuul as an ankylosaurin ankylosaurid within a clade of Dyoplosaurus and Scolosaurus, with Euoplocephalus being more distantly related within Ankylosaurini. The occurrence of Z. crurivastator from the upper Judith River Formation fills a gap in the ankylosaurine stratigraphic and geographical record in North America, and further highlights that Campanian ankylosaurines were undergoing rapid evolution and stratigraphic succession of taxa as observed for Laramidian ceratopsids, hadrosaurids, pachycephalosaurids and tyrannosaurids.

  1. Using GIS and Google Earth for the creation of the Going-to-the-Sun Road Avalanche Atlas, Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peitzsch, Erich H.; Fagre, Daniel B.; Dundas, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Snow avalanche paths are key geomorphologic features in Glacier National Park, Montana, and an important component of mountain ecosystems: they are isolated within a larger ecosystem, they are continuously disturbed, and they contain unique physical characteristics (Malanson and Butler, 1984). Avalanches impact subalpine forest structure and function, as well as overall biodiversity (Bebi et al., 2009). Because avalanches are dynamic phenomena, avalanche path geometry and spatial extent depend upon climatic regimes. The USGS/GNP Avalanche Program formally began in 2003 as an avalanche forecasting program for the spring opening of the ever-popular Going-to-the-Sun Road (GTSR), which crosses through 37 identified avalanche paths. Avalanche safety and forecasting is a necessary part of the GTSR spring opening procedures. An avalanche atlas detailing topographic parameters and oblique photographs was completed for the GTSR corridor in response to a request from GNP personnel for planning and resource management. Using ArcMap 9.2 GIS software, polygons were created for every avalanche path affecting the GTSR using aerial imagery, field-based observations, and GPS measurements of sub-meter accuracy. Spatial attributes for each path were derived within the GIS. Resulting products include an avalanche atlas book for operational use, a geoPDF of the atlas, and a Google Earth flyover illustrating each path and associated photographs. The avalanche atlas aids park management in worker safety, infrastructure planning, and natural resource protection by identifying avalanche path patterns and location. The atlas was created for operational and planning purposes and is also used as a foundation for research such as avalanche ecology projects and avalanche path runout modeling.

  2. Hemoparasites in Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from central Oregon, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenberg, Patricia L; Bowerman, William J

    2008-04-01

    Between 2001 and 2003, we screened blood smears of 156 Oregon spotted frogs (Rana pretiosa) from three populations in central Oregon for blood parasites. A Lankesterella sp. and a Trypanosoma sp. were detected in 31% and 35% of the frogs, respectively. Parasite loads were generally light, with Lankesterella sporozoites in 1-2% of erythrocytes, and extracellular trypanosomes were seen at rates of about one parasite per 200 fields of view at 1,000x. Little work has been published on hemoparasites of ranids in the western USA in the past 30 yr. Because of the recent taxonomic division of the Rana pretiosa complex, this may be the first published report of blood parasites for R. pretiosa sensu stricto. Both parasites reported here differed in morphologic features and morphometric comparisons from previous descriptions of anuran hemoparasites. Much work remains to sort out the taxonomy of hemoparasites among western USA ranids and to determine the ecological significance of these parasites; both tasks are important steps in understanding and managing these, and related, sensitive and threatened species.

  3. The strategic interests of the USA, Russia and Сhina in the central Asia at the present stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofan A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available this article is devoted to develop and analyze the strategic concerns of key geopolitical actors in the Central Asian region. The author comes to the conclusion that the specialty of the Central Asia is a beneficial geopolitical location and great amount of nature resources that makes the region an object of world powers’ geopolitical interests. The main actors in the CA are the USA, China and Russia, which have influence on political processes inside the region, realizing their own strategies.

  4. Impacts of Migratory Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis) on Microbial Water Quality in the Central Platte River, Nebraska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild birds have been shown to be significant sources of numerous types of pathogens that are relevant to humans and agriculture. The presence of large numbers of migratory birds in such a sensitive and important ecosystem as the Platte River in central Nebraska, USA, could potent...

  5. Water and Proppant Requirements and Water Production Associated with Undiscovered Petroleum in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, North Dakota and Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines, S. S.; Varela, B. A.; Thamke, J.; Hawkins, S. J.; Gianoutsos, N. J.; Tennyson, M. E.

    2017-12-01

    Water is used for several stages of oil and gas production, in particular for hydraulic fracturing that is typically used during production of petroleum from low-permeability shales and other rock types (referred to as "continuous" petroleum accumulations). Proppant, often sand, is also consumed during hydraulic fracturing. Water is then produced from the reservoir along with the oil and gas, representing either a disposal consideration or a possible source of water for further petroleum development or other purposes. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has developed an approach for regional-scale estimation of these water and proppant quantities in order to provide an improved understanding of possible impacts and to help with planning and decision-making. Using the new methodology, the USGS has conducted a quantitative assessment of water and proppant requirements, and water production volumes, associated with associated with possible future production of undiscovered petroleum resources in the Bakken and Three Forks Formations, Williston Basin, USA. This water and proppant assessment builds directly from the 2013 USGS petroleum assessment for the Bakken and Three Forks Formations. USGS petroleum assessments incorporate all available geologic and petroleum production information, and include the definition of assessment units (AUs) that specify the geographic regions and geologic formations for the assessment. The 2013 petroleum assessment included 5 continuous AUs for the Bakken Formation and one continuous AU for the Three Forks Formation. The assessment inputs are defined probabilistically, and a Monte Carlo approach provides outputs that include uncertainty bounds. We can summarize the assessment outputs with the mean values of the associated distributions. The mean estimated total volume of water for well drilling and cement for all six continuous AUs is 5.9 billion gallons, and the mean estimated volume of water for hydraulic fracturing for all AUs is 164

  6. Wintering Sandhill Crane exposure to wind energy development in the central and southern Great Plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Aaron T.; Brandt, David; Krapu, Gary

    2016-01-01

    Numerous wind energy projects have been constructed in the central and southern Great Plains, USA, the main wintering area for midcontinental Sandhill Cranes (Grus canadensis). In an initial assessment of the potential risks of wind towers to cranes, we estimated spatial overlap, investigated potential avoidance behavior, and determined the habitat associations of cranes. We used data from cranes marked with platform transmitting terminals (PTTs) with and without global positioning system (GPS) capabilities. We estimated the wintering distributions of PTT-marked cranes prior to the construction of wind towers, which we compared with current tower locations. Based on this analysis, we found 7% spatial overlap between the distributions of cranes and towers. When we looked at individually marked cranes, we found that 52% would have occurred within 10 km of a tower at some point during winter. Using data from cranes marked after tower construction, we found a potential indication of avoidance behavior, whereby GPS-marked cranes generally used areas slightly more distant from existing wind towers than would be expected by chance. Results from a habitat selection model suggested that distances between crane locations and towers may have been driven more by habitat selection than by avoidance, as most wind towers were constructed in locations not often selected by wintering cranes. Our findings of modest regional overlap and that few towers have been placed in preferred crane habitat suggest that the current distribution of wind towers may be of low risk to the continued persistence of wintering midcontinental Sandhill Cranes in the central and southern Great Plains.

  7. Greenhouse gas fluxes of a shallow lake in south-central North Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangen, Brian; Finocchiaro, Raymond; Gleason, Robert A.; Dahl, Charles F.

    2016-01-01

    Greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes of aquatic ecosystems in the northern Great Plains of the U.S. represent a significant data gap. Consequently, a 3-year study was conducted in south-central North Dakota, USA, to provide an initial estimate of GHG fluxes from a large, shallow lake. Mean GHG fluxes were 0.02 g carbon dioxide (CO2) m−2 h−1, 0.0009 g methane (CH4) m−2 h−1, and 0.0005 mg nitrous oxide (N2O) m−2 h−1. Fluxes of CO2 and CH4 displayed temporal and spatial variability which is characteristic of aquatic ecosystems, while fluxes of N2O were consistently low throughout the study. Comparisons between results of this study and published values suggest that mean daily fluxes of CO2, CH4, and N2O fromLong Lakewere low, particularly when compared to the well-studied prairie pothole wetlands of the region. Similarly, cumulative seasonal CH4 fluxes, which ranged from 2.68–7.58 g CH4 m−2, were relatively low compared to other wetland systems of North America. The observed variability among aquatic ecosystems underscores the need for further research.

  8. Sediment discharges during storm flow from proximal urban and rural karst springs, central Kentucky, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, T.M.; Todd, McFarland J.; Fryar, A.E.; Fogle, A.W.; Taraba, J.L.

    2010-01-01

    Since the mid-1990s, various studies have addressed the timing of sediment transport to karst springs during storm flow or the composition and provenance of sediment discharged from springs. However, relatively few studies have focused on the flow thresholds at which sediment is mobilized or total sediment yields across various time scales. We examined each of these topics for a mainly urban spring (Blue Hole) and a rural spring (SP-2) in the Inner Bluegrass region of central Kentucky (USA). Suspended sediment consisted mostly of quartz silt and sand, with lesser amounts of calcite and organic matter. Total suspended sediment (TSS) values measured during storm flow were greater at SP-2 than at Blue Hole. By aggregating data from four storms during 2 years, we found that median suspended-sediment size jumped as Q exceeded ???0.5 m3/s for both springs. At Blue Hole, TSS tended to vary with Q and capacity approached 1 g/L, but no systematic relationship between TSS and Q was evident at SP-2. Sediment fluxes from the Blue Hole basin were ???2 orders of magnitude greater for storms in March (2002 and 2004) than September (2002 and 2003). In contrast, sediment fluxes from the SP-2 basin were of similar magnitude in September 2003 and March 2004. The overall range of area-normalized fluxes for both springs, 9.16 ?? 10-3-4.45 ?? 102 kg/(ha h), overlaps values reported for farm plots and a stream in the Inner Bluegrass region and for other spring basins in the eastern USA and western Europe. Sediment compositions, sizes, and responses to storms in the basins may differ because of land use (e.g., the extent of impervious cover in the Blue Hole basin), basin size (larger for Blue Hole), conduit architecture, which appears to be more complex in the Blue Hole basin, and the impoundment of SP-2, which may have promoted decadal-scale storage of sediment upgradient. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Land subsidence and earth fissures in south-central and southern Arizona, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Brian D.

    2016-05-01

    Land subsidence due to groundwater overdraft has been an ongoing problem in south-central and southern Arizona (USA) since the 1940s. The first earth fissure attributed to excessive groundwater withdrawal was discovered in the early 1950s near Picacho. In some areas of the state, groundwater-level declines of more than 150 m have resulted in extensive land subsidence and earth fissuring. Land subsidence in excess of 5.7 m has been documented in both western metropolitan Phoenix and Eloy. The Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR) has been monitoring land subsidence since 2002 using interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and since 1998 using a global navigation satellite system (GNSS). The ADWR InSAR program has identified more than 25 individual land subsidence features that cover an area of more than 7,300 km2. Using InSAR data in conjunction with groundwater-level datasets, ADWR is able to monitor land subsidence areas as well as identify areas that may require additional monitoring. One area of particular concern is the Willcox groundwater basin in southeastern Arizona, which is the focus of this paper. The area is experiencing rapid groundwater declines, as much as 32.1 m during 2005-2014 (the largest land subsidence rate in Arizona State—up to 12 cm/year), and a large number of earth fissures. The declining groundwater levels in Arizona are a challenge for both future groundwater availability and mitigating land subsidence associated with these declines. ADWR's InSAR program will continue to be a critical tool for monitoring land subsidence due to excessive groundwater withdrawal.

  10. Late Devonian spermatophyte diversity and paleoecology at Red Hill, north-central Pennsylvania, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cressler, Walter L. III. [Francis Harvey Green Library, 29 West Rosedale Avenue, West Chester University, West Chester, PA, 19383 (United States); Prestianni, Cyrille [Universite de Liege, Boulevard du Rectorat B18, Liege 4000 (Belgium); LePage, Ben A. [The Academy of Natural Sciences, 1900 Benjamin Franklin Parkway, Philadelphia, PA, 19103 and PECO Energy Company, 2301 Market Avenue, S9-1, Philadelphia, PA 19103 (United States)

    2010-08-01

    Early spermatophytes have been discovered at Red Hill, a Late Devonian (Famennian) fossil locality in north-central Pennsylvania, USA. The Red Hill locality contains an Archaeopteris-dominated flora within an outcrop of the Duncannon Member of the Catskill Formation. Palynological analyses of the plant fossil-bearing horizons within the Red Hill outcrop indicate deposition within the VCo palynozone. This is the earliest time horizon known to contain evidence for spermatophytes, and is contemporaneous with well-known spermatophyte-bearing deposits in West Virginia and Belgium. Some of the spermatophyte material from Red Hill compares well with Aglosperma sp., previously known as isolated ovules from the latest Devonian of South Wales and England, thus extending its geographic and stratigraphic range. Red Hill specimens of Aglosperma sp. occur both as isolated ovules and attached to dichotomously forking axes. Additional spermatophyte cupules discovered at Red Hill are morphologically similar to those of the previously described Late Devonian spermatophytes Elkinsia Rothwell, Scheckler, et Gillespie, Moresnetia Stockmans, and Xenotheca Arber et Goode. Some of the Red Hill cupule complexes are distinct from the aforementioned taxa in consisting of slender dichotomously forking axes terminating in paired cupules with highly fused and symmetric cupule quadrant lobes. The distinctive nature of these Red Hill specimens warrants the creation of Duodimidia pfefferkornii Cressler, Prestianni, et LePage gen. et sp. nov. Plant fossil remains with sphenopteroid foliage are also present at Red Hill, possibly attributable to the spermatophytes. Previous systematic sampling of the rich plant-fossil bearing layer at Red Hill and analysis of its floristic diversity and abundance as well as the presence and absence of charcoal suggests a pattern of floral turnover from a local-scale Rhacophyton-dominated community to spermatophyte colonization following disturbance by wildfires

  11. Moisture Concentration Variation of Silages Produced on Commercial Farms in the South-Central USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. J. Han

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Preservation of forage crops as silage offers opportunity to avoid the high risk of rain-damaged hay in the humid south-central USA. Recent developments with baled silage or baleage make silage a less expensive option than typical chopped silage. Silage has been important in the region primarily for dairy production, but baleage has become an option for the more extensive beef cattle industry in the region. Silage samples submitted to the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center Forage Quality Lab from 2006 through 2013 were assessed for dry matter (DM and forage nutritive characteristics of chopped silage and baleage of the different forage types from commercial farms primarily in Louisiana and Mississippi. Of the 1,308 silage samples submitted, 1,065 were annual ryegrass (AR with small grains (SG, the warm-season annual (WA grasses, sorghums and pearl millet, and the warm-season perennial (WP grasses, bermudagrass and bahiagrass, providing the remaining samples. Concentration of DM was used to indicate an effective ensiling opportunity, and AR silage was more frequently within the target DM range than was the WA forage group. The AR samples also indicated a high-quality forage with average crude protein (CP of 130 g/kg and total digestible nutrient (TDN near 600 g/kg. The cooler winter weather at harvest apparently complicated harvest of SG silage with chopped SG silage lower in both CP and TDN (104 and 553 g/kg, respectively than either AR silage or baleage of SG (137 and 624 g/kg for CP and TDN, respectively. The hot, humid summer weather along with large stems and large forage quantities of the WA grasses and the inherently higher fiber concentration of WP grasses at harvest stage indicate that preservation of these forage types as silage will be challenging, although successful commercial silage samples of each forage type and preservation approach were included among samples of silages produced in the region.

  12. Micropaleontologic record of Quaternary paleoenvironments in the Central Albemarle Embayment, North Carolina, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culver, Stephen J.; Farrell, Kathleen M.; Mallinson, David J.; Willard, Debra A.; Horton, Benjamin P.; Riggs, Stanley R.; Thieler, E. Robert; Wehmiller, John F.; Parham, Peter; Snyder, Scott W.; Hillier, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    To understand the temporal and spatial variation of eustatic sea-level fluctuations, glacio-hydro-isostacy, tectonics, subsidence, geologic environments and sedimentation patterns for the Quaternary of a passive continental margin, a nearly complete stratigraphic record that is fully integrated with a three dimensional chronostratigraphic framework, and paleoenvironmental information are necessary. The Albemarle Embayment, a Cenozoic regional depositional basin in eastern North Carolina located on the southeast Atlantic coast of the USA, is an ideal setting to unravel these dynamic, interrelated processes.Micropaleontological data, coupled with sedimentologic, chronostratigraphic and seismic data provide the bases for detailed interpretations of paleoenvironmental evolution and paleoclimates in the 90. m thick Quaternary record of the Albemarle Embayment. The data presented here come from a transect of cores drilled through a barrier island complex in the central Albemarle Embayment. This area sits in a ramp-like setting between late Pleistocene incised valleys.The data document the episodic infilling of the Albemarle Embayment throughout the Quaternary as a series of transgressive-regressive (T-R) cycles, characterized by inner shelf, midshelf, and shoreface assemblages, that overlie remnants of fluvial to estuarine valley-fill. Barrier island and marginal marine deposits have a low preservation potential. Inner to mid-shelf deposits of the early Pleistocene are overlain by similar middle Pleistocene shelf sediments in the south of the study area but entirely by inner shelf deposits in the north. Late Pleistocene marine sediments are of inner shelf origin and Holocene deposits are marginal marine in nature. Pleistocene marine sediments are incised, particularly in the northern half of the embayment by lowstand paleovalleys, partly filled by fluvial/floodplain deposits and in some cases, overlain by remnants of transgressive estuarine sediments. The shallowing

  13. NEIGHBOURHOOD POVERTY, PERCEIVED DISCRIMINATION AND CENTRAL ADIPOSITY IN THE USA: INDEPENDENT ASSOCIATIONS IN A REPEATED MEASURES ANALYSIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwarteng, Jamila L; Schulz, Amy J; Mentz, Graciela B; Israel, Barbara A; Shanks, Trina R; Perkins, Denise White

    2016-11-01

    This study examines the independent effects of neighbourhood context (i.e. neighbourhood poverty) and exposure to perceived discrimination in shaping risk of obesity over time. Weighted three-level hierarchical linear regression models for a continuous outcome were used to assess the independent effects of neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination on obesity over time in a sample of 157 non-Hispanic Black, non-Hispanic White and Hispanic adults in Detroit, USA, in 2002/2003 and 2007/2008. Independent associations were found between neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination with central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods with high concentrations of poverty were more likely to show increases in central adiposity compared with those in neighbourhoods with lower concentrations of poverty. In models adjusted for BMI, neighbourhood poverty at baseline was associated with a greater change in central adiposity among participants who lived in neighbourhoods in the second (B=3.79, p=0.025) and third (B=3.73, p=0.024) poverty quartiles, compared with those in the lowest poverty neighbourhoods. The results from models that included both neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination showed that both were associated with increased risk of increased central adiposity over time. Residents of neighbourhoods in the second (B=9.58, ppoverty were more likely to show greater increases in central adiposity over time, compared with those in the lowest poverty quartile, with mean discrimination at baseline independently and positively associated with increases in central adiposity over time (B=2.36, p=0.020). The results suggest that neighbourhood poverty and perceived discrimination are independently associated with a heightened risk of increase in central adiposity over time. Efforts to address persistent disparities in central adiposity in the USA should include strategies to reduce high concentrations of neighbourhood poverty as well as

  14. FLOODPLAIN, SILVER BOW COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Floodplain Mapping/Redelineation study deliverables depict and quantify the flood risks for the study area. The primary risk classifications used are the...

  15. Auriacusite, Fe[superscript 3+]Cu[superscript 2+]AsO[subscript 4]O, the first M[superscript 3+] member of the olivenite group, from the Black Pine mine, Montana, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Stuart J.; Kampf, Anthony R.; Poirier, Glenn; Raudsepp, Mati; Steele, Ian M. (CMN); (NHM-LA); (UC); (UBC)

    2011-08-16

    Auriacusite, ideally Fe{sup 3+}Cu{sup 2+}AsO{sub 4}O, is a new arsenate mineral (IMA2009-037) and the Fe{sup 3+} analogue of olivenite, from the Black Pine mine, 14.5 km NW of Philipsburg, Granite Co., Montana, USA. It occurs lining quartz vughs and coating quartz crystals and is associated with segnitite, brochantite, malachite, tetrahedrite and pyrite. Auriacusite forms fibrous crystals up to about 5 {micro}m in width and up to about 100 {micro}m in length, which are intergrown to form fibrous mats. Individual crystals are a brownish golden yellow, whilst the fibrous mats are ochreous yellow. The crystals have a silky lustre and a brownish yellow streak. Mohs hardness is about 3 (estimated). The fracture is irregular and the tenacity is brittle. Auriacusite crystals are biaxial (+), with {alpha} = 1.830(5), {beta} = 1.865(5) and {gamma} = 1.910(5), measured using white light, and with 2V{sub meas.} = 83(3){sup o} and 2V{sub calc.} = 84.6{sup o}. Orientation: X = a, Y = c, Z = b. Crystals are nonpleochroic or too weakly so to be observed. The empirical formula (based on 5 O atoms) is (Fe{sub 1.33}{sup 3+}Cu{sub 0.85}Zn{sub 0.03}){sub {Sigma}2.21}(As{sub 0.51}Sb{sub 0.27}Si{sub 0.04}S{sub 0.02}Te{sub 0.01}){sub {Sigma}0.85}O{sub 5}. Auriacusite is orthorhombic, space group Pnnm, a = 8.6235(7), b = 8.2757(7), c = 5.9501(5) {angstrom}, V = 424.63(6) {angstrom}{sup 3}, Z = 4. The five strongest lines in the powder X-ray diffraction pattern are [d{sub obs} in {angstrom}/(I)/hkl]: 4.884/(100)/101, 001; 2.991/(92)/220; 2.476/(85)/311; 2.416/(83)/022; 2.669/(74)/221. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data utilising synchrotron radiation and refined to R{sub 1} = 0.1010 on the basis of 951 unique reflections with F {alpha} > 4{sigma}F. Auriacusite is identified as a member of the olivenite group with Fe{sup 3+} replacing Zn{sup 2+} or Cu{sup 2+} in trigonal bipyramidal coordination. Evidence suggests that auriacusite is an intermediate

  16. Forest regions of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno

    1979-01-01

    In this paper, Montana is divided into eight geographic subdivisions called "forest regions," based on distributions of tree and undergrowth species and the relationship of these patterns to climate and topography. The regions serve as a geographic reference for describing patterns of forest vegetation across the State. Data on the distributions of plant...

  17. Sedimentary response to orogenic exhumation in the northern rocky mountain basin and range province, flint creek basin, west-central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portner, R.A.; Hendrix, M.S.; Stalker, J.C.; Miggins, D.P.; Sheriff, S.D.

    2011-01-01

    Middle Eocene through Upper Miocene sedimentary and volcanic rocks of the Flint Creek basin in western Montana accumulated during a period of significant paleoclimatic change and extension across the northern Rocky Mountain Basin and Range province. Gravity modelling, borehole data, and geologic mapping from the Flint Creek basin indicate that subsidence was focused along an extensionally reactivated Sevier thrust fault, which accommodated up to 800 m of basin fill while relaying stress between the dextral transtensional Lewis and Clark lineament to the north and the Anaconda core complex to the south. Northwesterly paleocurrent indicators, foliated metamorphic lithics, 64 Ma (40Ar/39Ar) muscovite grains, and 76 Ma (U-Pb) zircons in a ca. 27 Ma arkosic sandstone are consistent with Oligocene exhumation and erosion of the Anaconda core complex. The core complex and volcanic and magmatic rocks in its hangingwall created an important drainage divide during the Paleogene shedding detritus to the NNW and ESE. Following a major period of Early Miocene tectonism and erosion, regional drainage networks were reorganized such that paleoflow in the Flint Creek basin flowed east into an internally drained saline lake system. Renewed tectonism during Middle to Late Miocene time reestablished a west-directed drainage that is recorded by fluvial strata within a Late Miocene paleovalley. These tectonic reorganizations and associated drainage divide explain observed discrepancies in provenance studies across the province. Regional correlation of unconformities and lithofacies mapping in the Flint Creek basin suggest that localized tectonism and relative base level fluctuations controlled lithostratigraphic architecture.

  18. Hannah Montana som nissemor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Peder Holm

    2010-01-01

    Pædagoger skal lægge deres angst for computerspil, nymodens legetøj og mediernes kulturelleunivers på hylden og omfavne både Spiderman og Hannah Montana, hvis børns frie leg og kreativitettil fulde skal udfoldes i børnehaven. Sådan lyder opfordringen fra legeforsker Stine Liv Johansen.......Pædagoger skal lægge deres angst for computerspil, nymodens legetøj og mediernes kulturelleunivers på hylden og omfavne både Spiderman og Hannah Montana, hvis børns frie leg og kreativitettil fulde skal udfoldes i børnehaven. Sådan lyder opfordringen fra legeforsker Stine Liv Johansen....

  19. HYDROGEOMORPHIC SETTING, CHARACTERISTICS, AND RESPONSE TO STREAM INCISION OF MONTANA RIPARIAN MEADOWS IN THE CENTRAL GREAT BASIN--IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riparian wet meadow complexes in the mountains of the central Great Basin are scarce, ecologically important systems that are threatened by stream incision. An interdisciplinary group has investigated 1) the origin, characteristics, and controls on the evolution of these riparian...

  20. [Central American migrants' sexual experiences and rights in their transit to the USA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infante, César; Silván, Rubén; Caballero, Marta; Campero, Lourdes

    2013-07-01

    To explore the causes and circumstances that determine the way in which migrants experience their sexuality and how this impacts their sexual rights. Qualitative study conducted between April 2009 and July 2010 in Chiapas, Oaxaca, San Luis Potosí, and Tamaulipas. We conducted 22 in-depth interviews to migrants in transit and to ten different key actors. For the analysis we used elements of grounded theory. Migrants know and identify the risks they may encounter in their transit but have scarce access to services to effectively exercise their sexual and reproductive rights. Their vulnerability makes them internalize and accept the violence enacted on them as part of their destiny and as what they must suffer in order to reach the USA. Violence, including sexual violence, determines much of the experiences of their transit through Mexico. Differences between groups and between male and female migrants are determined by gender inequalities and power.

  1. Rheomorphic ignimbrites of the Rogerson Formation, central Snake River plain, USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knott, Thomas R.; Reichow, Marc K.; Branney, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Rogerson Graben, USA, is critically placed at the intersection between the Yellowstone hotspot track and the southern projection of the west Snake River rift. Eleven rhyolitic members of the re-defined, ≥420-m-thick, Rogerson Formation record voluminous high-temperature explosive eruptions....... Between 11.9 and ∼8 Ma, the average frequency of large explosive eruptions in this region was 1 per 354 ky, about twice that at Yellowstone. The chemistry and mineralogy of the early rhyolites show increasing maturity with time possibly by progressive fractional crystallisation. This was followed......-margin monocline, which developed between 10.59 and 8 Ma. The syn-volcanic basin topography contrasted significantly with the present-day elevated Yellowstone hotspot plateau. Concurrent basin-and-range extension produced the N-trending Rogerson Graben: early uplift of the Shoshone Hills (≥10.34 Ma) was followed...

  2. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in American Black Bears ( Ursus americanus ) of the Central Appalachians, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, John J; Murphy, Sean M; Augustine, Ben C; Guthrie, Joseph M; Hast, John T; Maehr, Sutton C; McDermott, Joseph

    2017-07-01

    We assessed Toxoplasma gondii seroprevalence in 53 free-ranging American black bears ( Ursus americanus ) in the Central Appalachian Mountains, US. Seroprevalence was 62% with no difference between males and females or between juvenile and adult bears. Wildlife agencies should consider warnings in hunter education programs to reduce the chances for human infection from this source.

  3. Lichen communities and species indicate climate thresholds in southeast and south-central Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather T. Root; Bruce. McCune; Sarah. Jovan

    2014-01-01

    Because of their unique physiology, lichen communities are highly sensitive to climatic conditions,making them ideal bioindicators for climate change. Southeast and south-central Alaska host diverse and abundant lichen communities and are faced with a more rapidly changing climate than many more southerly latitudes. We develop sensitive lichen-based indicators for...

  4. Successional dynamics and restoration implications of a montane coniferous forest in the central Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas M. Schuler; Rachel J. Collins

    2002-01-01

    Central Appalachian montane red spruce (Picea rubens Sarg.) communities have been greatly reduced in extent and functional quality over the past century. This community decline has put several plant and animal species, such as the endangered Virginia northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus fuscus Shaw), at risk from habitat...

  5. Observations and Predictability of Gap Winds in the Salmon River Canyon of Central Idaho, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie S. Wagenbrenner

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This work investigates gap winds in a steep, deep river canyon prone to wildland fire. The driving mechanisms and the potential for forecasting the gap winds are investigated. The onset and strength of the gap winds are found to be correlated to the formation of an along-gap pressure gradient linked to periodic development of a thermal trough in the Pacific Northwest, USA. Numerical simulations are performed using a reanalysis dataset to investigate the ability of numerical weather prediction (NWP to simulate the observed gap wind events, including the timing and flow characteristics within the canyon. The effects of model horizontal grid spacing and terrain representation are considered. The reanalysis simulations suggest that horizontal grid spacings used in operational NWP could be sufficient for simulating the gap flow events given the regional-scale depression in which the Salmon River Canyon is situated. The strength of the events, however, is under-predicted due, at least in part, to terrain smoothing in the model. Routine NWP, however, is found to have mixed results in terms of forecasting the gap wind events, primarily due to problems in simulating the regional sea level pressure system correctly.

  6. Late Holocene expansion of Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) in the Central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Jodi R; Betancourt, Julio L.; Jackson, Stephen T.

    2016-01-01

    "Aim: Ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) experienced one of the most extensive and rapid post-glacial plant migrations in western North America. We used plant macrofossils from woodrat (Neotoma) middens to reconstruct its spread in the Central Rocky Mountains, identify other vegetation changes coinciding with P. ponderosa expansion at the same sites, and relate P. ponderosa migrational history to both its modern phylogeography and to a parallel expansion by Utah juniper (Juniperus osteosperma).

  7. Buried paleoindian-age landscapes in stream valleys of the central plains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandel, R.D.

    2008-01-01

    A systematic study of late-Quaternary landscape evolution in the Central Plains documented widespread, deeply buried paleosols that represent Paleoindian-age landscapes in terrace fills of large streams (> 5th order), in alluvial fans, and in draws in areas of western Kansas with a thick loess mantle. Alluvial stratigraphic sections were investigated along a steep bio-climatic gradient extending from the moist-subhumid forest-prairie border of the east-central Plains to the dry-subhumid and semi-arid shortgrass prairie of the west-central Plains. Radiocarbon ages indicate that most large streams were characterized by slow aggradation accompanied by cumulic soil development from ca. 11,500 to 10,000??14C yr B.P. In the valleys of some large streams, such as the Ninnescah and Saline rivers, these processes continued into the early Holocene. The soil-stratigraphic record in the draws of western Kansas indicates slow aggradation punctuated by episodes of landscape stability and pedogenesis beginning as early as ca. 13,300??14C yr B.P. and spanning the Pleistocene-Holocene boundary. The development record of alluvial fans in western Kansas is similar to the record in the draws; slow aggradation was punctuated by multiple episodes of soil development between ca. 13,000 and 9000??14C yr B.P. In eastern Kansas and Nebraska, development of alluvial fans was common during the early and middle Holocene, but evidence shows fan development as early as ca. 11,300??14C yr B.P. Buried soils dating between ca. 12,600 and 9000??14C yr B.P. were documented in fans throughout the region. In stream valleys across the Central Plains, rapid alluviation after ca. 9000??14C yr B.P. resulted in deeply buried soils that may harbor Paleoindian cultural deposits. Hence, the paucity of recorded stratified Paleoindian sites in the Central Plains is probably related to poor visibility (i.e., deep burial in alluvial deposits) instead of limited human occupation in the region during the terminal

  8. Cob biomass supply for combined heat and power and biofuel in the north central USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmer, Marty R.; Dose, Heather L.

    2014-01-01

    Corn (Zea mays L.) cobs are being evaluated as a potential bioenergy feedstock for combined heat and power generation (CHP) and conversion into a biofuel. The objective of this study was to determine corn cob availability in north central United States (Minnesota, North Dakota, and South Dakota) using existing corn grain ethanol plants as a proxy for possible future co-located cellulosic ethanol plants. Cob production estimates averaged 6.04 Tg and 8.87 Tg using a 40 km radius area and 80 km radius area, respectively, from existing corn grain ethanol plants. The use of CHP from cobs reduces overall GHG emissions by 60%–65% from existing dry mill ethanol plants. An integrated biorefinery further reduces corn grain ethanol GHG emissions with estimated ranges from 13.9 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 to 17.4 g CO 2  equiv MJ −1 . Significant radius area overlap (53% overlap for 40 km radius and 86% overlap for 80 km radius) exists for cob availability between current corn grain ethanol plants in this region suggesting possible cob supply constraints for a mature biofuel industry. A multi-feedstock approach will likely be required to meet multiple end user renewable energy requirements for the north central United States. Economic and feedstock logistics models need to account for possible supply constraints under a mature biofuel industry. - Highlights: • Corn cob biomass was estimated for the north central United States region. • Cobs were evaluated for combined heat and power generation and bioethanol. • Co-located ethanol plants showed a reduction in greenhouse gas emissions. • Biomass supply constraints may occur under a mature cellulosic ethanol scenario

  9. Impacts of invasive nonnative plant species on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikkema, Jordan J.; Boyd, Jennifer N.

    2015-11-01

    Invasive plant species and overabundant herbivore populations have the potential to significantly impact rare plant species given their increased risk for local extirpation and extinction. We used interacting invasive species removal and grazer exclusion treatments replicated across two locations in an occurrence of rare Scutellaria montana (large-flowered skullcap) in Chattanooga, Tennessee, USA, to assess: 1) competition by invasive Ligustrum sinense (Chinese privet) and Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle) and 2) the role of invasive species in mediating Oedocoilus virginianus (white-tailed deer) grazing of S. montana. Contrary to our hypothesis that invasive species presence would suppress S. montana directly via competition, S. montana individuals experienced a seasonal increase in stem height when invasive species were intact but not when invasive species were removed. Marginally significant results indicated that invasive species may afford S. montana protection from grazers, and we suggest that invasive species also could protect S. montana from smaller herbivores and/or positively influence abiotic conditions. In contrast to growth responses, S. montana individuals protected from O. virginianus exhibited a decrease in flowering between seasons relative to unprotected plants, but invasive species did not affect this variable. Although it has been suggested that invasive plant species may negatively influence S. montana growth and fecundity, our findings do not support related concerns. As such, we suggest that invasive species eradication efforts in S. montana habitat could be more detrimental than positive due to associated disturbance. However, the low level of invasion of our study site may not be representative of potential interference in more heavily infested habitat.

  10. HIV Prevalence Among Central American Migrants in Transit Through Mexico to the USA, 2009-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leyva-Flores, René; Infante, César; Servan-Mori, Edson; Quintino-Pérez, Frida; Silverman-Retana, Omar

    2016-12-01

    HIV prevalence was estimated among migrants in transit through Mexico. Data were collected on 9108 Central American migrants during a cross-sectional study performed in seven migrant shelters from 2009 to 2013. Considerations focused on their sociodemographic characteristics, sexual and reproductive health, and experience with violence. Based on a sample of 46.6 % of respondents who agreed to be HIV tested, prevalence of the virus among migrants came to 0.71 %, reflecting the concentrated epidemic in their countries of origin. A descriptive analysis was performed according to gender: the distribution of the epidemic peaked at 3.45 % in the transvestite, transgender and transsexual (TTT) population, but fell to less than 1 % in men and women. This gender differential is characteristic of the epidemic in Central America. Furthermore, 23.5 % of TTTs and 5.8 % of women experienced sexual violence. The predominant impact of sexual violence on TTTs and women will influence the course of the AIDS epidemic.

  11. Spatially distributed pesticide exposure assessment in the Central Valley, California, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo Yuzhou [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Zhang Minghua, E-mail: mhzhang@ucdavis.ed [Department of Land, Air, and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2010-05-15

    Field runoff is an important transport mechanism by which pesticides move into the hydrologic environment of intensive agricultural regions such as California's Central Valley. This study presents a spatially explicit modeling approach to extend Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), a field-scale pesticide transport model, into basin level. The approach was applied to simulate chlorpyrifos use in the Central Valley during 2003-2007. The average value of loading as percent of use (LAPU) is 0.031%. Results of this study provide strong evidence that surface runoff generation and pesticide application timing are the two influencing factors on the spatial and temporal variability of chlorpyrifos sources from agricultural fields. This is one of the first studies in coupling GIS and field-scale models and providing simulations for the dynamics of pesticides over an agriculturally dominated landscape. The demonstrated modeling approach may be useful for implementations of best management practice (BMP) and total maximum daily load (TMDL). - Runoff generation and application timing are governing factors on spatiotemporal variability of pesticide sources.

  12. Holocene volcanism of the upper McKenzie River catchment, central Oregon Cascades, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligne, Natalia I.; Conrey, Richard M.; Cashman, Katharine V.; Champion, Duane E.; Amidon, William H.

    2016-01-01

    To assess the complexity of eruptive activity within mafic volcanic fields, we present a detailed geologic investigation of Holocene volcanism in the upper McKenzie River catchment in the central Oregon Cascades, United States. We focus on the Sand Mountain volcanic field, which covers 76 km2 and consists of 23 vents, associated tephra deposits, and lava fields. We find that the Sand Mountain volcanic field was active for a few decades around 3 ka and involved at least 13 eruptive units. Despite the small total volume erupted (∼1 km3 dense rock equivalent [DRE]), Sand Mountain volcanic field lava geochemistry indicates that erupted magmas were derived from at least two, and likely three, different magma sources. Single units erupted from one or more vents, and field data provide evidence of both vent migration and reoccupation. Overall, our study shows that mafic volcanism was clustered in space and time, involved both explosive and effusive behavior, and tapped several magma sources. These observations provide important insights on possible future hazards from mafic volcanism in the central Oregon Cascades.

  13. Spatially distributed pesticide exposure assessment in the Central Valley, California, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Yuzhou; Zhang Minghua

    2010-01-01

    Field runoff is an important transport mechanism by which pesticides move into the hydrologic environment of intensive agricultural regions such as California's Central Valley. This study presents a spatially explicit modeling approach to extend Pesticide Root Zone Model (PRZM), a field-scale pesticide transport model, into basin level. The approach was applied to simulate chlorpyrifos use in the Central Valley during 2003-2007. The average value of loading as percent of use (LAPU) is 0.031%. Results of this study provide strong evidence that surface runoff generation and pesticide application timing are the two influencing factors on the spatial and temporal variability of chlorpyrifos sources from agricultural fields. This is one of the first studies in coupling GIS and field-scale models and providing simulations for the dynamics of pesticides over an agriculturally dominated landscape. The demonstrated modeling approach may be useful for implementations of best management practice (BMP) and total maximum daily load (TMDL). - Runoff generation and application timing are governing factors on spatiotemporal variability of pesticide sources.

  14. Modeling the health and productivity of Oak Savannas in central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nightingale, J. M.; Hill, M. J.

    2012-12-01

    Oak species have a long history of domination in eastern North America and their present distribution in various regions exceeds that recorded in the original forests at the time of European settlement. The increase in oak during the late 18th and 19th centuries can be attributed to historical changes in disturbance regimes in the eastern biome. The expansion in oak distribution has occurred on xeric or nutrient-poor sites, which indicates the stress tolerance capabilities of many oak species. The aim of this research is to assess the health and productivity of the fragmented oak savannas that span from Texas north to the Canada border using statewide GAP, climate and MODIS data and the 3PGS (Physiological Principles Predicting Growth using satellite data) ecosystem process model. 3-PGS is a simple big-leaf productivity model that sets upper limits on monthly gross primary productivity (GPP) by determining the amount of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed (APAR) by vegetation and the photosynthetic capacity (LUE) of the canopy. The utilized portion of APAR is calculated by reducing total PAR by an amount determined by the most constraining of a series of environmental modifiers that affect gas exchange through stomata. These include: (a) high daytime atmospheric VPD; (b) soil water availability; and (c) the frequency of sub-freezing temperatures (<-2 °C). Climate data including day length, precipitation, average temperature and vapor pressure deficit are obtained from the Daymet daily gridded surface data from Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The fraction of APAR is obtained from the MODIS terra/aqua combined product. Monthly surfaces were derived for the study period 2003-2008 spanning available MODIS and Climate datasets. Soil properties for the entire U.S.A., derived from luster analysis of STATSGO soil parameters, terrain and climate observations were obtained from ORNL. Oak savannas within this region are identified using the statewide Gap

  15. Magmatic activity beneath the quiescent Three Sisters volcanic center, central Oregon Cascade Range, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Charles W.; Dzurisin, Daniel; Ingebritsen, Steven; Thatcher, Wayne; Lu, Zhong; Iverson, Justin

    2002-04-01

    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The last eruption in the volcanic center occurred ~1500 years ago. Multiple satellite images from 1992 through 2000 indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted during 1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a crustal magma reservoir prior to the uplift. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km.

  16. Modeling decadal timescale interactions between surface water and ground water in the central Everglades, Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Judson W.; Newlin, Jessica T.; Krupa, Steven L.

    2006-04-01

    Surface-water and ground-water flow are coupled in the central Everglades, although the remoteness of this system has hindered many previous attempts to quantify interactions between surface water and ground water. We modeled flow through a 43,000 ha basin in the central Everglades called Water Conservation Area 2A. The purpose of the model was to quantify recharge and discharge in the basin's vast interior areas. The presence and distribution of tritium in ground water was the principal constraint on the modeling, based on measurements in 25 research wells ranging in depth from 2 to 37 m. In addition to average characteristics of surface-water flow, the model parameters included depth of the layer of 'interactive' ground water that is actively exchanged with surface water, average residence time of interactive ground water, and the associated recharge and discharge fluxes across the wetland ground surface. Results indicated that only a relatively thin (8 m) layer of the 60 m deep surfical aquifer actively exchanges surface water and ground water on a decadal timescale. The calculated storage depth of interactive ground water was 3.1 m after adjustment for the porosity of peat and sandy limestone. Modeling of the tritium data yielded an average residence time of 90 years in interactive ground water, with associated recharge and discharge fluxes equal to 0.01 cm d -1. 3H/ 3He isotopic ratio measurements (which correct for effects of vertical mixing in the aquifer with deeper, tritium-dead water) were available from several wells, and these indicated an average residence time of 25 years, suggesting that residence time was overestimated using tritium measurements alone. Indeed, both residence time and storage depth would be expected to be overestimated due to vertical mixing. The estimate of recharge and discharge (0.01 cm d -1) that resulted from tritium modeling therefore is still considered reliable, because the ratio of residence time and storage depth (used to

  17. A statistical learning framework for groundwater nitrate models of the Central Valley, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Bernard T.; Fienen, Michael N.; Lorenz, David L.

    2015-01-01

    We used a statistical learning framework to evaluate the ability of three machine-learning methods to predict nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater of the Central Valley, California: boosted regression trees (BRT), artificial neural networks (ANN), and Bayesian networks (BN). Machine learning methods can learn complex patterns in the data but because of overfitting may not generalize well to new data. The statistical learning framework involves cross-validation (CV) training and testing data and a separate hold-out data set for model evaluation, with the goal of optimizing predictive performance by controlling for model overfit. The order of prediction performance according to both CV testing R2 and that for the hold-out data set was BRT > BN > ANN. For each method we identified two models based on CV testing results: that with maximum testing R2 and a version with R2 within one standard error of the maximum (the 1SE model). The former yielded CV training R2 values of 0.94–1.0. Cross-validation testing R2 values indicate predictive performance, and these were 0.22–0.39 for the maximum R2 models and 0.19–0.36 for the 1SE models. Evaluation with hold-out data suggested that the 1SE BRT and ANN models predicted better for an independent data set compared with the maximum R2 versions, which is relevant to extrapolation by mapping. Scatterplots of predicted vs. observed hold-out data obtained for final models helped identify prediction bias, which was fairly pronounced for ANN and BN. Lastly, the models were compared with multiple linear regression (MLR) and a previous random forest regression (RFR) model. Whereas BRT results were comparable to RFR, MLR had low hold-out R2 (0.07) and explained less than half the variation in the training data. Spatial patterns of predictions by the final, 1SE BRT model agreed reasonably well with previously observed patterns of nitrate occurrence in groundwater of the Central Valley.

  18. Dry forest resilience varies under simulated climate‐management scenarios in a central Oregon, USA landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halofsky, Joshua S; Halofsky, Jessica E; Burcsu, Theresa; Hemstrom, Miles A

    Determining appropriate actions to create or maintain landscapes resilient to climate change is challenging because of uncertainty associated with potential effects of climate change and their interactions with land management. We used a set of climate-informed state-and-transition models to explore the effects of management and natural disturbances on vegetation composition and structure under different future climates. Models were run for dry forests of central Oregon under a fire suppression scenario (i.e., no management other than the continued suppression of wildfires) and an active management scenario characterized by light to moderate thinning from below and some prescribed fire, planting, and salvage logging. Without climate change, area in dry province forest types remained constant. With climate change, dry mixed-conifer forests increased in area (by an average of 21–26% by 2100), and moist mixed-conifer forests decreased in area (by an average of 36–60% by 2100), under both management scenarios. Average area in dry mixed-conifer forests varied little by management scenario, but potential decreases in the moist mixed-conifer forest were lower with active management. With changing climate in the dry province of central Oregon, our results suggest the likelihood of sustaining current levels of dense, moist mixed-conifer forests with large-diameter, old trees is low (less than a 10% chance) irrespective of management scenario; an opposite trend was observed under no climate change simulations. However, results also suggest active management within the dry and moist mixed-conifer forests that creates less dense forest conditions can increase the persistence of larger-diameter, older trees across the landscape. Owing to projected increases in wildfire, our results also suggest future distributions of tree structures will differ from the present. Overall, our projections indicate proactive management can increase forest resilience and sustain some societal

  19. Macrophysical climate models and Holocene hunter-gatherer subsistence shifts in Central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, R. P.; Munoz, C.

    2013-12-01

    We use stable carbon isotopic values from bone collagen, as well as carbon values from carbonate extracted from bone apatite from 69 prehistoric human skeletal samples to investigate past resource use and climate relationships over the Middle and Late Holocene in Central Texas. Bone samples come from seven archaeological sites and samples date from 6,900 BP to the close of the prehistoric sequence at about 350 BP. Carbon isotopes from these samples suggest four broad dietary trends. From 6,900 through about 3,800 BP, carbon isotopes suggest a gradual increase in the consumption of resources that ultimately use a C3 photosynthetic pathway. A decline in δ13C in both collagen and carbonate values follows, suggesting a decrease in C3 resource use through roughly 2,900 BP. A variable, but once again increasing pattern on C3 resource use by prehistoric hunter-gatherers is indicated in bone isotopes through about 1,000 BP. After that date, a decrease in C3 resource dependence, with hints at greater subsistence diversity, is suggested through the close of the sequence at 350 BP. To assess the impact of climate shifts on this isotopic pattern, we developed a series of macrophysical climate models (MCM) for several locations in Central Texas focusing on fall, winter, and early spring precipitation. This fall-spring rainfall should closely determine C3 production. If subsistence shifts are responding to climate-induced changes in resource availability, then the measured hunter-gatherer carbon isotope trends summarized above should pattern with C3 production as monitored by the modeled fall-spring precipitation values. For the Middle Holocene portion of the sequence, the precipitation models suggest increasing C3 production, consistent with increasing C3 dependence shown in the isotopic data. A decline in C3 production between 3,900 and 3,000 BP in the models is also consistent with the isotopic decline at that point. After 3,000 BP, however, the coupling between fall

  20. Bringing the "social" into sociohydrology: Conservation policy support in the Central Great Plains of Kansas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Matthew R.; Bergtold, Jason S.; Heier Stamm, Jessica L.; Caldas, Marcellus M.; Ramsey, Steven M.

    2017-08-01

    Identifying means of empirically modeling the human component of a coupled, human-water system becomes critically important to further advances in sociohydrology. We develop a social-psychological model of environmental decision making that addresses four key challenges of incorporating social science into integrated models. We use the model to explain preferences for three conservation policies designed to conserve and protect water resources and aquatic ecosystems in the Smoky Hill River Basin, a semiarid agricultural region in the Central U.S. Great Plains. Further, we compare the model's capacity to explain policy preferences among members of two groups in the River Basin: agricultural producers and members of nonfarming communities. We find that financial obligation is the strongest and most consistent explanation of support for conservation policies among members of both groups. We also find that policy support is grounded in cultural values—deeply held ideas about right and wrong. Environmental values are particularly important explanations of policy support. The constellations of values invoked to make decisions about policies, and the social-psychological pathways linking values to policy support, can vary across policies and types of agents (farmers and nonfarmers). We discuss the implications of the results for future research in sociohydrology.

  1. Strontium isotope geochemistry of groundwater in the central part of the Dakota (Great Plains) aquifer, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gosselin, David C.; Edwin Harvey, F.; Frost, Carol; Stotler, Randy; Allen Macfarlane, P.

    2004-01-01

    The Dakota aquifer of the central and eastern Great Plains of the United States is an important source of water for municipal supplies, irrigation and industrial use. Although the regional flow system can be characterized generally as east to northeasterly from the Rocky Mountains towards the Missouri River, locally the flow systems are hydrologically complex. This study uses Sr isotopic data from groundwater and leached aquifer samples to document the complex subsystems within the Dakota aquifer in Nebraska and Kansas. The interaction of groundwater with the geologic material through which it flows has created spatial patterns in the isotopic measurements that are related to: long-term water-rock interaction, during which varying degrees of isotopic equilibrium between water and rock has been achieved; and the alteration of NaCl fluids by water-rock interaction. Specifically, Sr isotopic data distinguish brines from Kansas and western Nebraska from those in eastern Nebraska: the former are interpreted to reflect interaction with Permian rocks, whereas the latter record interaction with Pennsylvanian rocks. The Sr isotopic composition of groundwater from other parts of Nebraska and Kansas are a function of the dynamic interaction between groundwater and unlithified sediments (e.g., glacial till and loess), followed by interaction with oxidized and unoxidized sediments within the Dakota Formation. This study illustrates the power of combining Sr chemistry with more conventional geochemical data to obtain a more complete understanding of groundwater flow systems within regional aquifer systems where extensive monitoring networks do not exist

  2. Legacy lead arsenate soil contamination at childcare centers in the Yakima Valley, Central Washington, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkee, Jenna; Bartrem, Casey; Möller, Gregory

    2017-02-01

    From the early 1900s to the 1950s, Yakima Valley orchards were commonly treated with lead arsenate (LA) insecticides. Lead (Pb) and arsenic (As) soil contamination has been identified on former orchard lands throughout Central Washington and pose a threat to human health and the environment. The levels of Pb and As in soil and interior dust at participating childcare centers in the Upper Yakima Valley (Yakima County), Washington were sampled to explore exposure potential for young children. Childcare center soils were collected from two soil depths, homogenized, and analyzed in bulk by a field-portable X-ray fluorescence spectrometer (XRF). Interior dust wipes samples were collected from at least two locations in each facility. All soil samples >250 mg/kg Pb and/or >20 As mg/kg were sieved to 250 μm, tested by XRF a second time, and analyzed via acid digestion and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis. Bulk and sieved XRF results, as well as ICP-MS to XRF results were strongly correlated. Maximum Pb and As XRF results indicated that 4 (21%) and 8 (42%) of the 19 childcare centers surveyed exceeded the regulatory standard for Pb and As, respectively. Historic land use was significantly associated with elevated Pb and As levels. Interior dust loadings were below United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) guidelines. Childcare centers are areas of intensive use for children and when coupled with potential residential exposure in their homes, the total daily exposure is a potential hazard to children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Some shallow-water hydroids (Cnidaria: Hydrozoa) from the central east coast of Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calder, Dale R

    2013-01-01

    This paper gives a systematic account of 67 species, referable to 22 families and 40 genera, identified in a small collection of hydroids from the central Atlantic coast of Florida between Melbourne and Palm Beach. The fauna mostly comprises an assemblage of tropical western Atlantic species ranging northwards along the southeastern coast of the United States. One new species, Lafoea intorta, is described. Applying Reversal of Precedence provisions in zoological nomenclature, the widely-used generic name Halopteris Allman, 1877 is designated as valid and as a nomen protectum, while its virtually unused senior synonym Halicornaria Hincks, 1865 (not Halicornaria Allman, 1874) is reduced to a nomen oblitum. The genus Pasya Stechow, 1922 is resurrected for the hydroid generally known as Dynamena quadridentata (Ellis & Solander, 1786). Laomedea tottoni Leloup, 1935 is shown to be a junior objective synonym of Clytia fragilis Congdon, 1907, which in turn is a junior subjective synonym of Clytia linearis (Thornely, 1900). Obelia oxydentata Stechow, 1914 is recognized as distinct from O. bidentata Clark, 1875. Hincksella brevitheca Galea, 2009, first described from Cuba, is reported for only the second time; records of the species are added here from Grand Cayman Island and the Caribbean coast of Panama as well as from the Atlantic coast of Florida. Also reported for the second time is Antennella incerta Galea, 2010, previ-ously known only from Guadeloupe in the Caribbean Sea. The true Halopteris diaphana (Heller, 1868), known from the Mediterranean Sea and from Brazil, is reported for the first time from the western North Atlantic. Earlier records of the species in the region are based on misidentifications of H. alternata (Nutting, 1900). Male gonothecae of Halecium calderi Galea, 2010 are reported and illustrated for the first time.

  4. Genetic relatedness and molecular characterization of multidrug resistant Acinetobacter baumannii isolated in central Ohio, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadesse Daniel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Over the last decade, nosocomial infections due to Acinetobacter baumannii have been described with an increasing trend towards multidrug resistance, mostly in intensive care units. The aim of the present study was to determine the clonal relatedness of clinical isolates and to elucidate the genetic basis of imipenem resistance. Methods A. baumannii isolates (n = 83 originated from two hospital settings in central Ohio were used in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis genotyping and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for clinically relevant antimicrobials were performed. Resistance determinants were characterized by using different phenotypic (accumulation assay for efflux and genotypic (PCR, DNA sequencing, plasmid analysis and electroporation approaches. Results The isolates were predominantly multidrug resistant (>79.5% and comprised of thirteen unique pulsotypes, with genotype VII circulating in both hospitals. The presence of blaOXA-23 in 13% (11/83 and ISAba1 linked blaOXA-66 in 79.5% (66/83 of clinical isolates was associated with high level imipenem resistance. In this set of OXA producing isolates, multidrug resistance was bestowed by blaADC-25, class 1 integron-borne aminoglycoside modifying enzymes, presence of sense mutations in gyrA/parC and involvement of active efflux (with evidence for the presence of adeB efflux gene. Conclusion This study underscores the major role of carbapenem-hydrolyzing class D β-lactamases, and in particular the acquired OXA-23, in the dissemination of imipenem-resistant A. baumannii. The co-occurrence of additional resistance determinant could also be a significant threat.

  5. SBAS Analysis of Induced Ground Surface Deformation from Wastewater Injection in East Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Loesch

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The state of Oklahoma has experienced a dramatic increase in the amount of measurable seismic activities over the last decade. The needs of a petroleum-driven world have led to increased production utilizing various technologies to reach energy reserves locked in tight formations and stimulate end-of-life wells, creating significant amounts of undesirable wastewater ultimately injected underground for disposal. Using Phased Array L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR data, we performed a differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS-based analysis over east central Oklahoma to identify ground surface deformation with respect to the location of wastewater injection wells for the period of December 2006 to January 2011. Our results show broad spatial correlation between SBAS-derived deformation and the locations of injection wells. We also observed significant uplift over Cushing, Oklahoma, the largest above ground crude oil storage facility in the world, and a key hub of the Keystone Pipeline. This finding has significant implications for the oil and gas industry due to its close proximity to the zones of increased seismicity attributed to wastewater injection. Results southeast of Drumright, Oklahoma represent an excellent example of the potential of InSAR, identifying a fault bordered by an area of subduction to the west and uplift to the east. This differentiated movement along the fault may help explain the lack of any seismic activity in this area, despite the large number of wells and high volume of fluid injected.

  6. Geochemistry of metal-rich brines from central Mississippi Salt Dome basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Maest, A.S.; Carothers, W.W.; Law, L.M.; Lamothe, P.J.; Fries, T.L.

    1987-01-01

    Oil-field brines are the most favored ore-forming solutions for the sediment-hosted Mississippi Valley-type ore deposits. Detailed inorganic and organic chemical and isotope analyses of water and gas samples from six oil fields in central Mississippi, one of the very few areas with high metal brines, were conducted to study the inorganic and organic complexes responsible for the high concentrations of these metals. The samples were obtained from production zones consisting of sandstone and limestone that range in depth from 1900 to 4000 m (70-120??C) and in age from Late Cretaceous to Late Jurassic. Results show that the waters are dominantly bittern brines related to the Louann Salt. The brines have extremely high salinities that range from 160,000 to 320,000 mg/l total dissolved solids and are NaCaCl-type waters with very high concentrations of Ca (up to 48,000 mg/l) and other alkaline-earth metals, but with low concentrations of aliphatic acid anions. The concentrations of metals in many water samples are very high, reaching values of 70 mg/l for Pb, 245 mg/l for Zn, 465 mg/l for Fe and 210 mg/l for Mn. The samples with high metal contents have extremely low concentrations (<0.02 mg/l) of H2S. Samples obtained from the Smackover Formation (limestone) have low metal contents that are more typical of oil-field waters, but have very high concentrations (up to 85 mg/l) of H2S. Computations with the geochemical code SOLMINEQ.87 give the following results: (1) both Pb and Zn are present predominantly as aqueous chloride complexes (mainly as PbCl42- and ZnCl42-, respectively); (2) the concentrations of metals complexed with short-chained aliphatic acid anions and reduced S species are minor; (3) organic acid anions are important in controlling the concentrations of metals because they affect the pH and buffer capacity of the waters at subsurface conditions; and (4) galena and sphalerite solubilities control the concentrations of Pb and Zn in these waters. ?? 1988.

  7. Implementation of MAR within the Rio Grande Basin of Central New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marley, Robert; Blandford, T. Neil; Ewing, Amy; Webb, Larry; Yuhas, Katherine

    2014-05-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Reclamation has identified the Rio Grande basin within Central New Mexico as one of several regions where water supplies are over-allocated and future conflicts over the inadequate resource are highly likely. Local water providers have consistently identified managed aquifer recharge (MAR) as an important tool to provide conjunctive management of surface-water, groundwater, and reclaimed water sources in order to extend the useful life of existing water sources. However, MAR projects have been slow to take root partly due to rigorous demonstration requirements, groundwater quality protection concerns, and ongoing water right uncertainties. At first glance the several thousand meters of unconsolidated basin-fill sediments hosting the regional aquifer appear to provide an ideal environment for the subsurface storage of surplus water. However, the basin has a complex structural and depositional history that impacts the siting and overall effectiveness of MAR systems. Several recharge projects are now in various stages of implementation and are overcoming site specific challenges including source water and ambient groundwater compatibility, low-permeability sediments and compartmentalization of the aquifer by extensive faulting, well clogging, and overall water quality management. This presentation will highlight ongoing efforts of these water providers to develop full-scale recharge facilities. The performance of natural in-channel infiltration, engineered infiltration galleries, and direct injection systems designed to introduce from 500 to 5,000 mega-liters per annum to target intervals present from 150 to 600 meters below ground surface will be described. Source waters for recharge operations include inter-basin transferred surface water and highly treated reclaimed water sources requiring from minor to extensive treatment pre-recharge and post-recovery. Operational complexities have raised concerns related to long-term operation and maintenance

  8. Deep-seated gravitational slope deformations near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline, east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, S. D.; Clague, J. J.; Rabus, B.; Stead, D.

    2013-12-01

    Multiple, active, deep-seated gravitational slope deformations (DSGSD) are present near the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway in the east-central Alaska Range, Alaska, USA. We documented spatial and temporal variations in rates of surface movement of the DSGSDs between 2003 and 2011 using RADARSAT-1 and RADARSAT-2 D-InSAR images. Deformation rates exceed 10 cm/month over very large areas (>1 km2) of many rock slopes. Recent climatic change and strong seismic shaking, especially during the 2002 M 7.9 Denali Fault earthquake, appear to have exacerbated slope deformation. We also mapped DSGSD geological and morphological characteristics using field- and GIS-based methods, and constructed a conceptual 2D distinct-element numerical model of one of the DSGSDs. Preliminary results indicate that large-scale buckling or kink-band slumping may be occurring. The DSGSDs are capable of generating long-runout landslides that might impact the Trans-Alaska Pipeline and Richardson Highway. They could also block tributary valleys, thereby impounding lakes that might drain suddenly. Wrapped 24-day RADARSAT-2 descending spotlight interferogram showing deformation north of Fels Glacier. The interferogram is partially transparent and is overlaid on a 2009 WorldView-1 panchromatic image. Acquisition interval: August 2 - August 26, 2011. UTM Zone 6N.

  9. MONTANA PALLADIUM RESEARCH INITIATIVE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, John; McCloskey, Jay; Douglas, Trevor; Young, Mark; Snyder, Stuart; Gurney, Brian

    2012-05-09

    Project Objective: The overarching objective of the Montana Palladium Research Initiative is to perform scientific research on the properties and uses of palladium in the context of the U.S. Department of Energy's Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies Program. The purpose of the research will be to explore possible palladium as an alternative to platinum in hydrogen-economy applications. To achieve this objective, the Initiatives activities will focus on several cutting-edge research approaches across a range of disciplines, including metallurgy, biomimetics, instrumentation development, and systems analysis. Background: Platinum-group elements (PGEs) play significant roles in processing hydrogen, an element that shows high potential to address this need in the U.S. and the world for inexpensive, reliable, clean energy. Platinum, however, is a very expensive component of current and planned systems, so less-expensive alternatives that have similar physical properties are being sought. To this end, several tasks have been defined under the rubric of the Montana Palladium Research Iniative. This broad swath of activities will allow progress on several fronts. The membrane-related activities of Task 1 employs state-of-the-art and leading-edge technologies to develop new, ceramic-substrate metallic membranes for the production of high-purity hydrogen, and develop techniques for the production of thin, defect-free platinum group element catalytic membranes for energy production and pollution control. The biomimetic work in Task 2 explores the use of substrate-attached hydrogen-producing enzymes and the encapsulation of palladium in virion-based protein coats to determine their utility for distributed hydrogen production. Task 3 work involves developing laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) as a real-time, in situ diagnostic technique to characterize PGEs nanoparticles for process monitoring and control. The systems engineering work in task 4

  10. Deep Sequencing-Identified Kanamycin-Resistant Paenibacillus sp. Strain KS1 Isolated from Epiphyte Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) in Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lata, Pushpa; Govindarajan, Subramaniam S; Qi, Feng; Li, Jian-Liang; Sahoo, Malaya K

    2017-02-02

    Paenibacillus sp. strain KS1 was isolated from an epiphyte, Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish moss), in central Florida, USA. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of this strain, which consists of a total of 398 contigs spanning 6,508,195 bp, with a G+C content of 46.5% and comprising 5,401 predicted coding sequences. Copyright © 2017 Lata et al.

  11. Laboratory and field investigations of pestiferous Chironomidae (Diptera) in some man-made wetlands in central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Arshad; Leckel, Robert J; Jahan, Nusrad; Al-Shami, Salman A; Rawi, Che Salmah Md

    2009-03-01

    A 1-year larval and adult population survey of pestiferous chironomids was conducted in 4 man-made wetlands in a resort area of central Florida, USA. Benthic samples were randomly collected from each wetland at least once every month. Geocoordinates, water depth, and physical composition of substrates at each larval sample location were noted. Adult midge populations were sampled weekly around the wetlands by employing 10 New Jersey light traps permanently placed in the area. Chironominae and Tanypodinae midges occurred in the larval and adult samples; a few Orthocladiinae were also taken. Among Chironominae, Chironomini (mostly Polypedilum spp., Cryptochironomus spp., Glyptotendipes paripes, and Goeldichironomus carus) and Tanytarsini (mostly Tanytarsus spp.), and some other Chironomidae were recorded. Tanypodinae were quantitatively not important. Monthly mean number of total adults per trap-night ranged from 23 in February to 211 in October. Annual mean larval density and range of total chironomids in the study wetlands amounted to 1,128/m2, range: 0-12,332/m2. The total larvae were most abundant in May. Tanytarsus spp. and Polypedilum spp. were numerically the most predominant spatially as well as temporally. Mean water depth at the sampled locations was 1.83 m (range: 1-m-deep water. Of all sampled locations, substrates such as sand, mixed substrates, and muck were respectively encountered at 656, 371, and 299 locations. The predominance of sand and mixed substrates was conducive to supporting the numerically dominant Tanytarsus spp. and Polypedilum spp. In laboratory bioassays, Tanytarsus spp., Polypedilum spp., Glyptotendipes paripes, and Goeldichironomus carus were highly susceptible to temephos, as well as to s-methoprene. Bacillus thuringiensis serovar. israelensis was most effective against Tanytarsus spp. and least against Goeldichironomus carus.

  12. Reliable yields of public water-supply wells in the fractured-rock aquifers of central Maryland, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Patrick A.

    2018-02-01

    Most studies of fractured-rock aquifers are about analytical models used for evaluating aquifer tests or numerical methods for describing groundwater flow, but there have been few investigations on how to estimate the reliable long-term drought yields of individual hard-rock wells. During the drought period of 1998 to 2002, many municipal water suppliers in the Piedmont/Blue Ridge areas of central Maryland (USA) had to institute water restrictions due to declining well yields. Previous estimates of the yields of those wells were commonly based on extrapolating drawdowns, measured during short-term single-well hydraulic pumping tests, to the first primary water-bearing fracture in a well. The extrapolations were often made from pseudo-equilibrium phases, frequently resulting in substantially over-estimated well yields. The methods developed in the present study to predict yields consist of extrapolating drawdown data from infinite acting radial flow periods or by fitting type curves of other conceptual models to the data, using diagnostic plots, inverse analysis and derivative analysis. Available drawdowns were determined by the positions of transition zones in crystalline rocks or thin-bedded consolidated sandstone/limestone layers (reservoir rocks). Aquifer dewatering effects were detected by type-curve matching of step-test data or by breaks in the drawdown curves constructed from hydraulic tests. Operational data were then used to confirm the predicted yields and compared to regional groundwater levels to determine seasonal variations in well yields. Such well yield estimates are needed by hydrogeologists and water engineers for the engineering design of water systems, but should be verified by the collection of long-term monitoring data.

  13. Residential Energy Efficiency Potential: Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-22

    Energy used by Montana single-family homes that can be saved through cost-effective improvements. Prepared by Eric Wilson and Noel Merket, NREL, and Erin Boyd, U.S. Department of Energy Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis.

  14. Montana University System Fact Book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana Univ. System, Helena. Office of the Commissioner of Higher Education.

    This report contains numerous figures and tables providing data about the Montana University System. The report is divided into 11 sections, with some preceded by a brief text summary, followed by data tables and figures. Sections cover: (1) total funds, (2) state appropriated funds, (3) funding sources, (4) enrollment, (5) employment, (6) state…

  15. Structure and dendroecology of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct stands south of its contiguous range in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua A. Kincaid

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Information on forest structure, growth, and disturbance history is essential for effective forest management in a dynamic landscape. Because most of our research concerning the ecology and growth of Thuja occidentalis comes from sites in northern portions of its range, highly contextual biotic and abiotic factors that affect the species in more southern locales may not be fully accounted for. This research characterized the structural attributes and growth dynamics of Thuja occidentalis in disjunct forest stands south of its contiguous range margin. Methods The Thuja occidentalis forests examined in this research were located in the central Appalachian Mountains, USA, approximately 440 km south of the contiguous range margin of the species. Forest structural attributes were characterized in two Thuja occidentalis forest stands, which are rare in the region. Tree-ring chronologies were used to examine the influences of disturbance and climate on the growth of Thuja occidentalis. Results The forests contained a total of 13 tree species with Thuja occidentalis contributing substantially to the basal area of the sites. Thuja occidentalis stems were absent in the smallest size class, while hardwood species were abundant in the smallest classes. Thuja occidentalis stems also were absent from the < 70 years age class. By contrast, Thuja occidentalis snags were abundant within stands. Growth-release events were distributed across the disturbance chronology and generally affected a small number of trees. The Thuja occidentalis tree-ring chronology possessed an interseries correlation of 0.62 and mean sensitivity of 0.25. The correlation between mean temperature and Thuja occidentalis growth was weak and variable. Growth and moisture variables were more strongly correlated, and this relationship was predominantly positive. Conclusions Structural attributes indicate the forests are in the understory reinitiation stage of forest development

  16. A warm-season comparison of WRF coupled to the CLM4.0, Noah-MP, and Bucket hydrology land surface schemes over the central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Den Broeke, Matthew S.; Kalin, Andrew; Alavez, Jose Abraham Torres; Oglesby, Robert; Hu, Qi

    2017-11-01

    In climate modeling studies, there is a need to choose a suitable land surface model (LSM) while adhering to available resources. In this study, the viability of three LSM options (Community Land Model version 4.0 [CLM4.0], Noah-MP, and the five-layer thermal diffusion [Bucket] scheme) in the Weather Research and Forecasting model version 3.6 (WRF3.6) was examined for the warm season in a domain centered on the central USA. Model output was compared to Parameter-elevation Relationships on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) data, a gridded observational dataset including mean monthly temperature and total monthly precipitation. Model output temperature, precipitation, latent heat (LH) flux, sensible heat (SH) flux, and soil water content (SWC) were compared to observations from sites in the Central and Southern Great Plains region. An overall warm bias was found in CLM4.0 and Noah-MP, with a cool bias of larger magnitude in the Bucket model. These three LSMs produced similar patterns of wet and dry biases. Model output of SWC and LH/SH fluxes were compared to observations, and did not show a consistent bias. Both sophisticated LSMs appear to be viable options for simulating the effects of land use change in the central USA.

  17. Anticipating forest and range land development in central Oregon (USA) for landscape analysis, with an example application involving mule deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey D. Kline; Alissa Moses; Theresa Burcsu

    2010-01-01

    Forest policymakers, public lands managers, and scientists in the Pacific Northwest (USA) seek ways to evaluate the landscape-level effects of policies and management through the multidisciplinary development and application of spatially explicit methods and models. The Interagency Mapping and Analysis Project (IMAP) is an ongoing effort to generate landscape-wide...

  18. Tracking sediment through the Holocene: Determining anthropogenic contributions to a sediment-rich agricultural system, north-central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gran, Karen; Belmont, Patrick; Finnegan, Noah

    2013-04-01

    Management and restoration of sediment-impaired streams requires quantification of sediment sources and pathways of transport. Addressing the role of humans in altering the magnitude and sources of sediment supplied to a catchment is notoriously challenging. Here, we explore how humans have amplified erosion in geomorphically-sensitive portions of the predominantly-agricultural Minnesota River basin in north-central USA. In the Minnesota River basin, the primary sources of sediment are classified generally as upland agricultural field vs. near-channel sources, with near-channel sources including stream banks, bluffs, and ravines. Using aerial lidar data, repeat terrestrial lidar scans of bluffs, ravine monitoring, historic air photo analyses, and sediment fingerprinting, we have developed a sediment budget to determine the relative importance of each source in a tributary to the Minnesota River, the Le Sueur River. We then investigate how these sources have changed through time, from changes evident over the past few decades to changes associated with valley evolution over the past 13,400 years. The Minnesota River valley was carved ~13,400 years ago through catastrophic drainage of glacial Lake Agassiz. As the Minnesota River valley incised, knickpoints have migrated upstream into tributaries, carving out deep valleys where the most actively eroding near-channel sediment sources occur. The modern sediment budget, closed for the time period 2000 to 2010, shows that the majority of the fine sediment load in the Le Sueur River comes from bluffs and other near-channel sources in the deeply-incised knick zone. Numerical modeling of valley evolution constrained by mapped and dated strath terraces cut into the glacial till presents an opportunity to compare the modern sediment budget to that of the river prior to anthropogenic modification. This comparison reveals a natural background or "pre-agriculture" rate of erosion from near-channel sources to be 3-5 times lower

  19. SPANISH PEAKS PRIMITIVE AREA, MONTANA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, James A.; Pattee, Eldon C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey of the Spanish Peaks Primitive Area, Montana, disclosed a small low-grade deposit of demonstrated chromite and asbestos resources. The chances for discovery of additional chrome resources are uncertain and the area has little promise for the occurrence of other mineral or energy resources. A reevaluation, sampling at depth, and testing for possible extensions of the Table Mountain asbestos and chromium deposit should be undertaken in the light of recent interpretations regarding its geologic setting.

  20. Individual- and population-level effects of Odocoileus virginianus herbivory on the rare forest herb Scutellaria montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea R. Benson

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Odocoileus virginianus  (white-tailed deer grazing can impact rare plant species dramatically given their risk for local extirpation and extinction. To determine if O. virginianus management could aid conservation of federally threatened Scutellaria montana  (large-flowered skullcap, we conducted an exclosure experiment across a large occurrence of this rare species in Catoosa County, Georgia, USA. We aimed to: (1 quantify the effects of O. virginianus  grazing on S. montana  individuals, and (2 evaluate the potential of O. virginianus  to influence S. montana  populations. A lesser percentage of S. montana  individuals protected from O. virginianus  were grazed than plants accessible to grazers and additional protection from smaller grazers did not reduce grazing, suggesting that O. virginianus  primarily do graze S. montana. But grazing did not significantly influence S. montana  individuals as evidenced by changes in stem height or the number of leaves per plant assessed during two single growing seasons or across those growing seasons. At the population-level, grazing impacts were buffered by a lack of grazer preferences for specific plant life stages. Although mostly not significant, our findings are biologically interesting given the numerous ecological concerns associated with O. virginianus abundance, including their demonstrated and proposed impact on rare plants.

  1. Using occupancy models to accommodate uncertainty in the interpretation of aerial photograph data: status of beaver in Central Oregon, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearl, Christopher A.; Adams, Michael J.; Haggerty, Patricia K.; Urban, Leslie

    2015-01-01

    Beavers (Castor canadensis) influence habitat for many species and pose challenges in developed landscapes. They are increasingly viewed as a cost-efficient means of riparian habitat restoration and water storage. Still, information on their status is rare, particularly in western North America. We used aerial photography to evaluate changes in beaver occupancy between 1942–1968 and 2009 in upper portions of 2 large watersheds in Oregon, USA. We used multiple observers and occupancy modeling to account for bias related to photo quality, observers, and imperfect detection of beaver impoundments. Our analysis suggested a slightly higher rate of beaver occupancy in the upper Deschutes than the upper Klamath basin. We found weak evidence for beaver increases in the west and declines in eastern parts of the study area. Our study presents a method for dealing with observer variation in photo interpretation and provides the first assessment of the extent of beaver influence in 2 basins with major water-use challenges. Published 2015. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Influence of drift and admixture on population structure of American black bears (Ursus americanus) in the Central Interior Highlands, USA, 50 years after translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puckett, Emily E; Kristensen, Thea V; Wilton, Clay M; Lyda, Sara B; Noyce, Karen V; Holahan, Paula M; Leslie, David M; Beringer, Jeff; Belant, Jerrold L; White, Don; Eggert, Lori S

    2014-05-01

    Bottlenecks, founder events, and genetic drift often result in decreased genetic diversity and increased population differentiation. These events may follow abundance declines due to natural or anthropogenic perturbations, where translocations may be an effective conservation strategy to increase population size. American black bears (Ursus americanus) were nearly extirpated from the Central Interior Highlands, USA by 1920. In an effort to restore bears, 254 individuals were translocated from Minnesota, USA, and Manitoba, Canada, into the Ouachita and Ozark Mountains from 1958 to 1968. Using 15 microsatellites and mitochondrial haplotypes, we observed contemporary genetic diversity and differentiation between the source and supplemented populations. We inferred four genetic clusters: Source, Ouachitas, Ozarks, and a cluster in Missouri where no individuals were translocated. Coalescent models using approximate Bayesian computation identified an admixture model as having the highest posterior probability (0.942) over models where the translocation was unsuccessful or acted as a founder event. Nuclear genetic diversity was highest in the source (AR = 9.11) and significantly lower in the translocated populations (AR = 7.07-7.34; P = 0.004). The Missouri cluster had the lowest genetic diversity (AR = 5.48) and served as a natural experiment showing the utility of translocations to increase genetic diversity following demographic bottlenecks. Differentiation was greater between the two admixed populations than either compared to the source, suggesting that genetic drift acted strongly over the eight generations since the translocation. The Ouachitas and Missouri were previously hypothesized to be remnant lineages. We observed a pretranslocation remnant signature in Missouri but not in the Ouachitas. Published 2014. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  3. DIGITAL FLOOD INSURANCE RATE MAP DATABASE, FERGUS COUNTY, MONTANA, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk Information And supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk;...

  4. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LIDAR in north central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We ...

  5. Calculating the ecosystem service of water storage in isolated wetlands using LiDAR in north central Florida, USA (presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study used remotely-sensed Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to estimate potential water storage capacity of isolated wetlands in north central Florida. The data were used to calculate the water storage potential of >8500 polygons identified as isolated wetlands. We f...

  6. Causes of the outbreak of the eurozone crises: the role of the USA and the European Central Bank monetary polic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalia Białek

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that the loose monetary policy of two of the world’s most important financial institutions—the U.S. Federal Reserve Board and the European Central Bank—were ultimately responsible for the outburst of global financial crisis of 2008-09. Unusually low interest rates in 2001- 05 compelled investors to engage in high risk endeavors. It also encouraged some governments to finance excessive domestic consumption with foreign loans. Emerging financial bubbles burst first in mortgage markets in the U.S. and subsequently spread to other countries. The paper also reviews other causes of the crisis as discussed in literature. Some of them relate directly to weaknesses inherent in the institutional design of the European Monetary Union (EMU while others are unique to members of the EMU. It is rather striking that recommended remedies tend not to take into account the policies of the European Central Bank.

  7. The Influence of Prescribed Fire, Habitat, and Weather on Amblyomma americanum (Ixodida: Ixodidae in West-Central Illinois, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary E. Gilliam

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of Amblyomma americanum (L. is changing and reports of tick-borne disease transmitted by A. americanum are increasing in the USA. We used flagging to collect ticks, surveyed vegetation and collected weather data in 2015 and 2016. A. americanum dominated collections in both years (97%. Ticks did not differ among burn treatments; however, tick abundance differed between years among total, adult, and larval ticks. Habitat variables showed a weak negative correlation to total ticks in respect to: Shannon diversity index, percent bare ground, perennial cover, and coarse woody debris. Nymphal ticks showed a weak negative correlation to percent bare ground and fewer adults were collected in areas with more leaf litter and coarse woody debris. Conversely, we found larvae more often in areas with more total cover, biennials, vines, shrubs, and leaf litter, suggesting habitat is important for this life stage. We compared weather variables to tick presence and found, in 2015, temperature, precipitation, humidity, and sample period influenced tick collection and were life stage specific. In 2016, temperature, precipitation, humidity, wind, and sample period influenced tick collection and were also life stage specific. These results indicate that spring burns in an oak woodland do not reduce ticks; other variables such as habitat and weather are more influential on tick abundance or presence at different life stages.

  8. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Colleen A; Bratton, Susan P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Urbanization is a major influence on microplastic ingestion by sunfish in the Brazos River Basin, Central Texas, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, Colleen A.; Bratton, Susan P.

    2016-01-01

    Microplastics, degraded and weathered polymer-based particles, and manufactured products ranging between 50 and 5000 μm in size, are found within marine, freshwater, and estuarine environments. While numerous peer-reviewed papers have quantified the ingestion of microplastics by marine vertebrates, relatively few studies have focused on microplastic ingestion by freshwater organisms. This study documents microplastic and manufactured fiber ingestion by bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus) and longear (Lepomis megalotis) sunfish (Centrarchidae) from the Brazos River Basin, between Lake Whitney and Marlin, Texas, USA. Fourteen sample sites were studied and categorized into urban, downstream, and upstream areas. A total of 436 sunfish were collected, and 196 (45%) stomachs contained microplastics. Four percent (4%) of items sampled were debris on the macro size scale (i.e. >5 mm) and consisted of masses of plastic, metal, Styrofoam, or fishing material, while 96% of items sampled were in the form of microplastic threads. Fish length was statistically correlated to the number of microplastics detected (p = 0.019). Fish collected from urban sites displayed the highest mean number of microplastics ingested, followed by downstream and upstream sites. Microplastics were associated with the ingestion of other debris items (e.g. sand and wood) and correlated to the ingestion of fish eggs, earthworms, and mollusks, suggesting that sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal feeding methods. The high frequency of microplastic ingestion suggest that further research is needed to determine the residence time of microplastics within the stomach and gut, potential for food web transfer, and adverse effects on wildlife and ecosystemic health. - Highlights: • Sunfish ingest microplastics and manufactured materials at significant levels. • Local urbanization influences microplastic ingestion. • Sunfish incidentally ingest microplastics during their normal

  10. Case Study of a Service-Learning Partnership: Montana Tech and the Montana State Prison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amtmann, John; Evans, Roberta; Powers, Jack

    2002-01-01

    As a service learning project, Montana Tech students deliver a wellness program for older inmates in Montana State Prison. Outcomes identified in student interviews included improved interpersonal skills (tact, diplomacy, communication, assertiveness) and opportunities to apply knowledge. Students recognized the value of the program for…

  11. A Report on Traffic Safety and Montana's Children. 1999 Montana Special Report No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Mothers, Healthy Babies--The Montana Coalition, Helena.

    This brief Kids Count report looks at major problems, available data, and some solutions for Montana's children as passengers in and drivers of vehicles on Montana's roads and highways. The report also presents information about adults' roles and responsibilities for preventing traffic accidents and protecting children. Facts presented in the…

  12. Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2)emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effect of frame size and season on enteric methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions in Angus brood cows grazing native tall-grass prairie in central Oklahoma, USA J.P.S. Neel USDA ARS, El Reno, OK A reduction in enteric CH4 production in ruminants is associated with improved production effic...

  13. Assessment of regional change in nitrate concentrations in groundwater in the Central Valley, California, USA, 1950s-2000s

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burow, Karen R.; Jurgens, Bryant C.; Belitz, Kenneth; Dubrovsky, Neil M.

    2013-01-01

    A regional assessment of multi-decadal changes in nitrate concentrations was done using historical data and a spatially stratified non-biased approach. Data were stratified into physiographic subregions on the basis of geomorphology and soils data to represent zones of historical recharge and discharge patterns in the basin. Data were also stratified by depth to represent a shallow zone generally representing domestic drinking-water supplies and a deep zone generally representing public drinking-water supplies. These stratifications were designed to characterize the regional extent of groundwater with common redox and age characteristics, two factors expected to influence changes in nitrate concentrations over time. Overall, increasing trends in nitrate concentrations and the proportion of nitrate concentrations above 5 mg/L were observed in the east fans subregion of the Central Valley. Whereas the west fans subregion has elevated nitrate concentrations, temporal trends were not detected, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of the water quality in this area and geologic sources of nitrate, combined with sparse and uneven data coverage. Generally low nitrate concentrations in the basin subregion are consistent with reduced geochemical conditions resulting from low permeability soils and higher organic content, reflecting the distal portions of alluvial fans and historical groundwater discharge areas. Very small increases in the shallow aquifer in the basin subregion may reflect downgradient movement of high nitrate groundwater from adjacent areas or overlying intensive agricultural inputs. Because of the general lack of regionally extensive long-term monitoring networks, the results from this study highlight the importance of placing studies of trends in water quality into regional context. Earlier work concluded that nitrate concentrations were steadily increasing over time in the eastern San Joaquin Valley, but clearly those trends do not apply to other

  14. Minor and Trace Element Chemistry of Urban NS-Soot from the Central Valley of CA, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleich, S. J.; Hooper, R.

    2017-12-01

    During a recent study of metal transport in the Central Valley of California, it was noted that ns-soot (soot) occurred as complex clusters of graphene-like spheres admixed with other aerosols and were usually the dominant component of PM2.5 air particulates. These soot clusters contained a wide variety of metals of environmental concern such as As,Pb,Cr, and Ni. This study reports semi-quantitative results for 20 minor and trace elements (calibrated with Smithsonian microbeam standards) using a 200kV Transmission Electron Microscope, EDS, and SAED. This study also examined the mineralogy and crystallinity of admixed aerosols within composite soot clusters. Samples selected represent three contrasting urban settings in the Central Valley: Woodland, on the western side of the valley (Interstate highway to the east); Stockton, an inland sea-port and land transportation corridor in the center of the valley; and Roseville, a major rail-transport hub to the east. The wet/dry Mediterranean climate of California resulted in pronounced seasonal variations in total metal content. Soot cluster chemistry is highly variable however certain patterns emerged. Soot collected during the wet season is generally more aciniform, less structurally complex, and had lower sulfur (sulfate) concentrations but still had significant levels of transition metals (V,Cr,Mn,Fe,Ni,Zn and Pb) . Dry season soot was predominantly admixed with sulfate aerosols, and enriched in alkalis and alkaline earth metals. Stockton (wet-season) soot had up to 6000ppm of Pb. There is appreciable Pb (210ppm-2600ppm) in 38% of samples from Roseville but no Pb greater than 200ppm in Woodland. The highest overall total metals were found in Roseville soot with appreciable As(670ppm), V(100ppm), Pb(2600ppm), Zn(4000 ppm), Cr(90ppm), and Ni(300ppm). Heavy transport (road/rail/port) correlates with higher metal contents regardless of climate.

  15. A hybrid machine learning model to predict and visualize nitrate concentration throughout the Central Valley aquifer, California, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ransom, Katherine M.; Nolan, Bernard T.; Traum, Jonathan A.; Faunt, Claudia; Bell, Andrew M.; Gronberg, Jo Ann M.; Wheeler, David C.; Zamora, Celia; Jurgens, Bryant; Schwarz, Gregory E.; Belitz, Kenneth; Eberts, Sandra; Kourakos, George; Harter, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Intense demand for water in the Central Valley of California and related increases in groundwater nitrate concentration threaten the sustainability of the groundwater resource. To assess contamination risk in the region, we developed a hybrid, non-linear, machine learning model within a statistical learning framework to predict nitrate contamination of groundwater to depths of approximately 500 m below ground surface. A database of 145 predictor variables representing well characteristics, historical and current field and landscape-scale nitrogen mass balances, historical and current land use, oxidation/reduction conditions, groundwater flow, climate, soil characteristics, depth to groundwater, and groundwater age were assigned to over 6000 private supply and public supply wells measured previously for nitrate and located throughout the study area. The boosted regression tree (BRT) method was used to screen and rank variables to predict nitrate concentration at the depths of domestic and public well supplies. The novel approach included as predictor variables outputs from existing physically based models of the Central Valley. The top five most important predictor variables included two oxidation/reduction variables (probability of manganese concentration to exceed 50 ppb and probability of dissolved oxygen concentration to be below 0.5 ppm), field-scale adjusted unsaturated zone nitrogen input for the 1975 time period, average difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration during the years 1971–2000, and 1992 total landscape nitrogen input. Twenty-five variables were selected for the final model for log-transformed nitrate. In general, increasing probability of anoxic conditions and increasing precipitation relative to potential evapotranspiration had a corresponding decrease in nitrate concentration predictions. Conversely, increasing 1975 unsaturated zone nitrogen leaching flux and 1992 total landscape nitrogen input had an increasing relative

  16. Ground level chemical analysis of air transported from the 1998 Mexican-central american fires to the southwestern USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Villanueva Fierro, Ignacio [Departmento de Ciencias Ambientales, COFAA, CIIDIR-IPN Unidad Durango, Durango, Durango (Mexico)]. E-mail: ifierro62@yahoo.com; Popp, Carl J. [Department of Chemistry, New Mexico Tech, NM (United States); Dixon, Roy W. [Department of Chemistry, California State University at Sacramento, Sacramento, CA (USA); Martin, Randal S. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Utah State University, Logan, UT (United States); Gaffney, Jeffrey S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR(United States); Marley, Nancy A. [Graduate Institute of Technology, University of Arkansas at Little Rock, Little Rock, AR (United States); Harris, Joyce M. [Office of Oceanic and Atmospheric Research, ERL/CMDL, NOAA, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2009-02-15

    In May 1998, a large number of forest fires in the region of southern Mexico and Central America, released huge amounts of contaminants that were transported over the Pacific Ocean, then, due to a change in air current direction, the primary contaminants and their secondary pollutant products impacted central New Mexico after 5 to 6 days transport time. The total distance traveled was approximately 3000 km from the fire source. Background measurements of a number of key chemical markers were taken before and during the haze incursion at a site located at Socorro, NM. A number of days before the haze episode in NM, large areas of Texas, Louisiana and the lower Mississippi River valley were also inundated by smoke from the fires. The sum of carbonyl compounds was 5.6 ppbv before and 15.5 ppbv during the smoke event; the sum of carboxylic acids went from 7.2 ppbv to 8.6 ppbv; C1-C2 hydrocarbons went from 270 ppbv to 133 ppbv; particulate NO{sub 3}{sup -} went from 0.1 to 1.3 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; SO{sub 4}{sup -2} went from 1.2 to 3.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}; and PM10 concentrations remained between the range measured before the episode (15-20 {mu}g/m{sup 3}). The results indicate the significant impact on a rural site from long range transport of primary and secondary smoke pollutants from biomass burning events and the importance of these species being primarily in the gaseous and fine aerosol size range. These fine aerosols are important as climate forcing agents and in reducing air quality and visibility. [Spanish] En mayo de 1998, varios incendios forestales en la region sur de Mexico y en America Central, emitieron enormes cantidades de contaminantes que fueron transportados al Oceano Pacifico; entonces, debido a los cambios de direccion de las corrientes de aire, los contaminantes primarios emitidos, o como contaminantes secundarios, empezaron a llegar al centro de Nuevo Mexico, despues de 5 a 6 dias del episodio. La distancia total del transporte fue de aproximadamente 3000

  17. Fire Regimes of Remnant Pitch Pine Communities in the Ridge and Valley Region of Central Pennsylvania, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Marschall

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Many fire-adapted ecosystems in the northeastern U.S. are converting to fire-intolerant vegetation communities due to fire suppression in the 20th century. Prescribed fire and other vegetation management activities that increase resilience and resistance to global changes are increasingly being implemented, particularly on public lands. For many fire-dependent communities, there is little quantitative data describing historical fire regime attributes such as frequency, severity, and seasonality, or how these varied through time. Where available, fire-scarred live and remnant trees, including stumps and snags, offer valuable insights into historical fire regimes through tree-ring and fire-scar analyses. In this study, we dated fire scars from 66 trees at two sites in the Ridge and Valley Province of the Appalachian Mountains in central Pennsylvania, and described fire frequency, severity, and seasonality from the mid-17th century to 2013. Fires were historically frequent, of low to moderate severity, occurred mostly during the dormant season, and were influenced by aspect and topography. The current extended fire-free interval is unprecedented in the previous 250–300 years at both sites.

  18. Patterns of fossil distributions within their environmental context from the Middle Triassic in South Canyon, Central Nevada, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro M. Monarrez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Middle Triassic records the return of diverse marine communities after the severe effects of the end-Permian mass extinction. This diversification leads to the Mesozoic/modern adaptive radiation resulting in substantial changes in marine communities in comparison to their Paleozoic predecessors. This analysis focuses on the faunal abundance, ecological patterns, and environmental interpretation of a Middle Triassic section in Central Nevada. Twelve bulk samples were collected. Visible fossils were identified and tallied from hand samples and thin-sections were used to aid in environmental interpretation. Beginning in the Late Anisian, we observed an ammonoid dominated to flat-clam, epifaunal dominated benthic community within a muddy, quiet, inner shelf depositional environment. Through time, epifaunal bivalves dominate within a middle shelf environment followed by an increase in infaunalization and shell-thickness. During this time the presence of oncoids and the reported finding of corals suggest the middle shelf environment gave way to a higher energy patch reef shelf edge environment. Finally, we observe epifaunal brachiopods communities at the top of our section deposited in a middle shelf environment. In sum, we observe the dominance of modern taxa (i.e., bivalves with Paleozoic ecologies (i.e., epifaunal, followed by the dominance of modern taxa with Modern ecologies (i.e., infaunal, thick shells and then a return to Paleozoic taxa (i.e., brachiopods and Paleozoic ecologies within an overall transgressive environment.

  19. A 900-year pollen-inferred temperature and effective moisture record from varved Lake Mina, west-central Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Cumming, Brian F.; Smol, John P.

    2008-04-01

    Drought is endemic to the North American Great Plains, causing severe economic consequences. However, instrumental climate data only exist from ca AD 1890, and limited tree-ring, paleolimnological, archeological and eolian records document the last two millennia. To address this lack of monitoring and paleoclimatic data, the pollen preserved in the varved sediments of Lake Mina, Minnesota, on the northeastern border of the Great Plains, were analyzed. May and February mean monthly temperatures and "annual precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration" were reconstructed at a 4-year resolution using a pre-settlement pollen-climate calibration set. The period of the so-called Little Ice Age (LIA) (AD 1500-1870) was colder than the Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA) (AD 1100-1500) in west-central Minnesota. Winter temperatures in the LIA declined more than summer ones. The pollen record suggests that the LIA occurred in three phases: an initial cold phase from AD 1505 to AD 1575, a warmer phase, and then a very cold phase from AD 1625 to AD 1775. There were severe droughts detected in the Lake Mina record from AD 1660 to AD 1710 and AD 1300 to AD 1400, suggesting that high-resolution pollen records can detect events previously defined from the tree-ring records. This latter century-scale drought is concurrent with the widely reported "AD 1250-1400 mega-drought", which exceeds the severity of 20th century droughts.

  20. Fusing MODIS with Landsat 8 data to downscale weekly normalized difference vegetation index estimates for central Great Basin rangelands, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyte, Stephen; Wylie, Bruce K.; Rigge, Matthew B.; Dahal, Devendra

    2018-01-01

    Data fused from distinct but complementary satellite sensors mitigate tradeoffs that researchers make when selecting between spatial and temporal resolutions of remotely sensed data. We integrated data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor aboard the Terra satellite and the Operational Land Imager sensor aboard the Landsat 8 satellite into four regression-tree models and applied those data to a mapping application. This application produced downscaled maps that utilize the 30-m spatial resolution of Landsat in conjunction with daily acquisitions of MODIS normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) that are composited and temporally smoothed. We produced four weekly, atmospherically corrected, and nearly cloud-free, downscaled 30-m synthetic MODIS NDVI predictions (maps) built from these models. Model results were strong with R2 values ranging from 0.74 to 0.85. The correlation coefficients (r ≥ 0.89) were strong for all predictions when compared to corresponding original MODIS NDVI data. Downscaled products incorporated into independently developed sagebrush ecosystem models yielded mixed results. The visual quality of the downscaled 30-m synthetic MODIS NDVI predictions were remarkable when compared to the original 250-m MODIS NDVI. These 30-m maps improve knowledge of dynamic rangeland seasonal processes in the central Great Basin, United States, and provide land managers improved resource maps.

  1. Delta lobe degradation and hurricane impacts governing large-scale coastal behavior, South-central Louisiana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miner, M.D.; Kulp, M.A.; FitzGerald, D.M.; Flocks, J.G.; Weathers, H.D.

    2009-01-01

    A large deficit in the coastal sediment budget, high rates of relative sea-level rise (???0.9 cm/year), and storm-induced current and wave erosion are forcing barrier shoreface retreat along the periphery of the Mississippi River delta plain. Additionally, conversion of interior wetlands to open water has increased the bay tidal prism, resulting in degradation of barrier islands due to inlet widening, formation of new inlets, and sediment sequestration at ebb-tidal deltas. Single-beam bathymetric surveys along a 165-km stretch of south-central Louisiana barrier coast, from Raccoon Point in Terrebonne Parish to Sandy Point in Plaquemines Parish, were conducted in 2006. These data, combined with historical bathymetry from three time periods (dating to the 1880s), provide a series of digital elevation models that were used to calculate sediment volumetric changes and determine long-term erosional-depositional trends. Dominant patterns during the 125-year period include (1) erosion of ???1.6????????109 m3 from the shoreface, forcing up to 3 km of shoreface retreat, (2) sediment deposition in coastal bights and at ebb-tidal deltas, and (3) a combined increase in tidal inlet cross-sectional area from ???41,400 m2 to ???139,500 m 2. Bathymetric and shoreline change datasets separated by shorter time periods (sub-annual) demonstrate that these long-term trends are driven by processes associated with major hurricane impacts, and that rates of shoreface erosion are an order of magnitude greater during active hurricane seasons compared to long-term trends. ?? 2009 Springer-Verlag.

  2. Encroachment Dynamics of Juniperus virginiana L. and Mesic Hardwood Species into Cross Timbers Forests of North-Central Oklahoma, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel L. Hoff

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Cross Timbers forests, typically dominated by Quercus stellata Wangenh. and Q. marilandica Muenchh., are the transition zone between eastern deciduous forest and prairie in the southern Great Plains. Fire exclusion beginning in the mid-1900s has led to increasing stand density and encroachment of fire-intolerant Juniperus virginiana L. and mesic hardwood. We measured current forest structure and tree ages of 25 stands (130 plots in north-central Oklahoma to characterize the extent and dynamics of encroachment. The respective basal area and stand density of the overstory (diameter at breast height; dbh > 10 cm were 19.0 m2 ha−1 and 407 trees ha−1 with Q. stellata comprising 43% of basal area and 42% of stand density. Quercus marilandica represented only 3% of basal area and 4% of overstory density. Juniperus virginiana represented 7% of basal area and 14% of stand density while mesic hardwoods, e.g., Celtis spp., Ulmus spp., Carya spp., 33% of basal area and stand density. The sapling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (68% and J. virginiana (25% while the seedling layer was dominated by mesic hardwoods (74%. The majority of Quercus recruited into the overstory between 1910–1970, while recruitment of J. virginiana and mesic hardwoods began more recently (post 1950s. Growth rate, based on the relationship between age and dbh, was faster for mesic hardwoods than for J. virginiana and Q. stellata. These results indicate that removal of recurrent surface fire as a disturbance agent has significantly altered forest composition in the Cross Timbers region by allowing encroachment of J. virginiana and fire-intolerant, mesic hardwoods. This increases wildfire risk because J. virginiana is very flammable and will alter how these forests respond to future drought and other disturbance events.

  3. Persistence of evapotranspiration impacts from mountain pine beetle outbreaks in lodgepole pine forests, south-central Rocky Mountains, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoof, Melanie; Williams, Christopher

    2014-05-01

    The current extent and high severity (percent tree mortality) of mountain pine beetle outbreaks across western North America have been attributed to regional climate change, specifically warmer summer and winter temperatures and drier summers. These outbreaks are widespread and have potentially persistent impacts on forest evapotranspiration. The few data-driven studies have largely been restricted by the temporal availability of remote sensing products. This study utilized multiple mountain pine beetle outbreak location datasets, both current and historical, within lodgepole pine stands in the south-central Rocky Mountains. The full seasonal evapotranspiration impact of outbreak events for decades after outbreak (0 to 60 years) and the role of outbreak severity in determining that impact were quantified. We found a 30% reduction in evapotranspiration peaking at 14-20 years post-outbreak during the spring snowmelt period, when water was not limited, but a minimal reduction in evapotranspiration during the remainder of the growing season (June - August). We also found a significant increase in evapotranspiration, relative to non-attacked stands, in intermediate aged stands (20-40 years post-disturbance) corresponding with a peak in LAI and therefore transpiration. During the snow-cover months evapotranspiration initially increased with needle fall and snag fall and corresponding increases in albedo and shortwave transmission to the surface. We found that changes in evapotranspiration during all seasons dissipated by 60 years post-attack. MODIS evapotranspiration values responded most strongly to mountain pine beetle driven changes in net radiation or available energy, and vegetation cover (e.g. LAI, fPAR and EVI). It also appears that the post-attack response of evapotranspiration may be sensitive to precipitation patterns and thus the consequences of a disturbance event may depend on the directionality of climate change conditions.

  4. Magmatic Activity Beneath the Quiescent Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, Inferred from Satellite InSAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, C. W.; Dzurisin, D.; Ingebritsen, S.; Thatcher, W.; Lu, Z.; Iverson, J.

    2001-12-01

    Images from satellite interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) reveal uplift of a broad ~10 km by 20 km area in the Three Sisters volcanic center of the central Oregon Cascade Range, ~130 km south of Mt. St. Helens. The uplift is centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano, the youngest stratovolcano in the volcanic center. The center has been volcanically inactive since the last eruption ~1500 years ago. Multiple European Space Agency ERS-1 and 2 satellite images from 1992 through 2000, used in this study, were selected based on orbital separation and time of year. Summer and early autumn scenes were necessary to avoid decorrelation from snow cover. Interferograms generated from these images indicate that most if not all of ~100 mm of observed uplift occurred between September 1998 and October 2000. We interpret the uplift as inflation caused by an apparently ongoing episode of magma intrusion at a depth of ~6.5 km. Geochemical (water chemistry) anomalies, first noted ~1990, coincide with the area of uplift and suggest the existence of a magma reservoir prior to the uplift. High chloride and sulfate concentrations, and a positive correlation between chloride concentration and spring temperature were found within the uplift area, with larger SO4/Cl ratios in springs at higher elevations. These findings are indicative of a high-temperature hydrothermal system driven by magma intrusions. The current inflation episode observed with InSAR may lead to an eruption, but the more persistent geochemical evidence suggests that the episode is likely the latest in a series of hitherto undetected magma intrusions. We do not yet know if the inflation has abated, is continuing, or has accelerated since October 2000--we only know that the highest rate of uplift occurred in the last year for which ERS-2 data was available (1999- 2000). In May of 2001, a continuous GPS receiver and seismometer were installed by the USGS within the Three Sisters Wilderness to monitor the

  5. Chemical characteristics and acidity of soluble organic substances from a northern hardwood forest floor, central Maine, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vance, G.F.; David, M.B.

    1991-01-01

    The authors understanding of the chemistry, structure, and reactions of organic substances in forest floor leachates is limited and incomplete. Therefore, the authors examined the organic and inorganic chemistry of forest floor leachates collected from a hardwood forest in central Maine over a two-year period (1987-1989), including detailed study of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). Seasonal variations in NH 4 + , NO 3 - , K + , and total Al were believed due to organic matter decomposition and release. Leaching of other base cations closely followed that of NO 3 - . Total DOC ranged from 2,228 to 7,193 μmol L -1 with an average of 4,835 μmol L -1 . Monosaccharides and polyphenols constituted 3.9% (range of 3.4 to 4.4%) and 3.0% (2.2 to 3.7%) of the DOC, respectively, which suggests DOC may contain partially oxidized products that are possibly of a lignocellulose nature. Fractionation of the forest floor DOC indicated high organic acid contents (hydrophobic and hydrophilic acids) that averaged 92% of the total DOC. Organic acids were isolated and analyzed for elemental content (C, H, N, and S), and determination of UV absorptivity (E 4 /E 6 ) ratios, CuO oxidation products, FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra, and acidity by potentiometric titration. Their FT-IR and 13 C-NMR spectra suggest they are primarily carboxylic acids, with aliphatic and aromatic structure. An organic charge contribution model was developed using titration data, DOC fractionation percentages, and the total DOC in the forest floor leachates. Application of the model to all solutions accounted for 97% of the charge balance deficits

  6. Save water or save wildlife? Water use and conservation in the central Sierran foothill oak woodlands of California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Huntsinger

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available More frequent drought is projected for California. As water supplies constrict, and urban growth and out-migration spread to rural areas, trade-offs in water use for agriculture, biodiversity conservation, fire hazard reduction, residential development, and quality of life will be exacerbated. The California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, state listed as "Threatened," depends on leaks from antiquated irrigation district irrigation systems for much of its remnant small wetland habitat in the north central Sierra Nevada foothills. Residents of the 1295 km² foothill habitat distribution of the Black Rail were surveyed about water use. Results show that the most Black Rail habitat is owned by those purchasing water to irrigate pasture, a use that commonly creates wetlands from leaks and tailwater. Promoting wildlife, agricultural production, and preventing wildfire are common resident goals that call for abundant and inexpensive water; social and economic pressures encourage reduction in water use and the repair of leaks that benefit wildlife and greenery. Broad inflexible state interventions to curtail water use are likely to create a multitude of unintended consequences, including loss of biodiversity and environmental quality, and alienation of residents as valued ecosystem services literally dry up. Adaptive and proactive policies are needed that consider the linkages in the social-ecological system, are sensitive to local conditions, prevent landscape dewatering, and recognize the beneficial use of water to support ecosystem services such as wildlife habitat. Much Black Rail habitat is anthropogenic, created at the nexus of local governance, plentiful water, agricultural practices, historical events, and changing land uses. This history should be recognized and leveraged rather than ignored in a rush to "save" water by unraveling the social-ecological system that created the landscape. Policy and governance needs to identify

  7. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W.; Johnson, Carole D.; Marvinney, Robert G.; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2014-01-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 g/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ18O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater.

  8. Long-term decline in the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in central Chesapeake Bay, USA: An indirect effect of eutrophication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimmel, David G.; Boynton, Walter R.; Roman, Michael R.

    2012-04-01

    A long-term abundance record of the calanoid copepod Acartia tonsa in the Maryland portion of Chesapeake Bay was compiled from 1966 to 2002. A significant downward trend in the summertime abundance of Acartia tonsa was found in central Chesapeake Bay. We propose that environmental and food web changes occurred as the Chesapeake Bay became increasingly impacted by human activity which eventually led to the overall decline of A. tonsa. Environmental changes included a long-term rise in water temperature and the volume of hypoxic water during the summer. These changes occurred during the same time period as increases in chlorophyll a concentration, declines in the landings of the eastern oyster Crassostrea virginica, and declines in abundance of the sea nettle Chrysaora quinquecirrha. A CUSUM analysis showed that each time-series experienced a change point during over the past 50 years. These changes occurred sequentially, with chlorophyll a concentration increasing beginning in 1969, water temperature and hypoxic volume increasing beginning in the early 1980s, more recent Maryland C. virginica landings begin declining in the early 1980s and A. tonsa and C. quinquecirrha declining starting in 1989. A stepwise regression analysis revealed that the reduction in A. tonsa abundance appeared to be most associated with a decreasing trend in C. quinquecirrha abundance, though only when trends in the two time-series were present. The drop in C. quinquecirrha abundance is associated with reduced predation on the ctenophore, Mnemiopsis leidyi, a key predator of A. tonsa. The long-term decline of A. tonsa has likely impacted trophic transfer to fish, particularly the zooplanktivorous bay anchovy (Anchoa mitchilli). A time-series of bay anchovy juvenile index showed a negative trend and the CUSUM analysis revealed 1993 as its starting point. Total fisheries landings, excluding menhaden (Brevoortia tyrannus), in Chesapeake Bay have also declined during the same period and this

  9. Montana Integrated Carbon to Liquids (ICTL) Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiato, Rocco A. [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States); Sharma, Ramesh [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC); Allen, Mark [Accelergy Corporation, Houston, TX (United States). Integrated Carbon Solutions; Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Macur, Richard [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Land Resources and Environmental Sciences; Cameron, Jemima [Australian Energy Company Ltd., Hovea (Australia). Australian American Energy Corporation (AAEC)

    2013-12-01

    -scale process demonstration studies of the CHI process in combination with CCU to generate synthetic jet and diesel fuels from algae and algae fertilized crops. Site assessment and project prefeasibility studies are planned with a major EPC firm to determine the overall viability of ICTL technology commercialization with Crow coal resources in south central Montana.

  10. Distinguishing values from science in decision making: Setting harvest quotas for mountain lions in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Cooley, Hilary; Gude, Justin A.; Kolbe, Jay; Nowak, J. Joshua; Proffitt, Kelly M.; Sells, Sarah N.; Thompson, Mike

    2018-01-01

    The relative roles of science and human values can be difficult to distinguish when informal processes are used to make complex and contentious decisions in wildlife management. Structured Decision Making (SDM) offers a formal process for making such decisions, where scientific results and concepts can be disentangled from the values of differing stakeholders. We used SDM to formally integrate science and human values for a citizen working group of ungulate hunting advocates, lion hunting advocates, and outfitters convened to address the contentious allocation of harvest quotas for mountain lions (Puma concolor) in west‐central Montana, USA, during 2014. A science team consisting of mountain lion biologists and population ecologists convened to support the working group. The science team used integrated population models that incorporated 4 estimates of mountain lion density to estimate population trajectories for 5 alternative harvest quotas developed by the working group. Results of the modeling predicted that effects of each harvest quota were consistent across the 4 density estimates; harvest quotas affected predicted population trajectories for 5 years after implementation but differences were not strong. Based on these results, the focus of the working group changed to differences in values among stakeholders that were the true impediment to allocating harvest quotas. By distinguishing roles of science and human values in this process, the working group was able to collaboratively recommend a compromise solution. This solution differed little from the status quo that had been the focus of debate, but the SDM process produced understanding and buy‐in among stakeholders involved, reducing disagreements, misunderstanding, and unproductive arguments founded on informal application of scientific data and concepts. Whereas investments involved in conducting SDM may be unnecessary for many decisions in wildlife management, the investment may be beneficial for

  11. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Qiang [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9 W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College and Graduate Center, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367 (United States); Culbertson, Charles W.; Nielsen, Martha G.; Schalk, Charles W. [U.S. Geological Survey, Maine Water Science Center, 196 Whitten Road, Augusta, ME 04330 (United States); Johnson, Carole D. [U.S. Geological Survey, Branch of Geophysics, 11 Sherman Place, Unit 5015, University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT 06269 (United States); Marvinney, Robert G. [Maine Geological Survey, 93 State House Station, Augusta, ME 04333 (United States); Stute, Martin [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9 W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); Zheng, Yan, E-mail: yan.zheng@qc.cuny.edu [Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory of Columbia University, 61 Route 9 W, Palisades, NY 10964 (United States); School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College and Graduate Center, City University of New York, 65-30 Kissena Blvd., Flushing, NY 11367 (United States)

    2015-02-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70–100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93–99%) in particulates (> 0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560–13,000 mg/kg of As and 14–35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5–20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000–100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ{sup 18}O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. - Highlights: • Most Fe and some As exist as particulates in the tested borehole and fracture water.

  12. Flow and sorption controls of groundwater arsenic in individual boreholes from bedrock aquifers in central Maine, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Qiang; Culbertson, Charles W; Nielsen, Martha G; Schalk, Charles W; Johnson, Carole D; Marvinney, Robert G; Stute, Martin; Zheng, Yan

    2015-02-01

    To understand the hydrogeochemical processes regulating well water arsenic (As) evolution in fractured bedrock aquifers, three domestic wells with [As] up to 478 μg/L are investigated in central Maine. Geophysical logging reveals that fractures near the borehole bottom contribute 70-100% of flow. Borehole and fracture water samples from various depths show significant proportions of As (up to 69%) and Fe (93-99%) in particulates (>0.45 μm). These particulates and those settled after a 16-day batch experiment contain 560-13,000 mg/kg of As and 14-35% weight/weight of Fe. As/Fe ratios (2.5-20 mmol/mol) and As partitioning ratios (adsorbed/dissolved [As], 20,000-100,000 L/kg) suggest that As is sorbed onto amorphous hydrous ferric oxides. Newly drilled cores also show enrichment of As (up to 1300 mg/kg) sorbed onto secondary iron minerals on the fracture surfaces. Pumping at high flow rates induces large decreases in particulate As and Fe, a moderate increase in dissolved [As] and As(III)/As ratio, while little change in major ion chemistry. The δD and δ(18)O are similar for the borehole and fracture waters, suggesting a same source of recharge from atmospheric precipitation. Results support a conceptual model invoking flow and sorption controls on groundwater [As] in fractured bedrock aquifers whereby oxygen infiltration promotes the oxidation of As-bearing sulfides at shallower depths in the oxic portion of the flow path releasing As and Fe; followed by Fe oxidation to form Fe oxyhydroxide particulates, which are transported in fractures and sorb As along the flow path until intercepted by boreholes. In the anoxic portions of the flow path, reductive dissolution of As-sorbed iron particulates could re-mobilize As. For exposure assessment, we recommend sampling of groundwater without filtration to obtain total As concentration in groundwater. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Continuing Inflation at Three Sisters Volcanic Center, Central Oregon Cascade Range, USA, From GPS, InSAR, and Leveling Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisowski, M.; Dzurisin, D.; Wicks, C. W.

    2007-12-01

    Uplift of a broad area centered ~5 km west of South Sister volcano in central Oregon started sometime after fall 1996, accelerated after fall 1998, and was continuing when last surveyed with GPS and leveling in fall 2006. Surface displacements were measured whenever possible since 1992 with satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), annually since 2001 with GPS and leveling campaigns, and with a continuous GPS station since 2001. The average maximum displacement rate from InSAR was 3 to 5 cm/yr during 1998--2001 and ~1.4 cm/yr during 2004--2006. The other three datasets show a similar pattern, i.e., surface dilation and uplift rates decreased over time but deformation continued through 2006. Our best-fit model is a spherical point pressure (Mogi) source located 6.0--6.5 km below the surface and 4.5--5 km west-southwest of the summit of South Sister volcano. Any marginal improvement gained by using a more complicated source shape is not constrained by the data. This same model fits the deformation data for 2001--2003 and 2003--2006 equally well, so there is no indication that the location or shape of the source has changed. However, the source inflation rate has decreased exponentially since 2001 with a 1/e decay time of about 4 years. The net increase in source volume from the beginning of the episode (~1997) through 2006 was 60 × 106 m3 ± 10 × 106 m3. The only unusual seismicity near the deforming area was a swarm of about 300 small earthquakes on March 23- -26, 2004 ---the first notable seismicity for at least two decades. Timing of the swarm generally coincides with slowing of surface deformation, but any link between the two, if one exists, is not understood. Similar episodes in the past probably would have gone unnoticed if, as we suspect, most were small intrusions that do not culminate in eruptions.

  14. Palynology, geochemistry and Re-Os age of the Lower-Middle Pennsylvanian stage boundary, central Appalachian basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geboy, N.; Tripathy, G. R.; Ruppert, L. F.; Eble, C. F.; Blake, B. M.; Hannah, J. L.; Stein, H. J.

    2014-12-01

    The central Appalachian basin (CAB) in the eastern United States contains complicated sedimentary sequences often with thin and discontinuous strata. As an economically important coal-producing region, the basin's architectural framework and depositional history are important to understand. Typically, eustatic marine incursions, marked with black shale deposits, are used for basin-wide correlation. The Betsie Shale Member of the Kanawha Formation represents one of these relatively thick and laterally extensive marine zones. This study examines the palynoflora of the Matewan coalbed, which conformably underlies the Betsie, in the context of a new Re-Os date for the Betsie Shale Member and additional geochemical measures. At its base, the Matewan contains abundant lycopsid tree spores, indicative of a submerged, flooded paleomire. Upsection, biodiversity increases to include small fern and calamite spores as well as cordaite pollen. Combined with an observed increase of inertinite, the diversification of palynoflora suggests surficial peat exposure and drying out of the paleomire. A S-rich (28 wt. %) shaley parting separates these lower and upper benches of the Matewan and may represent an initial marine pulse prior to the glacioeustatic incursion that ultimately flooded the Matewan and deposited the overlying Betsie Shale. The Betsie is organic-rich (3.05 - 4.89 wt. % TOC) with Re and Os content ranging from 320 - 1,200 ppb and 1.5 - 5.3 ppb, respectively. The highly enriched Re values result in notably high parent:daughter ratios (187Re/188Os = 3,644 - 5,737). The Re-Os isotopic data yield a Model 1 age of 323 ± 7.8 Ma (n = 7; MSWD = 0.63) with evidence that the true age lies closer to the younger end of the uncertainty. This age is consistent with previous paleontologic-based interpretations but represents the first directly measured radiometric date for the Betsie. An absolute age for the Betsie is a critical result, as the member is correlated with units in

  15. A conceptual framework for characterizing forest areas with high societal values: experiences from the Pacific Northwest of USA and Central Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simončič, Tina; Spies, Thomas A; Deal, Robert L; Bončina, Andrej

    2015-07-01

    In recent decades, much work has been invested to describe forest allocations with high societal values. Yet, few comparative analyses have been conducted on their importance and differences across the regions of the globe. This paper introduces a conceptual framework to characterize forest priority areas defined as areas with identified higher importance of societal values in the context of multi-objective forest management. The six dimensions of the framework (designation objective, prioritization of objectives, governance, permanency, spatial scale, and management regime) characterize the general approach (integrative vs. segregative) to multi-objective forest management and explain the form and role of priority areas for providing forest services. The framework was applied in two case study regions--Pacific Northwest of USA (PNW) and Central Europe (CE). Differences between the regions exist in all dimensions. Late-successional and riparian reserves are specific to the PNW, while protection against natural hazards is specific to CE. In PNW, priority areas are mainly focused on public lands whereas in CE they include public and private lands. Priority areas in PNW are designated in a much larger spatial context and have longer time commitments. In CE, integration of management objectives on priority areas prevails, whereas in PNW priority areas tend to be designated for single objectives. In CE, greater tolerance of timber management within priority areas compared to PNW is allowed. Convergent trends in application of priority areas between the regions indicate mixing of segregation and integration approaches to forest management.

  16. Insights on surface-water/groundwater exchange in the upper Floridan aquifer, north-central Florida (USA), from streamflow data and numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, James E.; Screaton, Elizabeth J.; Martin, Jonathan B.

    2015-03-01

    Surface-water/groundwater exchange impacts water quality and budgets. In karst aquifers, these exchanges also play an important role in dissolution. Five years of river discharge data were analyzed and a transient groundwater flow model was developed to evaluate large-scale temporal and spatial variations of exchange between an 80-km stretch of the Suwannee River in north-central Florida (USA) and the karstic upper Floridan aquifer. The one-layer transient groundwater flow model was calibrated using groundwater levels from 59 monitoring wells, and fluxes were compared to the exchange calculated from discharge data. Both the numerical modeling and the discharge analysis suggest that the Suwannee River loses water under both low- and high-stage conditions. River losses appear greatest at the inside of a large meander, and the former river water may continue across the meander within the aquifer rather than return to the river. In addition, the numerical model calibration reveals that aquifer transmissivity is elevated within this large meander, which is consistent with enhanced dissolution due to river losses. The results show the importance of temporal and spatial variations in head gradients to exchange between streams and karst aquifers and dissolution of the aquifers.

  17. Sediment and discharge yields within a minimally disturbed, headwater watershed in North Central Pennsylvania, USA, with an emphasis on Superstorm Sandy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Kelly O.; Shull, Dustin R.

    2015-01-01

    We estimated discharge and suspended sediment (SS) yield in a minimally disturbed watershed in North Central Pennsylvania, USA, and compared a typical storm (September storm, 4.80 cm) to a large storm (Superstorm Sandy, 7.47 cm rainfall). Depending on branch, Sandy contributed 9.7–19.9 times more discharge and 11.5–37.4 times more SS than the September storm. During the September storm, the upper two branches accounted for 60.6% of discharge and 88.8% of SS at Lower Branch; during Sandy these percentages dropped to 36.1% for discharge and 30.1% for SS. The branch with close proximity roads had over two-three times per area SS yield than the branch without such roads. Hysteresis loops showed typical clockwise patterns for the September storm and more complicated patterns for Sandy, reflecting the multipeak event. Estimates of SS and hysteresis in minimally disturbed watersheds provide useful information that can be compared spatially and temporally to facilitate management.

  18. Dubois Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodzicki, A.; Krason, J.

    1981-06-01

    Within the Dubois Quadrangle (Idaho and Montana), environments favorable for uranium deposits, based on National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria, occur in the McGowan Creek Formation and within some Tertiary sedimentary basins. The Mississippian McGowan Creek Formation consists of uraniferous, black, siliceous mudstone and chert with minor porous sedimentary channels. In the southern Beaverhead Mountains it has been fractured by a bedding-plane fault, and uranium has been further concentrated by circulating groundwater in the porous channels and brecciated zones, both of which contain about 200 ppM uranium. The northern parts of the Pahsimeroi River, Lemhi River, Medicine Lodge Creek, Horse Prairie, and Sage Creek Basins are considered favorable for sandstone-type uranium deposits. Evidence present includes suitable source rocks such as rhyolitic flow breccia, laharic deposits, or strongly welded tuffs; permeable sediments, including most sandstones and conglomerates, providing they do not contain devitrified glass; suitable reductants such as lignite, pyrite, or low-Eh geothermal water; and uranium occurrences

  19. Dillon quadrangle, Montana and Idaho

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wodzicki, A.; Krason, J.

    1981-04-01

    All geologic conditions in the Dillon quadrangle (Montana and Idaho) have been thoroughly examined, and, using National Uranium Resource Evaluation criteria, environments are favorable for uranium deposits along fractured zones of Precambrian Y metasediments, in the McGowan Creek Formation, and in some Tertiary sedimentary basins. A 9-m-wide quartz-bearing fractured zone in Precambrian Y quartzites near Gibbonsville contains 175 ppM uranium, probably derived from formerly overlying Challis Volcanics by supergene processes. The Mississippian McGowan Creek Formation consists of uraniferous, black, siliceous mudstone and chert. In the Melrose district it has been fractured by a low-angle fault, and uranium has been further concentrated by circulating ground water in the 2- to 6-m-thick brecciated zones that in outcrop contain 90 to 170 ppM uranium. The Wise River, northern Divide Creek, Jefferson River, Salmon River, Horse Prairie, Beaverhead River, and upper Ruby River Basins are considered favorable for uranium deposits in sandstone. Present are suitable uraniferous source rocks such as the Boulder batholith, rhyolitic flow breccia, laharic deposits, or strongly welded tuffs; permeable sediments, including most sandstones and conglomerates, providing they do not contain devitrified glass; suitable reductants such as lignite, pyrite, or low-Eh geothermal water; and uranium occurrences

  20. Changes in Channel Geometry through the Holocene in the Le Sueur River, South-Central Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Targos, Courtney Ann

    Paleochannels preserved on terraces via meander cutoffs during an incisional period record the channel geometry and thus discharge at distinct points in time throughout a river's history. We measured paleochannel geometry on terraces throughout the Le Sueur River in south-central Minnesota, to track how channel geometry has changed over the last 13,400 years. A rapid drop in base level 13,400 yr B.P. triggered knickpoint migration and valley incision that is ongoing today. Since the 1800's, the area has developed rapidly with an increase in agriculture and associated drainage, directly impacting river discharge by increasing water input to the river. Five paleochannels were identified on terraces along the Le Sueur River from 1m-resolution lidar data. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) was used to obtain a subsurface image across paleomeanders to estimate the geometry of paleochannels. Paleochannel geometry and estimated discharge were then compared to modern conditions to assess how much change has occurred. Three lines were run across each paleochannel perpendicular to the historic water flow. Each of the 15 lines were processed using the EKKO Project 2 software supplied by Sensors and Software to sharpen the images, making it easier to identify the paleochannel geometry. Paleodischarge was determined using the Law of the Wall and Manning's Equation, using modern slope and roughness conditions. OSL samples were collected from overbank deposits on terraces to determine the time of channel abandonment, and supplemented with terrace ages obtained from a numerical model of valley incision. Paleodischarge coupled with depositional ages provide a history of flow conditions on the Le Sueur River. Results show an increase in channel widths from the time paleochannels were occupied to modern channel dimensions from an average of 20 meters to 35 meters. The change was not constant through time, as all paleochannels analyzed on terraces had similar-sized channels. The best way

  1. Black bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetz, Jeff B.; Kendall, Katherine C.; Macleod, Amy C.

    2013-01-01

    We report the first abundance and density estimates for American black bears (Ursus americanus) in Glacier National Park (NP),Montana, USA.We used data from 2 independent and concurrent noninvasive genetic sampling methods—hair traps and bear rubs—collected during 2004 to generate individual black bear encounter histories for use in closed population mark–recapture models. We improved the precision of our abundance estimate by using noninvasive genetic detection events to develop individual-level covariates of sampling effort within the full and one-half mean maximum distance moved (MMDM) from each bear’s estimated activity center to explain capture probability heterogeneity and inform our estimate of the effective sampling area.Models including the one-halfMMDMcovariate received overwhelming Akaike’s Information Criterion support suggesting that buffering our study area by this distance would be more appropriate than no buffer or the full MMDM buffer for estimating the effectively sampled area and thereby density. Our modelaveraged super-population abundance estimate was 603 (95% CI¼522–684) black bears for Glacier NP. Our black bear density estimate (11.4 bears/100 km2, 95% CI¼9.9–13.0) was consistent with published estimates for populations that are sympatric with grizzly bears (U. arctos) and without access to spawning salmonids. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  2. Leaf area and tree increment dynamics of even-aged and multiaged lodgepole pine stands in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra L. Kollenberg; Kevin L. O' Hara

    1999-01-01

    Age structure and distribution of leaf area index (LAI) of even and multiaged lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Engelm.) stands were examined on three study areas in western and central Montana. Projected leaf area was determined based on a relationship with sapwood cross-sectional area at breast height. Stand structure and LAI varied considerably between...

  3. Montana BioDiesel Initiative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peyton, Brent [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States)

    2017-01-29

    This initiative funding helped put Montana State University (MSU) in a position to help lead in the development of biodiesel production strategies. Recent shortages in electrical power and rising gasoline prices have focused much attention on the development of alternative energy sources that will end our dependence on fossil fuels. In addition, as the concern for environmental impact of utilizing fossil fuels increases, effective strategies must be implemented to reduce emissions or the increased regulations imposed on fossil fuel production will cause economic barriers for their use to continue to increase. Biodiesel has been repeatedly promoted as a more environmentally sound and renewable source of fuel and may prove to be a highly viable solution to provide, at the least, a proportion of our energy needs. Currently there are both practical and economic barriers to the implementation of alternative energy however the advent of these technologies is inevitable. Since many of the same strategies for the storage, transport, and utilization of biodiesel are common with that of fossil fuels, the practical barriers for biodiesel are comparatively minimal. Strategies were developed to harness the CO2 as feedstock to support the growth of biodiesel producing algae. The initiative funding led to the successful funding of highly rated projects in competitive national grant programs in the National Science Foundation and the Department of Energy. This funding put MSU in a key position to develop technologies to utilize the CO2 rich emissions produced in fossil fuel utilization and assembled world experts concerning the growth characteristics of photosynthetic microorganisms capable of producing biodiesel.

  4. Calibrating water depths of Ordovician communities: lithological and ecological controls on depositional gradients in Upper Ordovician strata of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlton E. Brett

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Limestone and shale facies of the Upper Ordovician Grant Lake Formation (Katian: Cincinnatian, Maysvillian are well exposed in the Cincinnati Arch region of southern Ohio and north-central Kentucky, USA. These rocks record a gradual change in lithofacies and biofacies along a gently northward-sloping ramp. This gradient spans very shallow, olive-gray, platy, laminated dolostones with sparse ostracodes in the south to offshore, nodular, phosphatic, brachiopod-rich limestones and marls in the north. This study uses facies analysis in outcrop to determine paleoenvironmental parameters, particularly those related to water depth (e.g., position of the photic zone and shoreline, relative degree of environmental energy. Within a tightly correlated stratigraphic interval (the Mount Auburn and Straight Creek members of the Grant Lake Formation and the Terrill Member of the Ashlock Formation, we document the occurrence of paleoenvironmental indicators, including desiccation cracks and light-depth indicators, such as red and green algal fossils and oncolites. This permitted recognition of a ramp with an average gradient of 10–20 cm water depth per horizontal kilometer. Thus, shallow subtidal (“lagoonal” deposits in the upramp portion fall within the 1.5–6 m depth range, cross-bedded grainstones representing shoal-type environments fall within the 6–18 m depth range and subtidal, shell-rich deposits in the downramp portion fall within the 20–30 m depth range. These estimates match interpretations of depth independently derived from faunal and sedimentologic evidence that previously suggested a gentle ramp gradient and contribute to ongoing and future high-resolution paleontologic and stratigraphic studies of the Cincinnati Arch region.

  5. A 900-Year Diatom and Chrysophyte Record of Spring Mixing and Summer Stratification From Varved Lake Mina, West-Central Minnesota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, J.; Cumming, B. F.; Smol, J. P.

    2009-05-01

    A high-resolution, independent pollen-inferred paleoclimate record and direct algal seasonality data from the actual time of sediment deposition are used to interpret the high-resolution diatom and chrysophyte record of varved Lake Mina, west-central Minnesota, USA during AD 1116-2002. This direct algal seasonality information was obtained by a new technique of splitting varves into constituent winter-spring and summer lamina, and separately analyzing the siliceous algae in each layer. Analyses of integrated, continuous four-year diatom and chrysophyte samples from a sedimentary sequence show that the time period AD 1116-1478 (i.e. the Atlantic- centered Medieval Climate Anomaly (MCA)) was characterized by periods of vigorous and prolonged spring mixing, suggesting that ice-out occurred early. However, the warm summer temperatures in the MCA, particularly in a massive drought spanning AD 1300-1400, frequently caused the lake to stratify strongly, leading to nutrient depletion. During AD 1478-1870 (i.e. the Atlantic-centered Little Ice Age (LIA)), Lake Mina was characterized by weak spring circulation and increasing nutrient depletion, suggesting late ice-out conditions. Strong summer stratification and/or nutrient depletion in both time periods is shown by the occurrence of the nutrient-poor oligotrophic taxon Cyclotella pseudostelligera. The diatom and chrysophyte assemblages of the period of Euro-American settlement AD 1870-2002 show higher nutrient availability and increased spring mixing intensity, due to forest clearance and increasingly earlier ice-out (documented in regional historical records).

  6. A SWAT model validation of nested-scale contemporaneous stream flow, suspended sediment and nutrients from a multiple-land-use watershed of the central USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeiger, Sean J; Hubbart, Jason A

    2016-12-01

    There is an ongoing need to validate the accuracy of predictive model simulated pollutant yields, particularly from multiple-land-use (i.e. forested, agricultural, and urban) watersheds. However, there are seldom sufficient observed data sets available that supply requisite spatial and temporal resolution and coupled multi-parameter constituents for rigorous model performance assessment. Four years of hydroclimate and water quality data were used to validate SWAT model estimates of monthly stream flow, suspended sediment, total phosphorus, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and total inorganic nitrogen from 5 nested-scale gauging sites located in a multiple-land-use watershed of the central USA. The uncalibrated SWAT model satisfactorily simulated monthly stream flow with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) values ranging from 0.50 near the headwaters, to 0.75 near the watershed outlet. However, the uncalibrated model did not accurately simulate monthly sediment, total phosphorus, nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, and total inorganic nitrogen with NSE valuesSWAT model to multiple gauging sites within the watershed improved estimates of monthly stream flow (NSE=0.83), sediment (NSE=0.78), total phosphorus (NSE=0.81), nitrate (NSE=0.90), and total inorganic nitrogen (NSE=0.86). However, NSE values were model performance decreased for sediment, nitrate, and total inorganic nitrogen during the validation period with NSE valuesSWAT model to multiple gauging sites and provide guidance to SWAT model (or similar models) users wishing to improve model performance at multiple scales. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Ecosystem-scale volatile organic compound fluxes during an extreme drought in a broadleaf temperate forest of the Missouri Ozarks (central USA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seco, Roger [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Karl, Thomas [Univ. of Innsbruck (Austria); Guenther, Alex B. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Washington State Univ., Pullman, WA (United States); Hosman, Kevin P. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Pallardy, Stephen G. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Gu, Lianhong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Geron, Chris [U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States); Harley, Peter [National Center for Atmospheric Research, Boulder, CO (United States); Kim, Saewung [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)

    2015-07-07

    Considerable amounts and varieties of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are exchanged between vegeta-tion and the surrounding air. These BVOCs play key ecological and atmospheric roles that must be adequately repre-sented for accurately modeling the coupled biosphere–atmosphere–climate earth system. One key uncertainty in existing models is the response of BVOC fluxes to an important global change process: drought. We describe the diur-nal and seasonal variation in isoprene, monoterpene, and methanol fluxes from a temperate forest ecosystem before, during, and after an extreme 2012 drought event in the Ozark region of the central USA. BVOC fluxes were domi-nated by isoprene, which attained high emission rates of up to 35.4 mg m-2h-1 at midday. Methanol fluxes were characterized by net deposition in the morning, changing to a net emission flux through the rest of the daylight hours. Net flux of CO2 reached its seasonal maximum approximately a month earlier than isoprenoid fluxes, which high-lights the differential response of photosynthesis and isoprenoid emissions to progressing drought conditions. Never-theless, both processes were strongly suppressed under extreme drought, although isoprene fluxes remained relatively high compared to reported fluxes from other ecosystems. Methanol exchange was less affected by drought throughout the season, conflrming the complex processes driving biogenic methanol fluxes. The fraction of daytime (7–17 h) assimilated carbon released back to the atmosphere combining the three BVOCs measured was 2% of gross primary productivity (GPP) and 4.9% of net ecosystem exchange (NEE) on average for our whole measurement cam-paign, while exceeding 5% of GPP and 10% of NEE just before the strongest drought phase. The MEGANv2.1 model correctly predicted diurnal variations in fluxes driven mainly by light and temperature, although further research is needed to address model BVOC fluxes

  8. Challenges for creating a site-specific groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knierim, Katherine J.; Nottmeier, Anna M.; Worland, Scott; Westerman, Drew A.; Clark, Brian R.

    2017-09-01

    Hydrologic budgets to determine groundwater availability are important tools for water-resource managers. One challenging component for developing hydrologic budgets is quantifying water use through time because historical and site-specific water-use data can be sparse or poorly documented. This research developed a groundwater-use record for the Ozark Plateaus aquifer system (central USA) from 1900 to 2010 that related county-level aggregated water-use data to site-specific well locations and aquifer units. A simple population-based linear model, constrained to 0 million liters per day in 1900, provided the best means to extrapolate groundwater-withdrawal rates pre-1950s when there was a paucity of water-use data. To disaggregate county-level data to individual wells across a regional aquifer system, a programmatic hierarchical process was developed, based on the level of confidence that a well pumped groundwater for a specific use during a specific year. Statistical models tested on a subset of the best-available site-specific water-use data provided a mechanism to bracket historic groundwater use, such that groundwater-withdrawal rates ranged, on average, plus or minus 38% from modeled values. Groundwater withdrawn for public supply and domestic use accounted for between 48 and 74% of total groundwater use since 1901, highlighting that groundwater provides an important drinking-water resource. The compilation, analysis, and spatial and temporal extrapolation of water-use data remain a challenging task for water scientists, but is of paramount importance to better quantify groundwater use and availability.

  9. Montana Advanced Biofuels Great Falls Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    This November 20, 2015 letter from EPA approves the petition from Montana Advanced Biofuels, LLC, Great Falls facility, regarding ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for advanced biofuel (D-code 5) and renewable

  10. 76 FR 64045 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-17

    ... operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Montana program and proposed... program amendment is available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. III. Public... under FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT. We will arrange the location and time of the hearing with those...

  11. 76 FR 76111 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ... efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Montana program and proposed amendment to... is available for you to read at the locations listed above under ADDRESSES. III. Public Comment... CONTACT. We will arrange the location and time of the hearing with those persons requesting the hearing...

  12. 75 FR 61366 - Montana Regulatory Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-05

    ... and SMCRA, as amended, and to improve operational efficiency. This document gives the times and locations that the Montana program and proposed amendment to that program are available for your inspection... may review a copy of the amendment during regular business hours at the following locations: Jeffrey...

  13. Montana Curriculum Guidelines for Distributive Education. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ron, Ed.

    These distributive education curriculum guidelines are intended to provide Montana teachers with teaching information for 11 units. Units cover introduction to marketing and distributive education, human relations and communications, operations and control, processes involved in buying for resale, merchandise handling, sales promotion, sales and…

  14. Made in Montana: Entrepreneurial Home Economics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goetting, Marsha A.; Muggli, Gayle Y.

    1988-01-01

    Reports results from a survey of 13 Montana home economists who each started a small business. Information is included on types of businesses the women had started, income, personal characteristics, reasons for starting a business, its impact on family concerns, marketing, obstacles to success, and resources. (CH)

  15. A century of climate and ecosystem change in Western Montana: What do temperature trends portend?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, G.T.; Graumlich, L.J.; Fagre, D.B.; Kipfer, T.; Muhlfeld, C.C.

    2010-01-01

    The physical science linking human-induced increases in greenhouse gasses to the warming of the global climate system is well established, but the implications of this warming for ecosystem processes and services at regional scales is still poorly understood. Thus, the objectives of this work were to: (1) describe rates of change in temperature averages and extremes for western Montana, a region containing sensitive resources and ecosystems, (2) investigate associations between Montana temperature change to hemispheric and global temperature change, (3) provide climate analysis tools for land and resource managers responsible for researching and maintaining renewable resources, habitat, and threatened/endangered species and (4) integrate our findings into a more general assessment of climate impacts on ecosystem processes and services over the past century. Over 100 years of daily and monthly temperature data collected in western Montana, USA are analyzed for long-term changes in seasonal averages and daily extremes. In particular, variability and trends in temperature above or below ecologically and socially meaningful thresholds within this region (e.g., -17.8??C (0??F), 0??C (32??F), and 32.2??C (90??F)) are assessed. The daily temperature time series reveal extremely cold days (??? -17.8??C) terminate on average 20 days earlier and decline in number, whereas extremely hot days (???32??C) show a three-fold increase in number and a 24-day increase in seasonal window during which they occur. Results show that regionally important thresholds have been exceeded, the most recent of which include the timing and number of the 0??C freeze/thaw temperatures during spring and fall. Finally, we close with a discussion on the implications for Montana's ecosystems. Special attention is given to critical processes that respond non-linearly as temperatures exceed critical thresholds, and have positive feedbacks that amplify the changes. ?? Springer Science + Business Media B

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  17. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (< 1.5-year return periods) that mobilize channel-bed material and less frequent events that determine bankfull channel (1.5- to 3-year return periods) and macrochannel (10- to 40-year return periods) dimensions; (v) macrochannels with high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess

  18. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.

    2011-03-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  19. Evaluation of sarolaner and spinosad oral treatments to eliminate fleas, reduce dermatologic lesions and minimize pruritus in naturally infested dogs in west Central Florida, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryden, Michael W; Canfield, Michael S; Niedfeldt, Emily; Kinnon, Amanda; Kalosy, Kimberly; Smith, Amber; Foley, Kaitlin M; Smith, Vicki; Bress, Todd S; Smith, Nicole; Endrizzi, Mike; Login, Joyce

    2017-08-17

    An in-home investigation of naturally flea infested dogs was conducted in West Central Florida, USA to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of two different oral flea adulticides to control flea infestations, minimize dermatologic lesions and reduce pruritus over an 8-week period. Twenty-nine dogs living in 19 homes and another 26 dogs residing in 16 different homes were orally administered either a sarolaner or spinosad chewable, respectively on day 0 and once between days 28-30. Products were administered by study personnel according to label directions. Flea populations on dogs were estimated using visual area counts and flea infestations in the indoor premises were assessed using intermittent-light flea traps on days 0, 7, 14, 21 and once between days 28-30, 40-45, and 56-60. Assessments of dermatologic lesions were conducted monthly during the study and severity of pruritus was evaluated throughout the study on the same schedule as flea counts were conducted. Concurrent treatments for existing skin disease were not allowed. The administration of sarolaner or spinosad reduced flea populations on dogs by 99.0% and 97.3%, respectively within 7 days. Flea infestations on the sarolaner- and spinosad-treated dogs were reduced by > 99% at every counting period from day 14 post-treatment through the end of the 8-week study. At the end of the study 96.4 and 92.0% of the dogs treated with sarolaner and spinosad, respectively were flea-free. Flea populations in the indoor premises were also markedly reduced the end of the study, with 100 and 99.8% reductions in flea trap counts in the sarolaner and spinosad treatment groups, respectively. FAD lesion scores, atopic dermatitis lesions scores (CADESI-4) and pruritus severity scores were also markedly improved with both formulations. An in-home clinical field study conducted during the summer of 2016 in subtropical Florida demonstrated that two-monthly administrations of either sarolaner or spinosad chewables almost

  20. Lithologic and hydrologic controls of mixed alluvial-bedrock channels in flood-prone fluvial systems: bankfull and macrochannels in the Llano River watershed, central Texas, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitmuller, Frank T.; Hudson, Paul F.; Asquith, William H.

    2015-01-01

    The rural and unregulated Llano River watershed located in central Texas, USA, has a highly variable flow regime and a wide range of instantaneous peak flows. Abrupt transitions in surface lithology exist along the main-stem channel course. Both of these characteristics afford an opportunity to examine hydrologic, lithologic, and sedimentary controls on downstream changes in channel morphology. Field surveys of channel topography and boundary composition are coupled with sediment analyses, hydraulic computations, flood-frequency analyses, and geographic information system mapping to discern controls on channel geometry (profile, pattern, and shape) and dimensions along the mixed alluvial-bedrock Llano River and key tributaries. Four categories of channel classification in a downstream direction include: (i) uppermost ephemeral reaches, (ii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed channels in Cretaceous carbonate sedimentary zones, (iii) straight or sinuous gravel-bed or bedrock channels in Paleozoic sedimentary zones, and (iv) straight, braided, or multithread mixed alluvial–bedrock channels with sandy beds in Precambrian igneous and metamorphic zones. Principal findings include: (i) a nearly linear channel profile attributed to resistant bedrock incision checkpoints; (ii) statistically significant correlations of both alluvial sinuosity and valley confinement to relatively high f (mean depth) hydraulic geometry values; (iii) relatively high b (width) hydraulic geometry values in partly confined settings with sinuous channels upstream from a prominent incision checkpoint; (iv) different functional flow categories including frequently occurring events (high f values (most ≤ 0.45) that develop at sites with unit stream power values in excess of 200 watts per square meter (W/m2); and (vi) downstream convergence of hydraulic geometry exponents for bankfull and macrochannels, explained by co-increases of flood magnitude and noncohesive sandy sediments that collectively

  1. Insights into the dolomitization process and porosity modification in sucrosic dolostones, Avon Park Formation (Middle Eocene), East-Central Florida, U.S.A.

    KAUST Repository

    Maliva,, Robert G.; Budd, David A.; Clayton, Edward A.; Missimer, Thomas M.; Dickson, John Anthony D

    2011-01-01

    The Avon Park Formation (middle Eocene) in central Florida, U.S.A., contains shallow-water carbonates that have been replaced by dolomite to varying degrees, ranging from partially replaced limestones, to highly porous sucrosic dolostones, to, less commonly, low-porosity dense dolostones. The relationships between dolomitization and porosity and permeability were studied focusing on three 305-m-long cores taken in the City of Daytona Beach. Stable-isotope data from pure dolostones (mean δ 18O = +3.91% V-PDB) indicate dolomite precipitation in Eocene penesaline pore waters, which would be expected to have been at or above saturation with respect to calcite. Nuclear magnetic log-derived porosity and permeability data indicate that dolomitization did not materially change total porosity values at the bed and formation scale, but did result in a general increase in pore size and an associated substantial increase in permeability compared to limestone precursors. Dolomitization differentially affects the porosity and permeability of carbonate strata on the scale of individual crystals, beds, and formations. At the crystal scale, dolomitization occurs in a volume-for-volume manner in which the space occupied by the former porous calcium carbonate is replaced by a solid dolomite crystal with an associated reduction in porosity. Dolomite crystal precipitation was principally responsible for calcite dissolution both at the actual site of dolomite crystal growth and in the adjoining rock mass. Carbonate is passively scavenged from the formation, which results in no significant porosity change at the formation scale. Moldic pores after allochems formed mainly in beds that experienced high degrees of dolomitization, which demonstrates the intimate association of the dolomitization process with carbonate dissolution. The model of force of crystallization-controlled replacement provides a plausible explanation for key observations concerning the dolomitization process in the

  2. Grizzly bear density in Glacier National Park, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, K.C.; Stetz, J.B.; Roon, David A.; Waits, L.P.; Boulanger, J.B.; Paetkau, David

    2008-01-01

    We present the first rigorous estimate of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos) population density and distribution in and around Glacier National Park (GNP), Montana, USA. We used genetic analysis to identify individual bears from hair samples collected via 2 concurrent sampling methods: 1) systematically distributed, baited, barbed-wire hair traps and 2) unbaited bear rub trees found along trails. We used Huggins closed mixture models in Program MARK to estimate total population size and developed a method to account for heterogeneity caused by unequal access to rub trees. We corrected our estimate for lack of geographic closure using a new method that utilizes information from radiocollared bears and the distribution of bears captured with DNA sampling. Adjusted for closure, the average number of grizzly bears in our study area was 240.7 (95% CI = 202–303) in 1998 and 240.6 (95% CI = 205–304) in 2000. Average grizzly bear density was 30 bears/1,000 km2, with 2.4 times more bears detected per hair trap inside than outside GNP. We provide baseline information important for managing one of the few remaining populations of grizzlies in the contiguous United States.

  3. Wolf Point Substation, Roosevelt County, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration (Western), an agency of the United States Department of Energy, is proposing to construct the 115-kV Wolf Point Substation near Wolf Point in Roosevelt County, Montana (Figure 1). As part of the construction project, Western's existing Wolf Point Substation would be taken out of service. The existing 115-kV Wolf Point Substation is located approximately 3 miles west of Wolf Point, Montana (Figure 2). The substation was constructed in 1949. The existing Wolf Point Substation serves as a ''Switching Station'' for the 115-kV transmission in the region. The need for substation improvements is based on operational and reliability issues. For this environmental assessment (EA), the environmental review of the proposed project took into account the removal of the old Wolf Point Substation, rerouting of the five Western lines and four lines from the Cooperatives and Montana-Dakota Utilities Company, and the new road into the proposed substation. Reference to the new proposed Wolf Point Substation in the EA includes these facilities as well as the old substation site. The environmental review looked at the impacts to all resource areas in the Wolf Point area. 7 refs., 6 figs

  4. Montana's forest products industry and timber harvest, 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy P. Spoelma; Todd A. Morgan; Thale Dillon; Alfred L. Chase; Charles E. Keegan; Larry T. DeBlander

    2008-01-01

    This report traces the flow of Montana's 2004 timber harvest through the primary wood-using industries; provides a description of the structure, capacity, and condition of Montana's primary forest products industry; and quantifies volumes and uses of wood fiber. Historical wood products industry changes are discussed, as well as changes in harvest, production...

  5. Faculty Handbook -- 1974-1976. Montana State University, Bozeman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Univ., Bozeman.

    The Montana State University's 1974 faculty handbook outlines the history and scope of the university within the Montana state higher education system. The document details the administrative organization; the faculty organization and operation; personnel policies including appointments, tenure, rank and titles, faculty review, promotions,…

  6. Processes affecting δ34S and δ18O values of dissolved sulfate in alluvium along the Canadian River, central Oklahoma, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttle, Michele L.W.; Breit, George N.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2009-01-01

    The δ34S and δ18O values for dissolved sulfate in groundwater are commonly used in aquifer studies to identify sulfate reservoirs and describe biogeochemical processes. The utility of these data, however, often is compromised by mixing of sulfate sources within reservoirs and isotope fractionation during sulfur redox cycling. Our study shows that, after all potential sulfate sources are identified and isotopically characterized, the δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values differentiate processes such as sulfate-source mixing, sulfide oxidation, barite dissolution, and organosulfur decomposition. During bacterial reduction of sulfate, the values reflect kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation and exchange of oxygen isotopes between sulfate and water. Detailed analysis of the chemistry (Cl and SO4 concentrations) and isotopic composition (δ2HH2Oand δ18OH2O) of groundwater in an alluvial aquifer in Central Oklahoma, USA allowed the identification of five distinct end members that supply water to the aquifer (regional groundwater flowing into the study area, river water, leachate from a closed landfill that operated within the site, rain, and surface runoff). The δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values in each end member differentiated three sources of sulfate: sulfate dissolved from Early to Late Permian rocks within the drainage basin (δ34SSO4 = 8–12‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), iron sulfides oxidized by molecular oxygen during low water-table levels (δ34SSO4 = − 16‰ and δ18OSO4 = 10‰), and organosulfur compounds (predominately ester sulfates) from decomposition of vegetation on the surface and from landfill trash buried in the alluvium (δ34SSO4 = 8‰ and δ18OSO4 = 6‰). During bacterial reduction of these sulfate sources, similar isotope fractionation processes are recorded in the parallel trends of increasing δ34SSO4 and δ18OSO4 values. When extensive reduction occurs, the kinetic sulfur isotope fractionation (estimated by εH2S–SO4 = − 23

  7. Late Pleistocene and Holocene paleoseismology of an intraplate seismic zone in a large alluvial valley, the New Madrid seismic zone, Central USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guccione, Margaret J.

    2005-10-01

    The New Madrid seismic zone (NMSZ) is an intraplate right-lateral strike-slip and thrust fault system contained mostly within the Mississippi Alluvial Valley. The most recent earthquake sequence in the zone occurred in 1811 1812 and had estimated moment magnitudes of 7 8 (e.g., [Johnston, A.C., 1996. Seismic moment assessment of stable continental earthquakes, Part 3: 1811 1812 New Madrid, 1886 Charleston, and 1755 Lisbon. Geophysical Journal International 126, 314 344; Johnston, A.C., Schweig III, E.S, 1996. The enigma of the New Madrid earthquakes of 1811 1812. Annual Reviews of Earth and Planetary Sciences 24, 339 384; Hough, S.E., Armbruster, J.G., Seeber, L., Hough, J.F., 2000. On the modified Mercalli intensities and magnitudes of the New Madrid earthquakes. Journal of Geophysical Research 105 (B10), 23,839 23,864; Tuttle, M.P., 2001. The use of liquefaction features in paleoseismology: Lessons learned in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Journal of Seismology 5, 361 380]). Four earlier prehistoric earthquakes or earthquake sequences have been dated A.D. 1450 ± 150, 900 ± 100, 300 ± 200, and 2350 B.C. ± 200 years using paleoliquefaction features, particularly those associated with native American artifacts, and in some cases surface deformation ([Craven, J. A. 1995. Paleoseismology study in the New Madrid seismic zone using geological and archeological features to constrain ages of liquefaction deposits. M.S thesis, University of Memphis, Memphis, TN, U.S.A.; Tuttle, M.P., Lafferty III, R.H., Guccione, M.J., Schweig III, E.S., Lopinot, N., Cande, R., Dyer-Williams, K., Haynes, M., 1996. Use of archaeology to date liquefaction features and seismic events in the New Madrid seismic zone, central United States. Geoarchaeology 11, 451 480; Guccione, M.J., Mueller, K., Champion, J., Shepherd, S., Odhiambo, B., 2002b. Stream response to repeated co-seismic folding, Tiptonville dome, western Tennessee. Geomorphology 43(2002), 313 349; Tuttle, M

  8. 76 FR 9049 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana... Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on Mar. 24, 2011 in Miles City, Montana. The...

  9. 75 FR 67393 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-02

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... 1972 (FACA), the U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana... Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be held on Dec. 2, 2010 in Billings, Montana. The meeting...

  10. 76 FR 30094 - Central Montana Resource Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339... of RAC operating guidelines. (2) Discussion of project development and recommendation process. (3...

  11. Seasonal habitat associations of the wolverine in central Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Copeland; James M. Peek; Craig R. Groves; Wayne E. Melquist; Kevin S. Mckelvey; Gregory W. McDaniel; Clinton D. Long; Charles E. Harris

    2007-01-01

    Although understanding habitat relationships remains fundamental to guiding wildlife management, these basic prerequisites remain vague and largely unstudied for the wolverine. Currently, a study of wolverine ecology conducted in Montana, USA, in the 1970s is the sole source of information on habitat requirements of wolverines in the conterminous United States. The...

  12. Landscape conditions predisposing grizzly bears to conflicts on private agricultural lands in the western USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, S.M.; Madel, M.J.; Mattson, D.J.; Graham, J.M.; Merrill, T.

    2006-01-01

    We used multiple logistic regression to model how different landscape conditions contributed to the probability of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural ranch lands. We used locations of livestock pastures, traditional livestock carcass disposal areas (boneyards), beehives, and wetland-riparian associated vegetation to model the locations of 178 reported human-grizzly bear conflicts along the Rocky Mountain East Front, Montana, USA during 1986-2001. We surveyed 61 livestock producers in the upper Teton watershed of north-central Montana, to collect spatial and temporal data on livestock pastures, boneyards, and beehives for the same period, accounting for changes in livestock and boneyard management and beehive location and protection, for each season. We used 2032 random points to represent the null hypothesis of random location relative to potential explanatory landscape features, and used Akaike's Information Criteria (AIC/AICC) and Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistics for model selection. We used a resulting "best" model to map contours of predicted probabilities of conflict, and used this map for verification with an independent dataset of conflicts to provide additional insights regarding the nature of conflicts. The presence of riparian vegetation and distances to spring, summer, and fall sheep or cattle pastures, calving and sheep lambing areas, unmanaged boneyards, and fenced and unfenced beehives were all associated with the likelihood of human-grizzly bear conflicts. Our model suggests that collections of attractants concentrated in high quality bear habitat largely explain broad patterns of human-grizzly bear conflicts on private agricultural land in our study area. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The University of Montana's Blue Mountain Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, D. B.

    2004-12-01

    The University of Montana's Department of Physics and Astronomy runs the state of Montana's only professional astronomical observatory. The Observatory, located on nearby Blue Mountain, houses a 16 inch Boller and Chivens Cassegrain reflector (purchased in 1970), in an Ash dome. The Observatory sits just below the summit ridge, at an elevation of approximately 6300 feet. Our instrumentation includes an Op-Tec SSP-5A photoelectric photometer and an SBIG ST-9E CCD camera. We have the only undergraduate astronomy major in the state (technically a physics major with an astronomy option), so our Observatory is an important component of our students' education. Students have recently carried out observing projects on the photometry of variable stars and color photometry of open clusters and OB associations. In my poster I will show some of the data collected by students in their observing projects. The Observatory is also used for public open houses during the summer months, and these have become very popular: at times we have had 300 visitors in a single night.

  14. Using structured decision making to manage disease risk for Montana wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Michael S.; Gude, Justin A.; Anderson, Neil J.; Ramsey, Jennifer M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Sullivan, Mark G.; Edwards, Victoria L.; Gower, Claire N.; Cochrane, Jean Fitts; Irwin, Elise R.; Walshe, Terry

    2013-01-01

    We used structured decision-making to develop a 2-part framework to assist managers in the proactive management of disease outbreaks in Montana, USA. The first part of the framework is a model to estimate the probability of disease outbreak given field observations available to managers. The second part of the framework is decision analysis that evaluates likely outcomes of management alternatives based on the estimated probability of disease outbreak, and applies managers' values for different objectives to indicate a preferred management strategy. We used pneumonia in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) as a case study for our approach, applying it to 2 populations in Montana that differed in their likelihood of a pneumonia outbreak. The framework provided credible predictions of both probability of disease outbreaks, as well as biological and monetary consequences of management actions. The structured decision-making approach to this problem was valuable for defining the challenges of disease management in a decentralized agency where decisions are generally made at the local level in cooperation with stakeholders. Our approach provides local managers with the ability to tailor management planning for disease outbreaks to local conditions. Further work is needed to refine our disease risk models and decision analysis, including robust prediction of disease outbreaks and improved assessment of management alternatives.

  15. Some biological compounds, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. sub sp. montana from Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emre, I.; Kursat, M.; Yilmaz, O.; Erecevit, P.

    2011-07-01

    This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids), radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54+-0.13-3.05+-0.04%), oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41+-0.8-18.83+-0.1%) and a-inolenic acid were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol and ergosterol as well as beta-sitosterol. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin, catechin, naringin and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin, naringenin as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios. (Author).

  16. Preliminary assessment report for Fort William Henry Harrison, Montana Army National Guard, Helena, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuWaldt, J.; Meyer, T.

    1993-07-01

    This report presents the results of the preliminary assessment (PA) conducted by Argonne National Laboratory at a Montana Army National Guard (MTARNG) property near Helena, Montana. Preliminary assessments of federal facilities are being conducted to compile the information necessary for completing preremedial activities and to provide a basis for establishing corrective actions in response to releases of hazardous substances. The principal objective of the PA is to characterize the site accurately and determine the need for further action by examining site activities, quantities of hazardous substances present, and potential pathways by which contamination could affect public health and the environment. This PA satisfies, for the Fort William Henry Harrison property, requirements of the Department of Defense Installation Restoration Program

  17. Building Points - Montana Structures/Addresses Framework - Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — Map service for the Montana Structures MSDI Framework. The service will only display at scales of 1:100,000 or larger. Structures are grouped into general categories...

  18. NPDES Permit for Crow Nation Water Treatment Plants in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0030538, the U.S. Bureau of Indian Affairs is authorized to discharge from the Crow Agency water treatment plants via the wastewater treatment facility located in Bighorn County, Montana to the Little Bighorn River.

  19. Northwest Montana Wildlife Mitigation Habitat Protection : Advance Design : Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, Marilyn A.

    1993-02-01

    This report summarizes the habitat protection process developed to mitigate for certain wildlife and wildlife habitat losses due to construction of Hungry Horse and Libby dams in northwestern Montana.

  20. Montana Department of Transportation - a fine feathered friend

    OpenAIRE

    Wambach, Deborah A.; Traxler, Mark A.; Eakin, Kirk W.

    2001-01-01

    Funding Source: Federal Highway Administration (FHWA) Total Budget: $1000 - $5000 per project Project Period: Ongoing Since 1995 In Montana, across the nation, and around the world, highway construction activities often come into direct conflict with migratory and other nesting bird species, frequently resulting in habitat loss, the interruption of breeding and rearing activities, or even mortality. The Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) has considered this issue under the permitting...

  1. US hydropower resource assessment for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francfort, J.E.

    1993-12-01

    The Department of Energy is developing an estimate of the hydropower development potential in this country. The Hydropower Evaluation Software (HES) is a computer model that was developed by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory for this purpose. The HES measures the potential hydropower resources available in the United States, using uniform criteria for measurement. The software was developed and tested using hydropower information and data provided by the Southwestern Power Administration. It is a dBASE menu-driven software application that allows the personal computer user to assign environmental attributes to potential hydropower sites, calculate development suitability factors for each site based on the environmental attributes present, and generate reports based on these suitability factors. This report details the resource assessment results for the state of Montana.

  2. Multiproxy record of the last interglacial (MIS 5e) off central and northern California, U.S.A., from Ocean Drilling Program sites 1018 and 1020

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poore, Richard Z.; Dowsett, H.J.; Barron, J.A.; Heusser, L.; Ravelo, A.C.; Mix, A.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and climatic conditions during the last interglacial (about 125,000 years ago) along the Central and Northern California coastal region are interpreted from study of marine cores recovered by the Ocean Drilling Program at sites 1018 and 1020. Marine microfossil and pollen assemblages, oxygen isotopes in benthic foraminifers, physical properties, and calcium carbonate contents of cored sediments are proxies indicating strong links between the marine and terrestrial environments during marine isotope stage 5 (MIS 5). At the beginning of the last interglacial (MIS 5e), reduction in global ice volume, increase in surface temperature, and warming of air temperature along the Central and Northern California coast were synchronous within the resolution of our sampling record.

  3. Using multiple chemical indicators to characterize and determine the age of groundwater from selected vents of the Silver Springs Group, central Florida, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, Leel; Katz, Brian G.; Toth, David J.

    2010-12-01

    The Silver Springs Group, Florida (USA), forms the headwaters of the Silver River and supports a diverse ecosystem. The 30 headwater springs divide into five subgroups based on chemistry. Five selected spring vents were sampled in 2007 to better understand the contaminant sources and groundwater flow system. Elevated nitrate-N concentrations (>0.8 mg/L) in the five spring vents likely originate from inorganic (fertilizers) and organic sources, based on nitrogen and oxygen isotope ratios of nitrate. Evidence for denitrification in the Lost River Boil spring includes enriched δ15N and δ18O, excess N2 gas, and low dissolved O2 concentrations (data (SF6, 3H, tritiogenic 3He) for the two uppermost springs (Mammoth East and Mammoth West) indicate a binary mixture dominated by recent recharge water (mean age 6-7 years, and 87-97% young water). Tracer data for the three downstream spring vents (Lost River Boil, Catfish Hotel-1, and Catfish Conventional Hall-1) indicate exponential mixtures with mean ages of 26-35 years. Contamination from non-atmospheric sources of CFCs and SF5CF3 precluded their use as age tracers here. Variations in chemistry were consistent with mean groundwater age, as nitrate-N and dissolved O2 concentrations were higher in younger waters, and the Ca/Mg ratio decreased with increasing mean age.

  4. Establishment of Alleycropped Hybrid Aspen “Crandon” in Central Iowa, USA: Effects of Topographic Position and Fertilizer Rate on Aboveground Biomass Production and Allocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard B. Hall

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid poplars have demonstrated high productivity as short rotation woody crops (SRWC in the Midwest USA, and the hybrid aspen “Crandon” (Populus alba L. × P. grandidenta Michx. has exhibited particularly promising yields on marginal lands. However, a key obstacle for wider deployment is the lack of economic returns early in the rotation. Alleycropping has the potential to address this issue, especially when paired with crops such as winter triticale which complete their growth cycle early in the summer and therefore are expected to exert minimal competition on establishing trees. In addition, well-placed fertilizer in low rates at planting has the potential to improve tree establishment and shorten the rotation, which is also economically desirable. To test the potential productivity of “Crandon” alleycropped with winter triticale, plots were established on five topographic positions with four different rates of fertilizer placed in the planting hole. Trees were then harvested from the plots after each of the first three growing seasons. Fertilization resulted in significant increases in branch, stem, and total aboveground biomass across all years, whereas the effects of topographic position varied by year. Allocation between branches and stems was found to be primarily a function of total aboveground biomass.

  5. State of Montana ITS/CVO business plan : intelligent transportation system commercial vehicle operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-01-01

    This plans purpose is to encourage coordinated, efficient and safe commercial vehicle operations throughout Montana, and to promote inter-agency and regional cooperation as ITS/CVO projects are developed and deployed. The Plan discusses Montana...

  6. Evaluation of the Montana Department of Transportation's research project solicitation, prioritization, and selection process

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    The Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) contracted the Bureau of Business and Economic Research at the University of Montana Missoula to conduct research to determine how other states solicit, prioritize, and select research problem statem...

  7. Developing a Climate Change Boundary Organization: the Montana Adaptation Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Brooks, S.; Armstrong, T.; Bryan, B.

    2016-12-01

    Small-population large-area states like Montana are often challenged by a need to offer timely and relevant climate-change information that addresses diverse and widely dispersed stakeholder groups. In Montana, filling the gap between science and various types of decision-makers has motivated development of the first Montana Climate Assessment (MCA1), to be released in 2017 with a focus on climate-change impacts for agricultural, water and forestry sectors. To sustain and build on the MCA1 effort, we are also in the process of creating a Boundary Organization (defined by the National Academy of Sciences) called the Montana Adaptation Exchange (the Exchange); this entity will facilitate the flow of information across the boundaries between science, knowledge and implementation. In Montana, the Exchange brings scientists and practitioners together to seek solutions related to climate-change adaptation and other pressing environmental and social-economic challenges. The Montana Adaptation Exchange (1) is a collaborative partnership of members from the science and practitioner communities under a shared governance and participatory model; (2) presents research that has been vetted by the scientific community at large and represents the current state of knowledge; (3) allows for revision and expansion of assessments like the MCA; (4) communicates relevant, often technical, research and findings to a wide variety of resource managers and other stakeholders; (5) develops and maintains an extensive online database that organizes, regularly updates, and makes research data products readily available; and (6) offers an online portal and expert network of affiliated researchers and climate adaptation specialists to provide effective customer support. Boundary organizations, such as the Montana Adaptation Exchange, offer a scalable path to effectively move from "science to knowledge to action" while also allowing stakeholder needs to help inform research agendas.

  8. 76 FR 59338 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-26

    ... to other minor administrative changes to the Administrative Rules of Montana. The intended effect of... words EPA, we, us or our mean or refer to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. (iii) The... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the Administrative Rules of Montana...

  9. 77 FR 42507 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-19

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on September 19...

  10. 77 FR 70807 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-27

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on December 6, 2012...

  11. 75 FR 42125 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-20

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be...

  12. 75 FR 3489 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC), will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council will be...

  13. 77 FR 42760 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... Interior, Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council (RAC) will meet as indicated below. DATES: The next regular meeting of the Eastern Montana RAC will be held on September 19...

  14. 77 FR 7531 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-13

    ... airborne pollutant, except lead,\\1\\ must obtain a Montana air quality permit except as provided in ARM 17.8... more than 15 tons per year of any airborne pollutant, other than lead, to obtain a Montana air quality permit. \\1\\ Facilities or emitting units that emit airborne lead must obtain a Montana air quality permit...

  15. Phylogeography and genetic identification of the newly-discovered populations of torrent salamanders (Rhyacotriton cascade and R. variegatus) in the central Cascades (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, R.S.; Miller, Mark P.; Haig, Susan M.

    2006-01-01

    Newly discovered populations of Rhyacotritonidae were investigated for taxonomic identity, hybridization, and sympatry. Species in the genus Rhyacotriton have been historically difficult to identify using morphological characters. Mitochondrial (mtDNA) 16S ribosomal RNA sequences (491 bp) and allozymes (6 loci) were used to identify the distribution of populations occurring intermediate between the previously described ranges of R. variegatus and R. cascadae in the central Cascade Mountain region of Oregon. Allozyme and mitochondrial sequence data both indicated the presence of two distinct evolutionary lineages, with each lineage corresponding to the allopatric distribution of R. cascadae and R. variegatus. Results suggest the Willamette River acts as a phylogeographic barrier limiting the distribution of both species, although we cannot exclude the possibility that reproductive isolation also exists that reinforces species' distributions. This study extends the previously described geographical ranges of both R. cascadae and R. variegatus and defines an eastern range limit for R. variegatus conservation efforts.

  16. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  17. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, I.M.; Fields, R.W.; Fountain, D.M.; Moore, J.N.; Qamar, A.I.; Silverman, A.J.; Thompson, G.R.; Chadwick, R.A.; Custer, S.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-08-01

    The Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits. This evaluation was conducted using methods and criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, mapping, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were performed in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and HSSR data were evaluated and followup studies of these anomalies and most of the previously known uranium occurrences were conducted. Detailed gravity profiling was done in the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin Basin and the Madison and Paradise Valleys. Also, selected well waters were analyzed. Eight areas are considered favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. They include the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin basin, the Madison and Paradise Valleys, and five areas underlain by Cretaceous fluvial and marginal-marine sandstones. Other environments within the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits when judged by the program criteria. A few environments were not evaluated due to inaccessibility and/or prior knowledge of unfavorable criteria

  18. Reproductive isolation among allopatric Drosophila montana populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Jackson H; Snook, Rhonda R; Hoikkala, Anneli

    2014-11-01

    An outstanding goal in speciation research is to trace the mode and tempo of the evolution of barriers to gene flow. Such research benefits from studying incipient speciation, in which speciation between populations has not yet occurred, but where multiple potential mechanisms of reproductive isolation (RI: i.e., premating, postmating-prezygotic (PMPZ), and postzygotic barriers) may act. We used such a system to investigate these barriers among allopatric populations of Drosophila montana. In all heteropopulation crosses we found premating (sexual) isolation, which was either symmetric or asymmetric depending on the population pair compared. Postmating isolation was particularly strong in crosses involving males from one of the study populations, and while sperm were successfully transferred, stored, and motile, we experimentally demonstrated that the majority of eggs produced were unfertilized. Thus, we identified the nature of a PMPZ incompatibility. There was no evidence of intrinsic postzygotic effects. Measures of absolute and relative strengths of pre- and postmating barriers showed that populations differed in the mode and magnitude of RI barriers. Our results indicate that incipient RI among populations can be driven by different contributions of both premating and PMPZ barriers occurring between different population pairs and without the evolution of postzygotic barriers. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  19. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, I.M.; Fields, R.W.; Fountain, D.M.; Moore, J.N.; Qamar, A.I.; Silverman, A.J.; Thompson, G.R.; Chadwick, R.A.; Custer, S.G.; Smith, D.L.

    1982-08-01

    The Bozeman Quadrangle, Montana, was evaluated to identify and delineate areas containing environments favorable for uranium deposits. This evaluation was conducted using methods and criteria developed for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. General surface reconnaissance, mapping, radiometric traverses, and geochemical sampling were performed in all geologic environments within the quadrangle. Aerial radiometric and HSSR data were evaluated and followup studies of these anomalies and most of the previously known uranium occurrences were conducted. Detailed gravity profiling was done in the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin Basin and the Madison and Paradise Valleys. Also, selected well waters were analyzed. Eight areas are considered favorable for sandstone uranium deposits. They include the Tertiary Three Forks-Gallatin basin, the Madison and Paradise Valleys, and five areas underlain by Cretaceous fluvial and marginal-marine sandstones. Other environments within the quadrangle are considered unfavorable for uranium deposits when judged by the program criteria. A few environments were not evaluated due to inaccessibility and/or prior knowledge of unfavorable criteria.

  20. Properties, origin and nomenclature of rodlets of the inertinite maceral group in coals of the central Appalachian basin, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, P.C.; Finkelman, R.B.; Thompson, C.L.; Brown, F.W.; Hatcher, P.G.

    1982-01-01

    Resin rodlets, sclerenchyma strands and woody splinters, which are collectively called rodlets, were studied by chemical, optical petrographic, and scanning-electron microscopic (SEM) techniques. A study was made of such rodlets from the bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin (Pennsylvanian; Upper Carboniferous) of the United States. Comparisons were made with rodlets from coal beds of the Illinois basin, the Southern Anthracite Field of Pennsylvania, the St. Rose coal field of Nova Scotia, and European and other coal fields. In order to determine their physical and chemical properties, a detailed study was made of the rodlets from the Pomeroy coal bed (high volatile A bituminous coal; Monongahela Formation; Upper Pennsylvanian) of Kanawha County, West Virginia. The origin of the rodlets was determined by a comparative analysis of a medullosan (seed fern) stem from the Herrin (No. 6) coal bed (high volatile C bituminous coal; Carbondale Formation) from Washington County, Illinois. Rodlets are commonly concentrated in fusain or carbominerite layers or lenses in bituminous coal beds of the central Appalachian basin. Most of the rodlets examined in our study were probably derived from medullosan seed ferns. The three types of rodlets are distinguished on the basis of cellularity, morphology and fracture. The resin rodlets studied by us are noncellular and appear to be similar in properties and origin to those found in coal beds of the Middle and Upper Pennsylvanian of the Illinois basin. The resin rodlets extracted from the Pomeroy coal bed exhibit high relief and high reflectance when polished and viewed in reflected light; they are opaque in transmitted light. In cross section, the resin rodlets are oval to round and have diameters ranging from 60 to 450 ??m. Many are solid, but some have vesicles, canals or cavities, which are commonly filled with clay, probably kaolinite. Typically, they have distinct fracture patterns ("kerfs") in longitudinal and

  1. The Aesthetic Post-Communist Subject and the Differend of Rosia Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Velicu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available By challenging the state and corporate prerogatives to distinguish between “good” and “bad” development, social movements by and in support of inhabitants of Rosia Montana (Transylvania are subverting prevailing perceptions about Central and Eastern Europe (CEE’s liberal path of development illustrating its injustice in several ways that will be detailed in this article under the heading “inhibitions of political economy” or Balkanism. The significance of the “Save Rosia Montana” movement for post-communism is that it invites post-communist subjects to reflect and revise their perception about issues such as communism, capitalism and development and to raise questions of global significance about the fragile edifice of justice within the neo-liberal capitalist economy. However, resistance to injustice (and implicitly affirmations of other senses of justice is an ambiguous discursive practice through which Rosieni make sense as well as partake their sense of Rosia Montana. The movement brings about a public dispute which may be compared with a differend: (in Lyotard’s words, a conflict that cannot be confined to the rules of “cognitive phrases,” of truth and falsehood. This article argues that while post-communist events of “subjectification” are unstable and thus, are to be viewed aesthetically, this same ambiguous multiplication of political subjectivity may facilitate the creation of social spaces for imagining alternative possibilities of development.

  2. HEALTH SURVEY OF FREE-RANGING RACCOONS (PROCYON LOTOR) IN CENTRAL PARK, NEW YORK, NEW YORK, USA: IMPLICATIONS FOR HUMAN AND DOMESTIC ANIMAL HEALTH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rainwater, Kimberly L; Marchese, Krysten; Slavinski, Sally; Humberg, Lee A; Dubovi, Edward J; Jarvis, Jodie A; McAloose, Denise; Calle, Paul P

    2017-04-01

    We conducted health assessments on 113 free-ranging raccoons ( Procyon lotor ) in Central Park, New York City, US, in February 2010, September 2010, and November 2011 in conjunction with a trap-vaccinate-release program to control a raccoon rabies epizootic. Five individuals were sampled at two time points for 118 raccoon examinations in total. We tested 13 of 13 and 8 of 13 euthanized raccoons for rabies and canine distemper virus (CDV), respectively, by antigen testing on brain tissue; all were negative for both viruses. Endoparasitism was the most common necropsy finding, with definitive identification of Baylisascaris procyonis in six of eight (75%) necropsied raccoons. Multiple intestinal parasites were detected in feces of living raccoons, including ascarid-type ova in 25 of 80 (31%) raccoons, with B. procyonis confirmed in one sample. Median blood lead level was 7.3 μg/dL (n=104). Rabies virus neutralizing antibody titer was ≥0.5 IU/mL in 9 of 88 (10%) raccoons naive to rabies vaccination and in 13 of 20 (65%) previously vaccinated raccoons. The majority of raccoons we tested were seropositive for canine parvovirus-2 (54/59, 92%) and Toxoplasma gondii (39/60, 65%). Fewer were seropositive for Rickettsia rickettsii (3/30, 10%). None were seropositive for CDV (n=108), canine adenovirus-1 (n=60), or Borrelia burgdorferi (n=30). Ectoparasites found during 16 of 118 (13.6%) physical examinations included Ixodes texanus ticks (15/118, 12.7%) and Trichodectes octomaculatus lice (1/118, 0.8%). We detected Campylobacter jejuni in 5 of 79 (6%) fecal samples. We detected 11 Salmonella enterica serotypes in 70 of 111 (63.1%) enteric cultures, the most common of which were Salmonella Newport (20/70, 29%) and Salmonella Oranienburg (20/70, 29%). These results indicate that raccoons in Central Park likely are involved in the environmental occurrence and potential disease transmission of a variety of infectious and noninfectious diseases of concern for human, wildlife

  3. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofia Samaropoulou

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes F. epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and F. montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of F. epirotica is also investigated, while for F. montana, a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species.

  4. Karyomorphometric analysis of Fritillaria montana group in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaropoulou, Sofia; Bareka, Pepy; Kamari, Georgia

    2016-01-01

    Fritillaria Linnaeus, 1753 (Liliaceae) is a genus of geophytes, represented in Greece by 29 taxa. Most of the Greek species are endemic to the country and/or threatened. Although their classical cytotaxonomic studies have already been presented, no karyomorphometric analysis has ever been given. In the present study, the cytological results of Fritillaria montana Hoppe ex W.D.J. Koch, 1832 group, which includes Fritillaria epirotica Turrill ex Rix, 1975 and Fritillaria montana are statistically evaluated for the first time. Further indices about interchromosomal and intrachromosomal asymmetry are given. A new population of Fritillaria epirotica is also investigated, while for Fritillaria montana , a diploid individual was found in a known as triploid population. Paired t-tests and PCoA analysis have been applied to compare the two species.

  5. Instrumenting the Conifers: A Look at Daily Tree Growth and Locally Observed Environmental Conditions Across Four Mountain Sites in the Central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strachan, S.; Biondi, F.; Johnson, B. G.

    2012-12-01

    Tree growth is often used as a proxy for past environmental conditions or as an indicator of developing trends. Reconstructions of drought, precipitation, temperature, and other phenomena derived from tree-growth indices abound in scientific literature aimed at informing policy makers. Observations of tree recruitment or death in treeline populations are frequently tied to climatic fluctuation in cause-effect hypotheses. Very often these hypotheses are based on statistical relationships between annual-to-seasonal tree growth measurements and some environmental parameter measured or modeled off-site. Observation of daily tree growth in conjunction with in-situ environmental measurements at similar timescales takes us one step closer to quantifying the uncertainty in reconstruction or predictive studies. In four separate sites in two different mountain ranges in the central Great Basin, co-located observations of conifer growth activity and local atmospheric and soils conditions have been initiated. Species include Pinus longaeva (Great Basin bristlecone pine), Pinus flexilis (limber pine), Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), Pinus monophylla (singleleaf pinyon pine), Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine), Abies concolor (white fir), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir). Measurements of sub-hourly tree radial length change and sap flow activity are compared with a suite of in-situ observations including air temperature, precipitation, photosynthetically-active radiation (PAR), relative humidity, soil temperature, and soil moisture/water content. Subalpine study site located at 3360 m elevation in the Snake Range, Nevada

  6. Modeling the Effects of Storm Surge from Hurricane Jeanne on Saltwater Intrusion into the Surficial Aquifer, East-Central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, H.; Wang, D.; Hagen, S. C.; Medeiros, S. C.; Hall, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Saltwater intrusion (SWI) that has been widely recognized as a detrimental issue causing the deterioration of coastal aquifer water quality and degradation of coastal ecosystems. While it is widely recognized that SWI is exacerbated worldwide due to global sea-level rise, we show that increased SWI from tropical cyclones under climate change is also a concern. In the Cape Canaveral Barrier Island Complex (CCBIC) located in east-central Florida, the salinity level of the surficial aquifer is of great importance to maintain a bio-diverse ecosystem and to support the survival of various vegetation species. Climate change induced SWI into the surficial aquifer can lead to reduction of freshwater storage and alteration of the distribution and productivity of vegetation communities. In this study, a three-dimensional variable-density SEAWAT model is developed and calibrated to investigate the spatial and temporal variation of salinity level in the surficial aquifer of CCBIC. We link the SEAWAT model to surge model data to examine the effects of storm surge from Hurricane Jeanne. Simulation results indicate that the surficial aquifer salinity level increases significantly right after the occurrence of storm surge because of high aquifer permeability and rapid infiltration and diffusion of the overtopping saltwater, while the surficial aquifer salinity level begins to decrease after the fresh groundwater recharge from the storm's rainfall. The tropical storm precipitation generates an effective hydraulic barrier further impeding SWI and providing seaward freshwater discharge for saltwater dilution and flushing. To counteract the catastrophic effects of storm surge, this natural remediation process may take at least 15-20 years or even several decades. These simulation results contribute to ongoing research focusing on forecasting regional vegetation community responses to climate change, and are expected to provide a useful reference for climate change adaptation planning

  7. Directional change during a Miocene R-N geomagnetic polarity reversal recorded by mafic lava flows, Sheep Creek Range, north central Nevada, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogue, S. W.; Glen, J. M. G.; Jarboe, N. A.

    2017-09-01

    Recurring transitional field directions during three Miocene geomagnetic reversals provide evidence that lateral inhomogeneity of the lower mantle affects flow in the outer core. We compare new paleomagnetic results from a composite sequence of 15.2 Ma lava flows in north central Nevada (Sheep Creek Range; 40.7°N, 243.2°E), erupted during a polarity reversal, to published data from Steens Mountain (250 km to the northwest in Oregon) and the Newberry Mountains (650 km to the south in California) that document reversals occurring millions of years and many polarity switches earlier. Alternating field demagnetization, followed by thermal demagnetization in half the samples, clearly isolated the primary thermoremanent magnetization of Sheep Creek Range flows. We correlated results from our three sampled sections to produce a composite record that begins with a single virtual geomagnetic pole (VGP) at low latitude in the Atlantic, followed by two VGPs situated near latitude 30°N in NE Africa. After jumping to 83°N (one VGP), the pole moves to equatorial South America (one VGP), back to NE Africa (three VGPs), to high southern latitudes (two VGPs), back to equatorial South America (three VGPs), and finally to high northern latitudes (nine VGPs). The repeated visits of the transitional VGP to positions in South America and near NE Africa, as well as the similar behavior recorded at Steens Mountain and the Newberry Mountains, suggest that lower mantle or core-mantle boundary features localize core flow structures, thereby imparting a discernible regional structure on the transitional geomagnetic field that persists for millions of years.

  8. Constraints from geochemistry and oxygen isotopes for the hydrothermal origin of orthoamphibole mafic gneiss in the New Jersey Highlands, north-central Appalachians, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkert, Richard A.; Peck, William H.

    2017-12-01

    Rare exposures of orthoamphibole mafic (Oam) gneiss of Mesoproterozoic age in the north-central Appalachians are confined to the northwestern New Jersey Highlands where they form thin lens-shaped bodies composed of gedrite and sparse anthophyllite, oligoclase (An13-An20), biotite, magnetite, and local fluorapatite, rutile, and ilmenite. The gneiss is penetratively foliated and has sharp, conformable contacts against enclosing supracrustal paragneiss and marble. Orthoamphibole mafic gneiss is characterized by low SiO2 (48 ± 2.5 wt%), CaO (1.9 ± 1.3 wt%), and high Al2O3 (18 ± 1.2 wt%), Fe2O3 (10.5 ± 1.6 wt%), and MgO (12 ± 2.3 wt%). Trace element abundances overlap those of unaltered amphibolites in the study area and, coupled with δ18O values of 9.45 ± 0.6‰ (VSMOW) from gedrite separates, support an origin from a basalt protolith. The geochemical and isotopic data are consistent with the formation of Oam gneiss through sea floor hydrothermal alteration of basalt at low temperature of 150-200 °C. Mass-balance calculations indicate gains during alteration mainly in MgO and Al2O3 and losses in CaO, Sr, and light rare earth elements. Our results are compatible with the pre-metamorphic alteration of the basalt protoliths through chloritization and plagioclase dissolution that produced a Mg-rich and Ca-poor rock. Subsequent metamorphism of this chlorite-rich rock to the current mineral assemblage of Oam gneiss took place at ca. 1045 Ma, during the Ottawan phase of the Grenvillian Orogeny. The close spatial association in the study area of Oam gneiss bodies and sulfide occurrences suggests an affinity to the style of mineralization associated with volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS)-type deposits.

  9. The impacts of climatologically-driven megadrought, past and future, on semi-arid watersheds and the water resource system they support in central Arizona, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, K. W.; Ellis, A. W.

    2017-12-01

    The sustainability of water resource systems in the western United States has previously been brought into question by drought concerns and how it will be influenced by future climate change. Although decadal droughts are observed in instrumental records, the data are typically too short and the droughts too few to render the range of hydroclimatic variability that might impact modern water resource systems in the future. Natural modes of variability are not well represented in climate models, which limits the applicability of their downscaled projections in a region of interest since drought risk would be understated. Paleoclimate data have provided evidence of megadroughts from centuries ago whose hydrologic manifestations of climate variability could readily reoccur again in the future. These can be applied to research into watershed hydrologic response and resource system resilience - past, present, and future. A 645-year tree ring reconstruction of stream flow for the Salt and Verde River watersheds in central Arizona has revealed several drought periods, some more severe than seen in the 129-year instrumental record, including a late 16th century megadrought which affected large portions of the United States. This research study translated the tree ring record into net basin water supply which drives a reservoir operations simulation model to assess how the resource system performs under such severe drought. Regional climate change scenarios were developed from the observation that watershed climate sensitivity has been twice the global warming response. These were applied to the watersheds' temperature sensitivities and precipitation elasticities (reported at AGU2014) to obtain detailed renditions of hydrologic response should megadrought reoccur in a future climate. This provided one of the first rigorous projections of surface water supply under future climate change that amplifies the impact of megadrought arising from modes of climate variability often

  10. Evidence of elevated pressure and temperature during burial of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana, USA, and its implications for surprisingly deep burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambers, Clifford P.

    2001-09-01

    A minor, normal fault related to compaction of the grainstone shoal facies of the Salem Limestone in south-central Indiana provides an unusual opportunity to test the pressure and temperature of both faulting and associated stylolitization. Syn-deformational sphalerite occurs in voids along the fault where it intersects an organic-rich shale parting in the sand flat facies overlying the grainstone. The sphalerite contains fluid inclusions that can be used for microthermobaric measurements. Most fluid inclusions in the sphalerite are demonstrably cogenetic with the host sphalerite and of the two-phase aqueous type common in Indiana, although many contain petroleum and others contain gas. Crushing tests in kerosene indicate that the aqueous inclusions contain dissolved methane in varying amounts as high as 1000 ppm. Microthermometry shows that late sphalerite growth, late fault movement, and late stylolitization all occurred as conditions approached 108°C and 292 bars. This pressure is in accord with a normal, basinal, geothermal gradient of 32.5°C/km that would produce the observed temperature under hydrostatic conditions at a burial depth of 2.7 km using an average fluid density of 1.1 g/cm 3. These results serve as a reminder that fluid inclusions in diagenetic minerals hold important temperature and pressure information regarding burial diagenesis of Paleozoic rocks across the North American midcontinent. Detailed study of dissolved gases in fluids trapped in disseminated sphalerite that is common across the midcontinent could help resolve the enigma of sedimentary rocks with high thermal maturity exposed at the surface across the region.

  11. Inferences on the hydrothermal system beneath the resurgent dome in Long Valley Caldera, east-central California, USA, from recent pumping tests and geochemical sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrar, Christopher D.; Sorey, Michael L.; Roeloffs, Evelyn; Galloway, Devin L.; Howle, James F.; Jacobson, Ronald

    2003-10-01

    Quaternary volcanic unrest has provided heat for episodic hydrothermal circulation in the Long Valley caldera, including the present-day hydrothermal system, which has been active over the past 40 kyr. The most recent period of crustal unrest in this region of east-central California began around 1980 and has included periods of intense seismicity and ground deformation. Uplift totaling more than 0.7 m has been centered on the caldera's resurgent dome, and is best modeled by a near-vertical ellipsoidal source centered at depths of 6-7 km. Modeling of both deformation and microgravity data now suggests that (1) there are two inflation sources beneath the caldera, a shallower source 7-10 km beneath the resurgent dome and a deeper source ˜15 km beneath the caldera's south moat and (2) the shallower source may contain components of magmatic brine and gas. The Long Valley Exploration Well (LVEW), completed in 1998 on the resurgent dome, penetrates to a depth of 3 km directly above this shallower source, but bottoms in a zone of 100°C fluid with zero vertical thermal gradient. Although these results preclude extrapolations of temperatures at depths below 3 km, other information obtained from flow tests and fluid sampling at this well indicates the presence of magmatic volatiles and fault-related permeability within the metamorphic basement rocks underlying the volcanic fill. In this paper, we present recently acquired data from LVEW and compare them with information from other drill holes and thermal springs in Long Valley to delineate the likely flow paths and fluid system properties under the resurgent dome. Additional information from mineralogical assemblages in core obtained from fracture zones in LVEW documents a previous period of more vigorous and energetic fluid circulation beneath the resurgent dome. Although this system apparently died off as a result of mineral deposition and cooling (and/or deepening) of magmatic heat sources, flow testing and tidal

  12. Inter-comparison of Flux-Gradient and Relaxed Eddy Accumulation Methods for Measuring Ammonia Flux Above a Corn Canopy in Central Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, A. J.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.; Rood, M. J.; Lichiheb, N.; Heuer, M.; Myles, L.

    2017-12-01

    Ammonia (NH3) is a precursor to fine particulate matter (PM) in the ambient atmosphere. Agricultural activities represent over 80% of anthropogenic emissions of NH3 in the United States. The use of nitrogen-based fertilizers contribute > 50% of total NH3 emissions in central Illinois. The U.S. EPA Science Advisory Board has called for improved methods to measure, model, and report atmospheric NH3 concentrations and emissions from agriculture. High uncertainties in the temporal and spatial distribution of NH3 emissions contribute to poor performance of air quality models in predicting ambient PM concentrations. This study reports and compares NH­3 flux measurements of differing temporal resolution obtained with two methods: relaxed eddy accumulation (REA) and flux-gradient (FG). REA and FG systems were operated concurrently above a corn canopy at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC) Energy Biosciences Institute (EBI) Energy Farm during the 2014 corn-growing season. The REA system operated during daytime, providing average fluxes over four-hour sampling intervals, where time resolution was limited by detection limit of denuders. The FG system employed a cavity ring-down spectrometer, and was operated continuously, reporting 30 min flux averages. A flux-footprint evaluation was used for quality control, resulting in 1,178 qualified FG measurements, 82 of which were coincident with REA measurements. Similar emission trends were observed with both systems, with peak NH3 emission observed one week after fertilization. For all coincident samples, mean NH3 flux was 205 ± 300 ng-N-m2s-1 and 110 ± 256 ng-N-m2s-1 as measured with REA and FG, respectively, where positive flux indicates emission. This is the first reported inter-comparison of REA and FG methods as used for quantifying NH3 fluxes from cropland. Preliminary analysis indicates the improved temporal resolution and continuous sampling enabled by FG allow for the identification of emission pulses

  13. Assessing the impacts of sea-level rise and precipitation change on the surficial aquifer in the low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier islands, east-central Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Wang, Dingbao; Hagen, Scott C.; Medeiros, Stephen C.; Hall, Carlton R.

    2016-11-01

    A three-dimensional variable-density groundwater flow and salinity transport model is implemented using the SEAWAT code to quantify the spatial variation of water-table depth and salinity of the surficial aquifer in Merritt Island and Cape Canaveral Island in east-central Florida (USA) under steady-state 2010 hydrologic and hydrogeologic conditions. The developed model is referred to as the `reference' model and calibrated against field-measured groundwater levels and a map of land use and land cover. Then, five prediction/projection models are developed based on modification of the boundary conditions of the calibrated `reference' model to quantify climate change impacts under various scenarios of sea-level rise and precipitation change projected to 2050. Model results indicate that west Merritt Island will encounter lowland inundation and saltwater intrusion due to its low elevation and flat topography, while climate change impacts on Cape Canaveral Island and east Merritt Island are not significant. The SEAWAT models developed for this study are useful and effective tools for water resources management, land use planning, and climate-change adaptation decision-making in these and other low-lying coastal alluvial plains and barrier island systems.

  14. Geology and hydrology of the Fort Belknap Indian Reservation, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alverson, Douglas C.

    1965-01-01

    The Fort Belknap Indian Reservation includes an area of 970 square miles in north-central Montana. At its north edge is the Milk River valley, which is underlain by Recent alluvium of the Milk River, glacial deposits, and alluvial deposits of the preglacial Missouri River, which carved and occupied this valley before the Pleistocene Epoch. Rising gently to the south is an undulating glaciated plain broken only by three small syenite porphyry intrusions. Underlying the glacial till of the plain are Upper Cretaceous shale and sandstone of the Bearpaw and Judith River Formations. At the south end of the reservation, 40 miles from the Milk River, an intrusion of syenite porphyry in Tertiary time uplifted, tilted, and exposed the succession of sedimentary rocks overlying the Precambrian metamorphic basement. The sedimentary rocks include 1,000 feet of sandstone and shale of Cambrian age; 2,000 feet of limestone and dolomite of Ordovician, Devonian, and Mississippian age; 400 feet of shale and limestone of Jurassic age; and 3,500 feet of sandstone, siltstone, and shale of Cretaceous age. Extensive gravel terraces of Tertiary and Quaternary age bevel the upturned bedrock formations exposed around the Little Rocky Mountains. Ground water under water-table conditions is obtained at present from alluvium, glaciofluvial deposits, and the Judith River Formation. The water table ranges in depth from a few feet beneath the surface in the Milk River valley alluvium to more than 100 feet deep in the Judith River Formation. Yields to wells are generally low but adequate for domestic and stock-watering use. Quality of the water ranges from highly mineralized and unusable to excellent; many wells in the Milk River valley have been abandoned because of the alkalinity of their water. Potential sources of additional ground-water supplies are the alluvial gravel of creeks issuing from the Little Rocky Mountains and some extensive areas of terrace gravel. The uplift and tilting of the

  15. National Uranium Resource Evaluation: Lewistown Quadrangle, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culver, J.C.

    1982-09-01

    Uranium resources in the Lewistown Quadrangle, Montana, were evaluated to a depth of 1500 m (5000 ft). All existing geologic data were considered, including geologic surveys, literature, theses, radiometric surveys, oil- and water-well logs. Additional data were generated during the course of two field seasons, including the collection of more than 350 water, rock, crude oil and panned concentrate samples for analyses, sedimentary facies maps, structural geology and isopach maps, and field examination of reported areas of anomalous radioactivity. Three environments with potential for the occurrence of a minimum of 100 t of 0.01% U 3 O 8 were delineated. The most favorable environment is located in the southeastern portion of the quadrangle; here, Tertiary felsic dikes intrude four potential sandstone host rocks in the Kootenai Formation and the Colorado Shale. Structural-chemical traps for allogenic uranium are provided by the juxtaposition of oil-bearing domes. A second potential environment is located in the Eagle Sandstone in the northwestern and western portions of the quadrangle; here, anomalous water samples were obtained downtip from oxidized outcrops that are structurally related to Tertiary intrusive rocks of the Bearpaw and Highwood Mountains. Lignitic lenses and carbonaceous sandstones deposited in a near-shore lagoonal and deltaic environment provide potential reductants for hexavalent uranium in this environment. A third environment, in the Judith River Formation, was selected as favorable on the basis of water-well and gamma-ray log anomalies and their structural relationship with the Bearpaw Mountains. Organic materials are present in the Judith River Formation as potential reductants. They were deposited in a near-shore fluvial and lagoonal system similar to the depositional environment of the Jackson Group of the Texas Gulf Coast

  16. CORPORATE SOCIAL RESPONSIBILITY. EXAMPLE ROSIA MONTANA GOLD CORPORATION

    OpenAIRE

    Vasile Burja; Silvia – Stefania Mihalache

    2010-01-01

    Corporate Social Responsibility, a concept without a world accepted definition is starting to beused in Romania as well. This is the reason why in the present article we try to make a theoreticaldescription of the present concept and to exemplify it by presenting the responsible activities of acorporation in Romania, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation.

  17. Plant community variability on a small area in southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    James G. MacCracken; Daniel W. Uresk; Richard M. Hansen

    1984-01-01

    Plant communities are inherently variable due to a number of environmental and biological forces. Canopy cover and aboveground biomass were determined for understory vegetation in plant communities of a prairie grassland-forest ecotone in southeastern Montana. Vegetation units were described using polar ordination and stepwise discriminant analysis. Nine of a total of...

  18. Forest succession on four habitat types in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephen F. Arno; Dennis G. Simmerman; Robert E. Keane

    1985-01-01

    Presents classifications of successional community types on four major forest habitat types in western Montana. Classifications show the sequences of seral community types developing after stand-replacing wildfire and clearcutting with broadcast burning, mechanical scarification, or no followup treatment. Information is provided for associating vegetational response to...

  19. Digital Learning Compass: Distance Education State Almanac 2017. Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, Julia E.; Seaman, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    This brief report uses data collected under the U.S. Department of Education's National Center for Educational Statistics (NCES) Integrated Postsecondary Education Data System (IPEDS) Fall Enrollment survey to highlight distance education data in the state of Montana. The sample for this analysis is comprised of all active, degree-granting…

  20. Montana Highway Safety Improvement Program : an RSPCB Peer Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    This report provides a summary of a peer-to-peer (P2P) videoconference sponsored by the : Montana Department of Transportation (MDT) and the Federal Highway Administration : (FHWA) Office of Safety. The videoconference format provided a low-cost oppo...

  1. On-site energy consumption at softwood sawmills in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan Loeffler; Nathaniel Anderson; Todd A. Morgan; Colin B. Sorenson

    2016-01-01

    Total on-site energy requirements for wood product manufacturing are generally not well understood or publicly available, particularly at subregional scales, such as the state level. This article uses a mail survey of softwood sawmills in Montana to develop a profile of all on-site energy consumption. Energy use is delineated by fuel type on a production basis...

  2. Fall and winter movements and habitat use of the introduced American bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana) in a Montana pond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepulveda, Adam; Layhee, Megan J.

    2015-01-01

    American Bullfrogs (Lithobates catesbeianus) have been introduced across the globe, including in many northern latitude habitats where wetlands are ice-covered for part of the year. Because bullfrogs are less mobile at low temperatures, greater knowledge about their overwintering habitat may provide additional opportunities for control. Here, we described fall and early-winter movements and habitat associations for introduced juvenile bullfrogs in a pond within the Yellowstone River corridor near Billings, Montana, USA. We attached radio-transmitters to 13 juvenile bullfrogs and located individuals from 28 August to 10 December 2014. Bullfrogs moved greater distances in late summer and early autumn, and later during brief warming periods. Collectively, all bullfrog locations were distributed across a 15,384 m2 area during the active season, but contracted to a 130 m2 area in the east cove of the pond by the time the study site froze over. Our research provides evidence that managers in northern latitude regions like Montana may be able to use the long, cold winters to their advantage because the site-specific distributions of introduced bullfrogs contracted as temperatures decreased.

  3. A Study of Programs and Services: An Action Report. Montana State Dissemination Worksessions, Office of Public Instruction (Helena, Montana, November and December 1979 and January 1980).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northwest Regional Educational Lab., Portland, OR.

    Input into the design, content, and development of a comprehensive resource tool--the Montana Educational Resources and Services notebook--was provided by the 16 members of a planning team made up of Office of Public Instruction (OPI) managers and consultants, selected Montana educators, and Northwest Regional Educational Laboratory Dissemination…

  4. Bioregional Planning in Central Georgia, USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Dale, Virginia; Aldridge, Matthew; Arthur, Taryn; Baskaran, Latha; Berry, Michael; Chang, Michael; Efroymson, Rebecca; Garten, Chuck; Stewart, Catherine; Washington-Allen, Robert

    2005-01-01

    ...% of the native longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) forest remains intact. Besides the loss of species, habitats, and ecosystem services associated with longleaf pine forests, the environmental concerns of the region include air, water, and noise pollution...

  5. Climate change effects on historical range and variability of two large landscapes in western Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Keane; Lisa M. Holsinger; Russell A. Parsons; Kathy Gray

    2008-01-01

    Quantifying the historical range and variability of landscape composition and structure using simulation modeling is becoming an important means of assessing current landscape condition and prioritizing landscapes for ecosystem restoration. However, most simulated time series are generated using static climate conditions which fail to account for the predicted major...

  6. Adapting to the reality of climate change at Glacier National Park, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagre, Daniel B.

    2007-01-01

    The glaciers of Glacier National Park (GNP) are disappearing rapidly and likely will be gone by 2030. These alpine glaciers have been continuously present for approximately 7,000 years so their loss from GNP in another 25 years underscores the significance of current climate change. There are presently only 27 glaciers remaining of the 150 estimated to have existed when GNP was created in 1910. Mean annual temperature in GNP has increased 1.6 0 C during the past cen- tury, three times the global mean increase. The temperature increase has affected other parts of the mountain ecosystem, too. Snowpacks hold less water equivalent and melt 2+ weeks earlier in the spring. Forest growth rates have increased, alpine treelines have expanded upward and be- come denser, and subalpine meadows have been invaded by high elevation tree species. These latter responses can be mostly attributed to longer growing seasons and warmer temperatures.

  7. Anatomy and dynamics of a floodplain, Powder River, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzuto, J.E.; Moody, J.A.; Meade, R.H.

    2008-01-01

    Centimeter-scale measurements on several Powder River floodplains provide insights into the nature of overbank depositional processes that created the floodplains; during a 20-year period after a major flood in 1978. Rising stages initially entered across a sill at the downriver end of the floodplains. Later, as stages continued to rise, water entered the floodplains through distinct low saddles along natural levees. The annual maximum depth of water over the levee crest averaged 0.19 in from 1983 through 1996, and the estimated flow velocities were approximately 0.15 m s-1. Water ponded in the floodplain trough, a topographic low between the natural levee and the pre-flood riverbank, and mud settled as thin layers of nearly constant thickness. Mud layers alternated with sand layers, which were relatively thick near the channel. Together, these beds created a distinctive natural levee. In some locations, individual flood deposits began as a thin mud layer that gradually coarsened upwards to medium-grained sand. Coarsening-upwards sequences form initially as mud because only the uppermost layers of water in the channel supply the first overbank flows, which are rich in mud but starved of sand. At successively higher stages, fine sands and then medium sands increase in concentration in the floodwater and are deposited as fine- and medium-sand layers overlying the initial mud layer. Theoretical predictions from mathematical models of sediment transport by advection and diffusion indicate that these processes acting alone are unlikely to create the observed sand layers of nearly uniform thickness that extend across much of the floodplain. We infer that other transport processes, notably bedload transport, must be important along Powder River. Even with the centimeter-scale measurements of floodplain deposits, daily hydraulic data, and precise annual surface topographic surveys, we were unable to determine any clear correspondence between the gauged flow record of overbank floods and the depositional layers mapped in the floodplain. These results provide a detailed example of floodplain deposits and depositional processes that should prove useful for interpreting natural levee deposits in a variety of geologic settings. Copyright ?? 2008, SEPM (Society for Sedimentary Geology).

  8. Baxter v. Montana, libertarianism, and end-of-life: the ripe time for a paradigm shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruble, James H

    2010-09-01

    Baxter v. Montana (2009 WL 5155363 [Mont. 2009]) is a recent decision from the Montana Supreme Court that provides new legal insight into the societal issue of aid in dying. This case involves interests of persons with terminal illness, medical practitioners, law enforcement, legislative and judicial bodies, as well as the citizens of Montana. A summary judgment ruling at the Montana district court level was based almost entirely on a constitutional fundamental rights analysis. In contrast, the Montana Supreme Court affirming decision was based almost entirely on a statutory rights analysis. Both rulings from the Montana courts support the position that licensed prescribers in Montana who provide aid in dying assistance to terminally ill patients have some immunity from criminal prosecution. Each side in the case argued what they believed to be the intents and purposes of the people of Montana. Baxter v. Montana illustrates different methods to determine the will of the people concerning aid in dying and public policy. This case very subtly suggests a paradigm shift may be occurring in aid in dying policy.

  9. The influence of weather on Golden Eagle migration in northwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, R.E.; McClelland, B.R.; Mcclelland, P.T.; Key, C.H.; Bennetts, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    We analyzed the influence of 17 weather factors on migrating Golden Eagles (Aquila chrysaetos) near the Continental Divide in Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A. Local weather measurements were recorded at automated stations on the flanks of two peaks within the migration path. During a total of 506 hr of observation, the yearly number of Golden Eagles in autumn counts (1994-96) averaged 1973; spring counts (1995 and 1996) averaged 605 eagles. Mean passage rates (eagles/hr) were 16.5 in autumn and 8.2 in spring. Maximum rates were 137 in autumn and 67 in spring. Using generalized linear modeling, we tested for the effects of weather factors on the number of eagles counted. In the autumn model, the number of eagles increased with increasing air temperature, rising barometric pressure, decreasing relative humidity, and interactions among those factors. In the spring model, the number of eagles increased with increasing wind speed, barometric pressure, and the interaction between these factors. Our data suggest that a complex interaction among weather factors influenced the number of eagles passing on a given day. We hypothesize that in complex landscapes with high topographic relief, such as Glacier National Park, numerous weather factors produce different daily combinations to which migrating eagles respond opportunistically. ?? 2001 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  10. 75 FR 30850 - Final Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... Supplementary Rules for Camping on Undeveloped Public Lands in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota AGENCY... personal property on undeveloped public lands managed by the BLM in Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota... public lands throughout Montana, North Dakota, and South Dakota. These final supplementary rules will...

  11. Revitalizing Indigenous Languages, Cultures, and Histories in Montana, across the United States and around the Globe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carjuzaa, Jioanna

    2017-01-01

    Many educators have sung the praises of Indian Education for All, Montana's constitutional mandate, and heard the successes of Montana's Indigenous language revitalization efforts which reverberate around the globe. Teaching Indigenous languages is especially, challenging since there are limited numbers of fluent speakers and scarce resources…

  12. 76 FR 46320 - Notice of Filing of Plats of Survey; Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-02

    ... survey of the lands described below in the BLM Montana State Office, Billings, Montana, on September 1... telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD) may call the Federal Information Relay Service (FIRS) at 1-800-877-8339..., in front of section 30, and certain division of accretion and partition lines, the subdivision of...

  13. When reintroductions are augmentations: the genetic legacy of the fisher (Martes pennanti) in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray S. Vinkey; Michael K. Schwartz; Kevin S. McKelvey; Kerry R. Foresman; Kristine L. Pilgrim; Brian J. Giddings; Eric C. Lofroth

    2006-01-01

    Fishers (Martes pennanti) were purportedly extirpated from Montana by 1930 and extant populations are assumed to be descended from translocated fishers. To determine the lineage of fisher populations, we sequenced 2 regions of the mitochondrial DNA genome from 207 tissue samples from British Columbia, Minnesota, Wisconsin, and Montana. In...

  14. 75 FR 3993 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... include minor editorial and grammatical changes, updates to the citations and references to federal and... otherwise. (ii) The words EPA, we, us or our mean or refer to the United States Environmental Protection... Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the Administrative Rules of Montana...

  15. 78 FR 8102 - Kootenai National Forest; Buckhorn Planning Subunit; Lincoln County, Montana; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-05

    ... National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana, and north of Troy, Montana. DATES: Comments concerning the scope... Hwy 2, Troy, MT 59935. Comments may also be sent via email to comments-northern-kootenai-three-rivers..., Project Team Leader, Three Rivers Ranger District, 12858 US Hwy 2, Troy, MT 59935. Phone: (406) 295-4693...

  16. A Reflight of the Explorer-1 Science Mission: The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Obland, M.; Hunyadi, G.; Jepsen, S.; Larsen, B.; Kankelborg, C.; Hiscock, W.

    2001-05-01

    Montana State University's interdisciplinary Space Science and Engineering Laboratory (SSEL) under support from the Montana NASA Space Grant Consortium is engaged in an earth orbiting satellite student design and flight project. The Montana EaRth Orbiting Pico Explorer (MEROPE) will carry a modern-day reproduction of the scientific payload carried on Explorer-1. On February 1, 1958 the United States launched its first earth orbiting satellite carrying a 14 kg scientific experiment built by Professor James Van Allen's group at the State University of Iowa (now The University of Iowa). The MEROPE student satellite will carry a reproduction, using current-day technology, of the scientific payload flown on Explorer-1. The CubeSat-class satellite will use currently available, low cost technologies to produce a payload-carrying satellite with a total orbital mass of 1 kg in a volume of 1 cubic liter. The satellite is to be launched in late 2001 into a 600 km, 65° inclination orbit. MEROPE will utilize passive magnetic orientation for 2-axis attitude control. A central microprocessor provides timing, controls on-board operations and switching, and enables data storage. Body mounted GaAs solar arrays are expected to provide in excess of 1.5 W. to maintain battery charge and operate the bus and payload. The Geiger counter will be operated at approximately 50% duty cycle, primarily during transits of the earth's radiation belts. Data will be stored on board and transmitted approximately twice per day to a ground station located on the Bozeman campus of the Montana State University. Owing to the 65° inclination, the instrument will also detect the higher energy portion of the electron spectrum responsible for the production of the Aurora Borealis. This paper describes both the technical implementation and design of the satellite and its payload as well as the not inconsiderable task of large team organization and management. As of March 2001, the student team consists of

  17. Some Biological Compounds, Radical Scavenging Capacities and Antimicrobial Activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana from Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erecevit, Pınar

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study determined some biological compounds (fatty acid compositions, lipid-soluble vitamins, sterols, flavonoids, radical scavenging capacities and antimicrobial activities in the seeds of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was found that palmitic acid (C16:0; 8.54±0.13- 3.05±0.04%, oleic acid (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% and α-linolenic acid (C18:3 n3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% were the dominant fatty acids in both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. It was concluded that both Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contained stigmasterol (630.07±1.81µg/g, 80.74±0.71µg/g, respectively and ergosterol (1.11±0.14µg/g, 161.32±0.63µg/g respectively as well as beta-sitosterol (2.93±0.03 µg/g. The present findings show that Nepeta italica L. contains morin (37.79±1.09μg/g, catechin (124.39±2.23µg/g, naringin (475.96±3.57µg/g and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana contains morin (188.41±2.53µg/g, catechin (64.14±1.86μg/g, naringenin (38.34±1.78μg/g as major flavonoids. It was also determined that methanol extracts of Nepeta italica L. and Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana were most effective against DPPH radicals. The results of the present study show that the vitamins, flavonoids and fatty acid extracts in the seeds of N. italica L. and S. montana L. subsp. montana prevented the growth of the microorganisms used in the tests at different ratios.Este estudio ha determinado algunos compuestos biológicos (ácidos grasos, vitaminas liposolubles, esteroles y flavonoides, capacidad atrapadora de radicales libres, y actividades antimicrobianas de las semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis montana L. subsp. montana. Se encontró que el ácido palmítico (C16:0; 8.54±0.13-3.05±0.04%, ácido oleico (C18:1 n9, 22.41±0.8-18.83±0.1% y α-linolénico (C18:3 n 3;39.56±0.67-77.04±2.07% eran mayoritarios en ambas semillas de Nepeta italica L. y Sideritis

  18. A comparison of high-resolution pollen-inferred climate data from central Minnesota, USA, to 19th century US military fort climate data and tree-ring inferred climate reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    St Jacques, J.; Cumming, B. F.; Sauchyn, D.; Vanstone, J. R.; Dickenson, J.; Smol, J. P.

    2013-12-01

    A vital component of paleoclimatology is the validation of paleoclimatological reconstructions. Unfortunately, there is scant instrumental data prior to the 20th century available for this. Hence, typically, we can only do long-term validation using other proxy-inferred climate reconstructions. Minnesota, USA, with its long military fort climate records beginning in 1820 and early dense network of climate stations, offers a rare opportunity for proxy validation. We compare a high-resolution (4-year), millennium-scale, pollen-inferred paleoclimate record derived from varved Lake Mina in central Minnesota to early military fort records and dendroclimatological records. When inferring a paleoclimate record from a pollen record, we rely upon the pollen-climate relationship being constant in time. However, massive human impacts have significantly altered vegetation; and the relationship between modern instrumental climate data and the modern pollen rain becomes altered from what it was in the past. In the Midwest, selective logging, fire suppression, deforestation and agriculture have strongly influenced the modern pollen rain since Euro-American settlement in the mid-1800s. We assess the signal distortion introduced by using the conventional method of modern post-settlement pollen and climate calibration sets to infer climate at Lake Mina from pre-settlement pollen data. Our first February and May temperature reconstructions are based on a pollen dataset contemporaneous with early settlement to which corresponding climate data from the earliest instrumental records has been added to produce a 'pre-settlement' calibration set. The second February and May temperature reconstructions are based on a conventional 'modern' pollen-climate dataset from core-top pollen samples and modern climate normals. The temperature reconstructions are then compared to the earliest instrumental records from Fort Snelling, Minnesota, and it is shown that the reconstructions based on the pre

  19. Avian use of Norris Hill Wind Resource Area, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harmata, A.; Podruzny, K.; Zelenak, J. [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Biology Dept.

    1998-07-01

    This document presents results of a study of avian use and mortality in and near a proposed wind resource area in southwestern Montana. Data collected in autumn 1995 through summer 1996 represented preconstruction condition; it was compiled, analyzed, and presented in a format such that comparison with post-construction data would be possible. The primary emphasis of the study was recording avian migration in and near the wind resource area using state-of-the-art marine surveillance radar. Avian use and mortality were investigated during the breeding season by employing traditional avian sampling methods, radiotelemetry, radar, and direct visual observation. 61 figs., 34 tabs.

  20. Rb-Sr ages of Precambrian sedimentary rocks in the U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, J.P.; Long, L.E.

    1982-01-01

    Dating of Precambrian sedimentary rocks to determine the age of deposition has not been pursued as diligently in the U.S.A. as in other areas. Ages (which must be regarded as tentative) are summarized for the younger Precambrian stratified rocks of the Grand Canyon (Arizona), the Nonesuch Shale of the Keweenawan Series (Michigan), the Uinta Mountain Group (Utah), and the Belt-Supergroup (Idaho-Montana). An important question of interpretation is whether the ages correspond to times of deposition or of later diagenesis. (Auth.)

  1. Source rock potential of middle cretaceous rocks in Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyman, T.S.; Palacas, J.G.; Tysdal, R.G.; Perry, W.J.; Pawlewicz, M.J.

    1996-01-01

    The middle Cretaceous in southwestern Montana is composed of a marine and nonmarine succession of predominantly clastic rocks that were deposited along the western margin of the Western Interior Seaway. In places, middle Cretaceous rocks contain appreciable total organic carbon (TOC), such as 5.59% for the Mowry Shale and 8.11% for the Frontier Formation in the Madison Range. Most samples, however, exhibit less than 1.0% TOC. The genetic or hydrocarbon potential (S1+S2) of all the samples analyzed, except one, yield less than 1 mg HC/g rock, strongly indicating poor potential for generating commercial amounts of hydrocarbons. Out of 51 samples analyzed, only one (a Thermopolis Shale sample from the Snowcrest Range) showed a moderate petroleum potential of 3.1 mg HC/g rock. Most of the middle Cretaceous samples are thermally immature to marginally mature, with vitrinite reflectance ranging from about 0.4 to 0.6% Ro. Maturity is high in the Pioneer Mountains, where vitrinite reflectance averages 3.4% Ro, and at Big Sky Montana, where vitrinite reflectance averages 2.5% Ro. At both localities, high Ro values are due to local heat sources, such as the Pioneer batholith in the Pioneer Mountains.

  2. Chemical characteristics of the major thermal springs of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariner, R.H.; Presser, T.S.; Evans, W.C.

    1976-07-01

    Twenty-one thermal springs in western Montana were sampled for chemical, isotope, and gas compositions. Most of the springs issue dilute to slightly saline sodium-bicarbonate waters of neutral to slightly alkaline pH. A few of the springs issue sodium-mixed anion waters of near neutral pH. Fluoride concentrations are high in most of the thermal waters, up to 18 miligrams per litre, while F/Cl ratios range from 3/1 in the dilute waters to 1/10 in the slightly saline waters. Most of the springs are theoretically in thermodynamic equilibrium with respect to calcite and fluorite. Nitrogen is the major gas escaping from most of the hot springs; however, Hunters Hot Springs issue principally methane. The deuterium content of the hot spring waters is typical of meteoric water in western Montana. Geothermal calculations based on silica concentrations and Na-K-Ca ratios indicate that most of the springs are associated with low temperature aquifers (less than 100/sup 0/C). Chalcedony may be controlling the silica concentrations in these low temperature aquifers even in ''granitic'' terranes.

  3. USA toetus Eestile

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Ameerika Ühendriikide riigisekretär Condoleezza Rice kinnitas 3. mail 2007 telefonikõnes president Toomas Hendrik Ilvesele USA toetust Eestile ning tõsist muret Venemaa käitumise üle oma naaberriigi suhtes. Ilmunud ka: Meie Kodu 9. mai 2007, lk. 2, pealk.: USA riigisekretär Vabariigi Presidendile: Ühendriigid toetavad Eestit

  4. Glemmer USA Afghanistan nu?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2015-01-01

    Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016.......Hvis Obamas efterfølger kan skrue den rigtige strategiske fortælling sammen så vil USA ikke forlade Afghanistan med udgangen af 2016....

  5. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Idaho Project, Elk City quadrangle of Idaho/Montana. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-11-01

    The Elk City quadrangle in north central Idaho and western Montana lies within the Northern Rocky Mountain province. The area is dominated by instrusives of the Idaho and Sawtooth Batholiths, but contains significant exposures of Precambrian metamorphics and Tertiary volcanics. Magnetic data apparently show some expression of the intrusives of the Idaho Batholith. Areas of faulted Precambrian and Tertiary rocks appear to express themselves as well defined regions of high frequency and high amplitudes wavelengths. The Elk City quadrangle has been unproductive in terms of uranium mining, though it contains significant exposures of the Challis Formation, which has been productive in other areas south of the quadrangle. A total of 238 anomalies are valid according to the criteria set forth in Volume I of this report. These anomalies are scattered throughout the quadrangle. The most distinctive group of anomalies with peak apparent uranium concentrations of 10.0 ppM eU or greater

  6. U-Pb ages and geochemistry of zircon from Proterozoic plutons of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges, Colorado, U.S.A.: Implications for crustal growth of the central Colorado province

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moscati, Richard J.; Premo, Wayne R.; Dewitt, Ed; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2017-01-01

    A broad study of zircons from plutonic rocks of the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges of west-central Colorado (U.S.A.) was undertaken to significantly refine the magmatic chronology and chemistry of this under-studied region of the Colorado province. This region was chosen because it lies just to the north of the suspected arc-related Gunnison-Salida volcano-plutonic terrane, which has been the subject of many recent investigations—and whose origin is still debated. Our new results provide important insights into the processes active during Proterozoic crustal evolution in this region, and they have important ramifications for broader-scope crustal evolution models for southwestern North America.Twenty-four new U-Pb ages and sequentially acquired rare-earth element (REE), U, Th, and Hf contents of zircon have been determined using the sensitive high-resolution ion microprobe-reverse geometry (SHRIMP-RG). These zircon geochemistry data, in conjunction with whole-rock major- and trace-element data, provide important insights into zircon crystallization and melt fractionation, and they help to further constrain the tectonic environment of magma generation.Our detailed zircon and whole-rock data support the following three interpretations:(1) The Roosevelt Granite in the southern Sawatch Range was the oldest rock dated at 1,766 ± 7 Ma, and it intruded various metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks. Geochemistry of both whole-rock and zircon supports the contention that this granite was produced in a magmatic arc environment and, therefore, is likely an extension of the older Dubois Greenstone Belt of the Gunnison Igneous Complex (GIC) and the Needle Mountains (1,770–1,755 Ma). Rocks of the younger Cochetopa succession of the GIC, the Salida Greenstone Belt, and the Sangre de Cristo Mountains (1,740–1,725 Ma) were not found in the Sawatch and Mosquito ranges. This observation strongly suggests that the northern edge of the Gunnison-Salida arc terrane underlies the

  7. Weatherization is a Natural Choice for Montana: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    Montana demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes

  8. NPDES Permit for Soap Creek Associates Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT-0023183, Soap Creek Associates, Inc. is authorized to discharge from its wastewater treatment facility located in West, Bighorn County, Montana, to Soap Creek.

  9. The Story of Story Mill-A Montana Community Working to Restore Wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story Mill, a 55-acre site on the outskirts of Bozeman, Montana, has undergone several transformations in recent history. The place is virtually a “mill of stories” with respect to land use, but originally it was a wetland.

  10. NPDES Permit for Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under NPDES permit MT-0031827, the Crow Indian Tribe is authorized to discharge from the Crow Municipal Rural & Industrial (MR&I) Pilot Water Treatment Plant in Bighorn County, Montana to the Bighorn River.

  11. Summary of geothermal studies in Montana, 1980 through 1983. DOE final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonderegger, J.L.

    1984-01-01

    The geology, hydrology, and surface manifestations of geothermal systems in Montana are described by area. Water-quality information, tables of inventory and water analysis data for springs and wells, and a geothermal resource map are included. (MHR)

  12. Bioacoustic investigations and taxonomic considerations on the Cicadetta montana species complex (Homoptera: Cicadoidea: Tibicinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matija Gogala

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Recent bioacoustic investigations have shown that Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 is a complex of morphologically similar sister species that are best characterized by their song patterns. At the type locality of C. montana, only mountain cicadas with simple, long lasting song phrases were heard, recorded and collected. Therefore, we have good reasons to suggest that this type of song is characteristic for C. montana s. str. Boulard described a song of C. montana from France with phrases composed of a long and a short echeme; this type of song is characteristic for cicadas morphologically corresponding to C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; we suggest to raise this taxon to species level. On the basis of specific song, Puissant and Boulard described C. cerdaniensis from Pyrénées. A similar case was the discovery and description of C. montana macedonica Schedl 1999 from Macedonia; since these Macedonian cicadas are sympatric with at least two other cryptic species in the C. montana group and molecular investigations showed substantial genetic differences between C. macedonica and C. montana or C. brevipennis, we conclude that this taxon should also be raised to species level. Songs of closely related C. podolica and Korean mountain cicada are presented as well.Pesquisas recentes de bioacústica mostraram que Cicadetta montana Scopoli 1772 é um complexo de espécie-irmãs morfologicamente semelhantes e melhor caracterizadas por seus padrões de canto. Na localidade-tipo de C. montana somente cigarras serranas de longas frases de canto foram ouvidas, gravadas e coletadas. Portanto, temos boas razões para propor este tipo de canto como característico de C. montana s. str. Boulard descreveu um canto de C. montana da França com frases compostas de uma estridulação longa e uma curta; este tipo de canto é característico das cigarras correspondendo morfologicamente a C. montana var. brevipennis Fieber 1876; sugerimos elevar este táxon ao n

  13. Weatherization is a Natural Choice for Montana: Weatherization Assistance Close-Up Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D& R International

    2001-10-10

    Montana demonstrates its commitment to technology and efficiency through the Weatherization Program. Weatherization uses advanced technologies and techniques to reduce energy costs for low-income families by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes.

  14. Invasive Species Biology, Control, and Research. Part 1: Kudzu (Pueraria montana)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guertin, Patrick J; Denight, Michael L; Gebhart, Dick L; Nelson, Linda

    2008-01-01

    ..., and damage to equipment and structures. Of the 11 plant species (or groups) identified by installations as uncontrolled vegetation, six were invasive plants, of which the two invasive plants most commonly identified were Kudzu (Pueraria montana...

  15. Evaluation of antioxidant and cytoprotective activities of Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. ethanolic extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craciunescu Oana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Arnica montana L. and Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae are medicinal plants native to temperate regions of Europe, including Romania, traditionally used for treatment of skin wounds, bruises and contusions. In the present study, A. montana and A. absinthium ethanolic extracts were evaluated for their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and protective effect against H2O2-induced oxidative stress in a mouse fibroblast-like NCTC cell line. Results A. absinthium extract showed a higher antioxidant capacity than A. montana extract as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, Oxygen radical absorbance capacity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical-scavenging activity, in correlation with its flavonoids and phenolic acids content. Both plant extracts had significant effects on the growth of NCTC cells in the range of 10–100 mg/L A. montana and 10–500 mg/L A. absinthium. They also protected fibroblast cells against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage, at the same doses. The best protection was observed in cell pre-treatment with 10 mg/L A. montana and 10–300 mg/L A. absinthium, respectively, as determined by Neutral red and lactate dehydrogenase assays. In addition, cell pre-treatment with plant extracts, at these concentrations, prevented morphological changes induced by hydrogen peroxide. Flow-cytometry analysis showed that pre-treatment with A. montana and A. absinthium extracts restored the proportion of cells in each phase of the cell cycle. Conclusions A. montana and A. absinthium extracts, rich in flavonoids and phenolic acids, showed a good antioxidant activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in fibroblast-like cells. These results provide scientific support for the traditional use of A. montana and A. absinthium in treatment of skin disorders.

  16. 75 FR 63434 - Kootenai National Forest, Lincoln County, Montana; Grizzly Vegetation and Transportation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Troy, Montana. The Notice of Availability of the Draft EIS for this project was published in the... analysis is Cami Winslow, Acting District Ranger, Three Rivers Ranger District, 12385 U.S. Hwy 2, Troy, MT... northeast of Troy, Montana, within all or portions of T34N, R32W-R33W, T35N, R32W-R33W, and T36N, R32W-R33W...

  17. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-09-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO's environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies

  18. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana, technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-09-01

    This document has been prepared by the DOE Environmental Management (EM) Office of Technology Development (OTD) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of useable resources from waste. Environmental technology development and commercialization activities will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management. Since the site has no record of radioactive material use and no history of environmental contamination/remediation activities, DOE-EM can concentrate on performing developmental and demonstration activities without the demands of regulatory requirements and schedules. Thus, WETO will serve as a national resource for the development of new and innovative environmental technologies.

  19. The Montana ALE (Autonomous Lunar Excavator) Systems Engineering Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Bethanne J.

    2012-01-01

    On May 2 1-26, 20 12, the third annual NASA Lunabotics Mining Competition will be held at the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. This event brings together student teams from universities around the world to compete in an engineering challenge. Each team must design, build and operate a robotic excavator that can collect artificial lunar soil and deposit it at a target location. Montana State University, Bozeman, is one of the institutions selected to field a team this year. This paper will summarize the goals of MSU's lunar excavator project, known as the Autonomous Lunar Explorer (ALE), along with the engineering process that the MSU team is using to fulfill these goals, according to NASA's systems engineering guidelines.

  20. CENTENNIAL MOUNTAINS WILDERNESS STUDY AREA, MONTANA AND IDAHO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witkind, Irving J.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    A mineral survey conducted within the Centennial Mountains Wilderness study area in Montana and Idaho showed large areas of probable and substantiated resource potential for phosphate. Byproducts that may be derived from processing the phosphate include vanadium, chromium, uranium, silver, fluorine, and the rare earths, lanthanum and yttrium. Results of a geochemical sampling program suggest that there is little promise for the occurrence of base and precious metals in the area. Although the area contains other nonmetallic deposits, such as coal, building stone, and pumiceous ash they are not considered as mineral resources. There is a probable resource potential for oil and gas and significant amounts may underlie the area around the Peet Creek and Odell Creek anticlines.

  1. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) Butte, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    This document has been prepared to highlight the research, development, demonstration, testing and evaluation activities funded through the Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. This information has been assembled from recently produced Office of Technology Development (OTD) documents which highlight technology development activities within each of the OTD program elements. Projects include: Heavy metals contaminated soil project; In Situ remediation integrated program; Minimum additive waste stabilization program; Resource recovery project; Buried waste integrated demonstration; Mixed waste integrated program; Pollution prevention program; and Mine waste technology program

  2. The REU Program in Solar Physics at Montana State University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Petrus C.; Canfield, R. C.; McKenzie, D. M.

    2007-05-01

    The Solar Physics group at Montana State University has organized an annual summer REU program in Solar Physics, Astronomy, and Space Physics since 1999, with NSF funding since 2003. The number of students applying and being admitted to the program has increased every year, and we have been very successful in attracting female participants. A great majority of our REU alumni have chosen career paths in the sciences, and, according to their testimonies, our REU program has played a significant role in their decisions. From the start our REU program has had an important international component through a close collaboration with the University of St. Andrews in Scotland. In our poster we will describe the goals, organization, scientific contents, international aspects, and results, and present statistics on applications, participants, gender balance, and diversity.

  3. USA kunstidessant Venemaale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    USA kunstnike näitus "Kolm sajandit ameerika kunsti" Moskvas Pushkini muuseumis. Eksponeeritakse Mark Rothko, Jean-Michel Basguiat', Roy Lichtensteini, Robert Rauschenbergi, Georgia O'Keefe'i, Willem de Kooningi töid

  4. USA Hire Testing Platform

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — The USA Hire Testing Platform delivers tests used in hiring for positions in the Federal Government. To safeguard the integrity of the hiring processes and ensure...

  5. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) suppression for bull trout (Salvelinus confluentus) recovery in Flathead Lake, Montana, North America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Michael J.; Hansen, Barry S; Beauchamp, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Non-native lake trout Salvelinus namaycush displaced native bull trout Salvelinus confluentus in Flathead Lake, Montana, USA, after 1984, when Mysis diluviana became abundant following its introduction in upstream lakes in 1968–1976. We developed a simulation model to determine the fishing mortality rate on lake trout that would enable bull trout recovery. Model simulations indicated that suppression of adult lake trout by 75% from current abundance would reduce predation on bull trout by 90%. Current removals of lake trout through incentivized fishing contests has not been sufficient to suppress lake trout abundance estimated by mark-recapture or indexed by stratified-random gill netting. In contrast, size structure, body condition, mortality, and maturity are changing consistent with a density-dependent reduction in lake trout abundance. Population modeling indicated total fishing effort would need to increase 3-fold to reduce adult lake trout population density by 75%. We conclude that increased fishing effort would suppress lake trout population density and predation on juvenile bull trout, and thereby enable higher abundance of adult bull trout in Flathead Lake and its tributaries.

  6. Streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter E in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter E of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality and the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, to provide an update of statewide streamflow characteristics based on data through water year 2009 for streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana. Streamflow characteristics are presented for 408 streamflow-gaging stations in Montana and adjacent areas having 10 or more years of record. Data include the magnitude and probability of annual low and high streamflow, the magnitude and probability of low streamflow for three seasons (March–June, July–October, and November–February), streamflow duration statistics for monthly and annual periods, and mean streamflows for monthly and annual periods. Streamflow is considered to be regulated at streamflow-gaging stations where dams or other large-scale human modifications affect 20 percent or more of the contributing drainage basin. Separate streamflow characteristics are presented for the unregulated and regulated periods of record for streamflow-gaging stations with sufficient data.

  7. Methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on data through water year 2011: Chapter F in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Roy; Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation, completed a study to update methods for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in Montana based on peak-flow data at streamflow-gaging stations through water year 2011. The methods allow estimation of peak-flow frequencies (that is, peak-flow magnitudes, in cubic feet per second, associated with annual exceedance probabilities of 66.7, 50, 42.9, 20, 10, 4, 2, 1, 0.5, and 0.2 percent) at ungaged sites. The annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals, respectively.Regional regression analysis is a primary focus of Chapter F of this Scientific Investigations Report, and regression equations for estimating peak-flow frequencies at ungaged sites in eight hydrologic regions in Montana are presented. The regression equations are based on analysis of peak-flow frequencies and basin characteristics at 537 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana and were developed using generalized least squares regression or weighted least squares regression.All of the data used in calculating basin characteristics that were included as explanatory variables in the regression equations were developed for and are available through the USGS StreamStats application (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) for Montana. StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system application that was created by the USGS to provide users with access to an assortment of analytical tools that are useful for water-resource planning and management. The primary purpose of the Montana StreamStats application is to provide estimates of basin characteristics and streamflow characteristics for user-selected ungaged sites on Montana streams. The regional regression equations presented in this report chapter can be conveniently solved using the Montana StreamStats application.Selected results from

  8. Det sorte USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndal, Jørn

    Bogen gennemgår det sorte USAs historie fra 1776 til 2016, idet grundtemaet er spændingsforholdet mellem USAs grundlæggelsesidealer og den racemæssige praksis, et spændingsforhold som Gunnar Myrdal kaldte "det amerikanske dilemma." Bogen, der er opbygget som politisk, social og racemæssig histori......, er opdelt i 13 kapitler og består af fire dele: Første del: Slaveriet; anden del: Jim Crow; tredje del. King-årene; fjerde del: Frem mod Obama....

  9. NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT): Professional Development for Montana K-12 Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn; McKenzie, D.; Des Jardins, A.; Key, J.; Kanode, C.; Willoughby, S.

    2012-05-01

    Piloted during the 2011-2012 academic year, the NASA Education Activity Training (NEAT) teacher workshop program has introduced five solar astronomy and space weather activities to over forty Montana K-12 teachers. Because many Montana schools are geographically isolated (40% of Montana students live more than 50 miles from a city) and/or serve traditionally underrepresented groups (primarily Native Americans), professional development for teachers can be costly and time consuming. However, with funding shared by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly EPO team and the Montana Space Grant Consortium, graduate student specialists are able to host the two-hour NEAT workshops on-site at the schools free of charge, and participating teachers earn two continuing education credits. Leveraging the existing catalogue of research-based NASA activities, the featured NEAT activities were chosen for their ease-of-use and applicability to Montana science standards. These include three advanced activities for older students, such as a paper plate activity for the June 5th, 2012 Transit of Venus, Kinesthetic Astronomy, and the Herschel Infrared experiment, along with two simpler activities for the younger students, such as Solar Cookies and the Electromagnetic War card game. Feedback surveys show that NEAT workshop participants were interested and engaged in the activities and planned on using the activities in their classrooms. With such positive responses, the NEAT program has been a huge success and can serve as a model for other institutions looking to increase their space public outreach and education.

  10. Antiproliferative and antimicrobial activity of traditional Kombucha and Satureja montana L. Kombucha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetojevic-Simin, D D; Bogdanovic, G M; Cvetkovic, D D; Velicanski, A S

    2008-01-01

    To carry out a preliminary investigation of the biological activity of Kombucha beverages from Camellia sinensis L. (black tea) and Satureja montana L. (winter savory tea), that have consuming acidity. Cell growth effect was measured by sulforhodamine B colorimetric assay on HeLa (cervix epithelioid carcinoma), HT-29 (colon adenocarcinoma), and MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma). Antimicrobial activity to bacteria, yeasts and moulds was determined by agar-well diffusion method. Consuming Kombuchas had the most expressive antimicrobial activity against all investigated bacteria, except Sarcina lutea, while unfermented tea samples had no activity. Traditional Kombucha showed higher activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli than acetic acid, while both neutralized Kombuchas had bacteriostatic activity on Salmonella enteritidis. Examined Kombuchas did not stimulate cell proliferation of the investigated cell lines. Antiproliferative activity of winter savory tea Kombucha was comparable to that of traditional Kombucha made from black tea. Furthermore, in HeLa cell line Satureja montana L. Kombucha induced cell growth inhibition by 20% (IC20) at lower concentration compared to the activity of water extract of Satureja montana L. obtained in our previous research. Presence of more active antiproliferative component(s) in Satureja montana L. Kombucha compared to Satureja montana L. water extract and antimicrobial component(s) other than acetic acid in both Kombuchas is suggested.

  11. Testing transferability of willingness to pay for forest fire prevention among three states of California, Florida and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    John B. Loomis; Hung Trong Le; Armando Gonzalez-Caban

    2005-01-01

    The equivalency of willingness to pay between the states of California, Florida and Montana is tested. Residents in California, Florida and Montana have an average willingness to pay of $417, $305, and $382 for prescribed burning program, and $403, $230, and $208 for mechanical fire fuel reduction program, respectively. Due to wide confidence intervals, household WTP...

  12. 78 FR 65703 - Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    ...] Notice of Availability of the Idaho and Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft Land Use Plan... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for managing Greater Sage- Grouse (GRSG) in the Idaho and Southwestern... Southwestern Montana Greater Sage-Grouse Draft LUP Amendments/Draft EIS by any of the following methods: Email...

  13. Effectiveness of Written Materials in a Rehabilitative Program for Female Offenders: A Case Study at the Montana Women's Prison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillon, Laura; Colling, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    This case study of the Therapeutic Community Program at Montana Women's Prison investigates the relationship between inmate reading levels and the self-help materials used for rehabilitative purposes within prison settings. The Therapeutic Community Handbook, published by the Montana Department of Corrections, is used as the primary method of…

  14. 75 FR 50930 - Final Determination To Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, Montana Landfill

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Determination To Approve Alternative Final Cover Request for the Lake County, Montana Landfill AGENCY... VIII is making a final determination to approve an alternative final cover for the Lake County landfill, a municipal solid waste landfill (MSWLF) owned and operated by Lake County, Montana on the...

  15. 77 FR 9696 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ..., Lewistown, MT 59457, (406) 538-1900, [email protected] . Persons who use a telecommunications device for... above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during normal business...

  16. 77 FR 75445 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-20

    ..., Lewistown, MT 59457, (406) 538-1900, [email protected] . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the... individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during normal business hours...

  17. 77 FR 51823 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ..., Lewistown Field Office, 920 NE Main, Lewistown, MT 59457, (406) 538-1900, [email protected] . Persons who... (FIRS) at 1-800-677-8339 to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: This 15-member council advises...

  18. 78 FR 20354 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-04

    ..., Lewistown, MT 59457, (406) 538-1900, [email protected] . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the... individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week to leave a message or question with the above individual. You will receive a reply during normal business hours...

  19. 76 FR 69281 - Notice of Public Meeting; Central Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-08

    ..., Lewistown Field Office, 920 NE Main, Lewistown, MT 59457, (406) 538-1900, [email protected] . Persons who... (FIRS) at 1-(800) 677-8339 to contact the above individual during normal business hours. The FIRS is... receive a reply during normal business hours. Cynthia Staszak, Acting State Director. [FR Doc. 2011-28860...

  20. Vegetation, topography and daily weather influenced burn severity in central Idaho and western Montana forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan S. Birch; Penelope Morgan; Crystal A. Kolden; John T. Abatzoglou; Gregory K. Dillon; Andrew T. Hudak; Alistair M. S. Smith

    2015-01-01

    Burn severity as inferred from satellite-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) is useful for evaluating fire impacts on ecosystems but the environmental controls on burn severity across large forest fires are both poorly understood and likely to be different than those influencing fire extent. We related dNBR to environmental variables including vegetation,...

  1. Greybull Sandstone Petroleum Potential on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    2002-05-13

    The focus of this project was to explore for stratigraphic traps that may be present in valley-fill sandstone at the top of the Lower Cretaceous Kootenai Formation. This sandstone interval, generally known as the Greybull Sandstone, has been identified along the western edge of the reservation and is a known oil and gas reservoir in the surrounding region. The Greybull Sandstone was chosen as the focus of this research because it is an excellent, well-documented, productive reservoir in adjacent areas, such as Elk Basin; Mosser Dome field, a few miles northwest of the reservation; and several other oil and gas fields in the northern portion of the Bighorn Basin.

  2. Training the next generation of scientists: Modeling Infectious Disease and Water Quality of Montana Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fytilis, N.; Wyman, S.; Lamb, R.; Stevens, L.; Kerans, B.; Rizzo, D. M.

    2010-12-01

    The University of Vermont College of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences and the Barrett Foundation have established a scholarship program for undergraduate students. The Barrett Scholarship program, aware of the importance of developing research quantitative and writing skills for undergraduate students, provides scholarships to outstanding undergraduate students for environmental engineering research projects. The intent is to help retain student interest early in their undergraduate engineering careers when few of their first or second year classes have little engineering or real-world application. We focus on one Barrett research project, derived from a NSF Biodiversity and Infectious Disease grant, because of the multiple disciplines (engineering, ecology, biology) and education levels (spanning secondary to graduate) involved. In this research, students across three departments at two universities (University of Vermont, Montana State University) and one independent high school (Vermont Commons School) formed a cohesive collaboration with faculty members to identify different worm taxa of T. Tubifex. Whirling disease has had a severe impact on the native population of salmonids in the upper Madison River MT, USA, resulting in the death of most fish that contract the parasite. T. Tubifex is the intermediate host for Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease in salmonids. Samples collected from eight locations along the Madison River varied in the prevalence of whirling disease. The site-specific worm community structure has been measured and identified using molecular genetic probes and a taxonomic key to link worm communities to geochemical features (e.g. site elevation, slope, pH, conductivity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and percent of organic soil matter). Using a unique clustering algorithm, we group geochemical features to discriminate over a range of water quality gradients (i.e., “clean” to “dirty”). The link between

  3. Baltimaade kunsti turnee USAs

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    1998-01-01

    5. nov.-st USA Lõuna-Carolina osariigis Wellington B. Grey galeriis ja Jenkins Fine Art Center's 13 eesti, läti ja leedu kunstniku näitus, mis hakkab kolme aasta jooksul ringlema Ameerikas. Eksponeeritud fotokunst, video, installatsioon, joonistused. Kuraator Peeter Linnap ja Mari Laanemets peavad ettekande näituse avamisega samal ajal toimuval Fotohariduse Ühingu konverentsil

  4. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO`s environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO`s areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation`s largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST`s Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management.

  5. Breeding ecology of the redhead duck in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokemoen, J.T.

    1966-01-01

    The habits of the redhead duck (Aythya americana) were studied in the Flathead Valley of western Montana in 1960 and 1961 to determine their habitat preferences in this pothole breeding ground. The 2,600-acre study area, surrounding the Ninepipe Reservoir, contained 686 potholes. Redheads usually were paired by the time they arrived on the study area in March. The average density of redhead breeding pairs was 25 pairs per square mile. For all spring activities except nesting, the birds used large, deep, open potholes or breeding-pair potholes. The several breeding-pair potholes and the nesting pothole utilized by the pair comprised their home range. Starting in late April, the pairs moved about the home range as the hens selected nesting sites, usually in the dense emergent vegetation of small, shallow potholes. Hard-stem bulrush (Scirpus acutus) and cat-tail (Typha latifolia) were preferred nesting cover. Redhead nesting success was only 15 percent, a low rate apparently caused by degenerate nesting behavior complicated by high redhead density, a lack of suitable nest hosts, and certain habitat deficiencies. By late June most drakes and unsuccessful hens had moved from the potholes to nearby reservoirs. All successful hens led their newly hatched broods from the nesting potholes to larger brood potholes and many eventually moved to the reservoir. By mid-July virtually all redheads had moved from the potholes to the reservoirs, where they remained until fall migration.

  6. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO) is a multi-purpose engineering test facility located in Butte, Montana, and is managed by MSE, Inc. WETO seeks to contribute to environmental research by emphasizing projects to develop heavy metals removal and recovery processes, thermal vitrification systems, and waste minimization/pollution prevention technologies. WETO's environmental technology research and testing activities focus on the recovery of usable resources from waste. In one of WETO's areas of focus, groundwater contamination, water from the Berkeley Pit, located near the WETO site, is being used in demonstrations directed toward the recovery of potable water and metal from the heavy metal-bearing water. The Berkeley Pit is part of an inactive copper mine near Butte that was once part of the nation's largest open-pit mining operation. The Pit contains approximately 25 billion gallons of Berkeley Pit groundwater and surface water containing many dissolved minerals. As part of DOE/OST's Resource Recovery Project (RRP), technologies are being demonstrated to not only clean the contaminated water but to recover metal values such as copper, zinc, and iron with an estimated gross value of more than $100 million. When recovered, the Berkeley Pit waters could benefit the entire Butte valley with new water resources for fisheries, irrigation, municipal, and industrial use. At WETO, the emphasis is on environmental technology development and commercialization activities, which will focus on mine cleanup, waste treatment, resource recovery, and water resource management

  7. THE USE OF EXPRESSIVE SPEECH ACTS IN HANNAH MONTANA SESSION 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Vita Handayani

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to describe kinds and forms of expressive speech act in Hannah Montana Session 1. It belongs to descriptive qualitative method. The research object was expressive speech act. The data source was utterances which contain expressive speech acts in the film Hannah Montana Session 1. The researcher used observation method and noting technique in collecting the data. In analyzing the data, descriptive qualitative method was used. The research findings show that there are ten kinds of expressive speech act found in Hannah Montana Session 1, namely expressing apology, expressing thanks, expressing sympathy, expressing attitudes, expressing greeting, expressing wishes, expressing joy, expressing pain, expressing likes, and expressing dislikes. The forms of expressive speech act are direct literal expressive speech act, direct non-literal expressive speech act, indirect literal expressive speech act, and indirect non-literal expressive speech act.

  8. Guantanamo rikub USA seadusi / Krister Paris

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Paris, Krister, 1977-

    2003-01-01

    Kaks USA tsiviilkohut leiavad oma otsuses, et USA valitsus rikub USA-s ja Guantanamo sõjaväebaasis kinnipeetavate nn. vaenlasvõitlejate õigusi. Inimõigusorganisatsioonid avaldavad heameelt kohtute otsuste üle

  9. Prevalence and reasons for initiating use of electronic cigarettes among adults in Montana, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Lisa; Reidmohr, Alison; Harwell, Todd S; Helgerson, Steven D

    2014-11-20

    We used data from the 2013 Montana Adult Tobacco Survey to estimate the prevalence of electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) use and reasons for initiation among Montana adults. More than 1 in 10 (11.2%, 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1%-13.2%) adults reported ever using e-cigarettes, and 1.3% (95% CI, 0.7%-1.9%) reported current use. Most respondents reported "trying something new" (64%) or "trying to quit or reduce cigarette use" (56%) as a reason for initiating use. Ongoing surveillance of these addictive products is needed.

  10. USA-USSR protocol

    CERN Multimedia

    1970-01-01

    On 30 November the USA Atomic Energy Commission and the USSR State Committee for the Utilization of Atomic Energy signed, in Washington, a protocol 'on carrying out of joint projects in the field of high energy physics at the accelerators of the National Accelerator Laboratory (Batavia) and the Institute for High Energy Physics (Serpukhov)'. The protocol will be in force for five years and can be extended by mutual agreement.

  11. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km/sup 2/. The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill.

  12. Cryptic trace-element alteration of Anorthosite, Stillwater complex, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czamanske, G.K.; Loferski, P.J.

    1996-01-01

    Evidence of cryptic alteration and correlations among K, Ba, and LREE concentrations indicate that a post-cumulus, low-density aqueous fluid phase significantly modified the trace-element contents of samples from Anorthosite zones I and II of the Stillwater Complex, Montana. Concentrations of Ba, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hf, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Sc, Sr, Th, Zn, and the rare-earth elements (REE) were measured in whole rocks and plagioclase separates from five traverses across the two main plagioclase cumulate (anorthosite) zones and the contiguous cumulates of the Stillwater Complex in an attempt to better understand the origin and solidification of the anorthosites. However, nearly the entire observed compositional range for many trace elements can be duplicated at a single locality by discriminating between samples rich in oikocrystic pyroxene and those which are composed almost entirely of plagioclase and show anhedral-granular texture. Plagioclase separates with high trace-element contents were obtained from the pyroxene-poor samples, for which maps of K concentration show plagioclase grains to contain numerous fractures hosting a fine-grained, K-rich phase, presumed to be sericite. Secondary processes in layered intrusions have the potential to cause cryptic disturbance, and the utmost care must be taken to ensure that samples provide information about primary processes. Although plagioclase from Anorthosite zones I and II shows significant compositional variation, there are no systematic changes in the major- or trace-element compositions of plagioclase over as much as 630 m of anorthosite thickness or 18 km of strike length. Plagioclase in the two major anorthosite zones shows little distinction in trace-element concentrations from plagioclase in the cumulates immediately below, between, and above these zones.

  13. Favorability for uranium in tertiary sedimentary rocks, southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wopat, M.A.; Curry, W.E.; Robins, J.W.; Marjaniemi, D.K.

    1977-10-01

    Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the basins of southwestern Montana were studied to determine their favorability for potential uranium resources. Uranium in the Tertiary sedimentary rocks was probably derived from the Boulder batholith and from silicic volcanic material. The batholith contains numerous uranium occurrences and is the most favorable plutonic source for uranium in the study area. Subjective favorability categories of good, moderate, and poor, based on the number and type of favorable criteria present, were used to classify the rock sequences studied. Rocks judged to have good favorability for uranium deposits are (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata and undifferentiated Tertiary rocks in the western Three Forks basin and (2) Oligocene rocks in the Helena basin. Rocks having moderate favorability consist of (1) Eocene and Oligocene strata in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and lower Ruby River basins, (2) Oligocene rocks in the Townsend and Clarkston basins, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, and (4) all Tertiary sedimentary formations in the eastern Three Forks basin, and in the Grasshopper Creek, Horse Prairie, Medicine Lodge Creek, Big Sheep Creek, Deer Lodge, Big Hole River, and Bull Creek basins. The following have poor favorability: (1) the Beaverhead Conglomerate in the Red Rock and Centennial basins, (2) Eocene and Oligocene rocks in the Upper Ruby River basin, (3) Miocene and Pliocene rocks in the Townsend, Clarkston, Smith River, and Divide Creek basins, (4) Miocene through Pleistocene rocks in the Jefferson River, Beaverhead River, and Lower Ruby River basins, and (5) all Tertiary sedimentary rocks in the Boulder River, Sage Creek, Muddy Creek, Madison River, Flint Creek, Gold Creek, and Bitterroot basins

  14. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U 3 O 8 , and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material

  15. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of the Boulder batholith, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castor, S.B.; Robins, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    The Boulder batholith of southwestern Montana is a composite Late Cretaceous intrusive mass, mostly composed of quartz monzonite and granodiorite. This study was not restricted to the plutonic rocks; it also includes younger rocks that overlie the batholith, and older rocks that it intrudes. The Boulder batholith area has good overall potential for economic uranium deposits, because its geology is similar to that of areas that contain economic deposits elsewhere in the world, and because at least 35 uranium occurrences of several different types are present. Potential is greatest for the occurrence of small uranium deposits in chalcedony veins and base-metal sulfide veins. Three areas may be favorable for large, low-grade deposits consisting of a number of closely spaced chalcedony veins and enriched wall rock; the Mooney claims, the Boulder area, and the Clancy area. In addition, there is a good possibility of by-product uranium production from phosphatic black shales in the project area. The potential for uranium deposits in breccia masses that cut prebatholith rocks, in manganese-quartz veins near Butte, and in a shear zone that cuts Tertiary rhyolite near Helena cannot be determined on the basis of available information. Low-grade, disseminated, primary uranium concentrations similar to porphyry deposits proposed by Armstrong (1974) may exist in the Boulder batholith, but the primary uranium content of most batholith rocks is low. The geologic environment adjacent to the Boulder batholith is similar in places to that at the Midnite mine in Washington. Some igneous rocks in the project area contain more than 10 ppM U/sub 3/O/sub 8/, and some metasedimentary rocks near the batholith contain reductants such as sulfides and carbonaceous material.

  16. Development of Lower Mississippian cyclic carbonates, Montana and Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrich, M.; Read, J.F.

    1989-03-01

    The Lower Mississippian Lodgepole/Madison formations of Wyoming and Montana consist of a 20 to 300-m upward-shallowing sequence of cyclic slope/basin, deep-ramp to shallow-ramp carbonate deposits. Shallow-ramp cycles (1-3 m) are composed of cross-bedded oolitic grainstone and pellet grainstone, overlain by rare algal laminite caps. Deep-ramp cycles (1-10 m) are characterized by thin-bedded, substorm-wave-base limestone/shale, nodular limestone/shale, and storm-deposited limestone overlain by hummocky cross-stratified grainstone caps. Average periods of the cycles range from 35,000 to 110,000 years. Slope/basin deposits are 10 to 20-cm thick couplets of even-bedded, micritic limestone and shale. Computer modeling of the cycles incorporates fluctuating sea level, subsidence, depth-dependent sedimentation, lag time, and platform slope. Data from spectral analysis (basin/slope couplets), Fischer plots (shallow-ramp cycles), computer modeling, and field data suggest (1) subsidence rates across the 700-km wide platform range from 0.01 m/k.y. to 0.12 m/k.y., (2) high-frequency (10/sup 4/-10/sup 5/ years) sea level fluctuations with 15 to 25-m amplitudes affected the platform, and (3) shallow-ramp slopes were less than 2 cm/km and deep-ramp slopes were greater than 10 cm/km. Computer models produce stratigraphic sections (one-dimensional models) that graphically illustrate how input parameters interact through time to produce the cyclic stratigraphic section.

  17. Uranium Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.

    1978-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory conducted a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance in southwestern Montana from early August to mid-October of 1976. A total of 1240 water and 1933 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations at a nominal density of one location per 10 km 2 . The water samples were collected from streams, wells, and springs; sediment samples were taken at streams and springs. All samples were analyzed at Los Alamos for total uranium by fluorometry or delayed-neutron counting. The uranium content of water samples ranges from below the detection limit (less than 0.3 ppB) to 45.30 ppB and has a mean value of 1.40 ppB. The uranium content of the sediment samples ranges between 0.20 and 206.80 ppM and averages 6.12 ppM. The chosen uranium anomaly threshold value was 7 ppB for surface waters (streams), 9 ppB for groundwaters (wells and springs), and 25 ppM for all sediment samples. The study area consists of the following lithologic groups: Precambrian basement complex, Precambrian Belt metasediments, Paleozoic and Mesozoic shelf sediments, Cretaceous and early Tertiary volcanic and plutonic rocks, Laramide orogenic clastic sediments, and middle to late Tertiary volcanic rocks and intermontane basin sediments. Most of the anomalous water and sediment samples with well-developed dispersion trains occur in areas underlain by or adjacent to silicic plutonic rocks of the Idaho and Boulder batholiths. These anomalies may indicate the presence of uraniferous veins and pegmatites similar to those already known to exist in the area. Fewer anomalous water samples occur in areas underlain by Precambrian basement complex and Tertiary basin fill

  18. Challenges and Opportunities for Tribal Waters: Addressing Disparities in Safe Public Drinking Water on the Crow Reservation in Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, John T; Kindness, Larry; Realbird, James; Eggers, Margaret J; Camper, Anne K

    2018-03-21

    Disparities in access to safe public drinking water are increasingly being recognized as contributing to health disparities and environmental injustice for vulnerable communities in the United States. As the Co-Directors of the Apsaálooke Water and Wastewater Authority (AWWWA) for the Crow Tribe, with our academic partners, we present here the multiple and complex challenges we have addressed in improving and maintaining tribal water and wastewater infrastructure, including the identification of diverse funding sources for infrastructure construction, the need for many kinds of specialized expertise and long-term stability of project personnel, ratepayer difficulty in paying for services, an ongoing legacy of inadequate infrastructure planning, and lack of water quality research capacity. As a tribal entity, the AWWWA faces additional challenges, including the complex jurisdictional issues affecting all phases of our work, lack of authority to create water districts, and additional legal and regulatory gaps-especially with regards to environmental protection. Despite these obstacles, the AWWWA and Crow Tribe have successfully upgraded much of the local water and wastewater infrastructure. We find that ensuring safe public drinking water for tribal and other disadvantaged U.S. communities will require comprehensive, community-engaged approaches across a broad range of stakeholders to successfully address these complex legal, regulatory, policy, community capacity, and financial challenges.

  19. A half century of change in alpine treeline patterns at Glacier National Park, Montana, U.S.A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasner, F.L.; Fagre, D.B.

    2002-01-01

    Using sequential aerial photography, we identified changes in the spatial distribution of subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa) habitat at the alpine treeline ecotone. Six 40-ha study sites in the McDonald Creek drainage of Glacier National Park contained subalpine fir forests that graded into alpine tundra. Over a 46-yr period, altitudinal changes in the location of alpine treeline ecotone were not observed. However, over this 46-yr period the area of krummholz, patch-forest, and continuous canopy forest increased by 3.4%, and tree density increased within existing patches of krummholz and patch-forest. Change in subalpine fir vegetation patterns within 100 m of trails was also compared to areas without trails. Within 100 m of trails, the number of small, discrete krummholz stands increased compared to areas without trails, but there was no significant change in total krummholz area. We used historical terrestrial photography to expand the period (to 70 yr) considered. This photography supported the conclusions that a more abrupt ecotone transition developed from forest to tundra at alpine treeline, that tree density within forested areas increased, and that krummholz became fragmented along trails. This local assessment of fine-grained change in the alpine treeline ecotone provides a comparative base for looking at ecotone change in other mountain regions throughout the world.

  20. History of fire and Douglas-fir establishment in a savanna and sagebrush-grassland mosaic, southwestern Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emily K. Heyerdahl; Richard F. Miller; Russell A. Parsons

    2006-01-01

    Over the past century, trees have encroached into grass- and shrublands across western North America. These include Douglas-fir trees (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) encroaching into mountain big sagebrush Nutt. ssp. vaseyana (Rydb.) Beetle) from stable islands of savanna in...

  1. Effective recreation visitor communication strategies: Rock climbers in the Bitterroot Valley, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    William T. Borrie; James A. Harding

    2002-01-01

    A four-stage model of decisionmaking was investigated in the context of low-impact practices among rock climbers in the Bitterroot Valley of Montana. Previous research has suggested that knowing what to do to minimize environmental and social impacts may not be the only factor limiting compliance with recommended visitor behaviors. Results from a sample of climbers at...

  2. 76 FR 28065 - Notice of Intent To Repatriate a Cultural Item: Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-13

    ... Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, that meets the definition of a sacred object under 25 U.S.C. 3001... donated it to the Society's collections in 1900. Consultation with Blackfeet tribal and religious leaders... religious society, and it is required for the practice of a traditional religion by contemporary adherents...

  3. 77 FR 33390 - Beaverhead-Deerlodge National Forest; Montana; Supplemental EIS for the Beaverhead-Deerlodge...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    ..., watershed, vegetation, wildlife, and recreation users. This analysis will be used to determine if snowmobile... Land and Resource Management Plan (Forest Plan) environmental analysis in response to an April 2, 2012.... District Court for the District of Montana (Case 9:10-cv-00104-DWM) alleging inadequate analysis of the...

  4. White pine blister rust in northern ldaho and western Montana: alternatives for integrated management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan K. Hagle; Geral I. McDonald; Eugene A. Norby

    1989-01-01

    This report comprises a handbook for managing western white pine in northern ldaho and western Montana, under the threat of white pine blister rust. Various sections cover the history of the disease and efforts to combat it, the ecology of the white pine and Ribes, alternate host of the rust, and techniques for evaluating the rust hazard and attenuating it. The authors...

  5. 75 FR 10456 - Kootenai National Forest, Fortine Ranger District, Montana; Galton Environmental Impact Statement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-08

    ...) Planning Areas (Wigwam, Grave, and Murphy) and the Fortine Ranger District portions of two (2) Planning... lawsuit settlement agreement with the Montana Wilderness Association commits the Forest Service to develop... travel planning for the Ten Lakes WSA. This project will also reduce hazardous fuels within and outside...

  6. Cost, performance, and esthetic impacts of an experimental forest road in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rulon B. Gardner

    1978-01-01

    An experimental logging road designed to minimize environmental and esthetic impact was constructed in northwest Montana. The road was single-lane (14-foot finished surface, 3-foot ditch), constructed along the contour. Esthetically, the single-lane experimental road was judged far superior to existing roads on the forest.

  7. 76 FR 53820 - Safety Zone; Missouri River From the Border Between Montana and North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... the effective period for the temporary safety zone on the specified waters of the Missouri River from... width of the river. Temporary section 33 CFR 165.T11-0511, which established the temporary safety zone... rule extends the existing temporary safety zone on the Missouri River from the border between Montana...

  8. A Study To Evaluate the Effectiveness of the Montana Functional Vision Assessment for Multihandicapped Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Ron

    The study evaluated the validity, reliability, and effectiveness in providing needed information of the Montana Functional Vision Assessment (MFVA) Instrument by comparing it with the Texas Education Agency Functional Vision Assessment and field testing the instrument in evaluations of nine multihandicapped students (ages 3-11). Evaluation led to…

  9. Fire ecology of Montana forest habitat types east of the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    William C. Fischer; Bruce D. Clayton

    1983-01-01

    Provides information on fire as an ecological factor for forest habitat types occurring east of the Continental Divide in Montana. Identifies "Fire Groups" of habitat types based on fire's role in forest succession. Describes forest fuels and suggests considerations for fire management.

  10. 77 FR 2970 - Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Project No. 12478-003] Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Company, LLC, Montana; Notice of Availability of Final Environmental Assessment In accordance with... reviewed the application for license for the Gibson Dam Hydroelectric Project, located at the U.S...

  11. The Montana Wild Virus Hunt | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a combination of techniques from bioinformatics, genetics, biochemistry, and structural biology to understand the mechanisms that bacteria use to defend themselves from viral infection. What is the Montana Wild Virus Hunt? The aim of this project is to engage high school students and their ...

  12. Factors influencing retention of visible implant tags by westslope cutthroat trout inhabiting headwater streams of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley B. Shepard; Jim Robison-Cox; Susan C. Ireland; Robert G. White

    1996-01-01

    Retention of visible implant (VI) tags by westslope cutthroat trout Oncorhynchus clarki lewisi inhabiting 20 reaches of 13 isolated headwater tributary drainages in Montana was evaluated during 1993 and 1994. In 1993, 2,071 VI tags were implanted in westslope cutthroat trout (100-324 mm fork length) and adipose tins were removed as a secondary mark to evaluate tag...

  13. Al-Dulimi and Montana Management Inc. v. Switzerland / Stefan Kadelbach

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kadelbach, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Euroopa Inimõiguste Kohtu lahendist asjas Al-Dulimi ja Montana Management Inc vs. Šveits, mis puudutas ÜRO julgeolekunõukogu resolutsiooni, millega pandi riikidele kohustus külmutada viivitamatult ka Iraagi vanemametnikele või nende äriühingutele kuuluv vara

  14. Response of planted ponderosa pine seedlings to weed control by herbicide in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian C.C. Uzoh

    1999-01-01

    The effects of competing herbaceous vegetation on the growth of ponderosa pine seedlings with and without herbicide Pronone were characterized in this 1987-1990 study. Study areas were established in 36 plantations across western Montana on Champion International Corporation's timberland (currently owned by Plum Creek Timber Company). The study sites were divided...

  15. Entrepreneurship in Montana. A Handbook for Integrating Entrepreneurship into All Vocational Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Ronald R.

    This handbook was developed to provide vocational education teachers in Montana with information about entreprenuership so that they can integrate the concepts into their vocational courses. The guide provides a definition of entrepreneurship and describes the syllabus for entrepreneurship (ownership, location, financing, personnel, promotion,…

  16. Perspectives and Future Directions Concerning Fresh, Whole Foods in Montana School Nutrition Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Byker Shanks, Carmen J.; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2015-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new USDA school meal standards, school nutrition programs may need to transition from a "heat and serve" meal preparation approach to increased scratch cooking and use of fresh, whole foods. This study aims to assess the attitudes, motivations, and barriers for Montana school nutrition professionals and key…

  17. 75 FR 67095 - Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service [FWS-R6-R-2010-N215; 60138-1261-6CCP-S3] Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Refuge and UL Bend National Wildlife Refuge, Montana AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior (DOI). ACTION: Notice; extension of comment period. SUMMARY: We, the U.S. Fish...

  18. 76 FR 68503 - Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Yellowstone National Park, Idaho, Montana...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR National Park Service Winter Use Plan, Final Environmental Impact.... ACTION: Notice of availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the Winter Use Plan... Winter Use Plan for Yellowstone National Park, located in Idaho, Montana, and [[Page 68504

  19. Phytochemical profile and anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of supercritical versus conventional extracts of Satureja montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Filipa V M; Martins, Alice; Salta, Joana; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Mira, Delfina; Gaspar, Natália; Justino, Jorge; Grosso, Clara; Urieta, José S; Palavra, António M S; Rauter, Amélia P

    2009-12-23

    Winter savory Satureja montana is a medicinal herb used in traditional gastronomy for seasoning meats and salads. This study reports a comparison between conventional (hydrodistillation, HD, and Soxhlet extraction, SE) and alternative (supercritical fluid extraction, SFE) extraction methods to assess the best option to obtain bioactive compounds. Two different types of extracts were tested, the volatile (SFE-90 bar, second separator vs HD) and the nonvolatile fractions (SFE-250 bar, first and second separator vs SE). The inhibitory activity over acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase by S. montana extracts was assessed as a potential indicator for the control of Alzheimer's disease. The supercritical nonvolatile fractions, which showed the highest content of (+)-catechin, chlorogenic, vanillic, and protocatechuic acids, also inhibited selectively and significantly butyrylcholinesterase, whereas the nonvolatile conventional extract did not affect this enzyme. Microbial susceptibility tests revealed the great potential of S. montana volatile supercritical fluid extract for the growth control and inactivation of Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showing some activity against Botrytis spp. and Pyricularia oryzae. Although some studies were carried out on S. montana, the phytochemical analysis together with the biological properties, namely, the anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities of the plant nonvolatile and volatile supercritical fluid extracts, are described herein for the first time.

  20. Built for the future: New directions in silviculture research and demonstration at Montana's Lubrecht Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher R. Keyes; Thomas E. Perry

    2010-01-01

    Manipulative experiments at the University of Montana’s Lubrecht Experimental Forest have long been set aside as permanent research and demonstration areas (RDA’s) to communicate the tradeoffs among different stand management strategies. However, most of these have either degraded over time or have diminished relevance to contemporary forest management issues. An...

  1. Een nieuwe ondersoort van Zosterops montana afkomstig van de Goenoeng Papandajan (West Java)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogerwerf, A.; Boer, de L.E.

    1947-01-01

    In zijn laatste revisie van het genus Zosterops (Journ. für Orn., vol. 87, 1939, p. 156-164) geeft Stresemann o.a. een schematische voorstelling van de horizontale en verticale verspreiding binnen deze Archipel van de vier voornaamste groepen van dit geslacht: montana, atricapilla, palpebrosa en

  2. Inflammatory Process Modulation by Homeopathic Arnica montana 6CH: The Role of Individual Variation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Kawakami

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of Arnica montana 6cH on the individual modulation of acute inflammation kinetics in rats were evaluated. Adult male Wistar rats were inoculated with 1% carrageenan into the footpad and treated with Arnica montana 6cH, dexamethasone (4.0 mg/kg; positive control or 5% hydroalcoholic solution (negative control, per os, each 15 minutes, between 30 and 180 minutes after the irritant inoculation. Histopathological and immunohistochemistry procedures were done in order to get a panel of inflammatory positive cells for CD3 (T lymphocytes, CD45RA (B lymphocytes, CD18 (beta 2 integrin, CD163 (ED2 protein, CD54 (ICAM-1, and MAC 387 (monocytes and macrophages. The statistical treatment of data included a posteriori classification of animals from each group (N=20 in two subgroups presenting spontaneous precocious or late oedema. Animals that presented precocious oedema were less responsible to Arnica montana 6cH in relation to hemodynamic changes. Instead, rats that exhibited late oedema presented less intense oedema (P=.01, lower percentage of mast cell degranulation (P=.0001, and increase in lymphatic vessels diameter (P=.05. The data suggest an individually qualitative adjustment of inflammatory vascular events by Arnica montana 6cH.

  3. Montana Proficiency Events Handbook. FHA HERO: Future Homemakers of America toward New Horizons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGregor, Linda, Ed.; Quickenden, Sandy, Ed.

    This handbook contains directions for FHA/HERO (Future Homemakers of America/Home Economics Related Occupations) participation activities in Montana. Participation activities are local, state, and national level competitions involving students in vocational home economics programs. The handbook provides a general overview of participation…

  4. 76 FR 40237 - Approval and Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... words EPA, we, us or our mean or refer to the United States Environmental Protection Agency. (iii) The... no federal requirement for minor source BACT. To the extent the commenter makes this argument, EPA... Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Montana; Revisions to the Administrative...

  5. Study of volatile oil and lipid content of Jasonia montana (vahl ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The volatile oils, prepared by hydrodistillation from the aerial parts of three patches of Jasonia montana (vahl.) collected in May, August and November were subjected separately to GC/Ms analysis. Camphor, endoborneol, endobornyl acetate, intermedeol, 1, 8-cineole, 1-α-terpineol, and α-pinene, represented the major ...

  6. 76 FR 31579 - Designation for the State of Georgia and State of Montana Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-01

    ... agency Headquarters location and telephone start end Georgia Atlanta, GA (229) 386-3141......... 7/1/2011 6/30/2014. Additional Location: Tifton, GA.... Montana Helena, MT (406) 761-2141 7/1/2011 6/30/2014...

  7. HIV/AIDS among American Indians/Alaska Natives Living in Montana: A Descriptive Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sondag, K. Ann; Strike, Carrie

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the epidemiology of HIV among AI/ANs in Montana. Barriers to HIV testing and motivations to test also were explored. Analysis of data revealed that there were no significant changes in regard to HIV/AIDS case rates, demographic characteristics, or risk behaviors of AI/ANs infected with HIV/AIDS since reporting began in 1985.…

  8. A Descriptive Study of Students with Disabilities at Montana State University Billings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dell, Thomas Francis

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and analyze how the characteristics of age, major and type of disabilities for students who received services through Disability Support Services at Montana State University-Billings have changed from 1999 to 2011. Furthermore, this analysis contrasted local trends for types of disabilities with national…

  9. The Fiscal Impact of Tax-Credit Scholarships in Montana. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlob, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Many states have enacted or are considering proposals to give tax credits for contributions that provide tuition scholarships for students in K-12 schools to attend the private or public schools of their choice. This study seeks to inform the public and policymakers about the implications for Montana if the state were to enact such a program. The…

  10. 78 FR 67392 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ..., (406) 233-2831, [email protected] . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD... variety of planning and management issues associated with public land management in Montana. At these... manager updates, Field Office Resource Management Planning updates, individual council member briefings...

  11. 78 FR 47723 - Notice of Public Meeting, Eastern Montana Resource Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-06

    ..., (406) 233-2831, [email protected] . Persons who use a telecommunications device for the deaf (TDD... variety of planning and management issues associated with public land management in Montana. At these... manager updates, Field Office Resource Management Planning updates, individual council member briefings...

  12. Tobacco Use Prevention Education. K-12 Lesson Plans from the Montana Model Curriculum for Health Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montana State Office of Public Instruction, Helena.

    This publication presents K-12 tobacco use prevention lesson plans for schools in the state of Montana. Lessons for students in grades K-6 include: family connections; body tracing; smokeless tobacco; prenatal development; tobacco look-alikes; tobacco chemicals; analyzing tobacco and alcohol ads; tobacco use and the lungs; and a personal health…

  13. Recent developments: USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1990-01-01

    The development of a National Energy Stategy (NES) for the USA is discussed. On July 26, 1989 President Bush directed of the Secretary of Energy to submit to the President a NES based on the following guidelines: to develop a NES through the year 2030 that could be implemented as son as possible, rather than waiting until the next energy crisis; to formulate the program so that it will create public consensus; build upon market reliance, rather than coercion; and to take a can do approach, capitalizing on US scientific knowledge and common abuse

  14. Preliminary study of uranium favorability of upper cretaceous, paleocene, and lower eocene rocks of the Bighorn Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesse, S.L.; Dunagan, J.F. Jr.

    1978-02-01

    This report presents an evaluation of the uranium favorability of continental sediments of the Upper Cretaceous Lance, Paleocene Polecat Bench, and lower Eocene Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin of Wyoming and Montana, an intermontane structural basin of Laramide age. Previous work dealing with the Bighorn Basin was reviewed, and field investigations were carried out in the spring and summer of 1976. Subsurface data were collected and results of surface and subsurface investigations were evaluated with respect to uranium favorability. Precambrian plutonic and metamorphic rocks and Tertiary tuffaceous rocks in the Bighorn Basin and bordering uplifts are considered insignificant as source rocks, although the Wiggins Formation (White River equivalent) cannot be evaluated as a possible source because of a lack of data. Potential host rocks locally show only limited favorability. Lithology of strata exposed along the western and southern basin margins is more favorable than that of rocks in the central and eastern parts of the basin, but there is little organic material, pyrite, or other reducing agents in these rocks. Strata of the Lance, Polecat Bench, and Willwood Formations in the Bighorn Basin are considered generally unfavorable for sandstone uranium deposits

  15. The internationalisation of prehospital education: a merging of ideologies between Australia and the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, B; Upchurch, J

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this project was to promote internationalisation of prehospital education collaboratively between students and teachers from EMS Education and Training, Montana, USA, and Monash University Centre for Ambulance and Paramedic Studies (MUCAPS), Victoria, Australia. The project required students and teachers to engage in a series of face to face lectures, which was reinforced through distance education strategies, such as online learning. The overall project aim was to establish an objective and descriptive view of the internationalisation of prehospital and community based emergency health education using e-learning as the educational approach. A cross sectional survey design using paper based evaluation was adopted in this project. Results revealed a positive student reaction, with flexible pedagogical processes broadening student learning and facilitating an international dimension otherwise not achievable. Given the current state of globalisation, internationalisation has the capacity to improve educational standards, quality, student interactions and specific learning outcomes in prehospital education.

  16. Factors Influencing Food Choices Among Older Adults in the Rural Western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byker Shanks, Carmen; Haack, Sarah; Tarabochia, Dawn; Bates, Kate; Christenson, Lori

    2017-06-01

    Nutrition is an essential component in promoting health and quality of life into the older adults years. The purpose of this qualitative research is to explore how the rural food environment influences food choices of older adults. Four focus groups were conducted with 33 older adults (50 years of age and older) residing in rural Montana communities. Four major themes related to factors influencing food choices among rural older adults emerged from this study: perception of the rural community environment, support as a means of increasing food access, personal access to food sources, and dietary factors. The findings from this current study warrant further research and promotion of specifically tailored approaches that influence the food choices of older adults in the rural western USA, including the developing and expanding public transportation systems, increasing availability of local grocers with quality and affordable food options, increasing awareness and decreasing stigma surrounding community food programs, and increasing nutrition education targeting senior health issues.

  17. 76 FR 71355 - United States et al. v. Blue Cross and Blue Shield of Montana, Inc. et al.; Proposed Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-17

    ... availability of health insurance at affordable prices can attract businesses and jobs to a state or region, and...) 307-5802. *Attorney of Record. FOR PLAINTIFF STATE OF MONTANA: Steve Bullock, Attorney General of...

  18. Tšarterkool USA-s / Johannes Kiersch

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kiersch, Johannes

    2001-01-01

    24.-27. mainì 01 toimub Tallinnas EFFE 2001 (European Forum of Freedom in Education) konverents "Haridus tänases kodanikuühiskonnas." Konverentsil esineb ka Witteni Waldorf-pedagoogika Instituudi õppejõud Johannes Kiersch. Lähemalt tema artiklist USA-s populaarsust võitvate tsharterkoolide kohta, mis on riigi- ja erakooli vahevorm

  19. Environmental Assessment: BRAC Construction and Operation of Armed Forces Reserve Center at Malmstrom Air Force Base, Great Falls, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    east, and south by agricultural and pasture lands, with mixed commercial, industrial, residential, and open land uses to the west and northwest...southeast corner of the installation. Once the runoff reaches the stables, it disperses over horse pastures and any runoff exiting the installation...Environment Agriculture is the largest industry in Montana. Agricultural products grown in Montana include beef and dairy cattle, wheat and barley, sheep

  20. Developing a Climate Change Boundary Organization: the Montana Adaptation Knowledge Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, C. L.; Brooks, S.; Armstrong, T.; Bryan, B.

    2017-12-01

    States, like Montana, with small populations and large areas, are challenged by a need to offer timely and relevant climate-science information that addresses diverse and widely dispersed stakeholder groups. In Montana, filling the gap between science and practice has motivated the first Montana Climate Assessment (MCA), released September 2017 with a focus on climate impacts on the agriculture, water and forestry sectors. The MCA is an outcome of a science-stakeholder partnership that has identified critical climate-change information and knowledge gaps for the state through listening sessions and questionnaires. From the initial feedback, it became clear that stakeholder groups were deeply concerned about the challenges posed by rising temperatures and wanted to know how recent and projected warming will affect Montana's natural and managed resources. As part of the next phase of the MCA project, we are now creating the Montana Adaptation Knowledge Exchange (MAKE), a "boundary organization" as described by the National Academy of Sciences. MAKE moves beyond information sharing by bringing scientists and practitioners together to seek solutions related to climate-change adaptation and other pressing environmental and socio-economic concerns. Through a collaborative partnership that involves Montana universities, state and federal agencies, businesses and non-governmental organizations, MAKE is designed to communicate current research findings and support revision and expansion of state-of-the-knowledge assessments like the MCA. Stakeholder partners will provide guidance to the science community to help prioritize research directions and activities of high importance. Significant, but often technical, scientific results will be translated and delivered to stakeholder groups through a variety of print, web, and mobile products. MAKE will support an extensive online database, host an online portal, gather a network of experts in respective fields, and maintain a

  1. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  2. TTÜ ja TÜ osalevad USA armee miljoniprojektides

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2016-01-01

    TTÜ ja TÜ liitusid USA-s tegutseva meditsiinitehnoloogia ettevõtete konsortsiumiga. Nii jõuavad juhtivate Eesti kõrgkoolide teadmised USA armeesse, kes konsortsiumi kaudu innovaatilisi tooteid ja teenuseid sisse ostab

  3. Euroopa teadis USA salavanglaist / Tõnis Erilaid

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Erilaid, Tõnis, 1943-

    2005-01-01

    USA endise välisministri Colin Powelli sõnul pole see tema sõpradele Euroopas uudiseks, et USA on viinud vange riikidesse, kus tema seadused ei kehti. USA praeguse välisministri Condoleezza Rice'i sõnul on USA vange üle kuulanud väljaspool USA-d. USA Today kirjeldab Stare Kiejkuty küla Poolas, kus arvatavasti on olnud salavangla

  4. Groundwater arsenic in the Verde Valley in central Arizona, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foust, R.D.; Mohapatra, P.; Compton-O'Brien, A.-M.; Reifel, J.

    2004-01-01

    Forty-one water samples were collected and analyzed from throughout the Verde Valley watershed to identify the source of As in well water used for domestic and agricultural purposes. Each water sample was analyzed for anions, cations and trace chemical constituents by atomic absorption spectroscopy, anion chromatography and traditional wet chemical procedures. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 to 210 μg/l, with the highest values observed for water pooled on tailings from an abandoned Cu mine. Geostatistical analysis of the data revealed the primary source of As to be groundwater in contact with the Supai and Verde formations, as opposed to runoff from the abandoned mine tailings. Montezuma Well, a collapsed travertine spring, contained the highest levels of naturally occurring As (> 100 μg/l). Arsenic in Montezuma Well water was shown to be 100% arsenate. X-ray absorbance near edge spectra (XANES) of Potomogeton illinoiensis, an endemic plant species of Montezuma Well, demonstrate that As is absorbed as arsenate, reduced to arsenite in the plant and retained as an organic glutathione complex. XANES spectra of Montezuma Well sediments show 4 forms of As present: arsenate (∼54%), As(III)-glutathione complex (∼32%) and an As-organic complex (∼14%) containing dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine. This is the first report of As(III)-glutathione in sediments

  5. Groundwater arsenic in the Verde Valley in central Arizona, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foust, R.D.; Mohapatra, P.; Compton-O' Brien, A.-M.; Reifel, J

    2004-02-01

    Forty-one water samples were collected and analyzed from throughout the Verde Valley watershed to identify the source of As in well water used for domestic and agricultural purposes. Each water sample was analyzed for anions, cations and trace chemical constituents by atomic absorption spectroscopy, anion chromatography and traditional wet chemical procedures. Arsenic concentrations ranged from 10 to 210 {mu}g/l, with the highest values observed for water pooled on tailings from an abandoned Cu mine. Geostatistical analysis of the data revealed the primary source of As to be groundwater in contact with the Supai and Verde formations, as opposed to runoff from the abandoned mine tailings. Montezuma Well, a collapsed travertine spring, contained the highest levels of naturally occurring As (> 100 {mu}g/l). Arsenic in Montezuma Well water was shown to be 100% arsenate. X-ray absorbance near edge spectra (XANES) of Potomogeton illinoiensis, an endemic plant species of Montezuma Well, demonstrate that As is absorbed as arsenate, reduced to arsenite in the plant and retained as an organic glutathione complex. XANES spectra of Montezuma Well sediments show 4 forms of As present: arsenate ({approx}54%), As(III)-glutathione complex ({approx}32%) and an As-organic complex ({approx}14%) containing dimethylarsinic acid and arsenobetaine. This is the first report of As(III)-glutathione in sediments.

  6. Zearalenone occurrence in surface waters in Central Illinois, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exposure to environmental estrogens can occur through a variety of routes. Most obvious is through consumption of contaminated foods or minimally processed commodities such as cereal grains. There are also less obvious routes, including through inhalation, from drinking water, and from secondary or ...

  7. Montana Rivers Information System : Edit/Entry Program User's Manual.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural, and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases and comprises of the Montana Interagency Stream Fisheries Database; the MDFWP Recreation Database; and the MDFWP Wildlife Geographic Information System. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and to provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  8. Future USA development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephen, J.D.; Biancheria, A.; Leibnitz, D.; O'Reilly, B.D.; Liu, Y.Y.; Labar, M.P.; Gneiting, B.C.

    1979-01-01

    The planning for further development in the USA at this time is a mixture of expectation and guessing. Modeling development is certain to continue, but the target reactor is uncertain. The next plant may or may not use the FFTR driver fuel design. The planning, therefore, emphasizes fundamentals and flexibility. There are many options to be modeled. The FFTF driver fuel performance in FFTF must be evaluated; both the reference and improved designs. A decision to use the FFTR driver design in the large plant will demand predictions on the effects of axial blankets, constant power (rather than decreasing) throughout life, and power changes, behavior beyond breach and design basis transients in large plants. A decision favoring a lower doubling time oxide design adds the effects of higher strength/lower swelling alloys, increased pin diameter, reduced cladding thickness/diameter, increased smeared density, gap versus pellet density, and reduced pin pitch/diameter. A helium bonded carbide design adds concern about increased potential for fuel-cladding-assembly mechanical interactions. And blanket pin performance predictions, either in a homogeneous or a heterogeneous core, add an increasing power history and enhanced assembly interactions. It is possible that the decision will be to choose a first core and retain all options for later cores. The modeling objective, for whatever options are chosen, is to predict the effect of normal and off-normal design conditions on performance limits (i.e., fuel temperature, pin deformation, pin lifetime). Several significant uncertainties in the mechanisms associated with the performance limits remain and will be addressed. These include gap closure, gap conductance and fuel properties at higher burnup, fuel-fission product reactions, retained gas, breach mechanisms, assembly interactions and behavior beyond breach, plus establishing appropriate criteria. The LIFE system, with its elements of 1D and 2D fundamental modeling

  9. Serpentinization and alteration in an olivine cumulate from the Stillwater Complex, Southwestern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, N.J.

    1976-01-01

    Some of the olivine cumulates of the Ultramafic zone of the Stillwater Complex, Montana, are progressively altered to serpentine minerals and thompsonite. Lizardite and chrysotile developed in the cumulus olivine and postcumulus pyroxenes; thompsonite developed in postcumulus plagioclase. The detailed mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry indicate that olivine and plagioclase react to form the alteration products, except for H2O, without changes in the bulk composition of the rocks. ?? 1976 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Inducing Cold-Sensitivity in the Frigophilic Fly Drosophila montana by RNAi.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe M Vigoder

    Full Text Available Cold acclimation is a critical physiological adaptation for coping with seasonal cold. By increasing their cold tolerance individuals can remain active for longer at the onset of winter and can recover more quickly from a cold shock. In insects, despite many physiological studies, little is known about the genetic basis of cold acclimation. Recently, transcriptomic analyses in Drosophila virilis and D. montana revealed candidate genes for cold acclimation by identifying genes upregulated during exposure to cold. Here, we test the role of myo-inositol-1-phosphate synthase (Inos, in cold tolerance in D. montana using an RNAi approach. D. montana has a circumpolar distribution and overwinters as an adult in northern latitudes with extreme cold. We assessed cold tolerance of dsRNA knock-down flies using two metrics: chill-coma recovery time (CCRT and mortality rate after cold acclimation. Injection of dsRNAInos did not alter CCRT, either overall or in interaction with the cold treatment, however it did induced cold-specific mortality, with high levels of mortality observed in injected flies acclimated at 5°C but not at 19°C. Overall, injection with dsRNAInos induced a temperature-sensitive mortality rate of over 60% in this normally cold-tolerant species. qPCR analysis confirmed that dsRNA injection successfully reduced gene expression of Inos. Thus, our results demonstrate the involvement of Inos in increasing cold tolerance in D. montana. The potential mechanisms involved by which Inos increases cold tolerance are also discussed.

  11. Pepeljajev eesti näitlejatega USA-s

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2008-01-01

    Sasha Pepeljajevi tantsulavastust "Uksed" etendati USA rahvusvahelisel teatrifestivalil "Arts & Ideas". Vene-Eesti trupi Apparatus lavastus on pühendatud Daniil Harmsi 100. sünniaastapäevale ning põhineb tema töödel

  12. Alleloppathic effects and insecticidal activity of the aqueous extract of Satureja montana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šućur Jovana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Extensive use of synthetic insecticides, herbicides and other pesticides has negative effects on the environment and on human and animal health. Therefore scientists are turning towards natural pesticides such as active components of plant extracts. Effect of two concentrations (0.1% and 0.2% of Satureja montana L. aqueous extract on lipid peroxidation process, as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes (SOD, GPX, PPX and CAT in leaves and roots of pepper and black nightshade seedlings were examined 24, 72 and 120h after the treatment. Our results showed that higher concentration of S. montana aqueous extract induced lipid peroxidation in black nightshade roots. Furthermore, significant increases of pyrogallol and guaiacol peroxidase were detected in black nightshade leaves treated with 0.2% S. montana aqueous extract. The second aim was to evaluate effectiveness of aqueous extract as contact toxicant against whitefly. It was observed that aqueous extract with concentration of 0.2% showed toxic effect with 68.33% mortality after 96h.

  13. USA coal producer perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porco, J. [Alpha Natural Resources, Latrobe, PA (US). Alpha Energy Global Marketing

    2004-07-01

    The focus is on the Central Appalachian coal industry. Alpha Natural Resources was formed in 2002 from Pittston Coal's Virginia and Coastal operations. AMCI's U.S. operations and Mears Enterprises in Pennsylvania were acquired later. The company produces 20-21 million tonnes per year and sells 20 million tonnes of steam coal and 10 million tonnes of exports, including some coal that is brokered. Foundry coke is a major product. Capital investment has resulted in increased productivity. Central Appalachia is expected to continue as a significant coal-producing region for supplying metallurgical coke. Production is expected to stabilize, but not increase; so the mines will have a longer life. 31 slides/overheads are included.

  14. Orlando, FL, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    This color infrared photo of the Orlando, FL area (28.5N,81.5W) shows the extensive citrus tree orchards as neat bright red field patterns. The extensive road and highway network in the central Florida region is clearly visible. Also, the recent urban growth caused by the opening of the Disney World amusement complex just southwest of Orlando is clearly evident. This view spans the width of the state from Tampa Bay to the Atlantic coast.

  15. Nordkorea kan endelig ramme USA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Peter Viggo

    2017-01-01

    Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads.......Nordkoreas evne til at nå USA baner vej for en forhandlet løsning, fordi præsident Trump ikke har andre alternativer. Krig vil koste over en million døde, og Kina er imod effektive sanktioner. Det nødvendige pres for at få USA til forhandlingsbordet er nu på plads....

  16. Peak-flow frequency analyses and results based on data through water year 2011 for selected streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana: Chapter C in Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Steven K.; McCarthy, Peter M.; Dutton, DeAnn M.

    2016-04-05

    Chapter C of this Scientific Investigations Report documents results from a study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Montana Department of Transportation and the Montana Department of Natural Resources, to provide an update of statewide peak-flow frequency analyses and results for Montana. The purpose of this report chapter is to present peak-flow frequency analyses and results for 725 streamflow-gaging stations in or near Montana based on data through water year 2011. The 725 streamflow-gaging stations included in this study represent nearly all streamflowgaging stations in Montana (plus some from adjacent states or Canadian Provinces) that have at least 10 years of peak-flow records through water year 2011. For 29 of the 725 streamflow-gaging stations, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for both unregulated and regulated conditions. Thus, peak-flow frequency analyses and results are reported for a total of 754 analyses. Estimates of peak-flow magnitudes for 66.7-, 50-, 42.9-, 20-, 10-, 4-, 2-, 1-, 0.5-, and 0.2-percent annual exceedance probabilities are reported. These annual exceedance probabilities correspond to 1.5-, 2-, 2.33-, 5-, 10-, 25-, 50-, 100-, 200-, and 500-year recurrence intervals.

  17. FrogwatchUSA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Droege, S.

    2002-01-01

    full text: Frogs and toads are perhaps the most approachable and available of all our wildlife. In many, if not most places, they are abundant. In wetter parts of the East, almost anyone outside on a warm rainy night in spring will hear their dream-like calls, bellows, trills and snores. Even in the deserts of the Southwest, a nocturnal trip after a summer monsoon will yield toads moving across the roads toward a cacophonous orgy of mating and calling in the roadside ditches and desert pools. Birds share with frogs and toads this same sense of presence in our daily lives. But the difference is that birds are like the attractive neighbor who just never gives you the time of day, while frogs are more like the troglodyte who appears regularly to chat, philosophize, and have a beer. Uninvited, frogs appear in our water gardens, toads are on our stoops in the morning, we catch them when we are kids, raise their babies in the aquarium, and feel sorry when we find we have run them over with the lawnmower. When concerns about declining populations of amphibians reached the mass media, the Secretaries' office became involved. In addition to using traditional research mechanisms to investigate the problem, the Secretary also wanted to involve the public directly. The combination of high public appeal and the relative ease with which frog calls can be learned made a large-scale monitoring program for frogs and toads possible. What emerged was a program called Frogwatch USA, modeled after a successful Canadian program with a similar name. A web site was created (www.frogwatch.org) that presented potential frogwatchers with directions and a way to register their site online as well as enter their data. Observers chose where to count frogs depending on what they felt was important. For some it was their backyard, others chose vulnerable wetlands in their neighborhoods, or spots on local refuges and parks. Initially funded at $8,000 a year and then after two years increased to

  18. USA pelgab Hiina tehnoloogialuuret / Tõnis Arnover

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Arnover, Tõnis, 1952-

    2005-01-01

    Hiina Ameerika-vastasest majandusluurest. USA luureameti andmetel on USA-s loodud üle kolme tuhande Hiina firma, kelle ülesandeks on tööstusliku või sõjalise tehnoloogia hankimine. Vt. samas: Hiina firmad ostavad üha suuremaid USA ettevõtteid

  19. Assessment of coal geology, resources, and reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.; Pierce, Paul E.; Gunderson, Jay A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize geology, coal resources, and coal reserves in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area in southeastern Montana. This report represents the fourth assessment area within the Powder River Basin to be evaluated in the continuing U.S. Geological Survey regional coal assessment program. There are four active coal mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area: the Spring Creek and Decker Mines, both near Decker; the Rosebud Mine, near Colstrip; and the Absaloka Mine, west of Colstrip. During 2011, coal production from these four mines totaled approximately 36 million short tons. A fifth mine, the Big Sky, had significant production from 1969-2003; however, it is no longer in production and has since been reclaimed. Total coal production from all five mines in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area from 1968 to 2011 was approximately 1.4 billion short tons. The Rosebud/Knobloch coal bed near Colstrip and the Anderson, Dietz 2, and Dietz 3 coal beds near Decker contain the largest deposits of surface minable, low-sulfur, subbituminous coal currently being mined in the assessment area. A total of 26 coal beds were identified during this assessment, 18 of which were modeled and evaluated to determine in-place coal resources. The total original coal resource in the Montana Powder River Basin assessment area for the 18 coal beds assessed was calculated to be 215 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource remaining after subtracting restrictions and areas of burned coal, are about 162 billion short tons. Restrictions included railroads, Federal interstate highways, urban areas, alluvial valley floors, state parks, national forests, and mined-out areas. It was determined that 10 of the 18 coal beds had sufficient areal extent and thickness to be evaluated for recoverable surface resources ([Roland (Baker), Smith, Anderson, Dietz 2, Dietz 3, Canyon, Werner

  20. Metallogeny of Mesoproterozoic Sedimentary Rocks in Idaho and Montana - Studies by the Mineral Resources Program, U.S. Geological Survey, 2004-2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, J. Michael

    2007-01-01

    Preface By J.Michael O'Neill The major emphasis of this project was to extend and refine the known Mesoproterozoic geologic and metallogenic framework of the region along and adjacent to the Idaho-Montana boundary north of the Snake River Plain. The Mesoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in this part of east-central Idaho host important Cu-Co-Au stratabound mineral resources as well as younger, epigenetic hydrothermal, sulfide base-metal mineral deposits. Two tasks of this study were to more accurately understand and portray the character and origin of cobalt-copper-gold deposits that compose the Idaho cobalt belt and specifically to analyze ore mineralogy and metallogenesis within the Blackbird mining district in the central part of the belt. Inasmuch as the cobalt belt is confined to the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Group strata of east-central Idaho, geologic investigations were also undertaken to determine the relationship between strata of the Lemhi Group and the more extensive, noncobalt-bearing, Belt-Purcell Supergroup strata to the north and northwest. Abrupt lateral differences in the character and thickness of stratigraphic units in the Mesoproterozoic Lemhi Basin may indicate differential sedimentation in contemporaneous fault-bounded subbasins. It is suggested that northeast-trending basement faults of the Great Falls tectonic zone controlled development of the subbasins. O'Neill and others (chapter A, this volume) document a second major basement fault in this area, the newly recognized northwest-striking Great Divide megashear, a zone 1-2 km wide of left-lateral strike-slip faults active during Mesoproterozoic sedimentation and bounding the Cu-Co belt on the northwest. The megashear is a crustal-scale tectonic feature that separates Lemhi Group strata from roughly coeval Belt-Purcell strata to the north and northwest in Montana and northern Idaho. The results of numerous geologic investigations of the Cu- and Co-bearing Mesoproterozoic rocks of east-central

  1. Problem of spent fuel storage from commercial nuclear reactors in USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    1996-01-01

    The problem on spent fuel storage in the USA is considered. According to the law and agreement, concluded with electrical companies, the USA should begin to receive the spent fuel from commercial reactors in 1998, however they are not ready for it. The consortium for constructing a centralized storage, financed from private sources for its temporary disposition is established recently. The spent fuel receipt is planned for 2002

  2. National uranium resource evaluation: Sheridan Quadrangle, Wyoming and Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damp, J.N.; Jennings, M.D.

    1982-04-01

    The Sheridan Quadrangle of north-central Wyoming was evaluated for uranium favorability according to specific criteria of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Procedures consisted of geologic and radiometric surveys; rock, water, and sediment sampling; studying well logs; and reviewing the literature. Five favorable environments were identified. These include portions of Eocene Wasatch and Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Powder River Basin and Lower Cretaceous Pryor sandstones of the Bighorn Basin. Unfavorable environments include all Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian, Triassic, and Middle Jurassic rocks; the Cretaceous Thermopolis, Mowry, Cody, Meeteetse, and Bearpaw Formations; the Upper Jurassic Sundance and Morrison, the Cretaceous Frontier, Meseverde, Lance, and the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Willwood Formations of the Bighorn Basin; the Wasatch Formation of the Powder River Basin, excluding two favorable areas and all Oligocene and Miocene rocks. Remaining rocks are unevaluated

  3. National uranium resource evaluation: Sheridan Quadrangle, Wyoming and Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damp, J N; Jennings, M D

    1982-04-01

    The Sheridan Quadrangle of north-central Wyoming was evaluated for uranium favorability according to specific criteria of the National Uranium Resource Evaluation program. Procedures consisted of geologic and radiometric surveys; rock, water, and sediment sampling; studying well logs; and reviewing the literature. Five favorable environments were identified. These include portions of Eocene Wasatch and Upper Cretaceous Lance sandstones of the Powder River Basin and Lower Cretaceous Pryor sandstones of the Bighorn Basin. Unfavorable environments include all Precambrian, Cambrian, Ordovician, Permian, Triassic, and Middle Jurassic rocks; the Cretaceous Thermopolis, Mowry, Cody, Meeteetse, and Bearpaw Formations; the Upper Jurassic Sundance and Morrison, the Cretaceous Frontier, Meseverde, Lance, and the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Willwood Formations of the Bighorn Basin; the Wasatch Formation of the Powder River Basin, excluding two favorable areas and all Oligocene and Miocene rocks. Remaining rocks are unevaluated.

  4. Electricity Generation from Geothermal Resources on the Fort Peck Reservation in Northeast Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, Garry J. [Gradient Geophysics Inc., Missoula, MT (United States); Birkby, Jeff [Birkby Consulting LLC, Missoula, MT (United States)

    2015-05-12

    Tribal lands owned by Assiniboine and Sioux Tribes on the Fort Peck Indian Reservation, located in Northeastern Montana, overlie large volumes of deep, hot, saline water. Our study area included all the Fort Peck Reservation occupying roughly 1,456 sq miles. The geothermal water present in the Fort Peck Reservation is located in the western part of the Williston Basin in the Madison Group complex ranging in depths of 5500 to 7500 feet. Although no surface hot springs exist on the Reservation, water temperatures within oil wells that intercept these geothermal resources in the Madison Formation range from 150 to 278 degrees F.

  5. The complete mitochondrial genome sequence of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes vulpes montana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Zhang, Honghai; Zhao, Chao; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai; Liu, Guangshuai

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the complete mitochondrial genome of the Tibetan red fox (Vulpes Vulpes montana) was sequenced for the first time using blood samples obtained from a wild female red fox captured from Lhasa in Tibet, China. Qinghai--Tibet Plateau is the highest plateau in the world with an average elevation above 3500 m. Sequence analysis showed it contains 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region (CR). The variable tandem repeats in CR is the main reason of the length variability of mitochondrial genome among canide animals.

  6. Engaging Montana high school students in optical sciences with a polarization photo contest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauc, Martin Jan; Boger, James K.; Hohne, Andrew; Dahl, Laura M.; Nugent, Paul W.; Riesland, David W.; Moon, Benjamin; Baumbauer, Carol L.; Boese, Orrin; Shaw, Joseph A.; Nakagawa, Wataru

    2017-08-01

    Getting students interested in science, specifically in optics and photonics, is a worthwhile challenge. We developed and implemented an outreach campaign that sought to engage high school students in the science of polarized light. We traveled to Montana high schools and presented on the physics of light, the ways that it becomes polarized, how polarization is useful, and how to take pictures with linear polarizers to see polarization. Students took pictures that showed polarization in either a natural setting or a contrived scene. We visited 13 high schools, and presented live to approximately 450 students.

  7. Environmental Impact Statement. Small Intercontinental Ballistic Missile Program. Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Homestead Cordova Grain Elevator Dinkes Farmstead Bremmer Farmstead Alzheimer Farmstead H. Schwert Homestead Notes: 1National Historic Landmark...Butte. Earth Satellite Corporation 1974a Geopic: Earth Resources Observations Systems, MSS 5 Scene 10806-17235 N46-01 W108-47 P040 R28. Landsat 4...coverage: scale 1:500,000. Billings, Montana. 1974b Geopic: Earth Resources Observation Systems, MSS 5 Scene 10790-17352 N47-19 W111-06 P042 R27. Landsat 4

  8. The Montana Rivers Information System: Edit/entry program user`s manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-07-01

    The Montana Rivers Information System (MRIS) was initiated to assess the state`s fish, wildlife, and recreation value; and natural cultural and geologic features. The MRIS is now a set of data bases containing part of the information in the Natural Heritage Program natural features and threatened and endangered species data bases. The purpose of this User`s Manual is to: (1) describe to the user how to maintain the MRIS database of their choice by updating, changing, deleting, and adding records using the edit/entry programs; and (2) provide to the user all information and instructions necessary to complete data entry into the MRIS databases.

  9. The genome of a Late Pleistocene human from a Clovis burial site in western Montana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Morten; Anzick, Sarah L.; Waters, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    Montana. The human bones date to 10,705 ± 35 (14)C years bp (approximately 12,707-12,556 calendar years bp) and were directly associated with Clovis tools. We sequenced the genome to an average depth of 14.4× and show that the gene flow from the Siberian Upper Palaeolithic Mal'ta population into Native...... directly related to contemporary Native Americans. An alternative, Solutrean, hypothesis posits that the Clovis predecessors emigrated from southwestern Europe during the Last Glacial Maximum. Here we report the genome sequence of a male infant (Anzick-1) recovered from the Anzick burial site in western...

  10. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics. DØ Collaboration at FNAL, USA. Articles written in Pramana – Journal of Physics. Volume 62 Issue 3 March 2004 pp 561-563 Experimental Particle Physics. Search for narrow-width t t ¯ resonances in p p ¯ collisons at ( s ) = 1.8 TeV · Supriya Jain DØ Collaboration at FNAL, ...

  11. Dyslexia Laws in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youman, Martha; Mather, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    Throughout the various states of the USA, the appropriate identification of dyslexia and the timely provision of interventions are characterized by variability and inconsistency. Several states have recognized the existence of this disorder and the well-established need for services. These states have taken proactive steps to implement laws and…

  12. USA panustab keskkonda / Jeffrey Goldstein

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Jeffrey

    2007-01-01

    USA uus energiapoliitika kava näeb ette bensiini tarbimise vähendamist järgneva 10 aasta jooksul 20%, mis omakorda vähendab ameeriklaste autodest eralduva süsihappegaasi heitmete kasvu ning vähendab sõltuvust naftast

  13. USA asekaitseminister seisab Eesti eest

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eestis visiidil viibiv USA asekaitseminister poliitika alal Michele Flournoy ütles, et pooldab koostöökohtade otsimist Moskvaga, kuid on kindlal seisukohal, et Venemaa ei tohi end siin piirkonnas kehtestada. Flournoy tunnustas Eesti panust Afganistani ning samuti liitlassuhetesse laiemalt

  14. Avian metapneumovirus in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the United States of America (USA), avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes an upper respiratory tract infection in turkeys; no outbreaks have been reported in commercial chicken flocks. Typical clinical signs of the disease in turkey poults include coughing, sneezing, nasal discharge, tracheal rale...

  15. Eesti ja USA sõlmisid kokkuleppe

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Kaitseminister Margus Tsahkna ja Ameerika Ühendriikide suursaadik Eestis James Melville allkirjastasid Eesti ja USA kaitsekoostöö kokkuleppe, mis hakkab reguleerima Eestis viibivate USA relvajõudude liikmete, nende pereliikmete ja lepinglaste õiguslikku staatust

  16. The ammonoids from the Three Forks Shale (Late Devonian of Montana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Korn

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available The ammonoid fauna from the Late Devonian Three Forks Shale of Montana is revised. Six taxa were recognised, which belong to the genera Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia, and Carinoclymenia. The ammonoid assemblage suggests a stratigraphic position within the middle Famennian, most probably the Platyclymenia annulata Zone. The ammonoids display extreme septal crowding in intermediate as well as adult growth stages, which can be regarded as evidence for instable palaeoecological conditions during lifetime of the animals. Die Ammonoideenfauna aus dem oberdevonischen Three Forks Shale von Montana wird revidiert. Sechs Taxa werden unterschieden; sie gehören zu den Gattungen Tornoceras, Pernoceras, Raymondiceras, Platyclymenia, Pleuroclymenia und Carinoclymenia. Die Ammonoideen-Vergesellschaftung spricht für eine stratigraphische Position im mittleren Famennium, wahrscheinlich in der Platyclymenia annulata Zone. Die Ammonoideen zeigen auffällige Drängung der Septen in intermediären und adulten Wachstumsstadien, die als Hinweis auf instabile Lebensbedingungen für die Tiere gewertet werden kann. doi:10.1002/mmng.200600008

  17. MEDIATION - THE ONLY VIABLE SOLUTION TO RESOLVE THE CONFLICT IN ROSIA MONTANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DRAGOS MARIAN RADULESCU

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In modern society, located in a continually growing population, one of the main problems is related to the exploitation of natural resources, a source of richness limited and usually non-renewable. That is the exploitation of Rosia Montana, where an old gold mine continues to produce interest for what might be called "gold fever" in Romania. But, unlike the ancient and medieval times, where such operations were encouraged as a development factor, today environmental protection and sustainable development theory says that such mining destroys the nature and the community are serious demage, even if part of the local community wants to work, further mining, considering it a way of life and a reliable source of income. Thus we have two opposing positions camps: those who want to protect nature and those who want to exploit it, and in such a dilemma can not get out only with mediation Mediation is the only one who can bring the same opponents at the negotiation table, in the presence of specialized environments, and fully impartial stranger to conflict, to find a common solution to resolve the conflict, thus brains "peace" sustainable, that can be subsequently implemented. This study aims to review the advantages and the role that mediation can bring it into such a sensitive issue, as the Rosia Montana

  18. Behavior of piles and indolbutyric or homeopathic prepared acid Arnica montana spread of false-erica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcieli Aparecida Cassol

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The market for flowers and ornamental plants is growing. Since the false-érica (Cuphea gracilis is a plant with many uses in the landscape, adapting to partial shade or full sun can be used for ground covers or chromatic combinations with other plants. Usually, the false-erica is propagated by seeds or by cuttings. The objective of this study was to evaluate the size of stakes and the concentration of IBA (indole butyric acid and prepared homeopathic base of Arnica montana in rooting false-erica stakes. The collection of cuttings was carried out in arrays plants grown in gardens in standard sizes 6 and 12 cm in length, and were treated with IBA at concentrations of 0; 1.000 and 2.000 mg L-1 in addition to the homeopathic preparation A. montana 12 CH. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized design in a 2x4 factorial [length x stake stimulant treatment], with 4 replications of 10 cuttings per plot. After 45 days, they were evaluated percentage of rooted and dead cuttings, root length (cm, number of shoots and number of leaves. The concentrations of AIB, and the application of homeopathy stimulated the adventitious rooting processes of this kind.

  19. Integrated approach of environmental impact and risk assessment of Rosia Montana Mining Area, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefănescu, Lucrina; Robu, Brînduşa Mihaela; Ozunu, Alexandru

    2013-11-01

    The environmental impact assessment of mining sites represents nowadays a large interest topic in Romania. Historical pollution in the Rosia Montana mining area of Romania caused extensive damage to environmental media. This paper has two goals: to investigate the environmental pollution induced by mining activities in the Rosia Montana area and to quantify the environmental impacts and associated risks by means of an integrated approach. Thus, a new method was developed and applied for quantifying the impact of mining activities, taking account of the quality of environmental media in the mining area, and used as case study in the present paper. The associated risks are a function of the environmental impacts and the probability of their occurrence. The results show that the environmental impacts and quantified risks, based on quality indicators to characterize the environmental quality, are of a higher order, and thus measures for pollution remediation and control need to be considered in the investigated area. The conclusion drawn is that an integrated approach for the assessment of environmental impact and associated risks is a valuable and more objective method, and is an important tool that can be applied in the decision-making process for national authorities in the prioritization of emergency action.

  20. A Demonstration System for Capturing Geothermal Energy from Mine Waters beneath Butte, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackketter, Donald [Montana Tech of the Univ. of Montana, Butte, MT (United States)

    2015-06-01

    Executive Summary An innovative 50-ton ground-source heat pump (GSHP) system was installed to provide space heating and cooling for a 56,000 square foot (5,200 square meter) building in Butte Montana, in conjunction with its heating and chiller systems. Butte is a location with winter conditions much colder than the national average. The GSHP uses flooded mine waters at 78F (25C) as the heat source and heat sink. The heat transfer performance and efficiency of the system were analyzed using data from January through July 2014. This analysis indicated that for typical winter conditions in Butte, Montana, the GSHP could deliver about 88% of the building’s annual heating needs. Compared with a baseline natural-gas/electric system, the system demonstrated at least 69% site energy savings, 38% source energy savings, 39% carbon dioxide emissions reduction, and a savings of $17,000 per year (40%) in utility costs. Assuming a $10,000 per ton cost for installing a production system, the payback period at natural gas costs of $9.63/MMBtu and electricity costs of $0.08/kWh would be in the range of 40 to 50 years. At higher utility prices, or lower installation costs, the payback period would obviously be reduced.

  1. Analysis of superconducting magnetic energy storage applications at a proposed wind farm site near Browning, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaustad, K. L.; Desteese, J. G.

    1993-07-01

    A computer program was developed to analyze the viability of integrating superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) with proposed wind farm scenarios at a site near Browning, Montana. The program simulated an hour-by-hour account of the charge/discharge history of a SMES unit for a representative wind-speed year. Effects of power output, storage capacity, and power conditioning capability on SMES performance characteristics were analyzed on a seasonal, diurnal, and hourly basis. The SMES unit was assumed to be charged during periods when power output of the wind resource exceeded its average value. Energy was discharged from the SMES unit into the grid during periods of low wind speed to compensate for below-average output of the wind resource. The option of using SMES to provide power continuity for a wind farm supplemented by combustion turbines was also investigated. Levelizing the annual output of large wind energy systems operating in the Blackfeet area of Montana was found to require a storage capacity too large to be economically viable. However, it appears that intermediate-sized SMES economically levelize the wind energy output on a seasonal basis.

  2. Geospatial data for coal beds in the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinney, Scott A.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide geospatial data for various layers and themes in a Geographic Information System (GIS) format for the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. In 2015, as part of the U.S. Coal Resources and Reserves Assessment Project, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) completed an assessment of coal resources and reserves within the Powder River Basin, Wyoming and Montana. This report is supplemental to USGS Professional Paper 1809 and contains GIS data that can be used to view digital layers or themes, including the Tertiary limit of the Powder River Basin boundary, locations of drill holes, clinker, mined coal, land use and technical restrictions, geology, mineral estate ownership, coal thickness, depth to the top of the coal bed (overburden), and coal reliability categories. Larger scale maps may be viewed using the GIS data provided in this report supplemental to the page-size maps provided in USGS Professional Paper 1809. Additionally, these GIS data can be exported to other digital applications as needed by the user. The database used for this report contains a total of 29,928 drill holes, of which 21,393 are in the public domain. The public domain database is linked to the geodatabase in this report so that the user can access the drill-hole data through GIS applications. Results of this report are available at the USGS Energy Resources Program Web site,http://energy.usgs.gov/RegionalStudies/PowderRiverBasin.aspx.

  3. A Brief History of Language and Cultural Specialists in the State of Montana--Class 7 Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlebear, Richard E.

    2017-01-01

    In 1995, the Montana Office of Public Instruction supported the Class 7 Indian language and culture specialist license to allow experts in Indigenous languages/cultures identified and certified by their respective tribal nations, to teach in K-12 public schools. This article uses the example of a Class 7 certification process on the Northern…

  4. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). IV. Montana and Idaho near the Continental Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerald Rehfeldt

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-seven seedling populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) sampled from near the Continental Divide in Idaho and Montana exhibited pronounced genetic differences when compared in three common environments. Differentiation involved several traits that are components of an annual developmental cycle that must be completed within a growing...

  5. Montana Cook Fresh Workshop Pilot: A K-12 School Nutrition Professional Training to Incorporate Whole Foods in School Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Lacy; Shanks, Carmen Byker; Roth, Aubree; Bark, Katie

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: To meet new school meal guidelines, create meals that appeal to students, and promote positive food choices and health status among students, school nutrition programs are increasingly moving towards scratch cooking. This pilot research aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the Montana Cook Fresh Workshop, a culinary skills class…

  6. Duff mound consumption and cambium injury for centuries-old western larch from prescribed burning in western Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Harrington

    2012-01-01

    Western larch is one of the most fire-adapted conifers in western North America. Its historical perpetuation depended upon regular fire disturbances, which creates open stand conditions and mineral seedbeds. A stand of 200- to 500-year-old larch in western Montana with deep duff mounds resulting from an unusually long 150-year fire-free period was mechanically thinned...

  7. Community Strategic Visioning as a Method to Define and Address Poverty: An Analysis from Select Rural Montana Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lachapelle, Paul; Austin, Eric; Clark, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Community strategic visioning is a citizen-based planning process in which diverse sectors of a community collectively determine a future state and coordinate a plan of action. Twenty-one communities in rural Montana participated in a multi-phase poverty reduction program that culminated in a community strategic vision process. Research on this…

  8. Proceedings of the National Silviculture Workshop: Silvicultural Examination, Prescription, and Related Activities; Missoula, Montana; September 26-28, 1978

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman E. Gould; Don Potter; Ray Johnston; Jim Loton; Donald Pierce; Ronald C. Hamilton; George E. Gruell; Victor DeKalb; Dav Wright; Bill Beaufait; Dan Schroeder; Bob Blomquist; John C. Tappeiner; Carl Puuri; Dav Terry; R. E. Stewart; Walter H. Knapp

    1978-01-01

    The 1978 Silviculture Workshop was held in Missoula, Montana, September 26-28, 1978. The objective of the meeting was to discuss Silvicultural prescriptions, standards of certification for silviculturists, certification of planting and thinning projects, and other related items of interest. These proceedings includes the presentations that were available for...

  9. Thinning and prescribed fire and projected trends in wood product potential, financial return, and fire hazard in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. James Barbour; Roger D. Fight; Glenn A. Christensen; Guy L. Pinjuv; Rao V. Nagubadi

    2004-01-01

    This work was undertaken under a joint fire science project "Assessing the need, costs, and potential benefits of prescribed fire and mechanical treatments to reduce fire hazard." This paper compares the future mix of timber products under two treatment scenarios for the state of Montana. We developed and demonstrated an analytical method that uses readily...

  10. Compositional analysis of the leaf oils of Piper callosum Ruiz & Pav. from Peru and Michelia montana Blume from India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Genderen, van M.H.P.; Leclercq, P.A.; Delgado, H.S.; Kanjilal, P.B.; Singh, R.S.

    1999-01-01

    The leaf oils of Piper callosum from Peruvian Amazon and Michelia montana from Assam, India, were prepared by hydrodistillation and analyzed by a combination of GC and GC/MS. Twenty five and thirty components have been identified, representing 96.3 and 100.0% of the respective oils. The major

  11. From Threshers to Thrashers: In Montana, 4-H Takes a Modern Spin To Engage "Blue-Ribbon Kids."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linik, Joyce Riha

    2002-01-01

    A 4-H skateboard club in Bozeman, Montana offers kids community service and educational opportunities as well as something to do after school. Adult and college-student volunteers teach a skateboarding curriculum and help kids fix boards and design ramps. Club members have learned public speaking, fundraising, city planning, and civic involvement…

  12. Channel water balance and exchange with subsurface flow along a mountain headwater stream in Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.A. Payn; M.N. Gooseff; B.L. McGlynn; K.E. Bencala; S.M. Wondzell

    2009-01-01

    Channel water balances of contiguous reaches along streams represent a poorly understood scale of stream-subsurface interaction. We measured reach water balances along a headwater stream in Montana, United States, during summer base flow recessions. Reach water balances were estimated from series of tracer tests in 13 consecutive reaches delineated evenly along a 2.6-...

  13. Using H. Stephen Glenn's Developing Capable People Program with Adults in Montana: How Effective Is the Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astroth, Kirk A.; Lorbeer, Scott

    1998-01-01

    Pre/posttest scores of 30 participants in H. Stephen Glenn's Developing Capable People (DCP) program offered by Montana Extension showed that DCP effectively increased the use of positive behaviors and decreased negative behaviors in adults interacting with youth. These changes were sustained over 18 months after program completion. (SK)

  14. Comparing resource values at risk from wildfires with Forest Service fire suppression expenditures: Examples from 2003 western Montana wildfire season

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Calkin; Kevin Hyde; Krista Gebert; Greg Jones

    2005-01-01

    Determining the economic effectiveness of wildfire suppression activities is complicated by difficulties in identifying the area that would have burned and the associated resource value changes had suppression resources not been employed. We developed a case study using break-even analysis for two large wildfires from the 2003 fire season in western Montana -- the...

  15. How to Defuse Censorship: Implementing 404.2 of the Standards for Accreditation of Montana Schools, 4th Ed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtold, Brian; And Others

    To help defuse censorship efforts, this booklet identifies issues and strategies for handling censorship efforts and provides the instructional materials selection policies of two Montana school districts. The booklet also includes sample forms for a citizen requesting reconsideration of materials and for a school media committee's reconsideration…

  16. 76 FR 77008 - Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLMT930000-12-L18200000-XX0000] Notice of Administrative Boundary Change for Bureau of Land Management Offices in Montana To Eliminate the County Split of... Office The Bureau of Land Management, Butte Field Office administrative boundary now encompasses all of...

  17. Five Board Games for the Language Classroom: Uvas, Montana Rusa, El Futbol, La Corrida de Verbos, Paso a Paso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Barbara

    A collection of five board games for the Spanish language classroom contains gameboards, game markers, and directions for each game. It also contains general instructions for the teacher about the classroom use of board games. The games include: "Uvas," for use in vocabulary development and cultural awareness; "Montana Rusa," for general…

  18. USA suursaadikuga Tallinna lahel / Katrin Kruss

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kruss, Katrin

    2007-01-01

    USA suursaadik Stanley Davis Phillips oma haridusteest, perekonnast, armastusest mere vastu, panusest isa Earl Phillipsi mööbliäri laiendamisse, golfiharrastusest, suursaadikute ettevalmistusest USA-s, suursaadiku residentsist Pirital ning uue saatkonnahoone otsingutest Tallinnas. Lisa: Stanley Davis Phillips

  19. USA andis Gruusiale vastakaid signaale / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2008-01-01

    USA välisministri Condoleezza Riceþi saabumisest Thbilisisse, et avaldada Gruusiale toetust. USA poolt antud soovitustest Gruusia president Mihhail Saakashvilile mitte jõudu kasutada ega alluda Venemaa provokatsioonidele ning hoiatustest sõjalise konflikti tagajärgede eest. USA analüütikute arvamusi

  20. Linking resource selection and mortality modeling for population estimation of mountain lions in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hugh S.; Ruth, Toni K.; Gude, Justin A.; Choate, David; DeSimone, Rich; Hebblewhite, Mark; Matchett, Marc R.; Mitchell, Michael S.; Murphy, Kerry; Williams, Jim

    2015-01-01

    To be most effective, the scale of wildlife management practices should match the range of a particular species’ movements. For this reason, combined with our inability to rigorously or regularly census mountain lion populations, several authors have suggested that mountain lions be managed in a source-sink or metapopulation framework. We used a combination of resource selection functions, mortality estimation, and dispersal modeling to estimate cougar population levels in Montana statewide and potential population level effects of planned harvest levels. Between 1980 and 2012, 236 independent mountain lions were collared and monitored for research in Montana. From these data we used 18,695 GPS locations collected during winter from 85 animals to develop a resource selection function (RSF), and 11,726 VHF and GPS locations from 142 animals along with the locations of 6343 mountain lions harvested from 1988–2011 to validate the RSF model. Our RSF model validated well in all portions of the State, although it appeared to perform better in Montana Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MFWP) Regions 1, 2, 4 and 6, than in Regions 3, 5, and 7. Our mean RSF based population estimate for the total population (kittens, juveniles, and adults) of mountain lions in Montana in 2005 was 3926, with almost 25% of the entire population in MFWP Region 1. Estimates based on a high and low reference population estimates produce a possible range of 2784 to 5156 mountain lions statewide. Based on a range of possible survival rates we estimated the mountain lion population in Montana to be stable to slightly increasing between 2005 and 2010 with lambda ranging from 0.999 (SD = 0.05) to 1.02 (SD = 0.03). We believe these population growth rates to be a conservative estimate of true population growth. Our model suggests that proposed changes to female harvest quotas for 2013–2015 will result in an annual statewide population decline of 3% and shows that, due to reduced dispersal, changes to

  1. Quantifying Heterogeneities in Soil Cover and Weathering in the Bitterroot and Sapphire Mountains, Montana: Implications for Glacial Legacies and their Morphologic Control on Soil Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjaram, S. S.; Dixon, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    To what extent is chemical weathering governed by a landscape's topography? Quantifying chemical weathering in both steep rocky landscapes and soil-mantled landscapes requires describing heterogeneity in soil and rock cover at local and landscape scales. Two neighboring mountain ranges in the northern Rockies of western Montana, USA, provide an ideal natural laboratory in which to investigate the relationship between soil chemical weathering, persistence of soil cover, and topography. We focus our work in the previously glaciated Bitterroot Mountains, which consist of steep, rock-dominated hillslopes, and the neighboring unglaciated Sapphire Mountains, which display convex, soil-mantled hillslopes. Soil thickness measurements, soil and rock geochemistry, and digital terrain analysis reveal that soils in the rock-dominated Bitterroot Mountains are only slightly less weathered than those in the Sapphire Mountains. However, these differences are magnified when adjusted for rock fragments at a local scale and bedrock cover at a landscape scale, using our newly developed metric, the rock-adjusted chemical depletion fraction (RACDF) and rock-adjusted mass transfer coefficient (RA τ). The Bitterroots overall are 30% less weathered than the Sapphires despite higher mean annual precipitation in the former, with an average rock-adjusted CDF of 0.38 in the postglacial Bitterroots catchment and 0.61 in the nonglacial Sapphire catchment, suggesting that 38% of rock mass is lost in the conversion to soil in the Bitterroots, whereas 61% of rock mass is lost in the nonglaciated Sapphires. Because the previously glaciated Bitterroots are less weathered despite being wetter, we conclude that the glacial history of this landscape exerts more influence on soil chemical weathering than does modern climate. However, while previous studies have correlated weathering intensity with topographic parameters such as slope gradient, we find little topographic indication of specific controls

  2. Sõda, mille USA on juba kaotanud / Mart Helme

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Helme, Mart, 1949-

    2003-01-01

    USA pole suutnud Iraagi-vastase sõja vajalikkust põhjendada, arvavad paljud USA poliitikavaatlejad. Rängaks diplomaatiliseks eksimuseks peetakse USA kaitseministri Donald Rumsfeldi avaldust, et USA ei vaja kellegi abi sõjas

  3. VALLEY-FILL SANDSTONE IN THE KOOTENAI FORMATION ON THE CROW INDIAN RESERVATION, SOUTH-CENTRAL MONTANA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    1999-04-12

    The subsurface database has been completed for the project. An ACCESS database converted to PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from all of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base, except for some wells that have no available logs or other information. All of the four 30 x 60 feet geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quandrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. All four quadrangles are in the Bureau's Publications Department being prepared for submittal to a printer. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has been traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel was submitted and the paper was presented at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998. A follow on proposal to conduct a soil gas geochemical survey of the reservation was approved and the contract was received in late August. The sampling will be conducted next summer and will involve Crow students.

  4. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Koontenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A.

    1999-10-28

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from most of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base; only a few wells outside the reservation remain to be incorporated.

  5. Valley-Fill Standstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David A. Lopez

    1998-01-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview if being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map have been successfully imported to Arcview and customized. All of the four 30 feet by 60 feet geologic surface geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface data base for the Crow Reservation. Field investigations inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least a four major westward-trending valley systems.

  6. Valley-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A

    1998-07-03

    Subsurface data continues to be collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ¾ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for all the quadrangles; Billings, Bridger; Hardin, and Lodge Grass. Final GIS edits are being made before being forwarded to the Bureau's Publications Department. Field investigations were completed during the third quarter, 1997. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  7. Valey-Fill Sandstones in the Kootenai Formation on the Crow Indian Reservation, South-Central Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez, David A

    1998-04-07

    Subsurface data is being collected, organized, and a digital database is being prepared for the project. An ACCESS database and PC-Arcview is being used to manage and interpret the data. Well data and base map data have been successfully imported into Arcview and customized to meet the needs of this project. Log tops and other data from about ½ of the exploration wells in the area have been incorporated into the data base. All of the four 30" X 60" geologic quadrangles have been scanned to produce a digital surface geologic data base for the Crow Reservation and all are nearing completion. Formal technical review prior to publication has been completed for the Billings and Bridger Quadrangles; and are underway for the Hardin and Lodge Grass Quadrangles. Field investigations were completed during the last quarter. With the help of a student field assistant from the Crow Tribe, the entire project area was inventoried for the presence of valley-fill deposits in the Kootenai Formation. Field inventory has resulted in the identification of nine exposures of thick valley-fill deposits. These appear to represent at least four major westward-trending valley systems. All the channel localities have been measured and described in detail and paleocurrent data has been collected from all but one locality. In addition, two stratigraphic sections were measured in areas where channels are absent. One channel has bee traced over a distance of about 60 miles and exhibits definite paleostructural control. An abstract describing this channel has been submitted and accepted for presentation at the Williston Basin Symposium in October, 1998.

  8. Using remote sensing to characterize and compare evapotranspiration from different irrigation regimes in the Smith River Watershed of central Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sando, Thomas R.; Caldwell, Rodney R.; Blasch, Kyle W.

    2017-01-01

    According to the 2005 U.S. Geological Survey national water use compilation, irrigation is the second largest use of fresh water in the United States, accounting for 37%, or 484.48 million cubic meters per day, of total freshwater withdrawal. Accurately estimating the amount of water withdrawals and actual consumptive water use (the difference between water withdrawals and return flow) for irrigation at a regional scale is difficult. Remote sensing methods make it possible to compare actual ET (ETa) rates which can serve as a proxy for consumptive water use from different irrigation regimes at a regional scale in a systematic manner. This study investigates crucial components of water use from irrigation such as the difference of ETa rates from flood- and sprinkler-irrigated fields, spatial variability of ETa within a watershed, and the effect of sprinkler irrigation on the water budget of the study area. The mean accumulated ETa depth for the 1,051 square kilometer study area within the upper Smith River watershed was about 467 mm 30-meter per pixel for the 2007 growing season (April through mid-October). The total accumulated volume of ETa for the study area was about 474.705 million cubic meters. The mean accumulated ETa depth from sprinkler-irrigated land was about 687 mm and from flood-irrigated land was about 621 mm from flood-irrigated land. On average, the ETa rate from sprinkler-irrigated fields was 0.25 mm per day higher than flood-irrigated fields over the growing season. Spatial analysis showed that ETa rates within individual fields of a single crop type that are irrigated with a single method (sprinkler or flood) can vary up to about 8 mm per day. It was estimated that the amount of sprinkler irrigation in 2007 accounted for approximately 3% of the total volume of ETa in the study area. When compared to non-irrigated dryland, sprinkler irrigation increases ETa by about 59 to 82% per unit area.

  9. 2006–2015 mega-drought in the western USA and its monitoring from space data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix Kogan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available During 2014 and early 2015, scientific and online publications strongly focused on the multi-year drought over the western USA, showing its dramatic consequences for the US economy, environment and society. Considering such an extraordinary drought, many questions related to its beginning, duration, dynamics, intensity, genesis, extent and frequency became unanswered and even became controversial. How different is this current event from the extraordinary US drought of the 1930s and other intensive droughts? Can this drought be classified as a mega-drought? This paper attempts to answer most of these questions, by applying National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA global operational satellite system estimating vegetation health. It has been shown that the latest western US drought began in 2006 and has continued for nine full years. Since vegetation stress still continues in the first few months of 2015 (when this paper is written coming into the 10th year, this drought was classified as a “mega-drought”. In 2006, when the drought began, vegetation was stressed in over 61% of the western USA. During 2012 and 2013 (time of the drought's intensification, this area increased to 71% and 67%, respectively. All 17 states of the western two-thirds of the USA were affected by this drought, especially South Dakota, Nebraska, Oklahoma, Texas, Montana and Wyoming with up to 100% of the area affected by severe vegetation stress during 2012–2014. Compared to other catastrophic droughts of the past 100 years, the current drought during the worst year (2012, affected 71.3% of the western USA. This is comparable to the area affected by a catastrophic drought in 1934 (71.6% and much higher than the droughts in 1956 (49% and 1988 (31%. In terms of number of drought years, the other droughts in the western USA (1985–1986, 1988–1992, 1995–1996, and 2001–2003 were shorter and less intensive. Among western states, California was the most

  10. Central Chile

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The beginning of spring in central Chile looked like this to SeaWiFS. The snow-covered Andes mark the country's eastern border, and phytoplankton blooms and river sediment plumes fill the waters off its west coast. A large eddy due west of Concepcion is highlighted by the phytoplankton it contains.

  11. Afrique Centrale

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PR BOKO

    (Afrique Centrale) : peuplement de protozoaires ciliés et macro invertébrés ... Le lac d'Obili est un écosystème aquatique situé en plein cœur de Yaoundé en ...... électrique des eaux est assez stable, autour de 200 ; ce qui suppose que la ...

  12. Control of Precambrian basement deformation zones on emplacement of the Laramide Boulder batholith and Butte mining district, Montana, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Byron R.; Hildenbrand, Thomas G.; O'Neill, J. Michael

    2011-01-01

    What are the roles of deep Precambrian basement deformation zones in the localization of subsequent shallow-crustal deformation zones and magmas? The Paleoproterozoic Great Falls tectonic zone and its included Boulder batholith (Montana, United States) provide an opportunity to examine the importance of inherited deformation fabrics in batholith emplacement and the localization of magmatic-hydrothermal mineral deposits. Northeast-trending deformation fabrics predominate in the Great Falls tectonic zone, which formed during the suturing of Paleoproterozoic and Archean cratonic masses approximately 1,800 mega-annum (Ma). Subsequent Mesoproterozoic to Neoproterozoic deformation fabrics trend northwest. Following Paleozoic through Early Cretaceous sedimentation, a Late Cretaceous fold-and-thrust belt with associated strike-slip faulting developed across the region, wherein some Proterozoic faults localized thrust faulting, while others were reactivated as strike-slip faults. The 81- to 76-Ma Boulder batholith was emplaced along the reactivated central Paleoproterozoic suture in the Great Falls tectonic zone. Early-stage Boulder batholith plutons were emplaced concurrent with east-directed thrust faulting and localized primarily by northwest-trending strike-slip and related faults. The late-stage Butte Quartz Monzonite pluton was localized in a northeast-trending pull-apart structure that formed behind the active thrust front and is axially symmetric across the underlying northeast-striking Paleoproterozoic fault zone, interpreted as a crustal suture. The modeling of potential-field geophysical data indicates that pull-apart?stage magmas fed into the structure through two funnel-shaped zones beneath the batholith. Renewed magmatic activity in the southern feeder from 66 to 64 Ma led to the formation of two small porphyry-style copper-molybdenum deposits and ensuing world-class polymetallic copper- and silver-bearing veins in the Butte mining district. Vein orientations

  13. Colonel Joseph J. Reynolds and the Saint Patrick's Day Celebration on Powder River Battle of Powder River (Montana, 17 March 1876)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hedegaard, Michael

    2001-01-01

    The Battle of Powder River occurred on 17 March 1876 in southeastern Montana. Historians and researchers have consistently overlooked the importance of this battle on the outcome of the Great Sioux War of 1876. Colonel Joseph J...

  14. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  15. Case Study of The ARRA-Funded GSHP Demonstration at the Natural Sources Building, Montana Tech

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malhotra, Mini [ORNL; Liu, Xiaobing [ORNL

    2015-04-01

    Under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA), 26 ground source heat pump (GSHP) projects were competitively selected in 2009 to demonstrate the benefits of GSHP systems and innovative technologies for cost reduction and/or performance improvement. One of the selected demonstration projects was proposed by Montana Tech of the University of Montana for a 56,000 sq ft, newly constructed, on-campus research facility – the Natural Resources Building (NRB) located in Butte, Montana. This demonstrated GSHP system consists of a 50 ton water-to-water heat pump and a closed-loop ground heat exchanger with two redundant 7.5 hp constant-speed pumps to use water in the nearby flooded mines as a heat source or heat sink. It works in conjunction with the originally installed steam HX and an aircooled chiller to provide space heating and cooling. It is coupled with the existing hot water and chilled water piping in the building and operates in the heating or cooling mode based on the outdoor air temperature. The ground loop pumps operate in conjunction with the existing pumps in the building hot and chilled water loops for the operation of the heat pump unit. The goal of this demonstration project is to validate the technical and economic feasibility of the demonstrated commercial-scale GSHP system in the region, and illustrate the feasibility of using mine waters as the heat sink and source for GSHP systems. Should the demonstration prove satisfactory and feasible, it will encourage similar GSHP applications using mine water, thus help save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The actual performance of the system is analyzed with available measured data for January through July 2014. The annual energy performance is predicted and compared with a baseline scenario, with the heating and cooling provided by the originally designed systems. The comparison is made in terms of energy savings, operating cost savings, cost-effectiveness, and environmental benefits. Finally

  16. Metalliferous deposits of the greater Helena mining region, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardee, Joseph Thomas; Schrader, F.C.

    1933-01-01

    in Belt rocks have produced copper ore composed mainly of chalcopyrite or chalcopyrite and tennantite accompanied by pyrite and a gangue of quartz and barite. Placer deposits along the western slope of the Belt Mountains have produced $17,500,000 in gold. Sapphires were formerly obtained from some of these deposits. The central part of the Belt Mountains is a plateaulike area considered to be the remnant of a surface produced by erosion during Tertiary time. This surface was elevated and has been deeply trenched by narrow, transverse valleys that are bordered with remnants of low terraces in which most of the placer deposits occur. Most of the western slope of the mountains is underlain by sedimentary rocks of the Belt series. At the foot of the mountains these give place to Paleozoic rocks, and these in turn are overlain unconformably in Townsend Valley by Tertiary and later deposits. The main structural feature is a great arch called the York anticline, which occupies most of the west side of the mountains. At the west foot of the mountains this fold is bordered by a series of small synclines that are tightly squeezed, faulted, and overturned as a result of pressure exerted from the west or southwest along a fracture described as the El Dorado overthrust On another fracture called1 the Scout Camp overthrust the Belt rocks composing the western slope of the mountains are thrust eastward over Paleozoic beds. Both faults are regarded as branches of the Lewis overthrust of Glacier Park. Igneous rocks that probably range in age from early Eocene to Pleistocene are widely but sparingly distributed.' They include sills and dikes of quartz dibrite, porphyry dikes, small stocks of quartz monzonite and quartz diorite, and surface flows of andesite and basalt. The deposits in the Belt Mountains that are of most interest at the present time are lodes that are chiefly valuable for gold. Most of them are found in the vicinity of York and Confederate Gulch. Nearly all are small

  17. Europa central

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karel BARTOSEK

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available La investigación francesa continúa interesándose por Europa Central. Desde luego, hay límites a este interés en el ambiente general de mi nueva patria: en la ignorancia, producto del largo desinterés de Francia por este espacio después de la Segunda Guerra Mundial, y en el comportamiento y la reflexión de la clase política y de los medios de comunicación (una anécdota para ilustrar este ambiente: durante la preparación de nuestro coloquio «Refugiados e inmigrantes de Europa Central en el movimiento antifascista y la Resistencia en Francia, 1933-1945», celebrado en París en octubre de 1986, el problema de la definición fue planteado concreta y «prácticamente». ¡Y hubo entonces un historiador eminente, para quién Alemania no formaría parte de Europa Central!.

  18. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary (Revised)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This document has been prepared by the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT&E) activities funded through the Western environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described in this document have the potential to enhance DOE`s cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry`s competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information presented in this document has been assembled from recently produced OST documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OST program elements and Focus Areas. This document presents one in a series for each of DOE`s Operations Office and Energy Technology Centers.

  19. Pharmacognostic standardization and physicochemical analysis of the leaves of Barleria montana Wight & Nees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sriram Sridharan

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the pharmacognostic features and physiochemical properties of the leaves of Barleria montana Wight & Nees. Methods: The leaf samples were subjected to organoleptic, microscopic and macroscopic analysis. Physiochemical properties and fluorescence analysis of the sample under UV and daylight were studied as per World Health Organization norms. Results: Microscopic analysis showed that the plant possessed dorsiventral leaves, lamina, glandular trichomes, calcium carbonate cystoliths and adaxial epidermis. Physiochemical characters like ash and moisture content, extractive values, foreign matter and fluorescent characteristics of the leaf samples were determined and reported. Conclusions: Results obtained from these studies can be used as reliable markers in the identification and standardization of this plant as a herbal remedy

  20. Travel Times, Streamflow Velocities, and Dispersion Rates in the Yellowstone River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Peter M.

    2009-01-01

    The Yellowstone River is a vital natural resource to the residents of southeastern Montana and is a primary source of water for irrigation and recreation and the primary source of municipal water for several cities. The Yellowstone River valley is the primary east-west transportation corridor through southern Montana. This complex of infrastructure makes the Yellowstone River especially vulnerable to accidental spills from various sources such as tanker cars and trucks. In 2008, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Montana Department of Environmental Quality, initiated a dye-tracer study to determine instream travel times, streamflow velocities, and dispersion rates for the Yellowstone River from Lockwood to Glendive, Montana. The purpose of this report is to describe the results of this study and summarize data collected at each of the measurement sites between Lockwood and Glendive. This report also compares the results of this study to estimated travel times from a transport model developed by the USGS for a previous study. For this study, Rhodamine WT dye was injected at four locations in late September and early October 2008 during reasonably steady streamflow conditions. Streamflows ranged from 3,490 to 3,770 cubic feet per second upstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River and ranged from 6,520 to 7,570 cubic feet per second downstream from the confluence of the Bighorn River. Mean velocities were calculated for each subreach between measurement sites for the leading edge, peak concentration, centroid, and trailing edge at 10 percent of the peak concentration. Calculated velocities for the centroid of the dye plume for subreaches that were completely laterally mixed ranged from 1.83 to 3.18 ft/s within the study reach from Lockwood Bridge to Glendive Bridge. The mean of the completely mixed centroid velocity for the entire study reach, excluding the subreach between Forsyth Bridge and Cartersville Dam, was 2.80 ft/s. Longitudinal

  1. Geochemistry of water in the Fort Union formation of the northern Powder River basin, southeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Roger W.

    1981-01-01

    Shallow water in the coal-bearing Paleocene Fort Union Formation of southeastern Montana was investigated to provide a better understanding of its geochemistry. Springs, wells less than 200 feet deep, and wells greater than 200 feet deep were observed to have different water qualities. Overall, the ground water exists as two systems: a mosaic of shallow, chemically dynamic, and localized recharge-discharge cells superimposed on a deeper, chemically static regional system. Water chemistry is highly variable in the shallow system; whereas, waters containing sodium and bicarbonate characterize the deeper system. Within the shallow system, springs and wells less than 200 feet deep show predominantly sodium and sulfate enrichment processes from recharge to discharge. These processes are consistent with the observed aquifer mineralogy and aqueous chemistry. However, intermittent mixing with downward moving recharge waters or upward moving deeper waters, and bacterially catalyzed sulfate reduction, may cause apparent reversals in these processes.

  2. The Western Environmental Technology Office (WETO), Butte, Montana. Technology summary (Revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-03-01

    This document has been prepared by the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of Environmental Management (EM) Office of Science and Technology (OST) to highlight its research, development, demonstration, testing, and evaluation (RDDT ampersand E) activities funded through the Western environmental Technology Office (WETO) in Butte, Montana. Technologies and processes described in this document have the potential to enhance DOE's cleanup and waste management efforts, as well as improve US industry's competitiveness in global environmental markets. The information presented in this document has been assembled from recently produced OST documents that highlight technology development activities within each of the OST program elements and Focus Areas. This document presents one in a series for each of DOE's Operations Office and Energy Technology Centers

  3. Volatile Components of the Essential Oil of Artemisia montana and Their Sedative Effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunihiro, Kento; Myoda, Takao; Tajima, Noriaki; Gotoh, Kotaro; Kaneshima, Tai; Someya, Takao; Toeda, Kazuki; Fujimori, Takane; Nishizawa, Makoto

    2017-08-01

    The sedative effects of volatile components in the essential oil of Artemisia montana ("Yomogi") were investigated and measured using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Major components identified included 1,8-cineol, camphor, borneol, α-piperitone, and caryophyllene oxide. Among them, 1,8-cineol exhibited the highest flavor dilution (FD) value in an aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA), followed by borneol, o-cymene, β-thujone, and bornyl acetate. The sedative effects of yomogi oil aroma were evaluated by sensory testing, analysis of salivary α-amylase activity, and measurement of relative fluctuation of oxygenated hemoglobin concentration in the brain using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). All results indicated the stress-reducing effects of the essential oil following nasal exposure, and according to the NIRS analysis, 1,8-cineol is likely responsible for the sedative effects of yomogi oil.

  4. Geothermal : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomquist, R.Gordon

    1991-10-01

    The actual geothermal exploration and development may appear to be a simple and straightforward process in comparison to the legal and institutional maze which the developer must navigate in order to obtain all of the federal, state, and local leases, permits, licenses, and approvals necessary at each step in the process. Finally, and often most difficult, is obtaining a contract for the sale of thermal energy, brine, steam, or electricity. This guide is designed to help developers interested in developing geothermal resource sites in the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory in the state of Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington better understand the federal, state, and local institutional process, the roles and responsibilities of each agency, and how and when to make contact in order to obtain the necessary documents.

  5. A mixed-methods analysis of logging injuries in Montana and Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagerstrom, Elise; Magzamen, Sheryl; Rosecrance, John

    2017-12-01

    Despite advances in mechanization, logging continues to be one of the most dangerous occupations in the United States. Logging in the Intermountain West region (Montana and Idaho) is especially hazardous due to steep terrain, extreme weather, and remote work locations. We implemented a mixed-methods approach combining analyses of workers' compensation claims and focus groups to identify factors associated with injuries and fatalities in the logging industry. Inexperienced workers (>6 months experience) accounted for over 25% of claims. Sprain/strain injuries were the most common, accounting for 36% of claims, while fatalities had the highest median claim cost ($274 411). Focus groups identified job tasks involving felling trees, skidding, and truck driving as having highest risk. Injury prevention efforts should focus on training related to safe work methods (especially for inexperienced workers), the development of a safety culture and safety leadership, as well as implementation of engineering controls. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Hepatoprotective activity of methanolic extract of Barleria montana leaves in ethanol treated rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanaz Banu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The present study was undertaken to investigate the protective effect and possible mechanism of methanolic extract of Barleria montana (BM on ethanol-induced rat hepatic injury. Method: This respective activity was assessed through monitoring liver function tests through the measurement of triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein, total bilirubin, serum enzymes like SGOT and SGPT and in vivo antioxidant parameters like lipid peroxidase, Superoxide dismutase(SOD and catalase,. Further, hepatic tissues were also subjected to histopathological studies. Result: Pretreatment of BM methanolic extract (500mg/kg reduced the fatty liver symptoms and significantly (p<0.001 inhibited the increase of respective serum enzyme levels. Conclusions: The results of the present study indicated that BM methanolic extract possess hepatoprotective effects which could act as an effective treatment for acute hepatic diseases.

  7. Dual enrollment as a factor for women transitioning into STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakes, Penny Jane

    The purpose of this non-experimental, descriptive, quantitative study was to describe the impact high school dual enrollment coursework has had on initial enrollment of women with STEM majors in Montana two-year colleges. The study was designed to find whether or not differences existed for access (initial enrollment), persistence (to third semester), and success (associate's degree, certificate, or transfer to a four-year institution within 150% of program length). The literature review highlighted the need for studies to address the issue of few women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) occupations. One goal of dual enrollment in Montana is to ease transitions from high school to college, including underrepresented populations such as women in STEM fields. The scope of this study was to collect, organize, and interpret data to describe the effect of that effort for women enrolling in STEM majors at two-year colleges in Montana. Baseline information established the demographics of young women who participated in dual enrollment in Montana high schools during 2007-2009. Data analysis described results using attributes of gender, dual enrollment, access, persistence, and success for those enrolled in STEM fields. Results indicated more young women than young men take advantage of dual enrollment in high school and more women than men with dual-enrollment credit initially enroll in college. More men than women major in a STEM field and more men persist and graduate within the STEM fields. Data indicated that 221 students enrolled in a Montana two-year college with DE/DC credit during 2007-2009. Of those, eight women chose STEM majors, six persisted to the third semester, and two completed. It is recommended that a mixed-methods study be conducted to give a deeper level of understanding for enrollment trends and career choice. Longitudinal studies should also be conducted as dual enrollment grows within the state of Montana. Further studies

  8. Coalbed Methane Extraction and Soil Suitability Concerns in the Powder River Basin, Montana and Wyoming

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2006-01-01

    The Powder River Basin is located in northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana. It is an area of approximately 55,000 square kilometers. Extraction of methane gas from the coal seams that underlie the Powder River Basin began in Wyoming in the late 1980s and in Montana in the late 1990s. About 100-200 barrels of co-produced water per day are being extracted from each active well in the Powder River Basin, which comes to over 1.5 million barrels of water per day for all the active coalbed methane wells in the Basin. Lab testing indicates that Powder River Basin co-produced water is potable but is high in sodium and other salts, especially in the western and northern parts of the Powder River Basin. Common water management strategies include discharge of co-produced water into drainages, stock ponds, evaporation ponds, or infiltration ponds; treatment to remove sodium; or application of the water directly on the land surface via irrigation equipment or atomizers. Problems may arise because much of the Powder River Basin contains soils with high amounts of swelling clays. As part of the USGS Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center's hyperspectral research program, researchers are investigating whether hyperspectral remote sensing data can be beneficial in locating areas of swelling clays. Using detailed hyperspectral data collected over parts of the Powder River Basin and applying our knowledge of how the clays of interest reflect energy, we will attempt to identify and map areas of swelling clays. If successful, such information will be useful to resource and land managers.

  9. Evaluation of Management of Water Releases for Painted Rocks Rexervoir, Bitterroot River, Montana, 1985 Annual Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lere, Mark E. (Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks, Missoula, MT)

    1985-12-01

    The Bitterroot River, located in western Montana, is an important and heavily used resource, providing water for agriculture and a source for diversified forms of recreation. Water shortages in the river, however, have been a persistent problem for both irrigators and recreational users. Five major diversions and numerous smaller canals remove substantial quantities of water from the river during the irrigation season. Historically, the river has been severely dewatered between the towns of Hamilton and Stevensville as a result of these withdrawals. Demands for irrigation water from the Bitterroot River have often conflicted with the instream flow needs for trout. Withdrawals of water can decrease suitable depths, velocities, substrates and cover utilized by trout (Stalnaker and Arnette 1976, Wesche 1976). Losses in habitat associated with dewatering have been shown to diminish the carrying capacities for trout populations (Nelson 1980). Additionally, dewatering of the Bitterroot River has forced irrigators to dike or channelize the streambed to obtain needed flows. These alterations reduce aquatic habitat and degrade channel stability. Odell (personal communication) found a substantial reduction in the total biomass of aquatic insects within a section of the Bitterroot River that had been bulldozed for irrigation purposes. The Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks (MDFWP) has submitted a proposal to the Northwest Power Planning Council for the purchase of 10,000 acre-feet (AF) of stored water in Painted Rocks Reservoir to augment low summer flows in the Bitterroot River. This supplemental water potentially would enhance the fishery in the river and reduce degradation of the channel due to diversion activities. The present study was undertaken to: (1) develop an implementable water management plan for supplemental releases from Painted Rocks Reservoir which would provide optimum benefits to the river: (2) gather fisheries and habitat information to

  10. Closure Using a Surgical Closure Device of Inadvertent Subclavian Artery Punctures During Central Venous Catheter Placement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlet, Matthew H.; Steffen, Diana; Shaughness, George; Hanner, James

    2001-01-01

    Severe complications can and do occur when central venous catheters are inadvertently placed into subclavian arteries. Two cases are discussed that describe how these inadvertent arterial punctures can be closed using the Perclose device (Abbott Laboratories, Redwood City, CA, USA)

  11. central t

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel R. Piña Monarrez

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Dado que la Regresión Ridge (RR, es una estimación sesgada que parte de la solución de la regresión de Mínimos Cuadrados (MC, es vital establecer las condiciones para las que la distribución central t de Student que se utiliza en la prueba de hipótesis en MC, sea también aplicable a la regresión RR. La prueba de este importante resultado se presenta en este artículo.

  12. Central sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep apnea - central; Obesity - central sleep apnea; Cheyne-Stokes - central sleep apnea; Heart failure - central sleep apnea ... Central sleep apnea results when the brain temporarily stops sending signals to the muscles that control breathing. The condition ...

  13. USA otsib Iraanist aktiivselt tuumainfot / Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raud, Neeme, 1969-

    2005-01-01

    Iraan avaldas protesti USA luurelendude üle Iraani kohal. USA endine kaitseminister James Baker peab Iraani ja Põhja-Koreaga nende tuumaprogrammide hävitamiseks sõja alustamist suurimaks veaks. Kuigi Bushi meeskond rõhutab vajadust lahendada küsimus rahumeelselt, toovad Dick Cheney' ja Condoleezza Rice'i avaldused mitme USA kommentaatori arvates meelde Iraagi sõja eelse taktika

  14. Eesti on USA uus lemmik / Argo Ideon

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Ideon, Argo, 1966-

    2007-01-01

    President Toomas Hendrik Ilvese visiidist Washingtoni, kohtumistest USA presidendi George W. Bushi, asepresident Dick Cheney, asevälisminister John Negroponte, kaitseminister Robert M. Gates'i, USA Kongressi esindajatekoja spiikri Nancy Pelosi ja kongresmenidega. Eestil õnnestus korraldada USA pealinnas kohtumised, mille järjekorras ootab hulk palju suuremaid riike. Vabariigi President töövisiidil Ameerika Ühendriikides 25.-26.06.2007

  15. The energy situation in the Usa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    This analyses discusses the energy supplying security, the natural gas demand increase and its consequences, the climatic change in the long-dated, the long dated perspectives of the Usa energy policy, the law on the energy and the consequences for the nuclear activity, the financial incentives in favor of the construction of new nuclear power plants in the Usa and the good nuclear energy industry situation in the Usa. (A.L.B.)

  16. USA NCAP - a glance at harmonization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, R.M.; Park, B.T.; Beuse, N.M.; Lowrie, J.C. [National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, Washington, DC (United States); Swanson, J.L.; Rockwell, T.E. [ACE Systems Technologies, Inc. (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper is separated roughly into four parts. First, the authors discuss the frontal tests of the USA New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and then consider similarities and differences in the two different types of frontal tests worldwide. Second, the focus is placed on the side crash of the USA NCAP and comparisons are made between the results of the two different types of lateral tests worldwide. Third, the paper explains the Congressional requirements to establish a child safety rating system (in the USA) by model year 2003 and looks at the approach taken by NCAPs worldwide. Finally, the growth in requests for consumer information (in the USA) is measured. (orig.)

  17. Mineral production and mining trends for selected non-fuel commodities in Idaho and Montana, 1905-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Jeremy C.; Long, Keith R.; Assmus, Kenneth C.; Zientek, Michael L.

    2004-01-01

    Idaho and Montana state mining statistics were obtained from historical mineral production records and compiled into a continuous record from 1905 through 2001. To facilitate comparisons, the mineral production data were normalized by converting the units of measure to metric tons for all included commodities. These standardized statistical data include production rates for principal non-fuel mineral commodities from both Idaho and Montana, as well as the production rates of similar commodities for the U.S. and the world for contrast. Data are presented here in both tabular and bar chart format. Moreover, the tables of standardized mineral production data are also provided in digital format as, commodity_production.xls. Some significant historical events pertaining to the mining industry are described as well. When taken into account with the historical production data, this combined information may to help explain both specific fluctuations and general tendencies in the overall trends in the rates of mineral resource production over time.

  18. May 1983 Coalinga, USA Images

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Location: Central California, 20.8 kilometers from Coalinga. Affected area: 205,000 square kilometers. Damage: $31 million. The most serious damage occurred in the...

  19. Comparative Ability of Oropsylla montana and Xenopsylla cheopis Fleas to Transmit Yersinia pestis by Two Different Mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Joseph Hinnebusch

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Transmission of Yersinia pestis by flea bite can occur by two mechanisms. After taking a blood meal from a bacteremic mammal, fleas have the potential to transmit the very next time they feed. This early-phase transmission resembles mechanical transmission in some respects, but the mechanism is unknown. Thereafter, transmission occurs after Yersinia pestis forms a biofilm in the proventricular valve in the flea foregut. The biofilm can impede and sometimes completely block the ingestion of blood, resulting in regurgitative transmission of bacteria into the bite site. In this study, we compared the relative efficiency of the two modes of transmission for Xenopsylla cheopis, a flea known to become completely blocked at a high rate, and Oropsylla montana, a flea that has been considered to rarely develop proventricular blockage.Fleas that took an infectious blood meal containing Y. pestis were maintained and monitored for four weeks for infection and proventricular blockage. The number of Y. pestis transmitted by groups of fleas by the two modes of transmission was also determined. O. montana readily developed complete proventricular blockage, and large numbers of Y. pestis were transmitted by that mechanism both by it and by X. cheopis, a flea known to block at a high rate. In contrast, few bacteria were transmitted in the early phase by either species.A model system incorporating standardized experimental conditions and viability controls was developed to more reliably compare the infection, proventricular blockage and transmission dynamics of different flea vectors, and was used to resolve a long-standing uncertainty concerning the vector competence of O. montana. Both X. cheopis and O. montana are fully capable of transmitting Y. pestis by the proventricular biofilm-dependent mechanism.

  20. Volume and weight characteristics of a typical Douglas-fir/ western larch stand, Coram Experimental Forest, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert E. Benson; Joyce A. Schlieter

    1980-01-01

    An over-mature Douglas-fir/western larch stand on the Coram Experimental Forest in Montana averaged about 7,300 ft3/acre (511 rn3/ha) of wood over 3 inches (7.62 cm) in diameter, and an additional 57 tons/acre (128/ha) of fine material, before harvest. After logging, using three different cutting methods and four different levels of utilization, wood residues ranged...

  1. Green electricity - experiences from USA; Groen el - erfarenheter fraan USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graens, N

    1995-10-01

    Environmental concern has opened a market for electric power produced from renewable energy sources in USA. A number of American electric utilities have responded to the interest from the public and offered green electricity at a price somewhat above the normal rates. Most of these programs, that have existed for a few years, have succeeded quite well, giving the utilities better relations to their customers and experiences from marketing new products. The customers have been satisfied and shown enthusiasm for the new product. The present report reviews the attitudes to and drive behind green electricity from/relative to utilities, customers, environmental organizations and authorities. The programs and experiences of the utilities are described, and the prospects for green power on a deregulated market are discussed. Speculations about market responses to green power in Sweden are also made. 37 refs, 13 figs

  2. 77 FR 6587 - Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-75,089; TA-W-75,089A] Startek USA, Inc. Alexandria, LA; Startek USA, Inc., Collinsville, VA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on January 26, 2011, applicable to workers of StarTek USA, Inc...

  3. Central hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishal Gupta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Central hypothyroidism is defined as hypothyroidism due to insufficient stimulation by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH of an otherwise normal thyroid gland. It has an estimated prevalence of approximately 1 in 80,000 to 1 in 120,000. It can be secondary hypothyroidism (pituitary or tertiary hypothyroidism (hypothalamus in origin. In children, it is usually caused by craniopharyngiomas or previous cranial irradiation for brain tumors or hematological malignancies. In adults, it is usually due to pituitary macroadenomas, pituitary surgeries or post-irradiation. Fatigue and peripheral edema are the most specific clinical features. Diagnosis is established by the presence of normal to low-normal TSH on the background of low-normal thyroid hormones, confirmed by the thyrotropin releasing hormone stimulation test. Therapy includes use of levothyroxine titrated to improvement in symptomology and keeping free T4 in the upper limit of normal reference range.

  4. Utilizing the geochemical data from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program: an evaluation of the Butte quadrangle, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Eeckhout, E.M.

    1980-12-01

    Some 1370 water and 1951 sediment samples were collected from 1994 locations in the Butte quadrangle, Montana, in 1976 and 1977 by the University of Montana for the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL). The LASL analyzed the water samples for uranium and the sediment samples for uranium plus 42 additional elements. The data were then released to the Montana College of Mineral Science and Technology (MCMS and T), which was responsible for the evaluation of the uranium data. The data have subsequently been released by the LASL in an open-file report (Broxton, 1980). Statistical evaluations of the data were undertaken for uranium, copper, lead, zinc, manganese, gold, and silver. The uranium evaluations indicated certain areas in the western part of the quadrangle to be favorable for further investigation (particularly along the Rock Creek), as well as anomalous areas just north of Anaconda. The entire Boulder Batholith area had a high uranium background, but there didn't appear to be any particular site in this area that might be worth pursuing. The multielement evaluations confirmed the known base and precious metal provinces within the quadrangle. A methodology for evaluating data tapes from the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program was developed and presented throughout this report. This methodology could be developed further to define areas worth exploring for commodities other than uranium

  5. Testicular echotexture and seminal quality of young Montana Tropical Compound bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério Oliveira Pinho

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between testicular echotexture and seminal quality, in addition to evaluate the testicular parenchyma echogenicity pattern in young Montana bulls classified as sound and unsound for breeding. Fifty-two young Montana Tropical Compound bulls from 22 to 33 months of age were used. The animals were previously evaluated by breeding soundness evaluation and thereafter divided into two groups of breeding soundness classes: 1 = 16 animals sound for breeding; 2 = 36 animals unsound for breeding by means of physical and morphological analysis of semen. All animals underwent an ultrasound examination of the testes, and the images were analyzed with the software "Image J". ANOVA was used for statistical analysis, to determine the effect of groups in relation to testicular measurements, physical and morphological semen features and ultrasound pixel analysis. There was a difference between scrotal circumference between classes, with 39.7±2.1 cm and 37.3±3.1 cm for sound and unsound animals, respectively. Regarding testicular echotexture, mean values for the pixel intensity were 95.7 and 94.0 for sound and unsound animals for breeding, respectively, with no difference between the classes. None of the studied parameters were correlated with each other, indicating that the quantification of the pixel intensity in testicular echotexture was not effective in determining the degree of sexual maturity in Montana Tropical Compound bulls.

  6. Drugs, Violence, and Trauma in Mexico and the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puyana, Juan Carlos; Puyana, Juan Carlos Jacob; Rubiano, Andres Mariano; Montenegro, Jorge Hernan; Estebanez, Glyn O.; Sanchez, Alvaro Ignacio; Vega-Rivera, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    The impact of illicit drug markets on the occurrence of violence varies tremendously depending on many factors. Over the last years, Mexico and the USA have increased security border issues that included many aspects of drug-related trade and criminal activities. Mexico experienced only a small reduction in trauma deaths after the enforcement of severe crime reinforcement policies. This strategy in the war on drugs is shifting the drug market to other Central American countries. This phenomenon is called the ballooning effect, whereby the pressure to control illicit drug-related activities in one particular area forces a shift to other more vulnerable areas that leads to an increase in crime and violence. A human rights crisis characterized by suffering, injury, and death related to drug trafficking continues to expand, resulting in the exorbitant loss of lives and cost in productivity across the continent. The current climate of social violence in Central America and the illegal immigration to the USA may be partially related to this phenomenon of drug trafficking, gang violence, and crime. A health care initiative as an alternative to the current war approach may be one of the interventions needed to reduce this crisis. PMID:28329741

  7. USA tankid jõudsid Tapale

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2017-01-01

    Tapale saabus poolsada USA sõjamasinat, nende seas neli tanki Abrams M1A2 ja 15 jalaväe lahingumasinat Bradley. Tehnikat hakkab kasutama USA maaväe 4. jalaväediviisi 68. soomusrügemendi esimese pataljoni C-kompanii

  8. USA allveelaev uputas kalalaeva / Heiki Suurkask

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Suurkask, Heiki, 1972-

    2001-01-01

    Hawaii lähistel õppustel kiiret pinnaletõusu harjutanud USA allveelaev USS Greeneville põrkas kokku Jaapani õppelaevaga Ehime Maru, õnnetuse tagajärjel hukkus tõenäoliselt 9 jaapanlast. Skeem: Õnnetused USA allveelaevadega

  9. Poola ootab USA maaväelasi

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2014-01-01

    Poola kaitseministri Tomasz Siemoniaki sõnul saadab USA Poolasse maavägesid, et laeindada NATO kohalolekut ajal, mil pingeline olukord Ukrainas kestab, kirjutas Washington Post. Siemoniak ütles lehele, et sõjalised planeerijad juba töötavad vastava kava üksikasjade kallal. Ta lisas, et tõenäoliselt saadetakse USA sõdureid ka Baltimaadesse

  10. Krossil on probleeme USA viisaga? / Raimo Poom

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Poom, Raimo

    2011-01-01

    Eesti Päevaleht esitas USA Eesti-saatkonnale järelepärimise seoses sellega, et Eerik-Niiles Krossi USA-viisa on tühistatud. Saatkonna pressi- ja kultuuriatašee James Landi vastusest. Eerik-Niiles Krossi kommentaare

  11. Bulgaaria valitsus tahab USA raketikilpi / Mihkel Niglas

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Niglas, Mihkel

    2007-01-01

    Bulgaarias küsiti USA presidendilt George W. Bushilt, miks Poolasse ja Tšehhi kavandatav raketikilp ei hakka katma Bulgaariat. USA paigutab septembris Bulgaaria sõjabaasi üle 3000 sõduri. George W. Bush toetab Bulgaaria nõudmist Liibüale vabastada Bulgaaria meditsiiniõed

  12. Etteheide: USA okupeerib Haitit / Kaivo Kopli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kopli, Kaivo

    2010-01-01

    Prantsusmaa ja Brasiilia on esitanud protesti, sest USA sõjalennukitele on antud eelisõigus Haiti pealinna Port-au-Prince'i lennujaama kasutamisel. Paljude kommentaatorite hinnangul on Prantsusmaa püüdnud haarata prominentset rolli Haiti abistamisel, kuid USA on tegutsenud kiiremini ja jõulisemalt. Kaart

  13. USA raport hoiatab tuumaterroristide eest / Karin Volmer

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volmer, Karin

    2007-01-01

    USA-s tegutseva tuumaterrori vastase organisatsiooni Nuclear Threat Initiative (NTI) raport kinnitab maailma edusamme tuumamaterjali turvalisuses, kuid on ka palju ohuallikaid. Analüütikud kahtlevad Venemaa ja Pakistani armee usaldusväärsuses tuumamaterjali hoidmisel. Lisa: Tuumaterrori raport

  14. USA's litterære superstjerne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, Thomas Ærvold

    2010-01-01

    Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?......Jonathan Franzen er den mest omtalte forfatter i USA lige nu og ombejlet af alle fra Time Magazine til Oprah Winfrey. Hvad er det, han kan, manden bag ”Freedom”?...

  15. Green Algae from Coal Bed Methane Ponds as a Source of Fertilizer for Economically Important Plants of Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogunsakin, O. R.; Apple, M. E.; Zhou, X.; Peyton, B.

    2016-12-01

    The Tongue River Basin of northeastern Wyoming and southeastern Montana is the location of natural gas reserves and coal bed methane (CBM) acreage. Although the water that emanates from CBM extraction varies with site, it is generally of higher quality than the waters produced by conventional oil and gas wells, in part because it is low in volatile organic compounds. However, since CBM water contains dissolved solids, including sodium (Na), bicarbonate (HCO3) and chloride (Cl) ions, the water must be treated before it can be discharged into the river or wetlands, or used for stock ponds or irrigation. Several ponds have been constructed to serve as a holding facility for CBM water. Algae from the CBM ponds of the Tongue River Basin have the potential to be utilized as fertilizer on economically important plants of Montana. Two very important crop plants of Montana are wheat, Triticum aestivum, and potatoes, Solanum tuberosum. To explore this potential, isolates of unicellular green algae (Chlorella sp.) from the CBM ponds were cultured in aerated vessels with Bold's Basic Growth Medium and natural and/or supplemental light. Algal biomass was condensed in and collected from a valved funnel, after which cell density was determined via light microscopy and a hemacytometer. Algal/water slurries with known nutrient contents were added to seedlings of hard winter wheat, T.aestivum, grown in a greenhouse for three months before harves. When compared to wheat provided with just water, or with water and a commercially available fertilizer, the wheat fertilized with algae had a higher chlorophyll content, more tillers (side shoots), and a higher ratio of influorescences (groups of flowers) per stem. In a related experiment, Ranger Russet seed potatoes, S. tuberosum were given just water, water and Hoagland's nutrient solution, or water with algae in order to compare aboveground growth and potato production among the treatments. The results of this study suggest that

  16. CENTRAL BANKING IN THE NEW ERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Bagis

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the evolution of central banking, and in particular the American experience of central banking. It provides projections for the future of central banking in the new era of post 2008. The paper initially demonstrates recent improvements in the financial and banking sectors, regulations and different measures of monetary and financial rules both in the USA and the rest of the advanced economies. Then, it claims institutions, such as central banks, will gain new objectives and more significance in this new era and thus will be given new roles, over time and along with the improvements and deepening in the financial system. The paper argues centuries long central bank evolution is not complete yet and that more objectives should be expected to come forward. In that line, there is need for a shift in the conventional policy measures. New trends in central banking such as the helicopter money, popular nominal GDP targeting regime and the retro developmental central banking are all critically analyzed. The paper provides a breakdown of financial development and central banking activities in a historical context and provides a rationale and a new basis for possible future innovations.

  17. The role of social toxicity in responses to a slowly-evolving environmental disaster: the case of amphibole asbestos exposure in Libby, Montana, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cline, Rebecca J W; Orom, Heather; Chung, Jae Eun; Hernandez, Tanis

    2014-09-01

    Experiencing a disaster has significant negative effects on psychological adjustment. Case study accounts point to two consistent trends in slowly-evolving environmental disasters: (a) patterns of negative social dynamics, and (b) relatively worse psychological outcomes than in natural disasters. Researchers have begun to explicitly postulate that the social consequences of slowly-evolving environmental disasters (e.g., community conflict) have their own effects on victims' psychological outcomes. This study tested a model of the relationship between those social consequences and psychological adjustment of victims of a slowly-evolving environmental disaster, specifically those whose health has been compromised by the amphibole asbestos disaster in Libby, MT. Results indicate that experiencing greater community conflict about the disaster was associated with greater family conflict about the disaster which, in turn, was associated with greater social constraints on talking with others about their disease, both directly and indirectly through experiencing stigmatization. Experiencing greater social constraints was associated with worse psychological adjustment, both directly and indirectly through failed social support. Findings have implications for understanding pathways by which social responses create negative effects on mental health in slowly-evolving environmental disasters. These pathways suggest points for prevention and response (e.g., social support, stigmatization of victims) for communities experiencing slowly-evolving environmental disasters.

  18. A shallow subsurface controlled release facility in Bozeman, Montana, USA, for testing near surface CO2 detection techniques and transport models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spangler, Lee H.; Dobeck, Laura M.; Repasky, Kevin S.; Nehrir, Amin R.; Humphries, Seth D.; Barr, Jamie L.; Keith, Charlie J.; Shaw, Joseph A.; Rouse, Joshua H.; Cunningham, Alfred B.; Benson, Sally M.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Lewicki, Jennifer L.; Wells, Arthur W.; Diehl, J. R.; Strazisar, Brian; Fessenden, Julianna; Rahn, Thom A.; Amonette, James E.; Barr, Jonathan L.; Pickles, William L.; Jacobson, James D.; Silver, Eli A.; Male, Erin J.; Rauch, Henry W.; Gullickson, Kadie; Trautz, Robert; Kharaka, Yousif; Birkholzer, Jens; Wielopolski, Lucien

    2010-03-01

    A facility has been constructed to perform controlled shallow releases of CO2 at flow rates that challenge near surface detection techniques and can be scalable to desired retention rates of large scale CO2 storage projects. Preinjection measurements were made to determine background conditions and characterize natural variability at the site. Modeling of CO2 transport and concentration in saturated soil and the vadose zone was also performed to inform decisions about CO2 release rates and sampling strategies. Four releases of CO2 were carried out over the summer field seasons of 2007 and 2008. Transport of CO2 through soil, water, plants, and air was studied using near surface detection techniques. Soil CO2 flux, soil gas concentration, total carbon in soil, water chemistry, plant health, net CO2 flux, atmospheric CO2 concentration, movement of tracers, and stable isotope ratios were among the quantities measured. Even at relatively low fluxes, most techniques were able to detect elevated levels of CO2 in the soil, atmosphere, or water. Plant stress induced by CO2 was detectable above natural seasonal variations.

  19. Applying the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) to support risk-informed decision making: The Gold Pan Fire, Bitterroot National Forest, Montana, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erin K. Noonan-Wright; Tonja S. Opperman

    2015-01-01

    In response to federal wildfire policy changes, risk-informed decision-making by way of improved decision support, is increasingly becoming a component of managing wildfires. As fire incidents escalate in size and complexity, the Wildland Fire Decision Support System (WFDSS) provides support with different analytical tools as fire conditions change. We demonstrate the...

  20. Globalization and Adult Education: Theoretical and Methodological Reflections. Paper presented at the 5th ISCAE conference, Las Vegas, Montana, USA, 3-6 November

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milana, Marcella

    2012-01-01

    Globalisation processes and their effects on educational matters call for a thorough analysis of the relation between transnational policy-making and policy implementation at the local level, which is filtered by the state. Although a plethora of descriptive and analytical studies on adult...... education policies can be found in the scholarly literature, only sporadic analyses shed light on this relation. Accordingly, the scholarly community has recognised the importance of studying the growing phenomena of policy borrowing and policy learning (i.e. research of policy), as evidenced, for instance......, by the establishment in 2008 of a research network on Policy Study in Adult Education within the European Society for the Research on the Education of Adults (ESREA). This invites us to consider the role of authority structures (supranational and national as well as their interactions) in fostering shared meanings...

  1. Ideaalne torm USA majanduses / Ken Goldstein ; interv. Neeme Raud

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Goldstein, Ken

    2008-01-01

    USA majandusuuringute organisatsiooni The Conference Board analüütik USA majanduse olukorrast, mõjust maailmamajandusele, arenguvõimalustest ning uue presidendi vajalikest sammudest majanduses. Lisa: Enamuse arvates on USA valel teel

  2. Water use demand in the Crans-Montana-Sierre region (Switzerland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonriposi, M.; Reynard, E.

    2012-04-01

    Crans-Montana-Sierre is an Alpine touristic region located in the driest area of Switzerland (Rhone River Valley, Canton of Valais), with both winter (ski) and summer (e.g. golf) tourist activities. Climate change as well as societal and economic development will in future significantly modify the supply and consumption of water and, consequently, may fuel conflicts of interest. Within the framework of the MontanAqua project (www.montanaqua.ch), we are researching more sustainable water management options based on the co-ordination and adaptation of water demand to water availability under changing biophysical and socioeconomic conditions. This work intends to quantify current water uses in the area and consider future scenarios (around 2050). We have focused upon the temporal and spatial characteristics of resource demand, in order to estimate the spatial footprint of water use (drinking water, hydropower production, irrigation and artificial snowmaking), in terms of system, infrastructure, and organisation of supply. We have then quantified these as precisely as possible (at the monthly temporal scale and at the municipality spatial scale). When the quantity of water was not measurable for practical reasons or for lack of data, as for the case for irrigation or snowmaking, an alternative approach was applied. Instead of quantifying how much water was used, the stress was put on the water needs for irrigating agricultural land or on the optimal meteorological conditions necessary to produce artificial snow. A huge summer peak and a smaller winter peak characterize the current regional water consumption estimation. The summer peak is mainly caused by irrigation and secondly by drinking water demand. The winter peak is essentially due to drinking water and snowmaking. Other consumption peaks exist at the municipality scale but they cannot be observed at the regional scale. The results show a major variation in water demand between the 11 concerned municipalities and

  3. Investigation of pier scour in coarse-bed streams in Montana, 2001 through 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holnbeck, Stephen R.

    2011-01-01

    A primary goal of ongoing field research of bridge scour is improvement of scour-prediction equations so that pier-scour depth is predicted accurately-an important element of hydraulic analysis and design of highway bridges that cross streams, rivers, and other waterways. Scour depth for piers in streambeds with a mixture of sand, gravel, cobbles, and boulders (coarse-bed streams, which are common in Montana) generally is less than the scour depth in finer-grained (sandy) streambeds under similar conditions. That difference is attributed to an armor layer of coarser material. Pier-scour data from the U.S. Geological Survey were used in this study to develop a bed-material correction factor, which was incorporated into the Federal Highway Administration's recommended equation for computing pier scour. This report describes results of a study of pier scour in coarse-bed streams at 59 bridge sites during 2001-2007 in the mountain and foothill regions of western Montana. Respective drainage areas ranged from about 3 square miles (mi2) to almost 20,000 mi2. Data collected and analyzed for this study included 103 pier-scour measurements; the report further describes data collection, shows expansion of the national coarse pier-scour database, discusses use of the new data in evaluation of relative accuracy of various predictive equations, and demonstrates how differences in size and gradation between surface bed material and shallow-subsurface bed material might relate to pier scour. Nearly all measurements were made under clear-water conditions with no incoming sediment supply to the bridge opening. Half of the measurements showed approach velocities that equaled or surpassed the critical velocity for incipient motion of bed material, possibly indicating that measurements were made very near the threshold between clear-water and live-bed scour, where maximum scour was shown in laboratory studies. Data collected in this study were compared to selected pier-scour data from

  4. [Litter decomposition and lignocellulose enzyme activities of Actinothuidium hookeri and Cys- topteris montana in alpine timberline ecotone of western Sichuan, China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-mei; He, Run-lian; Deng, Chang-chun; Yang, Wan-qin; Zhang, Jian; Yang, Lin; Liu, Yang

    2015-11-01

    The mass loss and lignocellulose enzyme activities of Actinothuidium hookeri residues and Cystopteris montana leaf litter in coniferous forest and timberline of western Sichuan, China were investigated. The results showed that both the mass loss rates of A. hookeri and C. Montana in timberline were higher than those in coniferous forest, while enzyme activities in timberline were lower than those in coniferous forest which was contrast with the hypothesis. The mass loss of two ground covers had significant differences in different seasons. The mass loss rate of A. hookeri in snow-covered season accounted for 69.8% and 83.0% of the whole year' s in timberline and coniferous forest, while that of C. montana in the growing season accounted for 82.6% and 83.4% of the whole year' s in timberline and coniferous forest, respectively. C. montana leaf litter decayed faster in the growing season, which was consistent with its higher cellulase activity in the growing season. The result illustrated that the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose might be the main driving force for the early stage of litter decomposition. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that environmental factors and initial litter quality could explain 45.8%-85.1% variation of enzyme activity. The enzyme activities of A. hookeri and C. montana in the process of decomposition were mainly affected by the freeze-thaw cycle in snow-covered season.

  5. Chemical Composition and Cytotoxic and Antioxidant Activities of Satureja montana L. Essential Oil and Its Antibacterial Potential against Salmonella Spp. Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanene Miladi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes chemical composition as well as cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities of winter savory Satureja montana L. essential oil (EO. The plant was collected from south France mountain, and its EO was extracted by hydrodistillation (HD and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS. Thirty-two compounds were identified accounting for 99.85% of the total oil, where oxygenated monoterpenes constituted the main chemical class (59.11%. The oil was dominated by carvacrol (53.35%, γ-terpinene (13.54%, and the monoterpenic hydrocarbons p-cymene (13.03%. Moreover, S. montana L. EO exhibited high antibacterial activities with strong effectiveness against several pathogenic food isolated Salmonella spp. including S. enteritidis with a diameter of inhibition zones growth ranging from 21 to 51 mm and MIC and MBC values ranging from 0.39–1.56 mg/mL to 0.39–3.12 mg/mL, respectively. Furthermore, the S. montana L. EO was investigated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant activities. The results revealed a significant cytotoxic effect of S. montana L. EO against A549 cell line and an important antioxidant activity. These findings suggest that S. montana L. EO may be considered as an interesting source of components used as potent agents in food preservation and for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries.

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Butte NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broxton, D.E.; George, W.E.; Montoya, J.V.; Martell, C.J.; Hensley, W.K.; Hanks, D.

    1980-05-01

    This report contains data collected during a geochemical survey for uranium in the Butte National Topographic Map Series (NTMS) quadrangle of west-central Montana. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included. This report contains uranium analyses for water samples and multielement analyses for sediment samples. A supplemental report containing the results of multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, and zinc. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). All sediments were analyzed for uranium by DNC. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediment samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the White Sulfur Springs NTMS quadrangle, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-11-01

    This report presents results of a Hydrogeochemical and Stream Sediment Reconnaissance (HSSR) of the White Sulphur Springs NTMS quadrangle, Montana. In addition to this abbreviated data release, more complete data are available to the public in machine-readable form. Presented in this data release are location data, field analyses, and laboratory analyses of several different sample media. For the sake of brevity, many field site observations have not been included in this volume; these data are, however, available on the magnetic tape. Appendices A through C describe the sample media and summarize the analytical results for each medium. The data have been subdivided by one of the Los Alamos National Laboratory sorting programs of Zinkl and others (1981a) into groups of stream-sediment, stream-water, and ground-water samples. For each group which contains a sufficient number of observations, statistical tables, tables of raw data, and 1:1,000,000 scale maps of pertinent elements have been included in this report. Also included are maps showing results of multivariate statistical analyses

  8. Relational Database for the Geology of the Northern Rocky Mountains - Idaho, Montana, and Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causey, J. Douglas; Zientek, Michael L.; Bookstrom, Arthur A.; Frost, Thomas P.; Evans, Karl V.; Wilson, Anna B.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Boleneus, David E.; Pitts, Rebecca A.

    2008-01-01

    A relational database was created to prepare and organize geologic map-unit and lithologic descriptions for input into a spatial database for the geology of the northern Rocky Mountains, a compilation of forty-three geologic maps for parts of Idaho, Montana, and Washington in U.S. Geological Survey Open File Report 2005-1235. Not all of the information was transferred to and incorporated in the spatial database due to physical file limitations. This report releases that part of the relational database that was completed for that earlier product. In addition to descriptive geologic information for the northern Rocky Mountains region, the relational database contains a substantial bibliography of geologic literature for the area. The relational database nrgeo.mdb (linked below) is available in Microsoft Access version 2000, a proprietary database program. The relational database contains data tables and other tables used to define terms, relationships between the data tables, and hierarchical relationships in the data; forms used to enter data; and queries used to extract data.

  9. DDT poisoning of big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, in Hamilton, Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchweitz, John P; Carson, Keri; Rebolloso, Sarah; Lehner, Andreas

    2018-06-01

    Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) is an insecticidal organochlorine pesticide with; known potential for neurotoxic effects in wildlife. The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) registration for this pesticide has been cancelled and there are currently no federally active products that contain this ingredient in the U.S. We present a case of a colony of big brown bats (E. Fuscus) found dead in the attic roost of an administrative building; in the city of Hamilton, Montana from unknown cause. DDT and its metabolites; dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) and dichlorodiphenyldichloroethane (DDD) were detected in bat tissues by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and quantified by gas chromatography tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS). Concentrations of 4081 ppm DDT and 890 ppm DDE wet weight were found in the brain of one bat and are the highest reported concentrations in such a mortality event to date. This case emphasizes the importance of testing wildlife mortalities against a comprehensive panel of toxicologic agents including persistent organic pollutants in the absence of other more common disease threats. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Aerial gamma ray and magnetic survey: Powder River II Project, Ekalaka Quadrangle, Montana. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-04-01

    The Ekalaka quadrangle in southeastern Montana and western North and South Dakota, lies on the border between the Powder River and Williston Basins. These two basins are divided by the northwest-striking Miles City Arch. Each of the basins contains a thick sequence of Paleozoic and Mesozoic strata, with early to middle Tertiary rocks covering over 70% of the surface. No rocks older than Lower Cretaceous appear to be exposed. Magnetic data illustrate the relative depth to basement Precambrian crystalline rocks and clearly define the position of the Miles City Arch. The Ekalaka quadrangle has apparently been unproductive in terms of uranium mining though some claims (prospects) are present. These claims are located primarily in the Cretaceous Hell Creek Formation, and the Tertiary Fort Union Formation. A total of 176 groups of sample responses in the uranium window constitute anomalies as defined in Volume I. These anomalies are found most frequently in the Fort Union Formation, but several Cretaceous units have a large number of anomalies associated with their mapped locations. Few of these anomalies occur over known uranium claims or areas where material other than uranium is mined. Most of the anomalies probably relate to natural geologic features

  11. A multi-case study of school gardens in Southwest Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Kimberly Ann

    Many children today spend little time outdoors exploring the natural world and a great deal of time inside viewing the television or playing video games. This new condition of childhood has many negative ramifications, such as poor social development, childhood obesity, and a lack of feeling connected to the environment. One instructional tool being used by some schools to address these rising concerns is a school garden. School gardens can provide an opportunity for students to experience learning in a real-world application, outside of the classroom walls. This qualitative multi-case study explores three school gardens in Southwest Montana and tells each of their unique stories. Through the process of participant observation, interviews, and the collection of multiple data sources, a thorough description is given of the history behind the gardens, how they have impacted the teachers and students, what challenges they have faced, and the common characteristics found in a successful school garden program. During the data analysis process, themes for each case study site were revealed. The results of this study found that each school garden was unique in character and purpose and that a number of dedicated garden supporters are essential to the success of a garden program. In conclusion, suggestions and resources were provided for practitioners interested in pursuing a garden program.

  12. Effects of metals and arsenic on riparian communities in southwest Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, K; Galbraith, H; Lipton, J; Kapustka, L A

    1996-10-01

    : Concentrations of metals and arsenic in floodplain soils of Silver Bow Creek and the upper Clark Fork River in southwest Montana were related to phytotoxic responses by individual plants in laboratory experiments, vegetative community structure and composition in the field and wildlife habitat. Samples collected from barren or very sparsely vegetated mixed mine tailings and alluvium deposits (slickens) in the floodplains along Silver Bow Creek and the Clark Fork River had concentrations of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn that were significantly elevated relative to reference sites. Laboratory phytotoxicity tests demonstrated severe and rapid effects of the elevated concentrations of metals and As on hybrid poplar and standard test species (alfalfa, lettuce and wheat): growth inhibition of hybrid poplars was nearly 100% and of standard test species ≥75%. Vegetation community measurements revealed that slickens have replaced riparian forest, shrub, hay fields and pasture land; in doing so, the slickens have reduced both the compositional and structural heterogeneity of the riparian habitat. This reduction in habitat complexity has reduced the capacity of the area to provide a diversity of suitable wildlife habitat.

  13. Preliminary appraisal of ground water in and near the ancestral Missouri River Valley, northeastern Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levings, G.W.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary appraisal was conducted in and near the ancestral Missouri River valley in northeastern Montana to describe the groundwater resources and to establish a data base for the area. The data base then could be used for future evaluation of possible changes in water levels or water quality. In this area, consolidated aquifers are the Upper Cretaceous Fox Hills-lower Hell Creek aquifer and the overlying Paleocene Fort Union Formation. Unconsolidated aquifers are Pleistocene terrace gravel and glacial deposits and Holocene alluvial deposits. Aquifers are recharged by precipitation, infiltration of streamflow, and possibly leakage from lakes and potholes. Groundwater moves from topographically higher areas to the ancestral valley, then along the ancestral valley to the southwest. Water is discharged from aquifers by evapotranspiration, springs and seeps, movement directly into streams and lakes, and from pumping wells. Average well yields are greatest for irrigation wells completed in outwash gravel (886 gallons/min). Eighteen wells were completed in various aquifers to monitor potential long-term changes in water levels and water quality. Measured water levels declined about 2 ft. or less during the study (1982-85). Chemical analysis of groundwater samples indicated that concentrations of some dissolved constituents exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency standards for drinking water. (USGS)

  14. Risk Assessment of Carbon Sequestration into A Naturally Fractured Reservoir at Kevin Dome, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Minh [Univ. of Wyoming, Laramie, WY (United States); Onishi, Tsubasa [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States); Carey, James William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Will, Bob [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); Zaluski, Wade [Schlumberger, Houston, TX (United States); Bowen, David [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); DeVault, Brian [Vecta Oil and Gas, Dallas, TX (United States); Duguid, Andrew [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Spangler, Lee [Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States); Stauffer, Philip H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-22

    In this report, we describe risk assessment work done using the National Risk Assessment Partnership (NRAP) applied to CO2 storage at Kevin Dome, Montana. Geologic CO2 sequestration in saline aquifers poses certain risks including CO2/brine leakage through wells or non-sealing faults into groundwater or to the land surface. These risks are difficult to quantify due to data availability and uncertainty. One solution is to explore the consequences of these limitations by running large numbers of numerical simulations on the primary CO2 injection reservoir, shallow reservoirs/aquifers, faults, and wells to assess leakage risks and uncertainties. However, a large number of full-physics simulations is usually too computationally expensive. The NRAP integrated assessment model (NRAP-IAM) uses reduced order models (ROMs) developed from full-physics simulations to address this issue. A powerful stochastic framework allows NRAPIAM to explore complex interactions among many uncertain variables and evaluate the likely performance of potential sequestration sites.

  15. Cost Effectiveness of ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 for the State of Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hart, Philip R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Athalye, Rahul A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Xie, YuLong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Halverson, Mark A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Loper, Susan A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Michael I. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Richman, Eric E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Moving to the ASHRAE Standard 90.1-2013 (ASHRAE 2013) edition from Standard 90.1-2010 (ASHRAE 2010) is cost-effective for the State of Montana. The table below shows the state-wide economic impact of upgrading to Standard 90.1-2013 in terms of the annual energy cost savings in dollars per square foot, additional construction cost per square foot required by the upgrade, and life-cycle cost (LCC) per square foot. These results are weighted averages for all building types in all climate zones in the state, based on weightings shown in Table 4. The methodology used for this analysis is consistent with the methodology used in the national cost-effectiveness analysis. Additional results and details on the methodology are presented in the following sections. The report provides analysis of two LCC scenarios: Scenario 1, representing publicly-owned buildings, considers initial costs, energy costs, maintenance costs, and replacement costs—without borrowing or taxes. Scenario 2, representing privately-owned buildings, adds borrowing costs and tax impacts.

  16. Summary geologic report on the Missoula/Bitterroot Drilling Project, Missoula/Bitterroot Basins, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramiuk, I.N.

    1980-08-01

    The objective of the drilling project was to obtain information to assess the favorability of the Tertiary sedimentary units in the Missoula and Bitterroot Valleys for uranium potential. The group of Montana Tertiary basins, including the Missoula and Bitterroot Basins, has been assigned a speculative uranium potential of 46,557 tons of U 3 O 8 at $100/lb by the 1980 National Uranium Resource Evaluation report. The seven drill holes, two in the Missoula Valley and five in the Bitterroot Valley, verified observations made during surface studies and provided additional information about the subsurface that was previously unknown. No uranium was found, although of the two localities the Bitterroot Valley is the more favorable. Three stratigraphic units were tentatively identified on the basis of lithology: pre-Renova clastic units, Renova Formation equivalents, and Sixmile Creek Formation equivalents. Of the three, the Renova Formation equivalents in the Bitterroot Valley appear to be the most favorable for possible uranium occurrences and the pre-Renova clastic units the least favorable

  17. Plant water status relationships among major floodplain sites of the Flathead River, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L.C.; Hinckley, T.M.; Scott, M.L.

    1985-01-01

    Water status measurements of dominant species from major floodplain plant community types of the North Fork Flathead River, Montana were used to test the accuracy of site moisture gradient relationships postulated from floristic ordinations and site water balance estimates. Analysis of variance tests showed significant differences among the average predawn xylem pressure potential (ψp) of species in several community types. However, additional analyses failed to indicate a significant degree of association between averaged predawn Yp measurements and either floristic ordination or site water balance results. Sixty eight percent of 22 trials comparing the diurnal average ψp of the same species in different community types on the same day were less negative for a species in the wetter community types as predicted by floristic ordinations. Similarly, 64% of the trials indicated that the diurnal average stomatal conductance was higher for a species in the wetter type. These results suggest that although a floodplain moisture gradient exists, it alone does not limit the distribution of floodplain plant communities in the North Fork.

  18. Cogeneration : A Regulatory Guide to Leasing, Permitting, and Licensing in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deshaye, Joyce; Bloomquist, R. Gordon

    1992-12-01

    This guidebook focuses on cogeneration development. It is one of a series of four guidebooks recently prepared to introduce the energy developer to the federal, state and local agencies that regulate energy facilities in Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington (the Bonneville Power Administration Service Territory). It was prepared specifically to help cogeneration developers obtain the permits, licenses and approvals necessary to construct and operate a cogeneration facility. The regulations, agencies and policies described herein are subject to change. Changes are likely to occur whenever energy or a project becomes a political issue, a state legislature meets, a preexisting popular or valuable land use is thought threatened, elected and appointed officials change, and new directions are imposed on states and local governments by the federal government. Accordingly, cogeneration developers should verify and continuously monitor the status of laws and rules that might affect their plans. Developers are cautioned that the regulations described herein may only be a starting point on the road to obtaining all the necessary permits.

  19. Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities. Volume Twenty-eight. Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feurer, D.A.; Weaver, C.L.

    1981-01-01

    A detailed description is presented of the laws and programs of the State of Montana governing the regulation of public energy utilities, the siting of energy generating and transmission facilities, the municipal franchising of public energy utilities, and the prescription of rates to be charged by utilities including attendant problems of cost allocations, rate base and operating expense determinations, and rate of return allowances. These laws and programs are analyzed to identify impediments which they may present to the implementation of Integrated Community Energy Systems (ICES). This report is one of fifty-one separate volumes which describe such regulatory programs at the Federal level and in each state as background to the report entitled Community Energy Systems and the Law of Public Utilities - Volume One: An Overview. This report also contains a summary of a strategy described in Volume One - An Overview for overcoming these impediments by working within the existing regulatory framework and by making changes in the regulatory programs to enhance the likelihood of ICES implementation.

  20. Geographic, geologic, and hydrologic summaries of intermontane basins of the northern Rocky Mountains, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendy, Eloise; Tresch, R.E.

    1996-01-01

    This report combines a literature review with new information to provide summaries of the geography, geology, and hydrology of each of 32 intermontane basins in western Montana. The summary of each intermontane basin includes concise descriptions of topography, areal extent, altitude, climate, 1990 population, land and water use, geology, surface water, aquifer hydraulic characteristics, ground-water flow, and ground-water quality. If present, geothermal features are described. Average annual and monthly temperature and precipitation are reported from one National Weather Service station in each basin. Streamflow data, including the drainage area, period of record, and average, minimum, and maximum historical streamflow, are reported for all active and discontinued USGS streamflow-gaging stations in each basin. Monitoring-well data, including the well depth, aquifer, period of record, and minimum and maximum historical water levels, are reported for all long-term USGS monitoring wells in each basin. Brief descriptions of geologic, geophysical, and potentiometric- surface maps available for each basin also are included. The summary for each basin also includes a bibliography of hydrogeologic literature. When used alone or in conjunction with regional RASA reports, this report provides a practical starting point for site-specific hydrogeologic investigations.